WorldWideScience

Sample records for auditory spatial receptive

  1. Central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Andrei S; Gentner, Timothy Q

    2016-02-01

    High-level neurons processing complex, behaviorally relevant signals are sensitive to conjunctions of features. Characterizing the receptive fields of such neurons is difficult with standard statistical tools, however, and the principles governing their organization remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate multiple distinct receptive-field features in individual high-level auditory neurons in a songbird, European starling, in response to natural vocal signals (songs). We then show that receptive fields with similar characteristics can be reproduced by an unsupervised neural network trained to represent starling songs with a single learning rule that enforces sparseness and divisive normalization. We conclude that central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields that can arise through a combination of sparseness and normalization in neural circuits. Our results, along with descriptions of random, discontinuous receptive fields in the central olfactory neurons in mammals and insects, suggest general principles of neural computation across sensory systems and animal classes. PMID:26787894

  2. Extra-classical tuning predicts stimulus-dependent receptive fields in auditory neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, David M.; Woolley, Sarah M. N.

    2011-01-01

    The receptive fields of many sensory neurons are sensitive to statistical differences among classes of complex stimuli. For example, excitatory spectral bandwidths of midbrain auditory neurons and the spatial extent of cortical visual neurons differ during the processing of natural stimuli compared to the processing of artificial stimuli. Experimentally characterizing neuronal non-linearities that contribute to stimulus-dependent receptive fields is important for understanding how neurons res...

  3. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization

    OpenAIRE

    Gori, Monica; Vercillo, Tiziana; Sandini, Giulio; Burr, David

    2014-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014). To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds b...

  4. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization

    OpenAIRE

    Monica eGori; Tiziana eVercillo; Giulio eSandini; David eBurr

    2014-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial-bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014). To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds b...

  5. Receptive field plasticity of neurons in rat auditory cortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wenwei; GAO Lixia; SUN Xinde

    2004-01-01

    Using conventional electrophysiological technique, we investigated the plasticity of the frequency receptive fields (RF) of auditory cortex (AC) neurons in rats. In the AC, when the frequency difference between conditioning stimulus frequency (CSF) and the best frequency (BF) was in the range of 1-4 kHz, the frequency RF of AC neurons shifted. The smaller the differences between CSF and BF, the higher the probability of the RF shift and the greater the degree of the RF shift. To some extent, the plasticity of RF was dependent on the duration of the session of conditioning stimulus (CS). When the frequency difference between CSF and BF was bigger, the duration of the CS session needed to induce the plasticity was longer. The recovery time course of the frequency RF showed opposite changes after CS cessation.The RF shift could be induced by the frequency that was either higher or lower than the control BF, demonstrating no clear directional preference. The frequency RF of some neurons showed bidirectional shift, and the RF of other neurons showed single directional shift. The results suggest that the frequency RF plasticity of AC neurons could be considered as an ideal model for studying plasticity mechanism. The present study also provides important evidence for further study of learning and memory in auditory system.

  6. Visual–auditory spatial processing in auditory cortical neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Bizley, Jennifer K.; King, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    Neurons responsive to visual stimulation have now been described in the auditory cortex of various species, but their functions are largely unknown. Here we investigate the auditory and visual spatial sensitivity of neurons recorded in 5 different primary and non-primary auditory cortical areas of the ferret. We quantified the spatial tuning of neurons by measuring the responses to stimuli presented across a range of azimuthal positions and calculating the mutual information (MI) between the ...

  7. Spatial auditory processing in pinnipeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Marla M.

    Given the biological importance of sound for a variety of activities, pinnipeds must be able to obtain spatial information about their surroundings thorough acoustic input in the absence of other sensory cues. The three chapters of this dissertation address spatial auditory processing capabilities of pinnipeds in air given that these amphibious animals use acoustic signals for reproduction and survival on land. Two chapters are comparative lab-based studies that utilized psychophysical approaches conducted in an acoustic chamber. Chapter 1 addressed the frequency-dependent sound localization abilities at azimuth of three pinniped species (the harbor seal, Phoca vitulina, the California sea lion, Zalophus californianus, and the northern elephant seal, Mirounga angustirostris). While performances of the sea lion and harbor seal were consistent with the duplex theory of sound localization, the elephant seal, a low-frequency hearing specialist, showed a decreased ability to localize the highest frequencies tested. In Chapter 2 spatial release from masking (SRM), which occurs when a signal and masker are spatially separated resulting in improvement in signal detectability relative to conditions in which they are co-located, was determined in a harbor seal and sea lion. Absolute and masked thresholds were measured at three frequencies and azimuths to determine the detection advantages afforded by this type of spatial auditory processing. Results showed that hearing sensitivity was enhanced by up to 19 and 12 dB in the harbor seal and sea lion, respectively, when the signal and masker were spatially separated. Chapter 3 was a field-based study that quantified both sender and receiver variables of the directional properties of male northern elephant seal calls produce within communication system that serves to delineate dominance status. This included measuring call directivity patterns, observing male-male vocally-mediated interactions, and an acoustic playback study

  8. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Monica; Vercillo, Tiziana; Sandini, Giulio; Burr, David

    2014-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014). To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds before and after training, either with tactile feedback, verbal feedback, or no feedback. Audio thresholds were first measured with a spatial bisection task: subjects judged whether the second sound of a three sound sequence was spatially closer to the first or the third sound. The tactile feedback group underwent two audio-tactile feedback sessions of 100 trials, where each auditory trial was followed by the same spatial sequence played on the subject's forearm; auditory spatial bisection thresholds were evaluated after each session. In the verbal feedback condition, the positions of the sounds were verbally reported to the subject after each feedback trial. The no feedback group did the same sequence of trials, with no feedback. Performance improved significantly only after audio-tactile feedback. The results suggest that direct tactile feedback interacts with the auditory spatial localization system, possibly by a process of cross-sensory recalibration. Control tests with the subject rotated suggested that this effect occurs only when the tactile and acoustic sequences are spatially congruent. Our results suggest that the tactile system can be used to recalibrate the auditory sense of space. These results encourage the possibility of designing rehabilitation programs to help blind persons establish a robust auditory sense of space, through training with the tactile modality. PMID:25368587

  9. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eGori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial-bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014. To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds before and after training, either with tactile feedback, verbal feedback or no feedback. Audio thresholds were first measured with a spatial bisection task: subjects judged whether the second sound of a three sound sequence was spatially closer to the first or the third sound. The tactile-feedback group underwent two audio-tactile feedback sessions of 100 trials, where each auditory trial was followed by the same spatial sequence played on the subject’s forearm; auditory spatial bisection thresholds were evaluated after each session. In the verbal-feedback condition, the positions of the sounds were verbally reported to the subject after each feedback trial. The no-feedback group did the same sequence of trials, with no feedback. Performance improved significantly only after audio-tactile feedback. The results suggest that direct tactile feedback interacts with the auditory spatial localization system, possibly by a process of cross-sensory recalibration. Control tests with the subject rotated suggested that this effect occurs only when the tactile and acoustic sequences are spatially coherent. Our results suggest that the tactile system can be used to recalibrate the auditory sense of space. These results encourage the possibility of designing rehabilitation programs to help blind persons establish a robust auditory sense of space, through training with the tactile modality.

  10. Auditory-visual spatial interaction and modularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeau, M

    1994-02-01

    The results of dealing with the conditions for pairing visual and auditory data coming from spatially separate locations argue for cognitive impenetrability and computational autonomy, the pairing rules being the Gestalt principles of common fate and proximity. Other data provide evidence for pairing with several properties of modular functioning. Arguments for domain specificity are inferred from comparison with audio-visual speech. Suggestion of innate specification can be found in developmental data indicating that the grouping of visual and auditory signals is supported very early in life by the same principles that operate in adults. Support for a specific neural architecture comes from neurophysiological studies of the bimodal (auditory-visual) neurons of the cat superior colliculus. Auditory-visual pairing thus seems to present the four main properties of the Fodorian module.

  11. Patterned Tone Sequences Reveal Non-Linear Interactions in Auditory Spectrotemporal Receptive Fields in the Inferior Colliculus

    OpenAIRE

    BRIMIJOIN, W. OWEN; O'Neill, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Linear measures of auditory receptive fields do not always fully account for a neuron's response to spectrotemporally-complex signals such as frequency-modulated sweeps (FM) and communication sounds. A possible source of this discrepancy is cross-frequency interactions, common response properties which may be missed by linear receptive fields but captured using two-tone masking. Using a patterned tonal sequence that included a balanced set of all possible tone-to-tone transitions, we have her...

  12. Sonic morphology: Aesthetic dimensional auditory spatial awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Martha M.

    The sound and ceramic sculpture installation, " Skirting the Edge: Experiences in Sound & Form," is an integration of art and science demonstrating the concept of sonic morphology. "Sonic morphology" is herein defined as aesthetic three-dimensional auditory spatial awareness. The exhibition explicates my empirical phenomenal observations that sound has a three-dimensional form. Composed of ceramic sculptures that allude to different social and physical situations, coupled with sound compositions that enhance and create a three-dimensional auditory and visual aesthetic experience (see accompanying DVD), the exhibition supports the research question, "What is the relationship between sound and form?" Precisely how people aurally experience three-dimensional space involves an integration of spatial properties, auditory perception, individual history, and cultural mores. People also utilize environmental sound events as a guide in social situations and in remembering their personal history, as well as a guide in moving through space. Aesthetically, sound affects the fascination, meaning, and attention one has within a particular space. Sonic morphology brings art forms such as a movie, video, sound composition, and musical performance into the cognitive scope by generating meaning from the link between the visual and auditory senses. This research examined sonic morphology as an extension of musique concrete, sound as object, originating in Pierre Schaeffer's work in the 1940s. Pointing, as John Cage did, to the corporeal three-dimensional experience of "all sound," I composed works that took their total form only through the perceiver-participant's participation in the exhibition. While contemporary artist Alvin Lucier creates artworks that draw attention to making sound visible, "Skirting the Edge" engages the perceiver-participant visually and aurally, leading to recognition of sonic morphology.

  13. Spectrotemporal receptive fields during spindling and non-spindling epochs in cat primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britvina, T; Eggermont, J J

    2008-07-17

    It was often thought that synchronized rhythmic epochs of spindle waves disconnect thalamo-cortical system from incoming sensory signals. The present study addresses this issue by simultaneous extracellular action potential and local field potential (LFP) recordings from primary auditory cortex of ketamine-anesthetized cats during spindling activity. We compared cortical spectrotemporal receptive fields (STRF) obtained during spindling and non-spindling epochs. The basic spectro-temporal parameters of "spindling" and "non-spindling" STRFs were similar. However, the peak-firing rate at the best frequency was significantly enhanced during spindling epochs. This enhancement was mainly caused by the increased probability of a stimulus to evoke spikes (effectiveness of stimuli) during spindling as compared with non-spindling epochs. Augmented LFPs associated with effective stimuli and increased single-unit pair correlations during spindling epochs suggested higher synchrony of thalamo-cortical inputs during spindling that resulted in increased effectiveness of stimuli presented during spindling activity. The neuronal firing rate, both stimulus-driven and spontaneous, was higher during spindling as compared with non-spindling epochs. Overall, our results suggests that thalamic cells during spindling respond to incoming stimuli-related inputs and, moreover, cause more powerful stimulus-related or spontaneous activation of the cortex. PMID:18515012

  14. Auditory and visual spatial impression: Recent studies of three auditoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Andy; Cabrera, Densil

    2004-10-01

    Auditory spatial impression is widely studied for its contribution to auditorium acoustical quality. By contrast, visual spatial impression in auditoria has received relatively little attention in formal studies. This paper reports results from a series of experiments investigating the auditory and visual spatial impression of concert auditoria. For auditory stimuli, a fragment of an anechoic recording of orchestral music was convolved with calibrated binaural impulse responses, which had been made with the dummy head microphone at a wide range of positions in three auditoria and the sound source on the stage. For visual stimuli, greyscale photographs were used, taken at the same positions in the three auditoria, with a visual target on the stage. Subjective experiments were conducted with auditory stimuli alone, visual stimuli alone, and visual and auditory stimuli combined. In these experiments, subjects rated apparent source width, listener envelopment, intimacy and source distance (auditory stimuli), and spaciousness, envelopment, stage dominance, intimacy and target distance (visual stimuli). Results show target distance to be of primary importance in auditory and visual spatial impression-thereby providing a basis for covariance between some attributes of auditory and visual spatial impression. Nevertheless, some attributes of spatial impression diverge between the senses.

  15. Covert Auditory Spatial Orienting: An Evaluation of the Spatial Relevance Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Katherine L.; Summerfield, A. Quentin; Hall, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    The spatial relevance hypothesis (J. J. McDonald & L. M. Ward, 1999) proposes that covert auditory spatial orienting can only be beneficial to auditory processing when task stimuli are encoded spatially. We present a series of experiments that evaluate 2 key aspects of the hypothesis: (a) that "reflexive activation of location-sensitive neurons is…

  16. Auditory spatial localization: Developmental delay in children with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappagli, Giulia; Gori, Monica

    2016-01-01

    For individuals with visual impairments, auditory spatial localization is one of the most important features to navigate in the environment. Many works suggest that blind adults show similar or even enhanced performance for localization of auditory cues compared to sighted adults (Collignon, Voss, Lassonde, & Lepore, 2009). To date, the investigation of auditory spatial localization in children with visual impairments has provided contrasting results. Here we report, for the first time, that contrary to visually impaired adults, children with low vision or total blindness show a significant impairment in the localization of static sounds. These results suggest that simple auditory spatial tasks are compromised in children, and that this capacity recovers over time. PMID:27002960

  17. Attention Modulates the Auditory Cortical Processing of Spatial and Category Cues in Naturalistic Auditory Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renvall, Hanna; Staeren, Noël; Barz, Claudia S.; Ley, Anke; Formisano, Elia

    2016-01-01

    This combined fMRI and MEG study investigated brain activations during listening and attending to natural auditory scenes. We first recorded, using in-ear microphones, vocal non-speech sounds, and environmental sounds that were mixed to construct auditory scenes containing two concurrent sound streams. During the brain measurements, subjects attended to one of the streams while spatial acoustic information of the scene was either preserved (stereophonic sounds) or removed (monophonic sounds). Compared to monophonic sounds, stereophonic sounds evoked larger blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI responses in the bilateral posterior superior temporal areas, independent of which stimulus attribute the subject was attending to. This finding is consistent with the functional role of these regions in the (automatic) processing of auditory spatial cues. Additionally, significant differences in the cortical activation patterns depending on the target of attention were observed. Bilateral planum temporale and inferior frontal gyrus were preferentially activated when attending to stereophonic environmental sounds, whereas when subjects attended to stereophonic voice sounds, the BOLD responses were larger at the bilateral middle superior temporal gyrus and sulcus, previously reported to show voice sensitivity. In contrast, the time-resolved MEG responses were stronger for mono- than stereophonic sounds in the bilateral auditory cortices at ~360 ms after the stimulus onset when attending to the voice excerpts within the combined sounds. The observed effects suggest that during the segregation of auditory objects from the auditory background, spatial sound cues together with other relevant temporal and spectral cues are processed in an attention-dependent manner at the cortical locations generally involved in sound recognition. More synchronous neuronal activation during monophonic than stereophonic sound processing, as well as (local) neuronal inhibitory mechanisms in

  18. The plastic ear and perceptual relearning in auditory spatial perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The auditory system of adult listeners has been shown to accommodate to altered spectral cues to sound location which presumably provides the basis for recalibration to changes in the shape of the ear over a life time. Here we review the role of auditory and non-auditory inputs to the perception of sound location and consider a range of recent experiments looking at the role of non-auditory inputs in the process of accommodation to these altered spectral cues. A number of studies have used small ear molds to modify the spectral cues that result in significant degradation in localization performance. Following chronic exposure (10-60 days) performance recovers to some extent and recent work has demonstrated that this occurs for both audio-visual and audio-only regions of space. This begs the questions as to the teacher signal for this remarkable functional plasticity in the adult nervous system. Following a brief review of influence of the motor state in auditory localization, we consider the potential role of auditory-motor learning in the perceptual recalibration of the spectral cues. Several recent studies have considered how multi-modal and sensory-motor feedback might influence accommodation to altered spectral cues produced by ear molds or through virtual auditory space stimulation using non-individualized spectral cues. The work with ear molds demonstrates that a relatively short period of training involving audio-motor feedback (5-10 days) significantly improved both the rate and extent of accommodation to altered spectral cues. This has significant implications not only for the mechanisms by which this complex sensory information is encoded to provide spatial cues but also for adaptive training to altered auditory inputs. The review concludes by considering the implications for rehabilitative training with hearing aids and cochlear prosthesis. PMID:25147497

  19. The plastic ear and perceptual relearning in auditory spatial perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The auditory system of adult listeners has been shown to accommodate to altered spectral cues to sound location which presumably provides the basis for recalibration to changes in the shape of the ear over a life time. Here we review the role of auditory and non-auditory inputs to the perception of sound location and consider a range of recent experiments looking at the role of non-auditory inputs in the process of accommodation to these altered spectral cues. A number of studies have used small ear molds to modify the spectral cues that result in significant degradation in localization performance. Following chronic exposure (10-60 days) performance recovers to some extent and recent work has demonstrated that this occurs for both audio-visual and audio-only regions of space. This begs the questions as to the teacher signal for this remarkable functional plasticity in the adult nervous system. Following a brief review of influence of the motor state in auditory localization, we consider the potential role of auditory-motor learning in the perceptual recalibration of the spectral cues. Several recent studies have considered how multi-modal and sensory-motor feedback might influence accommodation to altered spectral cues produced by ear molds or through virtual auditory space stimulation using non-individualized spectral cues. The work with ear molds demonstrates that a relatively short period of training involving audio-motor feedback (5-10 days) significantly improved both the rate and extent of accommodation to altered spectral cues. This has significant implications not only for the mechanisms by which this complex sensory information is encoded to provide spatial cues but also for adaptive training to altered auditory inputs. The review concludes by considering the implications for rehabilitative training with hearing aids and cochlear prosthesis.

  20. The plastic ear and perceptual relearning in auditory spatial perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eCarlile

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The auditory system of adult listeners has been shown to accommodate to altered spectral cues to sound location which presumably provides the basis for recalibration to changes in the shape of the ear over a life time. Here we review the role of auditory and non-auditory inputs to the perception of sound location and consider a range of recent experiments looking at the role of non-auditory inputs in the process of accommodation to these altered spectral cues. A number of studies have used small ear moulds to modify the spectral cues that result in significant degradation in localization performance. Following chronic exposure (10-60 days performance recovers to some extent and recent work has demonstrated that this occurs for both audio-visual and audio-only regions of space. This begs the questions as to the teacher signal for this remarkable functional plasticity in the adult nervous system. Following a brief review of influence of the motor state in auditory localisation, we consider the potential role of auditory-motor learning in the perceptual recalibration of the spectral cues. Several recent studies have considered how multi-modal and sensory-motor feedback might influence accommodation to altered spectral cues produced by ear moulds or through virtual auditory space stimulation using non-individualised spectral cues. The work with ear moulds demonstrates that a relatively short period of training involving sensory-motor feedback (5 – 10 days significantly improved both the rate and extent of accommodation to altered spectral cues. This has significant implications not only for the mechanisms by which this complex sensory information is encoded to provide a spatial code but also for adaptive training to altered auditory inputs. The review concludes by considering the implications for rehabilitative training with hearing aids and cochlear prosthesis.

  1. Spatial organization of tettigoniid auditory receptors: insights from neuronal tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Johannes; Lehmann, Gerlind U C; Lehmann, Arne W; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2012-11-01

    The auditory sense organ of Tettigoniidae (Insecta, Orthoptera) is located in the foreleg tibia and consists of scolopidial sensilla which form a row termed crista acustica. The crista acustica is associated with the tympana and the auditory trachea. This ear is a highly ordered, tonotopic sensory system. As the neuroanatomy of the crista acustica has been documented for several species, the most distal somata and dendrites of receptor neurons have occasionally been described as forming an alternating or double row. We investigate the spatial arrangement of receptor cell bodies and dendrites by retrograde tracing with cobalt chloride solution. In six tettigoniid species studied, distal receptor neurons are consistently arranged in double-rows of somata rather than a linear sequence. This arrangement of neurons is shown to affect 30-50% of the overall auditory receptors. No strict correlation of somata positions between the anterio-posterior and dorso-ventral axis was evident within the distal crista acustica. Dendrites of distal receptors occasionally also occur in a double row or are even massed without clear order. Thus, a substantial part of auditory receptors can deviate from a strictly straight organization into a more complex morphology. The linear organization of dendrites is not a morphological criterion that allows hearing organs to be distinguished from nonhearing sense organs serially homologous to ears in all species. Both the crowded arrangement of receptor somata and dendrites may result from functional constraints relating to frequency discrimination, or from developmental constraints of auditory morphogenesis in postembryonic development. PMID:22807283

  2. Mechanisms of spatial and non-spatial auditory selective attention

    OpenAIRE

    Paltoglou, Aspasia Eleni

    2009-01-01

    Selective attention is a crucial function that encompasses all perceptual modalities and which enables us to focus on the behaviorally relevant information and ignore the rest. The main goal of the thesis is to test well-established hypotheses about the mechanisms of visual selective attention in the auditory domain using behavioral and neuroimaging methods. Two fMRI studies (Experiments 1 and 2) test the hypothesis of feature-specific attentional enhancement. This hypothesis states that ...

  3. Cueing Visual Attention to Spatial Locations With Auditory Cues

    OpenAIRE

    Kean, Matthew; Crawford, Trevor J

    2008-01-01

    We investigated exogenous and endogenous orienting of visual attention to the spatial loca-tion of an auditory cue. In Experiment 1, significantly faster saccades were observed to vis-ual targets appearing ipsilateral, compared to contralateral, to the peripherally-presented cue. This advantage was greatest in an 80% target-at-cue (TAC) condition but equivalent in 20% and 50% TAC conditions. In Experiment 2, participants maintained central fixation while making an elevation judgment of the pe...

  4. The effect of exogenous spatial attention on auditory information processing.

    OpenAIRE

    Kanai, Kenichi; Ikeda, Kazuo; Tayama, Tadayuki

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of exogenous spatial attention on auditory information processing. In Experiments 1, 2 and 3, temporal order judgment tasks were performed to examine the effect. In Experiment 1 and 2, a cue tone was presented to either the left or right ear, followed by sequential presentation of two target tones. The subjects judged the order of presentation of the target tones. The results showed that subjects heard both tones simultaneously when the target tone, which wa...

  5. Comparison of LFP-Based and Spike-Based Spectro-Temporal Receptive Fields and Cross-Correlation in Cat Primary Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Eggermont, Jos J.; Munguia, Raymundo; Pienkowski, Martin; Shaw, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Multi-electrode array recordings of spike and local field potential (LFP) activity were made from primary auditory cortex of 12 normal hearing, ketamine-anesthetized cats. We evaluated 259 spectro-temporal receptive fields (STRFs) and 492 frequency-tuning curves (FTCs) based on LFPs and spikes simultaneously recorded on the same electrode. We compared their characteristic frequency (CF) gradients and their cross-correlation distances. The CF gradient for spike-based FTCs was about twice that ...

  6. Auditory spatial perception dynamically realigns with changing eye position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Babak; O'Neill, William E; Paige, Gary D

    2007-09-19

    Audition and vision both form spatial maps of the environment in the brain, and their congruency requires alignment and calibration. Because audition is referenced to the head and vision is referenced to movable eyes, the brain must accurately account for eye position to maintain alignment between the two modalities as well as perceptual space constancy. Changes in eye position are known to variably, but inconsistently, shift sound localization, suggesting subtle shortcomings in the accuracy or use of eye position signals. We systematically and directly quantified sound localization across a broad spatial range and over time after changes in eye position. A sustained fixation task addressed the spatial (steady-state) attributes of eye position-dependent effects on sound localization. Subjects continuously fixated visual reference spots straight ahead (center), to the left (20 degrees), or to the right (20 degrees) of the midline in separate sessions while localizing auditory targets using a laser pointer guided by peripheral vision. An alternating fixation task focused on the temporal (dynamic) aspects of auditory spatial shifts after changes in eye position. Localization proceeded as in sustained fixation, except that eye position alternated between the three fixation references over multiple epochs, each lasting minutes. Auditory space shifted by approximately 40% toward the new eye position and dynamically over several minutes. We propose that this spatial shift reflects an adaptation mechanism for aligning the "straight-ahead" of perceived sensory-motor maps, particularly during early childhood when normal ocular alignment is achieved, but also resolving challenges to normal spatial perception throughout life. PMID:17881531

  7. The neural circuitry underlying the executive control of auditory spatial attention

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, C-T; Weissman, D.H.; Roberts, K. C.; Woldorff, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Although a fronto-parietal network has consistently been implicated in the control of visual spatial attention, the network that guides spatial attention in the auditory domain is not yet clearly understood. To investigate this issue, we measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants performed a cued auditory spatial attention task. We found that cued orienting of auditory spatial attention activated a medial-superior distributed fronto-parietal network...

  8. Hand proximity facilitates spatial discrimination of auditory tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip eTseng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hand proximity on vision and visual attention has been well documented. In this study we tested whether such effect(s would also be present in the auditory modality. With hands placed either near or away from the audio sources, participants performed an auditory-spatial discrimination (Exp 1: left or right side, pitch discrimination (Exp 2: high, med, or low tone, and spatial-plus-pitch (Exp 3: left or right; high, med, or low discrimination task. In Exp 1, when hands were away from the audio source, participants consistently responded faster with their right hand regardless of stimulus location. This right hand advantage, however, disappeared in the hands-near condition because of a significant improvement in left hand’s reaction time. No effect of hand proximity was found in Exp 2 or 3, where a choice reaction time task requiring pitch discrimination was used. Together, these results suggest that the effect of hand proximity is not exclusive to vision alone, but is also present in audition, though in a much weaker form. Most important, these findings provide evidence from auditory attention that supports the multimodal account originally raised by Reed et al. in 2006.

  9. Quadri-stability of a spatially ambiguous auditory illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance May Bainbridge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to vision, audition plays an important role in sound localization in our world. One way we estimate the motion of an auditory object moving towards or away from us is from changes in volume intensity. However, the human auditory system has unequally distributed spatial resolution, including difficulty distinguishing sounds in front versus behind the listener. Here, we introduce a novel quadri-stable illusion, the Transverse-and-Bounce Auditory Illusion, which combines front-back confusion with changes in volume levels of a nonspatial sound to create ambiguous percepts of an object approaching and withdrawing from the listener. The sound can be perceived as traveling transversely from front to back or back to front, or bouncing to remain exclusively in front of or behind the observer. Here we demonstrate how human listeners experience this illusory phenomenon by comparing ambiguous and unambiguous stimuli for each of the four possible motion percepts. When asked to rate their confidence in perceiving each sound’s motion, participants reported equal confidence for the illusory and unambiguous stimuli. Participants perceived all four illusory motion percepts, and could not distinguish the illusion from the unambiguous stimuli. These results show that this illusion is effectively quadri-stable. In a second experiment, the illusory stimulus was looped continuously in headphones while participants identified its perceived path of motion to test properties of perceptual switching, locking, and biases. Participants were biased towards perceiving transverse compared to bouncing paths, and they became perceptually locked into alternating between front-to-back and back-to-front percepts, perhaps reflecting how auditory objects commonly move in the real world. This multi-stable auditory illusion opens opportunities for studying the perceptual, cognitive, and neural representation of objects in motion, as well as exploring multimodal perceptual

  10. Spatial audition in a static virtual environment: the role of auditory-visual interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Viaud-Delmon

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The integration of the auditory modality in virtual reality environments is known to promote the sensations of immersion and presence. However it is also known from psychophysics studies that auditory-visual interaction obey to complex rules and that multisensory conflicts may disrupt the adhesion of the participant to the presented virtual scene. It is thus important to measure the accuracy of the auditory spatial cues reproduced by the auditory display and their consistency with the spatial visual cues. This study evaluates auditory localization performances under various unimodal and auditory-visual bimodal conditions in a virtual reality (VR setup using a stereoscopic display and binaural reproduction over headphones in static conditions. The auditory localization performances observed in the present study are in line with those reported in real conditions, suggesting that VR gives rise to consistent auditory and visual spatial cues. These results validate the use of VR for future psychophysics experiments with auditory and visual stimuli. They also emphasize the importance of a spatially accurate auditory and visual rendering for VR setups.

  11. Auditory Spatial Coding Flexibly Recruits Anterior, but Not Posterior, Visuotopic Parietal Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Michalka, Samantha W.; Rosen, Maya L.; Kong, Lingqiang; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.; Somers, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Audition and vision both convey spatial information about the environment, but much less is known about mechanisms of auditory spatial cognition than visual spatial cognition. Human cortex contains >20 visuospatial map representations but no reported auditory spatial maps. The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) contains several of these visuospatial maps, which support visuospatial attention and short-term memory (STM). Neuroimaging studies also demonstrate that parietal cortex is activated during au...

  12. Perinatal exposure to a noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyl alters tonotopy, receptive fields, and plasticity in rat primary auditory cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Kenet, T; Froemke, R. C.; Schreiner, C. E.; Pessah, I N; Merzenich, M. M.

    2007-01-01

    Noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely dispersed in human environment and tissues. Here, an exemplar noncoplanar PCB was fed to rat dams during gestation and throughout three subsequent nursing weeks. Although the hearing sensitivity and brainstem auditory responses of pups were normal, exposure resulted in the abnormal development of the primary auditory cortex (A1). A1 was irregularly shaped and marked by internal nonresponsive zones, its topographic organization was grossl...

  13. Perception of auditory, visual, and egocentric spatial alignment adapts differently to changes in eye position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qi N; Razavi, Babak; O'Neill, William E; Paige, Gary D

    2010-02-01

    Vision and audition represent the outside world in spatial synergy that is crucial for guiding natural activities. Input conveying eye-in-head position is needed to maintain spatial congruence because the eyes move in the head while the ears remain head-fixed. Recently, we reported that the human perception of auditory space shifts with changes in eye position. In this study, we examined whether this phenomenon is 1) dependent on a visual fixation reference, 2) selective for frequency bands (high-pass and low-pass noise) related to specific auditory spatial channels, 3) matched by a shift in the perceived straight-ahead (PSA), and 4) accompanied by a spatial shift for visual and/or bimodal (visual and auditory) targets. Subjects were tested in a dark echo-attenuated chamber with their heads fixed facing a cylindrical screen, behind which a mobile speaker/LED presented targets across the frontal field. Subjects fixated alternating reference spots (0, +/-20 degrees ) horizontally or vertically while either localizing targets or indicating PSA using a laser pointer. Results showed that the spatial shift induced by ocular eccentricity is 1) preserved for auditory targets without a visual fixation reference, 2) generalized for all frequency bands, and thus all auditory spatial channels, 3) paralleled by a shift in PSA, and 4) restricted to auditory space. Findings are consistent with a set-point control strategy by which eye position governs multimodal spatial alignment. The phenomenon is robust for auditory space and egocentric perception, and highlights the importance of controlling for eye position in the examination of spatial perception and behavior. PMID:19846626

  14. Hierarchical and serial processing in the spatial auditory cortical pathway is degraded by natural aging

    OpenAIRE

    Juarez-Salinas, Dina L.; Engle, James R.; Navarro, Xochi O.; Gregg H Recanzone

    2010-01-01

    The compromised abilities to localize sounds and to understand speech are two hallmark deficits in aged individuals. The auditory cortex is necessary for these processes, yet we know little about how normal aging affects these early cortical fields. In this study, we recorded the spatial tuning of single neurons in primary (area A1) and secondary (area CL) auditory cortical areas in young and aged alert rhesus macaques. We found that the neurons of aged animals had greater spontaneous and dri...

  15. Interface Design Implications for Recalling the Spatial Configuration of Virtual Auditory Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Kyla A.

    Although the concept of virtual spatial audio has existed for almost twenty-five years, only in the past fifteen years has modern computing technology enabled the real-time processing needed to deliver high-precision spatial audio. Furthermore, the concept of virtually walking through an auditory environment did not exist. The applications of such an interface have numerous potential uses. Spatial audio has the potential to be used in various manners ranging from enhancing sounds delivered in virtual gaming worlds to conveying spatial locations in real-time emergency response systems. To incorporate this technology in real-world systems, various concerns should be addressed. First, to widely incorporate spatial audio into real-world systems, head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) must be inexpensively created for each user. The present study further investigated an HRTF subjective selection procedure previously developed within our research group. Users discriminated auditory cues to subjectively select their preferred HRTF from a publicly available database. Next, the issue of training to find virtual sources was addressed. Listeners participated in a localization training experiment using their selected HRTFs. The training procedure was created from the characterization of successful search strategies in prior auditory search experiments. Search accuracy significantly improved after listeners performed the training procedure. Next, in the investigation of auditory spatial memory, listeners completed three search and recall tasks with differing recall methods. Recall accuracy significantly decreased in tasks that required the storage of sound source configurations in memory. To assess the impacts of practical scenarios, the present work assessed the performance effects of: signal uncertainty, visual augmentation, and different attenuation modeling. Fortunately, source uncertainty did not affect listeners' ability to recall or identify sound sources. The present

  16. The Use of Spatialized Speech in Auditory Interfaces for Computer Users Who Are Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodnik, Jaka; Jakus, Grega; Tomazic, Saso

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This article reports on a study that explored the benefits and drawbacks of using spatially positioned synthesized speech in auditory interfaces for computer users who are visually impaired (that is, are blind or have low vision). The study was a practical application of such systems--an enhanced word processing application compared…

  17. Comparison of LFP-based and spike-based spectro-temporal receptive fields and cross-correlation in cat primary auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos J Eggermont

    Full Text Available Multi-electrode array recordings of spike and local field potential (LFP activity were made from primary auditory cortex of 12 normal hearing, ketamine-anesthetized cats. We evaluated 259 spectro-temporal receptive fields (STRFs and 492 frequency-tuning curves (FTCs based on LFPs and spikes simultaneously recorded on the same electrode. We compared their characteristic frequency (CF gradients and their cross-correlation distances. The CF gradient for spike-based FTCs was about twice that for 2-40 Hz-filtered LFP-based FTCs, indicating greatly reduced frequency selectivity for LFPs. We also present comparisons for LFPs band-pass filtered between 4-8 Hz, 8-16 Hz and 16-40 Hz, with spike-based STRFs, on the basis of their marginal frequency distributions. We find on average a significantly larger correlation between the spike based marginal frequency distributions and those based on the 16-40 Hz filtered LFP, compared to those based on the 4-8 Hz, 8-16 Hz and 2-40 Hz filtered LFP. This suggests greater frequency specificity for the 16-40 Hz LFPs compared to those of lower frequency content. For spontaneous LFP and spike activity we evaluated 1373 pair correlations for pairs with >200 spikes in 900 s per electrode. Peak correlation-coefficient space constants were similar for the 2-40 Hz filtered LFP (5.5 mm and the 16-40 Hz LFP (7.4 mm, whereas for spike-pair correlations it was about half that, at 3.2 mm. Comparing spike-pairs with 2-40 Hz (and 16-40 Hz LFP-pair correlations showed that about 16% (9% of the variance in the spike-pair correlations could be explained from LFP-pair correlations recorded on the same electrodes within the same electrode array. This larger correlation distance combined with the reduced CF gradient and much broader frequency selectivity suggests that LFPs are not a substitute for spike activity in primary auditory cortex.

  18. Comparison of LFP-based and spike-based spectro-temporal receptive fields and cross-correlation in cat primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggermont, Jos J; Munguia, Raymundo; Pienkowski, Martin; Shaw, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Multi-electrode array recordings of spike and local field potential (LFP) activity were made from primary auditory cortex of 12 normal hearing, ketamine-anesthetized cats. We evaluated 259 spectro-temporal receptive fields (STRFs) and 492 frequency-tuning curves (FTCs) based on LFPs and spikes simultaneously recorded on the same electrode. We compared their characteristic frequency (CF) gradients and their cross-correlation distances. The CF gradient for spike-based FTCs was about twice that for 2-40 Hz-filtered LFP-based FTCs, indicating greatly reduced frequency selectivity for LFPs. We also present comparisons for LFPs band-pass filtered between 4-8 Hz, 8-16 Hz and 16-40 Hz, with spike-based STRFs, on the basis of their marginal frequency distributions. We find on average a significantly larger correlation between the spike based marginal frequency distributions and those based on the 16-40 Hz filtered LFP, compared to those based on the 4-8 Hz, 8-16 Hz and 2-40 Hz filtered LFP. This suggests greater frequency specificity for the 16-40 Hz LFPs compared to those of lower frequency content. For spontaneous LFP and spike activity we evaluated 1373 pair correlations for pairs with >200 spikes in 900 s per electrode. Peak correlation-coefficient space constants were similar for the 2-40 Hz filtered LFP (5.5 mm) and the 16-40 Hz LFP (7.4 mm), whereas for spike-pair correlations it was about half that, at 3.2 mm. Comparing spike-pairs with 2-40 Hz (and 16-40 Hz) LFP-pair correlations showed that about 16% (9%) of the variance in the spike-pair correlations could be explained from LFP-pair correlations recorded on the same electrodes within the same electrode array. This larger correlation distance combined with the reduced CF gradient and much broader frequency selectivity suggests that LFPs are not a substitute for spike activity in primary auditory cortex. PMID:21625385

  19. Perception of Auditory, Visual, and Egocentric Spatial Alignment Adapts Differently to Changes in Eye Position

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Qi N; Razavi, Babak; O'Neill, William E.; Paige, Gary D.

    2009-01-01

    Vision and audition represent the outside world in spatial synergy that is crucial for guiding natural activities. Input conveying eye-in-head position is needed to maintain spatial congruence because the eyes move in the head while the ears remain head-fixed. Recently, we reported that the human perception of auditory space shifts with changes in eye position. In this study, we examined whether this phenomenon is 1) dependent on a visual fixation reference, 2) selective for frequency bands (...

  20. Selective attention modulates human auditory brainstem responses: relative contributions of frequency and spatial cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Lehmann

    Full Text Available Selective attention is the mechanism that allows focusing one's attention on a particular stimulus while filtering out a range of other stimuli, for instance, on a single conversation in a noisy room. Attending to one sound source rather than another changes activity in the human auditory cortex, but it is unclear whether attention to different acoustic features, such as voice pitch and speaker location, modulates subcortical activity. Studies using a dichotic listening paradigm indicated that auditory brainstem processing may be modulated by the direction of attention. We investigated whether endogenous selective attention to one of two speech signals affects amplitude and phase locking in auditory brainstem responses when the signals were either discriminable by frequency content alone, or by frequency content and spatial location. Frequency-following responses to the speech sounds were significantly modulated in both conditions. The modulation was specific to the task-relevant frequency band. The effect was stronger when both frequency and spatial information were available. Patterns of response were variable between participants, and were correlated with psychophysical discriminability of the stimuli, suggesting that the modulation was biologically relevant. Our results demonstrate that auditory brainstem responses are susceptible to efferent modulation related to behavioral goals. Furthermore they suggest that mechanisms of selective attention actively shape activity at early subcortical processing stages according to task relevance and based on frequency and spatial cues.

  1. Effects of spatially correlated acoustic-tactile information on judgments of auditory circular direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Annabel J.; Lamothe, M. J. Reina; Toms, Ian D.; Fleming, Richard A. G.

    2002-05-01

    Cohen, Lamothe, Fleming, MacIsaac, and Lamoureux [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 2460 (2001)] reported that proximity governed circular direction judgments (clockwise/counterclockwise) of two successive tones emanating from all pairs of 12 speakers located at 30-degree intervals around a listeners' head (cranium). Many listeners appeared to experience systematic front-back confusion. Diametrically opposed locations (180-degrees-theoretically ambiguous direction) produced a direction bias pattern resembling Deutsch's tritone paradox [Deutsch, Kuyper, and Fisher, Music Percept. 5, 7992 (1987)]. In Experiment 1 of the present study, the circular direction task was conducted in the tactile domain using 12 circumcranial points of vibration. For all 5 participants, proximity governed direction (without front-back confusion) and a simple clockwise bias was shown for 180-degree pairs. Experiment 2 tested 9 new participants in one unimodal auditory condition and two bimodal auditory-tactile conditions (spatially-correlated/spatially-uncorrelated). Correlated auditory-tactile information eliminated front-back confusion for 8 participants and replaced the ``paradoxical'' bias for 180-degree pairs with the clockwise bias. Thus, spatially correlated audio-tactile location information improves the veridical representation of 360-degree acoustic space, and modality-specific principles are implicated by the unique circular direction bias patterns for 180-degree pairs in the separate auditory and tactile modalities. [Work supported by NSERC.

  2. The Relationship between Visual-Spatial and Auditory-Verbal Working Memory Span in Senegalese and Ugandan Children

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J Boivin; Paul Bangirana; Rebecca C Shaffer

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) Conant et al. (1999) observed that visual and auditory working memory (WM) span were independent in both younger and older children from DR Congo, but related in older American children and in Lao children. The present study evaluated whether visual and auditory WM span were independent in Ugandan and Senegalese children. METHOD: In a linear regression analysis we used visual (Spatial Memory, Hand Movements) and auditory (N...

  3. An exploration of spatial auditory BCI paradigms with different sounds: music notes versus beeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Minqiang; Daly, Ian; Jin, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    Visual brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are not suitable for people who cannot reliably maintain their eye gaze. Considering that this group usually maintains audition, an auditory based BCI may be a good choice for them. In this paper, we explore two auditory patterns: (1) a pattern utilizing symmetrical spatial cues with multiple frequency beeps [called the high low medium (HLM) pattern], and (2) a pattern utilizing non-symmetrical spatial cues with six tones derived from the diatonic scale [called the diatonic scale (DS) pattern]. These two patterns are compared to each other in terms of accuracy to determine which auditory pattern is better. The HLM pattern uses three different frequency beeps and has a symmetrical spatial distribution. The DS pattern uses six spoken stimuli, which are six notes solmizated as "do", "re", "mi", "fa", "sol" and "la", and derived from the diatonic scale. These six sounds are distributed to six, spatially distributed, speakers. Thus, we compare a BCI paradigm using beeps with another BCI paradigm using tones on the diatonic scale, when the stimuli are spatially distributed. Although no significant differences are found between the ERPs, the HLM pattern performs better than the DS pattern: the online accuracy achieved with the HLM pattern is significantly higher than that achieved with the DS pattern (p = 0.0028). PMID:27275376

  4. Cross-modal activation of auditory regions during visuo-spatial working memory in early deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hao; Qin, Wen; Liang, Meng; Ming, Dong; Wan, Baikun; Li, Qiang; Yu, Chunshui

    2015-09-01

    Early deafness can reshape deprived auditory regions to enable the processing of signals from the remaining intact sensory modalities. Cross-modal activation has been observed in auditory regions during non-auditory tasks in early deaf subjects. In hearing subjects, visual working memory can evoke activation of the visual cortex, which further contributes to behavioural performance. In early deaf subjects, however, whether and how auditory regions participate in visual working memory remains unclear. We hypothesized that auditory regions may be involved in visual working memory processing and activation of auditory regions may contribute to the superior behavioural performance of early deaf subjects. In this study, 41 early deaf subjects (22 females and 19 males, age range: 20-26 years, age of onset of deafness deaf subjects exhibited faster reaction times on the spatial working memory task than did the hearing controls. Compared with hearing controls, deaf subjects exhibited increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally during the recognition stage. This increased activation amplitude predicted faster and more accurate working memory performance in deaf subjects. Deaf subjects also had increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally during the maintenance stage and in the right superior temporal gyrus during the encoding stage. These increased activation amplitude also predicted faster reaction times on the spatial working memory task in deaf subjects. These findings suggest that cross-modal plasticity occurs in auditory association areas in early deaf subjects. These areas are involved in visuo-spatial working memory. Furthermore, amplitudes of cross-modal activation during the maintenance stage were positively correlated with the age of onset of hearing aid use and were negatively correlated with the percentage of lifetime hearing aid use in deaf subjects. These findings suggest that earlier and longer hearing aid use may

  5. A Dominance Hierarchy of Auditory Spatial Cues in Barn Owls

    OpenAIRE

    Witten, Ilana B.; Phyllis F Knudsen; Knudsen, Eric I.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Barn owls integrate spatial information across frequency channels to localize sounds in space. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We presented barn owls with synchronous sounds that contained different bands of frequencies (3-5 kHz and 7-9 kHz) from different locations in space. When the owls were confronted with the conflicting localization cues from two synchronous sounds of equal level, their orienting responses were dominated by one of the sounds: they oriented toward the locatio...

  6. Interference between postural control and spatial vs. non-spatial auditory reaction time tasks in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Susan I; Redfern, Mark S; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether spatial aspects of an information processing task influence dual-task interference. Two groups (Older/Young) of healthy adults participated in dual-task experiments. Two auditory information processing tasks included a frequency discrimination choice reaction time task (non-spatial task) and a lateralization choice reaction time task (spatial task). Postural tasks included combinations of standing with eyes open or eyes closed on either a fixed floor or a sway-referenced floor. Reaction times and postural sway via center of pressure were recorded. Baseline measures of reaction time and sway were subtracted from the corresponding dual-task results to calculate reaction time task costs and postural task costs. Reaction time task cost increased with eye closure (p = 0.01), sway-referenced flooring (p visual-spatial interference may occur in older subjects when vision is used to maintain posture. PMID:26410669

  7. Auditory spatial resolution in horizontal, vertical, and diagonal planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, D Wesley; Hornsby, Benjamin W Y; Erpenbeck, Eric A

    2003-08-01

    Minimum audible angle (MAA) and minimum audible movement angle (MAMA) thresholds were measured for stimuli in horizontal, vertical, and diagonal (60 degrees) planes. A pseudovirtual technique was employed in which signals were recorded through KEMAR's ears and played back to subjects through insert earphones. Thresholds were obtained for wideband, high-pass, and low-pass noises. Only 6 of 20 subjects obtained wideband vertical-plane MAAs less than 10 degrees, and only these 6 subjects were retained for the complete study. For all three filter conditions thresholds were lowest in the horizontal plane, slightly (but significantly) higher in the diagonal plane, and highest for the vertical plane. These results were similar in magnitude and pattern to those reported by Perrott and Saberi [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 87, 1728-1731 (1990)] and Saberi and Perrott [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 2639-2644 (1990)], except that these investigators generally found that thresholds for diagonal planes were as good as those for the horizontal plane. The present results are consistent with the hypothesis that diagonal-plane performance is based on independent contributions from a horizontal-plane system (sensitive to interaural differences) and a vertical-plane system (sensitive to pinna-based spectral changes). Measurements of the stimuli recorded through KEMAR indicated that sources presented from diagonal planes can produce larger interaural level differences (ILDs) in certain frequency regions than would be expected based on the horizontal projection of the trajectory. Such frequency-specific ILD cues may underlie the very good performance reported in previous studies for diagonal spatial resolution. Subjects in the present study could apparently not take advantage of these cues in the diagonal-plane condition, possibly because they did not externalize the images to their appropriate positions in space or possibly because of the absence of a patterned visual field.

  8. Attention to sound improves auditory reliability in audio-tactile spatial optimal integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana eVercillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of attention on multisensory processing is still poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear whether directing attention toward a sensory cue dynamically reweights cue reliability during integration of multiple sensory signals. In this study, we investigated the impact of attention in combining audio-tactile signals in an optimal fashion. We used the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE model to predict audio-tactile spatial localization on the body surface. We developed a new audio-tactile device composed by several small units, each one consisting of a speaker and a tactile vibrator independently controllable by external software. We tested subjects in an attentional and a non-attentional condition. In the attention experiment participants performed a dual task paradigm: they were required to evaluate the duration of a sound while performing an audio-tactile spatial task. Three unisensory or multisensory stimuli (conflictual or not conflictual sounds and vibrations arranged along the horizontal axis were presented sequentially. In the primary task subjects had to evaluate the position of the second stimulus (the probe with respect to the others (in a space bisection task. In the secondary task they had to report occasionally changes in duration of the second auditory stimulus. In the non-attentional task participants had only to perform the primary task (space bisection. Our results showed enhanced auditory precision (and auditory weights in the auditory attentional condition with respect to the control non-attentional condition. Interestingly in both conditions the multisensory results are well predicted by the MLE model. The results of this study support the idea that modality-specific attention modulates multisensory integration.

  9. The relationship between visual-spatial and auditory-verbal working memory span in Senegalese and Ugandan children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Boivin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC Conant et al. (1999 observed that visual and auditory working memory (WM span were independent in both younger and older children from DR Congo, but related in older American children and in Lao children. The present study evaluated whether visual and auditory WM span were independent in Ugandan and Senegalese children. METHOD: In a linear regression analysis we used visual (Spatial Memory, Hand Movements and auditory (Number Recall WM along with education and physical development (weight/height as predictors. The predicted variable in this analysis was Word Order, which is a verbal memory task that has both visual and auditory memory components. RESULTS: Both the younger (8.5 yrs Ugandan children had auditory memory span (Number Recall that was strongly predictive of Word Order performance. For both the younger and older groups of Senegalese children, only visual WM span (Spatial Memory was strongly predictive of Word Order. Number Recall was not significantly predictive of Word Order in either age group. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible that greater literacy from more schooling for the Ugandan age groups mediated their greater degree of interdependence between auditory and verbal WM. Our findings support those of Conant et al., who observed in their cross-cultural comparisons that stronger education seemed to enhance the dominance of the phonological-auditory processing loop for WM.

  10. Influence of age, spatial memory, and ocular fixation on localization of auditory, visual, and bimodal targets by human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobreva, Marina S; O'Neill, William E; Paige, Gary D

    2012-12-01

    A common complaint of the elderly is difficulty identifying and localizing auditory and visual sources, particularly in competing background noise. Spatial errors in the elderly may pose challenges and even threats to self and others during everyday activities, such as localizing sounds in a crowded room or driving in traffic. In this study, we investigated the influence of aging, spatial memory, and ocular fixation on the localization of auditory, visual, and combined auditory-visual (bimodal) targets. Head-restrained young and elderly subjects localized targets in a dark, echo-attenuated room using a manual laser pointer. Localization accuracy and precision (repeatability) were quantified for both ongoing and transient (remembered) targets at response delays up to 10 s. Because eye movements bias auditory spatial perception, localization was assessed under target fixation (eyes free, pointer guided by foveal vision) and central fixation (eyes fixed straight ahead, pointer guided by peripheral vision) conditions. Spatial localization across the frontal field in young adults demonstrated (1) horizontal overshoot and vertical undershoot for ongoing auditory targets under target fixation conditions, but near-ideal horizontal localization with central fixation; (2) accurate and precise localization of ongoing visual targets guided by foveal vision under target fixation that degraded when guided by peripheral vision during central fixation; (3) overestimation in horizontal central space (±10°) of remembered auditory, visual, and bimodal targets with increasing response delay. In comparison with young adults, elderly subjects showed (1) worse precision in most paradigms, especially when localizing with peripheral vision under central fixation; (2) greatly impaired vertical localization of auditory and bimodal targets; (3) increased horizontal overshoot in the central field for remembered visual and bimodal targets across response delays; (4) greater vulnerability to

  11. Using spatial manipulation to examine interactions between visual and auditory encoding of pitch and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M McLachlan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Music notations use both symbolic and spatial representation systems. Novice musicians do not have the training to associate symbolic information with musical identities, such as chords or rhythmic and melodic patterns. They provide an opportunity to explore the mechanisms underpinning multimodal learning when spatial encoding strategies of feature dimensions might be expected to dominate. In this study, we applied a range of transformations (such as time reversal to short melodies and rhythms and asked novice musicians to identify them with or without the aid of notation. Performance using a purely spatial (graphic notation was contrasted with the more symbolic, traditional western notation over a series of weekly sessions. The results showed learning effects for both notation types, but performance improved more for graphic notation. This points to greater compatibility of auditory and visual neural codes for novice musicians when using spatial notation, suggesting that pitch and time may be spatially encoded in multimodal associative memory. The findings also point to new strategies for training novice musicians.

  12. Task-dependent calibration of auditory spatial perception through environmental visual observation

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Brayda

    2015-01-01

    Visual information is paramount to space perception. Vision influences auditory space estimation. Many studies show that simultaneous visual and auditory cues improve precision of the final multisensory estimate. However, the amount or the temporal extent of visual information, that is sufficient to influence auditory perception, is still unknown. It is therefore interesting to know if vision can improve auditory precision through a short-term environmental observation preceding the audio tas...

  13. Characterizing spatial tuning functions of neurons in the auditory cortex of young and aged monkeys: A new perspective on old data.

    OpenAIRE

    James Engle; Gregg H Recanzone

    2013-01-01

    Age-related hearing deficits are a leading cause of disability among the aged. While some forms of hearing deficits are peripheral in origin, others are centrally mediated. One such deficit is the ability to localize sounds, a critical component for segregating different acoustic objects and events, which is dependent on the auditory cortex. Recent evidence indicates that in aged animals the normal sharpening of spatial tuning between neurons in primary auditory cortex to the caudal latera...

  14. Spatial selective auditory attention in the presence of reverberant energy: individual differences in normal-hearing listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Dorea; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara

    2011-06-01

    Listeners can selectively attend to a desired target by directing attention to known target source features, such as location or pitch. Reverberation, however, reduces the reliability of the cues that allow a target source to be segregated and selected from a sound mixture. Given this, it is likely that reverberant energy interferes with selective auditory attention. Anecdotal reports suggest that the ability to focus spatial auditory attention degrades even with early aging, yet there is little evidence that middle-aged listeners have behavioral deficits on tasks requiring selective auditory attention. The current study was designed to look for individual differences in selective attention ability and to see if any such differences correlate with age. Normal-hearing adults, ranging in age from 18 to 55 years, were asked to report a stream of digits located directly ahead in a simulated rectangular room. Simultaneous, competing masker digit streams were simulated at locations 15° left and right of center. The level of reverberation was varied to alter task difficulty by interfering with localization cues (increasing localization blur). Overall, performance was best in the anechoic condition and worst in the high-reverberation condition. Listeners nearly always reported a digit from one of the three competing streams, showing that reverberation did not render the digits unintelligible. Importantly, inter-subject differences were extremely large. These differences, however, were not significantly correlated with age, memory span, or hearing status. These results show that listeners with audiometrically normal pure tone thresholds differ in their ability to selectively attend to a desired source, a task important in everyday communication. Further work is necessary to determine if these differences arise from differences in peripheral auditory function or in more central function.

  15. Auditory attention in childhood and adolescence: An event-related potential study of spatial selective attention to one of two simultaneous stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Karns

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Auditory selective attention is a critical skill for goal-directed behavior, especially where noisy distractions may impede focusing attention. To better understand the developmental trajectory of auditory spatial selective attention in an acoustically complex environment, in the current study we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs across five age groups: 3–5 years; 10 years; 13 years; 16 years; and young adults. Using a naturalistic dichotic listening paradigm, we characterized the ERP morphology for nonlinguistic and linguistic auditory probes embedded in attended and unattended stories. We documented robust maturational changes in auditory evoked potentials that were specific to the types of probes. Furthermore, we found a remarkable interplay between age and attention-modulation of auditory evoked potentials in terms of morphology and latency from the early years of childhood through young adulthood. The results are consistent with the view that attention can operate across age groups by modulating the amplitude of maturing auditory early-latency evoked potentials or by invoking later endogenous attention processes. Development of these processes is not uniform for probes with different acoustic properties within our acoustically dense speech-based dichotic listening task. In light of the developmental differences we demonstrate, researchers conducting future attention studies of children and adolescents should be wary of combining analyses across diverse ages.

  16. Effects of aging on peripheral and central auditory processing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Margarida; Lepore, Franco; Prévost, François; Guillemot, Jean-Paul

    2016-08-01

    Hearing loss is a hallmark sign in the elderly population. Decline in auditory perception provokes deficits in the ability to localize sound sources and reduces speech perception, particularly in noise. In addition to a loss of peripheral hearing sensitivity, changes in more complex central structures have also been demonstrated. Related to these, this study examines the auditory directional maps in the deep layers of the superior colliculus of the rat. Hence, anesthetized Sprague-Dawley adult (10 months) and aged (22 months) rats underwent distortion product of otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) to assess cochlear function. Then, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were assessed, followed by extracellular single-unit recordings to determine age-related effects on central auditory functions. DPOAE amplitude levels were decreased in aged rats although they were still present between 3.0 and 24.0 kHz. ABR level thresholds in aged rats were significantly elevated at an early (cochlear nucleus - wave II) stage in the auditory brainstem. In the superior colliculus, thresholds were increased and the tuning widths of the directional receptive fields were significantly wider. Moreover, no systematic directional spatial arrangement was present among the neurons of the aged rats, implying that the topographical organization of the auditory directional map was abolished. These results suggest that the deterioration of the auditory directional spatial map can, to some extent, be attributable to age-related dysfunction at more central, perceptual stages of auditory processing.

  17. Temporal asymmetries in auditory coding and perception reflect multi-layered nonlinearities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneux, Thomas; Kempf, Alexandre; Daret, Aurélie; Ponsot, Emmanuel; Bathellier, Brice

    2016-01-01

    Sound recognition relies not only on spectral cues, but also on temporal cues, as demonstrated by the profound impact of time reversals on perception of common sounds. To address the coding principles underlying such auditory asymmetries, we recorded a large sample of auditory cortex neurons using two-photon calcium imaging in awake mice, while playing sounds ramping up or down in intensity. We observed clear asymmetries in cortical population responses, including stronger cortical activity for up-ramping sounds, which matches perceptual saliency assessments in mice and previous measures in humans. Analysis of cortical activity patterns revealed that auditory cortex implements a map of spatially clustered neuronal ensembles, detecting specific combinations of spectral and intensity modulation features. Comparing different models, we show that cortical responses result from multi-layered nonlinearities, which, contrary to standard receptive field models of auditory cortex function, build divergent representations of sounds with similar spectral content, but different temporal structure. PMID:27580932

  18. Spatial dynamics of receptive fields in cat primary visual cortex related to the temporal structure of thalamocortical feedforward activity. Experiments and models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suder, Katrin; Funke, Klaus; Zhao, Yongqiang; Kerscher, Nicolas; Wennekers, Thomas; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2002-06-01

    We investigated how changes in the temporal firing rate of thalamocortical activity affect the spatiotemporal structure of receptive field (RF) subunits in cat primary visual cortex. Spike activity of 67 neurons (48 simple, 19 complex cells) was extracellulary recorded from area 17/18 of anesthetized and paralyzed cats. A total of 107 subfields (on/off) were mapped by applying a reverse correlation technique to the activity elicited by bright and dark rectangles flashed for 300 ms in a 20x10 grid. We found that the width of the (suprathreshold) discharge fields shrank on average by 22% during this 300-ms-long stimulus presentation time. Fifty-eight subfields (54%) shrank by more than 20% of peak width and only ten (less than 10%) showed a slight increase over time. The main size reduction took place 40-60 ms after response onset, which corresponded to the transition from transient peak firing to tonic visual activity in thalamocortical relay cells (TC). The experimentally obtained RFs were then fitted with the aid of a neural field model of the primary visual pathway. Assuming a Gaussian-shaped spatial sensitivity profile across the RF subfield width, the model allowed us to estimate the subthreshold RF (depolarization field, D-field) from the minimal discharge field (MDF). The model allowed us to test to what degree the temporal dynamics of thalamocortical activity contributes to the spatiotemporal changes of cortical RFs. To this end, we performed the fitting procedure either with a pure feedforward model or with a field model that also included intracortical feedback. Spatial and temporal parameters obtained from fits of the experimental RFs matched closely to those achieved by simulating a pure feedforward system with the field model but were not compatible with additional intracortical feedback. Thus, our results show that dot stimulation, which optimally excites thalamocortical cells, leads to a shrinkage with respect to the size of the RF subfield at the

  19. Chronic exposure to broadband noise at moderate sound pressure levels spatially shifts tone-evoked responses in the rat auditory midbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Condon; Pienkowski, Martin; Zhang, Jevin W; McPherson, Bradley; Wu, Ed X

    2015-11-15

    Noise-induced hearing disorders are a significant public health concern. One cause of such disorders is exposure to high sound pressure levels (SPLs) above 85 dBA for eight hours/day. High SPL exposures occur in occupational and recreational settings and affect a substantial proportion of the population. However, an even larger proportion is exposed to more moderate SPLs for longer durations. Therefore, there is significant need to better understand the impact of chronic, moderate SPL exposures on auditory processing, especially in the absence of hearing loss. In this study, we applied functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with tonal acoustic stimulation on an established broadband rat exposure model (65 dB SPL, 30 kHz low-pass, 60 days). The auditory midbrain response of exposed subjects to 7 kHz stimulation (within exposure bandwidth) shifts dorsolaterally to regions that typically respond to lower stimulation frequencies. This shift is quantified by a region of interest analysis that shows that fMRI signals are higher in the dorsolateral midbrain of exposed subjects and in the ventromedial midbrain of control subjects (pmidbrain regions above the exposure bandwidth spatially expand due to exposure. This expansion shifts lower frequency regions dorsolaterally. Similar observations have previously been made in the rat auditory cortex. Therefore, moderate SPL exposures affect auditory processing at multiple levels, from the auditory cortex to the midbrain.

  20. Compression of auditory space during forward self-motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Teramoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spatial inputs from the auditory periphery can be changed with movements of the head or whole body relative to the sound source. Nevertheless, humans can perceive a stable auditory environment and appropriately react to a sound source. This suggests that the inputs are reinterpreted in the brain, while being integrated with information on the movements. Little is known, however, about how these movements modulate auditory perceptual processing. Here, we investigate the effect of the linear acceleration on auditory space representation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants were passively transported forward/backward at constant accelerations using a robotic wheelchair. An array of loudspeakers was aligned parallel to the motion direction along a wall to the right of the listener. A short noise burst was presented during the self-motion from one of the loudspeakers when the listener's physical coronal plane reached the location of one of the speakers (null point. In Experiments 1 and 2, the participants indicated which direction the sound was presented, forward or backward relative to their subjective coronal plane. The results showed that the sound position aligned with the subjective coronal plane was displaced ahead of the null point only during forward self-motion and that the magnitude of the displacement increased with increasing the acceleration. Experiment 3 investigated the structure of the auditory space in the traveling direction during forward self-motion. The sounds were presented at various distances from the null point. The participants indicated the perceived sound location by pointing a rod. All the sounds that were actually located in the traveling direction were perceived as being biased towards the null point. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest a distortion of the auditory space in the direction of movement during forward self-motion. The underlying mechanism might involve anticipatory spatial

  1. The role of diffusive architectural surfaces on auditory spatial discrimination in performance venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Philip W; Pätynen, Jukka; Lokki, Tapio; Jang, Hyung Suk; Jeon, Jin Yong; Xiang, Ning

    2013-06-01

    In musical or theatrical performance, some venues allow listeners to individually localize and segregate individual performers, while others produce a well blended ensemble sound. The room acoustic conditions that make this possible, and the psycho-acoustic effects at work are not fully understood. This research utilizes auralizations from measured and simulated performance venues to investigate spatial discrimination of multiple acoustic sources in rooms. Signals were generated from measurements taken in a small theater, and listeners in the audience area were asked to distinguish pairs of speech sources on stage with various spatial separations. This experiment was repeated with the proscenium splay walls treated to be flat, diffusive, or absorptive. Similar experiments were conducted in a simulated hall, utilizing 11 early reflections with various characteristics, and measured late reverberation. The experiments reveal that discriminating the lateral arrangement of two sources is possible at narrower separation angles when reflections come from flat or absorptive rather than diffusive surfaces. PMID:23742348

  2. Two- to Eight-Month-Old Infants' Perception of Dynamic Auditory-Visual Spatial Colocation

    OpenAIRE

    Bremner, J. Gavin; Slater, Alan M.; Scott P Johnson; Mason, Ursula; Spring, Joanne; Bremner, Maggie E.

    2011-01-01

    From birth, infants detect associations between the locations of static visual objects and sounds they emit, but there is limited evidence regarding their sensitivity to the dynamic equivalent when a sound-emitting object moves. In 4 experiments involving thirty-six 2-month-olds, forty-eight 5-month-olds, and forty-eight 8-month-olds, we investigated infants' ability to process this form of spatial colocation. Whereas there was no evidence of spontaneous sensitivity, all age groups detected a...

  3. Divided multimodal attention sensory trace and context coding strategies in spatially congruent auditory and visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Tómas; Thorvaldsson, Tómas Páll; Kristjánsson, Arni

    2014-01-01

    Previous research involving both unimodal and multimodal studies suggests that single-response change detection is a capacity-free process while a discriminatory up or down identification is capacity-limited. The trace/context model assumes that this reflects different memory strategies rather than inherent differences between identification and detection. To perform such tasks, one of two strategies is used, a sensory trace or a context coding strategy, and if one is blocked, people will automatically use the other. A drawback to most preceding studies is that stimuli are presented at separate locations, creating the possibility of a spatial confound, which invites alternative interpretations of the results. We describe a series of experiments, investigating divided multimodal attention, without the spatial confound. The results challenge the trace/context model. Our critical experiment involved a gap before a change in volume and brightness, which according to the trace/context model blocks the sensory trace strategy, simultaneously with a roaming pedestal, which should block the context coding strategy. The results clearly show that people can use strategies other than sensory trace and context coding in the tasks and conditions of these experiments, necessitating changes to the trace/context model.

  4. Auditory Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    volume. The conference's topics include auditory exploration of data via sonification and audification; real time monitoring of multivariate date; sound in immersive interfaces and teleoperation; perceptual issues in auditory display; sound in generalized computer interfaces; technologies supporting...... auditory display creation; data handling for auditory display systems; applications of auditory display....

  5. Sparse Codes for Speech Predict Spectrotemporal Receptive Fields in the Inferior Colliculus

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Nicole L.; Ming, Vivienne L.; Michael Robert Deweese

    2012-01-01

    Author Summary The receptive field of a neuron can be thought of as the stimulus that most strongly causes it to be active. Scientists have long been interested in discovering the underlying principles that determine the structure of receptive fields of cells in the auditory pathway to better understand how our brains process sound. One possible way of predicting these receptive fields is by using a theoretical model such as a sparse coding model. In such a model, each sound is represented by...

  6. Characterizing spatial tuning functions of neurons in the auditory cortex of young and aged monkeys: A new perspective on old data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James eEngle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related hearing deficits are a leading cause of disability among the aged. While some forms of hearing deficits are peripheral in origin, others are centrally mediated. One such deficit is the ability to localize sounds, a critical component for segregating different acoustic objects and events, which is dependent on the auditory cortex. Recent evidence indicates that in aged animals the normal sharpening of spatial tuning between neurons in primary auditory cortex to the caudal lateral field does not occur as it does in younger animals. As a decrease in inhibition with aging is common in the ascending auditory system, it is possible that this lack of spatial tuning sharpening is due to a decrease in inhibition at different periods within the response. It is also possible that spatial tuning was decreased as a consequence of reduced inhibition at non-best locations. In this report we found that aged animals did have greater activity throughout the response period, but primarily during the onset of the response. This was most prominent at non-best directions, consistent with the hypothesis that inhibition is a primary mechanism to sharpen spatial tuning curves. We also noted that in aged animals the latency of the response was much shorter than in younger animals, consistent with a decrease in pre-onset inhibition. These results can be interpreted in the context of a failure of the timing and efficiency of feed-forward thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical circuits in aged animals. Such a mechanism, if generalized across cortical areas, could play a major role in age-related cognitive decline.

  7. Auditory Processing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auditory Processing Disorders Auditory processing disorders (APDs) are referred to by many names: central auditory processing disorders , auditory perceptual disorders , and central auditory disorders . APDs ...

  8. Do dyslexics have auditory input processing difficulties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    Word production difficulties are well documented in dyslexia, whereas the results are mixed for receptive phonological processing. This asymmetry raises the possibility that the core phonological deficit of dyslexia is restricted to output processing stages. The present study investigated whether...... a group of dyslexics had word level receptive difficulties using an auditory lexical decision task with long words and nonsense words. The dyslexics were slower and less accurate than chronological age controls in an auditory lexical decision task, with disproportionate low performance on nonsense words...

  9. Developing Spatial Knowledge in the Absence of Vision: Allocentric and Egocentric Representations Generated by Blind People When Supported by Auditory Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Latini Corazzini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of visuospatial representations and visuospatial memory can profit from the analysis of the performance of specific groups. in particular, the surprising skills and limitations of blind people may be an important source of information. For example, converging evidence indicates that, even though blind individuals are able to develop both egocentric and allocentric space representations, the latter tend to be much more restricted than those in blindfolded sighted individuals. however, no study has explored yet whether this conclusion also holds when people receive practice with the spatial environment and are supported by auditory stimuli. The present research examined these issues with the use of an experimental apparatus based on the morris Water maze (morris et al., 1982. in this setup, blind people and blindfolded controls were given the opportunity to develop knowledge of the environment with the support of simultaneous auditory cues. The results show that even in this favourable case blind people spontaneously maintain to rely on an egocentric spatial representation.

  10. The Difference in the Profile of Working Memory, Auditory Working Memory, and Spatial Working Memory between Drug, Stimulant, and Methadone Abusers and Normal People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alipour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was an attempt to examine the difference in the profile of working memory, auditory working memory, and spatial working memory between drug, stimulant, and methadone abusers and normal people. Method: This study was a causal-comparative one with between-group comparison methodology. All the individuals addicted to opiates, stimulants, and methadone who had referred to Khomeini treatment centers of the city from September 2013 to February 2014 constituted the statistical population of the study. The number of 154 abusers (54 drug abusers, 50 stimulant abusers, and 50 methadone abusers and the number of 50 normal participants were chosen as the sample of the study by purposive sampling method. The participants responded to Wechsler Memory Scale—third edition (WMS-III. Results: There was a significant difference between the normal group and drug, stimulant, and methadone abusers in terms of working memory, auditory working memory, and spatial working memory. Conclusion: Drug and stimulant use leads to sustained damage in cognitive processes such as working memory. However, research indicates that these cognitive processes will improve with the passage of time.

  11. Auditory Dysfunction and Its Communicative Impact in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Brad W.

    1982-01-01

    The origins and nature of auditory dysfunction in school age children and the role of the audiologist in the evaluation of the learning disabled child are reviewed. Specific structures and mechanisms responsible for the reception and perception of auditory signals are specified. (Author/SEW)

  12. Binding ‘when’ and ‘where’ impairs temporal, but not spatial recall in auditory and visual working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco eDelogu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Information about where and when events happened seem naturally linked to each other, but only few studies have investigated whether and how they are associated in working memory. We tested whether the location of items and their temporal order are jointly or independently encoded. We also verified if spatio-temporal binding is influenced by the sensory modality of items. Participants were requested to memorize the location and/or the serial order of five items (environmental sounds or pictures sequentially presented from five different locations. Next, they were asked to recall either the item location or their order of presentation within the sequence. Attention during encoding was manipulated by contrasting blocks of trials in which participants were requested to encode only one feature, to blocks of trials where they had to encode both features. Results show an interesting interaction between task and attention. Accuracy in the serial order recall was affected by the simultaneous encoding of item location, whereas the recall of item location was unaffected by the concurrent encoding of the serial order of items. This asymmetric influence of attention on the two tasks was similar for the auditory and visual modality. Together, these data indicate that item location is processed in a relatively automatic fashion, whereas maintaining serial order is more demanding in terms of attention. The remarkably analogous results for auditory and visual memory performance, suggest that the binding of serial order and location in working memory is not modality-dependent, and may involve common intersensory mechanisms.

  13. Auditory and Visual Sensations

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    Professor Yoichi Ando, acoustic architectural designer of the Kirishima International Concert Hall in Japan, presents a comprehensive rational-scientific approach to designing performance spaces. His theory is based on systematic psychoacoustical observations of spatial hearing and listener preferences, whose neuronal correlates are observed in the neurophysiology of the human brain. A correlation-based model of neuronal signal processing in the central auditory system is proposed in which temporal sensations (pitch, timbre, loudness, duration) are represented by an internal autocorrelation representation, and spatial sensations (sound location, size, diffuseness related to envelopment) are represented by an internal interaural crosscorrelation function. Together these two internal central auditory representations account for the basic auditory qualities that are relevant for listening to music and speech in indoor performance spaces. Observed psychological and neurophysiological commonalities between auditor...

  14. Reception Shop Special Stand

    CERN Multimedia

    Education and Technology Transfer Unit/ETT-EC

    2004-01-01

    Friday 15.10.2004 CERN 50th Anniversary articles will be sold in the Main Building, ground floor on Friday 15th October from 10h00 to 16h00. T-shirt, (S, M, L, XL) 20.- K-way (M, L, XL) 20.- Silk tie (2 models) 30.- Einstein tie 45.- Umbrella 20.- Caran d'Ache pen 5.- 50th Anniversary Pen 5.- Kit of Cartoon Album & Crayons 10.- All the articles are also available at the Reception Shop in Building 33 from Monday to Saturday between 08.30 and 17.00 hrs. Education and Technology Transfer Unit/ETT-EC

  15. Endometrial receptivity array: Clinical application

    OpenAIRE

    Nalini Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Human implantation is a complex process requiring synchrony between a healthy embryo and a functionally competent or receptive endometrium. Diagnosis of endometrial receptivity (ER) has posed a challenge and so far most available tests have been subjective and lack accuracy and a predictive value. Microarray technology has allowed identification of the transcriptomic signature of the window of receptivity window of implantation (WOI). This technology has led to the development of a molecular ...

  16. Analogues of simple and complex cells in rhesus monkey auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Biao; Kuśmierek, Paweł; Rauschecker, Josef P

    2013-05-01

    Receptive fields (RFs) of neurons in primary visual cortex have traditionally been subdivided into two major classes: "simple" and "complex" cells. Simple cells were originally defined by the existence of segregated subregions within their RF that respond to either the on- or offset of a light bar and by spatial summation within each of these regions, whereas complex cells had ON and OFF regions that were coextensive in space [Hubel DH, et al. (1962) J Physiol 160:106-154]. Although other definitions based on the linearity of response modulation have been proposed later [Movshon JA, et al. (1978) J Physiol 283:53-77; Skottun BC, et al. (1991) Vision Res 31(7-8):1079-1086], the segregation of ON and OFF subregions has remained an important criterion for the distinction between simple and complex cells. Here we report that response profiles of neurons in primary auditory cortex of monkeys show a similar distinction: one group of cells has segregated ON and OFF subregions in frequency space; and another group shows ON and OFF responses within largely overlapping response profiles. This observation is intriguing for two reasons: (i) spectrotemporal dissociation in the auditory domain provides a basic neural mechanism for the segregation of sounds, a fundamental prerequisite for auditory figure-ground discrimination; and (ii) the existence of similar types of RF organization in visual and auditory cortex would support the existence of a common canonical processing algorithm within cortical columns.

  17. Auditory Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... field differ in their opinions about the potential benefits of hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other technologies for people with auditory neuropathy. Some professionals report that hearing aids and personal listening devices such as frequency modulation (FM) systems are ...

  18. Two- to eight-month-old infants’ perception of dynamic auditory-visual spatial co-location

    OpenAIRE

    Bremner, J. Gavin; Slater, Alan M.; Scott P Johnson; Mason, Uschi C.; Spring, Jo; Bremner, Maggie E.

    2011-01-01

    From birth, infants detect associations between the locations of static visual objects and sounds they emit, but there is limited evidence regarding their sensitivity to the dynamic equivalent when a sound-emitting object moves. In four experiments involving 36 2-month-olds, 48 5-month-olds and 48 8-month-olds, we investigated infants’ ability to process this form of spatial co-location. Whereas there was no evidence of spontaneous sensitivity, all age groups detected a dynamic co-location du...

  19. New Year’s reception

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    At a reception on 28 January, the CERN management presented their best wishes for 2009 to politicians and representatives of the administrations in the local area, and diplomats representing CERN’s Member States, Observer States and other countries.

  20. Hierarchical computation in the canonical auditory cortical circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Atencio, Craig A.; Sharpee, Tatyana O.; Christoph E Schreiner

    2009-01-01

    Sensory cortical anatomy has identified a canonical microcircuit underlying computations between and within layers. This feed-forward circuit processes information serially from granular to supragranular and to infragranular layers. How this substrate correlates with an auditory cortical processing hierarchy is unclear. We recorded simultaneously from all layers in cat primary auditory cortex (AI) and estimated spectrotemporal receptive fields (STRFs) and associated nonlinearities. Spike-trig...

  1. A Companion to Classical Receptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Villiers

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This recent addition to the excellent Blackwell Companions series looks at the various forms of classical reception currently being researched as well as those deemed to have future importance. The diversity and volume of the themes and approaches contained in this book are truly impressive. As Hardwick and Stray state in their introduction, this collection “has been constructed on the basis that the activators of reception are many and varied and that we all gain from encountering examples from outside our own immediate areas of knowledge” (p. 4. Throughout the book they stay true to this motto and traditional approaches to classical reception are not given prominence over more recent (sometimes contentious approaches such as film studies, cultural politics and photography. The same goes for the various cultures involved and there is even a chapter on Greek drama in South Africa.

  2. Multi-frequency auditory stimulation disrupts spindling activity in anesthetized animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britvina, T; Eggermont, J J

    2008-02-01

    It is often implied that during the occurrence of spindle oscillations, thalamocortical neurons do not respond to signals from the outside world. Since recording of sound-evoked activity from cat auditory cortex is common during spindling this implies that sound stimulation changes the spindle-related brain state. Local field potentials and multi-unit activity recorded from cat primary auditory cortex under ketamine anesthesia during successive silence-stimulus-silence conditions were used to investigate the effect of sound on cortical spindle oscillations. Multi-frequency stimulation suppresses spindle waves, as shown by the decrease of spectral power within the spindle frequency range during stimulation as compared with the previous silent period. We show that the percentage suppression is independent of the power of the spindle waves during silence, and that the suppression of spindle power occurs very fast after stimulus onset. The global inter-spindle rhythm was not disturbed during stimulation. Spectrotemporal and correlation analysis revealed that beta waves (15-26 Hz), and to a lesser extent delta waves, were modulated by the same inter-spindle rhythm as spindle oscillations. The suppression of spindle power during stimulation had no effect on the spatial correlation of spindle waves. Firing rates increased under stimulation and spectro-temporal receptive fields could reliably be obtained. The possible mechanism of suppression of spindle waves is discussed and it is suggested that suppression likely occurs through activity of the specific auditory pathway. PMID:18164553

  3. Reception research 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, David

    Some might argue that reception analysis is a remnant of the past in an age where “people formerly known as the audience” (Rosen, 2006) are producing and circulating content on a diversity of interactive and participatory media platforms. Far from being the case, reception research must continue...... to set the question of meaning as a central issue in media studies, an issue that appears to be missing from current understandings of social media in which audiences are often reduced to a single reality or simply ignored as an empirical reality. Knowing about the meanings produced and circulated...

  4. The Receptive Side of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    When observing teachers in action, one is likely to witness explaining, modeling, managing, guiding, and encouraging. These expressive behaviors constitute a directive force moving outward from teacher to students. Though less visible to an outside observer, teaching also requires receptive skills, the ability to take in information by being fully…

  5. Receptive skills with young learners

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielatos, Costas

    1998-01-01

    In this article I will argue for the benefits of receptive skills development (i.e. reading and listening) with children (seven to eleven) at beginner/elementary levels who are able to recognise words in print. I will then outline objectives and discuss text and task selection.

  6. Communication from Goods Reception services

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Members of the personnel are invited to take note that only parcels corresponding to official orders or contracts will be handled at CERN. Individuals are not authorised to have private merchandise delivered to them at CERN and private deliveries will not be accepted by the Goods Reception services. Thank you for your understanding.

  7. Context dependence of spectro-temporal receptive fields with implications for neural coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggermont, Jos J

    2011-01-01

    The spectro-temporal receptive field (STRF) is frequently used to characterize the linear frequency-time filter properties of the auditory system up to the neuron recorded from. STRFs are extremely stimulus dependent, reflecting the strong non-linearities in the auditory system. Changes in the STRF with stimulus type (tonal, noise-like, vocalizations), sound level and spectro-temporal sound density are reviewed here. Effects on STRF shape of task and attention are also briefly reviewed. Models to account for these changes, potential improvements to STRF analysis, and implications for neural coding are discussed. PMID:20123121

  8. About the Bakhtinian Thought: A Reception of Receptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Coelho Marchezan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There are several receptions of the Bakhtinian work: those which situate it in a cultural and historical perspective, making it possible to understand the context inherent to it, the interchanges with which it was instituted and its development paths; those which separately take one or other of its ideas, and those which search to infer a less or more systemized framework from it in order to consider a specific object. When we concentrate on those last ones and on the field of studies about language, we examine the receptions of the Bakhtinian thought as a pragmatics, a sociolinguistics, a semiotics, a social theory, a theory of the discourse. The perspective of this branch of instruction is the one on which we lastly focus in order to reflect upon some of its fundamental basis.

  9. A COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR TEACHING RECEPTIVE LABELING TO CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Grow, Laura L; Carr, James E; Kodak, Tiffany M; Jostad, Candice M; Kisamore, April N

    2011-01-01

    Many early intervention curricular manuals recommend teaching auditory-visual conditional discriminations (i.e., receptive labeling) using the simple-conditional method in which component simple discriminations are taught in isolation and in the presence of a distracter stimulus before the learner is required to respond conditionally. Some have argued that this procedure might be susceptible to faulty stimulus control such as stimulus overselectivity (Green, 2001). Consequently, there has bee...

  10. Early Visual Deprivation Severely Compromises the Auditory Sense of Space in Congenitally Blind Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercillo, Tiziana; Burr, David; Gori, Monica

    2016-01-01

    A recent study has shown that congenitally blind adults, who have never had visual experience, are impaired on an auditory spatial bisection task (Gori, Sandini, Martinoli, & Burr, 2014). In this study we investigated how thresholds for auditory spatial bisection and auditory discrimination develop with age in sighted and congenitally blind…

  11. Auditory priming of frequency and temporal information: Effects of lateralized presentation

    OpenAIRE

    List, Alexandra; Justus, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Asymmetric distribution of function between the cerebral hemispheres has been widely investigated in the auditory modality. The current approach borrows heavily from visual local-global research in an attempt to determine whether, as in vision, local-global auditory processing is lateralized. In vision, lateralized local-global processing likely relies on spatial frequency information. Drawing analogies between visual spatial frequency and auditory dimensions, two sets of auditory stimuli wer...

  12. Effects of an Auditory Lateralization Training in Children Suspected to Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Yones; Moosavi, Abdollah; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Sadjedi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Central auditory processing disorder [(C)APD] refers to a deficit in auditory stimuli processing in nervous system that is not due to higher-order language or cognitive factors. One of the problems in children with (C)APD is spatial difficulties which have been overlooked despite their significance. Localization is an auditory ability to detect sound sources in space and can help to differentiate between the desired speech from other simultaneous sound sources. Aim of this research was investigating effects of an auditory lateralization training on speech perception in presence of noise/competing signals in children suspected to (C)APD. Subjects and Methods In this analytical interventional study, 60 children suspected to (C)APD were selected based on multiple auditory processing assessment subtests. They were randomly divided into two groups: control (mean age 9.07) and training groups (mean age 9.00). Training program consisted of detection and pointing to sound sources delivered with interaural time differences under headphones for 12 formal sessions (6 weeks). Spatial word recognition score (WRS) and monaural selective auditory attention test (mSAAT) were used to follow the auditory lateralization training effects. Results This study showed that in the training group, mSAAT score and spatial WRS in noise (p value≤0.001) improved significantly after the auditory lateralization training. Conclusions We used auditory lateralization training for 6 weeks and showed that auditory lateralization can improve speech understanding in noise significantly. The generalization of this results needs further researches.

  13. Digital neuromorphic processing for a simplified algorithm of ultrasonic reception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Lin; Clarke, Chris

    2001-05-01

    Previously, most mammalian auditory systems research has concentrated on human sensory perception whose frequencies are lower than 20 kHz. The implementations almost always used analog VLSI design. Due to the complexity of the model, it is difficult to implement these algorithms using current digital technology. This paper introduces a simplified model of biosonic reception system in bats and its implementation in the ``Chiroptera Inspired Robotic CEphaloid'' (CIRCE) project. This model consists of bandpass filters, a half-wave rectifier, low-pass filters, automatic gain control, and spike generation with thresholds. Due to the real-time requirements of the system, the system employs Butterworth filters and advanced field programmable gate array (FPGA) architectures to provide a viable solution. The ultrasonic signal processing is implemented on a Xilinx FPGA Virtex II device in real time. In the system, 12-bit input echo signals from receivers are sampled at 1 M samples per second for a signal frequency range from 20 to 200 kHz. The system performs a 704-channel per ear auditory pipeline operating in real time. The output of the system is a coded time series of threshold crossing points. Comparing hardware implementation with fixed-point software, the system shows significant performance gains with no loss of accuracy.

  14. THE AUDIT OF RECEPTION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina MOCUŢA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of study case is to analyze the quality of the logistics department, focusing on the audit process. Purpose of this paper is to present the advantages resulting from the systematic audit processes and methods of analysis and improvement of nonconformities found. The case study is realised at SC Miele Tehnica SRL Brasov, twelfth production line, and the fourth from outside Germany. The specific objectives are: clarifying the concept of audit quality, emphasizing requirements ISO 19011:2003 "Guidelines for auditing quality management systems and / or environment" on audits; cchieving quality audit and performance analysis; improved process performance reception materials; compliance with legislation and auditing standards applicable in EU and Romania.

  15. Note from the Goods Reception services

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    Members of the personnel are invited to take note that only parcels corresponding to official orders or contracts will be handled at CERN. Individuals are not authorised to have private merchandise delivered to them at CERN and private deliveries will not be accepted by the Goods Reception services. Goods Reception Services

  16. Functional MRI Evaluation of Multiple Neural Networks Underlying Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Robert J; Chaze, Charlotte; Lewine, Jeffrey David; Calhoun, Vince D; Clark, Vincent P; Bustillo, Juan; Houck, Jon; Ford, Judith; Bigelow, Rose; Wilhelmi, Corbin; Stephen, Julia M; Turner, Jessica A

    2016-01-01

    Functional MRI studies have identified a distributed set of brain activations to be associated with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). However, very little is known about how activated brain regions may be linked together into AVH-generating networks. Fifteen volunteers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder pressed buttons to indicate onset and offset of AVH during fMRI scanning. When a general linear model was used to compare blood oxygenation level dependence signals during periods in which subjects indicated that they were versus were not experiencing AVH ("AVH-on" versus "AVH-off"), it revealed AVH-related activity in bilateral inferior frontal and superior temporal regions; the right middle temporal gyrus; and the left insula, supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and extranuclear white matter. In an effort to identify AVH-related networks, the raw data were also processed using independent component analyses (ICAs). Four ICA components were spatially consistent with an a priori network framework based upon published meta-analyses of imaging correlates of AVH. Of these four components, only a network involving bilateral auditory cortices and posterior receptive language areas was significantly and positively correlated to the pattern of AVH-on versus AVH-off. The ICA also identified two additional networks (occipital-temporal and medial prefrontal), not fully matching the meta-analysis framework, but nevertheless containing nodes reported as active in some studies of AVH. Both networks showed significant AVH-related profiles, but both were most active during AVH-off periods. Overall, the data suggest that AVH generation requires specific and selective activation of auditory cortical and posterior language regions, perhaps coupled to a release of indirect influence by occipital and medial frontal structures. PMID:27065889

  17. Auditory distance perception in humans : A summary of past and present research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zahorik, P.; Brungart, D.S.; Bronkhorst, A.W.

    2005-01-01

    Although auditory distance perception is a critical component of spatial hearing, it has received substantially less scienti.c attention than the directional aspects of auditory localization. Here we summarize current knowledge on auditory distance perception, with special emphasis on recent researc

  18. Auditory imagery: empirical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2010-03-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear). PMID:20192565

  19. Order of stimulus presentation influences children's acquisition in receptive identification tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg; Aguilar, Gabriella

    2016-03-01

    Receptive identification is usually taught in matching-to-sample format, which entails the presentation of an auditory sample stimulus and several visual comparison stimuli in each trial. Conflicting recommendations exist regarding the order of stimulus presentation in matching-to-sample trials. The purpose of this study was to compare acquisition in receptive identification tasks under 2 conditions: when the sample was presented before the comparisons (sample first) and when the comparisons were presented before the sample (comparison first). Participants included 4 typically developing kindergarten-age boys. Stimuli, which included birds and flags, were presented on a computer screen. Acquisition in the 2 conditions was compared in an adapted alternating-treatments design combined with a multiple baseline design across stimulus sets. All participants took fewer trials to meet the mastery criterion in the sample-first condition than in the comparison-first condition. PMID:26511078

  20. Solar power satellite microwave transmission and reception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, R.H.

    1980-12-01

    Numerous analytical and experimental investigations related to SPS microwave power transmission and reception are reported. Aspects discussed include system performance, phase control, power amplifiers, radiating elements, rectenna, solid state configurations, and planned program activities.

  1. Discriminative learning of receptive fields from responses to non-Gaussian stimulus ensembles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne F Meyer

    Full Text Available Analysis of sensory neurons' processing characteristics requires simultaneous measurement of presented stimuli and concurrent spike responses. The functional transformation from high-dimensional stimulus space to the binary space of spike and non-spike responses is commonly described with linear-nonlinear models, whose linear filter component describes the neuron's receptive field. From a machine learning perspective, this corresponds to the binary classification problem of discriminating spike-eliciting from non-spike-eliciting stimulus examples. The classification-based receptive field (CbRF estimation method proposed here adapts a linear large-margin classifier to optimally predict experimental stimulus-response data and subsequently interprets learned classifier weights as the neuron's receptive field filter. Computational learning theory provides a theoretical framework for learning from data and guarantees optimality in the sense that the risk of erroneously assigning a spike-eliciting stimulus example to the non-spike class (and vice versa is minimized. Efficacy of the CbRF method is validated with simulations and for auditory spectro-temporal receptive field (STRF estimation from experimental recordings in the auditory midbrain of Mongolian gerbils. Acoustic stimulation is performed with frequency-modulated tone complexes that mimic properties of natural stimuli, specifically non-Gaussian amplitude distribution and higher-order correlations. Results demonstrate that the proposed approach successfully identifies correct underlying STRFs, even in cases where second-order methods based on the spike-triggered average (STA do not. Applied to small data samples, the method is shown to converge on smaller amounts of experimental recordings and with lower estimation variance than the generalized linear model and recent information theoretic methods. Thus, CbRF estimation may prove useful for investigation of neuronal processes in response to

  2. RELIABLE ASSESSMENT OF THE HUMAN NOCICEPTIVE WITHDRAWAL REFLEX AND REFLEX RECEPTIVE FIELDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Brun

    The nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) is considered a reliable and objective tool in pain assessment. It is often assessed by estimation of a single NWR threshold (NWR-T) but spatial assessment is possible by quantification of the reflex receptive field (RRF). Both methods are sufficiently...

  3. Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how auditory-motor learning influences performers' memory for music. Skilled pianists learned novel melodies in four conditions: auditory only (listening), motor only (performing without sound), strongly coupled auditory-motor (normal performance), and weakly coupled auditory-motor (performing along with auditory recordings). Pianists' recognition of the learned melodies was better following auditory-only or auditory-motor (weakly coupled and strongly coupled) learning than following motor-only learning, and better following strongly coupled auditory-motor learning than following auditory-only learning. Auditory and motor imagery abilities modulated the learning effects: Pianists with high auditory imagery scores had better recognition following motor-only learning, suggesting that auditory imagery compensated for missing auditory feedback at the learning stage. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 with melodies that contained greater variation in acoustic features. Melodies that were slower and less variable in tempo and intensity were remembered better following weakly coupled auditory-motor learning. These findings suggest that motor learning can aid performers' auditory recognition of music beyond auditory learning alone, and that motor learning is influenced by individual abilities in mental imagery and by variation in acoustic features. PMID:22271265

  4. Measuring Auditory Selective Attention using Frequency Tagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari M Bharadwaj

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Frequency tagging of sensory inputs (presenting stimuli that fluctuate periodically at rates to which the cortex can phase lock has been used to study attentional modulation of neural responses to inputs in different sensory modalities. For visual inputs, the visual steady-state response (VSSR at the frequency modulating an attended object is enhanced, while the VSSR to a distracting object is suppressed. In contrast, the effect of attention on the auditory steady-state response (ASSR is inconsistent across studies. However, most auditory studies analyzed results at the sensor level or used only a small number of equivalent current dipoles to fit cortical responses. In addition, most studies of auditory spatial attention used dichotic stimuli (independent signals at the ears rather than more natural, binaural stimuli. Here, we asked whether these methodological choices help explain discrepant results. Listeners attended to one of two competing speech streams, one simulated from the left and one from the right, that were modulated at different frequencies. Using distributed source modeling of magnetoencephalography results, we estimate how spatially directed attention modulates the ASSR in neural regions across the whole brain. Attention enhances the ASSR power at the frequency of the attended stream in the contralateral auditory cortex. The attended-stream modulation frequency also drives phase-locked responses in the left (but not right precentral sulcus (lPCS, a region implicated in control of eye gaze and visual spatial attention. Importantly, this region shows no phase locking to the distracting stream suggesting that the lPCS in engaged in an attention-specific manner. Modeling results that take account of the geometry and phases of the cortical sources phase locked to the two streams (including hemispheric asymmetry of lPCS activity help partly explain why past ASSR studies of auditory spatial attention yield seemingly contradictory

  5. Spectral and temporal processing in rat posterior auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Pritesh K; Rathbun, Daniel L; Moucha, Raluca; Engineer, Navzer D; Kilgard, Michael P

    2008-02-01

    The rat auditory cortex is divided anatomically into several areas, but little is known about the functional differences in information processing between these areas. To determine the filter properties of rat posterior auditory field (PAF) neurons, we compared neurophysiological responses to simple tones, frequency modulated (FM) sweeps, and amplitude modulated noise and tones with responses of primary auditory cortex (A1) neurons. PAF neurons have excitatory receptive fields that are on average 65% broader than A1 neurons. The broader receptive fields of PAF neurons result in responses to narrow and broadband inputs that are stronger than A1. In contrast to A1, we found little evidence for an orderly topographic gradient in PAF based on frequency. These neurons exhibit latencies that are twice as long as A1. In response to modulated tones and noise, PAF neurons adapt to repeated stimuli at significantly slower rates. Unlike A1, neurons in PAF rarely exhibit facilitation to rapidly repeated sounds. Neurons in PAF do not exhibit strong selectivity for rate or direction of narrowband one octave FM sweeps. These results indicate that PAF, like nonprimary visual fields, processes sensory information on larger spectral and longer temporal scales than primary cortex.

  6. Controlling the onset of turbulence by streamwise traveling waves. Part 1: Receptivity analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Moarref, Rashad

    2010-01-01

    We examine the efficacy of streamwise traveling waves generated by a zero-net-mass-flux surface blowing and suction for controlling the onset of turbulence in a channel flow. For small amplitude actuation, we utilize weakly nonlinear analysis to determine base flow modifications and to assess the resulting net power balance. Receptivity analysis of the velocity fluctuations around this base flow is then employed to design the traveling waves. Our simulation-free approach reveals that, relative to the flow with no control, the downstream traveling waves with properly designed speed and frequency can significantly reduce receptivity which makes them well-suited for controlling the onset of turbulence. In contrast, the velocity fluctuations around the upstream traveling waves exhibit larger receptivity to disturbances. Our theoretical predictions, obtained by perturbation analysis (in the wave amplitude) of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations with spatially periodic coefficients, are verified using full-scale...

  7. Acoustic Receptivity of Mach 4.5 Boundary Layer with Leading- Edge Bluntness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Mujeeb R.; Balakumar, Ponnampalam

    2007-01-01

    Boundary layer receptivity to two-dimensional slow and fast acoustic waves is investigated by solving Navier-Stokes equations for Mach 4.5 flow over a flat plate with a finite-thickness leading edge. Higher order spatial and temporal schemes are employed to obtain the solution whereby the flat-plate leading edge region is resolved by providing a sufficiently refined grid. The results show that the instability waves are generated in the leading edge region and that the boundary-layer is much more receptive to slow acoustic waves (by almost a factor of 20) as compared to the fast waves. Hence, this leading-edge receptivity mechanism is expected to be more relevant in the transition process for high Mach number flows where second mode instability is dominant. Computations are performed to investigate the effect of leading-edge thickness and it is found that bluntness tends to stabilize the boundary layer. Furthermore, the relative significance of fast acoustic waves is enhanced in the presence of bluntness. The effect of acoustic wave incidence angle is also studied and it is found that the receptivity of the boundary layer on the windward side (with respect to the acoustic forcing) decreases by more than a factor of 4 when the incidence angle is increased from 0 to 45 deg. However, the receptivity coefficient for the leeward side is found to vary relatively weakly with the incidence angle.

  8. Adaptation of the simple or complex nature of V1 receptive fields to visual statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Julien; Monier, Cyril; Pananceau, Marc; Frégnac, Yves

    2011-08-01

    Receptive fields in primary visual cortex (V1) are categorized as simple or complex, depending on their spatial selectivity to stimulus contrast polarity. We studied the dependence of this classification on visual context by comparing, in the same cell, the synaptic responses to three classical receptive field mapping protocols: sparse noise, ternary dense noise and flashed Gabor noise. Intracellular recordings revealed that the relative weights of simple-like and complex-like receptive field components were scaled so as to make the same receptive field more simple-like with dense noise stimulation and more complex-like with sparse or Gabor noise stimulations. However, once these context-dependent receptive fields were convolved with the corresponding stimulus, the balance between simple-like and complex-like contributions to the synaptic responses appeared to be invariant across input statistics. This normalization of the linear/nonlinear input ratio suggests a previously unknown form of homeostatic control of V1 functional properties, optimizing the network nonlinearities to the statistical structure of the visual input. PMID:21765424

  9. The reception of relativity in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Besouw; J. van Dongen

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the early academic and public reception of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity in the Netherlands, particularly after Arthur Eddington's eclipse experiments of 1919. Initially, not much attention was given to relativity, as it did not seem an improvement over Hendrik A. Loren

  10. Design of an Oscillator for Satellite Reception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leong, F.H.E.H.C.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents research on an LC-oscillator for Ku-band (10.7-12.7GHz) satellite reception. The zero-IF receiver architecture, proposed in the joint project involving the University of Twente and NXP Research, requires a 11.7GHz quadrature oscillator that achieves a phase noise of -85dBc/Hz@10

  11. On the emergency reception of radiation casualties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.K. National Health Services Emergency Reception of victims of accidents involving radiation was reviewed. A shortfall exists with inadequate provision of coordinated central funding, facilities and training. 50% of NAIR designated hospitals lacked a shower for decontamination. A Casualty Surgeons Association Broadsheet is presented which addresses some of these shortcomings. (Author)

  12. Measuring receptive collocational competence across proficiency levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déogratias Nizonkiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates, (i English as Foreign Language (EFL learners’ receptive collocational knowledge growth in relation to their linguistic proficiency level; (ii how much receptive collocational knowledge is acquired as proficiency develops; and (iii the extent to which receptive knowledge of collocations of EFL learners varies across word frequency bands. A proficiency measure and a collocation test were administered to English majors at the University of Burundi. Results of the study suggest that receptive collocational competence develops alongside EFL learners’ linguistic proficiency; which lends empirical support to Gyllstad (2007, 2009 and Author (2011 among others, who reported similar findings. Furthermore, EFL learners’ collocations growth seems to be quantifiable wherein both linguistic proficiency level and word frequency occupy a crucial role. While more gains in terms of collocations that EFL learners could potentially add as a result of change in proficiency are found at lower levels of proficiency; collocations of words from more frequent word bands seem to be mastered first, and more gains are found at more frequent word bands. These results confirm earlier findings on the non-linearity nature of vocabulary growth (cf. Meara 1996 and the fundamental role played by frequency in word knowledge for vocabulary in general (Nation 1983, 1990, Nation and Beglar 2007, which are extended here to collocations knowledge.

  13. Individual Differences in Auditory Sentence Comprehension in Children: An Exploratory Event-Related Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Jason D.; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Glover, Gary H.; Feldman, Heidi M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore changes in activation of the cortical network that serves auditory sentence comprehension in children in response to increasing demands of complex sentences. A further goal is to study how individual differences in children's receptive language abilities are associated with such changes in cortical…

  14. Auditory Responses of Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrous, Betty Springer; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Forty infants, 3- to 12-months-old, participated in a study designed to differentiate the auditory response characteristics of normally developing infants in the age ranges 3 - 5 months, 6 - 8 months, and 9 - 12 months. (Author)

  15. [Central auditory prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenarz, T; Lim, H; Joseph, G; Reuter, G; Lenarz, M

    2009-06-01

    Deaf patients with severe sensory hearing loss can benefit from a cochlear implant (CI), which stimulates the auditory nerve fibers. However, patients who do not have an intact auditory nerve cannot benefit from a CI. The majority of these patients are neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients who developed neural deafness due to growth or surgical removal of a bilateral acoustic neuroma. The only current solution is the auditory brainstem implant (ABI), which stimulates the surface of the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem. Although the ABI provides improvement in environmental awareness and lip-reading capabilities, only a few NF2 patients have achieved some limited open set speech perception. In the search for alternative procedures our research group in collaboration with Cochlear Ltd. (Australia) developed a human prototype auditory midbrain implant (AMI), which is designed to electrically stimulate the inferior colliculus (IC). The IC has the potential as a new target for an auditory prosthesis as it provides access to neural projections necessary for speech perception as well as a systematic map of spectral information. In this paper the present status of research and development in the field of central auditory prostheses is presented with respect to technology, surgical technique and hearing results as well as the background concepts of ABI and AMI. PMID:19517084

  16. From ear to hand: the role of the auditory-motor loop in pointing to an auditory source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Eric O.; Babayan, Bénédicte M.; Bevilacqua, Frédéric; Noisternig, Markus; Warusfel, Olivier; Roby-Brami, Agnes; Hanneton, Sylvain; Viaud-Delmon, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the nature of the neural mechanisms involved in goal-directed movements tend to concentrate on the role of vision. We present here an attempt to address the mechanisms whereby an auditory input is transformed into a motor command. The spatial and temporal organization of hand movements were studied in normal human subjects as they pointed toward unseen auditory targets located in a horizontal plane in front of them. Positions and movements of the hand were measured by a six infrared camera tracking system. In one condition, we assessed the role of auditory information about target position in correcting the trajectory of the hand. To accomplish this, the duration of the target presentation was varied. In another condition, subjects received continuous auditory feedback of their hand movement while pointing to the auditory targets. Online auditory control of the direction of pointing movements was assessed by evaluating how subjects reacted to shifts in heard hand position. Localization errors were exacerbated by short duration of target presentation but not modified by auditory feedback of hand position. Long duration of target presentation gave rise to a higher level of accuracy and was accompanied by early automatic head orienting movements consistently related to target direction. These results highlight the efficiency of auditory feedback processing in online motor control and suggest that the auditory system takes advantages of dynamic changes of the acoustic cues due to changes in head orientation in order to process online motor control. How to design an informative acoustic feedback needs to be carefully studied to demonstrate that auditory feedback of the hand could assist the monitoring of movements directed at objects in auditory space. PMID:23626532

  17. Training-induced plasticity of auditory localization in adult mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kacelnik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate auditory localization relies on neural computations based on spatial cues present in the sound waves at each ear. The values of these cues depend on the size, shape, and separation of the two ears and can therefore vary from one individual to another. As with other perceptual skills, the neural circuits involved in spatial hearing are shaped by experience during development and retain some capacity for plasticity in later life. However, the factors that enable and promote plasticity of auditory localization in the adult brain are unknown. Here we show that mature ferrets can rapidly relearn to localize sounds after having their spatial cues altered by reversibly occluding one ear, but only if they are trained to use these cues in a behaviorally relevant task, with greater and more rapid improvement occurring with more frequent training. We also found that auditory adaptation is possible in the absence of vision or error feedback. Finally, we show that this process involves a shift in sensitivity away from the abnormal auditory spatial cues to other cues that are less affected by the earplug. The mature auditory system is therefore capable of adapting to abnormal spatial information by reweighting different localization cues. These results suggest that training should facilitate acclimatization to hearing aids in the hearing impaired.

  18. Background sounds contribute to spectrotemporal plasticity in primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucha, Raluca; Pandya, Pritesh K; Engineer, Navzer D; Rathbun, Daniel L; Kilgard, Michael P

    2005-05-01

    The mammalian auditory system evolved to extract meaningful information from complex acoustic environments. Spectrotemporal selectivity of auditory neurons provides a potential mechanism to represent natural sounds. Experience-dependent plasticity mechanisms can remodel the spectrotemporal selectivity of neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1). Electrical stimulation of the cholinergic nucleus basalis (NB) enables plasticity in A1 that parallels natural learning and is specific to acoustic features associated with NB activity. In this study, we used NB stimulation to explore how cortical networks reorganize after experience with frequency-modulated (FM) sweeps, and how background stimuli contribute to spectrotemporal plasticity in rat auditory cortex. Pairing an 8-4 kHz FM sweep with NB stimulation 300 times per day for 20 days decreased tone thresholds, frequency selectivity, and response latency of A1 neurons in the region of the tonotopic map activated by the sound. In an attempt to modify neuronal response properties across all of A1 the same NB activation was paired in a second group of rats with five downward FM sweeps, each spanning a different octave. No changes in FM selectivity or receptive field (RF) structure were observed when the neural activation was distributed across the cortical surface. However, the addition of unpaired background sweeps of different rates or direction was sufficient to alter RF characteristics across the tonotopic map in a third group of rats. These results extend earlier observations that cortical neurons can develop stimulus specific plasticity and indicate that background conditions can strongly influence cortical plasticity.

  19. Czech children's literature reception in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Starc, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This master’s degree thesis introduces the historical background of the Czech nation and the cultural contacts between Slovenes and Czechs. It outlines the development of the Czech young adult literature. In the thesis is qualitatively and quantitatively researched the reception of the Czech young adult literature. With a qualitative research it has been discovered how many young adult books have been translated from Czech into Slovene language, how many in different periods and which lit...

  20. Eugen Bleuler 150: Bleuler's reception of Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, Thomas G

    2007-12-01

    On the 150th anniversary of Eugen Bleuler's birth, this article examines his reception of Sigmund Freud and his use of Freudian theory to understand the symptoms of schizophrenia. In addition, in contrast to earlier interpretations of Bleuler's relationship with Freud in terms of an eventual personal and theoretical incompatibility, the article demonstrates that, although Bleuler did distance himself from the psychoanalytic movement, he remained consistent in his views on Freud's theories.

  1. Young people and television fiction. Reception analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lacalle Zalduendo, María Rosario

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an audience research conducted with 86 young Spanish people aged 15 to 29 years. The investigation examines the modes of reception of television fiction, and the impact of the shows on the viewers. Friends’ influence on the choice of program, and the tendency to use social networks to comment on the shows and to talk about themselves, underline the crucial role played by TV fiction and new technologies in sociali- zation processes. While most participants...

  2. The Critical Reception of Lewis Nordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2010-01-01

    The essay covers the critical reception of Mississippi-writer Lewis Nordan from his debut in 1983 to the boost in scholarly attention in the new millennium. The essay covers newspaper reviews but pays particular attention to the many academic essays that have placed Nordan as a writer in the sout...... in the southern literary tradition and have highlighted themes such as magical realism, the grotesque, race relations, music, and gender....

  3. Effects of localized auditory information on visual target detection performance using a helmet-mounted display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, W T; Hettinger, L J; Cunningham, J A; Brickman, B J; Haas, M W; McKinley, R L

    1998-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of localized auditory information on visual target detection performance. Visual targets were presented on either a wide field-of-view dome display or a helmet-mounted display and were accompanied by either localized, nonlocalized, or no auditory information. The addition of localized auditory information resulted in significant increases in target detection performance and significant reductions in workload ratings as compared with conditions in which auditory information was either nonlocalized or absent. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of participants' head motions revealed that the addition of localized auditory information resulted in extremely efficient and consistent search strategies. Implications for the development and design of multisensory virtual environments are discussed. Actual or potential applications of this research include the use of spatial auditory displays to augment visual information presented in helmet-mounted displays, thereby leading to increases in performance efficiency, reductions in physical and mental workload, and enhanced spatial awareness of objects in the environment.

  4. Spectrotemporal processing differences between auditory cortical fast-spiking and regular-spiking neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Atencio, Craig A.; Schreiner, Christoph E

    2008-01-01

    Excitatory pyramidal neurons and inhibitory interneurons constitute the main elements of cortical circuitry and have distinctive morphologic and electrophysiological properties. Here, we differentiate them by analyzing the time course of their action potentials (APs) and characterizing their receptive field properties in auditory cortex. Pyramidal neurons have longer APs and discharge as Regular-Spiking Units (RSUs), while basket and chandelier cells, which are inhibitory interneurons, have s...

  5. Self-organization model on receptive field of neuron with asymmetric time window of synaptic modification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The spatial-temporal response properties of some simple neurons in visual pathway arise basically prior to birth. In the absence of visual experience, how do these neurons develop in visual system? Based on Wimbauer network with delay, a four-layer feed-forward network model is proposed, which is characterized by modifying the Hebb learning rule through introducing the asymmetric time window of synaptic modification found recently in neurobiology. The model can not only generate by self-organization more diversified spatial-temporal response characteristics of neuronal receptive field than earlier models but also provide some explanations for the possible mechanism underlying the development of receptive fields of contrast polarity sensitive neurons found in visual system of vertebrate. Thus the proposed model may be more widely applicable than Linsker model and Wimbauer model.

  6. The neglected neglect: auditory neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Sankalp; Lahoti, Sourabh; Caplan, Louis R

    2013-08-01

    Whereas visual and somatosensory forms of neglect are commonly recognized by clinicians, auditory neglect is often not assessed and therefore neglected. The auditory cortical processing system can be functionally classified into 2 distinct pathways. These 2 distinct functional pathways deal with recognition of sound ("what" pathway) and the directional attributes of the sound ("where" pathway). Lesions of higher auditory pathways produce distinct clinical features. Clinical bedside evaluation of auditory neglect is often difficult because of coexisting neurological deficits and the binaural nature of auditory inputs. In addition, auditory neglect and auditory extinction may show varying degrees of overlap, which makes the assessment even harder. Shielding one ear from the other as well as separating the ear from space is therefore critical for accurate assessment of auditory neglect. This can be achieved by use of specialized auditory tests (dichotic tasks and sound localization tests) for accurate interpretation of deficits. Herein, we have reviewed auditory neglect with an emphasis on the functional anatomy, clinical evaluation, and basic principles of specialized auditory tests.

  7. Early visual deprivation severely compromises the auditory sense of space in congenitally blind children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercillo, Tiziana; Burr, David; Gori, Monica

    2016-06-01

    A recent study has shown that congenitally blind adults, who have never had visual experience, are impaired on an auditory spatial bisection task (Gori, Sandini, Martinoli, & Burr, 2014). In this study we investigated how thresholds for auditory spatial bisection and auditory discrimination develop with age in sighted and congenitally blind children (9 to 14 years old). Children performed 2 spatial tasks (minimum audible angle and space bisection) and 1 temporal task (temporal bisection). There was no impairment in the temporal task for blind children but, like adults, they showed severely compromised thresholds for spatial bisection. Interestingly, the blind children also showed lower precision in judging minimum audible angle. These results confirm the adult study and go on to suggest that even simpler auditory spatial tasks are compromised in children, and that this capacity recovers over time. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27228448

  8. Early visual deprivation severely compromises the auditory sense of space in congenitally blind children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercillo, Tiziana; Burr, David; Gori, Monica

    2016-06-01

    A recent study has shown that congenitally blind adults, who have never had visual experience, are impaired on an auditory spatial bisection task (Gori, Sandini, Martinoli, & Burr, 2014). In this study we investigated how thresholds for auditory spatial bisection and auditory discrimination develop with age in sighted and congenitally blind children (9 to 14 years old). Children performed 2 spatial tasks (minimum audible angle and space bisection) and 1 temporal task (temporal bisection). There was no impairment in the temporal task for blind children but, like adults, they showed severely compromised thresholds for spatial bisection. Interestingly, the blind children also showed lower precision in judging minimum audible angle. These results confirm the adult study and go on to suggest that even simpler auditory spatial tasks are compromised in children, and that this capacity recovers over time. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Representation of lateralization and tonotopy in primary versus secondary human auditory cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langers, Dave R. M.; Backes, Walter H.; van Dijk, Pim

    2007-01-01

    Functional MRI was performed to investigate differences in the basic functional organization of the primary and secondary auditory cortex regarding preferred stimulus lateratization and frequency. A modified sparse acquisition scheme was used to spatially map the characteristics of the auditory cort

  10. Auditory processing in the brainstem and audiovisual integration in humans studied with fMRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slabu, Lavinia Mihaela

    2008-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a powerful technique because of the high spatial resolution and the noninvasiveness. The applications of the fMRI to the auditory pathway remain a challenge due to the intense acoustic scanner noise of approximately 110 dB SPL. The auditory system cons

  11. Working Memory Spans as Predictors of Spoken Word Recognition and Receptive Vocabulary in Children with Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Miranda; Pisoni, David B; Kirk, Karen Iler

    2000-01-01

    The present study investigated whether individual differences in working memory could account for a significant proportion of the variance in the open-set word recognition and receptive vocabulary skills of prelingually deafened, pediatric cochlear implant recipients, after the contribution of known predictors was taken into account. The contributions of four measures of working memory were examined separately for children using oral communication (OC) (n = 32) and Total Communication (TC) (n = 29). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC) digit-spans, requiring immediate recall of auditory-only lists in both forwards and backwards directions were, collected. Two versions of a novel "memory span game" were also administered: One required memory for sequences of colored lights; the other assessed memory for colored lights presented in conjunction with auditory color-names. A contribution from working memory was observed only for the span tasks that incorporated an auditory processing component. These results suggest a relationship between working memory and the examined outcome measures that is specific to the auditory modality, partially linked to communication mode, and not related to individual differences in a general-purpose component of working memory. PMID:21666765

  12. Categorically distinct types of receptive fields in early visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Vargha; Baker, Curtis L

    2016-05-01

    In the visual cortex, distinct types of neurons have been identified based on cellular morphology, response to injected current, or expression of specific markers, but neurophysiological studies have revealed visual receptive field (RF) properties that appear to be on a continuum, with only two generally recognized classes: simple and complex. Most previous studies have characterized visual responses of neurons using stereotyped stimuli such as bars, gratings, or white noise and simple system identification approaches (e.g., reverse correlation). Here we estimate visual RF models of cortical neurons using visually rich natural image stimuli and regularized regression system identification methods and characterize their spatial tuning, temporal dynamics, spatiotemporal behavior, and spiking properties. We quantitatively demonstrate the existence of three functionally distinct categories of simple cells, distinguished by their degree of orientation selectivity (isotropic or oriented) and the nature of their output nonlinearity (expansive or compressive). In addition, these three types have differing average values of several other properties. Cells with nonoriented RFs tend to have smaller RFs, shorter response durations, no direction selectivity, and high reliability. Orientation-selective neurons with an expansive output nonlinearity have Gabor-like RFs, lower spontaneous activity and responsivity, and spiking responses with higher sparseness. Oriented RFs with a compressive nonlinearity are spatially nondescript and tend to show longer response latency. Our findings indicate multiple physiologically defined types of RFs beyond the simple/complex dichotomy, suggesting that cortical neurons may have more specialized functional roles rather than lying on a multidimensional continuum. PMID:26936978

  13. Werner Sombart and his reception in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Pisanelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to focus on the difficulty encountered by Werner Sombart’s works in gaining a hearing in various Italian intellectual circuits. As is well known, Sombart belonged to the German Historical School of economics, sharing with other scholars of that school the same problems in getting his work known in Italy. Our aim is to explain the reason for this hostile reception. First of all, we will analyze the factors which generally hindered the spread of the German Historical School in Italy, recognizing in economists like Francesco Ferrara, Idealists like Benedetto Croce and Marxists like Antonio Labriola some of its strongest opponents. We will dwell on the cases of Gustav Schmoller and Max Weber, in order to give two representative examples of the slow and complicated Italian reception of methodological approaches and analytical perspectives which characterized the scientific experience of the German Historical School. Secondly, we will try to show why Sombart was even less appreciated than other German social scientists, giving the reasons that attracted severe criticism from economists, economic historians and sociologists towards his interdisciplinary approach in the analysis of modern capitalism. Finally, we will show the reasons of the contemporary rediscovery of Sombart and of his works.

  14. Auditory pathways: anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, James O

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the anatomy and physiology of the auditory pathways. After a brief analysis of the external, middle ears, and cochlea, the responses of auditory nerve fibers are described. The central nervous system is analyzed in more detail. A scheme is provided to help understand the complex and multiple auditory pathways running through the brainstem. The multiple pathways are based on the need to preserve accurate timing while extracting complex spectral patterns in the auditory input. The auditory nerve fibers branch to give two pathways, a ventral sound-localizing stream, and a dorsal mainly pattern recognition stream, which innervate the different divisions of the cochlear nucleus. The outputs of the two streams, with their two types of analysis, are progressively combined in the inferior colliculus and onwards, to produce the representation of what can be called the "auditory objects" in the external world. The progressive extraction of critical features in the auditory stimulus in the different levels of the central auditory system, from cochlear nucleus to auditory cortex, is described. In addition, the auditory centrifugal system, running from cortex in multiple stages to the organ of Corti of the cochlea, is described.

  15. Response to own name in children: ERP study of auditory social information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Alexandra P; Jones, Dorita; Peters, Sarika U

    2016-09-01

    Auditory processing is an important component of cognitive development, and names are among the most frequently occurring receptive language stimuli. Although own name processing has been examined in infants and adults, surprisingly little data exist on responses to own name in children. The present ERP study examined spoken name processing in 32 children (M=7.85years) using a passive listening paradigm. Our results demonstrated that children differentiate own and close other's names from unknown names, as reflected by the enhanced parietal P300 response. The responses to own and close other names did not differ between each other. Repeated presentations of an unknown name did not result in the same familiarity as the known names. These results suggest that auditory ERPs to known/unknown names are a feasible means to evaluate complex auditory processing without the need for overt behavioral responses.

  16. Resizing Auditory Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Heard through the ears of the Canadian composer and music teacher R. Murray Schafer the ideal auditory community had the shape of a village. Schafer’s work with the World Soundscape Project in the 70s represent an attempt to interpret contemporary environments through musical and auditory...... of sound as an active component in shaping urban environments. As urban conditions spreads globally, new scales, shapes and forms of communities appear and call for new distinctions and models in the study and representation of sonic environments. Particularly so, since urban environments are increasingly...... presents some terminologies for mapping urban environments through its sonic configuration. Such probing into the practices of acoustic territorialisation may direct attention to some of the conflicting and disharmonious interests defining public inclusive domains. The paper investigates the concept...

  17. Effects of short-term IOP elevation on receptive field properties of cat LGN cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Liming; ZHANG Nan; YE Xiang; ZHOU Yifeng

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the effects of short-term intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation on the receptive field properties of lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) cells, responses of the LGN cells to annulus, disc and drifting gratings with high or low spatial frequencies have been recorded extracellularly in the cat with the retinal perfusion pressure kept stable (30mmHg). Our results indicated that the responses of the X and Y type LGN cells were significantly weakened during IOP elevation. And the responses varied with the different mechanisms of receptive fields. Specifically, while using annulus and disc as stimuli, the responses of Y cells were more tolerant than X cells to IOP elevation. The surround area of the receptive field was more sensitive to IOP elevation than the center. The mean responses during IOP elevation decreased more than the peak responses did. IOP elevation has more influence on the responses of X cells than on the response of Y cells to the drifting gratings with high spatial frequency. These results may reflect different degrees of ischemia on corresponding retinal structures caused by IOP elevation.

  18. Event-related potentials in response to 3-D auditory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchigami, Tatsuo; Okubo, Osami; Fujita, Yukihiko; Kohira, Ryutaro; Arakawa, Chikako; Endo, Ayumi; Haruyama, Wakako; Imai, Yuki; Mugishima, Hideo

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate auditory spatial cognitive function, age correlations for event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to auditory stimuli with a Doppler effect were studied in normal children. A sound with a Doppler effect is perceived as a moving audio image. A total of 99 normal subjects (age range, 4-21 years) were tested. In the task-relevant oddball paradigm, P300 and key-press reaction time were elicited using auditory stimuli (1000 Hz fixed and enlarged tones with a Doppler effect). From the age of 4 years, the P300 latency for the enlarged tone with a Doppler effect shortened more rapidly with age than did the P300 latency for tone-pips, and the latencies for the different conditions became similar towards the late teens. The P300 of auditory stimuli with a Doppler effect may be used to evaluate auditory spatial cognitive function in children.

  19. Uterine receptivity and the plasma membrane transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher R MURPHY

    2004-01-01

    This review begins with a brief commentary on the diversity of placentation mechanisms, and then goes on to examine the extensive alterations which occur in the plasma membrane of uterine epithelial cells during early pregnancy across species. Ultrastructural, biochemical and more general morphological data reveal that strikingly common phenomena occur in this plasma membrane during early pregnancy despite the diversity of placental types-from epitheliochorial to hemochorial, which ultimately form in different species. To encapsulate the concept that common morphological and molecular alterations occur across species, that they are found basolaterally as well as apically, and that moreover they are an ongoing process during much of early pregnancy, not just an event at the time attachment,brane during early pregnancy are key to uterine receptivity.

  20. The reception of relativity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Danian

    2007-09-01

    Having introduced the theory of relativity from Japan, the Chinese quickly and enthusiastically embraced it during the May Fourth Movement, virtually without controversy. This unique passion for and openness to relativity, which helped advance the study of theoretical physics in China in the 1930s, was gradually replaced by imported Soviet criticism after 1949. During the Cultural Revolution, radical Chinese ideologues sponsored organized campaigns against Einstein and relativity, inflicting serious damage on Chinese science and scientific education. China's economic reforms in the late 1970s empowered scientists and presented them with the opportunity to rehabilitate Einstein and call for social democracy. Einstein has since become the symbol in China of the unity of science and democracy, the two eminent objectives of the May Fourth Movement that remain to be achieved in full. Using the reception of relativity as a case study, the essay also discusses issues involving the historical study of modern Chinese science. PMID:17970426

  1. The reception of relativity in the Netherlands

    CERN Document Server

    van Besouw, Jip

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the early academic and public reception of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity in the Netherlands, particularly after Arthur Eddington's eclipse experiments of 1919. Initially, not much attention was given to relativity, as it did not seem an improvement over Hendrik A. Lorentz' work. This changed after the arrival in Leiden of Paul Ehrenfest. Soon relativity was much studied and lead to controversy among a number of conservative intellectuals, as elsewhere in Europe. The tone of Dutch critics was much more mild, however. This can be understood when one considers Dutch neutrality during World War I. Einstein's political positions were generally positively perceived in Holland, which Dutch academics put to use in their efforts at international reconciliation abroad, and the presentation of theoretical physics at home.

  2. The neuropolitical habitus of resonant receptive democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romand Coles

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I argue that the recent work on mirror neurons illuminates the character of our capacities for a politics of resonant receptivity in ways that both help us to comprehend the damages of our contemporary order and suggest indispensable alternative ethical–strategic registers and possible directions for organising a powerful movement towards radical democracy. In doing so, neuroscience simultaneously contributes to our understanding of the possibility and importance of a more durable (less fugitive radically democratic habitus. While the trope, ‘radically democratic habitus’, may seem oxymoronic in light of Bourdieu's extensive rendering of ‘habitus’, I suggest that research on mirror neurons discloses ways in which iterated practices and dispositional structures are crucial for democratic freedom.

  3. Population Receptive Field Dynamics in Human Visual Cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haak, Koen V.; Cornelissen, Frans W.; Morland, Antony B.

    2012-01-01

    Seminal work in the early nineties revealed that the visual receptive field of neurons in cat primary visual cortex can change in location and size when artificial scotomas are applied. Recent work now suggests that these single neuron receptive field dynamics also pertain to the neuronal population

  4. Developmental Stages in Receptive Grammar Acquisition: A Processability Theory Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyl, Aafke; Housen, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This study takes a new look at the topic of developmental stages in the second language (L2) acquisition of morphosyntax by analysing receptive learner data, a language mode that has hitherto received very little attention within this strand of research (for a recent and rare study, see Spinner, 2013). Looking at both the receptive and productive…

  5. The Comparative Reception of Darwinism: A Brief History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    The subfield of Darwin studies devoted to comparative reception coalesced around 1971 with the planning of a conference on the subject, at the University of Texas at Austin held in April 1972. The original focus was western Europe, Russia and the United States. Subsequently a spate of studies on the Italian reception added to the Eurocentric…

  6. Motor Training: Comparison of Visual and Auditory Coded Proprioceptive Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Jepson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-perception of body posture and movement is achieved through multi-sensory integration, particularly the utilisation of vision, and proprioceptive information derived from muscles and joints. Disruption to these processes can occur following a neurological accident, such as stroke, leading to sensory and physical impairment. Rehabilitation can be helped through use of augmented visual and auditory biofeedback to stimulate neuro-plasticity, but the effective design and application of feedback, particularly in the auditory domain, is non-trivial. Simple auditory feedback was tested by comparing the stepping accuracy of normal subjects when given a visual spatial target (step length and an auditory temporal target (step duration. A baseline measurement of step length and duration was taken using optical motion capture. Subjects (n=20 took 20 ‘training’ steps (baseline ±25% using either an auditory target (950 Hz tone, bell-shaped gain envelope or visual target (spot marked on the floor and were then asked to replicate the target step (length or duration corresponding to training with all feedback removed. Visual cues (mean percentage error=11.5%; SD ± 7.0%; auditory cues (mean percentage error = 12.9%; SD ± 11.8%. Visual cues elicit a high degree of accuracy both in training and follow-up un-cued tasks; despite the novelty of the auditory cues present for subjects, the mean accuracy of subjects approached that for visual cues, and initial results suggest a limited amount of practice using auditory cues can improve performance.

  7. The processing of visual and auditory information for reaching movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazebrook, Cheryl M; Welsh, Timothy N; Tremblay, Luc

    2016-09-01

    Presenting target and non-target information in different modalities influences target localization if the non-target is within the spatiotemporal limits of perceptual integration. When using auditory and visual stimuli, the influence of a visual non-target on auditory target localization is greater than the reverse. It is not known, however, whether or how such perceptual effects extend to goal-directed behaviours. To gain insight into how audio-visual stimuli are integrated for motor tasks, the kinematics of reaching movements towards visual or auditory targets with or without a non-target in the other modality were examined. When present, the simultaneously presented non-target could be spatially coincident, to the left, or to the right of the target. Results revealed that auditory non-targets did not influence reaching trajectories towards a visual target, whereas visual non-targets influenced trajectories towards an auditory target. Interestingly, the biases induced by visual non-targets were present early in the trajectory and persisted until movement end. Subsequent experimentation indicated that the magnitude of the biases was equivalent whether participants performed a perceptual or motor task, whereas variability was greater for the motor versus the perceptual tasks. We propose that visually induced trajectory biases were driven by the perceived mislocation of the auditory target, which in turn affected both the movement plan and subsequent control of the movement. Such findings provide further evidence of the dominant role visual information processing plays in encoding spatial locations as well as planning and executing reaching action, even when reaching towards auditory targets. PMID:26253323

  8. A generalized linear model for estimating spectrotemporal receptive fields from responses to natural sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Calabrese

    Full Text Available In the auditory system, the stimulus-response properties of single neurons are often described in terms of the spectrotemporal receptive field (STRF, a linear kernel relating the spectrogram of the sound stimulus to the instantaneous firing rate of the neuron. Several algorithms have been used to estimate STRFs from responses to natural stimuli; these algorithms differ in their functional models, cost functions, and regularization methods. Here, we characterize the stimulus-response function of auditory neurons using a generalized linear model (GLM. In this model, each cell's input is described by: 1 a stimulus filter (STRF; and 2 a post-spike filter, which captures dependencies on the neuron's spiking history. The output of the model is given by a series of spike trains rather than instantaneous firing rate, allowing the prediction of spike train responses to novel stimuli. We fit the model by maximum penalized likelihood to the spiking activity of zebra finch auditory midbrain neurons in response to conspecific vocalizations (songs and modulation limited (ml noise. We compare this model to normalized reverse correlation (NRC, the traditional method for STRF estimation, in terms of predictive power and the basic tuning properties of the estimated STRFs. We find that a GLM with a sparse prior predicts novel responses to both stimulus classes significantly better than NRC. Importantly, we find that STRFs from the two models derived from the same responses can differ substantially and that GLM STRFs are more consistent between stimulus classes than NRC STRFs. These results suggest that a GLM with a sparse prior provides a more accurate characterization of spectrotemporal tuning than does the NRC method when responses to complex sounds are studied in these neurons.

  9. The immigrants’ reception system in Italy. Reflections emerging from an experience of reception upon landing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Chiara Cannella

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available After the description of the main migration routes toward Italian territory, the article provides an overview of the laws and administrative policy instruments that characterize the system of reception and detention of migrants in Italy. This type of information can help psychosocial workers supporting migrants to better cope with various psychosocial issues, such as the landing in a foreign country. Following a report on the first reception intervention carried out in Palermo, Sicily, by Psicologi per i Popoli – Sicilia, some reflections about the strengths and weaknesses identified as well as the potential for a greater involvement of psychosocial teams in immigrants reception and detention processes are presented. In fact, psychological science may improve the quality and effectiveness of the emergency services provided to migrants and be useful both in the training of workers and in crisis and emergency risk communication, with particular reference to risk perception about infectious diseases. However, the “added value” of psychological intervention might remain concealed and its usefulness may appear unimpressive. For this reason the papers suggests some principles through which psychology can contribute to processes of inclusiveness within a multicultural society and promote the acknowledgement of its own role in the field of humanitarian intervention.

  10. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basner, M.; Babisch, W.; Davis, A.; Brink, M.; Clark, C.; Janssen, S.A.; Stansfeld, S.

    2013-01-01

    Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health eff ects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular mec

  11. Midbrain auditory selectivity to natural sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, Melville J; Moss, Cynthia F

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated auditory stimulus selectivity in the midbrain superior colliculus (SC) of the echolocating bat, an animal that relies on hearing to guide its orienting behaviors. Multichannel, single-unit recordings were taken across laminae of the midbrain SC of the awake, passively listening big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. Species-specific frequency-modulated (FM) echolocation sound sequences with dynamic spectrotemporal features served as acoustic stimuli along with artificial sound sequences matched in bandwidth, amplitude, and duration but differing in spectrotemporal structure. Neurons in dorsal sensory regions of the bat SC responded selectively to elements within the FM sound sequences, whereas neurons in ventral sensorimotor regions showed broad response profiles to natural and artificial stimuli. Moreover, a generalized linear model (GLM) constructed on responses in the dorsal SC to artificial linear FM stimuli failed to predict responses to natural sounds and vice versa, but the GLM produced accurate response predictions in ventral SC neurons. This result suggests that auditory selectivity in the dorsal extent of the bat SC arises through nonlinear mechanisms, which extract species-specific sensory information. Importantly, auditory selectivity appeared only in responses to stimuli containing the natural statistics of acoustic signals used by the bat for spatial orientation-sonar vocalizations-offering support for the hypothesis that sensory selectivity enables rapid species-specific orienting behaviors. The results of this study are the first, to our knowledge, to show auditory spectrotemporal selectivity to natural stimuli in SC neurons and serve to inform a more general understanding of mechanisms guiding sensory selectivity for natural, goal-directed orienting behaviors.

  12. Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of 53 sporadic (S cases of idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features (IPEAF were analyzed and compared to previously reported familial (F cases of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF in a study at the University of Bologna, Italy.

  13. The Perception of Auditory Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Simon; Leung, Johahn

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of efficient and relatively inexpensive virtual auditory display technology has provided new research platforms to explore the perception of auditory motion. At the same time, deployment of these technologies in command and control as well as in entertainment roles is generating an increasing need to better understand the complex processes underlying auditory motion perception. This is a particularly challenging processing feat because it involves the rapid deconvolution of the relative change in the locations of sound sources produced by rotational and translations of the head in space (self-motion) to enable the perception of actual source motion. The fact that we perceive our auditory world to be stable despite almost continual movement of the head demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of this process. This review examines the acoustical basis of auditory motion perception and a wide range of psychophysical, electrophysiological, and cortical imaging studies that have probed the limits and possible mechanisms underlying this perception. PMID:27094029

  14. Peripheral Auditory Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, J; Hubbard, A; Neely, S; Tubis, A

    1986-01-01

    How weIl can we model experimental observations of the peripheral auditory system'? What theoretical predictions can we make that might be tested'? It was with these questions in mind that we organized the 1985 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop, to bring together auditory researchers to compare models with experimental observations. Tbe workshop forum was inspired by the very successful 1983 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Delft [1]. Boston University was chosen as the site of our meeting because of the Boston area's role as a center for hearing research in this country. We made a special effort at this meeting to attract students from around the world, because without students this field will not progress. Financial support for the workshop was provided in part by grant BNS- 8412878 from the National Science Foundation. Modeling is a traditional strategy in science and plays an important role in the scientific method. Models are the bridge between theory and experiment. Tbey test the assumptions made in experim...

  15. Middle Byzantine Historiography: Tradition, Innovation, and Reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Wahlgren

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of Greek historical writing of the Middle Byzantine period (approx. 800 until 1000 A.D., with a particular focus on the major chronicles, such as Theophanesthe Confessor (early 9th c., George the Monk (probably late 9th c., and Symeon the Logothete (second half of the 10th c.. On the one hand, it is discussed how the chroniclers engage with tradition and either accept it or reject it. Acceptance of tradition is illustrated by many cases where chroniclers keep very close to the narrative modes of their predecessors and in particular where they copy them extensively. Rejection of, or at least deviation from tradition is illustrated by many cases where new narrative techniques and modes of expression are apparent. Particular attention is paid to some aspects of narrative technique which seem to be innovative. In short, there seems to be an increased tendency towards greater logical (and hence, narrative coherence in the chronicles and an increased tendency towards concentration on a small number of settings, issues and persons (in particular, there is an increased concentration on the Capital of Constantinople and the Emperor’s person. Further, reception is discussed, and especially how Middle Byzantine historical texts were read and used in later writings, including the Slavic literatures. The need for further research in order to understand the transmission processes, especially in the form of the philological study of manuscripts, is stressed.

  16. A mixed framework for new media art reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Filimowicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I propose a theoretical assemblage integrating several discursive perspectives towards audience reception in the context of new media art creation, with a focus on sonic works. After reviewing the historical origins of reception theory in reader response and its later appropriation by communication and cultural studies, I argue that a mixed discursive perspective offers a potential refinement of contemporary reception theory as applicable to new media production, in which technological abstractions and complexities may be rich for purposes of production, but fall short in appreciation and communicative value for an audience

  17. Paper and people: the work of the casualty reception clerk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D

    1989-12-01

    This paper examines the exercise of discretion by casualty reception staff, focussing on the problems of accountability that arise when their judgements help shape the process of patient categorization that culminates in clinical diagnosis. Rules and guidelines which ostensibly relate to bureaucratic objectives, are applied in ways which reflect situational exigencies of reception work, and values embedded in organisational culture. But reception staff are reluctant to acknowledge the importance of their decisions, and, particularly where judgements relate to patient condition, present rule-use as a straightforward and certain activity in which interpretation plays little part. PMID:10304220

  18. Plasticity in the rat posterior auditory field following nucleus basalis stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Amanda C; Pandya, Pritesh K; Moucha, Raluca; Dai, WeiWei; Kilgard, Michael P

    2007-07-01

    Classical conditioning paradigms have been shown to cause frequency-specific plasticity in both primary and secondary cortical areas. Previous research demonstrated that repeated pairing of nucleus basalis (NB) stimulation with a tone results in plasticity in primary auditory cortex (A1), mimicking the changes observed after classical conditioning. However, few studies have documented the effects of similar paradigms in secondary cortical areas. The purpose of this study was to quantify plasticity in the posterior auditory field (PAF) of the rat after NB stimulation paired with a high-frequency tone. NB-tone pairing increased the frequency selectivity of PAF sites activated by the paired tone. This frequency-specific receptive field size narrowing led to a reorganization of PAF such that responses to low- and mid-frequency tones were reduced by 40%. Plasticity in A1 was consistent with previous studies -- pairing a high-frequency tone with NB stimulation expanded the high-frequency region of the frequency map. Receptive field sizes did not change, but characteristic frequencies in A1 were shifted after NB-tone pairing. These results demonstrate that experience-dependent plasticity can take different forms in both A1 and secondary auditory cortex.

  19. Til den europæiske Holberg-reception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Michel; Andersen, Jens Kristian

    2009-01-01

    Kommentar af fund af nogle hidtil oversete omtaler af Holberg i det 18. århundredes Frankrig. Disse nuancerer det billede vi gør os af en helt negativ fransk Holberg-reception. Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  20. Review: Current writing: Text and reception in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Combrink

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available Current writing: Text and reception in Southern Africa. (Published by the University of Natal under the joint editorship of Margaret Lenta, Michael Chapman, Margaret Daymond and Johan U. Jacobs. Volume 1, 1989 - editor: Margaret Lenta

  1. Surface-Borne Time-of-Reception Measurements (STORM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Invocon proposes the Surface-borne Time-Of-Reception Measurements (STORM) system as a method to locate the position of lightning strikes on aerospace vehicles....

  2. Personal Computer Based Clinical Programming Software for Auditory Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rajakumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory Prostheses (AP are widely used electronic devices for patients suffering with severe to profound senosorineural deafness by electrically stimulating the auditory nerve using an electrode array surgically placed in the inner ear. AP mainly contains external Body Worn Speech Processor (BWSP and internal Implantable Receiver Stimulator (IRS. BWSP receives an external sound or speech and generates encoded speech data bits for transmission to IRS via radio frequency transcutaneous link for excitation of electrode array. After surgical placement electrode array in the inner ear, BWSP should be fine tuned to achieve the 80-100% speech reception abilities of patient by an audiologist. Problem statement: Basic objective of this research was to develop a simple personal computer based user friendly hardware and software interface to fine tune the BWSP to achieve the best possible speech reception abilities of each individual patient. Approach: Tuning process involved several tasks such as identifying the active electrode contacts, determination of detection and pain thresholds of each active electrode and loads these values into BWSP by reprogramming the BWSP. This study contracted with development of easy and simple user friendly hardware and software interface for audiologist to perform post operation tuning procedures. A microcontroller based impedance telemetry with bidirectional RF transceiver was developed as a hardware interface between PC and IRS. The clinical programming software was developed using VB.NET 2008 to perform the post-operative tuning procedures such as (i impedance measurement, (ii fitting to determine the threshold and comfort levels for each active electrodes and (iii reprogramming the speech processor. Results: Simple hardware and software interfaces for audiologist were constructed and tested with laboratory model BWSP and IRS using simulated resistance electrode array. All the functional aspects were tested and results

  3. Unimodal and crossmodal gradients of spatial attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föcker, J.; Hötting, K.; Gondan, Matthias;

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) studies have shown that spatial attention is gradually distributed around the center of the attentional focus. The present study compared uni- and crossmodal gradients of spatial attention to investigate whether the orienting of auditory and visual...... spatial attention is based on modality specific or supramodal representations of space. Auditory and visual stimuli were presented from five speaker locations positioned in the right hemifield. Participants had to attend to the innermost or outmost right position in order to detect either visual...... or auditory deviant stimuli. Detection rates and event-related potentials (ERPs) indicated that spatial attention is distributed as a gradient. Unimodal spatial ERP gradients correlated with the spatial resolution of the modality. Crossmodal spatial gradients were always broader than the corresponding...

  4. Enhanced representation of spectral contrasts in the primary auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eCatz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of early auditory processing may be to extract some elementary features from an acoustic mixture in order to organize the auditory scene. To accomplish this task, the central auditory system may rely on the fact that sensory objects are often composed of spectral edges, i.e. regions where the stimulus energy changes abruptly over frequency. The processing of acoustic stimuli may benefit from a mechanism enhancing the internal representation of spectral edges. While the visual system is thought to rely heavily on this mechanism (enhancing spatial edges, it is still unclear whether a related process plays a significant role in audition. We investigated the cortical representation of spectral edges, using acoustic stimuli composed of multi-tone pips whose time-averaged spectral envelope contained suppressed or enhanced regions. Importantly, the stimuli were designed such that neural responses properties could be assessed as a function of stimulus frequency during stimulus presentation. Our results suggest that the representation of acoustic spectral edges is enhanced in the auditory cortex, and that this enhancement is sensitive to the characteristics of the spectral contrast profile, such as depth, sharpness and width. Spectral edges are maximally enhanced for sharp contrast and large depth. Cortical activity was also suppressed at frequencies within the suppressed region. To note, the suppression of firing was larger at frequencies nearby the lower edge of the suppressed region than at the upper edge. Overall, the present study gives critical insights into the processing of spectral contrasts in the auditory system.

  5. Chinese Cultural Ministry Hosts Mid-autumn Reception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正On the evening of September 21, 2012, a new moon hangs over the newly lit streetlights. The Mid-Autumn reception for the year of the Dragon was held by Chinese Ministry of Culture in the National Center for the Performing Arts, which is located to the west of Tiananmen Square. More than 500 distinguished guests attended the reception, including diplomatic envoys and cultural

  6. Social networks and reception studies on the internet

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Cogo; Liliane Dutra Brignol

    2011-01-01

    In this article we propose an itinerary for thinking about social networks as environments and the search for placing its incidences in reception studies on internet. We start from the understanding that the role developed by social networks in the organization of contemporaneous relations brings consequences for the configuration and uses of media, highlighting the internet. This demands a reconfiguration of the perspective on reception processes. In this text we discuss conceptual concepts ...

  7. The historical reception: texts about Brazilian Cinema Novo in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Gomes

    2014-01-01

    This works analyzes the presence of Brazilian Cinema Novo in Portugal, during the 1960s and 1970s, from the review of texts published in magazines and newspapers. Here, those texts are seen as traces of historical reception of films, important for dissemination of the Cinema Novo movement and even legitimacy on Portuguese territory. The analysis of these texts has shown that the excellent reception from the press to Cinema Novo shaped the program of the Portuguese movie criticism that support...

  8. Reception of Personal Values Among Muslim Undergraduates in UNITEN

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Aziz Mat Isa; Adnan Yusoff

    2014-01-01

    The balanced development of the overall personality of human beings can be reached through the process of education. As a whole, higher education institutions must hold the important role of establishing not just an academic priorities nevertheless building a values and a new culture in the society. The aim of this paper is to study the nature of the undergraduate students on their reception towards values. More specifically, this paper carries out a survey on Muslim students’ reception of th...

  9. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26541581

  10. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory.

  11. An imaging system for monitoring receptive field dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, P; Holmer, M; Breslin, T; Granmo, M; Schouenborg, J

    2001-01-15

    The paper describes a computerized method, termed receptive field imaging (RFI), for the rapid mapping of multiple receptive fields and their respective sensitivity distributions. RFI uses random stimulation of multiple sites, in combination with an averaging procedure, to extract the relative contribution from each of the stimulated sites. Automated multi-electrode stimulation and recording, with spike detection and counting, are performed on-line by the RFI programme. Direct user interpretation of receptive field changes is made possible by a user-friendly graphic interface. A series of imaging experiments was carried out to evaluate the functional capacity of the system. RFI was tested on the receptive fields in the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) system in the rat. RFI replicates the results obtained with conventional methods and allows the display of receptive field dynamics induced by topical spinal cord application of morphine and naloxone on a minute-to-minute time scale. Data variance was estimated, and proved to be small enough to yield a stable representation of the receptive field, thereby achieving a high sensitivity in dynamic imaging experiments. The large number of stimulation and registration sites that can be monitored in parallel permits detailed network analysis of synaptic sets, corresponding to 'connection weights' between individual neurones. PMID:11164238

  12. STIGMA RECEPTIVITY AND POLLEN VIABILITY OF Melaleuca alternifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Baskorowati

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Stigma  receptivity based on seed set and pollen  tubes growth  following controlled pollination of flowers  of different  ages was examined  in Melaleuca alternifolia. The stigma secretion during 10 days after anthesis and pollen viability under three different temperatures and five storage times were also observed. These series of research were undertaken because successful controlled pollination of M. alternifolia depends on the application of viable pollen to the receptive compatible  stigma. The objective of this research was therefore to determine the stigma receptivity and pollen viability of M. alternifolia. Results showed that the stigma receptivity began to develop  on day  one and finished  on day  seven after anthesis,  peak receptivity occurred from day three to day six. The stigma receptivity also coincides with the appearance of secretion in the stigma, occurring  from day three to day seven after anthesis. Therefore,  the time for pollination of M. alternifolia appeared to extend for  approximately 7 days after anthesis. Data for M. alternifolia showed that regardless of storage temperature, pollen  was still  viable  after 26 weeks  of storage;  results also demonstrated  that the lowest temperature  (-18oC was the best regime for long term storage.

  13. Auditory Neuropathy - A Case of Auditory Neuropathy after Hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Mazaher Yazdi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Auditory neuropathy is an hearing disorder in which peripheral hearing is normal, but the eighth nerve and brainstem are abnormal. By clinical definition, patient with this disorder have normal OAE, but exhibit an absent or severely abnormal ABR. Auditory neuropathy was first reported in the late 1970s as different methods could identify discrepancy between absent ABR and present hearing threshold. Speech understanding difficulties are worse than can be predicted from other tests of hearing function. Auditory neuropathy may also affect vestibular function. Case Report: This article presents electrophysiological and behavioral data from a case of auditory neuropathy in a child with normal hearing after bilirubinemia in a 5 years follow-up. Audiological findings demonstrate remarkable changes after multidisciplinary rehabilitation. Conclusion: auditory neuropathy may involve damage to the inner hair cells-specialized sensory cells in the inner ear that transmit information about sound through the nervous system to the brain. Other causes may include faulty connections between the inner hair cells and the nerve leading from the inner ear to the brain or damage to the nerve itself. People with auditory neuropathy have OAEs response but absent ABR and hearing loss threshold that can be permanent, get worse or get better.

  14. Plasticity in the neural coding of auditory space in the mammalian brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew J.; Parsons, Carl H.; Moore, David R.

    2000-10-01

    Sound localization relies on the neural processing of monaural and binaural spatial cues that arise from the way sounds interact with the head and external ears. Neurophysiological studies of animals raised with abnormal sensory inputs show that the map of auditory space in the superior colliculus is shaped during development by both auditory and visual experience. An example of this plasticity is provided by monaural occlusion during infancy, which leads to compensatory changes in auditory spatial tuning that tend to preserve the alignment between the neural representations of visual and auditory space. Adaptive changes also take place in sound localization behavior, as demonstrated by the fact that ferrets raised and tested with one ear plugged learn to localize as accurately as control animals. In both cases, these adjustments may involve greater use of monaural spectral cues provided by the other ear. Although plasticity in the auditory space map seems to be restricted to development, adult ferrets show some recovery of sound localization behavior after long-term monaural occlusion. The capacity for behavioral adaptation is, however, task dependent, because auditory spatial acuity and binaural unmasking (a measure of the spatial contribution to the "cocktail party effect") are permanently impaired by chronically plugging one ear, both in infancy but especially in adulthood. Experience-induced plasticity allows the neural circuitry underlying sound localization to be customized to individual characteristics, such as the size and shape of the head and ears, and to compensate for natural conductive hearing losses, including those associated with middle ear disease in infancy.

  15. Electrophysiological correlates of predictive coding of auditory location in the perception of natural audiovisual events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen eStekelenburg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In many natural audiovisual events (e.g., a clap of the two hands, the visual signal precedes the sound and thus allows observers to predict when, where, and which sound will occur. Previous studies have already reported that there are distinct neural correlates of temporal (when versus phonetic/semantic (which content on audiovisual integration. Here we examined the effect of visual prediction of auditory location (where in audiovisual biological motion stimuli by varying the spatial congruency between the auditory and visual part of the audiovisual stimulus. Visual stimuli were presented centrally, whereas auditory stimuli were presented either centrally or at 90° azimuth. Typical subadditive amplitude reductions (AV – V < A were found for the auditory N1 and P2 for spatially congruent and incongruent conditions. The new finding is that the N1 suppression was larger for spatially congruent stimuli. A very early audiovisual interaction was also found at 30-50 ms in the spatially congruent condition, while no effect of congruency was found on the suppression of the P2. This indicates that visual prediction of auditory location can be coded very early in auditory processing.

  16. Auditory Processing Disorder in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... free publications Find organizations Related Topics Auditory Neuropathy Autism Spectrum Disorder: Communication Problems in Children Dysphagia Quick ... NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders 31 Center Drive, MSC ...

  17. Auditory Processing Disorder (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and school. A positive, realistic attitude and healthy self-esteem in a child with APD can work wonders. And kids with APD can go on to ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Auditory Processing Disorder Special ...

  18. Reception of Multiple Telemetry Signals via One Dish Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Ryan; Vilnrotter, Victor

    2010-01-01

    A microwave aeronautical-telemetry receiver system includes an antenna comprising a seven-element planar array of receiving feed horns centered at the focal point of a paraboloidal dish reflector that is nominally aimed at a single aircraft or at multiple aircraft flying in formation. Through digital processing of the signals received by the seven feed horns, the system implements a method of enhanced cancellation of interference, such that it becomes possible to receive telemetry signals in the same frequency channel simultaneously from either or both of two aircraft at slightly different angular positions within the field of view of the antenna, even in the presence of multipath propagation. The present system is an advanced version of the system described in Spatio- Temporal Equalizer for a Receiving-Antenna Feed Array NPO-43077, NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 2 (February 2010), page 32. To recapitulate: The radio-frequency telemetry signals received by the seven elements of the array are digitized, converted to complex baseband form, and sent to a spatio-temporal equalizer that consists mostly of a bank of seven adaptive finite-impulse-response (FIR) filters (one for each element in the array) plus a unit that sums the outputs of the filters. The combination of the spatial diversity of the feedhorn array and the temporal diversity of the filter bank affords better multipath suppression performance than is achievable by means of temporal equalization alone. The FIR filter bank adapts itself in real time to enable reception of telemetry at a low bit error rate, even in the presence of frequency-selective multipath propagation like that commonly found at flight-test ranges. The combination of the array and the filter bank makes it possible to constructively add multipath incoming signals to the corresponding directly arriving signals, thereby enabling reductions in telemetry bit-error rates.

  19. Biases in Visual, Auditory, and Audiovisual Perception of Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Odegaard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Localization of objects and events in the environment is critical for survival, as many perceptual and motor tasks rely on estimation of spatial location. Therefore, it seems reasonable to assume that spatial localizations should generally be accurate. Curiously, some previous studies have reported biases in visual and auditory localizations, but these studies have used small sample sizes and the results have been mixed. Therefore, it is not clear (1 if the reported biases in localization responses are real (or due to outliers, sampling bias, or other factors, and (2 whether these putative biases reflect a bias in sensory representations of space or a priori expectations (which may be due to the experimental setup, instructions, or distribution of stimuli. Here, to address these questions, a dataset of unprecedented size (obtained from 384 observers was analyzed to examine presence, direction, and magnitude of sensory biases, and quantitative computational modeling was used to probe the underlying mechanism(s driving these effects. Data revealed that, on average, observers were biased towards the center when localizing visual stimuli, and biased towards the periphery when localizing auditory stimuli. Moreover, quantitative analysis using a Bayesian Causal Inference framework suggests that while pre-existing spatial biases for central locations exert some influence, biases in the sensory representations of both visual and auditory space are necessary to fully explain the behavioral data. How are these opposing visual and auditory biases reconciled in conditions in which both auditory and visual stimuli are produced by a single event? Potentially, the bias in one modality could dominate, or the biases could interact/cancel out. The data revealed that when integration occurred in these conditions, the visual bias dominated, but the magnitude of this bias was reduced compared to unisensory conditions. Therefore, multisensory integration not only

  20. Receptive Language Processing of Down's Syndrome Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Xenia Y.

    1982-01-01

    Seventeen Down's Syndrome (DS) children (9-12 years old) scored significantly lower than retarded non-DS and nonretarded students on arts of the Token Test for Children requiring sequential or syntactic processing. Ss showed no deficits in tasks requiring spatial/simultaneous processing. Results suggested a possible right-hemisphere dominance for…

  1. A rate code for sound azimuth in monkey auditory cortex: implications for human neuroimaging studies

    OpenAIRE

    Werner-Reiss, Uri; Jennifer M Groh

    2008-01-01

    Is sound location represented in the auditory cortex of humans and monkeys? Human neuroimaging experiments have had only mixed success at demonstrating sound location sensitivity in primary auditory cortex. This is in apparent conflict with studies in monkeys and other animals, where single-unit recording studies have found stronger evidence for spatial sensitivity. Does this apparent discrepancy reflect a difference between humans and animals, or does it reflect differences in the sensitivit...

  2. Psychology of auditory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Andrew; Holt, Lori

    2011-09-01

    Audition is often treated as a 'secondary' sensory system behind vision in the study of cognitive science. In this review, we focus on three seemingly simple perceptual tasks to demonstrate the complexity of perceptual-cognitive processing involved in everyday audition. After providing a short overview of the characteristics of sound and their neural encoding, we present a description of the perceptual task of segregating multiple sound events that are mixed together in the signal reaching the ears. Then, we discuss the ability to localize the sound source in the environment. Finally, we provide some data and theory on how listeners categorize complex sounds, such as speech. In particular, we present research on how listeners weigh multiple acoustic cues in making a categorization decision. One conclusion of this review is that it is time for auditory cognitive science to be developed to match what has been done in vision in order for us to better understand how humans communicate with speech and music. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 479-489 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.123 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26302301

  3. Retrosplenial Cortex Is Required for the Retrieval of Remote Memory for Auditory Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Travis P.; Mehlman, Max L.; Keene, Christopher S.; DeAngeli, Nicole E.; Bucci, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The retrosplenial cortex (RSC) has a well-established role in contextual and spatial learning and memory, consistent with its known connectivity with visuo-spatial association areas. In contrast, RSC appears to have little involvement with delay fear conditioning to an auditory cue. However, all previous studies have examined the contribution of…

  4. Correlation reception of thermal acoustic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anosov, A. A.; Barabanenkov, Yu. N.; Sel'Skii, A. G.

    2003-11-01

    Correlated signals of thermal acoustic radiation from heated sources extending in the transverse direction (a pair of narrow plasticine plates and a wide plasticine strip) are measured. The measurements are performed by multiplying together the signals that are shifted in time with respect to each other and detected by two piezoelectric transducers. The values of the correlated signals of thermal acoustic radiation are determined by the spatial variation of temperature in the medium under study.

  5. Eye Movements during Auditory Attention Predict Individual Differences in Dorsal Attention Network Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Rodrigo M.; Fu, Richard Z.; Seemungal, Barry M.; Wise, Richard J. S.; Leech, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanisms supporting auditory attention are not fully understood. A dorsal frontoparietal network of brain regions is thought to mediate the spatial orienting of attention across all sensory modalities. Key parts of this network, the frontal eye fields (FEF) and the superior parietal lobes (SPL), contain retinotopic maps and elicit saccades when stimulated. This suggests that their recruitment during auditory attention might reflect crossmodal oculomotor processes; however this has not been confirmed experimentally. Here we investigate whether task-evoked eye movements during an auditory task can predict the magnitude of activity within the dorsal frontoparietal network. A spatial and non-spatial listening task was used with on-line eye-tracking and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). No visual stimuli or cues were used. The auditory task elicited systematic eye movements, with saccade rate and gaze position predicting attentional engagement and the cued sound location, respectively. Activity associated with these separate aspects of evoked eye-movements dissociated between the SPL and FEF. However these observed eye movements could not account for all the activation in the frontoparietal network. Our results suggest that the recruitment of the SPL and FEF during attentive listening reflects, at least partly, overt crossmodal oculomotor processes during non-visual attention. Further work is needed to establish whether the network’s remaining contribution to auditory attention is through covert crossmodal processes, or is directly involved in the manipulation of auditory information. PMID:27242465

  6. Neural Correlates of an Auditory Afterimage in Primary Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Noreña, A. J.; Eggermont, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Zwicker tone (ZT) is defined as an auditory negative afterimage, perceived after the presentation of an appropriate inducer. Typically, a notched noise (NN) with a notch width of 1/2 octave induces a ZT with a pitch falling in the frequency range of the notch. The aim of the present study was to find potential neural correlates of the ZT in the primary auditory cortex of ketamine-anesthetized cats. Responses of multiunits were recorded simultaneously with two 8-electrode arrays during 1 s...

  7. Accuracy of Cochlear Implant Recipients on Speech Reception in Background Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfeller, Kate; Turner, Christopher; Oleson, Jacob; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Driscoll, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study (a) examined speech recognition abilities of cochlear implant (CI) recipients in the spectrally complex listening condition of three contrasting types of background music, and (b) compared performance based upon listener groups: CI recipients using conventional long-electrode (LE) devices, Hybrid CI recipients (acoustic plus electric stimulation), and normal-hearing (NH) adults. Methods We tested 154 LE CI recipients using varied devices and strategies, 21 Hybrid CI recipients, and 49 NH adults on closed-set recognition of spondees presented in three contrasting forms of background music (piano solo, large symphony orchestra, vocal solo with small combo accompaniment) in an adaptive test. Outcomes Signal-to-noise thresholds for speech in music (SRTM) were examined in relation to measures of speech recognition in background noise and multi-talker babble, pitch perception, and music experience. Results SRTM thresholds varied as a function of category of background music, group membership (LE, Hybrid, NH), and age. Thresholds for speech in background music were significantly correlated with measures of pitch perception and speech in background noise thresholds; auditory status was an important predictor. Conclusions Evidence suggests that speech reception thresholds in background music change as a function of listener age (with more advanced age being detrimental), structural characteristics of different types of music, and hearing status (residual hearing). These findings have implications for everyday listening conditions such as communicating in social or commercial situations in which there is background music. PMID:23342550

  8. Diversity reception and equalization techniques for laser communication in space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Liang; Weibiao Chen

    2007-01-01

    The principle of band-limited space optical communication system using the techniques of space diversity methods and time domain Rake receiver is analyzed. The joint channel equalizer method combining diversity reception and equalization technique is presented in space laser communication. By computer simulation, the bit error rates of noncoherent pace optical on-off keying signal using different space diversity methods, Rake reception with different inter-symbol interferences, joint diversity equalizations with different signal noise rates and different channel numbers are analysed. The results identify that joint diversity equalization method can enhance space optical communication erformance evidently.

  9. Encoding audio motion: spatial impairment in early blind individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Finocchietti, Sara; Cappagli, Giulia; Gori, Monica

    2015-01-01

    The consequence of blindness on auditory spatial localization has been an interesting issue of research in the last decade providing mixed results. Enhanced auditory spatial skills in individuals with visual impairment have been reported by multiple studies, while some aspects of spatial hearing seem to be impaired in the absence of vision. In this study, the ability to encode the trajectory of a 2-dimensional sound motion, reproducing the complete movement, and reaching the correct end-point...

  10. Functional neuroanatomy of spatial sound processing in Alzheimer's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, HL; Agustus, JL; Nicholas, JM; Schott, JM; Crutch, SJ; L. Mancini; Warren, JD

    2016-01-01

    Deficits of auditory scene analysis accompany Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the functional neuroanatomy of spatial sound processing has not been defined in AD. We addressed this using a "sparse" fMRI virtual auditory spatial paradigm in 14 patients with typical AD in relation to 16 healthy age-matched individuals. Sound stimulus sequences discretely varied perceived spatial location and pitch of the sound source in a factorial design. AD was associated with loss of differentiated cortica...

  11. Auditory Hallucinations in Acute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Lampl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory hallucinations are uncommon phenomena which can be directly caused by acute stroke, mostly described after lesions of the brain stem, very rarely reported after cortical strokes. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of this phenomenon. In a cross sectional study, 641 stroke patients were followed in the period between 1996–2000. Each patient underwent comprehensive investigation and follow-up. Four patients were found to have post cortical stroke auditory hallucinations. All of them occurred after an ischemic lesion of the right temporal lobe. After no more than four months, all patients were symptom-free and without therapy. The fact the auditory hallucinations may be of cortical origin must be taken into consideration in the treatment of stroke patients. The phenomenon may be completely reversible after a couple of months.

  12. Adaptation in the auditory system: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    David ePérez-González; Malmierca, Manuel S.

    2014-01-01

    The early stages of the auditory system need to preserve the timing information of sounds in order to extract the basic features of acoustic stimuli. At the same time, different processes of neuronal adaptation occur at several levels to further process the auditory information. For instance, auditory nerve fiber responses already experience adaptation of their firing rates, a type of response that can be found in many other auditory nuclei and may be useful for emphasizing the onset of the s...

  13. Dual streams of auditory afferents target multiple domains in the primate prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanski, L. M.; Tian, B.; Fritz, J.; Mishkin, M.; Goldman-Rakic, P. S.; Rauschecker, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    ‘What’ and ‘where’ visual streams define ventrolateral object and dorsolateral spatial processing domains in the prefrontal cortex of nonhuman primates. We looked for similar streams for auditory–prefrontal connections in rhesus macaques by combining microelectrode recording with anatomical tract-tracing. Injection of multiple tracers into physiologically mapped regions AL, ML and CL of the auditory belt cortex revealed that anterior belt cortex was reciprocally connected with the frontal pole (area 10), rostral principal sulcus (area 46) and ventral prefrontal regions (areas 12 and 45), whereas the caudal belt was mainly connected with the caudal principal sulcus (area 46) and frontal eye fields (area 8a). Thus separate auditory streams originate in caudal and rostral auditory cortex and target spatial and non-spatial domains of the frontal lobe, respectively. PMID:10570492

  14. On the Reception of Foucauldian Ideas in Pedagogical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowicka, Helena

    2011-01-01

    The article is devoted to the presentation of the reception of Foucauldian ideas in Polish pedagogical research over the past twenty years. This movement of thought is described as an oscillation between heterotopia and utopia, autonomy and heteronomy, emancipation and repression. As results of this analysis indicate, Polish pedagogues are most…

  15. Ovarian fluid of receptive females enhances sperm velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Clelia; Andreatta, Gabriele; Pilastro, Andrea

    2012-05-01

    The females of several internal fertilizers are able to store sperm for a long time, reducing the risk of sperm limitation. However, it also means that males can attempt to mate outside females' receptive period, potentially increasing the level of sperm competition and exacerbating sexual conflict over mating. The guppy ( Poecilia reticulata), an internally fertilizing fish, is a model system of such competition and conflict. Female guppies accept courtship and mate consensually only during receptive periods of the ovarian cycle but receive approximately one (mostly forced) mating attempt per minute both during and outside their sexually receptive phase. In addition, females can store viable sperm for months. We expected that guppy females would disfavour sperm received during their unreceptive period, possibly by modulating the quality and/or quantity of the components present in the ovarian fluid (OF) over the breeding cycle. Ovarian fluid has been shown to affect sperm velocity, a determinant of sperm competition success in this and other fishes. We found that in vitro sperm velocity is slower in OF collected from unreceptive females than in OF from receptive females. Visual stimulation with a potential partner prior to collection did not significantly affect in vitro sperm velocity. These results suggest that sperm received by unreceptive females may be disfavoured as sperm velocity likely affects the migration process and the number of sperm that reach storage sites.

  16. Concern About Hunger May Increase Receptivity to GMOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B Elijah; Conn, Caitlin C; Wiles, Jason R

    2016-07-01

    Due to a phenomenon known as the 'backfire effect', intuition-based opinions can be inadvertently strengthened by evidence-based counterarguments. Students' views on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be subject to this effect. We explored the impact of an empathetically accessible topic, world hunger, on receptivity to GMO technology as an alternative to direct evidence-based approaches. PMID:27246454

  17. Concern About Hunger May Increase Receptivity to GMOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B Elijah; Conn, Caitlin C; Wiles, Jason R

    2016-07-01

    Due to a phenomenon known as the 'backfire effect', intuition-based opinions can be inadvertently strengthened by evidence-based counterarguments. Students' views on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be subject to this effect. We explored the impact of an empathetically accessible topic, world hunger, on receptivity to GMO technology as an alternative to direct evidence-based approaches.

  18. Receptive Language of Gifted and Learning Disabled-Gifted Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermak, Gail D.; Burgerud, Donna M.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty elementary school children in regular, gifted, and learning disabled-gifted programs were examined on three receptive language tests. Analysis of variance indicated that the "Token Test for Children" differentiated learning disabled-gifted, and the "Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude, Verbal Absurdities Subtest" differentiated gifted…

  19. Contour detection based on nonclassical receptive field inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, Cosmin; Petkov, Nicolai; Westenberg, Michel A.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a biologically motivated computational step, called nonclassical receptive field (non-CRF) inhibition, more generally surround inhibition or suppression, to improve contour detection in machine vision. Non-CRF inhibition is exhibited by 80% of the orientation-selective neurons in the prim

  20. Receptive vocabulary size of secondary spanish efl learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Canga Alonso

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper responds to the need of research on vocabulary knowledge in foreign language in secondary education in Spain. Thus, this research aims at investigating (i the receptive vocabulary knowledge of 49 girls and 43 boys, Spanish students learning English as a foreign language in a secondary school located in the north of Spain, and (ii its pedagogical implications for students’ understanding of written and spoken discourse in English (Adolphs & Schmitt 2004; Laufer 1992, 1997; Nation 2001. We used the 2,000 frequency band of the Vocabulary Level Test (VLT (Schmitt, Schmitt & Clapham, 2001, version 2 as the instrument to measure students’ receptive vocabulary knowledge. Our results reveal that the means of girls’ receptive vocabulary size is below 1,000 words, which agrees with the estimates proposed by López-Mezquita (2005 for Spanish students of the same age and educational level. On the contrary, the means for boys is slightly above 1,000 words, being the differences between boys’ and girls’ performance in the VLT statistically relevant. Our data also indicate that most of the students analysed in the present study could have problems to understand written and spoken discourse due to their low scores in the receptive vocabulary level test.

  1. The formation of corona reception of judo veteran competitive activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakulin Serhij

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study is devoted to the substantiation of the algorithm of corona reception of judo veteran competitive activity formation, each of its steps. Purposeful formation of judoka technical actions individual arsenal using the proposed algorithm (7 stages is implemented on the basis of the identification, a subsequent in-depth development and improvement of the best techniques.

  2. Adolescent Weight Status and Receptivity to Food TV Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Sutherland, Lisa A.; Longacre, Meghan R.; Beach, Michael L.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Gibson, Jennifer J.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between adolescent weight status and food advertisement receptivity. Design: Survey-based evaluation with data collected at baseline (initial and at 2 months), and at follow-up (11 months). Setting: New Hampshire and Vermont. Participants: Students (n = 2,281) aged 10-13 in 2002-2005. Main Outcome…

  3. Joint Book Reading and Receptive Vocabulary: A Parallel Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to understand the reciprocal, bidirectional longitudinal relation between joint book reading and English receptive vocabulary. To address the research goals, a nationally representative sample of Head Start children, the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (2003 cohort), was used for analysis. The…

  4. The Judaeo-Karaite Reception of the Hebrew Bible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabih, Joshua

    DESCRIPTION: The Karaites emerged as a school of thought within Middle Eastern Judaism in the 8th century. The Karaites were a “reading community” whose intellectual activity and daily lives were based around the divine scriptures. Over time Karaism became one of the two main competing schools of...... between the Rabbinate and the Karaite reception and interpretation of the Hebrew Bible....

  5. Reception Marking 30 Years of China-Gabon Diplomatic Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The CPAFFC held a recep-tion on April 20 to cel-ebrate the 30th anniversary of the establishment of diplo-matic relations between China and Gabon. Uyunqimg, vice chairperson of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, Chen

  6. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Cultural Receptivity in Fostering Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Tanya M.; Orme, John G.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The psychometric properties of a new measure of foster parents' openness toward participating in activities that promote children's cultural development are evaluated. The measure is titled the Cultural Receptivity in Fostering Scale (CRFS). Method: Data from 304 foster mothers who completed the CRFS and a battery of measures on…

  7. Active vision and receptive field development in evolutionary robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floreano, Dario; Suzuki, Mototaka; Mattiussi, Dario

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the artificial evolution of adaptive neural controllers for an outdoor mobile robot equipped with a mobile camera. The robot can dynamically select the gazing direction by moving the body and/or the camera. The neural control system, which maps visual information to motor commands, is evolved online by means of a genetic algorithm, but the synaptic connections (receptive fields) from visual photoreceptors to internal neurons can also be modified by Hebbian plasticity while the robot moves in the environment. We show that robots evolved in physics-based simulations with Hebbian visual plasticity display more robust adaptive behavior when transferred to real outdoor environments as compared to robots evolved without visual plasticity. We also show that the formation of visual receptive fields is significantly and consistently affected by active vision as compared to the formation of receptive fields with grid sample images in the environment of the robot. Finally, we show that the interplay between active vision and receptive field formation amounts to the selection and exploitation of a small and constant subset of visual features available to the robot.

  8. Different patterns of auditory cortex activation revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has been widely accepted as an effective tool for mapping brain activities in both the sensorimotor and the cognitive field. The present work aims to assess the possibility of using fMRI methods to study the cortical response to different acoustic stimuli. Furthermore, we refer to recent data collected at Frankfurt University on the cortical pattern of auditory hallucinations. Healthy subjects showed broad bilateral activation, mostly located in the transverse gyrus of Heschl. The analysis of the cortical activation induced by different stimuli has pointed out a remarkable difference in the spatial and temporal features of the auditory cortex response to pulsed tones and pure tones. The activated areas during episodes of auditory hallucinations match the location of primary auditory cortex as defined in control measurements with the same patients and in the experiments on healthy subjects. (authors)

  9. Subspace mapping of the three-dimensional spectral receptive field of macaque MT neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Mikio; Sasaki, Kota S; Hashimoto, Hajime; Ohzawa, Izumi

    2016-08-01

    Neurons in the middle temporal (MT) visual area are thought to represent the velocity (direction and speed) of motion. Previous studies suggest the importance of both excitation and suppression for creating velocity representation in MT; however, details of the organization of excitation and suppression at the MT stage are not understood fully. In this article, we examine how excitatory and suppressive inputs are pooled in individual MT neurons by measuring their receptive fields in a three-dimensional (3-D) spatiotemporal frequency domain. We recorded the activity of single MT neurons from anesthetized macaque monkeys. To achieve both quality and resolution of the receptive field estimations, we applied a subspace reverse correlation technique in which a stimulus sequence of superimposed multiple drifting gratings was cross-correlated with the spiking activity of neurons. Excitatory responses tended to be organized in a manner representing a specific velocity independent of the spatial pattern of the stimuli. Conversely, suppressive responses tended to be distributed broadly over the 3-D frequency domain, supporting a hypothesis of response normalization. Despite the nonspecific distributed profile, the total summed strength of suppression was comparable to that of excitation in many MT neurons. Furthermore, suppressive responses reduced the bandwidth of velocity tuning, indicating that suppression improves the reliability of velocity representation. Our results suggest that both well-organized excitatory inputs and broad suppressive inputs contribute significantly to the invariant and reliable representation of velocity in MT. PMID:27193321

  10. A simulation framework for auditory discrimination experiments: Revealing the importance of across-frequency processing in speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädler, Marc René; Warzybok, Anna; Ewert, Stephan D; Kollmeier, Birger

    2016-05-01

    A framework for simulating auditory discrimination experiments, based on an approach from Schädler, Warzybok, Hochmuth, and Kollmeier [(2015). Int. J. Audiol. 54, 100-107] which was originally designed to predict speech recognition thresholds, is extended to also predict psychoacoustic thresholds. The proposed framework is used to assess the suitability of different auditory-inspired feature sets for a range of auditory discrimination experiments that included psychoacoustic as well as speech recognition experiments in noise. The considered experiments were 2 kHz tone-in-broadband-noise simultaneous masking depending on the tone length, spectral masking with simultaneously presented tone signals and narrow-band noise maskers, and German Matrix sentence test reception threshold in stationary and modulated noise. The employed feature sets included spectro-temporal Gabor filter bank features, Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, logarithmically scaled Mel-spectrograms, and the internal representation of the Perception Model from Dau, Kollmeier, and Kohlrausch [(1997). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102(5), 2892-2905]. The proposed framework was successfully employed to simulate all experiments with a common parameter set and obtain objective thresholds with less assumptions compared to traditional modeling approaches. Depending on the feature set, the simulated reference-free thresholds were found to agree with-and hence to predict-empirical data from the literature. Across-frequency processing was found to be crucial to accurately model the lower speech reception threshold in modulated noise conditions than in stationary noise conditions. PMID:27250164

  11. Quantifying attentional modulation of auditory-evoked cortical responses from single-trial electroencephalography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inyong eChoi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Selective auditory attention is essential for human listeners to be able to communicate in multi-source environments. Selective attention is known to modulate the neural representation of the auditory scene, boosting the representation of a target sound relative to the background, but the strength of this modulation, and the mechanisms contributing to it, are not well understood. Here, listeners performed a behavioral experiment demanding sustained, focused spatial auditory attention while we measured cortical responses using electroencephalography (EEG. We presented three concurrent melodic streams; listeners were asked to attend and analyze the melodic contour of one of the streams, randomly selected from trial to trial. In a control task, listeners heard the same sound mixtures, but performed the contour judgment task on a series of visual arrows, ignoring all auditory streams. We found that the cortical responses could be fit as weighted sum of event-related potentials evoked by the stimulus onsets in the competing streams. The weighting to a given stream was roughly 10 dB higher when it was attended compared to when another auditory stream was attended; during the visual task, the auditory gains were intermediate. We then used a template-matching classification scheme to classify single-trial EEG results. We found that in all subjects, we could determine which stream the subject was attending significantly better than by chance. By directly quantifying the effect of selective attention on auditory cortical responses, these results reveal that focused auditory attention both suppresses the response to an unattended stream and enhances the response to an attended stream. The single-trial classification results add to the growing body of literature suggesting that auditory attentional modulation is sufficiently robust that it could be used as a control mechanism in brain-computer interfaces.

  12. Discursive Reception Studies : A Path toward Knowledge about Fiction in EverydayLife

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson Barajas, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    The study of mainstream consumers of fiction is still limited, as is research of naturalistic reading situations. In this paper I argue that a combination of reception theory and discursive psychology – discursive reception research – can be a fruitful method for empirical literary studies. Reception theory gains both a way to adequately analyze conversations about literature (and other aesthetic products), and the opportunity to study how the reception is done and how literature is used, whi...

  13. Deaf Students' Receptive and Expressive American Sign Language Skills: Comparisons and Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents receptive and expressive American Sign Language skills of 85 students, 6 through 22 years of age at a residential school for the deaf using the American Sign Language Receptive Skills Test and the Ozcaliskan Motion Stimuli. Results are presented by ages and indicate that students' receptive skills increased with age and…

  14. 45 CFR 211.6 - Reception; temporary care, treatment, and assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reception; temporary care, treatment, and... SERVICES CARE AND TREATMENT OF MENTALLY ILL NATIONALS OF THE UNITED STATES, RETURNED FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES § 211.6 Reception; temporary care, treatment, and assistance. (a) Reception. The agency will meet...

  15. Conceptual priming for realistic auditory scenes and for auditory words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Aline; Aramaki, Mitsuko; Besson, Mireille

    2014-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted using both behavioral and Event-Related brain Potentials methods to examine conceptual priming effects for realistic auditory scenes and for auditory words. Prime and target sounds were presented in four stimulus combinations: Sound-Sound, Word-Sound, Sound-Word and Word-Word. Within each combination, targets were conceptually related to the prime, unrelated or ambiguous. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to judge whether the primes and targets fit together (explicit task) and in Experiment 2 they had to decide whether the target was typical or ambiguous (implicit task). In both experiments and in the four stimulus combinations, reaction times and/or error rates were longer/higher and the N400 component was larger to ambiguous targets than to conceptually related targets, thereby pointing to a common conceptual system for processing auditory scenes and linguistic stimuli in both explicit and implicit tasks. However, fine-grained analyses also revealed some differences between experiments and conditions in scalp topography and duration of the priming effects possibly reflecting differences in the integration of perceptual and cognitive attributes of linguistic and nonlinguistic sounds. These results have clear implications for the building-up of virtual environments that need to convey meaning without words. PMID:24378910

  16. A probabilistic approach to receptive field mapping in the frontal eye fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Patrick eMayo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the neuronal mechanisms of perisaccadic vision often lack the resolution needed to determine important changes in receptive field (RF structure. Such limited analytical power can lead to inaccurate descriptions of visuomotor processing. To address this issue, we developed a precise, probabilistic technique that uses a generalized linear model (GLM for mapping the visual receptive fields of frontal eye field (FEF neurons during stable fixation (Mayo et al., 2015. We previously found that full-field RF maps could be obtained using 1-8 dot stimuli presented at frame rates of 10-150 ms. FEF responses were generally robust to changes in the number of stimuli presented or the rate of presentation, which allowed us to visualize RFs over a range of spatial and temporal resolutions. Here, we compare the quality of RFs obtained over different stimulus and GLM parameters to facilitate future work on the detailed mapping of FEF RFs. We first evaluate the interactions between the number of stimuli presented per trial, the total number of trials, and the quality of RF mapping. Next, we vary the spatial resolution of our approach to illustrate the tradeoff between visualizing RF sub-structure and sampling at high resolutions. We then evaluate local smoothing as a possible correction for situations where under-sampling occurs. Finally, we provide a preliminary demonstration of the usefulness of a probabilistic approach for visualizing full-field perisaccadic RF shifts. Our results present a powerful, and perhaps necessary, framework for studying perisaccadic vision is applicable to FEF and possibly other visuomotor regions of the brain.

  17. The Comparative Reception of Darwinism: A Brief History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Thomas F.

    2010-06-01

    The subfield of Darwin studies devoted to comparative reception coalesced around 1971 with the planning of a conference on the subject, at the University of Texas at Austin held in April 1972. The original focus was western Europe, Russia and the United States. Subsequently a spate of studies on the Italian reception added to the Eurocentric focus. The center of activity then switched to Latin America where a group of scholars coalesced in the mid 1990s, seemingly related to the maturation of the history of science as a discrete discipline there somewhat earlier. When interest in Europe revived during the last decade, the center of gravity had moved both eastward, to the former Society bloc countries (a reflection of the institutionalization of the history of science there), and north to Scandinavia. Recently, interest in the topic has emerged in the Islamic World. The subtext of the expansion of this topic is modernization.

  18. Receptive vocabulary knowledge and motivation in CLIL and EFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Fernández Fontecha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL is a widely researched approach to foreign language learning and teaching. One of the pillars of CLIL is the concept of motivation. Some studies have focused on exploring motivation within CLIL, however there has not been much discussion about the connection between motivation, or other affective factors, and each component of foreign language learning. Hence, given two groups of learners with the same hours of EFL instruction, the main objective of this research is to determine whether there exists any kind of interaction between the number of words learners know receptively and their motivation towards English as a Foreign Language (EFL. Most students in both groups were highly motivated. No relationship was identified between the receptive vocabulary knowledge and the general motivation for the secondary graders but a positive significant relationship was found for the primary CLIL graders. Several reasons will be adduced.

  19. The Wellcome Prize Lecture. A map of auditory space in the mammalian brain: neural computation and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A J

    1993-09-01

    The experiments described in this review have demonstrated that the SC contains a two-dimensional map of auditory space, which is synthesized within the brain using a combination of monaural and binaural localization cues. There is also an adaptive fusion of auditory and visual space in this midbrain nucleus, providing for a common access to the motor pathways that control orientation behaviour. This necessitates a highly plastic relationship between the visual and auditory systems, both during postnatal development and in adult life. Because of the independent mobility of difference sense organs, gating mechanisms are incorporated into the auditory representation to provide up-to-date information about the spatial orientation of the eyes and ears. The SC therefore provides a valuable model system for studying a number of important issues in brain function, including the neural coding of sound location, the co-ordination of spatial information between different sensory systems, and the integration of sensory signals with motor outputs. PMID:8240794

  20. Psychophysiological responses to auditory change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuen, Lorraine; Sears, David; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive characterization of autonomic and somatic responding within the auditory domain is currently lacking. We studied whether simple types of auditory change that occur frequently during music listening could elicit measurable changes in heart rate, skin conductance, respiration rate, and facial motor activity. Participants heard a rhythmically isochronous sequence consisting of a repeated standard tone, followed by a repeated target tone that changed in pitch, timbre, duration, intensity, or tempo, or that deviated momentarily from rhythmic isochrony. Changes in all parameters produced increases in heart rate. Skin conductance response magnitude was affected by changes in timbre, intensity, and tempo. Respiratory rate was sensitive to deviations from isochrony. Our findings suggest that music researchers interpreting physiological responses as emotional indices should consider acoustic factors that may influence physiology in the absence of induced emotions. PMID:26927928

  1. Reality of auditory verbal hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkonen-Korhonen, Minna; Holi, Matti; Therman, Sebastian; Lehtonen, Johannes; Hari, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Distortion of the sense of reality, actualized in delusions and hallucinations, is the key feature of psychosis but the underlying neuronal correlates remain largely unknown. We studied 11 highly functioning subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder while they rated the reality of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjective reality of AVH correlated strongly and specifically with the hallucination-related activation strength of the inferior frontal gyri (IFG), including the Broca's language region. Furthermore, how real the hallucination that subjects experienced was depended on the hallucination-related coupling between the IFG, the ventral striatum, the auditory cortex, the right posterior temporal lobe, and the cingulate cortex. Our findings suggest that the subjective reality of AVH is related to motor mechanisms of speech comprehension, with contributions from sensory and salience-detection-related brain regions as well as circuitries related to self-monitoring and the experience of agency. PMID:19620178

  2. Sound reception and radiation in a small insect

    OpenAIRE

    Mhatre, Natasha; Montealgre-Z, Fernando; Balakrishnan, Rohini; Robert, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Insects are small; this is a fact of their life. In some contexts this is an advantage, such as insects do not injure themselves through the effects of gravity. In other contexts this is a disadvantage, especially in the context of sound production and reception. The wavelengths of sound that insects such as crickets produce and receive are several times larger than their body size. For sound production, this is particularly challenging and inefficient, as sub-wavelength radiation (size to la...

  3. Research Data Explored II: the Anatomy and Reception of figshare

    OpenAIRE

    Kraker, Peter; Lex, Elisabeth; Gorraiz, Juan; Gumpenberger, Christian; Peters, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    This is the second paper in a series of bibliometric studies of research data. In this paper, we present an analysis of figshare, one of the largest multidisciplinary repositories for research materials to date. We analysed the structure of items archived in figshare, their usage, and their reception in two altmetrics sources (PlumX and ImpactStory). We found that figshare acts (1) as a personal repository for yet unpublished materials, (2) as a platform for newly published research materials...

  4. 基于环境重置的视听觉刺激在脑卒中偏侧忽略的护理研究%Research of Visual and Auditory Stimulation Based on Environment Reset on Hemi-spatial Neglect in Patients with Cerebral Apoplexy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩宇花; 陶希; 邓景贵; 刘佳; 宋涛; 何娟

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨基于环境重置的视听觉刺激对脑卒中偏侧忽略( hemispatial neglect, HSN)的影响。方法2010年3月-2012年9月收治的脑卒中HSN 49例随机分为观察组27例和对照组22例。两组均给予常规治疗,对照组对病房及康复环境不做要求,观察组对病房床位及康复环境进行重新设置。于治疗前、治疗4周及治疗8周时分别行直线二等分( LB)测试和线段划消( LC)测试评估HSN的程度,以美国国立研究院脑卒中评定量表( NIHSS)评定神经功能缺损和改良Barthel Index( MBI)评估日常生活活动能力( ADL)。结果治疗4、8周时两组LB、LC及NIHSS评分均低于治疗前,MBI评分均高于治疗前(P<0.05)。治疗8周时两组LB、NIHSS评分和观察组LC均较治疗4周时降低,MBI评分较治疗4周时升高,观察组LB、LC低于对照组,MBI评分高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论基于环境重置的视听觉刺激对脑卒中HSN患者有益,可提高ADL能力,但对神经功能缺损影响可能不大。%Objective To explore the effect of visual and auditory stimulation based on environment reset on he-mi-spatial neglect ( HSN) in patients with cerebral apoplexy. Methods A total of 49 patients with cerebral apoplexy combined with HSN during March 2010 and September 2012 were randomly divided into control group (n=22) and ob-servation group (n=27). Conventional therapy was performed in the two groups. Wards and rehabilitation environment for patients in control group had no special requirement, while wards and rehabilitation environment for patients were rese-ted regularly. HSN degrees were assessed by test of line bisection ( LB) and line cancellation ( LC);scores of neurologic impairment were evaluated with National Institute of Health stroke scale ( NIHSS) , and abilities of activity of daily living ( ADL) were evaluated with modified Barthel index ( MBI) before treatment, after treatment for 4 weeks and 8 weeks. Results Compared with those before

  5. Research of Visual and Auditory Stimulation Based on Environment Reset on Hemi-spatial Neglect in Patients with Cerebral Apoplexy%基于环境重置的视听觉刺激在脑卒中偏侧忽略的护理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩宇花; 陶希; 邓景贵; 刘佳; 宋涛; 何娟

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨基于环境重置的视听觉刺激对脑卒中偏侧忽略( hemispatial neglect, HSN)的影响。方法2010年3月-2012年9月收治的脑卒中HSN 49例随机分为观察组27例和对照组22例。两组均给予常规治疗,对照组对病房及康复环境不做要求,观察组对病房床位及康复环境进行重新设置。于治疗前、治疗4周及治疗8周时分别行直线二等分( LB)测试和线段划消( LC)测试评估HSN的程度,以美国国立研究院脑卒中评定量表( NIHSS)评定神经功能缺损和改良Barthel Index( MBI)评估日常生活活动能力( ADL)。结果治疗4、8周时两组LB、LC及NIHSS评分均低于治疗前,MBI评分均高于治疗前(P<0.05)。治疗8周时两组LB、NIHSS评分和观察组LC均较治疗4周时降低,MBI评分较治疗4周时升高,观察组LB、LC低于对照组,MBI评分高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论基于环境重置的视听觉刺激对脑卒中HSN患者有益,可提高ADL能力,但对神经功能缺损影响可能不大。%Objective To explore the effect of visual and auditory stimulation based on environment reset on he-mi-spatial neglect ( HSN) in patients with cerebral apoplexy. Methods A total of 49 patients with cerebral apoplexy combined with HSN during March 2010 and September 2012 were randomly divided into control group (n=22) and ob-servation group (n=27). Conventional therapy was performed in the two groups. Wards and rehabilitation environment for patients in control group had no special requirement, while wards and rehabilitation environment for patients were rese-ted regularly. HSN degrees were assessed by test of line bisection ( LB) and line cancellation ( LC);scores of neurologic impairment were evaluated with National Institute of Health stroke scale ( NIHSS) , and abilities of activity of daily living ( ADL) were evaluated with modified Barthel index ( MBI) before treatment, after treatment for 4 weeks and 8 weeks. Results Compared with those before

  6. Follow the Sound : Design of mobile spatial audio applications for pedestrian navigation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Auditory displays are slower than graphical user interfaces. We believe spatial audio can change that. Human perception can localize the position of sound sources due to psychoacoustical cues. Spatial audio reproduces these cues to produce virtual sound source position by headphones. The spatial attribute of sound can be used to produce richer and more effective auditory displays. In this work, there is proposed a set of interaction design guidelines for the use of spatial audio displays i...

  7. Auditory distraction and serial memory

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, D M; Hughes, Rob; Macken, W.J.

    2010-01-01

    One mental activity that is very vulnerable to auditory distraction is serial recall. This review of the contemporary findings relating to serial recall charts the key determinants of distraction. It is evident that there is one form of distraction that is a joint product of the cognitive characteristics of the task and of the obligatory cognitive processing of the sound. For sequences of sound, distraction appears to be an ineluctable product of similarity-of-process, specifically, the seria...

  8. Reality of auditory verbal hallucinations

    OpenAIRE

    Raij TT; Valkonen-Korhonen M; Holi M; Therman S; Lehtonen J; Hari R

    2009-01-01

    Distortion of the sense of reality, actualized in delusions and hallucinations, is the key feature of psychosis but the underlying neuronal correlates remain largely unknown. We studied 11 highly functioning subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder while they rated the reality of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjective reality of AVH correlated strongly and specifically with the hallucination-related activation st...

  9. Science Influence on Policy - A Transmission or Reception Problem? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    Unfortunately we can claim very little scientific influence on climate change policies, nationally or internationally. The weak to non-existent inclusion of green (‘climate-friendly’) practices and policies in various national economic stimulus plans represents a scientific communication failure and an opportunity lost. The ineffective and inconclusive results from the Copenhagen negotiations represent a similar and equally serious failure. When communications fail we can consider errors in transmission (from science) or in reception (by policymakers). As scientists we tend to find fault with the receivers, and to identify solutions that consist, in effect, of ‘turning up’ the transmission volume. I suggest that in fact most problems lie with the transmitters. Those problems consist of speaking in transmit (scientific) terms rather than reception (economic) terms, of ignoring the necessity of converting and comparing our predictions or assessments to real world examples and terms, of misunderstanding the considerable ability of the receivers to process uncertainty, of missing many opportunities to match our transmission technologies to the modern public reception capabilities, and, most fundamentally, of failing, in key opportunities, to transmit a clear message. During IPY we have confronted each of these failures, and at least learned what we did wrong.

  10. A study of the tactual reception of sign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, C M; Delhorne, L A; Durlach, N I; Fischer, S D

    1995-04-01

    One of the natural methods of tactual communication in common use among individuals who are both deaf and blind is the tactual reception of sign language. In this method, the receiver (who is deaf-blind) places a hand (or hands) on the dominant (or both) hand(s) of the signer in order to receive, through the tactual sense, the various formational properties associated with signs. In the study reported here, 10 experienced deaf-blind users of either American Sign Language (ASL) or Pidgin Sign English (PSE) participated in experiments to determine their ability to receive signed materials including isolated signs and sentences. A set of 122 isolated signs was received with an average accuracy of 87% correct. The most frequent type of error made in identifying isolated signs was related to misperception of individual phonological components of signs. For presentation of signed sentences (translations of the English CID sentences into ASL or PSE), the performance of individual subjects ranged from 60-85% correct reception of key signs. Performance on sentences was relatively independent of rate of presentation in signs/sec, which covered a range of roughly 1 to 3 signs/sec. Sentence errors were accounted for primarily by deletions and phonological and semantic/syntactic substitutions. Experimental results are discussed in terms of differences in performance for isolated signs and sentences, differences in error patterns for the ASL and PSE groups, and communication rates relative to visual reception of sign language and other natural methods of tactual communication.

  11. K-pop Reception and Participatory Fan Culture in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Yeon Sung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available K-pop’s popularity and its participatory fan culture have expanded beyond Asia and become significant in Europe in the past few years. After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions, dance festivals, club meetings, quiz competitions, dance workshops, and smaller fan-culture gatherings. In the private sector, longtime fans have transitioned from participants to providers, and in the public sector, from observers to sponsors. Through in-depth interviews with event organizers, sponsors, and fans, this article offers an ethnographic study of the reception of K-pop in Europe that takes into consideration local interactions between fans and Korean sponsors, perspectives on the genre, patterns of social integration, and histories. As a case study, this research stresses the local situatedness of K-pop fan culture by arguing that local private and public sponsors and fans make the reception of K-pop different in each locality. By exploring local scenes of K-pop reception and fan culture, the article demonstrates the rapidly growing consumption of K-pop among Europeans and stresses multidirectional understandings of globalization.

  12. Application of receptive music therapy in internal medicine and cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconato Cyntia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of receptive music therapy in clinical practice. METHODS: Receptive music therapy was individually applied via musical auditions, including five stages: musical stimulation, sensation, situation, reflection, and behavioral alteration. Following anamnesis and obtainment of consent, patients answered a first questionnaire on health risk evaluation (Q1, and after participating in 16 weekly music therapy sessions, answered a second one (Q2. RESULTS: Two men and 8 women, aged above 18 years, referred to us due to symptoms of stress, emotional suffering, and the need to change lifestyles (health risk behavior were studied between August 1998 and December 1999. Comparison between answers to Q1 and Q2, showed a trend (P=0.059 for reduction of ingestion of cholesterol-rich foods and for increased prospects in life with a tendency towards improvement, and also of increased intake of fiber-rich food (55.6%, increased levels of personal satisfaction (44.5%, and decreased levels of stress (66.7%. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated decreased stress levels and increased personal satisfaction, higher consumption of fiber-rich food, lower cholesterol intake, and a better perspective on life, suggesting that receptive music therapy may be applied in clinical practice as an auxiliary therapeutic intervention for the treatment of behavioral health risks.

  13. Clinical investigations of receptive and expressive musical functions after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eRosslau

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a long tradition of investigating various disorders of musical abilities after stroke. These impairments, associated with acquired amusia, can be highly selective, affecting only music perception (i.e., receptive abilities/functions or expression (music production abilities, and some patients report that these may dramatically influence their emotional state. The aim of this study was to systematically test both the melodic and rhythmic domains of music perception and expression in left- and right-sided stroke patients compared to healthy subjects. Music perception was assessed using rhythmic and melodic discrimination tasks, while tests of expressive function involved the vocal or instrumental reproduction of rhythms and melodies. Our approach revealed deficits in receptive and expressive functions in stroke patients, mediated by musical expertise. Those patients who had experienced a short period of musical training in childhood and adolescence performed better in the receptive and expressive subtests compared to those without any previous musical training. While discrimination of specific musical patterns was unimpaired after a right-sided stroke, patients with a left-sided stroke had worse results for fine melodic and rhythmic analysis. In terms of expressive testing, the most consistent results were obtained from a test that required patients to reproduce sung melodies. This implies that the means of investigating production abilities can impact the identification of deficits.

  14. Stable encoding of sounds over a broad range of statistical parameters in the auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Jennifer M; Taillefumier, Thibaud O; Natan, Ryan G; Carruthers, Isaac M; Magnasco, Marcelo O; Geffen, Maria N

    2016-03-01

    Natural auditory scenes possess highly structured statistical regularities, which are dictated by the physics of sound production in nature, such as scale-invariance. We recently identified that natural water sounds exhibit a particular type of scale invariance, in which the temporal modulation within spectral bands scales with the centre frequency of the band. Here, we tested how neurons in the mammalian primary auditory cortex encode sounds that exhibit this property, but differ in their statistical parameters. The stimuli varied in spectro-temporal density and cyclo-temporal statistics over several orders of magnitude, corresponding to a range of water-like percepts, from pattering of rain to a slow stream. We recorded neuronal activity in the primary auditory cortex of awake rats presented with these stimuli. The responses of the majority of individual neurons were selective for a subset of stimuli with specific statistics. However, as a neuronal population, the responses were remarkably stable over large changes in stimulus statistics, exhibiting a similar range in firing rate, response strength, variability and information rate, and only minor variation in receptive field parameters. This pattern of neuronal responses suggests a potentially general principle for cortical encoding of complex acoustic scenes: while individual cortical neurons exhibit selectivity for specific statistical features, a neuronal population preserves a constant response structure across a broad range of statistical parameters. PMID:26663571

  15. Auditory sequence analysis and phonological skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Manon; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Cooper, Freya E; Turton, Stuart; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2012-11-01

    This work tests the relationship between auditory and phonological skill in a non-selected cohort of 238 school students (age 11) with the specific hypothesis that sound-sequence analysis would be more relevant to phonological skill than the analysis of basic, single sounds. Auditory processing was assessed across the domains of pitch, time and timbre; a combination of six standard tests of literacy and language ability was used to assess phonological skill. A significant correlation between general auditory and phonological skill was demonstrated, plus a significant, specific correlation between measures of phonological skill and the auditory analysis of short sequences in pitch and time. The data support a limited but significant link between auditory and phonological ability with a specific role for sound-sequence analysis, and provide a possible new focus for auditory training strategies to aid language development in early adolescence. PMID:22951739

  16. Ontogenetic development of the inner ear saccule in a vocal teleost fish : Implications for auditory reception and communication

    OpenAIRE

    Chaves, Patrícia Alexandra Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado apresentada ao ISPA - Instituto Universitário Os peixes consistem no maior grupo de vertebrados e exibem uma diversidade excecional na estrutura e função dos seus sistemas sensoriais e comunicativos. A família Batrachoididae tornou-se importante no estudo do funcionamento dos sistemas auditivo-vocal no contexto da comunicação acústica. Um estudo recente relatou um paralelismo entre a diferenciação vocal e o aumento da sensibilidade auditiva em Halobatrachus didactyl...

  17. Early blindness results in a degraded auditory map of space in the optic tectum of the barn owl.

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, E I

    1988-01-01

    The optic tectum of the barn owl (Tyto alba) contains a neural map of auditory space consisting of neurons that are sharply tuned for sound source location and organized precisely according to their spatial tuning. The importance of vision for the development of this auditory map was investigated by comparing space maps measured in normal owls with those measured in owls raised with both eyelids sutured closed. The results demonstrate that owls raised without sight, but with normal hearing, d...

  18. Speech distortion measure based on auditory properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo; HU Xiulin; ZHANG Yunyu; ZHU Yaoting

    2000-01-01

    The Perceptual Spectrum Distortion (PSD), based on auditory properties of human being, is presented to measure speech distortion. The PSD measure calculates the speech distortion distance by simulating the auditory properties of human being and converting short-time speech power spectrum to auditory perceptual spectrum. Preliminary simulative experiments in comparison with the Itakura measure have been done. The results show that the PSD measure is a perferable speech distortion measure and more consistent with subjective assessment of speech quality.

  19. Auditory stimulation and cardiac autonomic regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Vitor E Valenti; Guida, Heraldo L.; Frizzo, Ana C F; Cardoso, Ana C. V.; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M; Luiz Carlos de Abreu

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have already demonstrated that auditory stimulation with music influences the cardiovascular system. In this study, we described the relationship between musical auditory stimulation and heart rate variability. Searches were performed with the Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane databases using the following keywords: "auditory stimulation", "autonomic nervous system", "music" and "heart rate variability". The selected studies indicated that there is a strong correlation bet...

  20. Mechanisms of Auditory Verbal Hallucination in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond eCho; Wayne eWu

    2013-01-01

    Recent work on the mechanisms underlying auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) has been heavily informed by self-monitoring accounts that postulate defects in an internal monitoring mechanism as the basis of AVH. A more neglected alternative is an account focusing on defects in auditory processing, namely a spontaneous activation account of auditory activity underlying AVH. Science is often aided by putting theories in competition. Accordingly, a discussion that systematically contrasts the two...

  1. Fin whale sound reception mechanisms: skull vibration enables low-frequency hearing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted W Cranford

    Full Text Available Hearing mechanisms in baleen whales (Mysticeti are essentially unknown but their vocalization frequencies overlap with anthropogenic sound sources. Synthetic audiograms were generated for a fin whale by applying finite element modeling tools to X-ray computed tomography (CT scans. We CT scanned the head of a small fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus in a scanner designed for solid-fuel rocket motors. Our computer (finite element modeling toolkit allowed us to visualize what occurs when sounds interact with the anatomic geometry of the whale's head. Simulations reveal two mechanisms that excite both bony ear complexes, (1 the skull-vibration enabled bone conduction mechanism and (2 a pressure mechanism transmitted through soft tissues. Bone conduction is the predominant mechanism. The mass density of the bony ear complexes and their firmly embedded attachments to the skull are universal across the Mysticeti, suggesting that sound reception mechanisms are similar in all baleen whales. Interactions between incident sound waves and the skull cause deformations that induce motion in each bony ear complex, resulting in best hearing sensitivity for low-frequency sounds. This predominant low-frequency sensitivity has significant implications for assessing mysticete exposure levels to anthropogenic sounds. The din of man-made ocean noise has increased steadily over the past half century. Our results provide valuable data for U.S. regulatory agencies and concerned large-scale industrial users of the ocean environment. This study transforms our understanding of baleen whale hearing and provides a means to predict auditory sensitivity across a broad spectrum of sound frequencies.

  2. Auditory Training and Its Effects upon the Auditory Discrimination and Reading Readiness of Kindergarten Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Minga Mustard

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of a systematic auditory training program on the auditory discrimination ability and reading readiness of 55 white, middle/upper middle class kindergarten students. Following pretesting with the "Wepman Auditory Discrimination Test,""The Clymer-Barrett Prereading Battery," and the…

  3. Effects of Methylphenidate (Ritalin) on Auditory Performance in Children with Attention and Auditory Processing Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Kim L.; Katz, Jack; Keller, Warren D.

    2000-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined effects of methylphenidate (Ritalin) on auditory processing in 32 children with both attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and central auditory processing (CAP) disorder. Analyses revealed that Ritalin did not have a significant effect on any of the central auditory processing measures, although…

  4. Seeing the song: left auditory structures may track auditory-visual dynamic alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A Mossbridge

    Full Text Available Auditory and visual signals generated by a single source tend to be temporally correlated, such as the synchronous sounds of footsteps and the limb movements of a walker. Continuous tracking and comparison of the dynamics of auditory-visual streams is thus useful for the perceptual binding of information arising from a common source. Although language-related mechanisms have been implicated in the tracking of speech-related auditory-visual signals (e.g., speech sounds and lip movements, it is not well known what sensory mechanisms generally track ongoing auditory-visual synchrony for non-speech signals in a complex auditory-visual environment. To begin to address this question, we used music and visual displays that varied in the dynamics of multiple features (e.g., auditory loudness and pitch; visual luminance, color, size, motion, and organization across multiple time scales. Auditory activity (monitored using auditory steady-state responses, ASSR was selectively reduced in the left hemisphere when the music and dynamic visual displays were temporally misaligned. Importantly, ASSR was not affected when attentional engagement with the music was reduced, or when visual displays presented dynamics clearly dissimilar to the music. These results appear to suggest that left-lateralized auditory mechanisms are sensitive to auditory-visual temporal alignment, but perhaps only when the dynamics of auditory and visual streams are similar. These mechanisms may contribute to correct auditory-visual binding in a busy sensory environment.

  5. Central auditory function of deafness genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willaredt, Marc A; Ebbers, Lena; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2014-06-01

    The highly variable benefit of hearing devices is a serious challenge in auditory rehabilitation. Various factors contribute to this phenomenon such as the diversity in ear defects, the different extent of auditory nerve hypoplasia, the age of intervention, and cognitive abilities. Recent analyses indicate that, in addition, central auditory functions of deafness genes have to be considered in this context. Since reduced neuronal activity acts as the common denominator in deafness, it is widely assumed that peripheral deafness influences development and function of the central auditory system in a stereotypical manner. However, functional characterization of transgenic mice with mutated deafness genes demonstrated gene-specific abnormalities in the central auditory system as well. A frequent function of deafness genes in the central auditory system is supported by a genome-wide expression study that revealed significant enrichment of these genes in the transcriptome of the auditory brainstem compared to the entire brain. Here, we will summarize current knowledge of the diverse central auditory functions of deafness genes. We furthermore propose the intimately interwoven gene regulatory networks governing development of the otic placode and the hindbrain as a mechanistic explanation for the widespread expression of these genes beyond the cochlea. We conclude that better knowledge of central auditory dysfunction caused by genetic alterations in deafness genes is required. In combination with improved genetic diagnostics becoming currently available through novel sequencing technologies, this information will likely contribute to better outcome prediction of hearing devices.

  6. Functional neuroanatomy of spatial sound processing in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Hannah L; Agustus, Jennifer L; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J; Mancini, Laura; Warren, Jason D

    2016-03-01

    Deficits of auditory scene analysis accompany Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the functional neuroanatomy of spatial sound processing has not been defined in AD. We addressed this using a "sparse" fMRI virtual auditory spatial paradigm in 14 patients with typical AD in relation to 16 healthy age-matched individuals. Sound stimulus sequences discretely varied perceived spatial location and pitch of the sound source in a factorial design. AD was associated with loss of differentiated cortical profiles of auditory location and pitch processing at the prescribed threshold, and significant group differences were identified for processing auditory spatial variation in posterior cingulate cortex (controls > AD) and the interaction of pitch and spatial variation in posterior insula (AD > controls). These findings build on emerging evidence for altered brain mechanisms of auditory scene analysis and suggest complex dysfunction of network hubs governing the interface of internal milieu and external environment in AD. Auditory spatial processing may be a sensitive probe of this interface and contribute to characterization of brain network failure in AD and other neurodegenerative syndromes. PMID:26923412

  7. Auditory Brainstem Response to Complex Sounds Predicts Self-Reported Speech-in-Noise Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Samira; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the ability of the auditory brainstem response to complex sounds (cABR) to predict subjective ratings of speech understanding in noise on the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ; Gatehouse & Noble, 2004) relative to the predictive ability of the Quick Speech-in-Noise test (QuickSIN; Killion, Niquette,…

  8. Rapid context-based identification of target sounds in an auditory scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Marissa L.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2015-01-01

    To make sense of our dynamic and complex auditory environment, we must be able to parse the sensory input into usable parts and pick out relevant sounds from all the potentially distracting auditory information. While it is unclear exactly how we accomplish this difficult task, Gamble and Woldorff (2014) recently reported an ERP study of an auditory target-search task in a temporally and spatially distributed, rapidly presented, auditory scene. They reported an early, differential, bilateral activation (beginning ~60 ms) between feature-deviating Target stimuli and physically equivalent feature-deviating Nontargets, reflecting a rapid Target-detection process. This was followed shortly later (~130 ms) by the lateralized N2ac ERP activation, reflecting the focusing of auditory spatial attention toward the Target sound and paralleling attentional-shifting processes widely studied in vision. Here we directly examined the early, bilateral, Target-selective effect to better understand its nature and functional role. Participants listened to midline-presented sounds that included Target and Nontarget stimuli that were randomly either embedded in a brief rapid stream or presented alone. The results indicate that this early bilateral effect results from a template for the Target that utilizes its feature deviancy within a stream to enable rapid identification. Moreover, individual-differences analysis showed that the size of this effect was larger for subjects with faster response times. The findings support the hypothesis that our auditory attentional systems can implement and utilize a context-based relational template for a Target sound, making use of additional auditory information in the environment when needing to rapidly detect a relevant sound. PMID:25848684

  9. Stimulation of the human auditory nerve with optical radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Andrew; Winkler, Piotr; Mierzwinski, Jozef; Beuth, Wojciech; Izzo Matic, Agnella; Siedlecki, Zygmunt; Teudt, Ingo; Maier, Hannes; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2009-02-01

    A novel, spatially selective method to stimulate cranial nerves has been proposed: contact free stimulation with optical radiation. The radiation source is an infrared pulsed laser. The Case Report is the first report ever that shows that optical stimulation of the auditory nerve is possible in the human. The ethical approach to conduct any measurements or tests in humans requires efficacy and safety studies in animals, which have been conducted in gerbils. This report represents the first step in a translational research project to initiate a paradigm shift in neural interfaces. A patient was selected who required surgical removal of a large meningioma angiomatum WHO I by a planned transcochlear approach. Prior to cochlear ablation by drilling and subsequent tumor resection, the cochlear nerve was stimulated with a pulsed infrared laser at low radiation energies. Stimulation with optical radiation evoked compound action potentials from the human auditory nerve. Stimulation of the auditory nerve with infrared laser pulses is possible in the human inner ear. The finding is an important step for translating results from animal experiments to human and furthers the development of a novel interface that uses optical radiation to stimulate neurons. Additional measurements are required to optimize the stimulation parameters.

  10. Auditory hallucinations suppressed by etizolam in a patient with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, F; Mazzoli, M; Rossi, E

    1993-10-01

    A patient presented with a 15 year history of schizophrenia with auditory hallucinations. Though unresponsive to prolonged trials of neuroleptics, the auditory hallucinations disappeared with etizolam. PMID:7902201

  11. Auditory Association Cortex Lesions Impair Auditory Short-Term Memory in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Michael; D'Amato, Michael R.; Rodman, Hillary R.; Gross, Charles G.

    1990-01-01

    Monkeys that were trained to perform auditory and visual short-term memory tasks (delayed matching-to-sample) received lesions of the auditory association cortex in the superior temporal gyrus. Although visual memory was completely unaffected by the lesions, auditory memory was severely impaired. Despite this impairment, all monkeys could discriminate sounds closer in frequency than those used in the auditory memory task. This result suggests that the superior temporal cortex plays a role in auditory processing and retention similar to the role the inferior temporal cortex plays in visual processing and retention.

  12. Preliminary study of the individual variability of the sexual receptivity of rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Theau.Clément

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this preliminary experiment was to investigate the individual variability of the sexual receptivity of a rabbit doe in the presence of a buck (lordosis position, 0-1  variable. Twenty primiparous does maintained without reproduction were tested over 4 mo (3 tests per week at a 2- or 3-day interval after their first kindling. Out of 48 tests, the receptivity rate was 52.5±50.0% on average and varied from 20.0 to 73.3% depending on the test day. The does were lactating at the beginning of the test period and a strong receptivity decrease was revealed at the peak of lactation. Receptivity did not vary according to the tester buck or to the test operator. The individual receptivity of does varied from 8.6 to 81.3%; three of them had a receptivity rate lower than 30% and four of them a receptivity rate greater than 70%. No relationship was revealed between average receptivity and body weight or body weight variations around first litter weaning. The repeatability of sexual receptivity of non-lactating does was 23.2%. Lowly receptive does had a shorter average oestrus time (<2 tests and a longer dioestrus time (≥6 tests, whereas highly receptive does had a longer oestrus time (>4 tests and a shorter dioestrus time (≤3 tests. The correlation between average receptivity and average oestrus time was 0.80. These results indicate a fairly high individual variability of the expression of rabbit sexual receptivity and of its duration, and justify the exploration of an eventual genetic origin in a subsequent experiment.

  13. Narrow, duplicated internal auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, T. [Servico de Neurorradiologia, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Avenida Torrado da Silva, 2801-951, Almada (Portugal); Shayestehfar, B. [Department of Radiology, UCLA Oliveview School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Lufkin, R. [Department of Radiology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2003-05-01

    A narrow internal auditory canal (IAC) constitutes a relative contraindication to cochlear implantation because it is associated with aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve or its cochlear branch. We report an unusual case of a narrow, duplicated IAC, divided by a bony septum into a superior relatively large portion and an inferior stenotic portion, in which we could identify only the facial nerve. This case adds support to the association between a narrow IAC and aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The normal facial nerve argues against the hypothesis that the narrow IAC is the result of a primary bony defect which inhibits the growth of the vestibulocochlear nerve. (orig.)

  14. Auditory hallucinations in nonverbal quadriplegics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, J

    1985-11-01

    When a system for communicating with nonverbal, quadriplegic, institutionalized residents was developed, it was discovered that many were experiencing auditory hallucinations. Nine cases are presented in this study. The "voices" described have many similar characteristics, the primary one being that they give authoritarian commands that tell the residents how to behave and to which the residents feel compelled to respond. Both the relationship of this phenomenon to the theoretical work of Julian Jaynes and its effect on the lives of the residents are discussed.

  15. Autosomal recessive hereditary auditory neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋菊; 顾瑞; 曹菊阳

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Auditory neuropathy (AN) is a sensorineural hearing disorder characterized by absent or abnormal auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and normal cochlear outer hair cell function as measured by otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). Many risk factors are thought to be involved in its etiology and pathophysiology. Three Chinese pedigrees with familial AN are presented herein to demonstrate involvement of genetic factors in AN etiology. Methods: Probands of the above - mentioned pedigrees, who had been diagnosed with AN, were evaluated and followed up in the Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, China PLA General Hospital. Their family members were studied and the pedigree diagrams were established. History of illness, physical examination,pure tone audiometry, acoustic reflex, ABRs and transient evoked and distortion- product otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs and DPOAEs) were obtained from members of these families. DPOAE changes under the influence of contralateral sound stimuli were observed by presenting a set of continuous white noise to the non - recording ear to exam the function of auditory efferent system. Some subjects received vestibular caloric test, computed tomography (CT)scan of the temporal bone and electrocardiography (ECG) to exclude other possible neuropathy disorders. Results: In most affected subjects, hearing loss of various degrees and speech discrimination difficulties started at 10 to16 years of age. Their audiological evaluation showed absence of acoustic reflex and ABRs. As expected in AN, these subjects exhibited near normal cochlear outer hair cell function as shown in TEOAE & DPOAE recordings. Pure- tone audiometry revealed hearing loss ranging from mild to severe in these patients. Autosomal recessive inheritance patterns were observed in the three families. In Pedigree Ⅰ and Ⅱ, two affected brothers were found respectively, while in pedigree Ⅲ, 2 sisters were affected. All the patients were otherwise normal without

  16. Membrane–initiated estradiol signaling regulating sexual receptivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Micevych

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol has profound actions on the structure and function of the nervous system. In addition to nuclear actions that directly modulate gene expression, the idea that estradiol can rapidly activate cell signaling by binding to membrane estrogen receptors (mERs has emerged. Even the regulation of sexual receptivity, an action previously thought to be completely regulated by nuclear ERs, has been shown to have a membrane-initiated estradiol signaling (MIES component. This highlighted the question of the nature of mERs. Several candidates have been proposed, ERα, ERβ, ER-X, GPR30 (G protein coupled estrogen receptor; GPER, and a receptor activated by a diphenylacrylamide compound, STX. Although each of these receptors has been shown to be active in specific assays, we present evidence for and against their participation in sexual receptivity by acting in the lordosis-regulating circuit. The initial MIES that activates the circuit is in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH. Using both activation of μ-opioid receptors (MOR in the medial preoptic nucleus and lordosis behavior, we document that both ERα and the STX receptor participate in the required MIES. ERα and the STX receptor activation of cell signaling are dependent on the transactivation of type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1a that augment progesterone synthesis in astrocytes and protein kinase C (PKC in ARH neurons. While estradiol-induced sexual receptivity does not depend on neuroprogesterone, proceptive behaviors do. Moreover, the ERα and the STX receptor activation of medial preoptic MORs and augmentation of lordosis were sensitive to mGluR1a blockade. These observations suggest a common mechanism through which mERs are coupled to intracellular signaling cascades, not just in regulating reproduction, but in actions throughout the neuraxis including the cortex, hippocampus, striatum and DRGs.

  17. Further Evidence of Auditory Extinction in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Rebecca Shisler; Basilakos, Alexandra; Love-Myers, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Preliminary research ( Shisler, 2005) suggests that auditory extinction in individuals with aphasia (IWA) may be connected to binding and attention. In this study, the authors expanded on previous findings on auditory extinction to determine the source of extinction deficits in IWA. Method: Seventeen IWA (M[subscript age] = 53.19 years)…

  18. Mapping tonotopy in human auditory cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Pim; Langers, Dave R M; Moore, BCJ; Patterson, RD; Winter, IM; Carlyon, RP; Gockel, HE

    2013-01-01

    Tonotopy is arguably the most prominent organizational principle in the auditory pathway. Nevertheless, the layout of tonotopic maps in humans is still debated. We present neuroimaging data that robustly identify multiple tonotopic maps in the bilateral auditory cortex. In contrast with some earlier

  19. Auditory Processing Disorder and Foreign Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselovska, Ganna

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at exploring various strategies for coping with the auditory processing disorder in the light of foreign language acquisition. The techniques relevant to dealing with the auditory processing disorder can be attributed to environmental and compensatory approaches. The environmental one involves actions directed at creating a…

  20. First direct exposure to lunar material for Crew Reception personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The first direct exposure to lunar material for Crew Reception personnel probably happened late Friday, July 25, 1969. Terry Slezak (displaying moon dust on his left hand fingers), Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) photographic technician, was removing film magazines from the first of two containers when the incident occurred. As he removed the plastic seal from Magazine S, one of the 70mm magazines taken during Apollo 11 Extravehicular Activity (EVA), it was apparent that the exterior of the cassette displayed traces of a black powdery substance. Apollo 11 Commander Neil Armstrong reported during the mission that he had retrieved a 70mm cassette which had dropped to the lunar surface.

  1. Ontogenesis of receptive fields in the rabbit striate cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, L. H.; Chow, K. L.; Spear, P. D.; Grobstein, P.

    1974-01-01

    The development of receptive fields in rabbit pups was investigated by measuring their responses to various light stimuli and to electric shock delivered to the optic nerve head. The pups ranged in age from three to twenty-five days, allowing correlation of findings with maturation. The data, classified according to relation with symmetric or asymmetric field types, strongly suggest that retina maturation is the key factor in the rate of development in central visual pathways, and that central synaptic connections are made before the onset of retinal activity.

  2. Noise-Assisted Signal Reception in Threshold Neuron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In certain cases, noises can improve signal transmission or signal processing. This phenomenon is the so-called stochastic resonance. In this paper, we firstly present two theorems to prove that the noisy threshold neuron shows stochastic resonance in terms of the probability of correct reception. Secondly, we analytically discuss stochastic resonance effects and give the probability-optimal noise levels for four representative noises. Finally, we discuss the stochastic gradient ascent learning law, which can be used to find the probability-optimal noise levels. We also present our simulation results for the four representative noises. These results indicate that stochastic resonance is favorable both in biological neurons and in signal processing.

  3. Transmission and reception with multiple antennas theoretical foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Biglieri, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    Transmission and Reception with Multiple Antennas: Theoretical Foundations presents a comprehensive, yet compact, survey, emphasizing the mathematical aspects of single-user multiple-antenna theory.Wireless communication system design was until recently thought to have been limited in practice by time and bandwidth. The discovery that space, obtained by increasing the number of transmit and receive antennas, can also effectively generate degrees of freedom, and hence expand the range of choices made available to the design offers system designers important new opportunities.Transmission and Re

  4. Aesthetics of reception, Jauss, implied reader and actual reader.

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson Cleiton de Souza

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss how Hans Robert Jauss, the creator of the aesthetics of reception, has introduced the category of the reader into the literary studies especially when it comes to the importance of the reader to the understanding of the text, and to the history of a society and its literary system or, in other words to the way the formal elements of a literary work are organized and how they are related to aesthetic, ethic and moral evaluations. To do so, it is necessary to...

  5. Radiation Emergency Preparedness Tools: Virtual Community Reception Center

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-28

    This podcast is an overview of resources from the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Practical Tools for Radiation Emergency Preparedness. A specialist working with CDC's Radiation Studies Branch describes a web-based training tool known as a Virtual Community Reception Center (vCRC).  Created: 2/28/2011 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Radiation Studies Branch and Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 2/28/2011.

  6. Relating auditory attributes of multichannel sound to preference and to physical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choisel, Sylvain; Wickelmaier, Florian Maria

    2006-01-01

    Sound reproduced by multichannel systems is affected by many factors giving rise to various sensations, or auditory attributes. Relating specific attributes to overall preference and to physical measures of the sound field provides valuable information for a better understanding of the parameters...... within and between musical program materials, allowing for a careful generalization regarding the perception of spatial audio reproduction. Finally, a set of objective measures is derived from analysis of the sound field at the listening position in an attempt to predict the auditory attributes....

  7. Speech perception as complex auditory categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Lori L.

    2002-05-01

    Despite a long and rich history of categorization research in cognitive psychology, very little work has addressed the issue of complex auditory category formation. This is especially unfortunate because the general underlying cognitive and perceptual mechanisms that guide auditory category formation are of great importance to understanding speech perception. I will discuss a new methodological approach to examining complex auditory category formation that specifically addresses issues relevant to speech perception. This approach utilizes novel nonspeech sound stimuli to gain full experimental control over listeners' history of experience. As such, the course of learning is readily measurable. Results from this methodology indicate that the structure and formation of auditory categories are a function of the statistical input distributions of sound that listeners hear, aspects of the operating characteristics of the auditory system, and characteristics of the perceptual categorization system. These results have important implications for phonetic acquisition and speech perception.

  8. Active listening for spatial orientation in a complex auditory scene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia F Moss

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available To successfully negotiate a complex environment, an animal must control the timing of motor behaviors in coordination with dynamic sensory information. Here, we report on adaptive temporal control of vocal-motor behavior in an echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscus, as it captured tethered insects close to background vegetation. Recordings of the bat's sonar vocalizations were synchronized with high-speed video images that were used to reconstruct the bat's three-dimensional flight path and the positions of target and vegetation. When the bat encountered the difficult task of taking insects as close as 10-20 cm from the vegetation, its behavior changed significantly from that under open room conditions. Its success rate decreased by about 50%, its time to initiate interception increased by a factor of ten, and its high repetition rate "terminal buzz" decreased in duration by a factor of three. Under all conditions, the bat produced prominent sonar "strobe groups," clusters of echolocation pulses with stable intervals. In the final stages of insect capture, the bat produced strobe groups at a higher incidence when the insect was positioned near clutter. Strobe groups occurred at all phases of the wingbeat (and inferred respiration cycle, challenging the hypothesis of strict synchronization between respiration and sound production in echolocating bats. The results of this study provide a clear demonstration of temporal vocal-motor control that directly impacts the signals used for perception.

  9. Processing of spatial sounds in the impaired auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arweiler, Iris

    information is not crucial. The results from an additional experiment demonstrated that the ER benefit was maintained with independent as well as with linked hearing aid compression. Overall, this work contributes to the understanding of ER processing in listeners with normal and impaired hearing and may have...... with an intelligibility-weighted “efficiency factor” which revealed that the spectral characteristics of the ER’s caused the reduced benefit. Hearing-impaired listeners were able to utilize the ER energy as effectively as normal-hearing listeners, most likely because binaural processing was not required...... for the integration of the ER’s with the DS. Different masker types were found to have an impact on the binaural processing of the overall speech signal but not on the processing of ER’s. Second, the influence of interaural level differences (ILD’s) on speech intelligibility was investigated with a hearing aid...

  10. THE EFFECTS OF SALICYLATE ON AUDITORY EVOKED POTENTIAL AMPLITWDE FROM THE AUDITORY CORTEX AND AUDITORY BRAINSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian Sawka; SUN Wei

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus has often been studied using salicylate in animal models as they are capable of inducing tempo-rary hearing loss and tinnitus. Studies have recently observed enhancement of auditory evoked responses of the auditory cortex (AC) post salicylate treatment which is also shown to be related to tinnitus like behavior in rats. The aim of this study was to observe if enhancements of the AC post salicylate treatment are also present at structures in the brainstem. Four male Sprague Dawley rats with AC implanted electrodes were tested for both AC and auditory brainstem response (ABR) recordings pre and post 250 mg/kg intraperitone-al injections of salicylate. The responses were recorded as the peak to trough amplitudes of P1-N1 (AC), ABR wave V, and ABR waveⅡ. AC responses resulted in statistically significant enhancement of ampli-tude at 2 hours post salicylate with 90 dB stimuli tone bursts of 4, 8, 12, and 20 kHz. Wave V of ABR re-sponses at 90 dB resulted in a statistically significant reduction of amplitude 2 hours post salicylate and a mean decrease of amplitude of 31%for 16 kHz. WaveⅡamplitudes at 2 hours post treatment were signifi-cantly reduced for 4, 12, and 20 kHz stimuli at 90 dB SPL. Our results suggest that the enhancement chang-es of the AC related to salicylate induced tinnitus are generated superior to the level of the inferior colliculus and may originate in the AC.

  11. Temporal auditory processing in elders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzolini, Vanuza Conceição

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the trial of aging all the structures of the organism are modified, generating intercurrences in the quality of the hearing and of the comprehension. The hearing loss that occurs in consequence of this trial occasion a reduction of the communicative function, causing, also, a distance of the social relationship. Objective: Comparing the performance of the temporal auditory processing between elderly individuals with and without hearing loss. Method: The present study is characterized for to be a prospective, transversal and of diagnosis character field work. They were analyzed 21 elders (16 women and 5 men, with ages between 60 to 81 years divided in two groups, a group "without hearing loss"; (n = 13 with normal auditive thresholds or restricted hearing loss to the isolated frequencies and a group "with hearing loss" (n = 8 with neurosensory hearing loss of variable degree between light to moderately severe. Both the groups performed the tests of frequency (PPS and duration (DPS, for evaluate the ability of temporal sequencing, and the test Randon Gap Detection Test (RGDT, for evaluate the temporal resolution ability. Results: It had not difference statistically significant between the groups, evaluated by the tests DPS and RGDT. The ability of temporal sequencing was significantly major in the group without hearing loss, when evaluated by the test PPS in the condition "muttering". This result presented a growing one significant in parallel with the increase of the age group. Conclusion: It had not difference in the temporal auditory processing in the comparison between the groups.

  12. Mach's phenomenalism and the British reception of Mendelism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, P R

    2000-12-01

    The assimilation of Mendel's paper into Britain took place in an Edwardian social context. This paper concentrates on the interplay of empirical and philosophical issues in this reception. A feature of the British reception of mendelism, not duplicated elsewhere, was the role of phenomenalist philosophies of science as developed by the physicist-mathematician and scientific methodologist Karl Pearson from the philosophical positions of Austrian physicist Ernst Mach and British mathematician William Clifford. Pearson's philosophy of science forms the background to his subsequent collaboration with the zoologist W.F.R. Weldon. In this collaborative work, Pearson developed powerful statistical techniques for analyzing Weldon's empirical data on organic variation. Pearson's statistical analysis of causation and his rejection of hidden entities and causes in the explanation of evolutionary change formed the philosophical component of this program. The arguments of Pearson and Weldon were first brought to bear against the pre-Mendel 'discontinuist' analyses of variation of William Bateson. The introduction of Mendel's paper into these empirical and methodological debates consequently resulted in mathematically sophisticated attacks on Mendel's claims by Pearson and Weldon. This paper summarizes this history and argues for the creative importance of this biometrical resistance to Mendelism. PMID:11147093

  13. Receptivity to thermal noise in real airfoil configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchini, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    Thermal noise, the macroscopic manifestation of microscopic particle agitation, is present in fluid flow just as in electron flow in conductors or in other physical transport phenomena. When the flow acts as an amplifier, typically during transition to turbulence, the transition position can be influenced by the amplitude of external disturbances through the so called receptivity of the flow instabilities; internally generated thermal noise represents a thermodynamically enforced lower bound to how much disturbances can be reduced. In a previous paper (Seventh IUTAM Symposium on Laminar-Turbulent Transition, IUTAM Bookseries Volume 18, Springer, 2010, pp. 11-18), the present author showed that the maximum transition distance in a Blasius boundary layer corresponds to a Reynolds number little above 6 .106 and to an N-factor of the order of 13. Results to be exhibited at this conference show that in a real airfoil configuration the maximum transition Reynolds number imposed by thermal noise is even lower than on a flat wall, and not far from the actually observed transition position. It follows that thermal noise might actually have a role in natural transition; and that even a perfectly silenced laboratory environment cannot push the transition position much farther. Work supported by the European Community through the RECEPT grant.

  14. The media's reception of the risk associated with radioactive disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an urgent need to develop methodologies to examine the response by the media to radioactive disasters. 'Reception study' is a new research approach in the field of mass communication, studying how the viewers construct meaning from TV news. This ongoing reception study explores how fifteen respondents, all involved in the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, recall and interpret TV news coverage nine years after the accident. The main aim is to discover how the news affects the recipients' interpretations of a disaster and what kind of thoughts, reactions and associations risk messages provoke in retrospect, in the present and in the beliefs about the future. The initial findings indicate that the Chernobyl news on TV was mainly based on technical rationality, while viewers construct meaning founded on symbolic, cultural rationality. The transmission of catastrophe news is not just a matter of responding to the information needs of the public. Denotative risk messages simultaneously convey connotative, symbolic resonance of risk on a metaphysical level. (author)

  15. Predicting Endometrium Receptivity with Parameters of Spiral Artery Blood Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Xuehao; LI Quanshui; ZHANG Qingping; ZHU Guijin

    2005-01-01

    Summary: In order To evaluate whether the parameters of spiral artery blood flow, as measured by transvaginal color Doppler, may be used to assess endometrium receptivity prior to embryo transfer (ET), a retrospective study of 94 infertile women who had undergone ART treatments with different outcomes (pregnant or nonpregnant) was done. Subendometrial blood flow was evaluated. The resistance index (RI), systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D) and pulsatility index (PI) were significantly lower in those who achieved pregnancy as compared with those who did not: 0.62±0.04 vs 0.68±0.04 (P<0.001), 2.66±0.33 vs 3.19±0.39 (P<0.01) and 1.15±0.17 vs 1.34±0.22 (P<0.05), respectively. Furthermore, when RI>0.72, PI>1.6, and S/D>3.6, no pregnancy occurred. These data suggest that the parameters of spiral artery blood flow could be used as a new assay in predicting endometrial receptivity before ET.

  16. Attraction of position preference by spatial attention throughout human visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Barrie P.; Harvey, Ben M.; Dumoulin, Serge O.

    2014-01-01

    Voluntary spatial attention concentrates neural resources at the attended location. Here, we examined the effects of spatial attention on spatial position selectivity in humans. We measured population receptive fields (pRFs) using high-field functional MRI (fMRI) (7T) while subjects performed an att

  17. Airborne Antenna System for Minimum-Cycle-Slip GPS Reception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    A system that includes a Global Positioning System (GPS) antenna and associated apparatus for keeping the antenna aimed upward has been developed for use aboard a remote-sensing-survey airplane. The purpose served by the system is to enable minimum- cycle-slip reception of GPS signals used in precise computation of the trajectory of the airplane, without having to restrict the airplane to maneuvers that increase the flight time needed to perform a survey. Cycle slip signifies loss of continuous track of the phase of a signal. Minimum-cycle-slip reception is desirable because maintaining constant track of the phase of the carrier signal from each available GPS satellite is necessary for surveying to centimeter or subcentimeter precision. Even a loss of signal for as short a time as a nanosecond can cause cycle slip. Cycle slips degrade the quality and precision of survey data acquired during a flight. The two principal causes of cycle slip are weakness of signals and multipath propagation. Heretofore, it has been standard practice to mount a GPS antenna rigidly on top of an airplane, and the radiation pattern of the antenna is typically hemispherical, so that all GPS satellites above the horizon are viewed by the antenna during level flight. When the airplane must be banked for a turn or other maneuver, the reception hemisphere becomes correspondingly tilted; hence, the antenna no longer views satellites that may still be above the Earth horizon but are now below the equatorial plane of the tilted reception hemisphere. Moreover, part of the reception hemisphere (typically, on the inside of a turn) becomes pointed toward ground, with a consequent increase in received noise and, therefore, degradation of GPS measurements. To minimize the likelihood of loss of signal and cycle slip, bank angles of remote-sensing survey airplanes have generally been limited to 10 or less, resulting in skidding or slipping uncoordinated turns. An airplane must be banked in order to make

  18. Relationship between Sympathetic Skin Responses and Auditory Hypersensitivity to Different Auditory Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Fumi; Iwanaga, Ryoichiro; Chono, Mami; Fujihara, Saori; Tokunaga, Akiko; Murata, Jun; Tanaka, Koji; Nakane, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Goro

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] Auditory hypersensitivity has been widely reported in patients with autism spectrum disorders. However, the neurological background of auditory hypersensitivity is currently not clear. The present study examined the relationship between sympathetic nervous system responses and auditory hypersensitivity induced by different types of auditory stimuli. [Methods] We exposed 20 healthy young adults to six different types of auditory stimuli. The amounts of palmar sweating resulting from the auditory stimuli were compared between groups with (hypersensitive) and without (non-hypersensitive) auditory hypersensitivity. [Results] Although no group × type of stimulus × first stimulus interaction was observed for the extent of reaction, significant type of stimulus × first stimulus interaction was noted for the extent of reaction. For an 80 dB-6,000 Hz stimulus, the trends for palmar sweating differed between the groups. For the first stimulus, the variance became larger in the hypersensitive group than in the non-hypersensitive group. [Conclusion] Subjects who regularly felt excessive reactions to auditory stimuli tended to have excessive sympathetic responses to repeated loud noises compared with subjects who did not feel excessive reactions. People with auditory hypersensitivity may be classified into several subtypes depending on their reaction patterns to auditory stimuli.

  19. Spontaneous high-gamma band activity reflects functional organization of auditory cortex in the awake macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Makoto; Saunders, Richard C; Leopold, David A; Mishkin, Mortimer; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2012-06-01

    In the absence of sensory stimuli, spontaneous activity in the brain has been shown to exhibit organization at multiple spatiotemporal scales. In the macaque auditory cortex, responses to acoustic stimuli are tonotopically organized within multiple, adjacent frequency maps aligned in a caudorostral direction on the supratemporal plane (STP) of the lateral sulcus. Here, we used chronic microelectrocorticography to investigate the correspondence between sensory maps and spontaneous neural fluctuations in the auditory cortex. We first mapped tonotopic organization across 96 electrodes spanning approximately two centimeters along the primary and higher auditory cortex. In separate sessions, we then observed that spontaneous activity at the same sites exhibited spatial covariation that reflected the tonotopic map of the STP. This observation demonstrates a close relationship between functional organization and spontaneous neural activity in the sensory cortex of the awake monkey. PMID:22681693

  20. An Auditory Model of Improved Adaptive ZCPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An improved ZCAP auditory model with adaptability is proposed in this paper, and the  adaptive method designed for ZCPA model is suitable for other auditory model with inner-hair-cell sub-model. The first step in the implement process of the proposed ZCPA model is to carry out the calculation of inner product between signal and complex Gammatone filters to obtain important frequency components  of signal. And then, according to  the result of the first step, the parameters of the basilar membrane sub-model and frequency box are automatically adjusted, such as the number of the basilar membrane filters, center frequency and bandwith of each basilar membrane filter, position of each frequency box, and so on. Lastly  an auditory model is built, and the final output is auditory spectrum.The results of numerical simulation and experiments have showed that the proposed model could realize accurate frequency selection, and the auditory spectrum is more distinctly than that of conventional ZCPA model. Moreover, the proposed model can completely avoided the influence of the number of filter on the shape of auditory spectrum existing in conventional ZCPA model so that the shape of auditory spectrum is steady, and the data quantity is small.

  1. Auditory Efferent System Modulates Mosquito Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Marta; Seifert, Marvin; Spalthoff, Christian; Warren, Ben; Weiss, Lukas; Giraldo, Diego; Winkler, Margret; Pauls, Stephanie; Göpfert, Martin C

    2016-08-01

    The performance of vertebrate ears is controlled by auditory efferents that originate in the brain and innervate the ear, synapsing onto hair cell somata and auditory afferent fibers [1-3]. Efferent activity can provide protection from noise and facilitate the detection and discrimination of sound by modulating mechanical amplification by hair cells and transmitter release as well as auditory afferent action potential firing [1-3]. Insect auditory organs are thought to lack efferent control [4-7], but when we inspected mosquito ears, we obtained evidence for its existence. Antibodies against synaptic proteins recognized rows of bouton-like puncta running along the dendrites and axons of mosquito auditory sensory neurons. Electron microscopy identified synaptic and non-synaptic sites of vesicle release, and some of the innervating fibers co-labeled with somata in the CNS. Octopamine, GABA, and serotonin were identified as efferent neurotransmitters or neuromodulators that affect auditory frequency tuning, mechanical amplification, and sound-evoked potentials. Mosquito brains thus modulate mosquito ears, extending the use of auditory efferent systems from vertebrates to invertebrates and adding new levels of complexity to mosquito sound detection and communication. PMID:27476597

  2. Auditory functional magnetic resonance imaging in dogs – normalization and group analysis and the processing of pitch in the canine auditory pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Bach, Jan-Peter; Lüpke, Matthias; Dziallas, Peter; Wefstaedt, Patrick; Uppenkamp, Stefan; Seifert, Hermann; Nolte, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an advanced and frequently used technique for studying brain functions in humans and increasingly so in animals. A key element of analyzing fMRI data is group analysis, for which valid spatial normalization is a prerequisite. In the current study we applied normalization and group analysis to a dataset from an auditory functional MRI experiment in anesthetized beagles. The stimulation paradigm used in the experiment was composed of si...

  3. Functional Neurochemistry of the Auditory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourollah Agha Ebrahimi

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional Neurochemistry is one of the fields of studies in the auditory system which has had an outstanding development in the recent years. Many of the findings in the mentioned field had led not only the basic auditory researches but also the clinicians to new points of view in audiology.Here, we are aimed at discussing the latest investigations in the Functional Neurochemistry of the auditory system and have focused this review mainly on the researches which will arise flashes of hope for future clinical studies

  4. Auditory Neuropathy/Dyssynchrony in Biotinidase Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghini, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is a disorder inherited autosomal recessively showing evidence of hearing loss and optic atrophy in addition to seizures, hypotonia, and ataxia. In the present study, a 2-year-old boy with Biotinidase deficiency is presented in which clinical symptoms have been reported with auditory neuropathy/auditory dyssynchrony (AN/AD). In this case, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions showed bilaterally normal responses representing normal function of outer hair cells. In contrast, acoustic reflex test showed absent reflexes bilaterally, and visual reinforcement audiometry and auditory brainstem responses indicated severe to profound hearing loss in both ears. These results suggest AN/AD in patients with Biotinidase deficiency. PMID:27144235

  5. Functional Neurochemistry of the Auditory System

    OpenAIRE

    Nourollah Agha Ebrahimi

    1993-01-01

    Functional Neurochemistry is one of the fields of studies in the auditory system which has had an outstanding development in the recent years. Many of the findings in the mentioned field had led not only the basic auditory researches but also the clinicians to new points of view in audiology.Here, we are aimed at discussing the latest investigations in the Functional Neurochemistry of the auditory system and have focused this review mainly on the researches which will arise flashes of hope f...

  6. Auditory filters at low-frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orellana, Carlos Andrés Jurado; Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Prediction and assessment of low-frequency noise problems requires information about the auditory filter characteristics at low-frequencies. Unfortunately, data at low-frequencies is scarce and practically no results have been published for frequencies below 100 Hz. Extrapolation of ERB results......-ear transfer function), the asymmetry of the auditory filter changed from steeper high-frequency slopes at 1000 Hz to steeper low-frequency slopes below 100 Hz. Increasing steepness at low-frequencies of the middle-ear high-pass filter is thought to cause this effect. The dynamic range of the auditory filter...

  7. On Movie Title Translation from the Perspective of Reception Aesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琼

    2014-01-01

    Movie is a popular art which occupies an important position in people’s leisure time. Movie title, as the most direct and accessible tool for audience to know about the movie, is very significant to attract audience into the cinema. Therefore, the translation of movie title cannot be ignored. However, due to the cultural differences in Chinese and English culture, the problem of movie title translation is obvious which needs to be paid attention to the translation and people working in movie industry. Traditional translation theory puts more emphasis on the important and authoritative status of original text and author. But this notion cannot satisfy the needs of movie title translation to the largest extent. Movie is not only a cultural and linguistic product, it also is a special commercial product. The ultimate objective of movie is to allure the audience into the cinema to watch and ap-preciate it in addition to provide the cultural information. Reception aesthetics, as a theory of literary criticism, gives priority to readers’role in literary understanding and interpretation. According to reception aesthetics, the horizon of expectation should be taken into consideration when the translation work begins to be done. Horizon of expectation is composed of the readers’or au-diences’ previous cultural norms, assumptions, and criteria in the source language and culture at a given time. Movie title, as a special text, is also understood and influenced by the audience’s horizon of expectation. Chinese audience, before they decide to watch a movie, are naturally harbor their horizon of expectation about the movie. They will form their judgment and assumptions about the genre, plot, story, background about the movie from the movie title. These kind of horizon of expectation will conse-quently influence their ultimate decision to watch the movie or not. Hence, in doing the movie title translation, the translator is supposed to keep the audience’s horizon of

  8. Assessing the aging effect on auditory-verbal memory by Persian version of dichotic auditory verbal memory test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shahidipour

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, significant reduction in auditory memory was seen in aged group and the Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test, like many other auditory verbal memory tests, showed the aging effects on auditory verbal memory performance.

  9. AUDITORY CORTICAL PLASTICITY: DOES IT PROVIDE EVIDENCE FOR COGNITIVE PROCESSING IN THE AUDITORY CORTEX?

    OpenAIRE

    Irvine, Dexter R. F.

    2007-01-01

    The past 20 years have seen substantial changes in our view of the nature of the processing carried out in auditory cortex. Some processing of a cognitive nature, previously attributed to higher order “association” areas, is now considered to take place in auditory cortex itself. One argument adduced in support of this view is the evidence indicating a remarkable degree of plasticity in the auditory cortex of adult animals. Such plasticity has been demonstrated in a wide range of paradigms, i...

  10. Frequency band-importance functions for auditory and auditory-visual speech recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ken W.

    2005-04-01

    In many everyday listening environments, speech communication involves the integration of both acoustic and visual speech cues. This is especially true in noisy and reverberant environments where the speech signal is highly degraded, or when the listener has a hearing impairment. Understanding the mechanisms involved in auditory-visual integration is a primary interest of this work. Of particular interest is whether listeners are able to allocate their attention to various frequency regions of the speech signal differently under auditory-visual conditions and auditory-alone conditions. For auditory speech recognition, the most important frequency regions tend to be around 1500-3000 Hz, corresponding roughly to important acoustic cues for place of articulation. The purpose of this study is to determine the most important frequency region under auditory-visual speech conditions. Frequency band-importance functions for auditory and auditory-visual conditions were obtained by having subjects identify speech tokens under conditions where the speech-to-noise ratio of different parts of the speech spectrum is independently and randomly varied on every trial. Point biserial correlations were computed for each separate spectral region and the normalized correlations are interpreted as weights indicating the importance of each region. Relations among frequency-importance functions for auditory and auditory-visual conditions will be discussed.

  11. Receptivity of a TVD Scheme in Incompressible Flow Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Byeong Rog

    A TVD upwind scheme originally designed for compressible flow is applied to the SMAC finite-difference method for incompressible flow analysis. The receptivity and validity of this application are investigated by an evaluation of the accuracy, stability and convergence rate for the SMAC method combined with the TVD scheme. Using this method, three-dimensional developing entry flows through a square-curved duct are calculated and compared with available experimental data as well as some computational results obtained by QUICKs and third-order upwind schemes. Such comparisons show that the numerical method applying the TVD scheme has the highest computational efficiency without a sharp loss of accuracy, resulting in confidence in the application this scheme to incompressible flow computations.

  12. Discrete Mathematical Chemistry: Social Aspects of its Emergence and Reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Restrepo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We first show some successes of discrete mathematical chemistry (DMC, a branch of theoretical chemistry born in the 1960s and 1970s. Then we explore the social context in which the emergence of DMC took place, initiated mainly in East European countries. The availability of knowledge, especially of mathematical knowledge, and the lack of research funds were the main conditions that helped get DMC started. We also explore the reception of DMC in the chemical and mathematical circles, being flat rejection in chemistry and slow acceptance in mathematics. Finally, we discuss some definitions of the subject and propose a new one stating that mathematical chemistry is the realization of mathematical thinking in chemistry, understood as functional thinking defined by Felix Klein in the Erlangen Program.

  13. MR imaging with remote reception using a coil array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, F.; Marrufo, O.; Martin, R.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2012-10-01

    A strategy for imaging a large field-of-view has recently been proposed applying remote detection with a waveguide and single loop coils. RF coils produce a traveling-wave propagating through the bore of the magnet, which is large enough so the cutoff frequency is below the Larmor frequency. This assumption also considers that a human subject inside the magnet bore. We applied the travelling-wave concept to generate images of a human leg at 3 Tesla. Two circular-shaped coils were used as the reception device and a whole-body coil was used for transmission. Images showed a good signal-to-noise ratio along the entire leg. This experimental results contradict the assumption that a whole-body 7T/65cm imager or higher was necessary to generate images with this approach.

  14. Concept for low-cost chaos radar using coherent reception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Jonathan N.; Corron, Ned J.

    2011-06-01

    We describe a new approach to random-signal radar based on the recent discovery of analytically solvable chaotic oscillators. These surprising nonlinear systems generate random, aperiodic waveforms that offer an exact analytic representation, allowing the implementation of simple matched filters and coherent reception. Notably, this approach enables nearly optimal detection of noise-like waveforms without need for expensive variable delay lines to store wideband waveforms for correlation. Mathematically, the waveform is expressed as a linear convolution of a bit sequence with a fixed basis function. We realize a simple matched filter for the waveform using a linear filter whose impulse response function is the time reverse of the basis function. Importantly, linear filters matched to finite bit sequences can be defined, enabling pulse compression and spread spectrum radar. We present an example oscillator, its matched filter, and simulation results demonstrating the pulse compression radar concept.

  15. Sensing and Classifying Impairments of GPS Reception on Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunck, Henrik; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

    2011-01-01

    degradation on modern smart phones for different hand grip styles and body placements can cause signal strength drops as high as 10-16 dB and double the positioning error. Furthermore, existing phone applications designed to help users identify sources of GPS performance impairment are restricted to show raw...... that the proposed autonomous method can identify and differentiate such sources, and thus also user environments and phone postures, with reasonable accuracy, while relying solely on GPS receiver data as it is available on most modern smart phones....... signal statistics. To help both users as well as application systems in understanding and mitigating body and environment-induced effects, we propose a method for sensing the current sources of GPS reception impairment in terms of body, urban and indoor conditions. We present results that show...

  16. Effective Strategies for Turning Receptive Vocabulary into Productive Vocabulary in EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Avan Kamal Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary acquisition has been a main concern of EFL English teachers and learners. There have been tons of research to examine the student's level of receptive vocabulary and productive vocabulary, but no research has conducted on how turning receptive vocabulary into productive vocabulary. This study has reported the impact of the teaching…

  17. The Reception of German Progressive Education in Russia: On Regularities of International Educational Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchitarjan, Irina

    2015-01-01

    This article reports a historical case study of extensive educational transfer: the reception, adaptation, and use of German progressive education and German school reform ideas and practices in Russia at the beginning of the twentieth century. The reception of German educational ideas greatly enriched the theory and practice of the Russian school…

  18. Monstrosities and Twitterings: A Note on the Early Reception of Aristotle's Posterior Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David

    2010-01-01

    En kort undersøgelse af et problem i den tidligere reception af Aristoteles' Analytica Posteriora i forbindelse med de første latinske oversættelser.......En kort undersøgelse af et problem i den tidligere reception af Aristoteles' Analytica Posteriora i forbindelse med de første latinske oversættelser....

  19. Receptive Vocabulary in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Cross-Sectional Developmental Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kover, Sara T.; McDuffie, Andrea S.; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    In light of evidence that receptive language may be a relative weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study characterized receptive vocabulary profiles in boys with ASD using cross-sectional developmental trajectories relative to age, nonverbal cognition, and expressive vocabulary. Participants were 49 boys with ASD…

  20. Unaccompanied adolescents seeking asylum : poorer mental health under a restrictive reception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; de Boer, J.B.; Bean, T.; Korfker, D.G.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the effects of a stringent reception policy on the mental health of unaccompanied adolescent asylum seekers by comparing the mental health of adolescents in a restricted campus reception setting and in a setting offering more autonomy (numbers [response rates]: 69 [93%] and 53 [69%], res

  1. Childhood Memories and Receptivity to Corrective Feedback in Group Supervision: Implications for Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Angela; Hulse-Killacky, Diana

    2005-01-01

    This article presents findings from an exploration into supervisees' perspectives on childhood memories and receptivity to corrective feedback in group supervision. Historically, students' receptivity to corrective feedback has not been explored relative to their childhood memories. Ten graduate students from four practicum groups participated in…

  2. Receptivity toward Immigrants in Rural Pennsylvania: Perceptions of Adult English as Second Language Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Esther; Toso, Blaire Willson

    2012-01-01

    This article uses interview and questionnaire data to examine how adult English as a second language (ESL) providers in rural Pennsylvania perceive community receptivity toward immigrants and the factors they believe foster or hinder receptivity and immigrants' integration. ESL providers' depictions of local responses to immigrants ranged from…

  3. Genome-Wide Association Study of Receptive Language Ability of 12-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlaar, Nicole; Meaburn, Emma L.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Docherty, Sophia; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Price, Thomas S.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers have previously shown that individual differences in measures of receptive language ability at age 12 are highly heritable. In the current study, the authors attempted to identify some of the genes responsible for the heritability of receptive language ability using a "genome-wide association" approach. Method: The…

  4. In search of an auditory engram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jonathan; Mishkin, Mortimer; Saunders, Richard C.

    2005-01-01

    Monkeys trained preoperatively on a task designed to assess auditory recognition memory were impaired after removal of either the rostral superior temporal gyrus or the medial temporal lobe but were unaffected by lesions of the rhinal cortex. Behavioral analysis indicated that this result occurred because the monkeys did not or could not use long-term auditory recognition, and so depended instead on short-term working memory, which is unaffected by rhinal lesions. The findings suggest that monkeys may be unable to place representations of auditory stimuli into a long-term store and thus question whether the monkey's cerebral memory mechanisms in audition are intrinsically different from those in other sensory modalities. Furthermore, it raises the possibility that language is unique to humans not only because it depends on speech but also because it requires long-term auditory memory. PMID:15967995

  5. Effect of omega-3 on auditory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Omega-3 fatty acid have structural and biological roles in the body 's various systems . Numerous studies have tried to research about it. Auditory system is affected a s well. The aim of this article was to review the researches about the effect of omega-3 on auditory system.Methods: We searched Medline , Google Scholar, PubMed, Cochrane Library and SID search engines with the "auditory" and "omega-3" keywords and read textbooks about this subject between 19 70 and 20 13.Conclusion: Both excess and deficient amounts of dietary omega-3 fatty acid can cause harmful effects on fetal and infant growth and development of brain and central nervous system esspesially auditory system. It is important to determine the adequate dosage of omega-3.

  6. Auditory perception modulated by word reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liyu; Klepp, Anne; Schnitzler, Alfons; Gross, Joachim; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2016-10-01

    Theories of embodied cognition positing that sensorimotor areas are indispensable during language comprehension are supported by neuroimaging and behavioural studies. Among others, the auditory system has been suggested to be important for understanding sound-related words (visually presented) and the motor system for action-related words. In this behavioural study, using a sound detection task embedded in a lexical decision task, we show that in participants with high lexical decision performance sound verbs improve auditory perception. The amount of modulation was correlated with lexical decision performance. Our study provides convergent behavioural evidence of auditory cortex involvement in word processing, supporting the view of embodied language comprehension concerning the auditory domain. PMID:27324193

  7. [Approaches to therapy of auditory agnosia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechtelpeter, A; Göddenhenrich, S; Huber, W; Springer, L

    1990-01-01

    In a 41-year-old stroke patient with bitemporal brain damage, we found severe signs of auditory agnosia 6 months after onset. Recognition of environmental sounds was extremely impaired when tested in a multiple choice sound-picture matching task, whereas auditory discrimination between sounds and picture identifications by written names was almost undisturbed. In a therapy experiment, we tried to enhance sound recognition via semantic categorization and association, imitation of sound and analysis of auditory features, respectively. The stimulation of conscious auditory analysis proved to be increasingly effective over a 4-week period of therapy. We were able to show that the patient's improvement was not only a simple effect of practicing, but it was stable and carried over to nontrained items.

  8. Auditory stimulation and cardiac autonomic regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor E. Valenti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have already demonstrated that auditory stimulation with music influences the cardiovascular system. In this study, we described the relationship between musical auditory stimulation and heart rate variability. Searches were performed with the Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane databases using the following keywords: "auditory stimulation", "autonomic nervous system", "music" and "heart rate variability". The selected studies indicated that there is a strong correlation between noise intensity and vagal-sympathetic balance. Additionally, it was reported that music therapy improved heart rate variability in anthracycline-treated breast cancer patients. It was hypothesized that dopamine release in the striatal system induced by pleasurable songs is involved in cardiac autonomic regulation. Musical auditory stimulation influences heart rate variability through a neural mechanism that is not well understood. Further studies are necessary to develop new therapies to treat cardiovascular disorders.

  9. Environment for Auditory Research Facility (EAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — EAR is an auditory perception and communication research center enabling state-of-the-art simulation of various indoor and outdoor acoustic environments. The heart...

  10. Material differences of auditory source retrieval:Evidence from event-related potential studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE AiQing; GUO ChunYan; SHEN MoWei

    2008-01-01

    Two event-related potential experiments were conducted to investigate the temporal and the spatial distributions of the old/new effects for the item recognition task and the auditory source retrieval task using picture and Chinese character as stimuli respectively. Stimuli were presented on the center of the screen with their names read out either by female or by male voice simultaneously during the study phase and then two testa were performed separately. One test task was to differentiate the old items from the new ones, and the other task was to judge the items read out by a certain voice during the study phase as targets and other ones as non-targets. The results showed that the old/new effect of the auditory source retrieval task was more sustained over time than that of the item recognition task in both experiments, and the spatial distribution of the former effect was wider than that of the latter one. Both experiments recorded reliable old/new effect over the prefrontal cortex during the source retrieval task. However, there existed some differences of the old/new effect for the auditory source retrieval task between picture and Chinese character, and LORETA source analysis indicated that the differ-ences might be rooted in the temporal lobe. These findings demonstrate that the relevancy of the old/new effects between the item recognition task and the auditory source retrieval task supports the dual-process model; the spatial and the temporal distributions of the old/new effect elicited by the auditory source retrieval task are regulated by both the feature of the experimental material and the perceptual attribute of the voice.

  11. Emotional Intelligence, Self-efficacy and Diversity Receptiveness of University Students: A Correlation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Behjat

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the interrelationship of emotional intelligence and self-efficacy drives, and diversity receptiveness of overseas college students. Factors of emotional intelligence, self-efficacies and diversity receptiveness were examined with these overseas students. Survey data on demographics, the Emotions Scale (EIS, Self-efficacy scale (SES and Diversity Receptive Scale (DRS were collected from eighty nine students enrolled in post graduate business programs. In data collection this study used simple random sampling technique. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and bivariate correlations between emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, and diversity receptiveness. The findings of the study indicate that there is a significant relationship between emotional intelligence, the competencies of self-efficacy, and diversity receptiveness of college students.

  12. Auditory sequence analysis and phonological skill

    OpenAIRE

    Grube, Manon; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Cooper, Freya E.; Turton, Stuart; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    This work tests the relationship between auditory and phonological skill in a non-selected cohort of 238 school students (age 11) with the specific hypothesis that sound-sequence analysis would be more relevant to phonological skill than the analysis of basic, single sounds. Auditory processing was assessed across the domains of pitch, time and timbre; a combination of six standard tests of literacy and language ability was used to assess phonological skill. A significant correlation between ...

  13. Auditory memory function in expert chess players

    OpenAIRE

    Fattahi, Fariba; Geshani, Ahmad; Jafari, Zahra; Jalaie, Shohreh; Salman Mahini, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chess is a game that involves many aspects of high level cognition such as memory, attention, focus and problem solving. Long term practice of chess can improve cognition performances and behavioral skills. Auditory memory, as a kind of memory, can be influenced by strengthening processes following long term chess playing like other behavioral skills because of common processing pathways in the brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the auditory memory function of expert...

  14. Auditory brain-stem responses in syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenhall, U; Roupe, G

    1981-01-01

    Analysis of auditory brain-stem electrical responses (BSER) provides an effective means of detecting lesions in the auditory pathways. In the present study the wave patterns were analysed in 11 patients with secondary or latent syphilis with no clinical symptoms referrable to the central nervous system and in two patients with congenital syphilis and general paralysis. Decreased amplitudes and prolonged latencies occurred frequently in patients with secondary and with advanced syphilis. This ...

  15. Auditory model inversion and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Heming; WANG Yongqi; CHEN Xueqin

    2005-01-01

    Auditory model has been applied to several aspects of speech signal processing field, and appears to be effective in performance. This paper presents the inverse transform of each stage of one widely used auditory model. First of all it is necessary to invert correlogram and reconstruct phase information by repetitious iterations in order to get auditory-nerve firing rate. The next step is to obtain the negative parts of the signal via the reverse process of the HWR (Half Wave Rectification). Finally the functions of inner hair cell/synapse model and Gammatone filters have to be inverted. Thus the whole auditory model inversion has been achieved. An application of noisy speech enhancement based on auditory model inversion algorithm is proposed. Many experiments show that this method is effective in reducing noise.Especially when SNR of noisy speech is low it is more effective than other methods. Thus this auditory model inversion method given in this paper is applicable to speech enhancement field.

  16. Human fallopian tube epithelium constitutively expresses integrin endometrial receptivity markers: no evidence for a tubal implantation window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J K; Shaw, J L V; Critchley, H O D; Horne, A W

    2012-03-01

    Understanding of ectopic implantation within the Fallopian tube (FT) is limited. In the human uterus, the putative 'window of implantation' in the mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle is accompanied by increased endometrial epithelial expression of the integrins α(1)β(1), α(4)β(1) and α(v)β(3) and its ligand osteopontin. Similar cyclical changes in FT integrin expression have been proposed to contribute to ectopic implantation, but supporting data are limited. In the current study, we present quantitative data on human FT transcription and translation of the integrin subunits α(1), α(4), α(V), β(1) and β(3) during the follicular and mid-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, together with a supporting immuocytochemical analysis of their spatial distribution within the FT, and that of osteopontin. In contrast to previous studies, our data indicate that all five integrin receptivity markers are constitutively transcribed and translated in the FT, with no evidence for changes in their expression or distribution during the window of implantation in the mid-luteal phase of the cycle. Furthermore, we could find no evidence for cyclic redistribution of the integrin α(v)β(3) ligand osteopontin within the FT. Although we do not rule out the involvement of integrin endometrial receptivity markers in the establishment of ectopic pregnancy, our findings do not support their differential expression during a tubal implantation window. PMID:22002573

  17. IMPAIRED PROCESSING IN THE PRIMARY AUDITORY CORTEX OF AN ANIMAL MODEL OF AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata eAnomal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder clinically characterized by deficits in communication, lack of social interaction and, repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. A number of studies have reported that sensory perception abnormalities are common in autistic individuals and might contribute to the complex behavioral symptoms of the disorder. In this context, hearing incongruence is particularly prevalent. Considering that some of this abnormal processing might stem from the unbalance of inhibitory and excitatory drives in brain circuitries, we used an animal model of autism induced by valproic acid (VPA during pregnancy in order to investigate the tonotopic organization of the primary auditory cortex (AI and its local inhibitory circuitry. Our results show that VPA rats have distorted primary auditory maps with over-representation of high frequencies, broadly tuned receptive fields and higher sound intensity thresholds as compared to controls. However, we did not detect differences in the number of parvalbumin-positive interneurons in AI of VPA and control rats. Altogether our findings show that neurophysiological impairments of hearing perception in this autism model occur independently of alterations in the number of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons. These data support the notion that fine circuit alterations, rather than gross cellular modification, could lead to neurophysiological changes in the autistic brain.

  18. Adaptive auditory feedback control of the production of formant trajectories in the Mandarin triphthong /iau/ and its pattern of generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shanqing; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Guenther, Frank H; Perkell, Joseph S

    2010-10-01

    In order to test whether auditory feedback is involved in the planning of complex articulatory gestures in time-varying phonemes, the current study examined native Mandarin speakers' responses to auditory perturbations of their auditory feedback of the trajectory of the first formant frequency during their production of the triphthong /iau/. On average, subjects adaptively adjusted their productions to partially compensate for the perturbations in auditory feedback. This result indicates that auditory feedback control of speech movements is not restricted to quasi-static gestures in monophthongs as found in previous studies, but also extends to time-varying gestures. To probe the internal structure of the mechanisms of auditory-motor transformations, the pattern of generalization of the adaptation learned on the triphthong /iau/ to other vowels with different temporal and spatial characteristics (produced only under masking noise) was tested. A broad but weak pattern of generalization was observed; the strength of the generalization diminished with increasing dissimilarity from /iau/. The details and implications of the pattern of generalization are examined and discussed in light of previous sensorimotor adaptation studies of both speech and limb motor control and a neurocomputational model of speech motor control. PMID:20968374

  19. Task-specific modulation of human auditory evoked responses in a delayed-match-to-sample task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng eRong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we focus our investigation on task-specific cognitive modulation of early cortical auditory processing in human cerebral cortex. During the experiments, we acquired whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG data while participants were performing an auditory delayed-match-to-sample (DMS task and associated control tasks. Using a spatial filtering beamformer technique to simultaneously estimate multiple source activities inside the human brain, we observed a significant DMS-specific suppression of the auditory evoked response to the second stimulus in a sound pair, with the center of the effect being located in the vicinity of the left auditory cortex. For the right auditory cortex, a non-invariant suppression effect was observed in both DMS and control tasks. Furthermore, analysis of coherence revealed a beta band (12 ~ 20 Hz DMS-specific enhanced functional interaction between the sources in left auditory cortex and those in left inferior frontal gyrus, which has been shown to involve in short-term memory processing during the delay period of DMS task. Our findings support the view that early evoked cortical responses to incoming acoustic stimuli can be modulated by task-specific cognitive functions by means of frontal-temporal functional interactions.

  20. Effect of auditory feedback differs according to side of hemiparesis: a comparative pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensmail Djamel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following stroke, patients frequently demonstrate loss of motor control and function and altered kinematic parameters of reaching movements. Feedback is an essential component of rehabilitation and auditory feedback of kinematic parameters may be a useful tool for rehabilitation of reaching movements at the impairment level. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 2 types of auditory feedback on the kinematics of reaching movements in hemiparetic stroke patients and to compare differences between patients with right (RHD and left hemisphere damage (LHD. Methods 10 healthy controls, 8 stroke patients with LHD and 8 with RHD were included. Patient groups had similar levels of upper limb function. Two types of auditory feedback (spatial and simple were developed and provided online during reaching movements to 9 targets in the workspace. Kinematics of the upper limb were recorded with an electromagnetic system. Kinematics were compared between groups (Mann Whitney test and the effect of auditory feedback on kinematics was tested within each patient group (Friedman test. Results In the patient groups, peak hand velocity was lower, the number of velocity peaks was higher and movements were more curved than in the healthy group. Despite having a similar clinical level, kinematics differed between LHD and RHD groups. Peak velocity was similar but LHD patients had fewer velocity peaks and less curved movements than RHD patients. The addition of auditory feedback improved the curvature index in patients with RHD and deteriorated peak velocity, the number of velocity peaks and curvature index in LHD patients. No difference between types of feedback was found in either patient group. Conclusion In stroke patients, side of lesion should be considered when examining arm reaching kinematics. Further studies are necessary to evaluate differences in responses to auditory feedback between patients with lesions in opposite

  1. Auditory-prefrontal axonal connectivity in the macaque cortex: quantitative assessment of processing streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezgin, Gleb; Rybacki, Konrad; van Opstal, A John; Bakker, Rembrandt; Shen, Kelly; Vakorin, Vasily A; McIntosh, Anthony R; Kötter, Rolf

    2014-08-01

    Primate sensory systems subserve complex neurocomputational functions. Consequently, these systems are organised anatomically in a distributed fashion, commonly linking areas to form specialised processing streams. Each stream is related to a specific function, as evidenced from studies of the visual cortex, which features rather prominent segregation into spatial and non-spatial domains. It has been hypothesised that other sensory systems, including auditory, are organised in a similar way on the cortical level. Recent studies offer rich qualitative evidence for the dual stream hypothesis. Here we provide a new paradigm to quantitatively uncover these patterns in the auditory system, based on an analysis of multiple anatomical studies using multivariate techniques. As a test case, we also apply our assessment techniques to more ubiquitously-explored visual system. Importantly, the introduced framework opens the possibility for these techniques to be applied to other neural systems featuring a dichotomised organisation, such as language or music perception. PMID:24980416

  2. Expression and function of scleraxis in the developing auditory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe F Mann

    Full Text Available A study of genes expressed in the developing inner ear identified the bHLH transcription factor Scleraxis (Scx in the developing cochlea. Previous work has demonstrated an essential role for Scx in the differentiation and development of tendons, ligaments and cells of chondrogenic lineage. Expression in the cochlea has been shown previously, however the functional role for Scx in the cochlea is unknown. Using a Scx-GFP reporter mouse line we examined the spatial and temporal patterns of Scx expression in the developing cochlea between embryonic day 13.5 and postnatal day 25. Embryonically, Scx is expressed broadly throughout the cochlear duct and surrounding mesenchyme and at postnatal ages becomes restricted to the inner hair cells and the interdental cells of the spiral limbus. Deletion of Scx results in hearing impairment indicated by elevated auditory brainstem response (ABR thresholds and diminished distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE amplitudes, across a range of frequencies. No changes in either gross cochlear morphology or expression of the Scx target genes Col2A, Bmp4 or Sox9 were observed in Scx(-/- mutants, suggesting that the auditory defects observed in these animals may be a result of unidentified Scx-dependent processes within the cochlea.

  3. Auditory sustained field responses to periodic noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keceli Sumru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Auditory sustained responses have been recently suggested to reflect neural processing of speech sounds in the auditory cortex. As periodic fluctuations below the pitch range are important for speech perception, it is necessary to investigate how low frequency periodic sounds are processed in the human auditory cortex. Auditory sustained responses have been shown to be sensitive to temporal regularity but the relationship between the amplitudes of auditory evoked sustained responses and the repetitive rates of auditory inputs remains elusive. As the temporal and spectral features of sounds enhance different components of sustained responses, previous studies with click trains and vowel stimuli presented diverging results. In order to investigate the effect of repetition rate on cortical responses, we analyzed the auditory sustained fields evoked by periodic and aperiodic noises using magnetoencephalography. Results Sustained fields were elicited by white noise and repeating frozen noise stimuli with repetition rates of 5-, 10-, 50-, 200- and 500 Hz. The sustained field amplitudes were significantly larger for all the periodic stimuli than for white noise. Although the sustained field amplitudes showed a rising and falling pattern within the repetition rate range, the response amplitudes to 5 Hz repetition rate were significantly larger than to 500 Hz. Conclusions The enhanced sustained field responses to periodic noises show that cortical sensitivity to periodic sounds is maintained for a wide range of repetition rates. Persistence of periodicity sensitivity below the pitch range suggests that in addition to processing the fundamental frequency of voice, sustained field generators can also resolve low frequency temporal modulations in speech envelope.

  4. Beethoven's Last Piano Sonata and Those Who Follow Crocodiles: Cross-Domain Mappings of Auditory Pitch in a Musical Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitan, Zohar; Timmers, Renee

    2010-01-01

    Though auditory pitch is customarily mapped in Western cultures onto spatial verticality (high-low), both anthropological reports and cognitive studies suggest that pitch may be mapped onto a wide variety of other domains. We collected a total number of 35 pitch mappings and investigated in four experiments how these mappings are used and…

  5. Effects of spike-triggered negative feedback on receptive-field properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdapilleta, Eugenio; Samengo, Inés

    2015-04-01

    Sensory neurons are often described in terms of a receptive field, that is, a linear kernel through which stimuli are filtered before they are further processed. If information transmission is assumed to proceed in a feedforward cascade, the receptive field may be interpreted as the external stimulus' profile maximizing neuronal output. The nervous system, however, contains many feedback loops, and sensory neurons filter more currents than the ones representing the transduced external stimulus. Some of the additional currents are generated by the output activity of the neuron itself, and therefore constitute feedback signals. By means of a time-frequency analysis of the input/output transformation, here we show how feedback modifies the receptive field. The model is applicable to various types of feedback processes, from spike-triggered intrinsic conductances to inhibitory synaptic inputs from nearby neurons. We distinguish between the intrinsic receptive field (filtering all input currents) and the effective receptive field (filtering only external stimuli). Whereas the intrinsic receptive field summarizes the biophysical properties of the neuron associated to subthreshold integration and spike generation, only the effective receptive field can be interpreted as the external stimulus' profile maximizing neuronal output. We demonstrate that spike-triggered feedback shifts low-pass filtering towards band-pass processing, transforming integrator neurons into resonators. For strong feedback, a sharp resonance in the spectral neuronal selectivity may appear. Our results provide a unified framework to interpret a collection of previous experimental studies where specific feedback mechanisms were shown to modify the filtering properties of neurons.

  6. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M.; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning) or performing without sound (motor learning); following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall). During either Learning (Experiment 1) or Recall (Experiment 2), pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced) and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals) were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists' pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2). Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1): Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2): Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the presence of

  7. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning) or performing without sound (motor learning); following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall). During either Learning (Experiment 1) or Recall (Experiment 2), pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced) and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals) were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists' pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2). Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1): Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2): Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the presence of

  8. Fortissimus robore: Martin Krpan as a case of biblical reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Movrin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Martin Krpan z Vrha, written by Fran Levstik as a conscious experiment in prose-writing, has been interpreted variously during the last century and a half. The duel between a Slovenian peasant and a giant who comes to terrorise Vienna was in turn read by scholars as a political satire, the realisation of a literary and linguistic programme, a literary parody etc. Its motif was mostly interpreted with reference to Slavic folklore characters (Pegam and Lambergar, Prince Marko,peter Klepec etc.. The analysis according to the model devised by Vladimir Propp, however, shows striking similarities with Biblical story of David and Goliath (1 Sm 17. The reception of this motif is marked by significant political overtones, already present in antiquity and then interest­ ingly developed in places as diverse as sixteenth-century Florence, Prague, and the Netherlands. As attested by the sources, Levstik used this motif several limes; to a certain extent he even identi­ fied with its hero.

  9. Pinniped bioacoustics: Atmospheric and hydrospheric signal production, reception, and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schusterman, Ronald J.; Kastak, David; Reichmuth Kastak, Colleen; Holt, Marla; Southall, Brandon L.

    2001-05-01

    There is no convincing evidence that any of the 33 pinniped species evolved acoustic specializations for echolocation. However, all species produce and localize signals amphibiously in different communicative contexts. In the setting of sexual selection, aquatic mating male phocids and walruses tend to emit underwater calls, while male otariids and phocids that breed terrestrially emit airborne calls. Signature vocalizations are widespread among pinnipeds. There is evidence that males use signature threat calls, and it is possible that vocal recognition may be used by territorial males to form categories consisting of neighbors and strangers. In terms of mother-offspring recognition, both otariid females and their pups use acoustical cues for mutual recognition. In contrast, reunions between phocid females and their dependent pups depend mostly on pup vocalizations. In terms of signal reception, audiometric studies show that otariids are highly sensitive to aerial sounds but slightly less sensitive to underwater sounds. Conversely, except for deep-diving elephant seals, phocids are quite sensitive to acoustic signals both in air and under water. Finally, despite differences in absolute hearing sensitivity, pinnipeds have similar masked hearing capabilities in both media, supporting the notion that cochlear mechanics determine the effects of noise on hearing.

  10. Public Reception of Climate Science: Coherence, Reliability, and Independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ulrike; Harris, Adam J L; Corner, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Possible measures to mitigate climate change require global collective actions whose impacts will be felt by many, if not all. Implementing such actions requires successful communication of the reasons for them, and hence the underlying climate science, to a degree that far exceeds typical scientific issues which do not require large-scale societal response. Empirical studies have identified factors, such as the perceived level of consensus in scientific opinion and the perceived reliability of scientists, that can limit people's trust in science communicators and their subsequent acceptance of climate change claims. Little consideration has been given, however, to recent formal results within philosophy concerning the relationship between truth, the reliability of evidence sources, the coherence of multiple pieces of evidence/testimonies, and the impact of (non-)independence between sources of evidence. This study draws on these results to evaluate exactly what has (and, more important, has not yet) been established in the empirical literature about the factors that bias the public's reception of scientific communications about climate change. PMID:26705767

  11. The Foucault-Habermas Debate: the Reflexive and Receptive Aspects of Critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I discuss the relationship between two different approaches to critical theory – the reflective and the receptive approaches. I show how it can be fruitful to discuss the relationship between Habermas and Foucault through this distinction. My point is that whereas Habermas focusses...... on critique as a reflexive activity, Foucault mainly focusses on the receptive conditions for critique to be possible. I argue further that Foucault focusses on the receptive aspects of critique, the quest for universality is not as pressing as it is in Habermas’ approach, because problematizing critique can...

  12. Health-reception of newly arrived documented migrants in Europe-why, whom, what and how?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne W; Kamper-Jørgensen, Zaza; Agyemang, Charles;

    2013-01-01

    Danish health-reception model, using a more systematic approach based on a close cooperation between social and health sectors.3 With this development, we wish to initiate a European public health debate about how to assess and meet the health needs of newly arrived long-term documented migrants...... in European countries. Emanating from the ongoing debate in Denmark, we ask the questions: ‘Why’ should health-receptions be offered? ‘Whom’ should initiatives target? ‘What’ should initiatives include? And ‘How’ should initiatives be organized? We use the term health-reception, as we consider it the more...

  13. Discussion of Translation from English Film Titles into Chinese from the Perspective of Reception Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian

    2016-01-01

    Reception theory, a newly developed discipline, is an audience-oriented film title translation approach. According to Reception Aesthetics, the historical life of a literary work is unthinkable without the active participation of the readers. With the reception theory as the theoretical background, it will pilot the basic points of the translation of film titles, namely, informative value, cultural value, aesthetic value, and commercial value, with the five pragmatic methods of general translation. Further-more, it also takes the factor of intercultural factors into consideration when discussing this topic.

  14. Linear Uniform Receptiveness in a Pi-Calculus with Location Failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Garm Nielsen, Johannes; Finderup, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    failures. In this paper we extend the notion of receptiveness to DpiF and give sound characterizations of the property of linear uniform receptiveness in DpiF in the form of two type systems. Our first type system ensures receptiveness, the property that no pending output will ever be left unattended. We...... achieve this by ensuring linearity and by ensuring that the input and output remain at the same location, such that location failure will effectively remove either both or none. Our second type system allows for migration but ensures that input capabilities remain within locations which are hidden from...... the context and thus not subject to failures....

  15. Problem Internet Overuse Behaviors in College Students: Readiness-to-Change and Receptivity to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer E; Li, Wen; Snyder, Susan M; Howard, Matthew O

    2016-01-01

    This mixed methods study explores college students' readiness-to-change and receptivity to treatment for problem Internet overuse behaviors. Focus groups were conducted with 27 college students who self-identified as Internet over-users, and had experienced biopsychosocial problems related to Internet overuse. Participants completed standardized questionnaires assessing their Internet use and sociodemographic forms. Focus groups explored readiness to change problem Internet overuse behaviors and receptivity to treatment. Similar to college students with other addictive behaviors, students with problem Internet overuse fall along a continuum vis-à-vis readiness-to-change their behaviors. Over half of the participants were receptive to treatment for their problem Internet overuse behaviors.

  16. Effects of Caffeine on Auditory Brainstem Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleheh Soleimanian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Blocking of the adenosine receptor in central nervous system by caffeine can lead to increasing the level of neurotransmitters like glutamate. As the adenosine receptors are present in almost all brain areas like central auditory pathway, it seems caffeine can change conduction in this way. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on latency and amplitude of auditory brainstem response(ABR.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study 43 normal 18-25 years old male students were participated. The subjects consumed 0, 2 and 3 mg/kg BW caffeine in three different sessions. Auditory brainstem responses were recorded before and 30 minute after caffeine consumption. The results were analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxone test to assess the effects of caffeine on auditory brainstem response.Results: Compared to control group the latencies of waves III,V and I-V interpeak interval of the cases decreased significantly after 2 and 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption. Wave I latency significantly decreased after 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption(p<0.01. Conclusion: Increasing of the glutamate level resulted from the adenosine receptor blocking brings about changes in conduction in the central auditory pathway.

  17. The harmonic organization of auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqin

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental structure of sounds encountered in the natural environment is the harmonicity. Harmonicity is an essential component of music found in all cultures. It is also a unique feature of vocal communication sounds such as human speech and animal vocalizations. Harmonics in sounds are produced by a variety of acoustic generators and reflectors in the natural environment, including vocal apparatuses of humans and animal species as well as music instruments of many types. We live in an acoustic world full of harmonicity. Given the widespread existence of the harmonicity in many aspects of the hearing environment, it is natural to expect that it be reflected in the evolution and development of the auditory systems of both humans and animals, in particular the auditory cortex. Recent neuroimaging and neurophysiology experiments have identified regions of non-primary auditory cortex in humans and non-human primates that have selective responses to harmonic pitches. Accumulating evidence has also shown that neurons in many regions of the auditory cortex exhibit characteristic responses to harmonically related frequencies beyond the range of pitch. Together, these findings suggest that a fundamental organizational principle of auditory cortex is based on the harmonicity. Such an organization likely plays an important role in music processing by the brain. It may also form the basis of the preference for particular classes of music and voice sounds. PMID:24381544

  18. Different mechanisms are responsible for dishabituation of electrophysiological auditory responses to a change in acoustic identity than to a change in stimulus location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulders, Tom V; Jarvis, Erich D

    2013-11-01

    Repeated exposure to an auditory stimulus leads to habituation of the electrophysiological and immediate-early-gene (IEG) expression response in the auditory system. A novel auditory stimulus reinstates this response in a form of dishabituation. This has been interpreted as the start of new memory formation for this novel stimulus. Changes in the location of an otherwise identical auditory stimulus can also dishabituate the IEG expression response. This has been interpreted as an integration of stimulus identity and stimulus location into a single auditory object, encoded in the firing patterns of the auditory system. In this study, we further tested this hypothesis. Using chronic multi-electrode arrays to record multi-unit activity from the auditory system of awake and behaving zebra finches, we found that habituation occurs to repeated exposure to the same song and dishabituation with a novel song, similar to that described in head-fixed, restrained animals. A large proportion of recording sites also showed dishabituation when the same auditory stimulus was moved to a novel location. However, when the song was randomly moved among 8 interleaved locations, habituation occurred independently of the continuous changes in location. In contrast, when 8 different auditory stimuli were interleaved all from the same location, a separate habituation occurred to each stimulus. This result suggests that neuronal memories of the acoustic identity and spatial location are different, and that allocentric location of a stimulus is not encoded as part of the memory for an auditory object, while its acoustic properties are. We speculate that, instead, the dishabituation that occurs with a change from a stable location of a sound is due to the unexpectedness of the location change, and might be due to different underlying mechanisms than the dishabituation and separate habituations to different acoustic stimuli.

  19. The effect of background music in auditory health persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbert, Sarah; Dijkstra, Arie

    2013-01-01

    In auditory health persuasion, threatening information regarding health is communicated by voice only. One relevant context of auditory persuasion is the addition of background music. There are different mechanisms through which background music might influence persuasion, for example through mood (

  20. Auditory Discrimination Development through Vestibulo-Cochlear Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Lyelle L.

    1980-01-01

    Three types of vestibular activities (active, adaptive, and passively imposed) to improve auditory discrimination development are described and results of a study using the vestibular stimulation techniques with 20 Ss (average age 9) having abnormal auditory discrimination. (PHR)

  1. The role of visual spatial attention in audiovisual speech perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias; Tiippana, K.; Laarni, J.;

    2009-01-01

    Auditory and visual information is integrated when perceiving speech, as evidenced by the McGurk effect in which viewing an incongruent talking face categorically alters auditory speech perception. Audiovisual integration in speech perception has long been considered automatic and pre......-attentive but recent reports have challenged this view. Here we study the effect of visual spatial attention on the McGurk effect. By presenting a movie of two faces symmetrically displaced to each side of a central fixation point and dubbed with a single auditory speech track, we were able to discern the influences...... integration did not change. Visual spatial attention was also able to select between the faces when lip reading. This suggests that visual spatial attention acts at the level of visual speech perception prior to audiovisual integration and that the effect propagates through audiovisual integration...

  2. Musical experience shapes top-down auditory mechanisms: evidence from masking and auditory attention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L; Kraus, Nina; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Ashley, Richard

    2010-03-01

    A growing body of research suggests that cognitive functions, such as attention and memory, drive perception by tuning sensory mechanisms to relevant acoustic features. Long-term musical experience also modulates lower-level auditory function, although the mechanisms by which this occurs remain uncertain. In order to tease apart the mechanisms that drive perceptual enhancements in musicians, we posed the question: do well-developed cognitive abilities fine-tune auditory perception in a top-down fashion? We administered a standardized battery of perceptual and cognitive tests to adult musicians and non-musicians, including tasks either more or less susceptible to cognitive control (e.g., backward versus simultaneous masking) and more or less dependent on auditory or visual processing (e.g., auditory versus visual attention). Outcomes indicate lower perceptual thresholds in musicians specifically for auditory tasks that relate with cognitive abilities, such as backward masking and auditory attention. These enhancements were observed in the absence of group differences for the simultaneous masking and visual attention tasks. Our results suggest that long-term musical practice strengthens cognitive functions and that these functions benefit auditory skills. Musical training bolsters higher-level mechanisms that, when impaired, relate to language and literacy deficits. Thus, musical training may serve to lessen the impact of these deficits by strengthening the corticofugal system for hearing. PMID:20018234

  3. Effect of task-related continuous auditory feedback during learning of tracking motion exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosati Giulio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents the results of a set of experiments in which we used continuous auditory feedback to augment motor training exercises. This feedback modality is mostly underexploited in current robotic rehabilitation systems, which usually implement only very basic auditory interfaces. Our hypothesis is that properly designed continuous auditory feedback could be used to represent temporal and spatial information that could in turn, improve performance and motor learning. Methods We implemented three different experiments on healthy subjects, who were asked to track a target on a screen by moving an input device (controller with their hand. Different visual and auditory feedback modalities were envisaged. The first experiment investigated whether continuous task-related auditory feedback can help improve performance to a greater extent than error-related audio feedback, or visual feedback alone. In the second experiment we used sensory substitution to compare different types of auditory feedback with equivalent visual feedback, in order to find out whether mapping the same information on a different sensory channel (the visual channel yielded comparable effects with those gained in the first experiment. The final experiment applied a continuously changing visuomotor transformation between the controller and the screen and mapped kinematic information, computed in either coordinate system (controller or video, to the audio channel, in order to investigate which information was more relevant to the user. Results Task-related audio feedback significantly improved performance with respect to visual feedback alone, whilst error-related feedback did not. Secondly, performance in audio tasks was significantly better with respect to the equivalent sensory-substituted visual tasks. Finally, with respect to visual feedback alone, video-task-related sound feedback decreased the tracking error during the learning of a novel

  4. Cooperative dynamics in auditory brain response

    CERN Document Server

    Kwapien, J; Liu, L C; Ioannides, A A

    1998-01-01

    Simultaneous estimates of the activity in the left and right auditory cortex of five normal human subjects were extracted from Multichannel Magnetoencephalography recordings. Left, right and binaural stimulation were used, in separate runs, for each subject. The resulting time-series of left and right auditory cortex activity were analysed using the concept of mutual information. The analysis constitutes an objective method to address the nature of inter-hemispheric correlations in response to auditory stimulations. The results provide a clear evidence for the occurrence of such correlations mediated by a direct information transport, with clear laterality effects: as a rule, the contralateral hemisphere leads by 10-20ms, as can be seen in the average signal. The strength of the inter-hemispheric coupling, which cannot be extracted from the average data, is found to be highly variable from subject to subject, but remarkably stable for each subject.

  5. Applied research in auditory data representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frysinger, Steve P.

    1990-08-01

    A class of data displays, characterized generally as Auditory Data Representation, is described and motivated. This type of data representation takes advantage of the tremendous pattern recognition capability of the human auditory channel. Audible displays offer an alternative means of conveying quantitative data to the analyst to facilitate information extraction, and are successfully used alone and in conjunction with visual displays. The Auditory Data Representation literature is reviewed, along with elements of the allied fields of investigation, Psychoacoustics and Musical Perception. A methodology for applied research in this field, based upon the well-developed discipline of psychophysics, is elaborated using a recent experiment as a case study. This method permits objective estimation of a data representation technique by comparing it to alternative displays for the pattern recognition task at hand. The psychophysical threshold of signal to noise level, for constant pattern recognition performance, is the measure of display effectiveness.

  6. Are auditory percepts determined by experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Brian B; Han, Shui'Er; Purves, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Audition--what listeners hear--is generally studied in terms of the physical properties of sound stimuli and physiological properties of the auditory system. Based on recent work in vision, we here consider an alternative perspective that sensory percepts are based on past experience. In this framework, basic auditory qualities (e.g., loudness and pitch) are based on the frequency of occurrence of stimulus patterns in natural acoustic stimuli. To explore this concept of audition, we examined five well-documented psychophysical functions. The frequency of occurrence of acoustic patterns in a database of natural sound stimuli (speech) predicts some qualitative aspects of these functions, but with substantial quantitative discrepancies. This approach may offer a rationale for auditory phenomena that are difficult to explain in terms of the physical attributes of the stimuli as such.

  7. Are auditory percepts determined by experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian B Monson

    Full Text Available Audition--what listeners hear--is generally studied in terms of the physical properties of sound stimuli and physiological properties of the auditory system. Based on recent work in vision, we here consider an alternative perspective that sensory percepts are based on past experience. In this framework, basic auditory qualities (e.g., loudness and pitch are based on the frequency of occurrence of stimulus patterns in natural acoustic stimuli. To explore this concept of audition, we examined five well-documented psychophysical functions. The frequency of occurrence of acoustic patterns in a database of natural sound stimuli (speech predicts some qualitative aspects of these functions, but with substantial quantitative discrepancies. This approach may offer a rationale for auditory phenomena that are difficult to explain in terms of the physical attributes of the stimuli as such.

  8. Phonetic categorization in auditory word perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W F

    1980-02-01

    To investigate the interaction in speech perception of auditory information and lexical knowledge (in particular, knowledge of which phonetic sequences are words), acoustic continua varying in voice onset time were constructed so that for each acoustic continuum, one of the two possible phonetic categorizations made a word and the other did not. For example, one continuum ranged between the word dash and the nonword tash; another used the nonword dask and the word task. In two experiments, subjects showed a significant lexical effect--that is, a tendency to make phonetic categorizations that make words. This lexical effect was greater at the phoneme boundary (where auditory information is ambiguous) than at the ends of the condinua. Hence the lexical effect must arise at a stage of processing sensitive to both lexical knowledge and auditory information.

  9. Auditory temporal processes in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ben-Artzi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported age-related decline in auditory temporal resolution and in working memory. However, earlier studies did not provide evidence as to whether these declines reflect overall changes in the same mechanisms, or reflect age-related changes in two independent mechanisms. In the current study we examined whether the age-related decline in auditory temporal resolution and in working memory would remain significant even after controlling for their shared variance. Eighty-two participants, aged 21-82 performed the dichotic temporal order judgment task and the backward digit span task. The findings indicate that age-related decline in auditory temporal resolution and in working memory are two independent processes.

  10. What determines auditory distraction? On the roles of local auditory changes and expectation violations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan P Röer

    Full Text Available Both the acoustic variability of a distractor sequence and the degree to which it violates expectations are important determinants of auditory distraction. In four experiments we examined the relative contribution of local auditory changes on the one hand and expectation violations on the other hand in the disruption of serial recall by irrelevant sound. We present evidence for a greater disruption by auditory sequences ending in unexpected steady state distractor repetitions compared to auditory sequences with expected changing state endings even though the former contained fewer local changes. This effect was demonstrated with piano melodies (Experiment 1 and speech distractors (Experiment 2. Furthermore, it was replicated when the expectation violation occurred after the encoding of the target items (Experiment 3, indicating that the items' maintenance in short-term memory was disrupted by attentional capture and not their encoding. This seems to be primarily due to the violation of a model of the specific auditory distractor sequences because the effect vanishes and even reverses when the experiment provides no opportunity to build up a specific neural model about the distractor sequence (Experiment 4. Nevertheless, the violation of abstract long-term knowledge about auditory regularities seems to cause a small and transient capture effect: Disruption decreased markedly over the course of the experiments indicating that participants habituated to the unexpected distractor repetitions across trials. The overall pattern of results adds to the growing literature that the degree to which auditory distractors violate situation-specific expectations is a more important determinant of auditory distraction than the degree to which a distractor sequence contains local auditory changes.

  11. Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder Masquerading as Social Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Behere, Rishikesh V.; Rao, Mukund G.; Mishra, Shree; Varambally, Shivarama; Nagarajarao, Shivashankar; Bangalore N Gangadhar

    2015-01-01

    The authors report a case of a 47-year-old man who presented with treatment-resistant anxiety disorder. Behavioral observation raised clinical suspicion of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. The presence of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder was confirmed on audiological investigations. The patient was experiencing extreme symptoms of anxiety, which initially masked the underlying diagnosis of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. Challenges in diagnosis and treatment of auditory neur...

  12. ABR and auditory P300 findings inchildren with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Schochat Eliane; Scheuer Claudia Ines; Andrade Ênio Roberto de

    2002-01-01

    Auditory processing disorders (APD), also referred as central auditory processing disorders (CAPD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) have become popular diagnostic entities for school age children. It has been demonstrated a high incidence of comorbid ADHD with communication disorders and auditory processing disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate ABR and P300 auditory evoked potentials in children with ADHD, in a double-blind study. Twenty-one children, ages bet...

  13. Functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, Hannah L.; Jennifer L. Agustus; Johanna C. Goll; Downey, Laura E; Mummery, Catherine J.; Jonathan M Schott; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Jason D Warren

    2015-01-01

    Auditory scene analysis is a demanding computational process that is performed automatically and efficiently by the healthy brain but vulnerable to the neurodegenerative pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Here we assessed the functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease using the well-known ‘cocktail party effect’ as a model paradigm whereby stored templates for auditory objects (e.g., hearing one's spoken name) are used to segregate auditory ‘foreground’ and ‘back...

  14. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians’ encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies, and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies. Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning or performing without sound (motor learning; following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall. During either Learning (Experiment 1 or Recall (Experiment 2, pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists’ pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2. Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1: Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2: Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the

  15. Auditory Brainstem Response Improvements in Hyperbillirubinemic Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Farzaneh Zamiri; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Lotfi, Yones

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Hyperbillirubinemia in infants have been associated with neuronal damage including in the auditory system. Some researchers have suggested that the bilirubin-induced auditory neuronal damages may be temporary and reversible. This study was aimed at investigating the auditory neuropathy and reversibility of auditory abnormalities in hyperbillirubinemic infants. Subjects and Methods The study participants included 41 full term hyperbilirubinemic infants (mean age 39.24 days) with normal birth weight (3,200-3,700 grams) that admitted in hospital for hyperbillirubinemia and 39 normal infants (mean age 35.54 days) without any hyperbillirubinemia or other hearing loss risk factors for ruling out maturational changes. All infants in hyperbilirubinemic group had serum bilirubin level more than 20 milligram per deciliter and undergone one blood exchange transfusion. Hearing evaluation for each infant was conducted twice: the first one after hyperbilirubinemia treatment and before leaving hospital and the second one three months after the first hearing evaluation. Hearing evaluations included transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) screening and auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold tracing. Results The TEOAE and ABR results of control group and TEOAE results of the hyperbilirubinemic group did not change significantly from the first to the second evaluation. However, the ABR results of the hyperbilirubinemic group improved significantly from the first to the second assessment (p=0.025). Conclusions The results suggest that the bilirubin induced auditory neuronal damage can be reversible over time so we suggest that infants with hyperbilirubinemia who fail the first hearing tests should be reevaluated after 3 months of treatment. PMID:27144228

  16. Stigmatic receptivity determines the seed set in Indian mustard, rice and wheat crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ramwant; Sutradhar, Hrishikesh; Chakrabarty, S K; Ansari, Mohhammed Wahid; Singh, Yogendra

    2015-01-01

    Stigmatic receptivity restricts the successful pollination in cereal crops. The present study deals with the biochemical test for enzymes producing in stigma of field crops such as Indian mustard, rice and wheat. The alcohol dehydrogenase and hydrogen peroxide assays revealed stigmatic receptivity as a violet color and oxygen bubbles released by the chemical reaction. Therefore, the 2 quick tests are in conformity to each other and supported the seed set data, which was utmost at blooming stage of flower ranged between 2-4 d All the 3 crops showed variation in stigmatic receptivity with respect to different time periods of blooming stages and hence, it may affects simultaneous pollen germination and tube growth, fertilization and seed set. The present finding suggests that the growth of pollen tube and stigma receptivity could be influenced by specific enzymes on stigma surface after 2-4 d of blooming stage, which contributes to proper seed set. PMID:27066163

  17. A virtual auditory environment for investigating the auditory signal processing of realistic sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel

    A loudspeaker-based virtual auditory environment (VAE) has been developed to provide a realistic versatile research environment for investigating the auditory signal processing in real environments, i.e., considering multiple sound sources and room reverberation. The VAE allows a full control of...... the acoustic scenario in order to systematically study the auditory processing of reverberant sounds. It is based on the ODEON software, which is state-of-the-art software for room acoustic simulations developed at Acoustic Technology, DTU. First, a MATLAB interface to the ODEON software has been...

  18. Transient auditory hallucinations in an adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokauskas, Norbert; Pillay, Devina; Moran, Tom; Kahn, David A

    2010-05-01

    In adolescents, hallucinations can be a transient illness or can be associated with non-psychotic psychopathology, psychosocial adversity, or a physical illness. We present the case of a 15-year-old secondary-school student who presented with a 1-month history of first onset auditory hallucinations, which had been increasing in frequency and severity, and mild paranoid ideation. Over a 10-week period, there was a gradual diminution, followed by a complete resolution, of symptoms. We discuss issues regarding the diagnosis and prognosis of auditory hallucinations in adolescents.

  19. Subsymmetries predict auditory and visual pattern complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Godfried T; Beltran, Juan F

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical measure of pattern complexity based on subsymmetries possessed by the pattern, previously shown to correlate highly with empirically derived measures of cognitive complexity in the visual domain, is found to also correlate significantly with empirically derived complexity measures of perception and production of auditory temporal and musical rhythmic patterns. Not only does the subsymmetry measure correlate highly with the difficulty of reproducing the rhythms by tapping after listening to them, but also the empirical measures exhibit similar behavior, for both the visual and auditory patterns, as a function of the relative number of subsymmetries present in the patterns. PMID:24494441

  20. AN EVALUATION OF AUDITORY LEARNING IN FILIAL IMPRINTING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOLHUIS, JJ; VANKAMPEN, HS

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of auditory learning in filial imprinting in precocial birds are reviewed. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the addition of an auditory stimulus improves following of a visual stimulus. This paper evaluates whether there is genuine auditory imprinting, i.e. the formation o

  1. Stigmatic receptivity determines the seed set in Indian mustard, rice and wheat crops

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Ramwant; Sutradhar, Hrishikesh; Chakrabarty, S. K.; Ansari, Mohhammed Wahid; Singh, Yogendra

    2015-01-01

    Stigmatic receptivity restricts the successful pollination in cereal crops. The present study deals with the biochemical test for enzymes producing in stigma of field crops such as Indian mustard, rice and wheat. The alcohol dehydrogenase and hydrogen peroxide assays revealed stigmatic receptivity as a violet color and oxygen bubbles released by the chemical reaction. Therefore, the 2 quick tests are in conformity to each other and supported the seed set data, which was utmost at blooming sta...

  2. The slav reception of Gregory of Nyssa’s works: an overview of early slavonic translations

    OpenAIRE

    Sels, Lara

    2011-01-01

    Although a lot has been written about the "translatio" of Byzantine Christianity in the mediaeval Slavia orthodoxa, advancing a critical assessment of the Slav reception of the Greek Fathers remains a precarious undertaking. Although the mere listing of patristic texts in Slavonic translation obviously falls short of the demands of the subject, a notion of the corpus of translated texts is called for. The modest aim of the present article, which deals with the reception of Gregory of Nyssa am...

  3. Vocabulary and Receptive Knowledge of English Collocations among Swedish Upper Secondary School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Bergström, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the vocabulary and receptive collocation knowledge in English among Swedish upper secondary school students. The primary material consists of two vocabulary tests, one collocation test, and a background questionnaire. The first research question concerns whether the students who receive a major part of their education in English have a higher level of vocabulary and receptive collocation knowledge in English than those who are taught primarily in Swedish. T...

  4. Reception of refugee children in healthcare. Healthcare professionals´ point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa Hrund Jensdóttir 1980

    2016-01-01

    Reception and treatment of refugees in health care systems are, with increased globalization, a continuous challenge for health care professionals. The aim of this research is to shed light on and identify factors with potential for improvement in the reception and treatment of refugee children and their families in Iceland and Sweden. This is a qualitative study and the results are based on 12 semi-structured interviews with Swedish and Icelandic health care professionals. The results are an...

  5. Receptivity to Television Fast-Food Restaurant Marketing and Obesity Among U.S. Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Li, Zhigang; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Advertisement of fast food on TV may contribute to youth obesity. Purpose The goal of the study was to use cued recall to determine whether TV fast-food advertising is associated with youth obesity. Methods A national sample of 2541 U.S. youth, aged 15–23 years, were surveyed in 2010–2011; data were analyzed in 2012. Respondents viewed a random subset of 20 advertisement frames (with brand names removed) selected from national TV fast-food restaurant advertisements (n=535) aired in the previous year. Respondents were asked if they had seen the advertisement, if they liked it, and if they could name the brand. A TV fast-food advertising receptivity score (a measure of exposure and response) was assigned; a 1-point increase was equivalent to affirmative responses to all three queries for two separate advertisements. Adjusted odds of obesity (based on self-reported height and weight), given higher TV fast-food advertising receptivity, are reported. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity, weighted to the U.S. population, was 20% and 16%, respectively. Obesity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, fast-food restaurant visit frequency, weekday TV time, and TV alcohol advertising receptivity were associated with higher TV fast-food advertising receptivity (median=3.3 [interquartile range: 2.2–4.2]). Only household income, TV time, and TV fast-food advertising receptivity retained multivariate associations with obesity. For every 1-point increase in TV fast-food advertising receptivity score, the odds of obesity increased by 19% (OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.01, 1.40). There was no association between receptivity to televised alcohol advertisements or fast-food restaurant visit frequency and obesity. Conclusions Using a cued-recall assessment, TV fast-food advertising receptivity was found to be associated with youth obesity. PMID:24139768

  6. Policies and practices in the health-related reception of quota refugees in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne W; Krasnik, Allan; Nørredam, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Quota refugees coming to Denmark are mandated refugee status offshore and approximately 500 quota refugees are resettled annually. Upon arrival to Denmark, quota refugees are received directly in the municipalities and municipal caseworkers therefore have the practical responsibility...... for their health-related reception. The aim of this study was to investigate the health-related reception of quota refugees in Denmark by focusing on the presence of municipal policies and practices, and to test for possible associations with these policies and practices....

  7. INNOVATION RECEPTIVITY IN SOCIAL GROUPS INVOLVED IN CREATION OF INNOVATION-SENSED MEDIA CONTENT

    OpenAIRE

    Petrachenka, H.

    2014-01-01

    The article demonstrates the results of the research, the purpose of which was to discover innovation receptivity in social groups involved in creat- ing of innovation-sensed content in Brest region newspapers - representatives of innovation infrastructure’s institutions and creative departments of Brest region newspapers. There is highlighted the necessity of innovation receptivity among representatives of these social groups in case of strengthen and sustainable growth of innovation-oriente...

  8. Spatial planning

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, Nikola; Koteski, Cane

    2016-01-01

    The professional book ,, Space planning "processed chapters on: space, concept and definition of space, space as a system, spatial economics, economic essence of space, space planning, social determinants of spatial planning, spatial planning as a process, factors development and elements in spatial planning, methodology, components and content of spatial planning stages and types of preparation of spatial planning, spatial planning and industrialization, industrialization, urbanization and s...

  9. DHARMAYATRA IN THE DWIJENDRA TATTWA TEXT ANALYSIS OF RECEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Rai Putra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The object of the study is Dwijendra Text (hereinafter abbreviated to DT. It containsinteresting narrations and is importantly related to the dharmayatra, the holy religious journeymade by Dang Hyang Nirartha, the charismatic figure, in Bali, Lombok and Sumbawa. Beforethe analysis of reception was conducted, the corpus text of the DT texts completely andstructurally telling the religious journey made by Dang Hyang Nirartha was successfullydetermined. The analysis in this study was made to answer the following questions: what is thenarrative structure of the DT text; what are the enlightenment image entities of the dharmayatraof the DT text; how do people appreciate the dharmayatra of the DT text? The answers to thenarrative structure of the DT text; the image entities and the appreciation provided by people arethe main objectives of this study.The theories adopted in this study are the theory of reception introduced by Jauss, thetheory of semiotics introduced by Pierce and the theory of mythology introduced by Barthes. Asa qualitative study, the data needed were collected by the methods of observation, note taking,documentation and interview supported with a sound recorder and pictures. The results of theanalysis are informally presented, meaning that they are verbally described in the form of wordswhich are systematically composed based on the problems formulated in this study.The analysis of the narrative structure of the DT text contains narrative units which are inthe forms of theme, characters and plots. They all unite to form stories which are mythological,legendary, symbolic, hagiographic and suggestive in nature. Based on the analysis ofenlightenment image entities, it can be concluded that there are three basic entities leading to thecreation of the DT text. They are first enlightenment; second protection of Hinduism; and thirdconstruction of temple institutions. Based on the reception analysis, it can be concluded thatpeople, through

  10. Spatial Perception and Cognition in Multichannel Audio for Electroacoustic Music

    OpenAIRE

    Kendall, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Listeners experience electroacoustic music as full of significance and meaning, and they experience spatiality as one of the factors contributing to its meaningfulness. If we want to understand spatiality in electroacoustic music, we must understand how the listener’s mental processes give rise to the experience of meaning. In electroacoustic music as in everyday life, these mental processes unite the peripheral auditory system with human spatial cognition. In the discussion that follows we c...

  11. Comparison of horizontal head movements evoked by auditory and visual targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, J H

    1996-01-01

    Head movement propensity-the pattern of head saccades dependent on methods of target presentation-varies among individuals. The present group of 9 young adults was previously ranked in a visual saccadic task according to this propensity. The present report examines how and why this propensity changes if the saccades are made to auditory targets. 1) Spatially identical, interleaved, auditorily and visually elicited horizontal saccadic gaze shifts (jumps) differed in amplitude and in starting and/or ending position. The jumps were executed in two head movement modes: first, the non-aligned mode was a standard reaction-time single gaze step between two points. Second, the head-aligned mode required alignment of the head with the fixation (starting) point; thereafter both modes were identical. All results in the auditory task are expressed relative to the visual results. 2) In the non-aligned mode, head movement amplitudes were increased on average by 15% (for example, an 80 degrees jump elicited a 12 degrees larger head movement), and velocity decreased by 12%, reflecting the increased demands of the auditory task. More importantly, the differences between subjects was narrowed; that is, head movement propensity was homogenized in the auditory task. In the visual task, head-movers willingly move their heads off and across the midline, whereas non-movers are unwilling to leave the midline from eccentric starting points or to eccentric ending points. This is called the midline attraction effect and was previously linked to spatial reference frames. The homogenization in the auditory task was characterized by head-movers increasing, and non-movers decreasing, their midline attraction, suggesting altered spatial reference frames. 3) For heuristic purposes, the ideal head-mover is defined by a gain of 1.0 in the visual task, and by external earth-fixed reference frames. Similarly, the ideal non-mover has a gain of 0.0 and has a bias toward body (or some par of the body

  12. The Goldilocks Effect in Infant Auditory Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Celeste; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Infants must learn about many cognitive domains (e.g., language, music) from auditory statistics, yet capacity limits on their cognitive resources restrict the quantity that they can encode. Previous research has established that infants can attend to only a subset of available acoustic input. Yet few previous studies have directly examined infant…

  13. Reading adn Auditory-Visual Equivalences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, Murray

    1971-01-01

    A retarded boy, unable to read orally or with comprehension, was taught to match spoken to printed words and was then capable of reading comprehension (matching printed words to picture) and oral reading (naming printed words aloud), demonstrating that certain learned auditory-visual equivalences are sufficient prerequisites for reading…

  14. Development of Receiver Stimulator for Auditory Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Raja Kumar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Auditory Prosthesis (AP is an electronic device that can provide hearing sensations to people who are profoundly deaf by stimulating the auditory nerve via an array of electrodes with an electric current allowing them to understand the speech. The AP system consists of two hardware functional units such as Body Worn Speech Processor (BWSP and Receiver Stimulator. The prototype model of Receiver Stimulator for Auditory Prosthesis (RSAP consists of Speech Data Decoder, DAC, ADC, constant current generator, electrode selection logic, switch matrix and simulated electrode resistance array. The laboratory model of speech processor is designed to implement the Continuous Interleaved Sampling (CIS speech processing algorithm which generates the information required for electrode stimulation based on the speech / audio data. Speech Data Decoder receives the encoded speech data via an inductive RF transcutaneous link from speech processor. Twelve channels of auditory Prosthesis with selectable eight electrodes for stimulation of simulated electrode resistance array are used for testing. The RSAP is validated by using the test data generated by the laboratory prototype of speech processor. The experimental results are obtained from specific speech/sound tests using a high-speed data acquisition system and found satisfactory.

  15. Auditory Training with Frequent Communication Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tye-Murray, Nancy; Spehar, Brent; Sommers, Mitchell; Barcroft, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with hearing loss engage in auditory training to improve their speech recognition. They typically practice listening to utterances spoken by unfamiliar talkers but never to utterances spoken by their most frequent communication partner (FCP)--speech they most likely desire to recognize--under the assumption that familiarity…

  16. Auditory Perception of Statistically Blurred Sound Textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; MacDonald, Ewen; Dau, Torsten

    Sound textures have been identified as a category of sounds which are processed by the peripheral auditory system and captured with running timeaveraged statistics. Although sound textures are temporally homogeneous, they offer a listener with enough information to identify and differentiate sour...

  17. Auditory confrontation naming in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jason; Bakker, Arnold; Maroof, David Aaron

    2010-11-01

    Naming is a fundamental aspect of language and is virtually always assessed with visual confrontation tests. Tests of the ability to name objects by their characteristic sounds would be particularly useful in the assessment of visually impaired patients, and may be particularly sensitive in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We developed an auditory naming task, requiring the identification of the source of environmental sounds (i.e., animal calls, musical instruments, vehicles) and multiple-choice recognition of those not identified. In two separate studies mild-to-moderate AD patients performed more poorly than cognitively normal elderly on the auditory naming task. This task was also more difficult than two versions of a comparable visual naming task, and correlated more highly with Mini-Mental State Exam score. Internal consistency reliability was acceptable, although ROC analysis revealed auditory naming to be slightly less successful than visual confrontation naming in discriminating AD patients from normal participants. Nonetheless, our auditory naming task may prove useful in research and clinical practice, especially with visually impaired patients. PMID:20981630

  18. Lateralization of auditory-cortex functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervaniemi, Mari; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2003-12-01

    In the present review, we summarize the most recent findings and current views about the structural and functional basis of human brain lateralization in the auditory modality. Main emphasis is given to hemodynamic and electromagnetic data of healthy adult participants with regard to music- vs. speech-sound encoding. Moreover, a selective set of behavioral dichotic-listening (DL) results and clinical findings (e.g., schizophrenia, dyslexia) are included. It is shown that human brain has a strong predisposition to process speech sounds in the left and music sounds in the right auditory cortex in the temporal lobe. Up to great extent, an auditory area located at the posterior end of the temporal lobe (called planum temporale [PT]) underlies this functional asymmetry. However, the predisposition is not bound to informational sound content but to rapid temporal information more common in speech than in music sounds. Finally, we obtain evidence for the vulnerability of the functional specialization of sound processing. These altered forms of lateralization may be caused by top-down and bottom-up effects inter- and intraindividually In other words, relatively small changes in acoustic sound features or in their familiarity may modify the degree in which the left vs. right auditory areas contribute to sound encoding. PMID:14629926

  19. Self-affirmation in auditory persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbert, Sarah; Dijkstra, Arie

    2011-01-01

    Persuasive health information can be presented through an auditory channel. Curiously enough, the effect of voice cues in health persuasion has hardly been studied. Research concerning visual persuasive messages showed that self-affirmation results in a more open-minded reaction to threatening infor

  20. Affective priming with auditory speech stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Degner

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments explored the applicability of auditory stimulus presentation in affective priming tasks. In Experiment 1, it was found that standard affective priming effects occur when prime and target words are presented simultaneously via headphones similar to a dichotic listening procedure. In

  1. Integration and segregation in auditory scene analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Elyse S.

    2005-03-01

    Assessment of the neural correlates of auditory scene analysis, using an index of sound change detection that does not require the listener to attend to the sounds [a component of event-related brain potentials called the mismatch negativity (MMN)], has previously demonstrated that segregation processes can occur without attention focused on the sounds and that within-stream contextual factors influence how sound elements are integrated and represented in auditory memory. The current study investigated the relationship between the segregation and integration processes when they were called upon to function together. The pattern of MMN results showed that the integration of sound elements within a sound stream occurred after the segregation of sounds into independent streams and, further, that the individual streams were subject to contextual effects. These results are consistent with a view of auditory processing that suggests that the auditory scene is rapidly organized into distinct streams and the integration of sequential elements to perceptual units takes place on the already formed streams. This would allow for the flexibility required to identify changing within-stream sound patterns, needed to appreciate music or comprehend speech..

  2. Auditory risk estimates for youth target shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Deanna K.; Murphy, William J.; Finan, Donald S.; Lankford, James E.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Stewart, Michael; Soendergaard, Jacob; Jerome, Trevor W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize the impulse noise exposure and auditory risk for youth recreational firearm users engaged in outdoor target shooting events. The youth shooting positions are typically standing or sitting at a table, which places the firearm closer to the ground or reflective surface when compared to adult shooters. Design Acoustic characteristics were examined and the auditory risk estimates were evaluated using contemporary damage-risk criteria for unprotected adult listeners and the 120-dB peak limit suggested by the World Health Organization (1999) for children. Study sample Impulses were generated by 26 firearm/ammunition configurations representing rifles, shotguns, and pistols used by youth. Measurements were obtained relative to a youth shooter’s left ear. Results All firearms generated peak levels that exceeded the 120 dB peak limit suggested by the WHO for children. In general, shooting from the seated position over a tabletop increases the peak levels, LAeq8 and reduces the unprotected maximum permissible exposures (MPEs) for both rifles and pistols. Pistols pose the greatest auditory risk when fired over a tabletop. Conclusion Youth should utilize smaller caliber weapons, preferably from the standing position, and always wear hearing protection whenever engaging in shooting activities to reduce the risk for auditory damage. PMID:24564688

  3. Interhemispheric Auditory Connectivity: Structure and Function Related to Auditory Verbal Hallucinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia eSteinmann

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH are one of the most common and most distressing symptoms of schizophrenia. Despite fundamental research, the underlying neurocognitive and neurobiological mechanisms are still a matter of debate. Previous studies suggested that hearing voices is associated with a number of factors including local deficits in the left auditory cortex and a disturbed connectivity of frontal and temporoparietal language-related areas. In addition, it is hypothesized that the interhemispheric pathways connecting right and left auditory cortices might be involved in the pathogenesis of AVH. Findings based on Diffusion-Tensor-Imaging (DTI measurements revealed a remarkable interindividual variability in size and shape of the interhemispheric auditory pathways. Interestingly, schizophrenia patients suffering from AVH exhibited increased fractional anisotropy (FA in the interhemispheric fibers than non-hallucinating patients. Thus, higher FA-values indicate an increased severity of AVH. Moreover, a dichotic listening (DL task showed that the interindividual variability in the interhemispheric auditory pathways was reflected in the behavioral outcome: Stronger pathways supported a better information transfer and consequently improved speech perception. This detection indicates a specific structure-function relationship, which seems to be interindividually variable. This review focuses on recent findings concerning the structure-function relationship of the interhemispheric pathways in controls, hallucinating and non-hallucinating schizophrenia patients and concludes that changes in the structural and functional connectivity of auditory areas are involved in the pathophysiology of AVH.

  4. Biological impact of auditory expertise across the life span: musicians as a model of auditory learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L; Kraus, Nina

    2014-02-01

    Experience-dependent characteristics of auditory function, especially with regard to speech-evoked auditory neurophysiology, have garnered increasing attention in recent years. This interest stems from both pragmatic and theoretical concerns as it bears implications for the prevention and remediation of language-based learning impairment in addition to providing insight into mechanisms engendering experience-dependent changes in human sensory function. Musicians provide an attractive model for studying the experience-dependency of auditory processing in humans due to their distinctive neural enhancements compared to nonmusicians. We have only recently begun to address whether these enhancements are observable early in life, during the initial years of music training when the auditory system is under rapid development, as well as later in life, after the onset of the aging process. Here we review neural enhancements in musically trained individuals across the life span in the context of cellular mechanisms that underlie learning, identified in animal models. Musicians' subcortical physiologic enhancements are interpreted according to a cognitive framework for auditory learning, providing a model in which to study mechanisms of experience-dependent changes in human auditory function. PMID:23988583

  5. 40 Hz auditory steady state response to linguistic features of stimuli during auditory hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jun; Yan, Zheng; Gao, Xiao-rong

    2013-10-01

    The auditory steady state response (ASSR) may reflect activity from different regions of the brain, depending on the modulation frequency used. In general, responses induced by low rates (≤40 Hz) emanate mostly from central structures of the brain, and responses from high rates (≥80 Hz) emanate mostly from the peripheral auditory nerve or brainstem structures. Besides, it was reported that the gamma band ASSR (30-90 Hz) played an important role in working memory, speech understanding and recognition. This paper investigated the 40 Hz ASSR evoked by modulated speech and reversed speech. The speech was Chinese phrase voice, and the noise-like reversed speech was obtained by temporally reversing the speech. Both auditory stimuli were modulated with a frequency of 40 Hz. Ten healthy subjects and 5 patients with hallucination symptom participated in the experiment. Results showed reduction in left auditory cortex response when healthy subjects listened to the reversed speech compared with the speech. In contrast, when the patients who experienced auditory hallucinations listened to the reversed speech, the auditory cortex of left hemispheric responded more actively. The ASSR results were consistent with the behavior results of patients. Therefore, the gamma band ASSR is expected to be helpful for rapid and objective diagnosis of hallucination in clinic. PMID:24142731

  6. Biological impact of auditory expertise across the life span: musicians as a model of auditory learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L; Kraus, Nina

    2014-02-01

    Experience-dependent characteristics of auditory function, especially with regard to speech-evoked auditory neurophysiology, have garnered increasing attention in recent years. This interest stems from both pragmatic and theoretical concerns as it bears implications for the prevention and remediation of language-based learning impairment in addition to providing insight into mechanisms engendering experience-dependent changes in human sensory function. Musicians provide an attractive model for studying the experience-dependency of auditory processing in humans due to their distinctive neural enhancements compared to nonmusicians. We have only recently begun to address whether these enhancements are observable early in life, during the initial years of music training when the auditory system is under rapid development, as well as later in life, after the onset of the aging process. Here we review neural enhancements in musically trained individuals across the life span in the context of cellular mechanisms that underlie learning, identified in animal models. Musicians' subcortical physiologic enhancements are interpreted according to a cognitive framework for auditory learning, providing a model in which to study mechanisms of experience-dependent changes in human auditory function.

  7. Auralization of CFD Vorticity Using an Auditory Illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, C. R.

    2005-12-01

    , the simple approach of mapping clockwise and counterclockwise rotations to actual pitch increases and decreases, eventually results in sounds that the listener cannot hear. In this alternate presentation using an auditory illusion, repeated rotations of a stream-tube are replaced with continual increases or decreases in apparent pitch. These apparent pitch changes can continue without bound, yet never exceed the range of frequencies that the listener can hear. The effectiveness of this presentation technique has been studied, and empirical results, obtained through formal user testing and statistical analysis, are presented. These results demonstrate that an aural data presentation using an auditory illusion can improve performance in locating key data characteristics, a task that demonstrates a certain level of understanding of the data. The experiments show that this holds true even when the user expresses a subjective preference and greater confidence in a visual presentation. The CFD data used in the research comes from a number of different industrial domains, but the advantages of this technique could be equally applicable to the study of earth sciences involving fluid mechanics, such as atmospheric or ocean sciences. Furthermore, the approach is applicable not only to CFD data, but to any type of data in which a quantity that is cyclic in nature, such as orientation, needs to be presented. Although the techniques and tools were originally developed with scientists and engineers in mind, they can also be used to aid students, particularly those who are visually impaired or who have difficulty interpreting certain spatial relationships visually.

  8. McGurk illusion recalibrates subsequent auditory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüttke, Claudia S; Ekman, Matthias; van Gerven, Marcel A J; de Lange, Floris P

    2016-01-01

    Visual information can alter auditory perception. This is clearly illustrated by the well-known McGurk illusion, where an auditory/aba/ and a visual /aga/ are merged to the percept of 'ada'. It is less clear however whether such a change in perception may recalibrate subsequent perception. Here we asked whether the altered auditory perception due to the McGurk illusion affects subsequent auditory perception, i.e. whether this process of fusion may cause a recalibration of the auditory boundaries between phonemes. Participants categorized auditory and audiovisual speech stimuli as /aba/, /ada/ or /aga/ while activity patterns in their auditory cortices were recorded using fMRI. Interestingly, following a McGurk illusion, an auditory /aba/ was more often misperceived as 'ada'. Furthermore, we observed a neural counterpart of this recalibration in the early auditory cortex. When the auditory input /aba/ was perceived as 'ada', activity patterns bore stronger resemblance to activity patterns elicited by /ada/ sounds than when they were correctly perceived as /aba/. Our results suggest that upon experiencing the McGurk illusion, the brain shifts the neural representation of an /aba/ sound towards /ada/, culminating in a recalibration in perception of subsequent auditory input. PMID:27611960

  9. McGurk illusion recalibrates subsequent auditory perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüttke, Claudia S.; Ekman, Matthias; van Gerven, Marcel A. J.; de Lange, Floris P.

    2016-01-01

    Visual information can alter auditory perception. This is clearly illustrated by the well-known McGurk illusion, where an auditory/aba/ and a visual /aga/ are merged to the percept of ‘ada’. It is less clear however whether such a change in perception may recalibrate subsequent perception. Here we asked whether the altered auditory perception due to the McGurk illusion affects subsequent auditory perception, i.e. whether this process of fusion may cause a recalibration of the auditory boundaries between phonemes. Participants categorized auditory and audiovisual speech stimuli as /aba/, /ada/ or /aga/ while activity patterns in their auditory cortices were recorded using fMRI. Interestingly, following a McGurk illusion, an auditory /aba/ was more often misperceived as ‘ada’. Furthermore, we observed a neural counterpart of this recalibration in the early auditory cortex. When the auditory input /aba/ was perceived as ‘ada’, activity patterns bore stronger resemblance to activity patterns elicited by /ada/ sounds than when they were correctly perceived as /aba/. Our results suggest that upon experiencing the McGurk illusion, the brain shifts the neural representation of an /aba/ sound towards /ada/, culminating in a recalibration in perception of subsequent auditory input. PMID:27611960

  10. Representation of Reward Feedback in Primate Auditory Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eBrosch

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that auditory cortex is plastic on different time scales and that this plasticity is driven by the reinforcement that is used to motivate subjects to learn or to perform an auditory task. Motivated by these findings, we study in detail properties of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that is related to reward feedback. We recorded from the auditory cortex of two monkeys while they were performing an auditory categorization task. Monkeys listened to a sequence of tones and had to signal when the frequency of adjacent tones stepped in downward direction, irrespective of the tone frequency and step size. Correct identifications were rewarded with either a large or a small amount of water. The size of reward depended on the monkeys' performance in the previous trial: it was large after a correct trial and small after an incorrect trial. The rewards served to maintain task performance. During task performance we found three successive periods of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that reflected (1 the reward expectancy for each trial, (2 the reward size received and (3 the mismatch between the expected and delivered reward. These results, together with control experiments suggest that auditory cortex receives reward feedback that could be used to adapt auditory cortex to task requirements. Additionally, the results presented here extend previous observations of non-auditory roles of auditory cortex and shows that auditory cortex is even more cognitively influenced than lately recognized.

  11. Representation of reward feedback in primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosch, Michael; Selezneva, Elena; Scheich, Henning

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that auditory cortex is plastic on different time scales and that this plasticity is driven by the reinforcement that is used to motivate subjects to learn or to perform an auditory task. Motivated by these findings, we study in detail properties of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that is related to reward feedback. We recorded from the auditory cortex of two monkeys while they were performing an auditory categorization task. Monkeys listened to a sequence of tones and had to signal when the frequency of adjacent tones stepped in downward direction, irrespective of the tone frequency and step size. Correct identifications were rewarded with either a large or a small amount of water. The size of reward depended on the monkeys' performance in the previous trial: it was large after a correct trial and small after an incorrect trial. The rewards served to maintain task performance. During task performance we found three successive periods of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that reflected (1) the reward expectancy for each trial, (2) the reward-size received, and (3) the mismatch between the expected and delivered reward. These results, together with control experiments suggest that auditory cortex receives reward feedback that could be used to adapt auditory cortex to task requirements. Additionally, the results presented here extend previous observations of non-auditory roles of auditory cortex and shows that auditory cortex is even more cognitively influenced than lately recognized.

  12. Mutual influences of intermodal visual/tactile apparent motion and auditory motion with uncrossed and crossed arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yushi; Chen, Lihan

    2013-01-01

    Intra-modal apparent motion has been shown to be affected or 'captured' by information from another, task-irrelevant modality, as shown in cross-modal dynamic capture effect. Here we created inter-modal apparent motion between visual and tactile stimuli and investigated whether there are mutual influences between auditory apparent motion and inter-modal visual/tactile apparent motion. Moreover, we examined whether and how the spatial remapping between somatotopic and external reference frames of tactile events affect the cross-modal capture between auditory apparent motion and inter-modal visual/tactile apparent motion, by introducing two arm postures: arms-uncrossed and arms-crossed. In Experiment 1, we used auditory stimuli (auditory apparent motion) as distractors and inter-modal visual/tactile stimuli (inter-modal apparent motion) as targets while in Experiment 2 we reversed the distractors and targets. In Experiment 1, we found a general detrimental influence of arms-crossed posture in the task of discrimination of direction in visual/tactile stream, but in Experiment 2, the influence of arms-uncrossed posture played a significant role in modulating the inter-modal visual/tactile stimuli capturing over auditory apparent motion. In both Experiments, the synchronously presented motion streams led to noticeable directional congruency effect in judging the target motion. Among the different modality combinations, tactile to tactile apparent motion (TT) and visual to visual apparent motion (VV) are two signatures revealing the asymmetric congruency effects. When the auditory stimuli were targets, the congruency effect was largest with VV distractors, lowest with TT distractors; the pattern was reversed when the auditory stimuli were distractors. In addition, across both experiments the congruency effect in visual to tactile (VT) and tactile to visual (TV) apparent motion was intermediate between the effect-sizes in VV and TT. We replicated the above findings with a

  13. Receptive fields of visual neurons: the early years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillmann, Lothar

    2014-01-01

    This paper traces the history of the visual receptive field (RF) from Hartline to Hubel and Wiesel. Hartline (1938, 1940) found that an isolated optic nerve fiber in the frog could be excited by light falling on a small circular area of the retina. He called this area the RF, using a term first introduced by Sherrington (1906) in the tactile domain. In 1953 Kuffler discovered the antagonistic center-surround organization of cat RFs, and Barlow, Fitzhugh, and Kuffler (1957) extended this work to stimulus size and state of adaptation. Shortly thereafter, Lettvin and colleagues (1959) in an iconic paper asked "what the frog's eye tells the frog's brain". Meanwhile, Jung and colleagues (1952-1973) searched for the perceptual correlates of neuronal responses, and Jung and Spillmann (1970) proposed the term perceptive field (PF) as a psychophysical correlate of the RF. The Westheimer function (1967) enabled psychophysical measurements of the PF center and surround in human and monkey, which correlated closely with the underlying RF organization. The sixties and seventies were marked by rapid progress in RF research. Hubel and Wiesel (1959-1974), recording from neurons in the visual cortex of the cat and monkey, found elongated RFs selective for the shape, orientation, and position of the stimulus, as well as for movement direction and ocularity. These findings prompted the emergence in visual psychophysics of the concept of feature detectors selective for lines, bars, and edges, and contributed to a model of the RF in terms of difference of Gaussians (DOG) and Fourier channels. The distinction between simple, complex, and hypercomplex neurons followed. Although RF size increases towards the peripheral retina, its cortical representation remains constant due to the reciprocal relationship with the cortical magnification factor (M). This constitutes a uniform yardstick for M-scaled stimuli across the retina. Developmental studies have shown that RF properties are not fixed

  14. Characterization of auditory synaptic inputs to gerbil perirhinal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhakar C Kotak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The representation of acoustic cues involves regions downstream from the auditory cortex (ACx. One such area, the perirhinal cortex (PRh, processes sensory signals containing mnemonic information. Therefore, our goal was to assess whether PRh receives auditory inputs from the auditory thalamus (MG and ACx in an auditory thalamocortical brain slice preparation and characterize these afferent-driven synaptic properties. When the MG or ACx was electrically stimulated, synaptic responses were recorded from the PRh neurons. Blockade of GABA-A receptors dramatically increased the amplitude of evoked excitatory potentials. Stimulation of the MG or ACx also evoked calcium transients in most PRh neurons. Separately, when fluoro ruby was injected in ACx in vivo, anterogradely labeled axons and terminals were observed in the PRh. Collectively, these data show that the PRh integrates auditory information from the MG and ACx and that auditory driven inhibition dominates the postsynaptic responses in a non-sensory cortical region downstream from the auditory cortex.

  15. Effects of Auditory Attention Training with the Dichotic Listening Task: Behavioural and Neurophysiological Evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Tallus

    Full Text Available Facilitation of general cognitive capacities such as executive functions through training has stirred considerable research interest during the last decade. Recently we demonstrated that training of auditory attention with forced attention dichotic listening not only facilitated that performance but also generalized to an untrained attentional task. In the present study, 13 participants underwent a 4-week dichotic listening training programme with instructions to report syllables presented to the left ear (FL training group. Another group (n = 13 was trained using the non-forced instruction, asked to report whichever syllable they heard the best (NF training group. The study aimed to replicate our previous behavioural results, and to explore the neurophysiological correlates of training through event-related brain potentials (ERPs. We partially replicated our previous behavioural training effects, as the FL training group tended to show more allocation of auditory spatial attention to the left ear in a standard dichotic listening task. ERP measures showed diminished N1 and enhanced P2 responses to dichotic stimuli after training in both groups, interpreted as improvement in early perceptual processing of the stimuli. Additionally, enhanced anterior N2 amplitudes were found after training, with relatively larger changes in the FL training group in the forced-left condition, suggesting improved top-down control on the trained task. These results show that top-down cognitive training can modulate the left-right allocation of auditory spatial attention, accompanied by a change in an evoked brain potential related to cognitive control.

  16. Clinical Significance of Auditory Target P300 Subcomponents in Psychosis: Differential Diagnosis, Symptom Profiles, and Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Greg; Foti, Dan; Jackson, Felicia; Kotov, Roman; Constantino, Eduardo; Hajcak, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Background Reduced auditory target P300 amplitude is a leading biomarker for psychotic disorders, although its relevance for differential diagnosis and link to specific clinical features (symptom profiles, functional impairment, and course) is unclear. This study aims to clarify the clinical significance of auditory target P300 using concurrent and retrospective clinical data from a longitudinal cohort with psychosis. Methods 92 cases from an epidemiological study of first-admission psychosis were assessed using an auditory oddball paradigm at 15-year follow-up along with 44 never-psychotic adults. Subcomponents of auditory target P300 amplitude (i.e., a central positive P3a, a parietal positive P3b, and a frontal negative slow wave) were isolated using temporal-spatial principal components analysis. Results P3a amplitude was blunted across psychotic disorders relative to non-psychotic adults. P3b amplitude was reduced in schizophrenia specifically, including cases initially misclassified at baseline. The frontal negative slow wave did not distinguish among groups. P3b amplitude reduction was associated with several clinical features at the concurrent assessment, as well as previous time points, including recovery from psychosis even 5 years earlier and functioning even 15 years earlier. Conclusions Auditory target P300 amplitude yields both a schizophrenia-specific component (i.e., P3b) and a transdiagnostic psychosis component (i.e., P3a). The P3b component may also shed light on prognosis, real-world functioning, and course, as well as help to reduce misdiagnosis of psychotic disorders. Prospective studies are needed to test whether P3b tracks or predicts clinical status. PMID:25934167

  17. The influence of visual information on auditory processing in individuals with congenital amusia: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuejing; Ho, Hao T; Sun, Yanan; Johnson, Blake W; Thompson, William F

    2016-07-15

    While most normal hearing individuals can readily use prosodic information in spoken language to interpret the moods and feelings of conversational partners, people with congenital amusia report that they often rely more on facial expressions and gestures, a strategy that may compensate for deficits in auditory processing. In this investigation, we used EEG to examine the extent to which individuals with congenital amusia draw upon visual information when making auditory or audio-visual judgments. Event-related potentials (ERP) were elicited by a change in pitch (up or down) between two sequential tones paired with a change in spatial position (up or down) between two visually presented dots. The change in dot position was either congruent or incongruent with the change in pitch. Participants were asked to judge (1) the direction of pitch change while ignoring the visual information (AV implicit task), and (2) whether the auditory and visual changes were congruent (AV explicit task). In the AV implicit task, amusic participants performed significantly worse in the incongruent condition than control participants. ERPs showed an enhanced N2-P3 response to incongruent AV pairings for control participants, but not for amusic participants. However when participants were explicitly directed to detect AV congruency, both groups exhibited enhanced N2-P3 responses to incongruent AV pairings. These findings indicate that amusics are capable of extracting information from both modalities in an AV task, but are biased to rely on visual information when it is available, presumably because they have learned that auditory information is unreliable. We conclude that amusic individuals implicitly draw upon visual information when judging auditory information, even though they have the capacity to explicitly recognize conflicts between these two sensory channels. PMID:27132045

  18. Voluntary movement affects simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to a non-moving body part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiao; Ora, Hiroki; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Ogata, Taiki; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous perception of multimodal sensory information has a crucial role for effective reactions to the external environment. Voluntary movements are known to occasionally affect simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the moving body part. However, little is known about spatial limits on the effect of voluntary movements on simultaneous perception, especially when tactile stimuli are presented to a non-moving body part. We examined the effect of voluntary movement on the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the non-moving body part. We considered the possible mechanism using a temporal order judgement task under three experimental conditions: voluntary movement, where participants voluntarily moved their right index finger and judged the temporal order of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to their non-moving left index finger; passive movement; and no movement. During voluntary movement, the auditory stimulus needed to be presented before the tactile stimulus so that they were perceived as occurring simultaneously. This subjective simultaneity differed significantly from the passive movement and no movement conditions. This finding indicates that the effect of voluntary movement on simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli extends to the non-moving body part. PMID:27622584

  19. Voluntary movement affects simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to a non-moving body part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiao; Ora, Hiroki; Ogawa, Ken-Ichiro; Ogata, Taiki; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous perception of multimodal sensory information has a crucial role for effective reactions to the external environment. Voluntary movements are known to occasionally affect simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the moving body part. However, little is known about spatial limits on the effect of voluntary movements on simultaneous perception, especially when tactile stimuli are presented to a non-moving body part. We examined the effect of voluntary movement on the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the non-moving body part. We considered the possible mechanism using a temporal order judgement task under three experimental conditions: voluntary movement, where participants voluntarily moved their right index finger and judged the temporal order of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to their non-moving left index finger; passive movement; and no movement. During voluntary movement, the auditory stimulus needed to be presented before the tactile stimulus so that they were perceived as occurring simultaneously. This subjective simultaneity differed significantly from the passive movement and no movement conditions. This finding indicates that the effect of voluntary movement on simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli extends to the non-moving body part. PMID:27622584

  20. Influence of auditory and audiovisual stimuli on the right-left prevalence effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L; Minakata, Katsumi; Ngo, Mary Kim

    2014-01-01

    occurs when the two-dimensional stimuli are audiovisual, as well as whether there will be cross-modal facilitation of response selection for the horizontal and vertical dimensions. We also examined whether there is an additional benefit of adding a pitch dimension to the auditory stimulus to facilitate...... vertical coding through use of the spatial-musical association of response codes (SMARC) effect, where pitch is coded in terms of height in space. In Experiment 1, we found a larger right-left prevalence effect for unimodal auditory than visual stimuli. Neutral, non-pitch coded, audiovisual stimuli did...... not result in cross-modal facilitation, but did show evidence of visual dominance. The right-left prevalence effect was eliminated in the presence of SMARC audiovisual stimuli, but the effect influenced horizontal rather than vertical coding. Experiment 2 showed that the influence of the pitch dimension...

  1. An attempt to analyse colour reception by electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naka, K I; Rushton, W A

    1966-08-01

    1. The problem of colour reception is that we do not know the action spectra of the visual pigments involved, the nature of the signals generated nor the interaction between these signals. We only know the incident light and the electric results of interaction.2. In Part 1 we show that S-potentials from red/green (R/G) units saturated with deep red light show this property: added green light pulls down the ceiling of depolarization, but more added red had no power to raise it again. Thus lights that depress the deep red ceiling equally stimulate the green pigment equally. From this the action spectrum of the green pigment can be obtained.3. If we assume that only two visual pigments are involved in the R/G unit, and that lights which do not pull down the deep red ceiling are below the threshold for green cones, then in this range only the red pigment is excited and we may obtain its action spectrum. Its maximum is at 680 nm where no visual pigment so far has been found.4. In Part 2 we consider the following mathematical problem: ;Is it possible that two pigments of given action spectra could combine their outputs in such a way that the resultant would be identical with the output of a third pigment of given action spectrum, for every intensity of every monochromatic light?' The solution shows that this is always mathematically possible, and the necessary interaction function is deduced.5. It is shown further that if the log action spectra are the ;visual parabolas' that resemble Dartnall's nomogram, then the interaction function is simply a linear transform such as Hartline & Ratliff (1957) have found with lateral inhibition in Limulus and Donner & Rushton (1959) with silent substitution in the frog.6. An interaction that matches a single pigment to perfection for all monochromatic lights will not match it for certain mixtures. By this criterion the 680 nm excitability is a pigment and not the resultant of two other pigments, i.e. pigments more excitable in other

  2. Receptive Audiences for Climate Change Education: Understanding Attitudes and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, L. D.; Luebke, J. F.; Clayton, S.; Saunders, C. D.; Matiasek, J.; Grajal, A.

    2012-12-01

    Much effort has been devoted to finding ways to explain climate change to uninterested audiences and encourage mitigation behaviors among dismissive audiences. Most approaches have focused on conveying information about climate change processes or threats. Here we report the results of a national survey designed to characterize the readiness of zoo and aquarium visitors to engage with the issue of climate change. Two survey forms, one focused primarily on attitudes (N=3,594) and another on behaviors (N=3,588), were administered concurrently in summer 2011 at 15 Association of Zoos and Aquariums accredited institutions. The attitudes survey used Global Warming's Six Americas segmentation protocols (climatechangecommunication.org) to compare climate change attitudes of zoo and aquarium visitors with the American public (Leiserowitz et al., 2011). Our results reveal that visitors are receptive audiences for climate change education and want to do more to address climate change. Even these favorable audiences, however, perceive barriers to engaging in the issue, signifying the importance of meeting the learning needs of those who acknowledge anthropogenic climate change, and not only of climate change 'deniers.' While 39% of the general public is 'concerned' or 'alarmed' about global warming, 64% of zoo and aquarium visitors fall into these two "Six Americas" segments. Visitors also differ from the national sample in key attitudinal characteristics related to global warming. For example, nearly two-thirds believe human actions are related to global warming, versus less than one-half of the general public; and approximately 60% think global warming will harm them personally, moderately or a great deal, versus less than 30% of the general public. Moreover, 69% of visitors would like to do more to address climate change. Despite zoo and aquarium visitors' awareness of climate change and motivation to address it, survey results indicate they experience barriers to

  3. SPATIAL STABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Mossay

    2004-01-01

    We consider a continuous spatial economy consisting of pure exchange local economies. Agents are allowed to change their location over time as a response to spatial utility differentials. These spatial adjustments toward higher utility neighborhoods lead the spatial economy to converge to a spatially uniform allocation of resources, provided that the matrix of price effects is quasi-negative definite. Furthermore our model provides a real time interpretation of the tâtonnement story. Also, sp...

  4. Shaping the aging brain: Role of auditory input patterns in the emergence of auditory cortical impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brishna Soraya Kamal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Age-related impairments in the primary auditory cortex (A1 include poor tuning selectivity, neural desynchronization and degraded responses to low-probability sounds. These changes have been largely attributed to reduced inhibition in the aged brain, and are thought to contribute to substantial hearing impairment in both humans and animals. Since many of these changes can be partially reversed with auditory training, it has been speculated that they might not be purely degenerative, but might rather represent negative plastic adjustments to noisy or distorted auditory signals reaching the brain. To test this hypothesis, we examined the impact of exposing young adult rats to 8 weeks of low-grade broadband noise on several aspects of A1 function and structure. We then characterized the same A1 elements in aging rats for comparison. We found that the impact of noise exposure on A1 tuning selectivity, temporal processing of auditory signal and responses to oddball tones was almost indistinguishable from the effect of natural aging. Moreover, noise exposure resulted in a reduction in the population of parvalbumin inhibitory interneurons and cortical myelin as previously documented in the aged group. Most of these changes reversed after returning the rats to a quiet environment. These results support the hypothesis that age-related changes in A1 have a strong activity-dependent component and indicate that the presence or absence of clear auditory input patterns might be a key factor in sustaining adult A1 function.

  5. Selective memory retrieval of auditory what and auditory where involves the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulos, Penelope; Petrides, Michael

    2016-02-16

    There is evidence from the visual, verbal, and tactile memory domains that the midventrolateral prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in the top-down modulation of activity within posterior cortical areas for the selective retrieval of specific aspects of a memorized experience, a functional process often referred to as active controlled retrieval. In the present functional neuroimaging study, we explore the neural bases of active retrieval for auditory nonverbal information, about which almost nothing is known. Human participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a task in which they were presented with short melodies from different locations in a simulated virtual acoustic environment within the scanner and were then instructed to retrieve selectively either the particular melody presented or its location. There were significant activity increases specifically within the midventrolateral prefrontal region during the selective retrieval of nonverbal auditory information. During the selective retrieval of information from auditory memory, the right midventrolateral prefrontal region increased its interaction with the auditory temporal region and the inferior parietal lobule in the right hemisphere. These findings provide evidence that the midventrolateral prefrontal cortical region interacts with specific posterior cortical areas in the human cerebral cortex for the selective retrieval of object and location features of an auditory memory experience.

  6. An Auditory Model with Hearing Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Bramsløw

    An auditory model based on the psychophysics of hearing has been developed and tested. The model simulates the normal ear or an impaired ear with a given hearing loss. Based on reviews of the current literature, the frequency selectivity and loudness growth as functions of threshold and stimulus...... level have been found and implemented in the model. The auditory model was verified against selected results from the literature, and it was confirmed that the normal spread of masking and loudness growth could be simulated in the model. The effects of hearing loss on these parameters was also...... in qualitative agreement with recent findings. The temporal properties of the ear have currently not been included in the model. As an example of a real-world application of the model, loudness spectrograms for a speech utterance were presented. By introducing hearing loss, the speech sounds became less audible...

  7. Deafness in cochlear and auditory nerve disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is the most common type of hearing impairment worldwide. It arises as a consequence of damage to the cochlea or auditory nerve, and several structures are often affected simultaneously. There are many causes, including genetic mutations affecting the structures of the inner ear, and environmental insults such as noise, ototoxic substances, and hypoxia. The prevalence increases dramatically with age. Clinical diagnosis is most commonly accomplished by measuring detection thresholds and comparing these to normative values to determine the degree of hearing loss. In addition to causing insensitivity to weak sounds, sensorineural hearing loss has a number of adverse perceptual consequences, including loudness recruitment, poor perception of pitch and auditory space, and difficulty understanding speech, particularly in the presence of background noise. The condition is usually incurable; treatment focuses on restoring the audibility of sounds made inaudible by hearing loss using either hearing aids or cochlear implants.

  8. Anatomy and Physiology of the Auditory Tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad hosein Hekmat Ara

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Hearing is one of the excel sense of human being. Sound waves travel through the medium of air and enter the ear canal and then hit the tympanic membrane. Middle ear transfer almost 60-80% of this mechanical energy to the inner ear by means of “impedance matching”. Then, the sound energy changes to traveling wave and is transferred based on its specific frequency and stimulates organ of corti. Receptors in this organ and their synapses transform mechanical waves to the neural waves and transfer them to the brain. The central nervous system tract of conducting the auditory signals in the auditory cortex will be explained here briefly.

  9. Delayed auditory feedback in polyglot simultaneous interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbro, F; Darò, V

    1995-03-01

    Twelve polyglot students of simultaneous interpretation and 12 controls (students of the faculty of Medicine) were submitted to a task of verbal fluency under amplified normal auditory feedback (NAF) and under three delayed auditory feedback (DAF) conditions with three different delay intervals (150, 200, and 250 msec). The control group showed a significant reduction in verbal fluency and a significant increase in the number of mistakes in all three DAF conditions. The interpreters' group, however, did not show any significant speech disruption neither in the subjects' mother tongue (L1) nor in their second language (L2) across all DAF conditions. Interpreters' general high verbal fluency along with their ability to pay less attention to their own verbal output make them more resistant to the interfering effects of DAF on speech. PMID:7757448

  10. Divisional and hierarchical innervations of G.gecko's toes to motion and reception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ce; CAI Lei; XIE HeRui; WANG ZhouYi; DAI ZhenDong; SUN JiuRong

    2009-01-01

    As a member of robot families,climbing robots have become one of the research hot-spots in the robotic field recently and Gekko gecko (G gecko) has been broadly seen as an ideal model for climbing robot development.But for gecko-mimic robots,one of the key problems is how to design the robot's foot.In this paper,(1) high-speed camera recording and electrophysiological method are used to observe motion patterns of G gecko's foot when it climbs on different oriented surfaces;(2) nerve innerrations of gecko's toes to motion and reception are studied.It is found that the five toes of the G gecko can be divided into two motion and reception divisions,and also its motion and reception are modulated and controlled hierarchically.The results provide important information and exclusive ideas for the foot design and control algorithm of gecko-mimic robots.

  11. Longitudinal Receptive American Sign Language Skills Across a Diverse Deaf Student Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S

    2016-04-01

    This article presents results of a longitudinal study of receptive American Sign Language (ASL) skills for a large portion of the student body at a residential school for the deaf across four consecutive years. Scores were analyzed by age, gender, parental hearing status, years attending the residential school, and presence of a disability (i.e., deaf with a disability). Years 1 through 4 included the ASL Receptive Skills Test (ASL-RST); Years 2 through 4 also included the Receptive Test of ASL (RT-ASL). Student performance for both measures positively correlated with age; deaf students with deaf parents scored higher than their same-age peers with hearing parents in some instances but not others; and those with a documented disability tended to score lower than their peers without disabilities. These results provide longitudinal findings across a diverse segment of the deaf/hard of hearing residential school population. PMID:26864689

  12. Problem Internet Overuse Behaviors in College Students: Readiness-to-Change and Receptivity to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer E; Li, Wen; Snyder, Susan M; Howard, Matthew O

    2016-01-01

    This mixed methods study explores college students' readiness-to-change and receptivity to treatment for problem Internet overuse behaviors. Focus groups were conducted with 27 college students who self-identified as Internet over-users, and had experienced biopsychosocial problems related to Internet overuse. Participants completed standardized questionnaires assessing their Internet use and sociodemographic forms. Focus groups explored readiness to change problem Internet overuse behaviors and receptivity to treatment. Similar to college students with other addictive behaviors, students with problem Internet overuse fall along a continuum vis-à-vis readiness-to-change their behaviors. Over half of the participants were receptive to treatment for their problem Internet overuse behaviors. PMID:26963733

  13. Response recovery in the locust auditory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtssohn, Sarah; Ronacher, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Temporal resolution and the time courses of recovery from acute adaptation of neurons in the auditory pathway of the grasshopper Locusta migratoria were investigated with a response recovery paradigm. We stimulated with a series of single click and click pair stimuli while performing intracellular recordings from neurons at three processing stages: receptors and first and second order interneurons. The response to the second click was expressed relative to the single click response. This allowed the uncovering of the basic temporal resolution in these neurons. The effect of adaptation increased with processing layer. While neurons in the auditory periphery displayed a steady response recovery after a short initial adaptation, many interneurons showed nonlinear effects: most prominent a long-lasting suppression of the response to the second click in a pair, as well as a gain in response if a click was preceded by a click a few milliseconds before. Our results reveal a distributed temporal filtering of input at an early auditory processing stage. This set of specified filters is very likely homologous across grasshopper species and thus forms the neurophysiological basis for extracting relevant information from a variety of different temporal signals. Interestingly, in terms of spike timing precision neurons at all three processing layers recovered very fast, within 20 ms. Spike waveform analysis of several neuron types did not sufficiently explain the response recovery profiles implemented in these neurons, indicating that temporal resolution in neurons located at several processing layers of the auditory pathway is not necessarily limited by the spike duration and refractory period.

  14. Neural correlates of auditory scale illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriki, Shinya; Numao, Ryousuke; Nemoto, Iku

    2016-09-01

    The auditory illusory perception "scale illusion" occurs when ascending and descending musical scale tones are delivered in a dichotic manner, such that the higher or lower tone at each instant is presented alternately to the right and left ears. Resulting tone sequences have a zigzag pitch in one ear and the reversed (zagzig) pitch in the other ear. Most listeners hear illusory smooth pitch sequences of up-down and down-up streams in the two ears separated in higher and lower halves of the scale. Although many behavioral studies have been conducted, how and where in the brain the illusory percept is formed have not been elucidated. In this study, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging using sequential tones that induced scale illusion (ILL) and those that mimicked the percept of scale illusion (PCP), and we compared the activation responses evoked by those stimuli by region-of-interest analysis. We examined the effects of adaptation, i.e., the attenuation of response that occurs when close-frequency sounds are repeated, which might interfere with the changes in activation by the illusion process. Results of the activation difference of the two stimuli, measured at varied tempi of tone presentation, in the superior temporal auditory cortex were not explained by adaptation. Instead, excess activation of the ILL stimulus from the PCP stimulus at moderate tempi (83 and 126 bpm) was significant in the posterior auditory cortex with rightward superiority, while significant prefrontal activation was dominant at the highest tempo (245 bpm). We suggest that the area of the planum temporale posterior to the primary auditory cortex is mainly involved in the illusion formation, and that the illusion-related process is strongly dependent on the rate of tone presentation. PMID:27292114

  15. Inhibition in the Human Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Koji Inui; Kei Nakagawa; Makoto Nishihara; Eishi Motomura; Ryusuke Kakigi

    2016-01-01

    Despite their indispensable roles in sensory processing, little is known about inhibitory interneurons in humans. Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials cannot be recorded non-invasively, at least in a pure form, in humans. We herein sought to clarify whether prepulse inhibition (PPI) in the auditory cortex reflected inhibition via interneurons using magnetoencephalography. An abrupt increase in sound pressure by 10 dB in a continuous sound was used to evoke the test response, and PPI was observe...

  16. Lesions in the external auditory canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyank S Chatra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The external auditory canal is an S- shaped osseo-cartilaginous structure that extends from the auricle to the tympanic membrane. Congenital, inflammatory, neoplastic, and traumatic lesions can affect the EAC. High-resolution CT is well suited for the evaluation of the temporal bone, which has a complex anatomy with multiple small structures. In this study, we describe the various lesions affecting the EAC.

  17. Predictive uncertainty in auditory sequence processing

    OpenAIRE

    Niels Chr.Hansen; MarcusT.Pearce

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of auditory expectation have focused on the expectedness perceived by listeners retrospectively in response to events. In contrast, this research examines predictive uncertainty - a property of listeners’ prospective state of expectation prior to the onset of an event. We examine the information-theoretic concept of Shannon entropy as a model of predictive uncertainty in music cognition. This is motivated by the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, which proposes that schematic e...

  18. Exogenous spatial attention decreases audiovisual integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Stoep, N; Van der Stigchel, S; Nijboer, T C W

    2015-02-01

    Multisensory integration (MSI) and spatial attention are both mechanisms through which the processing of sensory information can be facilitated. Studies on the interaction between spatial attention and MSI have mainly focused on the interaction between endogenous spatial attention and MSI. Most of these studies have shown that endogenously attending a multisensory target enhances MSI. It is currently unclear, however, whether and how exogenous spatial attention and MSI interact. In the current study, we investigated the interaction between these two important bottom-up processes in two experiments. In Experiment 1 the target location was task-relevant, and in Experiment 2 the target location was task-irrelevant. Valid or invalid exogenous auditory cues were presented before the onset of unimodal auditory, unimodal visual, and audiovisual targets. We observed reliable cueing effects and multisensory response enhancement in both experiments. To examine whether audiovisual integration was influenced by exogenous spatial attention, the amount of race model violation was compared between exogenously attended and unattended targets. In both Experiment 1 and Experiment 2, a decrease in MSI was observed when audiovisual targets were exogenously attended, compared to when they were not. The interaction between exogenous attention and MSI was less pronounced in Experiment 2. Therefore, our results indicate that exogenous attention diminishes MSI when spatial orienting is relevant. The results are discussed in terms of models of multisensory integration and attention. PMID:25341648

  19. Stroke caused auditory attention deficits in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Maria Ibraim da Freiria Elias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the auditory selective attention in children with stroke. METHODS: Dichotic tests of binaural separation (non-verbal and consonant-vowel and binaural integration - digits and Staggered Spondaic Words Test (SSW - were applied in 13 children (7 boys, from 7 to 16 years, with unilateral stroke confirmed by neurological examination and neuroimaging. RESULTS: The attention performance showed significant differences in comparison to the control group in both kinds of tests. In the non-verbal test, identifications the ear opposite the lesion in the free recall stage was diminished and, in the following stages, a difficulty in directing attention was detected. In the consonant- vowel test, a modification in perceptual asymmetry and difficulty in focusing in the attended stages was found. In the digits and SSW tests, ipsilateral, contralateral and bilateral deficits were detected, depending on the characteristics of the lesions and demand of the task. CONCLUSION: Stroke caused auditory attention deficits when dealing with simultaneous sources of auditory information.

  20. Hierarchical processing of auditory objects in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhbinder Kumar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the computational architecture used by the brain during the analysis of the spectral envelope of sounds, an important acoustic feature for defining auditory objects. Dynamic causal modelling and Bayesian model selection were used to evaluate a family of 16 network models explaining functional magnetic resonance imaging responses in the right temporal lobe during spectral envelope analysis. The models encode different hypotheses about the effective connectivity between Heschl's Gyrus (HG, containing the primary auditory cortex, planum temporale (PT, and superior temporal sulcus (STS, and the modulation of that coupling during spectral envelope analysis. In particular, we aimed to determine whether information processing during spectral envelope analysis takes place in a serial or parallel fashion. The analysis provides strong support for a serial architecture with connections from HG to PT and from PT to STS and an increase of the HG to PT connection during spectral envelope analysis. The work supports a computational model of auditory object processing, based on the abstraction of spectro-temporal "templates" in the PT before further analysis of the abstracted form in anterior temporal lobe areas.

  1. Concentric scheme of monkey auditory cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaki, Hiroko; Saunders, Richard C.; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2003-04-01

    The cytoarchitecture of the rhesus monkey's auditory cortex was examined using immunocytochemical staining with parvalbumin, calbindin-D28K, and SMI32, as well as staining for cytochrome oxidase (CO). The results suggest that Kaas and Hackett's scheme of the auditory cortices can be extended to include five concentric rings surrounding an inner core. The inner core, containing areas A1 and R, is the most densely stained with parvalbumin and CO and can be separated on the basis of laminar patterns of SMI32 staining into lateral and medial subdivisions. From the inner core to the fifth (outermost) ring, parvalbumin staining gradually decreases and calbindin staining gradually increases. The first ring corresponds to Kaas and Hackett's auditory belt, and the second, to their parabelt. SMI32 staining revealed a clear border between these two. Rings 2 through 5 extend laterally into the dorsal bank of the superior temporal sulcus. The results also suggest that the rostral tip of the outermost ring adjoins the rostroventral part of the insula (area Pro) and the temporal pole, while the caudal tip adjoins the ventral part of area 7a.

  2. Auditory perception of a human walker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, David; Campbell, Megan E J

    2014-01-01

    When one hears footsteps in the hall, one is able to instantly recognise it as a person: this is an everyday example of auditory biological motion perception. Despite the familiarity of this experience, research into this phenomenon is in its infancy compared with visual biological motion perception. Here, two experiments explored sensitivity to, and recognition of, auditory stimuli of biological and nonbiological origin. We hypothesised that the cadence of a walker gives rise to a temporal pattern of impact sounds that facilitates the recognition of human motion from auditory stimuli alone. First a series of detection tasks compared sensitivity with three carefully matched impact sounds: footsteps, a ball bouncing, and drumbeats. Unexpectedly, participants were no more sensitive to footsteps than to impact sounds of nonbiological origin. In the second experiment participants made discriminations between pairs of the same stimuli, in a series of recognition tasks in which the temporal pattern of impact sounds was manipulated to be either that of a walker or the pattern more typical of the source event (a ball bouncing or a drumbeat). Under these conditions, there was evidence that both temporal and nontemporal cues were important in recognising theses stimuli. It is proposed that the interval between footsteps, which reflects a walker's cadence, is a cue for the recognition of the sounds of a human walking.

  3. Mechanisms of auditory verbal hallucination in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond eCho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent work on the mechanisms underlying auditory verbal hallucination (AVH has been heavily informed by self-monitoring accounts that postulate defects in an internal monitoring mechanism as the basis of AVH. A more neglected alternative is an account focusing on defects in auditory processing, namely a spontaneous activation account of auditory activity underlying AVH. Science is often aided by putting theories in competition. Accordingly, a discussion that systematically contrasts the two models of AVH can generate sharper questions that will lead to new avenues of investigation. In this paper, we provide such a theoretical discussion of the two models, drawing strong contrasts between them. We identify a set of challenges for the self-monitoring account and argue that the spontaneous activation account has much in favor of it and should be the default account. Our theoretical overview leads to new questions and issues regarding the explanation of AVH as a subjective phenomenon and its neural basis. Accordingly, we suggest a set of experimental strategies to dissect the underlying mechanisms of AVH in light of the two competing models.

  4. Mechanisms of auditory verbal hallucination in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Raymond; Wu, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Recent work on the mechanisms underlying auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) has been heavily informed by self-monitoring accounts that postulate defects in an internal monitoring mechanism as the basis of AVH. A more neglected alternative is an account focusing on defects in auditory processing, namely a spontaneous activation account of auditory activity underlying AVH. Science is often aided by putting theories in competition. Accordingly, a discussion that systematically contrasts the two models of AVH can generate sharper questions that will lead to new avenues of investigation. In this paper, we provide such a theoretical discussion of the two models, drawing strong contrasts between them. We identify a set of challenges for the self-monitoring account and argue that the spontaneous activation account has much in favor of it and should be the default account. Our theoretical overview leads to new questions and issues regarding the explanation of AVH as a subjective phenomenon and its neural basis. Accordingly, we suggest a set of experimental strategies to dissect the underlying mechanisms of AVH in light of the two competing models. PMID:24348430

  5. Central auditory masking by an illusory tone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Plack

    Full Text Available Many natural sounds fluctuate over time. The detectability of sounds in a sequence can be reduced by prior stimulation in a process known as forward masking. Forward masking is thought to reflect neural adaptation or neural persistence in the auditory nervous system, but it has been unclear where in the auditory pathway this processing occurs. To address this issue, the present study used a "Huggins pitch" stimulus, the perceptual effects of which depend on central auditory processing. Huggins pitch is an illusory tonal sensation produced when the same noise is presented to the two ears except for a narrow frequency band that is different (decorrelated between the ears. The pitch sensation depends on the combination of the inputs to the two ears, a process that first occurs at the level of the superior olivary complex in the brainstem. Here it is shown that a Huggins pitch stimulus produces more forward masking in the frequency region of the decorrelation than a noise stimulus identical to the Huggins-pitch stimulus except with perfect correlation between the ears. This stimulus has a peripheral neural representation that is identical to that of the Huggins-pitch stimulus. The results show that processing in, or central to, the superior olivary complex can contribute to forward masking in human listeners.

  6. Functional segregation of monaural and binaural selectivity in the pallid bat auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Khaleel A

    2016-07-01

    Different fields of the auditory cortex can be distinguished by the extent and level tolerance of spatial selectivity. The mechanisms underlying the range of spatial tuning properties observed across cortical fields are unclear. Here, this issue was addressed in the pallid bat because its auditory cortex contains two segregated regions of response selectivity that serve two different behaviors: echolocation for obstacle avoidance and localization of prey-generated noise. This provides the unique opportunity to examine mechanisms of spatial properties in two functionally distinct regions. Previous studies have shown that spatial selectivity of neurons in the region selective for noise (noise-selective region, NSR) is level tolerant and shaped by interaural level difference (ILD) selectivity. In contrast, spatial selectivity of neurons in the echolocation region ('FM sweep-selective region' or FMSR) is strongly level dependent with many neurons responding to multiple distinct spatial locations for louder sounds. To determine the mechanisms underlying such level dependence, frequency, azimuth, rate-level responses and ILD selectivity were measured from the same FMSR neurons. The majority (∼75%) of FMSR neurons were monaural (ILD insensitive). Azimuth tuning curves expanded or split into multiple peaks with increasing sound level in a manner that was predicted by the rate-level response of neurons. These data suggest that azimuth selectivity of FMSR neurons depends more on monaural ear directionality and rate-level responses. The pallid bat cortex utilizes segregated monaural and binaural regions to process echoes and prey-generated noise. Together the pallid bat FMSR/NSR data provide mechanistic explanations for a broad range of spatial tuning properties seen across species. PMID:27233917

  7. Evaluation of receptivity of the medical students in a lecture of a large group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyarthi SurendraK, Nayak RoopaP, GuptaSandeep K

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lecturing is widely used teaching method in higher education. Instructors of large classes may have only option to deliver lecture to convey informations to large group students.Aims and Objectives: The present study was to evaluate the effectiveness/receptivity of interactive lecturing in a large group of MBBS second year students. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted in the well-equipped lecture theater of Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College and Hospital (DSMCH, Tamil Nadu. A fully prepared interactive lecture on the specific topic was delivered by using power point presentation for second year MBBS students. Before start to deliver the lecture, instructor distributed multiple choice 10 questionnaires to attempt within 10 minutes. After 30 minutes of delivering lecture, again instructor distributed same 10 sets of multiple choice questionnaires to attempt in 10 minutes. The topic was never disclosed to the students before to deliver the lecture. Statistics: We analyzed the pre-lecture & post-lecture questions of each student by applying the paired t-test formula by using www.openepi.com version 3.01 online/offline software and by using Microsoft Excel Sheet Windows 2010. Results: The 31 male, 80 female including 111 students of average age 18.58 years baseline (pre-lecture receptivity mean % was 30.99 ± 14.64 and post-lecture receptivity mean % was increased upto 53.51± 19.52. The only 12 students out of 111 post-lecture receptivity values was less (mean % 25.8± 10.84 than the baseline (mean % 45± 9.05 receptive value and this reduction of receptivity was more towards negative side. Conclusion: In interactive lecture session with power point presentation students/learners can learn, even in large-class environments, but it should be active-learner centered.

  8. 昆虫弦音器及其声音感受分子机制%Chordotonal organ and its audio reception molecular mechanism in insects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    那杰; 车菲; 王月婷; 那宇鹏; 周同庆

    2011-01-01

    Chordotonal organ (chordotonal sensilla, seoiopoid sensilla) is a particular mechanoreceptor in insects. It mainly has the hearing function by apperceiving external sound pressure and muscular movement in the body. The research of the ehordotonal organ's functional structure has significant scientific meaning for exposing auditory neuromechanism in insects. This paper to review the ehordotonal organ's diversity and evolution focusing on the fine structure, genie functional localization, molecular mechanism of sound reception and the molecular biophysical theory of its acoustic pressure amplification to provide a theory basis for the study of bionics in insects.%弦音器是昆虫类特有的一种机械感受器,亦称弦音感受器或剑梢感受器.它主要具有感知外界声压和体内肌肉运动的听觉功能,研究弦音器的机能结构对揭秘昆虫听觉的神经机制有重要的科学意义.本文从弦音器多样性和进化入手,重点综述了弦音器的微细结构、基因功能定位、声音感受分子机制及其声压增幅分子生物物理学原理,为昆虫听觉仿生学的研究提供了理论依据.

  9. Spatial aspects of reproduced sound in small rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Søren

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the influence of individual reflections on the auditory spatial aspects of reproduced sound. The sound field produced by a single loudspeaker positioned in a normal listening room has been simulated using an electroacoustical synthesis of the direct sound, 17 individual refl...

  10. Auditory temporal processing skills in musicians with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Liebler, Paula; Welch, Graham; Huss, Martina; Thomson, Jennifer M; Goswami, Usha

    2014-08-01

    The core cognitive difficulty in developmental dyslexia involves phonological processing, but adults and children with dyslexia also have sensory impairments. Impairments in basic auditory processing show particular links with phonological impairments, and recent studies with dyslexic children across languages reveal a relationship between auditory temporal processing and sensitivity to rhythmic timing and speech rhythm. As rhythm is explicit in music, musical training might have a beneficial effect on the auditory perception of acoustic cues to rhythm in dyslexia. Here we took advantage of the presence of musicians with and without dyslexia in musical conservatoires, comparing their auditory temporal processing abilities with those of dyslexic non-musicians matched for cognitive ability. Musicians with dyslexia showed equivalent auditory sensitivity to musicians without dyslexia and also showed equivalent rhythm perception. The data support the view that extensive rhythmic experience initiated during childhood (here in the form of music training) can affect basic auditory processing skills which are found to be deficient in individuals with dyslexia.

  11. Across frequency processes involved in auditory detection of coloration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg; Kerketsos, P

    2008-01-01

    When an early wall reflection is added to a direct sound, a spectral modulation is introduced to the signal's power spectrum. This spectral modulation typically produces an auditory sensation of coloration or pitch. Throughout this study, auditory spectral-integration effects involved in coloration...... detection are investigated. Coloration detection thresholds were therefore measured as a function of reflection delay and stimulus bandwidth. In order to investigate the involved auditory mechanisms, an auditory model was employed that was conceptually similar to the peripheral weighting model [Yost, JASA...... filterbank was designed to approximate auditory filter-shapes measured by Oxenham and Shera [JARO, 2003, 541-554], derived from forward masking data. The results of the present study demonstrate that a “purely” spectrum-based model approach can successfully describe auditory coloration detection even at high...

  12. The role of temporal coherence in auditory stream segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Simon Krogholt

    The ability to perceptually segregate concurrent sound sources and focus one’s attention on a single source at a time is essential for the ability to use acoustic information. While perceptual experiments have determined a range of acoustic cues that help facilitate auditory stream segregation...... of auditory processing, the role of auditory preprocessing and temporal coherence in auditory stream formation was evaluated. The computational model presented in this study assumes that auditory stream segregation occurs when sounds stimulate non-overlapping neural populations in a temporally incoherent...... on the stream segregation process was analysed. The model analysis showed that auditory frequency selectivity and physiological forward masking play a significant role in stream segregation based on frequency separation and tone rate. Secondly, the model analysis suggested that neural adaptation...

  13. Bridging Cultures. Transnational Cultural Encounters in the Reception of The Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2017-01-01

    the Nordic noir phenomenon. This article deals with reception of the series in three countries (Denmark, UK and Sweden), through analysis of the demographic profile of audiences and the discourses of reception of the series in selected newspapers and on social media. Such transnational intercultural......The Danish-Swedish crime series The Bridge (2011-) is not just a European co-production involving several national funding sources. It has also created quite an active response among transnational audiences, critics, journalists and creative industry people – further expanding and consolidating...

  14. Mediation and reception. Some theoretical and methodological connections in Latin American communication studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Immacolata Vassallo de Lopes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the current debate in Latin America and Brazil, of epistemological and methodological nature, regarding the concepts and processes of reception, mediation and mediatization included. It intends to peruse the paths of communication studies in the region, linking strong traditions of mediation and reception theories with emerging perspective of mediatization. We intend to analyze the various methodological maps of mediations that have been following the changes of the structural relationships between communication and society. We conclude that despite the central position today this theory in the field of communication in Latin America, it still should be taken to the international debate on theories of communication.

  15. Health-reception of newly arrived documented migrants in Europe—why, whom, what and how?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne Winther

    2013-01-01

    address the existing health inequities, nor determining factors of migrant health, including barriers to access health services’.1 Two recent Danish documents highlight these aspects in relation to the health-reception of migrants. A report from the Ministry of Social Affairs and Integration concludes...... Danish health-reception model, using a more systematic approach based on a close cooperation between social and health sectors.3 With this development, we wish to initiate a European public health debate about how to assess and meet the health needs of newly arrived long-term documented migrants...

  16. Diversity reception for advanced multi-satellite networks: A CDMA approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzi, E.; Degaudenzi, R.; Elia, C.; Giannetti, F.; Viola, R.

    Diversity reception for Synchronous CDMA (S-CDMA) is introduced and analyzed. A Gaussian co-channel synchronous and asynchronous interference approximation is derived to evaluate the effects on the system bit error rate. Numerical results are provided for a simple mobile communication system where the signals transmitted by two distinct satellites in visibility are coherently combined by a three fingers Rake receiver. A second example showing performance of an integrated ground/satellite single frequency network for digital audio broadcasting is presented. Results show the capacity advantage of utilizing S-CDMA in combination with diversity reception.

  17. Perspectives on the design of musical auditory interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Leplatre, G.; Brewster, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of music as a communication medium in auditory human-computer interfaces. So far, psychoacoustics has had a great influence on the development of auditory interfaces, directly and through music cognition. We suggest that a better understanding of the processes involved in the perception of actual musical excerpts should allow musical auditory interface designers to exploit the communicative potential of music. In this respect, we argue that the real advantage of...

  18. [Auditory guidance systems for the visually impaired people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Nie, Min; Luo, Lan; Tong, Shanbao; Niu, Jinhai; Zhu, Yisheng

    2010-04-01

    Visually impaired people face many inconveniences because of the loss of vision. Therefore, scientists are trying to design various guidance systems for improving the lives of the blind. Based on sensory substitution, auditory guidance has become an interesting topic in the field of biomedical engineering. In this paper, we made a state-of-technique review of the auditory guidance system. Although there have been many technical challenges, the auditory guidance system would be a useful alternative for the visually impaired people.

  19. Time course of dynamic range adaptation in the auditory nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Bo; Wang, Grace I.; Dean, Isabel; Delgutte, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Auditory adaptation to sound-level statistics occurs as early as in the auditory nerve (AN), the first stage of neural auditory processing. In addition to firing rate adaptation characterized by a rate decrement dependent on previous spike activity, AN fibers show dynamic range adaptation, which is characterized by a shift of the rate-level function or dynamic range toward the most frequently occurring levels in a dynamic stimulus, thereby improving the precision of coding of the most common ...

  20. Using Facebook to Reach People Who Experience Auditory Hallucinations

    OpenAIRE

    Crosier, Benjamin Sage; Brian, Rachel Marie; Ben-Zeev, Dror

    2016-01-01

    Background Auditory hallucinations (eg, hearing voices) are relatively common and underreported false sensory experiences that may produce distress and impairment. A large proportion of those who experience auditory hallucinations go unidentified and untreated. Traditional engagement methods oftentimes fall short in reaching the diverse population of people who experience auditory hallucinations. Objective The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to examine the viability of leveraging...

  1. Speech Perception Within an Auditory Cognitive Science Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Lori L.; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    The complexities of the acoustic speech signal pose many significant challenges for listeners. Although perceiving speech begins with auditory processing, investigation of speech perception has progressed mostly independently of study of the auditory system. Nevertheless, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that cross-fertilization between the two areas of research can be productive. We briefly describe research bridging the study of general auditory processing and speech perception, show...

  2. Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting rabbit doe sexual receptivity as estimated from one generation of divergent selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Theau.Clément

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual receptivity of rabbit does at insemination greatly influences fertility and is generally induced by hormones or techniques known as “biostimulation”. Searching for more sustainable farming systems, an original alternative would be to utilise the genetic pathway to increase the does’receptivity. The purpose of the present study was to identify genetic and non-genetic factors that influence rabbit doe sexual receptivity, in the context of a divergent selection experiment over 1 generation. The experiment spanned 2 generations: the founder generation (G0 consisting of 140 rabbit does, and the G1 generation comprising 2 divergently selected lines (L and H lines with 70 does each and 2 successive batches from each generation. The selection rate of the G0 females to form the G1 lines was 24/140. The selection tests consisted of 16 to 18 successive receptivity tests at the rate of 3 tests per week. On the basis of 4716 tests from 275 females, the average receptivity was 56.6±48.2%. A batch effect and a test operator effect were revealed. The contribution of females to the total variance was 20.0%, whereas that of bucks was only 1.1%. Throughout the experiment, 18.2% of does expressed a low receptivity (< 34%, 50.7% a medium one and 33.1% a high one (>66%. Some does were frequently receptive, whereas others were rarely receptive. The repeatability of sexual receptivity was approximately 20%. The results confirmed the high variability of sexual receptivity of non-lactating rabbit does maintained without any biostimulation or hormonal treatment. A lack of selection response on receptivity was observed. Accordingly, the heritability of receptivity was estimated at 0.01±0.02 from an animal model and at 0.02±0.03 from a  sire and dam model. The heritability of the average receptivity of a doe was calculated as 0.04. In agreement with the low estimated heritability, the heritability determined was no different from zero

  3. Effect of auditory training on the middle latency response in children with (central) auditory processing disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schochat, E; Musiek, F E; Alonso, R; Ogata, J

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the middle latency response (MLR) characteristics (latency and amplitude) in children with (central) auditory processing disorder [(C)APD], categorized as such by their performance on the central auditory test battery, and the effects of these characteristics after auditory training. Thirty children with (C)APD, 8 to 14 years of age, were tested using the MLR-evoked potential. This group was then enrolled in an 8-week auditory training program and then retested at the completion of the program. A control group of 22 children without (C)APD, composed of relatives and acquaintances of those involved in the research, underwent the same testing at equal time intervals, but were not enrolled in the auditory training program. Before auditory training, MLR results for the (C)APD group exhibited lower C3-A1 and C3-A2 wave amplitudes in comparison to the control group [C3-A1, 0.84 microV (mean), 0.39 (SD--standard deviation) for the (C)APD group and 1.18 microV (mean), 0.65 (SD) for the control group; C3-A2, 0.69 microV (mean), 0.31 (SD) for the (C)APD group and 1.00 microV (mean), 0.46 (SD) for the control group]. After training, the MLR C3-A1 [1.59 microV (mean), 0.82 (SD)] and C3-A2 [1.24 microV (mean), 0.73 (SD)] wave amplitudes of the (C)APD group significantly increased, so that there was no longer a significant difference in MLR amplitude between (C)APD and control groups. These findings suggest progress in the use of electrophysiological measurements for the diagnosis and treatment of (C)APD.

  4. Effect of auditory training on the middle latency response in children with (central auditory processing disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Schochat

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the middle latency response (MLR characteristics (latency and amplitude in children with (central auditory processing disorder [(CAPD], categorized as such by their performance on the central auditory test battery, and the effects of these characteristics after auditory training. Thirty children with (CAPD, 8 to 14 years of age, were tested using the MLR-evoked potential. This group was then enrolled in an 8-week auditory training program and then retested at the completion of the program. A control group of 22 children without (CAPD, composed of relatives and acquaintances of those involved in the research, underwent the same testing at equal time intervals, but were not enrolled in the auditory training program. Before auditory training, MLR results for the (CAPD group exhibited lower C3-A1 and C3-A2 wave amplitudes in comparison to the control group [C3-A1, 0.84 µV (mean, 0.39 (SD - standard deviation for the (CAPD group and 1.18 µV (mean, 0.65 (SD for the control group; C3-A2, 0.69 µV (mean, 0.31 (SD for the (CAPD group and 1.00 µV (mean, 0.46 (SD for the control group]. After training, the MLR C3-A1 [1.59 µV (mean, 0.82 (SD] and C3-A2 [1.24 µV (mean, 0.73 (SD] wave amplitudes of the (CAPD group significantly increased, so that there was no longer a significant difference in MLR amplitude between (CAPD and control groups. These findings suggest progress in the use of electrophysiological measurements for the diagnosis and treatment of (CAPD.

  5. Evaluation of peripheral compression and auditory nerve fiber intensity coding using auditory steady-state responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Encina Llamas, Gerard; M. Harte, James; Epp, Bastian

    2015-01-01

    . Evaluation of these properties provides information about the health state of the system. It has been shown that a loss of outer hair cells leads to a reduction in peripheral compression. It has also recently been shown in animal studies that noise over-exposure, producing temporary threshold shifts, can......The compressive nonlinearity of the auditory system is assumed to be an epiphenomenon of a healthy cochlea and, particularly, of outer-hair cell function. Another ability of the healthy auditory system is to enable communication in acoustical environments with high-level background noises...

  6. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects......’. In this paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent...

  7. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects......’. In this paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent...

  8. Extrinsic sound stimulations and development of periphery auditory synapses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Hou; Shiming Yang; Ke Liu

    2015-01-01

    The development of auditory synapses is a key process for the maturation of hearing function. However, it is still on debate regarding whether the development of auditory synapses is dominated by acquired sound stimulations. In this review, we summarize relevant publications in recent decades to address this issue. Most reported data suggest that extrinsic sound stimulations do affect, but not govern the development of periphery auditory synapses. Overall, periphery auditory synapses develop and mature according to its intrinsic mechanism to build up the synaptic connections between sensory neurons and/or interneurons.

  9. Estimating the intended sound direction of the user: toward an auditory brain-computer interface using out-of-head sound localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Nambu

    Full Text Available The auditory Brain-Computer Interface (BCI using electroencephalograms (EEG is a subject of intensive study. As a cue, auditory BCIs can deal with many of the characteristics of stimuli such as tone, pitch, and voices. Spatial information on auditory stimuli also provides useful information for a BCI. However, in a portable system, virtual auditory stimuli have to be presented spatially through earphones or headphones, instead of loudspeakers. We investigated the possibility of an auditory BCI using the out-of-head sound localization technique, which enables us to present virtual auditory stimuli to users from any direction, through earphones. The feasibility of a BCI using this technique was evaluated in an EEG oddball experiment and offline analysis. A virtual auditory stimulus was presented to the subject from one of six directions. Using a support vector machine, we were able to classify whether the subject attended the direction of a presented stimulus from EEG signals. The mean accuracy across subjects was 70.0% in the single-trial classification. When we used trial-averaged EEG signals as inputs to the classifier, the mean accuracy across seven subjects reached 89.5% (for 10-trial averaging. Further analysis showed that the P300 event-related potential responses from 200 to 500 ms in central and posterior regions of the brain contributed to the classification. In comparison with the results obtained from a loudspeaker experiment, we confirmed that stimulus presentation by out-of-head sound localization achieved similar event-related potential responses and classification performances. These results suggest that out-of-head sound localization enables us to provide a high-performance and loudspeaker-less portable BCI system.

  10. Encoding of temporal information by timing, rate, and place in cat auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Imaizumi

    Full Text Available A central goal in auditory neuroscience is to understand the neural coding of species-specific communication and human speech sounds. Low-rate repetitive sounds are elemental features of communication sounds, and core auditory cortical regions have been implicated in processing these information-bearing elements. Repetitive sounds could be encoded by at least three neural response properties: 1 the event-locked spike-timing precision, 2 the mean firing rate, and 3 the interspike interval (ISI. To determine how well these response aspects capture information about the repetition rate stimulus, we measured local group responses of cortical neurons in cat anterior auditory field (AAF to click trains and calculated their mutual information based on these different codes. ISIs of the multiunit responses carried substantially higher information about low repetition rates than either spike-timing precision or firing rate. Combining firing rate and ISI codes was synergistic and captured modestly more repetition information. Spatial distribution analyses showed distinct local clustering properties for each encoding scheme for repetition information indicative of a place code. Diversity in local processing emphasis and distribution of different repetition rate codes across AAF may give rise to concurrent feed-forward processing streams that contribute differently to higher-order sound analysis.

  11. EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF ESTROGEN RECEPTORS IN THE CENTRAL AUDITORY SYSTEM CHANGE IN PREPUBERTAL AND AGED MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charitidi, K.; Frisina, R. D.; Vasilyeva, O. N.; Zhu, X.; Canlon, B.

    2011-01-01

    Estrogens are important in the development, maintenance and physiology of the CNS. Several studies have shown their effects on the processing of hearing in both males and females, and these effects, in part, are thought to result from regulation of the transcription of genes via their classical estrogen receptor (ER) pathway. In order to understand the spatiotemporal changes that occur with age, we have studied the expression of ERs in the central auditory pathway in prepubertal and aged CBA mice with immunohistochemistry. In prepubertal mice a clear dichotomy was noted between the expression of ERα and ERβ. ERβ-positive neurons were found in the metencephalon whereas the majority of ERα was found in mesencephalon, diencephalon or the telencephalon. In the aged animals a different pattern of ER expression was found in terms of location and overall intensity. These age-induced changes in the expression pattern were generally not uniform, suggesting that region-specific mechanisms regulate the ERs’ age-related expression. Neither the prepubertal nor the aged animals showed sex differences in any auditory structure. Our results demonstrate different age-dependent spatial and temporal changes in the pattern of expression of ERα and ERβ, suggesting that each ER type may be involved in distinct roles across the central auditory pathway in different periods of maturation. PMID:20736049

  12. Spatial Sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grande, John

    1990-01-01

    Describes seven spatial abilities related to mathematics including eye-motor coordination, figure-ground perception, perceptual constancy, position-in-space perception, perception of spatial relationships, visual discrimination, and visual memory. Discusses the relationship of the spatial abilities to the study of geometry. Lists 19 references.…

  13. Conditioning the cochlea to facilitate survival and integration of exogenous cells into the auditory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Ho; Wilson, Kevin F; Ueda, Yoshihisa; Tung Wong, Hiu; Beyer, Lisa A; Swiderski, Donald L; Dolan, David F; Raphael, Yehoash

    2014-04-01

    The mammalian auditory epithelium (AE) cannot replace supporting cells and hair cells once they are lost. Therefore, sensorineural hearing loss associated with missing cells is permanent. This inability to regenerate critical cell types makes the AE a potential target for cell replacement therapies such as stem cell transplantation. Inserting stem cells into the AE of deaf ears is a complicated task due to the hostile, high potassium environment of the scala media in the cochlea, and the robust junctional complexes between cells in the AE that resist stem cell integration. Here, we evaluate whether temporarily reducing potassium levels in the scala media and disrupting the junctions in the AE make the cochlear environment more receptive and facilitate survival and integration of transplanted cells. We used sodium caprate to transiently disrupt the AE junctions, replaced endolymph with perilymph, and blocked stria vascularis pumps with furosemide. We determined that these three steps facilitated survival of HeLa cells in the scala media for at least 7 days and that some of the implanted cells formed a junctional contact with native AE cells. The data suggest that manipulation of the cochlear environment facilitates survival and integration of exogenously transplanted HeLa cells in the scala media. PMID:24394296

  14. Socially induced serotonergic fluctuations in the male auditory midbrain correlate with female behavior during courtship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesom, Sarah M; Hurley, Laura M

    2016-04-01

    Cues from social partners trigger the activation of socially responsive neuromodulatory systems, priming brain regions including sensory systems to process these cues appropriately. The fidelity with which neuromodulators reflect the qualities of ongoing social interactions in sensory regions is unclear. We addressed this issue by using voltammetry to monitor serotonergic fluctuations in an auditory midbrain nucleus, the inferior colliculus (IC), of male mice (Mus musculus) paired with females, and by concurrently measuring behaviors of both social partners. Serotonergic activity strongly increased in male mice as they courted females, relative to serotonergic activity in the same males during trials with no social partners. Across individual males, average changes in serotonergic activity were negatively correlated with behaviors exhibited by female partners, including broadband squeaks, which relate to rejection of males. In contrast, serotonergic activity did not correlate with male behaviors, including ultrasonic vocalizations. These findings suggest that during courtship, the level of serotonergic activity in the IC of males reflects the valence of the social interaction from the perspective of the male (i.e., whether the female rejects the male or not). As a result, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that neuromodulatory effects on neural responses in the IC may reflect the reception, rather than the production, of vocal signals. PMID:26792882

  15. Effect of Ball Mass on Dribble, Pass, and Pass Reception in 9-11-Year-Old Boys' Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Jose L.; Argudo, Francisco M.; Alonso, Jose I.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the effect of ball mass on dribble, pass, and pass reception in real game situations in 9-11-year-old boys' basketball. Participants were 54 boys identified from six federated teams. The independent variable was ball mass, and dependent variables were number of dribbles, passes, and pass receptions. Three…

  16. Analysis of Design of Sodium Reception and Secondary Loop Sodium Plugging and Removal System for Fast Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Through comparison of sodium reception and secondary loop sodium plugging and removal system on CEFR with BN-800, the main difference of the two designs is as follows: 1) System division is different. BN-800 can be divided into sodium reception system,

  17. The Role of Auditory and Kinaesthetic Feedback Mechanisms on Phonatory Stability in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Rathna Kumar, S. B.; Azeem, Suhail; Choudhary, Abhishek Kumar; Prakash, S. G. R.

    2012-01-01

    Auditory feedback plays an important role in phonatory control. When auditory feedback is disrupted, various changes are observed in vocal motor control. Vocal intensity and fundamental frequency (F0) levels tend to increase in response to auditory masking. Because of the close reflexive links between the auditory and phonatory systems, it is likely that phonatory stability may be disrupted when auditory feedback is disrupted or altered. However, studies on phonatory stability under auditory ...

  18. Acoustic Spatiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon LaBelle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiences of listening can be appreciated as intensely relational, bringing us into contact with surrounding events, bodies and things. Given that sound propagates and expands outwardly, as a set of oscillations from a particular source, listening carries with it a sensual intensity, whereby auditory phenomena deliver intrusive and disruptive as well as soothing and assuring experiences. The physicality characteristic of sound suggests a deeply impressionistic, locational "knowledge structure" – that is, the ways in which listening affords processes of exchange, of being in the world, and from which we extend ourselves. Sound, as physical energy reflecting and absorbing into the materiality around us, and even one's self, provides a rich platform for understanding place and emplacement. Sound is always already a trace of location.Such features of auditory experience give suggestion for what I may call an acoustical paradigm – how sound sets in motion not only the material world but also the flows of the imagination, lending to forces of signification and social structure, and figuring us in relation to each other. The relationality of sound brings us into a steady web of interferences, each of which announces the promise or problematic of being somewhere.

  19. A Qualitative Analysis of General Receptive Vocabulary of Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facon, Bruno; Nuchadee, Marie-Laure; Bollengier, Therese

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to discover whether general receptive vocabulary is qualitatively phenotypical in Down syndrome. Sixty-two participants with Down syndrome (M age = 16.74 years, SD = 3.28) were individually matched on general vocabulary raw total score with 62 participants with intellectual disability of undifferentiated etiology (M age = 16.20…

  20. Characterization of structural features controlling the receptiveness of empty class II MHC molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rupp, Bernd; Günther, Sebastian; Makhmoor, Talat;

    2011-01-01

    MHC class II molecules (MHC II) play a pivotal role in the cell-surface presentation of antigens for surveillance by T cells. Antigen loading takes place inside the cell in endosomal compartments and loss of the peptide ligand rapidly leads to the formation of a non-receptive state of the MHC mol...

  1. Sexual and gender-based violence in the European asylum and reception sector: a perpetuum mobile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keygnaert, I.; Dias, S.F.; Degomme, O.; Devillé, W.; Kennedy, P.; Kovats, A.; Meyer, S. de; Vettenburg, N.; Roelens, K.; Temmerman, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and discuss

  2. Sexual and gender-based violence in the European asylum and reception sector: a perpetuum mobile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Keygnaert; S.F. Dias; O. Degomme; W. Devillé; P. Kennedy; A. Kováts; S. De Meyer; N. Vettenburg; K. Roelens; M. Temmerman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and discuss

  3. Multi-reception strategy with improved SNR for multichannel MR imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Wu

    Full Text Available A multi-reception strategy with extended GRAPPA is proposed in this work to improve MR imaging performance at ultra-high field MR systems with limited receiver channels. In this method, coil elements are separated to two or more groups under appropriate grouping criteria. Those groups are enabled in sequence for imaging first, and then parallel acquisition is performed to compensate for the redundant scan time caused by the multiple receptions. To efficiently reconstruct the data acquired from elements of each group, a specific extended GRAPPA was developed. This approach was evaluated by using a 16-element head array on a 7 Tesla whole-body MRI scanner with 8 receive channels. The in-vivo experiments demonstrate that with the same scan time, the 16-element array with twice receptions and acceleration rate of 2 can achieve significant SNR gain in the periphery area of the brain and keep nearly the same SNR in the center area over an eight-element array, which indicates the proposed multi-reception strategy and extended GRAPPA are feasible to improve image quality for MRI systems with limited receive channels. This study also suggests that it is advantageous for a MR system with N receiver channels to utilize a coil array with more than N elements if an appropriate acquisition strategy is applied.

  4. Constructing an Online Test Framework, Using the Example of a Sign Language Receptive Skills Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Tobias; Herman, Rosalind; Woll, Bencie

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the features of an online test framework for a receptive skills test that has been adapted, based on a British template, into different sign languages. The online test includes features that meet the needs of the different sign language versions. Features such as usability of the test, automatic saving of scores, and score…

  5. Reception of the Quality Assurance Commitments of the Bologna Process in Finnish Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Va¨ha¨la¨, Timo

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses Finnish higher education institutions' reception of the implementation of the new quality assurance systems that governments participating in the Bologna Process have committed to establishing in the Berlin Communique´ of 2003. The data were collected using a web survey and the respondents were classified with a cluster…

  6. The Relation between Language Experience and Receptive-Expressive Semantic Gaps in Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Todd A.; Peña, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore the influence of language experience on the presence of the receptive-expressive gap. Each of 778 Spanish-English bilingual children screened pre-kindergarten in Utah and Texas were assigned to one of five language experience groups, ranging from functionally monolingual to balanced bilingual.…

  7. Audience Reception of Family Values in Reality TV - Here Comes Honey Boo Boo

    OpenAIRE

    K., K.; Reidi, Airi

    2012-01-01

    This report investigates Danish audience's reception of family values in the reality TV show, Here Comes Honey Boo Boo (2012). With the use of social semiotics and the concept of lifestyle, the paper discovers the fascinating role body image plays in exercising family values.

  8. Profiles of Receptive and Expressive Language Abilities in Boys with Comorbid Fragile X Syndrome and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Andrea; Kover, Sara; Abbeduto, Leonard; Lewis, Pamela; Brown, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined receptive and expressive language profiles for a group of verbal male children and adolescents who had fragile X syndrome along with varying degrees of autism symptoms. A categorical approach for assigning autism diagnostic classification, based on the combined use of the Autism Diagnostic Interview--Revised and the Autism…

  9. Reception and research of medical and biologic properties labelled tecnetium-99M ciprofloxacin of the hydlochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The researches are carried out on creation of a reagent for reception labeled technetium-99m antimicrobial preparations. An estimation of influence of components of a reactionary mix on radiochemical cleanliness received preparations spent a method thinlayer chromatography in various environments. Formation colloid the tin absorbing more of 70 percent of a radioactive label is noted

  10. Pillars in the works of Loïc Wacquant: Against a fragmented reception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delica, Kristian Nagel; Hansen, Christian Sandbjerg

    2016-01-01

    The critical and polemic receptions of the work of Loı ̈c Wacquant has been extensive, but to a large extent focused on specific works and colored by professional specialty, that is, in a word: fragmented. In counteracting that fragmented response, the article sheds light on the undercurrents in ...

  11. Making Borges. The Early Reception of Jorge Luis Borges's Work in France and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnterp, L.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the role of individual mediators in the early reception of the works of the Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges (1899-1986). It focuses on a number of key mediators such as publishers, editors, translators, and critics in the translation and publication process and in criticism o

  12. Housing Service: Receptions of the CERN and St.-Genis-Pouilly Hostels

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Opening times Please note the new and definitive opening times of the Receptions of the hostels on the Swiss site of CERN and in St. Genis : CERN hostels St.-Genis hostel from Monday to Friday 7:30 - 19:30 8:00 - 12:00 16:00 - 19:00 Saturday 9:00 - 13:00 closed Sunday 9:00 - 13:00 closed Outside these times keys to rooms reserved in advance can be obtained from the guards on duty at the main entrance to the Meyrin, Switzerland, CERN site (Gate B), where they are deposited some fifteen minutes after the closure of the Reception. As for the St. Genis hostel, for arrivals on Saturdays and Sundays, the keys are deposited with the guards in advance on the preceding Friday evening. Reminder : reservations, whether for the CERN hostels or the St. Genis hostel, are available through the Reception of the CERN hostels. Once the reservation has been confirmed, in the case of St. Genis, all other business, including payment, is dealt with by the St. Genis hostel reception. As far as possible, all r...

  13. Power/Knowledge for Educational Theory: Stephen Ball and the Reception of Foucault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Ling

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the significance of the concept of power/knowledge in educational theory. The argument proceeds in two main parts. In the first, I consider aspects of Stephen J. Ball's highly influential work in educational theory. I examine his reception of Foucault's concept of power/knowledge and suggest that there are problems in his…

  14. Quality Matters! Differences between Expressive and Receptive Non-Verbal Communication Skills in Adolescents with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Ruth B.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed several studies of non-verbal communication (prosody and facial expressions) completed in our lab and conducted a secondary analysis to compare performance on receptive vs. expressive tasks by adolescents with ASD and their typically developing peers. Results show a significant between-group difference for the aggregate score of…

  15. ”Savage Spain”? On the reception of Spanish art in Britain and Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Payne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Nigel Glendinning and Hilary Macartney, eds, Spanish Art in Britain and Ireland, 1750–1920: Studies in Reception in Memory of Enriqueta Harris Frankfort, Woodbridge: Tamesis, 2010. This review evaluates the first scholarly study exclusively dedicated to the reception history of Spanish art in Britain and Ireland, 1750–1920. Progressing systematically through the different chapters, it highlights the various responses and perspectives that are addressed in the book. Issues of taste and collecting are examined, followed by historiographical concerns such as the methods and techniques of writing, illustrating and reproducing Spanish art in the nineteenth century. Shifting attitudes towards Spain and Spanish art are also explored, as are the roles of prominent figures in disseminating knowledge and appreciation of Spanish art, notably Sir William Stirling Maxwell and Richard Ford. Finally, the review outlines the critical fortunes of Spain’s foremost artists: Murillo, Velázquez, Ribera, Zurbarán and Goya. It ends by suggesting how this study could be expanded methodologically, considering the reception history of Spanish art in the light of important literature on reception theory and aesthetics.

  16. Different temporal bases for body and arm movements in volleyball serve reception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benerink, N. H.; Bootsma, R. J.; Zaal, F. T. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    In many sports, successfully intercepting a ball requires players to move both their body and their arms. Yet, studies of interception typically focus on one or the other. We performed an analysis of the moments of first foot and arm movements of elite-level volleyball players during serve reception

  17. Multi-reception strategy with improved SNR for multichannel MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Li, Ye; Wang, Chunsheng; Vigneron, Daniel B; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2012-01-01

    A multi-reception strategy with extended GRAPPA is proposed in this work to improve MR imaging performance at ultra-high field MR systems with limited receiver channels. In this method, coil elements are separated to two or more groups under appropriate grouping criteria. Those groups are enabled in sequence for imaging first, and then parallel acquisition is performed to compensate for the redundant scan time caused by the multiple receptions. To efficiently reconstruct the data acquired from elements of each group, a specific extended GRAPPA was developed. This approach was evaluated by using a 16-element head array on a 7 Tesla whole-body MRI scanner with 8 receive channels. The in-vivo experiments demonstrate that with the same scan time, the 16-element array with twice receptions and acceleration rate of 2 can achieve significant SNR gain in the periphery area of the brain and keep nearly the same SNR in the center area over an eight-element array, which indicates the proposed multi-reception strategy and extended GRAPPA are feasible to improve image quality for MRI systems with limited receive channels. This study also suggests that it is advantageous for a MR system with N receiver channels to utilize a coil array with more than N elements if an appropriate acquisition strategy is applied. PMID:22879921

  18. [Pollen viability, stigma receptivity and fruiting characteristics of botanical origin of Jinxianlian].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qing-song; Wang, Yong; Hu, Run-huai; Zhang, Wang-shu; Li, Ming-yan

    2015-03-01

    The viability and life span of pollen were evaluated by TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazlium chloride) and the peroxidase solution, the stigma receptivity were estimated by benzidine-H2O2 method and the fruiting characteristics were investigated. The results showed that (1) Anoectochilus roxburghii and A. formosanus appeared the same up-and-down trend of the pollen viability, increased and then decreased. The storage temperature and storage time had significant impact on the pollen viability. With the extension of storage time, the pollen activity decreased. 4 degrees C refrigerator storage may be extended the pollen vitality. (2) The stigma had receptivity in 1st day and reached the highest level in the 4th day after blooming. A. roxburghii lost receptivity in the 8th day while A. formosanus lost receptivity in the 10th day after blooming. (3) The different pollination had significant impact on seed setting rate. The seed setting rate of artificial cross-pollination was higher than that of the artificial self-pollination. Collecting pollen in the 3rd day and carrying out artificial cross-pollination in the 4th day after blooming can significantly improve seed setting rate. The results provided technical assurance for A. roxburghii and A. formosanus breeding of new varieties and seed breeding.

  19. The Continued Relevance of Reception Analysis in the Age of Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, David

    2015-01-01

    Far from being a remnant of the past, reception analysis must continue to set the question of meaning as a central issue in media studies, an issue that appears to be missing from current understandings of social media in which audiences are often reduced to a single reality or simply ignored as ...

  20. Longitudinal Analysis of Receptive Vocabulary Growth in Young Spanish English-Speaking Children from Migrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carla Wood; Schatschneider, Christopher; Leacox, Lindsey

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors of this study described developmental trajectories and predicted kindergarten performance of Spanish and English receptive vocabulary acquisition of young Latino/a English language learners (ELLs) from socioeconomically disadvantaged migrant families. In addition, the authors examined the extent to which gender and individual…

  1. Leaders’ receptivity to subordinates’ creative input: the role of achievement goals and composition of creative input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.L. Sijbom; O. Janssen; N.W. van Yperen

    2014-01-01

    We identified leaders’ achievement goals and composition of creative input as important factors that can clarify when and why leaders are receptive to, and supportive of, subordinates’ creative input. As hypothesized, in two experimental studies, we found that relative to mastery goal leaders, perfo

  2. Promoting the Aesthetic Experience: The Rise of Receptive Art Education in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Dieleman

    2014-01-01

    In 1999, a mandatory and interdisciplinary art course, Cultural and Artistic Education (Culturele en Kunstzinnige Vorming, or CKV), was introduced in the Dutch secondary school system. The course focuses on receptive, rather than active, art education. Cultural activities, such as visiting an art ex

  3. Longitudinal Receptive American Sign Language Skills across a Diverse Deaf Student Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents results of a longitudinal study of receptive American Sign Language (ASL) skills for a large portion of the student body at a residential school for the deaf across four consecutive years. Scores were analyzed by age, gender, parental hearing status, years attending the residential school, and presence of a disability (i.e.,…

  4. The sentence verification task: a reliable fMRI protocol for mapping receptive language in individual subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjuan, Ana; Avila, Cesar [Universitat Jaume I, Departamento de Psicologia Basica, Clinica y Psicobiologia, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Hospital La Fe, Unidad de Epilepsia, Servicio de Neurologia, Valencia (Spain); Forn, Cristina; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Rodriguez-Pujadas, Aina; Garcia-Porcar, Maria [Universitat Jaume I, Departamento de Psicologia Basica, Clinica y Psicobiologia, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Belloch, Vicente [Hospital La Fe, Eresa, Servicio de Radiologia, Valencia (Spain); Villanueva, Vicente [Hospital La Fe, Unidad de Epilepsia, Servicio de Neurologia, Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    To test the capacity of a sentence verification (SV) task to reliably activate receptive language areas. Presurgical evaluation of language is useful in predicting postsurgical deficits in patients who are candidates for neurosurgery. Productive language tasks have been successfully elaborated, but more conflicting results have been found in receptive language mapping. Twenty-two right-handed healthy controls made true-false semantic judgements of brief sentences presented auditorily. Group maps showed reliable functional activations in the frontal and temporoparietal language areas. At the individual level, the SV task showed activation located in receptive language areas in 100% of the participants with strong left-sided distributions (mean lateralisation index of 69.27). The SV task can be considered a useful tool in evaluating receptive language function in individual subjects. This study is a first step towards designing the fMRI task which may serve to presurgically map receptive language functions. (orig.)

  5. Characterization of structural features controlling the receptiveness of empty class II MHC molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Rupp

    Full Text Available MHC class II molecules (MHC II play a pivotal role in the cell-surface presentation of antigens for surveillance by T cells. Antigen loading takes place inside the cell in endosomal compartments and loss of the peptide ligand rapidly leads to the formation of a non-receptive state of the MHC molecule. Non-receptiveness hinders the efficient loading of new antigens onto the empty MHC II. However, the mechanisms driving the formation of the peptide inaccessible state are not well understood. Here, a combined approach of experimental site-directed mutagenesis and computational modeling is used to reveal structural features underlying "non-receptiveness." Molecular dynamics simulations of the human MHC II HLA-DR1 suggest a straightening of the α-helix of the β1 domain during the transition from the open to the non-receptive state. The movement is mostly confined to a hinge region conserved in all known MHC molecules. This shift causes a narrowing of the two helices flanking the binding site and results in a closure, which is further stabilized by the formation of a critical hydrogen bond between residues αQ9 and βN82. Mutagenesis experiments confirmed that replacement of either one of the two residues by alanine renders the protein highly susceptible. Notably, loading enhancement was also observed when the mutated MHC II molecules were expressed on the surface of fibroblast cells. Altogether, structural features underlying the non-receptive state of empty HLA-DR1 identified by theoretical means and experiments revealed highly conserved residues critically involved in the receptiveness of MHC II. The atomic details of rearrangements of the peptide-binding groove upon peptide loss provide insight into structure and dynamics of empty MHC II molecules and may foster rational approaches to interfere with non-receptiveness. Manipulation of peptide loading efficiency for improved peptide vaccination strategies could be one of the applications profiting

  6. Development of kinesthetic-motor and auditory-motor representations in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagerer, Florian A; Clark, Jane E

    2015-07-01

    In two experiments using a center-out task, we investigated kinesthetic-motor and auditory-motor integrations in 5- to 12-year-old children and young adults. In experiment 1, participants moved a pen on a digitizing tablet from a starting position to one of three targets (visuo-motor condition), and then to one of four targets without visual feedback of the movement. In both conditions, we found that with increasing age, the children moved faster and straighter, and became less variable in their feedforward control. Higher control demands for movements toward the contralateral side were reflected in longer movement times and decreased spatial accuracy across all age groups. When feedforward control relies predominantly on kinesthesia, 7- to 10-year-old children were more variable, indicating difficulties in switching between feedforward and feedback control efficiently during that age. An inverse age progression was found for directional endpoint error; larger errors increasing with age likely reflect stronger functional lateralization for the dominant hand. In experiment 2, the same visuo-motor condition was followed by an auditory-motor condition in which participants had to move to acoustic targets (either white band or one-third octave noise). Since in the latter directional cues come exclusively from transcallosally mediated interaural time differences, we hypothesized that auditory-motor representations would show age effects. The results did not show a clear age effect, suggesting that corpus callosum functionality is sufficient in children to allow them to form accurate auditory-motor maps already at a young age.

  7. Impaired auditory-vestibular functions and behavioral abnormalities of Slitrk6-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available A recent study revealed that Slitrk6, a transmembrane protein containing a leucine-rich repeat domain, has a critical role in the development of the inner ear neural circuit. However, it is still unknown how the absence of Slitrk6 affects auditory and vestibular functions. In addition, the role of Slitrk6 in regions of the central nervous system, including the dorsal thalamus, has not been addressed. To understand the physiological role of Slitrk6, Slitrk6-knockout (KO mice were subjected to systematic behavioral analyses including auditory and vestibular function tests. Compared to wild-type mice, the auditory brainstem response (ABR of Slitrk6-KO mice indicated a mid-frequency range (8-16 kHz hearing loss and reduction of the first ABR wave. The auditory startle response was also reduced. A vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR test showed decreased vertical (head movement-induced VOR gains and normal horizontal VOR. In an open field test, locomotor activity was reduced; the tendency to be in the center region was increased, but only in the first 5 min of the test, indicating altered adaptive responses to a novel environment. Altered adaptive responses were also found in a hole-board test in which head-dip behavior was increased and advanced. Aside from these abnormalities, no clear abnormalities were noted in the mood, anxiety, learning, spatial memory, or fear memory-related behavioral tests. These results indicate that the Slitrk6-KO mouse can serve as a model of hereditary sensorineural deafness. Furthermore, the altered responses of Slitrk6-KO mice to the novel environment suggest a role of Slitrk6 in some cognitive functions.

  8. Training in rapid auditory processing ameliorates auditory comprehension in aphasic patients: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelag, Elzbieta; Lewandowska, Monika; Wolak, Tomasz; Seniow, Joanna; Poniatowska, Renata; Pöppel, Ernst; Szymaszek, Aneta

    2014-03-15

    Experimental studies have often reported close associations between rapid auditory processing and language competency. The present study was aimed at improving auditory comprehension in aphasic patients following specific training in the perception of temporal order (TO) of events. We tested 18 aphasic patients showing both comprehension and TO perception deficits. Auditory comprehension was assessed by the Token Test, phonemic awareness and Voice-Onset-Time Test. The TO perception was assessed using auditory Temporal-Order-Threshold, defined as the shortest interval between two consecutive stimuli, necessary to report correctly their before-after relation. Aphasic patients participated in eight 45-minute sessions of either specific temporal training (TT, n=11) aimed to improve sequencing abilities, or control non-temporal training (NT, n=7) focussed on volume discrimination. The TT yielded improved TO perception; moreover, a transfer of improvement was observed from the time domain to the language domain, which was untrained during the training. The NT did not improve either the TO perception or comprehension in any language test. These results are in agreement with previous literature studies which proved ameliorated language competency following the TT in language-learning-impaired or dyslexic children. Our results indicated for the first time such benefits also in aphasic patients. PMID:24388435

  9. Auditory excitation patterns : the significance of the pulsation threshold method for the measurement of auditory nonlinearity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Verschuure (Hans)

    1978-01-01

    textabstractThe auditory system is the toto[ of organs that translates an acoustical signal into the perception of a sound. An acoustic signal is a vibration. It is decribed by physical parameters. The perception of sound is the awareness of a signal being present and the attribution of certain qual

  10. Risk factors for children's receptive vocabulary development from four to eight years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L Taylor

    Full Text Available Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC. Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB, low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children

  11. Short persistent sleep duration is associated with poor receptive vocabulary performance in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegers, Valerie; Touchette, Evelyne; Dionne, Ginette; Petit, Dominique; Seguin, Jean R; Montplaisir, Jacques; Vitaro, Frank; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether short sleep duration is associated with poor receptive vocabulary at age 10 years. In the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, parents reported their children's nocturnal sleep duration annually from ages 2.5 to 10 years, and children were assessed for receptive vocabulary using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) at ages 4 and 10 years. Groups with distinct nocturnal sleep duration trajectories were identified and the relationships between sleep trajectories and poor PPVT-R performance were characterized. In all, 1192 children with available sleep duration and PPVT-R data participated in this epidemiological study. We identified four longitudinal nocturnal sleep trajectories: short persistent sleepers (n = 72, 6.0%), short increasing sleepers (n = 47, 3.9%), 10-h sleepers (n = 628, 52.7%) and 11-h sleepers (n = 445, 37.3%). In all, 14.8% of the children showed poor PPVT-R performance at age 10 years. Nocturnal sleep trajectories and poor PPVT-R performance at age 10 were associated significantly (P = 0.003). After adjusting for baseline receptive vocabulary performance at age 4 and other potential confounding variables, logistic regression analyses suggest that, compared to 11-h sleepers, the odds ratio of presenting poor receptive vocabulary at age 10 was 2.67 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24-5.74, P = 0.012] for short persistent sleepers and 1.66 (95% CI: 1.06-2.59, P = 0.026) for 10-h sleepers. These results corroborate previous findings in early childhood, and indicate that short sleep duration is associated with poor receptive vocabulary during middle childhood.

  12. A critical period for auditory thalamocortical connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi Barkat, Tania; Polley, Daniel B; Hensch, Takao K

    2011-01-01

    connectivity by in vivo recordings and day-by-day voltage-sensitive dye imaging in an acute brain slice preparation. Passive tone-rearing modified response strength and topography in mouse primary auditory cortex (A1) during a brief, 3-d window, but did not alter tonotopic maps in the thalamus. Gene......-targeted deletion of a forebrain-specific cell-adhesion molecule (Icam5) accelerated plasticity in this critical period. Consistent with its normal role of slowing spinogenesis, loss of Icam5 induced precocious stubby spine maturation on pyramidal cell dendrites in neocortical layer 4 (L4), identifying a primary...

  13. CAVERNOUS HEMANGIOMA OF THE INTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Hekmatara

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Cavernous hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the internal auditory canal (IAC of which fourteen cases have been reported so far."nTinnitus and progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL are the chief complaints of the patients. Audiological and radiological planes, CTScan, and magnetic resonance image (MRI studies are helpful in diagnosis. The only choice of treatment is surgery with elective transmastoid trans¬labyrinthine approach. And if tumor is very large, the method of choice will be retrosigmoid approach.

  14. INFLUENCE ON VESTIBULAR FUNCTION BY AUDITORY NEUROPATHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jingmiao; JIANG Xinxia; SHAN Chunguang

    2013-01-01

    Objective The main purpose of the present study was to describe the vestibular function in patients with auditory neuropathy (AN), and to assess their ability to maintain balance. Methods Vestibular function tests were performed on 32 patients with AN and 36 normal subjects including electronystagmopraphy(ENG) and static postrography(SPG). The results from the two groups were compared. Results Equilibrium function in patients with AN, was abnormal, compared to normal subjects. Conclusion Vestibular function tests, espe-cially static postrography, should be performed on patients with AN.

  15. Left auditory cortex gamma synchronization and auditory hallucination symptoms in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenton Martha E

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oscillatory electroencephalogram (EEG abnormalities may reflect neural circuit dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders. Previously we have found positive correlations between the phase synchronization of beta and gamma oscillations and hallucination symptoms in schizophrenia patients. These findings suggest that the propensity for hallucinations is associated with an increased tendency for neural circuits in sensory cortex to enter states of oscillatory synchrony. Here we tested this hypothesis by examining whether the 40 Hz auditory steady-state response (ASSR generated in the left primary auditory cortex is positively correlated with auditory hallucination symptoms in schizophrenia. We also examined whether the 40 Hz ASSR deficit in schizophrenia was associated with cross-frequency interactions. Sixteen healthy control subjects (HC and 18 chronic schizophrenia patients (SZ listened to 40 Hz binaural click trains. The EEG was recorded from 60 electrodes and average-referenced offline. A 5-dipole model was fit from the HC grand average ASSR, with 2 pairs of superior temporal dipoles and a deep midline dipole. Time-frequency decomposition was performed on the scalp EEG and source data. Results Phase locking factor (PLF and evoked power were reduced in SZ at fronto-central electrodes, replicating prior findings. PLF was reduced in SZ for non-homologous right and left hemisphere sources. Left hemisphere source PLF in SZ was positively correlated with auditory hallucination symptoms, and was modulated by delta phase. Furthermore, the correlations between source evoked power and PLF found in HC was reduced in SZ for the LH sources. Conclusion These findings suggest that differential neural circuit abnormalities may be present in the left and right auditory cortices in schizophrenia. In addition, they provide further support for the hypothesis that hallucinations are related to cortical hyperexcitability, which is manifested by

  16. Auditory perceptual simulation: Simulating speech rates or accents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peiyun; Christianson, Kiel

    2016-07-01

    When readers engage in Auditory Perceptual Simulation (APS) during silent reading, they mentally simulate characteristics of voices attributed to a particular speaker or a character depicted in the text. Previous research found that auditory perceptual simulation of a faster native English speaker during silent reading led to shorter reading times that auditory perceptual simulation of a slower non-native English speaker. Yet, it was uncertain whether this difference was triggered by the different speech rates of the speakers, or by the difficulty of simulating an unfamiliar accent. The current study investigates this question by comparing faster Indian-English speech and slower American-English speech in the auditory perceptual simulation paradigm. Analyses of reading times of individual words and the full sentence reveal that the auditory perceptual simulation effect again modulated reading rate, and auditory perceptual simulation of the faster Indian-English speech led to faster reading rates compared to auditory perceptual simulation of the slower American-English speech. The comparison between this experiment and the data from Zhou and Christianson (2016) demonstrate further that the "speakers'" speech rates, rather than the difficulty of simulating a non-native accent, is the primary mechanism underlying auditory perceptual simulation effects. PMID:27177077

  17. Auditory Processing Theories of Language Disorders: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide information that will assist readers in understanding and interpreting research literature on the role of auditory processing in communication disorders. Method: A narrative review was used to summarize and synthesize the literature on auditory processing deficits in children with auditory…

  18. Quantification of the auditory startle reflex in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Mirte J.; Boer, Frits; van der Meer, Johan N.; Koelman, Johannes H. T. M.; Boeree, Thijs; Bour, Lo; Tijssen, Marina A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To find an adequate tool to assess the auditory startle reflex (ASR) in children. Methods: We investigated the effect of stimulus repetition, gender and age on several quantifications of the ASR. ASR's were elicited by eight consecutive auditory stimuli in 27 healthy children. Electromyog

  19. Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials in Unsuccessful Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munivrana, Boska; Mildner, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    In some cochlear implant users, success is not achieved in spite of optimal clinical factors (including age at implantation, duration of rehabilitation and post-implant hearing level), which may be attributed to disorders at higher levels of the auditory pathway. We used cortical auditory evoked potentials to investigate the ability to perceive…

  20. Effect of Auditory Interference on Memory of Haptic Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anater, Paul F.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of auditory interference on the processing of haptic information by 61 visually impaired students (8 to 20 years old) was the focus of the research described in this article. It was assumed that as the auditory interference approximated the verbalized activity of the haptic task, accuracy of recall would decline. (Author)