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Sample records for auditory event-related responses

  1. Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment Display Reduced Auditory Event-Related Delta Oscillatory Responses

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    Pınar Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Event-related oscillations (ERO may provide a useful tool for the identification of cognitive deficits in mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD. In the present study, we investigate peak-to-peak amplitude of auditory event-related delta oscillations of MCI subjects. Method. The study included twenty-two consecutive patients with MCI recruited in neurology clinic and 21 age- and education-matched normal elderly controls. A classical auditory oddball paradigm was used in the experiments. EEG was recorded from F3, Fz, F4, C3, Cz, C4, P3, Pz, P4, O1, Oz, and O2 locations. The maximum peak-to-peak amplitudes for each subject’s averaged delta response (0.5–2.2 Hz were measured. Results. The amplitudes between groups differed significantly at the frontal and mid-centroparietal locations. ANOVA on delta responses revealed a significant effect for groups (F(1.41 = 4.84, P=0.033, indicating a larger delta response for healthy controls than MCI subjects. Post hoc comparisons revealed that peak-to-peak delta response was significantly larger for healthy controls than for MCI over electrode sites F3, Fz, F4, Cz, C4, and Pz. Discussion. Event-related delta frequency band seems to be the most affected oscillatory response in cognitive impairment due to AD. Therefore, it deserves to be investigated as a candidate electrophysiological biomarker in further studies.

  2. Auditory event-related responses to diphthongs in different attention conditions.

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    Morris, David J; Steinmetzger, Kurt; Tøndering, John

    2016-07-28

    The modulation of auditory event-related potentials (ERP) by attention generally results in larger amplitudes when stimuli are attended. We measured the P1-N1-P2 acoustic change complex elicited with synthetic overt (second formant, F2Δ=1000Hz) and subtle (F2Δ=100Hz) diphthongs, while subjects (i) attended to the auditory stimuli, (ii) ignored the auditory stimuli and watched a film, and (iii) diverted their attention to a visual discrimination task. Responses elicited by diphthongs where F2 values rose and fell were found to be different and this precluded their combined analysis. Multivariate analysis of ERP components from the rising F2 changes showed main effects of attention on P2 amplitude and latency, and N1-P2 amplitude. P2 amplitude decreased by 40% between the attend and ignore conditions, and by 60% between the attend and divert conditions. The effect of diphthong magnitude was significant for components from a broader temporal window which included P1 latency and N1 amplitude. N1 latency did not vary between attention conditions, a finding that may be related to stimulation with a continuous vowel. These data show that a discernible P1-N1-P2 response can be observed to subtle vowel quality transitions, even when the attention of a subject is diverted to an unrelated visual task. PMID:27158036

  3. Distinct features of auditory steady-state responses as compared to transient event-related potentials.

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    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available Transient event-related potentials (ERPs and steady-state responses (SSRs have been popularly employed to investigate the function of the human brain, but their relationship still remains a matter of debate. Some researchers believed that SSRs could be explained by the linear summation of successive transient ERPs (superposition hypothesis, while others believed that SSRs were the result of the entrainment of a neural rhythm driven by the periodic repetition of a sensory stimulus (oscillatory entrainment hypothesis. In the present study, taking auditory modality as an example, we aimed to clarify the distinct features of SSRs, evoked by the 40-Hz and 60-Hz periodic auditory stimulation, as compared to transient ERPs, evoked by a single click. We observed that (1 SSRs were mainly generated by phase synchronization, while late latency responses (LLRs in transient ERPs were mainly generated by power enhancement; (2 scalp topographies of LLRs in transient ERPs were markedly different from those of SSRs; (3 the powers of both 40-Hz and 60-Hz SSRs were significantly correlated, while they were not significantly correlated with the N1 power in transient ERPs; (4 whereas SSRs were dominantly modulated by stimulus intensity, middle latency responses (MLRs were not significantly modulated by both stimulus intensity and subjective loudness judgment, and LLRs were significantly modulated by subjective loudness judgment even within the same stimulus intensity. All these findings indicated that high-frequency SSRs were different from both MLRs and LLRs in transient ERPs, thus supporting the possibility of oscillatory entrainment hypothesis to the generation of SSRs. Therefore, SSRs could be used to explore distinct neural responses as compared to transient ERPs, and help us reveal novel and reliable neural mechanisms of the human brain.

  4. Modeling event-related heart period responses.

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    Paulus, Philipp C; Castegnetti, Giuseppe; Bach, Dominik R

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac rhythm is generated locally in the sinoatrial node, but modulated by central neural input. This may provide a possibility to infer central processes from observed phasic heart period responses (HPR). Currently, operational methods are used for HPR analysis. These methods embody implicit assumptions on how central states influence heart period. Here, we build an explicit psychophysiological model (PsPM) for event-related HPR. This phenomenological PsPM is based on three experiments involving white noise sounds, an auditory oddball task, and emotional picture viewing. The model is optimized with respect to predictive validity-the ability to separate experimental conditions from each other. To validate the PsPM, an independent sample of participants is presented with auditory stimuli of varying intensity and emotional pictures of negative and positive valence, at short intertrial intervals. Our model discriminates these experimental conditions from each other better than operational approaches. We conclude that our PsPM is more sensitive to distinguish experimental manipulations based on heart period data than operational methods, and furnishes a principled approach to analysis of HPR. PMID:26849101

  5. Describing response-event relations: Babel revisited

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    Lattal, Kennon A.; Poling, Alan D.

    1981-01-01

    The terms used to describe the relations among the three components of contingencies of reinforcement and punishment include many with multiple meanings and imprecise denotation. In particular, usage of the term “contingency” and its variants and acceptance of unsubstantiated functional, rather than procedural, descriptions of response-event relations are especially troublesome in the behavior analysis literature. Clarity seems best served by restricting the term “contingency” to its generic ...

  6. Evaluation of embryonic alcoholism from auditory event-related potential in fetal rats

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    梁勇; 王正敏; 屈卫东

    2004-01-01

    @@ Auditory event-related potential (AERP) is a kind of electroencephalography that measures the responses of perception, memory and judgement to special acoustic stimulation in the auditory cortex. AERP can be recorded with not only active but also passive mode. The active and passive recording modes of AERP have been shown a possible application in animals.1,2 Alcohol is a substance that can markedly affect the conscious reaction of human. Recently, AERP has been applied to study the effects of alcohol on the auditory centers of the brain. Some reports have shown dose-dependent differences in latency, amplitude, responsibility and waveform of AERP between persons who have and have not take in alcohol.3,4 The epidemiological investigations show that the central nervous function of the offspring of alcohol users might be also affected.5,6 Because the clinic research is limited by certain factors, several animal models have been applied to examine the influences of alcohol on consciousness with AERP. In the present study, young rats were exposed to alcohol during fetal development and AERP as indicator was recorded to monitor the central auditory function, and its mechanisms and characteristics of effects of the fetal alcoholism on auditory center function in rats were analyzed and discussed.

  7. Source analysis of bimodal event-related potentials with auditory-visual stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, H; Xie, X.; Yan, H; Feng, L; Xu, S; Hu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Dipole source analysis is applied to model brain generators of surface-recorded evoked potentials, epileptiform activity, and event-related potentials (ERP). The aim of this study was to explore brain activity of interaction between bimodal sensory cognition. Seven healthy volunteers were recruited in the study and ERP to these stimuli were recorded by 64 electrodes EEG recording system. Subjects were exposed to either the auditory and the visual stimulus alone or the combined auditory-visual...

  8. Epidural Auditory Event-Related Potentials in the Rat to Frequency and duration Deviants: Evidence of Mismatch Negativity?

    OpenAIRE

    TamoNakamura; WilliamRFulham

    2011-01-01

    The capacity of the human brain to detect deviance in the acoustic environment pre-attentively is reflected in a brain event-related potential (ERP), mismatch negativity (MMN). MMN is observed in response to the presentation of rare oddball sounds that deviate from an otherwise regular pattern of frequent background standard sounds. While the primate and cat auditory cortex (AC) exhibit MMN-like activity, it is unclear whether the rodent AC produces a deviant response that reflects deviance d...

  9. An Auditory Go/No-Go Study of Event-Related Potentials in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmann, Tobias P.; Andrew, Colin M.; Thomsen, Carsten E.;

    2011-01-01

    Abstract—In this study event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on response inhibition identified during task performance. ERPs were recorded during a auditory Go/No Go task in two groups of children with mean age of 12:8years (11years to 14......:7years): one diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS (FAS/PFAS; n = 12) and a control group of children of same age whose mothers abstained from alcohol or drank minimally during pregnancy (n = 11). The children were instructed to push a button in response to the Go stimulus and not to...

  10. Comparison of Auditory Event-Related Potential P300 in Sighted and Early Blind Individuals

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    Fatemeh Heidari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Following an early visual deprivation, the neural network involved in processing auditory spatial information undergoes a profound reorganization. In order to investigate this process, event-related potentials provide accurate information about time course neural activation as well as perception and cognitive processes. In this study, the latency and amplitude of auditory P300 were compared in sighted and early blind individuals in age range of 18-25 years old.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, auditory P300 potential was measured in conventional oddball paradigm by using two tone burst stimuli (1000 and 2000 Hz on 40 sighted subjects and 19 early blind subjects with mean age 20.94 years old.Results: The mean latency of P300 in early blind subjects was significantly smaller than sighted subjects (p=0.00.( There was no significant difference in amplitude between two groups (p>0.05.Conclusion: Reduced latency of P300 in early blind subjects in comparison to sighted subjects probably indicates the rate of automatic processing and information categorization is faster in early blind subjects because of sensory compensation. It seems that neural plasticity increases the rate of auditory processing and attention in early blind subjects.

  11. Event-related desynchronization of frontal-midline theta rhythm during preconscious auditory oddball processing.

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    Kawamata, Masaru; Kirino, Eiji; Inoue, Reiichi; Arai, Heii

    2007-10-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the frontal-midline theta rhythm (Fm theta) generation mechanism employing event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis in relation to task-irrelevant external stimuli. A dual paradigm was employed: a videogame and the simultaneous presentation of passive auditory oddball stimuli. We analyzed the data concerning ERD/ERS using both Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) and wavelet transform (WT). In the FFT data, during the periods with appearance of Fm theta, apparent ERD of the theta band was observed at Fz and Cz. ERD when Fm theta was present was much more prominent than when Fm theta was absent. In the WT data, as in the FFT data, ERD was seen again, but in this case the ERD was preceded by ERS during both the periods with and without Fm theta. Furthermore, the WT analysis indicated that ERD was followed by ERS during the periods without Fm theta. However, during Fm theta, no apparent ERS following ERD was seen. In our study, Fm theta was desynchronized by the auditory stimuli that were independent of the video game task used to evoke the Fm theta. The ERD of Fm theta might be reflecting the mechanism of "positive suppression" to process external auditory stimuli automatically and preventing attentional resources from being unnecessarily allocated to those stimuli. Another possibility is that Fm theta induced by our dual paradigm may reflect information processing modeled by multi-item working memory requirements for playing the videogame and the simultaneous auditory processing using a memory trace. ERS in the WT data without Fm theta might indicate further processing of the auditory information free from "positive suppression" control reflected by Fm theta. PMID:17993201

  12. Material differences of auditory source retrieval:Evidence from event-related potential studies

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    NIE AiQing; GUO ChunYan; SHEN MoWei

    2008-01-01

    Two event-related potential experiments were conducted to investigate the temporal and the spatial distributions of the old/new effects for the item recognition task and the auditory source retrieval task using picture and Chinese character as stimuli respectively. Stimuli were presented on the center of the screen with their names read out either by female or by male voice simultaneously during the study phase and then two testa were performed separately. One test task was to differentiate the old items from the new ones, and the other task was to judge the items read out by a certain voice during the study phase as targets and other ones as non-targets. The results showed that the old/new effect of the auditory source retrieval task was more sustained over time than that of the item recognition task in both experiments, and the spatial distribution of the former effect was wider than that of the latter one. Both experiments recorded reliable old/new effect over the prefrontal cortex during the source retrieval task. However, there existed some differences of the old/new effect for the auditory source retrieval task between picture and Chinese character, and LORETA source analysis indicated that the differ-ences might be rooted in the temporal lobe. These findings demonstrate that the relevancy of the old/new effects between the item recognition task and the auditory source retrieval task supports the dual-process model; the spatial and the temporal distributions of the old/new effect elicited by the auditory source retrieval task are regulated by both the feature of the experimental material and the perceptual attribute of the voice.

  13. Dysfunctional information processing during an auditory event-related potential task in individuals with Internet gaming disorder.

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    Park, M; Choi, J-S; Park, S M; Lee, J-Y; Jung, H Y; Sohn, B K; Kim, S N; Kim, D J; Kwon, J S

    2016-01-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) leading to serious impairments in cognitive, psychological and social functions has gradually been increasing. However, very few studies conducted to date have addressed issues related to the event-related potential (ERP) patterns in IGD. Identifying the neurobiological characteristics of IGD is important to elucidate the pathophysiology of this condition. P300 is a useful ERP component for investigating electrophysiological features of the brain. The aims of the present study were to investigate differences between patients with IGD and healthy controls (HCs), with regard to the P300 component of the ERP during an auditory oddball task, and to examine the relationship of this component to the severity of IGD symptoms in identifying the relevant neurophysiological features of IGD. Twenty-six patients diagnosed with IGD and 23 age-, sex-, education- and intelligence quotient-matched HCs participated in this study. During an auditory oddball task, participants had to respond to the rare, deviant tones presented in a sequence of frequent, standard tones. The IGD group exhibited a significant reduction in response to deviant tones compared with the HC group in the P300 amplitudes at the midline centro-parietal electrode regions. We also found a negative correlation between the severity of IGD and P300 amplitudes. The reduced amplitude of the P300 component in an auditory oddball task may reflect dysfunction in auditory information processing and cognitive capabilities in IGD. These findings suggest that reduced P300 amplitudes may be candidate neurobiological marker for IGD. PMID:26812042

  14. Auditory event-related brain potentials for an early discrimination between normal and pathological brain aging

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    Juliana Dushanova; Mario Christov

    2013-01-01

    The brain as a system with gradually decreasing resources maximizes its chances by reorganizing neural networks to ensure efficient performance. Auditory event-related potentials were recorded in 28 healthy volunteers comprising 14 young and 14 elderly subjects in auditory discrimination motor task (low frequency tone – right hand movement and high frequency tone – left hand movement). The amplitudes of the sensory event-related potential components (N1, P2) were more pronounced with increasing age for either tone and this effect for P2 amplitude was more pronounced in the frontal region. The latency relationship of N1 between the groups was tone-dependent, while that of P2 was tone-independent with a prominent delay in the elderly group over all brain regions. The amplitudes of the cognitive components (N2, P3) diminished with increasing age and the hemispheric asymmetry of N2 (but not for P3) reduced with increasing age. Prolonged N2 latency with increasing age was widespread for either tone while between-group difference in P3 latency was tone-dependent. High frequency tone stimulation and movement requirements lead to P3 delay in the elderly group. The amplitude difference of the sensory components between the age groups could be due to a general greater alertness, less expressed habituation, or decline in the ability to retreat attentional resources from the stimuli in the elderly group. With aging, a neural circuit reorganization of the brain activity affects the cognitive processes. The approach used in this study is useful for an early discrimination between normal and pathological brain aging for early treatment of cognitive alterations and dementia.

  15. Auditory event-related potentials as indicators of good prognosis in coma of non-anoxic etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbour, Rosette; Sawaya, Raja A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether auditory event-related potentials can predict the prognosis of recovery from coma resulting from different etiologies. The results of this study could then be used as an adjuvant test in helping the clinician evaluate patients in coma. We performed P300 auditory event-related potentials on 21 patients who developed a state of coma at our institution. We compared the results to the Glasgow coma scale at the onset of coma, on day 3, and day 21. We...

  16. Auditory P300 Event-Related Potentials in Children with Sydenham?s Chorea

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    Hasan Hüseyin Ozdemir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available P300 event-related potentials (ERPs, objective measures related to cognitive processing, have not been studied in Sydenham’s chorea (SC patients. Purpose: To assess cognitive impairment with P300 ERPs. Method: Seventeen patients with SC and 20 unaffected healthy children were included. Stanford–Binet test was used for psychometric assessment, and odd-ball paradigm was used for auditory ERPs. Results: There was no significant difference in P300 latencies between the SC-pretreatment group, SC-posttreatment group and control group (p>0.05. Mean interpeak latencies in SC-pretreatment group and SC-posttreatment group showed significant prolongation compared with the control group (p<0.05. Mean interpeak latencies in SC-posttreatment group were significantly decreased compared with SC-pretreatment group (p<0.05. Compared to controls, patients did not show significant difference in Stanford-Binet intelligence examination. Conclusion: This report suggests that interpeak latencies and amplitudes of P300 ERPs could be useful for detecting and monitoring cognitive impairment in SC patients.

  17. Epidural auditory event-related potentials in the rat to frequency and duration deviants: evidence of mismatch negativity?

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    Tamo eNakamura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of the human brain to detect deviance in the acoustic environment pre-attentively is reflected in a brain event-related potential (ERP, mismatch negativity (MMN. MMN is observed in response to the presentation of rare oddball sounds that deviate from an otherwise regular pattern of frequent background standard sounds. While the primate and cat auditory cortex (AC exhibit MMN-like activity, it is unclear whether the rodent AC produces a deviant response that reflects deviance detection in a background of regularities evident in recent auditory stimulus history or differential adaptation of neuronal responses due to rarity of the deviant sound. We examined whether MMN-like activity occurs in epidural AC potentials in awake and anaesthetised rats to high and low frequency and long and short duration deviant sounds. ERPs to deviants were compared with ERPs to common standards and also with ERPs to deviants when interspersed with many different standards to control for background regularity effects. High frequency and long duration deviant ERPs in the awake rat showed evidence of deviance detection, consisting of negative displacements of the deviant ERP relative to ERPs to both common standards and deviants with many standards. The high frequency deviant MMN-like response was also sensitive to the extent of regularity in recent acoustic stimulation. Anaesthesia in contrast resulted in positive displacements of deviant ERPs. Our results suggest that epidural MMN-like potentials to high frequency sounds in awake rats encode deviance in an analogous manner to the human MMN, laying the foundation for animal models of disorders characterised by disrupted MMN generation, such as schizophrenia.

  18. Seeing sounds and hearing colors: an event-related potential study of auditory-visual synesthesia.

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    Goller, Aviva I; Otten, Leun J; Ward, Jamie

    2009-10-01

    In auditory-visual synesthesia, sounds automatically elicit conscious and reliable visual experiences. It is presently unknown whether this reflects early or late processes in the brain. It is also unknown whether adult audiovisual synesthesia resembles auditory-induced visual illusions that can sometimes occur in the general population or whether it resembles the electrophysiological deflection over occipital sites that has been noted in infancy and has been likened to synesthesia. Electrical brain activity was recorded from adult synesthetes and control participants who were played brief tones and required to monitor for an infrequent auditory target. The synesthetes were instructed to attend either to the auditory or to the visual (i.e., synesthetic) dimension of the tone, whereas the controls attended to the auditory dimension alone. There were clear differences between synesthetes and controls that emerged early (100 msec after tone onset). These differences tended to lie in deflections of the auditory-evoked potential (e.g., the auditory N1, P2, and N2) rather than the presence of an additional posterior deflection. The differences occurred irrespective of what the synesthetes attended to (although attention had a late effect). The results suggest that differences between synesthetes and others occur early in time, and that synesthesia is qualitatively different from similar effects found in infants and certain auditory-induced visual illusions in adults. In addition, we report two novel cases of synesthesia in which colors elicit sounds, and vice versa. PMID:18823243

  19. Arousal and attention re-orienting in autism spectrum disorders: evidence from auditory event-related potentials

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    Elena V Orekhova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The extended phenotype of autism spectrum disorders (ASD includes a combination of arousal regulation problems, sensory modulation difficulties, and attention re-orienting deficit. A slow and inefficient re-orienting to stimuli that appear outside of the attended sensory stream is thought to be especially detrimental for social functioning. Event-related potentials (ERPs and magnetic fields (ERFs may help to reveal which processing stages underlying brain response to unattended but salient sensory event are affected in individuals with ASD. Previous research focusing on two sequential stages of the brain response - automatic detection of physical changes in auditory stream, indexed by mismatch negativity (MMN, and evaluation of stimulus novelty, indexed by P3a component, - found in individuals with ASD either increased, decreased or normal processing of deviance and novelty. The review examines these apparently conflicting results, notes gaps in previous findings, and suggests a potentially unifying hypothesis relating the dampened responses to unattended sensory events to the deficit in rapid arousal process. Specifically, ‘sensory gating’ studies focused on pre-attentive arousal consistently demonstrated that brain response to unattended and temporally novel sound in ASD is already affected at around 100 ms after stimulus onset. We hypothesize that abnormalities in nicotinic cholinergic arousal pathways, previously reported in individuals with ASD, may contribute to these ERP/ERF aberrations and result in attention re-orienting deficit. Such cholinergic dysfunction may be present in individuals with ASD early in life and can influence both sensory processing and attention re-orienting behavior. Identification of early neurophysiological biomarkers for cholinergic deficit would help to detect infants “at risk” who can potentially benefit from particular types of therapies or interventions.

  20. A brain-computer interface controlled auditory event-related potential (p300) spelling system for locked-in patients.

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    Kübler, Andrea; Furdea, Adrian; Halder, Sebastian; Hammer, Eva Maria; Nijboer, Femke; Kotchoubey, Boris

    2009-03-01

    Using brain-computer interfaces (BCI) humans can select letters or other targets on a computer screen without any muscular involvement. An intensively investigated kind of BCI is based on the recording of visual event-related brain potentials (ERP). However, some severely paralyzed patients who need a BCI for communication have impaired vision or lack control of gaze movement, thus making a BCI depending on visual input no longer feasible. In an effort to render the ERP-BCI usable for this group of patients, the ERP-BCI was adapted to auditory stimulation. Letters of the alphabet were assigned to cells in a 5 x 5 matrix. Rows of the matrix were coded with numbers 1 to 5, and columns with numbers 6 to 10, and the numbers were presented auditorily. To select a letter, users had to first select the row and then the column containing the desired letter. Four severely paralyzed patients in the end-stage of a neurodegenerative disease were examined. All patients performed above chance level. Spelling accuracy was significantly lower with the auditory system as compared with a similar visual system. Patients reported difficulties in concentrating on the task when presented with the auditory system. In future studies, the auditory ERP-BCI should be adjusted by taking into consideration specific features of severely paralyzed patients, such as reduced attention span. This adjustment in combination with more intensive training will show whether an auditory ERP-BCI can become an option for visually impaired patients. PMID:19351359

  1. Cortical Auditory Event Related Potentials (P300) for Frequency Changing Dynamic Tones

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    Kalaiah, Mohan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives P300 has been studied with a variety of stimuli. However, the nature of P300 has not been investigated for deviant stimuli which change its characteristics from standard stimuli after a period of time from onset. Subjects and Methods Nine young adults with normal hearing participated in the study. The P300 was elicited using an oddball paradigm, the probability of standard and deviant stimuli was 80% and 20% respectively. Six stimuli were used to elicit P300, it included two pure-tones (1,000 Hz and 2,000 Hz) and four tone-complexes (tones with frequency changes). Among these stimuli, 1,000 Hz tone served as standard while others served as deviant stimuli. The P300 was recorded in five separate blocks, with one of the deviant stimuli as target in each block. Electroencephalographic was recorded from electrode sites Fz, Cz, C3, C4, and Pz. Latency and amplitude of components of the cortical auditory evoked potentials were measured at Cz. Results Waveforms obtained in the present study shows that, all the deviant stimuli elicited obligatory P1-N1-P2 for stimulus onset. 2,000 Hz deviant tone elicited P300 at a latency of 300 ms. While, tone-complexes elicited acoustic change complex (ACC) for frequency changes and finally elicited P300 at a latency of 600 ms. In addition, the results showed shorter latency and larger amplitude ACC and P300 for rising tone-complexes compared to falling tone-complexes. Conclusions Tone-complexes elicited distinct waveforms compared to 2,000 Hz deviant tone. Rising tone-complexes which had an increase in frequency elicited shorter latency and larger amplitude responses, which could be attributed to perceptual bias for frequency changes. PMID:27144230

  2. Bayesian Modeling of the Dynamics of Phase Modulations and their Application to Auditory Event Related Potentials at Different Loudness Scales.

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    Mortezapouraghdam, Zeinab; Wilson, Robert C; Schwabe, Lars; Strauss, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    We study the effect of long-term habituation signatures of auditory selective attention reflected in the instantaneous phase information of the auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) at four distinct stimuli levels of 60, 70, 80, and 90 dB SPL. The analysis is based on the single-trial level. The effect of habituation can be observed in terms of the changes (jitter) in the instantaneous phase information of ERPs. In particular, the absence of habituation is correlated with a consistently high phase synchronization over ERP trials. We estimate the changes in phase concentration over trials using a Bayesian approach, in which the phase is modeled as being drawn from a von Mises distribution with a concentration parameter which varies smoothly over trials. The smoothness assumption reflects the fact that habituation is a gradual process. We differentiate between different stimuli based on the relative changes and absolute values of the estimated concentration parameter using the proposed Bayesian model. PMID:26858631

  3. The effect of interruption to propofol sedation on auditory event-related potentials and electroencephalogram in intensive care patients

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    Yppärilä, Heidi; Nunes, Silvia; Korhonen, Ilkka; Partanen, Juhani; Ruokonen, Esko

    2004-01-01

    Introduction In this observational pilot study we evaluated the electroencephalogram (EEG) and auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) before and after discontinuation of propofol sedation in neurologically intact intensive care patients. Methods Nineteen intensive care unit patients received a propofol infusion in accordance with a sedation protocol. The EEG signal and the ERPs were measured at the frontal region (Fz) and central region (Cz), both during propofol sedation and after cessation of infusion when the sedative effects had subsided. The EEG signal was subjected to power spectral estimation, and the total root mean squared power and spectral edge frequency 95% were computed. For ERPs, we used an oddball paradigm to obtain the N100 and the mismatch negativity components. Results Despite considerable individual variability, the root mean squared power at Cz and Fz (P = 0.004 and P = 0.005, respectively) and the amplitude of the N100 component in response to the standard stimulus at Fz (P = 0.022) increased significantly after interruption to sedation. The amplitude of the N100 component (at Cz and Fz) was the only parameter that differed between sedation levels during propofol sedation (deep versus moderate versus light sedation: P = 0.016 and P = 0.008 for Cz and Fz, respectively). None of the computed parameters correlated with duration of propofol infusion. Conclusion Our findings suggest that use of ERPs, especially the N100 potential, may help to differentiate between levels of sedation. Thus, they may represent a useful complement to clinical sedation scales in the monitoring of sedation status over time in a heterogeneous group of neurologically intact intensive care patients. PMID:15566595

  4. Sex differences in concordance rates between auditory event-related potentials and subjective sexual arousal.

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    Oliver, Taylor L; Meana, Marta; Snyder, Joel S

    2016-08-01

    Much research indicates men show a greater concordance between subjective and genital sexual arousal than do women. We investigated the relationship between subjective sexual arousal and brain activation in men and women. Subjective sexual arousal and auditory N1 and P3b ERP amplitudes were measured while 38 participants viewed erotic and non-erotic films. Most notably, there was a significant correlation between N1 amplitude and sexual arousal in men; for women, there was a significant correlation between the P3b amplitude and sexual arousal. ERP amplitudes were inversely associated with reported arousal, suggesting that sexual arousal interferes with early tone processing for men, and with later tone processing for women. Lastly, for women, pornography/erotica consumption was negatively correlated with P3b amplitudes, suggesting that women who consume more pornography/erotica may also show greater attention to erotic films. PMID:27125689

  5. Interaural cross correlation of event-related potentials and diffusion tensor imaging in the evaluation of auditory processing disorder: a case study.

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    Jerger, James; Martin, Jeffrey; McColl, Roderick

    2004-01-01

    In a previous publication (Jerger et al, 2002), we presented event-related potential (ERP) data on a pair of 10-year-old twin girls (Twins C and E), one of whom (Twin E) showed strong evidence of auditory processing disorder. For the present paper, we analyzed cross-correlation functions of ERP waveforms generated in response to the presentation of target stimuli to either the right or left ears in a dichotic paradigm. There were four conditions; three involved the processing of real words for either phonemic, semantic, or spectral targets; one involved the processing of a nonword acoustic signal. Marked differences in the cross-correlation functions were observed. In the case of Twin C, cross-correlation functions were uniformly normal across both hemispheres. The functions for Twin E, however, suggest poorly correlated neural activity over the left parietal region during the three word processing conditions, and over the right parietal area in the nonword acoustic condition. Differences between the twins' brains were evaluated using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI). For Twin E, results showed reduced anisotropy over the length of the midline corpus callosum and adjacent lateral structures, implying reduced myelin integrity. Taken together, these findings suggest that failure to achieve appropriate temporally correlated bihemispheric brain activity in response to auditory stimulation, perhaps as a result of faulty interhemispheric communication via corpus callosum, may be a factor in at least some children with auditory processing disorder. PMID:15030103

  6. Sensitivity of P300 auditory event-related potentials for assessing cognitive impairment in elderly type 2 diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Yang; Junhong She; Xianfu Lu; Rihong Peng

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In previous studies, cognitive function in elderly type 2 diabetic patients was evaluated by psychometric tests. These studies have confirmed that P300 event-related potential is an objective way of assessing cognitive function.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the objectivity of P300 for assessment of cognitive function in elderly type 2diabetic patients.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: This case-control experiment was performed at the Department of Endocrinology of the Fourth Affiliated Hospital, Guangxi Medical University from January 2004 to December 2006.PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-two patients (38 males and 34 females) with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided according to those with diabetes alone (diabetes alone group) (n=38) and those with diabetes and cerebral ischemia (diabetes and cerebral ischemia group)(n=34). A further 31 healthy individuals (16 males and 15 females), who received health examinations over the same period, were included as normal controls (normal control group).METHODS: All subjects were assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Abnormalities in cognitive functions were identified by analyzing the auditory P300 event-related potentials.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Auditory event-related potentials and MMSE scores. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted using the "enter method" with the 72 elderly patients with type 2diabetes mellitus. P3 latency, P3 amplitude and N2 latency served as dependent variables. Age, sex,education, course of the disease, glycosylated hemoglobin, and ischemic brain damage were used as independent variables.RESULTS: No significant difference in scores of MMSE was detected between the diabetes alone and normal control groups (P > 0.05). MMSE score was significantly lower in the diabetes and cerebral ischemia group (P < 0.01) than in the normal control group. N2 and P3 latencies of auditory event-related potential were significantly longer, and P3 amplitude was

  7. Individual Differences in Auditory Sentence Comprehension in Children: An Exploratory Event-Related Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Jason D.; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Glover, Gary H.; Feldman, Heidi M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore changes in activation of the cortical network that serves auditory sentence comprehension in children in response to increasing demands of complex sentences. A further goal is to study how individual differences in children's receptive language abilities are associated with such changes in cortical…

  8. Validation of the Emotiv EPOC EEG system for research quality auditory event-related potentials in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badcock, Nicholas A; Preece, Kathryn A; de Wit, Bianca; Glenn, Katharine; Fieder, Nora; Thie, Johnson; McArthur, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    Background. Previous work has demonstrated that a commercial gaming electroencephalography (EEG) system, Emotiv EPOC, can be adjusted to provide valid auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in adults that are comparable to ERPs recorded by a research-grade EEG system, Neuroscan. The aim of the current study was to determine if the same was true for children. Method. An adapted Emotiv EPOC system and Neuroscan system were used to make simultaneous EEG recordings in nineteen 6- to 12-year-old children under "passive" and "active" listening conditions. In the passive condition, children were instructed to watch a silent DVD and ignore 566 standard (1,000 Hz) and 100 deviant (1,200 Hz) tones. In the active condition, they listened to the same stimuli, and were asked to count the number of 'high' (i.e., deviant) tones. Results. Intraclass correlations (ICCs) indicated that the ERP morphology recorded with the two systems was very similar for the P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3 ERP peaks (r = .82 to .95) in both passive and active conditions, and less so, though still strong, for mismatch negativity ERP component (MMN; r = .67 to .74). There were few differences between peak amplitude and latency estimates for the two systems. Conclusions. An adapted EPOC EEG system can be used to index children's late auditory ERP peaks (i.e., P1, N1, P2, N2, P3) and their MMN ERP component. PMID:25922794

  9. Validation of the Emotiv EPOC EEG system for research quality auditory event-related potentials in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Badcock

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous work has demonstrated that a commercial gaming electroencephalography (EEG system, Emotiv EPOC, can be adjusted to provide valid auditory event-related potentials (ERPs in adults that are comparable to ERPs recorded by a research-grade EEG system, Neuroscan. The aim of the current study was to determine if the same was true for children. Method. An adapted Emotiv EPOC system and Neuroscan system were used to make simultaneous EEG recordings in nineteen 6- to 12-year-old children under “passive” and “active” listening conditions. In the passive condition, children were instructed to watch a silent DVD and ignore 566 standard (1,000 Hz and 100 deviant (1,200 Hz tones. In the active condition, they listened to the same stimuli, and were asked to count the number of ‘high’ (i.e., deviant tones. Results. Intraclass correlations (ICCs indicated that the ERP morphology recorded with the two systems was very similar for the P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3 ERP peaks (r = .82 to .95 in both passive and active conditions, and less so, though still strong, for mismatch negativity ERP component (MMN; r = .67 to .74. There were few differences between peak amplitude and latency estimates for the two systems. Conclusions. An adapted EPOC EEG system can be used to index children’s late auditory ERP peaks (i.e., P1, N1, P2, N2, P3 and their MMN ERP component.

  10. Learning disability subtypes and the effects of auditory and visual priming on visual event-related potentials to words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, J; Stelmack, R M

    1994-02-01

    Three learning-disability (LD) subtype groups and a normal control group of children were compared in their visual event-related potentials (ERPs) to primed and unprimed words. The LD subtypes were defined by deficient performance on tests of arithmetic (Group A), reading and spelling (Group RS), or both (Group RSA). The primed words were preceded by pictures or spoken words having a related meaning, while unprimed words were preceded by non-associated pictures or spoken words. For normal controls, N450 amplitude was greater to unprimed words than to words primed by pictures and spoken words. For Group A, N450 amplitude was reduced by spoken-word primes, but not by picture primes, an effect that demonstrates a deficit in processing visual-spatial information. For Group RS and Group RSA, neither picture nor spoken-word primes reduced N450 amplitude. These effects can be understood in terms of deficiencies in processing auditory-verbal information. Normal controls displayed a greater left- than right-hemispheric asymmetry in frontal N450 amplitude to unprimed words, an effect that is consistent with the association of skilled reading with hemispheric specialization. This asymmetry was absent in the ERPs of all the LD subtypes. The distinct ERP effects for the groups endorses the value of defining LD subtypes on the basis of patterns of deficits in arithmetic and reading and spelling. PMID:8150889

  11. Effects of aging and involuntary capture of attention on event-related potentials associated with the processing of and the response to a target stimulus

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Cid Fernández

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to assess whether aging modulates the effects of involuntary capture of attention by novel stimuli on performance, and on event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with target processing (N2b and P3b) and subsequent response processes (stimulus-locked Lateralized Readiness Potential -sLRP- and response-locked Lateralized Readiness Potential -rLRP-). An auditory-visual distraction-attention task was performed by 77 healthy participants, divided into three...

  12. Wave form variations in auditory event-related potentials evoked by a memory-scanning task and their relationship with tests of intellectual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosi, L; Holly, M; Slade, T; Hayward, M; Barrett, G; Blumhardt, L D

    1992-01-01

    The inter-subject wave form variability of auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by digit probe identification in a memory-scanning task (Sternberg paradigm) and the effects of reaction time (RT) and task difficulty were studied in 26 healthy subjects. The response wave forms were compared with the performance of psychological tests of intelligence and memory. ERPs to 1-digit sets consisted of a sequence of waves identified as P100, N170, P250, N290, P400, P560 and N640. The major inter-subject difference in the response wave form was either the presence or absence of the late parietal positive wave P560. This wave occurred significantly more often in responses associated with larger memory sets and slow RT, suggesting that its presence reflects subjective difficulty in performing a task. With increasing set size, the P400 showed variable effects in different subjects, ranging from relative preservation of amplitude, through attenuation, to replacement or overlap by a broad surface-negative wave. This predominantly 'negative-going' effect of increasing task difficulty on the P400 was significantly correlated with scores of psychological tests; the greater the amplitude difference between the responses to easy and more difficult tasks, the better the scores, suggesting that these wave form changes reflect a more effective cognitive processing mechanism. PMID:1378004

  13. Event-related potentials dissociate perceptual from response-related age effects in visual search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris; Müller, Hermann J.; Finke, Kathrin;

    2013-01-01

    measures with lateralized event-related potentials of younger and older adults performing a compound-search task, in which the target-defining dimension of a pop-out target (color/shape) and the response-critical target feature (vertical/horizontal stripes) varied independently across trials. Slower...... responses in older participants were associated with age differences in all analyzed event-related potentials from perception to response, indicating that behavioral slowing originates from multiple stages within the information-processing stream. Furthermore, analyses of carry-over effects from one trial...

  14. Hippocampal P3-Like Auditory Event-Related Potentials are Disrupted in a Rat Model of Cholinergic Degeneration in Alzheimer's Disease: Reversal by Donepezil Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bettina; Mørk, Arne; Kristiansen, Uffe;

    2014-01-01

    P300 (P3) event-related potentials (ERPs) have been suggested to be an endogenous marker of cognitive function and auditory oddball paradigms are frequently used to evaluate P3 ERPs in clinical settings. Deficits in P3 amplitude and latency reflect some of the neurological dysfunctions related......-cognitive effects in humans remains to be fully validated. The current study characterizes P3-like ERPs in the 192-IgG-SAP (SAP) rat model of the cholinergic degeneration associated with AD. Following training in a combined auditory oddball and lever-press setup, rats were subjected to bilateral...

  15. Evidence of a visual-to-auditory cross-modal sensory gating phenomenon as reflected by the human P50 event-related brain potential modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebib, Riadh; Papo, David; de Bode, Stella; Baudonnière, Pierre Marie

    2003-05-01

    We investigated the existence of a cross-modal sensory gating reflected by the modulation of an early electrophysiological index, the P50 component. We analyzed event-related brain potentials elicited by audiovisual speech stimuli manipulated along two dimensions: congruency and discriminability. The results showed that the P50 was attenuated when visual and auditory speech information were redundant (i.e. congruent), in comparison with this same event-related potential component elicited with discrepant audiovisual dubbing. When hard to discriminate, however, bimodal incongruent speech stimuli elicited a similar pattern of P50 attenuation. We concluded to the existence of a visual-to-auditory cross-modal sensory gating phenomenon. These results corroborate previous findings revealing a very early audiovisual interaction during speech perception. Finally, we postulated that the sensory gating system included a cross-modal dimension. PMID:12697279

  16. Differential activity in left inferior frontal gyrus for pseudo and real words: an event-related functional MRI study on auditory lexical decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study lexical processing of pseudo words and real words by using a fast event-related functional MRI (ER-fMRI) design. Methods: Participants did an auditory lexical decision task on a list of pseudo-randomly intermixed real and pseudo Chinese two-character (or two-syllable) words. Pseudo words were constructed by recombining constituent characters of the real words to control for sublexical codes properties. Results: The behavioral performance of fourteen participants indicated that response to pseudowords was significantly slower and less accurate than to real words (mean error rate: 9.9% versus 3.9%, mean reaction time: 1618 ms versus 1143 ms). Processing of pseudo words and real words activated a highly comparable network of brain regions, including bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, superior, middle temporal gyrus, calcarine and lingual gyrus, and left supramarginal gyrus. Mirroring a behavioral lexical effect, left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was significantly more activated for pseudo words than for real words. Conclusion: The results indicate that the processing of left inferior frontal gyrus in judging pseudo words and real words is not related to grapheme-to-phoneme conversion, but rather to making positive versus negative responses in decision making. (authors)

  17. Event-related brain responses while listening to entire pieces of music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poikonen, Hanna; Alluri, Vinoo; Brattico, Elvira; Lartillot, Olivier; Tervaniemi, Mari; Huotilainen, Minna

    2016-01-01

    Brain responses to discrete short sounds have been studied intensively using the event-related potential (ERP) method, in which the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal is divided into epochs time-locked to stimuli of interest. Here we introduce and apply a novel technique which enables one to isolate...

  18. Tracking the Time Course of Word-Frequency Effects in Auditory Word Recognition with Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Sophie; Brunelliere, Angele; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H.

    2013-01-01

    Although the word-frequency effect is one of the most established findings in spoken-word recognition, the precise processing locus of this effect is still a topic of debate. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to track the time course of the word-frequency effect. In addition, the neighborhood density effect, which is known to…

  19. Basic Auditory Processing Deficits in Dyslexia: Systematic Review of the Behavioral and Event-Related Potential/Field Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Jarmo A.; Salminen, Hanne K.; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.

    2013-01-01

    A review of research that uses behavioral, electroencephalographic, and/or magnetoencephalographic methods to investigate auditory processing deficits in individuals with dyslexia is presented. Findings show that measures of frequency, rise time, and duration discrimination as well as amplitude modulation and frequency modulation detection were…

  20. The Role of Animacy in the Real Time Comprehension of Mandarin Chinese: Evidence from Auditory Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Markus; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Bisang, Walter; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Two auditory ERP studies examined the role of animacy in sentence comprehension in Mandarin Chinese by comparing active and passive sentences in simple verb-final (Experiment 1) and relative clause constructions (Experiment 2). In addition to the voice manipulation (which modulated the assignment of actor and undergoer roles to the arguments),…

  1. Psychophysiological responses to auditory change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuen, Lorraine; Sears, David; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive characterization of autonomic and somatic responding within the auditory domain is currently lacking. We studied whether simple types of auditory change that occur frequently during music listening could elicit measurable changes in heart rate, skin conductance, respiration rate, and facial motor activity. Participants heard a rhythmically isochronous sequence consisting of a repeated standard tone, followed by a repeated target tone that changed in pitch, timbre, duration, intensity, or tempo, or that deviated momentarily from rhythmic isochrony. Changes in all parameters produced increases in heart rate. Skin conductance response magnitude was affected by changes in timbre, intensity, and tempo. Respiratory rate was sensitive to deviations from isochrony. Our findings suggest that music researchers interpreting physiological responses as emotional indices should consider acoustic factors that may influence physiology in the absence of induced emotions. PMID:26927928

  2. The role of auditory transient and deviance processing in distraction of task performance: a combined behavioral and event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Distraction of goal-oriented performance by a sudden change in the auditory environment is an everyday life experience. Different types of changes can be distracting, including a sudden onset of a transient sound and a slight deviation of otherwise regular auditory background stimulation. With regard to deviance detection, it is assumed that slight changes in a continuous sequence of auditory stimuli are detected by a predictive coding mechanisms and it has been demonstrated that this mechanism is capable of distracting ongoing task performance. In contrast, it is open whether transient detection-which does not rely on predictive coding mechanisms-can trigger behavioral distraction, too. In the present study, the effect of rare auditory changes on visual task performance is tested in an auditory-visual cross-modal distraction paradigm. The rare changes are either embedded within a continuous standard stimulation (triggering deviance detection) or are presented within an otherwise silent situation (triggering transient detection). In the event-related brain potentials, deviants elicited the mismatch negativity (MMN) while transients elicited an enhanced N1 component, mirroring pre-attentive change detection in both conditions but on the basis of different neuro-cognitive processes. These sensory components are followed by attention related ERP components including the P3a and the reorienting negativity (RON). This demonstrates that both types of changes trigger switches of attention. Finally, distraction of task performance is observable, too, but the impact of deviants is higher compared to transients. These findings suggest different routes of distraction allowing for the automatic processing of a wide range of potentially relevant changes in the environment as a pre-requisite for adaptive behavior. PMID:23874278

  3. The role of auditory transient and deviance processing in distraction of task performance: a combined behavioral and event-related brain potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Berti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Distraction of goal-oriented performance by a sudden change in the auditory environment is an everyday life experience. Different types of changes can be distracting, including a sudden onset of a transient sound and a slight deviation of otherwise regular auditory background stimulation. With regard to deviance detection, it is assumed that slight changes in a continuous sequence of auditory stimuli are detected by a predictive coding mechanisms and it has been demonstrated that this mechanism is capable of distracting ongoing task performance. In contrast, it is open whether transient detection – which does not rely on predictive coding mechanisms – can trigger behavioral distraction, too. In the present study, the effect of rare auditory changes on visual task performance is tested in an auditory-visual cross-modal distraction paradigm. The rare changes are either embedded within a continuous standard stimulation (triggering deviance detection or are presented within an otherwise silent situation (triggering transient detection. In the event-related brain potentials, deviants elicited the mismatch negativity (MMN while transients elicited an enhanced N1 component, mirroring pre-attentive change detection in both conditions but on the basis of different neuro-cognitive processes. These sensory components are followed by attention related ERP components including the P3a and the reorienting negativity (RON. This demonstrates that both types of changes trigger switches of attention. Finally, distraction of task performance is observable, too, but the impact of deviants is higher compared to transients. These findings suggest different routes of distraction allowing for the automatic processing of a wide range of potentially relevant changes in the environment as a pre-requisite for adaptive behavior.

  4. Human brain EEG indices of emotions: delineating responses to affective vocalizations by measuring frontal theta event-related synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkedal, Marni Y V; Rossi, John; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    At present there is no direct brain measure of basic emotional dynamics from the human brain. EEG provides non-invasive approaches for monitoring brain electrical activity to emotional stimuli. Event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis, based on power shifts in specific frequency bands, has some potential as a method for differentiating responses to basic emotions as measured during brief presentations of affective stimuli. Although there appears to be fairly consistent theta ERS in frontal regions of the brain during the earliest phases of processing affective auditory stimuli, the patterns do not readily distinguish between specific emotions. To date it has not been possible to consistently differentiate brain responses to emotion-specific affective states or stimuli, and some evidence to suggests the theta ERS more likely measures general arousal processes rather than yielding veridical indices of specific emotional states. Perhaps cortical EEG patterns will never be able to be used to distinguish discrete emotional states from the surface of the brain. The implications and limitations of such approaches for understanding human emotions are discussed. PMID:21596060

  5. On-line statistical segmentation of a non-speech auditory stream in neonates as demonstrated by event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Noriko; Nonaka, Yulri; Mizuno, Noriko; Mizuno, Katsumi; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2011-09-01

    The ability to statistically segment a continuous auditory stream is one of the most important preparations for initiating language learning. Such ability is available to human infants at 8 months of age, as shown by a behavioral measurement. However, behavioral study alone cannot determine how early this ability is available. A recent study using measurements of event-related potential (ERP) revealed that neonates are able to detect statistical boundaries within auditory streams of speech syllables. Extending this line of research will allow us to better understand the cognitive preparation for language acquisition that is available to neonates. The aim of the present study was to examine the domain-generality of such statistical segmentation. Neonates were presented with nonlinguistic tone sequences composed of four tritone units, each consisting of three semitones extracted from one octave, for two 5-minute sessions. Only the first tone of each unit evoked a significant positivity in the frontal area during the second session, but not in the first session. This result suggests that the general ability to distinguish units in an auditory stream by statistical information is activated at birth and is probably innately prepared in humans. PMID:21884325

  6. Speech motor learning changes the neural response to both auditory and somatosensory signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takayuki; Coppola, Joshua H.; Ostry, David J.

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, we present evidence for the idea that speech motor learning is accompanied by changes to the neural coding of both auditory and somatosensory stimuli. Participants in our experiments undergo adaptation to altered auditory feedback, an experimental model of speech motor learning which like visuo-motor adaptation in limb movement, requires that participants change their speech movements and associated somatosensory inputs to correct for systematic real-time changes to auditory feedback. We measure the sensory effects of adaptation by examining changes to auditory and somatosensory event-related responses. We find that adaptation results in progressive changes to speech acoustical outputs that serve to correct for the perturbation. We also observe changes in both auditory and somatosensory event-related responses that are correlated with the magnitude of adaptation. These results indicate that sensory change occurs in conjunction with the processes involved in speech motor adaptation. PMID:27181603

  7. Auditory brainstem response in dolphins.

    OpenAIRE

    Ridgway, S. H.; Bullock, T H; Carder, D.A.; Seeley, R L; Woods, D.; Galambos, R

    1981-01-01

    We recorded the auditory brainstem response (ABR) in four dolphins (Tursiops truncatus and Delphinus delphis). The ABR evoked by clicks consists of seven waves within 10 msec; two waves often contain dual peaks. The main waves can be identified with those of humans and laboratory mammals; in spite of a much longer path, the latencies of the peaks are almost identical to those of the rat. The dolphin ABR waves increase in latency as the intensity of a sound decreases by only 4 microseconds/dec...

  8. Implication of auditory event related potential in autism%听觉事件相关电位在孤独症儿童的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊明

    2010-01-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in socialization, communication, and adaptive functioning. To investigate its neurophysiology, lots of measures have been used. In the past twenty years, due to its evaluation function in the central auditory processing and recognition, auditory event related potential has been implemented in autism more and more generally.%孤独症是一种以社会交往、言语交流及行为障碍为主要特征的广泛性发育障碍,为探讨孤独症儿童的言语及认知能力缺陷的神经生理机制,学者们运用多种方法进行研究.近年来,由于听觉事件相关电位在中枢听觉处理及认知功能评估中的优势,其在孤独症研究中的应用越来越广泛.

  9. A solid frame for the window on cognition: Modeling event-related pupil responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Christoph W; Bach, Dominik R

    2016-01-01

    Pupil size is often used to infer central processes, including attention, memory, and emotion. Recent research has spotlighted its relation to behavioral variables from decision-making models and to neural variables such as locus coeruleus activity and cortical oscillations. As yet, a unified and principled approach for analyzing pupil responses is lacking. Here we seek to establish a formal, quantitative forward model for pupil responses by describing them with linear time-invariant systems. Based on empirical data from human participants, we show that a combination of two linear time-invariant systems can parsimoniously explain approximately all variance evoked by illuminance changes. Notably, the model makes a counterintuitive prediction that pupil constriction dominates the responses to darkness flashes, as in previous empirical reports. This prediction was quantitatively confirmed for responses to light and darkness flashes in an independent group of participants. Crucially, illuminance- and nonilluminance-related inputs to the pupillary system are presumed to share a common final pathway, composed of muscles and nerve terminals. Hence, we can harness our illuminance-based model to estimate the temporal evolution of this neural input for an auditory-oddball task, an emotional-words task, and a visual-detection task. Onset and peak latencies of the estimated neural inputs furnish plausible hypotheses for the complexity of the underlying neural circuit. To conclude, this mathematical description of pupil responses serves as a prerequisite to refining their relation to behavioral and brain indices of cognitive processes. PMID:26894512

  10. Event-related brain responses while listening to entire pieces of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poikonen, H; Alluri, V; Brattico, E; Lartillot, O; Tervaniemi, M; Huotilainen, M

    2016-01-15

    Brain responses to discrete short sounds have been studied intensively using the event-related potential (ERP) method, in which the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal is divided into epochs time-locked to stimuli of interest. Here we introduce and apply a novel technique which enables one to isolate ERPs in human elicited by continuous music. The ERPs were recorded during listening to a Tango Nuevo piece, a deep techno track and an acoustic lullaby. Acoustic features related to timbre, harmony, and dynamics of the audio signal were computationally extracted from the musical pieces. Negative deflation occurring around 100 milliseconds after the stimulus onset (N100) and positive deflation occurring around 200 milliseconds after the stimulus onset (P200) ERP responses to peak changes in the acoustic features were distinguishable and were often largest for Tango Nuevo. In addition to large changes in these musical features, long phases of low values that precede a rapid increase - and that we will call Preceding Low-Feature Phases - followed by a rapid increase enhanced the amplitudes of N100 and P200 responses. These ERP responses resembled those to simpler sounds, making it possible to utilize the tradition of ERP research with naturalistic paradigms. PMID:26550950

  11. Stop-signal response inhibition in schizophrenia: behavioural, event-related potential and functional neuroimaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Matthew Edward; Fulham, William Ross; Johnston, Patrick James; Michie, Patricia Therese

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitory control deficits are well documented in schizophrenia, supported by impairment in an established measure of response inhibition, the stop-signal reaction time (SSRT). We investigated the neural basis of this impairment by comparing schizophrenia patients and controls matched for age, sex and education on behavioural, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potential (ERP) indices of stop-signal task performance. Compared to controls, patients exhibited slower SSRT and reduced right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) activation, but rIFG activation correlated with SSRT in both groups. Go stimulus and stop-signal ERP components (N1/P3) were smaller in patients, but the peak latencies of stop-signal N1 and P3 were also delayed in patients, indicating impairment early in stop-signal processing. Additionally, response-locked lateralised readiness potentials indicated response preparation was prolonged in patients. An inability to engage rIFG may predicate slowed inhibition in patients, however multiple spatiotemporal irregularities in the networks underpinning stop-signal task performance may contribute to this deficit. PMID:22027085

  12. Auditory ERP response to successive stimuli in infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ao; Peter, Varghese; Burnham, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Background. Auditory Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) are useful for understanding early auditory development among infants, as it allows the collection of a relatively large amount of data in a short time. So far, studies that have investigated development in auditory ERPs in infancy have mainly used single sounds as stimuli. Yet in real life, infants must decode successive rather than single acoustic events. In the present study, we tested 4-, 8-, and 12-month-old infants’ auditory ERPs to m...

  13. Error processing and response inhibition in excessive computer game players: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littel, Marianne; van den Berg, Ivo; Luijten, Maartje; van Rooij, Antonius J; Keemink, Lianne; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2012-09-01

    Excessive computer gaming has recently been proposed as a possible pathological illness. However, research on this topic is still in its infancy and underlying neurobiological mechanisms have not yet been identified. The determination of underlying mechanisms of excessive gaming might be useful for the identification of those at risk, a better understanding of the behavior and the development of interventions. Excessive gaming has been often compared with pathological gambling and substance use disorder. Both disorders are characterized by high levels of impulsivity, which incorporates deficits in error processing and response inhibition. The present study aimed to investigate error processing and response inhibition in excessive gamers and controls using a Go/NoGo paradigm combined with event-related potential recordings. Results indicated that excessive gamers show reduced error-related negativity amplitudes in response to incorrect trials relative to correct trials, implying poor error processing in this population. Furthermore, excessive gamers display higher levels of self-reported impulsivity as well as more impulsive responding as reflected by less behavioral inhibition on the Go/NoGo task. The present study indicates that excessive gaming partly parallels impulse control and substance use disorders regarding impulsivity measured on the self-reported, behavioral and electrophysiological level. Although the present study does not allow drawing firm conclusions on causality, it might be that trait impulsivity, poor error processing and diminished behavioral response inhibition underlie the excessive gaming patterns observed in certain individuals. They might be less sensitive to negative consequences of gaming and therefore continue their behavior despite adverse consequences. PMID:22734609

  14. Prior probabilities modulate cortical surprise responses: A study of event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seer, Caroline; Lange, Florian; Boos, Moritz; Dengler, Reinhard; Kopp, Bruno

    2016-07-01

    The human brain predicts events in its environment based on expectations, and unexpected events are surprising. When probabilistic contingencies in the environment are precisely instructed, the individual can form expectations based on quantitative probabilistic information ('inference-based learning'). In contrast, when probabilistic contingencies are imprecisely instructed, expectations are formed based on the individual's cumulative experience ('experience-based learning'). Here, we used the urn-ball paradigm to investigate how variations in prior probabilities and in the precision of information about these priors modulate choice behavior and event-related potential (ERP) correlates of surprise. In the urn-ball paradigm, participants are repeatedly forced to infer hidden states responsible for generating observable events, given small samples of factual observations. We manipulated prior probabilities of the states, and we rendered the priors calculable or incalculable, respectively. The analysis of choice behavior revealed that the tendency to consider prior probabilities when making decisions about hidden states was stronger when prior probabilities were calculable, at least in some of our participants. Surprise-related P3b amplitudes were observed in both the calculable and the incalculable prior probability condition. In contrast, calculability of prior probabilities modulated anteriorly distributed ERP amplitudes: when prior probabilities were calculable, surprising events elicited enhanced P3a amplitudes. However, when prior probabilities were incalculable, surprise was associated with enhanced N2 amplitudes. Furthermore, interindividual variability in reliance on prior probabilities was associated with attenuated P3b surprise responses under calculable in comparison to incalculable prior probabilities. Our results suggest two distinct neural systems for probabilistic learning that are recruited depending on contextual cues such as the precision of

  15. Corticofugal modulation of peripheral auditory responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hinckley Delano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The auditory efferent system originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the medial geniculate body, inferior colliculus, cochlear nucleus and superior olivary complex reaching the cochlea through olivocochlear fibers. This unique neuronal network is organized in several afferent-efferent feedback loops including: the (i colliculo-thalamic-cortico-collicular, (ii cortico-(collicular-olivocochlear and (iii cortico-(collicular-cochlear nucleus pathways. Recent experiments demonstrate that blocking ongoing auditory-cortex activity with pharmacological and physical methods modulates the amplitude of cochlear potentials. In addition, auditory-cortex microstimulation independently modulates cochlear sensitivity and the strength of the olivocochlear reflex. In this mini-review, anatomical and physiological evidence supporting the presence of a functional efferent network from the auditory cortex to the cochlear receptor is presented. Special emphasis is given to the corticofugal effects on initial auditory processing, that is, on cochlear nucleus, auditory nerve and cochlear responses. A working model of three parallel pathways from the auditory cortex to the cochlea and auditory nerve is proposed.

  16. Corticofugal modulation of peripheral auditory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terreros, Gonzalo; Delano, Paul H

    2015-01-01

    The auditory efferent system originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the medial geniculate body (MGB), inferior colliculus (IC), cochlear nucleus (CN) and superior olivary complex (SOC) reaching the cochlea through olivocochlear (OC) fibers. This unique neuronal network is organized in several afferent-efferent feedback loops including: the (i) colliculo-thalamic-cortico-collicular; (ii) cortico-(collicular)-OC; and (iii) cortico-(collicular)-CN pathways. Recent experiments demonstrate that blocking ongoing auditory-cortex activity with pharmacological and physical methods modulates the amplitude of cochlear potentials. In addition, auditory-cortex microstimulation independently modulates cochlear sensitivity and the strength of the OC reflex. In this mini-review, anatomical and physiological evidence supporting the presence of a functional efferent network from the auditory cortex to the cochlear receptor is presented. Special emphasis is given to the corticofugal effects on initial auditory processing, that is, on CN, auditory nerve and cochlear responses. A working model of three parallel pathways from the auditory cortex to the cochlea and auditory nerve is proposed. PMID:26483647

  17. Cholinergic modulation of auditory P3 event-related potentials as indexed by CHRNA4 and CHRNA7 genotype variation in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Molly; Choueiry, Joëlle; Smith, Dylan; de la Salle, Sara; Nelson, Renee; Impey, Danielle; Baddeley, Ashley; Aidelbaum, Robert; Millar, Anne; Knott, Verner

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by cognitive dysfunction within the realm of attentional processing. Reduced P3a and P3b event-related potentials (ERPs), indexing involuntary and voluntary attentional processing respectively, have been consistently observed in SZ patients who also express prominent cholinergic deficiencies. The involvement of the brain's cholinergic system in attention has been examined for several decades; however, further inquiry is required to further comprehend how abnormalities in this system affect neighbouring neurotransmitter systems and contribute to neurocognitive deficits. The objective of this pilot study was to examine the moderating role of the CHRNA4 (rs1044396), CHRNA7 (rs3087454), and SLC5A7 (rs1013940) genes on ERP indices of attentional processing in healthy volunteers (N=99; Caucasians and non-Caucasians) stratified by genotype and assessed using the auditory P300 "oddball" paradigm. Results indicated significantly greater P3a and P3b-indexed attentional processing for CT (vs. CC) CHRNA4 carriers and greater P3b for AA (vs. CC) CHRNA7 carriers. SLC5A7 allelic variants did not show significant differences in P3a and P3b processing. These findings expand our knowledge on the moderating effect of cholinergic genes on attention and could help inform targeted drug developments aimed at restoring attention deficits in SZ patients. PMID:27109789

  18. Auditory brain-stem responses in syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenhall, U; Roupe, G

    1981-01-01

    Analysis of auditory brain-stem electrical responses (BSER) provides an effective means of detecting lesions in the auditory pathways. In the present study the wave patterns were analysed in 11 patients with secondary or latent syphilis with no clinical symptoms referrable to the central nervous system and in two patients with congenital syphilis and general paralysis. Decreased amplitudes and prolonged latencies occurred frequently in patients with secondary and with advanced syphilis. This ...

  19. Speech Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response in Stuttering

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    Ali Akbar Tahaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory processing deficits have been hypothesized as an underlying mechanism for stuttering. Previous studies have demonstrated abnormal responses in subjects with persistent developmental stuttering (PDS at the higher level of the central auditory system using speech stimuli. Recently, the potential usefulness of speech evoked auditory brainstem responses in central auditory processing disorders has been emphasized. The current study used the speech evoked ABR to investigate the hypothesis that subjects with PDS have specific auditory perceptual dysfunction. Objectives. To determine whether brainstem responses to speech stimuli differ between PDS subjects and normal fluent speakers. Methods. Twenty-five subjects with PDS participated in this study. The speech-ABRs were elicited by the 5-formant synthesized syllable/da/, with duration of 40 ms. Results. There were significant group differences for the onset and offset transient peaks. Subjects with PDS had longer latencies for the onset and offset peaks relative to the control group. Conclusions. Subjects with PDS showed a deficient neural timing in the early stages of the auditory pathway consistent with temporal processing deficits and their abnormal timing may underlie to their disfluency.

  20. Exclusion and micro-rejection: event-related potential response predicts mitigated distress

    OpenAIRE

    Crowley, Michael J.; Wu, Jia; McCarty, Erika R.; David, Daryn H.; Bailey, Christopher A.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2009-01-01

    We studied time-based neural activity with event-related potentials (ERPs) in young adults during a computer-simulated ball-toss game. Experiencing fair play initially, participants were ultimately excluded by other players. Dense-array ERPs showed time-dependent associations between slow-wave activity (580–900 ms) in left prefrontal/medial frontal cortical regions for exclusion events and self-reported distress. More subtle ‘micro-rejections’ during fair play showed a similar distress to ERP...

  1. Hemodynamic responses in human multisensory and auditory association cortex to purely visual stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Simon

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent findings of a tight coupling between visual and auditory association cortices during multisensory perception in monkeys and humans raise the question whether consistent paired presentation of simple visual and auditory stimuli prompts conditioned responses in unimodal auditory regions or multimodal association cortex once visual stimuli are presented in isolation in a post-conditioning run. To address this issue fifteen healthy participants partook in a "silent" sparse temporal event-related fMRI study. In the first (visual control habituation phase they were presented with briefly red flashing visual stimuli. In the second (auditory control habituation phase they heard brief telephone ringing. In the third (conditioning phase we coincidently presented the visual stimulus (CS paired with the auditory stimulus (UCS. In the fourth phase participants either viewed flashes paired with the auditory stimulus (maintenance, CS- or viewed the visual stimulus in isolation (extinction, CS+ according to a 5:10 partial reinforcement schedule. The participants had no other task than attending to the stimuli and indicating the end of each trial by pressing a button. Results During unpaired visual presentations (preceding and following the paired presentation we observed significant brain responses beyond primary visual cortex in the bilateral posterior auditory association cortex (planum temporale, planum parietale and in the right superior temporal sulcus whereas the primary auditory regions were not involved. By contrast, the activity in auditory core regions was markedly larger when participants were presented with auditory stimuli. Conclusion These results demonstrate involvement of multisensory and auditory association areas in perception of unimodal visual stimulation which may reflect the instantaneous forming of multisensory associations and cannot be attributed to sensation of an auditory event. More importantly, we are able

  2. The role of auditory transient and deviance processing in distraction of task performance: a combined behavioral and event-related brain potential study

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Berti

    2013-01-01

    Distraction of goal-oriented performance by a sudden change in the auditory environment is an everyday life experience. Different types of changes can be distracting, including a sudden onset of a transient sound and a slight deviation of otherwise regular auditory background stimulation. With regard to deviance detection, it is assumed that slight changes in a continuous sequence of auditory stimuli are detected by a predictive coding mechanisms and it has been demonstrated that this mechani...

  3. Effects of aging and involuntary capture of attention on event-related potentials associated with the processing of and the response to a target stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid-Fernández, Susana; Lindín, Mónica; Díaz, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to assess whether aging modulates the effects of involuntary capture of attention by novel stimuli on performance, and on event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with target processing (N2b and P3b) and subsequent response processes (stimulus-locked Lateralized Readiness Potential -sLRP- and response-locked Lateralized Readiness Potential -rLRP-). An auditory-visual distraction-attention task was performed by 77 healthy participants, divided into three age groups (Young: 21-29, Middle-aged: 51-64, Old: 65-84 years old). Participants were asked to attend to visual stimuli and to ignore auditory stimuli. Aging was associated with slowed reaction times, target stimulus processing in working memory (WM, longer N2b and P3b latencies) and selection and preparation of the motor response (longer sLRP and earlier rLRP onset latencies). In the novel relative to the standard condition we observed, in the three age groups: (1) a distraction effect, reflected in a slowing of reaction times, of stimuli categorization in WM (longer P3b latency), and of motor response selection (longer sLRP onset latency); (2) a facilitation effect on response preparation (later rLRP onset latency), and (3) an increase in arousal (larger amplitudes of all ERPs evaluated, except for N2b amplitude in the Old group). A distraction effect on the stimulus evaluation processes (longer N2b latency) were also observed, but only in middle-aged and old participants, indicating that the attentional capture slows the stimulus evaluation in WM from early ages (from 50 years onwards, without differences between middle-age and older adults), but not in young adults. PMID:25294999

  4. Effects of aging and involuntary capture of attention on event-related potentials associated with the processing of and the response to a target stimulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Cid Fernández

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present study was to assess whether aging modulates the effects of involuntary capture of attention by novel stimuli on performance, and on event-related potentials (ERPs associated with target processing (N2b and P3b and subsequent response processes (stimulus-locked Lateralized Readiness Potential -sLRP- and response-locked Lateralized Readiness Potential -rLRP-. An auditory-visual distraction-attention task was performed by 77 healthy participants, divided in three age groups (Young: 21-29, Middle-aged: 51-64, Old: 65-84 y. o.. Participants were asked to attend to visual stimuli and to ignore auditory stimuli. Aging was associated with slowed reaction times, target stimulus processing in working memory (WM, longer N2b and P3b latencies and selection and preparation of the motor response (longer sLRP and earlier rLRP onset latencies. In the novel respect to the standard condition we observed, in the three age groups: (1 a distraction effect, reflected in a slowing of reaction times, of stimuli categorization in WM (longer P3b latency, and of motor response selection (longer sLRP onset latency; (2 a facilitation effect on response preparation (later rLRP onset latency, and (3 an increase in arousal (larger amplitudes of all ERPs evaluated, except for N2b amplitude in the Old group. A distraction effect on the stimulus evaluation processes (longer N2b component were also observed, but only in middle-aged and old participants, indicating that the attentional capture slows the stimulus evaluation in WM from early ages (from 50 years onwards, without differences between middle-age and older adults, but not in young adults.

  5. Effects of Caffeine on Auditory Brainstem Response

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    Saleheh Soleimanian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Blocking of the adenosine receptor in central nervous system by caffeine can lead to increasing the level of neurotransmitters like glutamate. As the adenosine receptors are present in almost all brain areas like central auditory pathway, it seems caffeine can change conduction in this way. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on latency and amplitude of auditory brainstem response(ABR.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study 43 normal 18-25 years old male students were participated. The subjects consumed 0, 2 and 3 mg/kg BW caffeine in three different sessions. Auditory brainstem responses were recorded before and 30 minute after caffeine consumption. The results were analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxone test to assess the effects of caffeine on auditory brainstem response.Results: Compared to control group the latencies of waves III,V and I-V interpeak interval of the cases decreased significantly after 2 and 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption. Wave I latency significantly decreased after 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption(p<0.01. Conclusion: Increasing of the glutamate level resulted from the adenosine receptor blocking brings about changes in conduction in the central auditory pathway.

  6. Prenatal Tobacco Exposure and Response Inhibition in School-Aged Children: An Event-Related Potential Study

    OpenAIRE

    Boucher, Olivier; Jacobson, Joseph L; Burden, Matthew J.; Dewailly, Éric; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Muckle, Gina

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) has been linked to problems in behavioral inhibition and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children in several epidemiological studies. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of PCSE on neural correlates of inhibitory control of behavior. In a prospective longitudinal study on child development in the Canadian Arctic, we assessed 186 Inuit children (mean age = 11.3 years) on a visual Go/No-go response inhibition paradi...

  7. Cooperative dynamics in auditory brain response

    CERN Document Server

    Kwapien, J; Liu, L C; Ioannides, A A

    1998-01-01

    Simultaneous estimates of the activity in the left and right auditory cortex of five normal human subjects were extracted from Multichannel Magnetoencephalography recordings. Left, right and binaural stimulation were used, in separate runs, for each subject. The resulting time-series of left and right auditory cortex activity were analysed using the concept of mutual information. The analysis constitutes an objective method to address the nature of inter-hemispheric correlations in response to auditory stimulations. The results provide a clear evidence for the occurrence of such correlations mediated by a direct information transport, with clear laterality effects: as a rule, the contralateral hemisphere leads by 10-20ms, as can be seen in the average signal. The strength of the inter-hemispheric coupling, which cannot be extracted from the average data, is found to be highly variable from subject to subject, but remarkably stable for each subject.

  8. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN AUDITORY PROCESSING IN SPECIFIC LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT: A FOLLOW-UP STUDY USING EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS AND BEHAVIOURAL THRESHOLDS

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; McArthur, Genevieve M.

    2005-01-01

    It has frequently been claimed that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have impaired auditory perception, but there is much controversy about the role of such deficits in causing their language problems, and it has been difficult to establish solid, replicable findings in this area. Discrepancies in this field may arise because (a) a focus on mean results obscures the heterogeneity in the population and (b) insufficient attention has been paid to maturational aspects of auditory...

  9. Adult age differences in visual search from perception to response: Evidence from event-related potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris

    at multiple stages from perception to response. Furthermore, we explored the implicit influence of recently encountered information in terms of intertrial effects. ERPs could disentangle that, while automatic processes of perceptual-dimension priming and response priming across trials were preserved......, older adults were particularly prone to changes in the stimulus-response-mapping of the preceding trial, probably due to less flexible adaptation driven by executively controlled processes in older age....

  10. Auditory Brainstem Response Improvements in Hyperbillirubinemic Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Farzaneh Zamiri; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Lotfi, Yones

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Hyperbillirubinemia in infants have been associated with neuronal damage including in the auditory system. Some researchers have suggested that the bilirubin-induced auditory neuronal damages may be temporary and reversible. This study was aimed at investigating the auditory neuropathy and reversibility of auditory abnormalities in hyperbillirubinemic infants. Subjects and Methods The study participants included 41 full term hyperbilirubinemic infants (mean age 39.24 days) with normal birth weight (3,200-3,700 grams) that admitted in hospital for hyperbillirubinemia and 39 normal infants (mean age 35.54 days) without any hyperbillirubinemia or other hearing loss risk factors for ruling out maturational changes. All infants in hyperbilirubinemic group had serum bilirubin level more than 20 milligram per deciliter and undergone one blood exchange transfusion. Hearing evaluation for each infant was conducted twice: the first one after hyperbilirubinemia treatment and before leaving hospital and the second one three months after the first hearing evaluation. Hearing evaluations included transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) screening and auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold tracing. Results The TEOAE and ABR results of control group and TEOAE results of the hyperbilirubinemic group did not change significantly from the first to the second evaluation. However, the ABR results of the hyperbilirubinemic group improved significantly from the first to the second assessment (p=0.025). Conclusions The results suggest that the bilirubin induced auditory neuronal damage can be reversible over time so we suggest that infants with hyperbilirubinemia who fail the first hearing tests should be reevaluated after 3 months of treatment. PMID:27144228

  11. Reduced object related negativity response indicates impaired auditory scene analysis in adults with autistic spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veema Lodhia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Auditory Scene Analysis provides a useful framework for understanding atypical auditory perception in autism. Specifically, a failure to segregate the incoming acoustic energy into distinct auditory objects might explain the aversive reaction autistic individuals have to certain auditory stimuli or environments. Previous research with non-autistic participants has demonstrated the presence of an Object Related Negativity (ORN in the auditory event related potential that indexes pre-attentive processes associated with auditory scene analysis. Also evident is a later P400 component that is attention dependent and thought to be related to decision-making about auditory objects. We sought to determine whether there are differences between individuals with and without autism in the levels of processing indexed by these components. Electroencephalography (EEG was used to measure brain responses from a group of 16 autistic adults, and 16 age- and verbal-IQ-matched typically-developing adults. Auditory responses were elicited using lateralized dichotic pitch stimuli in which inter-aural timing differences create the illusory perception of a pitch that is spatially separated from a carrier noise stimulus. As in previous studies, control participants produced an ORN in response to the pitch stimuli. However, this component was significantly reduced in the participants with autism. In contrast, processing differences were not observed between the groups at the attention-dependent level (P400. These findings suggest that autistic individuals have difficulty segregating auditory stimuli into distinct auditory objects, and that this difficulty arises at an early pre-attentive level of processing.

  12. Single-subject prediction of response inhibition behavior by event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Popescu, Florin; Neuhaus, Andres H; Beste, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Much research has been devoted to investigating response inhibition and the neuronal processes constituting this essential cognitive faculty. However, the nexus between cognitive subprocesses, behavior, and electrophysiological processes remains associative in nature. We therefore investigated whether neurophysiological correlates of inhibition subprocesses merely correlate with behavioral performance or actually provide information expedient to the prediction of behavior on a single-subject level. Tackling this question, we used different data-driven classification approaches in a sample of n = 262 healthy young subjects who completed a standard Go/Nogo task while an EEG was recorded. On the basis of median-split response inhibition performance, subjects were classified as "accurate/slow" and "less accurate/fast." Even though these behavioral group differences were associated with significant amplitude variations in classical electrophysiological correlates of response inhibition (i.e., N2 and P3), they were not predictive for group membership on a single-subject level. Instead, amplitude differences in the Go-P2 originating in the precuneus (BA7) were shown to predict group membership on a single-subject level with up to 64% accuracy. These findings strongly suggest that the behavioral outcome of response inhibition greatly depends on the amount of cognitive resources allocated to early stages of stimulus-response activation during responding. This suggests that research should focus more on early processing steps during responding when trying to understand the origin of interindividual differences in response inhibition processes. PMID:26683075

  13. Auditory ERP response to successive stimuli in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ao; Peter, Varghese; Burnham, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Background. Auditory Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) are useful for understanding early auditory development among infants, as it allows the collection of a relatively large amount of data in a short time. So far, studies that have investigated development in auditory ERPs in infancy have mainly used single sounds as stimuli. Yet in real life, infants must decode successive rather than single acoustic events. In the present study, we tested 4-, 8-, and 12-month-old infants' auditory ERPs to musical melodies comprising three piano notes, and examined ERPs to each individual note in the melody. Methods. Infants were presented with 360 repetitions of a three-note melody while EEG was recorded from 128 channels on the scalp through a Geodesic Sensor Net. For each infant, both latency and amplitude of auditory components P1 and N2 were measured from averaged ERPs for each individual note. Results. Analysis was restricted to response collected at frontal central site. For all three notes, there was an overall reduction in latency for both P1 and N2 over age. For P1, latency reduction was significant from 4 to 8 months, but not from 8 to 12 months. N2 latency, on the other hand, decreased significantly from 4 to 8 to 12 months. With regard to amplitude, no significant change was found for either P1 or N2. Nevertheless, the waveforms of the three age groups were qualitatively different: for the 4-month-olds, the P1-N2 deflection was attenuated for the second and the third notes; for the 8-month-olds, such attenuation was observed only for the middle note; for the 12-month-olds, the P1 and N2 peaks show relatively equivalent amplitude and peak width across all three notes. Conclusion. Our findings indicate that the infant brain is able to register successive acoustic events in a stream, and ERPs become better time-locked to each composite event over age. Younger infants may have difficulties in responding to late occurring events in a stream, and the onset response to the

  14. Event-related brain responses while listening to entire pieces of music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poikonen, Hanna; Alluri, Vinoo; Brattico, Elvira;

    2016-01-01

    ERPs in human elicited by continuous music. The ERPs were recorded during listening to a Tango Nuevo piece, a deep techno track and an acoustic lullaby. Acoustic features related to timbre, harmony, and dynamics of the audio signal were computationally extracted from the musical pieces. Negative...... changes in these musical features, long phases of low values that precede a rapid increase – and that we will call Preceding Low-Feature Phases – followed by a rapid increase enhanced the amplitudes of N100 and P200 responses. These ERP responses resembled those to simpler sounds, making it possible to...

  15. Response preparation and cognitive control of highly intelligent children: a Go-Nogo event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T; Xiao, T; Shi, J; Zhao, D

    2011-04-28

    A cued Go-Nogo task was employed to explore the neural correlation among response preparation, cognitive control and intelligence in two groups of early adolescents with different intellectual levels using event-related potential (ERP) technique. Behavioral results indicated that the gifted children had better cognitive control performances with higher correct hit rate and lower commission error rate than the average children. Electrophysiological results further showed that the gifted children elicited efficient cue-P2 response for automatic cue detection and stronger cue-P3 activation for cue evaluation. Moreover, gifted children induced faster N2 and Nogo-P3 responses for conflict monitoring and inhibition processing and stronger P3 activation for attentional control. The current results supported the neural efficiency hypothesis of intelligence and further shed light on the close relationship among response preparation, cognitive control and human intelligence. PMID:21329744

  16. Children with chronic lung diseases have cognitive dysfunction as assessed by event-related potential (auditory P300) and Stanford-Binet IQ (SB-IV) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Terez Boshra; Abd Elmonaem, Mahmoud Tarek; Khalil, Lobna Hamed; Goda, Mona Hamdy; Sanyelbhaa, Hossam; Ramzy, Mourad Alfy

    2016-10-01

    Chronic lung disease (CLD) in children represents a heterogeneous group of many clinico-pathological entities with risk of adverse impact of chronic or intermittent hypoxia. So far, few researchers have investigated the cognitive function in these children, and the role of auditory P300 in the assessment of their cognitive function has not been investigated yet. This study was designed to assess the cognitive functions among schoolchildren with different chronic pulmonary diseases using both auditory P300 and Stanford-Binet test. This cross-sectional study included 40 school-aged children who were suffering from chronic chest troubles other than asthma and 30 healthy children of similar age, gender and socioeconomic state as a control group. All subjects were evaluated through clinical examination, radiological evaluation and spirometry. Audiological evaluation included (basic otological examination, pure-tone, speech audiometry and immittancemetry). Cognitive function was assessed by auditory P300 and psychological evaluation using Stanford-Binet test (4th edition). Children with chronic lung diseases had significantly lower anthropometric measures compared to healthy controls. They had statistically significant lower IQ scores and delayed P300 latencies denoting lower cognitive abilities. Cognitive dysfunction correlated to severity of disease. P300 latencies were prolonged among hypoxic patients. Cognitive deficits in children with different chronic lung diseases were best detected using both Stanford-Binet test and auditory P300. P300 is an easy objective tool. P300 is affected early with hypoxia and could alarm subtle cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27075686

  17. Cortical response variation with different sound pressure levels: a combined event-related potentials and FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Neuner

    Full Text Available Simultaneous recording of electroencephalography (EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI provides high spatial and temporal resolution. In this study we combined EEG and fMRI to investigate the structures involved in the processing of different sound pressure levels (SPLs.EEG data were recorded simultaneously with fMRI from 16 healthy volunteers using MR compatible devices at 3 T. Tones with different SPLs were delivered to the volunteers and the N1/P2 amplitudes were included as covariates in the fMRI data analysis in order to compare the structures activated with high and low SPLs. Analysis of variance (ANOVA and ROI analysis were also performed. Additionally, source localisation analysis was performed on the EEG data.The integration of averaged ERP parameters into the fMRI analysis showed an extended map of areas exhibiting covariation with the BOLD signal related to the auditory stimuli. The ANOVA and ROI analyses also revealed additional brain areas other than the primary auditory cortex (PAC which were active with the auditory stimulation at different SPLs. The source localisation analyses showed additional sources apart from the PAC which were active with the high SPLs.The PAC and the insula play an important role in the processing of different SPLs. In the fMRI analysis, additional activation was found in the anterior cingulate cortex, opercular and orbito-frontal cortices with high SPLs. A strong response of the visual cortex was also found with the high SPLs, suggesting the presence of cross-modal effects.

  18. 脑外伤患者P300与认知功能的相关性研究%Cognition is correlated with auditory event-related potential P300 after traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟明华; 李培媛; 朱其秀; 刘云霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate any correlation between cognition and auditory event-related potential (ERP) after traumatic brain injury (TBI),and to explore the diagnostic value of the P300 ERP for TBI patients.Methods Thirty TBI patients and 28 healthy subjects were recruited.Their P300 auditory event-related potentials were measured and the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) was administered.Results The TBI patients' total MoCA scores and their scores on most of the sub-item components were significantly lower than those of the control subjects,though their naming and speech showed no significant difference.The TBI patients had abnormal P300 responses.Their N1,P2,N2 and P3 latencies were significantly longer and their P2 and P3 amplitudes were significantly lower than those of the control group.Stepwise regression and multivariate analysis showed that the P300 latency was significantly associated with delayed memory,impaired visual spatial executive functioning and total MoCA score.Conclusion P300 can be used as a quantitative electrophysiological index for detecting cognitive impairment in patients with TBI.%目的 研究脑外伤患者事件相关电位(ERP) P300与认知功能的相关性,探讨其在检测脑外伤患者认知功能障碍方面的应用价值.方法 采用随机对照方法,分别对入选的30例脑外伤患者(病例组)和28例健康志愿者(对照组)进行P300检测和蒙特利尔认知评估量表(MoCA)评定,分析其相关性.结果 与对照组比较,病例组视空间与执行能力[(2.70±0.75)分]、注意[(2.23±0.68)分]、抽象[(0.87±0.63)分]、延迟记忆[(2.13±0.82)分]、定向力[(2.63±0.93)分]等子项目得分及MoCA总分[(16.03±3.00)分]较低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);病例组N1、P2、N2、P3潜伏期较对照组延长(P<0.05),P2、P3波幅较对照组低(P<0.05).通过逐步回归多元分析,发现P300潜伏期与延迟记忆、视空间与执行功能呈负相关(r=-0.673,r=-0.702,P<0.05),

  19. The effects of methadone maintenance treatment on heroin addicts with response inhibition function impairments: Evidence from event-related potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Response inhibition has been a core issue in addictive behavior. Many previous studies have found that response inhibition abilities are damaged in those with drug dependence. However, whether heroin addicts who are treated with methadone maintenance have an abnormal response inhibition ability is not clear. In order to investigate the response inhibition functions in heroin addicts who were treated with methadone maintenance, electroencephalography (EEG was used to examine 14 heroin addicts treated with methadone maintenance (HDM, 17 heroin addicts (HD, and 18 healthy controls (HC in an equiprobability Go∖NoGo task. The reaction times (RTs for the Go stimuli in the HD group were slower than those in the HDM and HC groups. Event-related potential (ERP measurements showed that NoGo stimuli elicited larger N2 amplitudes than Go stimuli in the HDM and HC groups. However, for the HD group, the N2 amplitudes were similar for the two conditions. In addition, the HDM and HD groups were associated with longer P3 latencies. Our results demonstrated that methadone maintenance treatment might ease the deficits in response inhibition that result from long-term drug abuse. However, compared to normal people, HDM patients have serious problems evaluating and inhibiting inappropriate behaviors.

  20. Effect anticipation affects perceptual, cognitive, and motor phases of response preparation: evidence from an event-related potential (ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Richard Harrison

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticipation of action effects is a basic process that can be observed even for key-pressing responses in a stimulus-response paradigm. In Ziessler, Nattkemper and Vogt’s (2012 experiments participants first learned arbitrary effects of key-pressing responses. In the test phase an imperative stimulus determined the response, but participants withheld the response until a Go-stimulus appeared. Reaction times were shorter if the Go-stimulus was compatible with the learned response effect. This is strong evidence that effect representations were activated during response planning. Here we repeated the experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs, and we found that Go-stimulus locked ERPs depended on the compatibility relationship between the Go-stimulus and the response effect. In general, this supports the interpretation of the behavioural data. More specifically, differences in the ERPs between compatible and incompatible Go-stimuli were found for the early perceptual P1 component and the later frontal P2 component. P1 differences were found only in the second half of the experiment and for long SOAs between imperative stimulus and Go-stimulus, i.e. when the effect was fully anticipated and the perceptual system was prepared for the effect-compatible Go-stimulus. P2 amplitudes, likely associated with evaluation and conflict detection, were larger when Go-stimulus and effect were incompatible; presumably, incompatibility increased the difficulty of effect anticipation. Onset of response-locked LRPs occurred earlier under incompatible conditions indicating extended motor processing. Together, these results strongly suggest that effect anticipation affects all (i.e. perceptual, cognitive, and motor phases of response preparation.

  1. Effect Anticipation Affects Perceptual, Cognitive, and Motor Phases of Response Preparation: Evidence from an Event-Related Potential (ERP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil R; Ziessler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The anticipation of action effects is a basic process that can be observed even for key-pressing responses in a stimulus-response paradigm. In Ziessler et al.'s (2012) experiments participants first learned arbitrary effects of key-pressing responses. In the test phase an imperative stimulus determined the response, but participants withheld the response until a Go-stimulus appeared. Reaction times (RTs) were shorter if the Go-stimulus was compatible with the learned response effect. This is strong evidence that effect representations were activated during response planning. Here, we repeated the experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs), and we found that Go-stimulus locked ERPs depended on the compatibility relationship between the Go-stimulus and the response effect. In general, this supports the interpretation of the behavioral data. More specifically, differences in the ERPs between compatible and incompatible Go-stimuli were found for the early perceptual P1 component and the later frontal P2 component. P1 differences were found only in the second half of the experiment and for long stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between imperative stimulus and Go-stimulus, i.e., when the effect was fully anticipated and the perceptual system was prepared for the effect-compatible Go-stimulus. P2 amplitudes, likely associated with evaluation and conflict detection, were larger when Go-stimulus and effect were incompatible; presumably, incompatibility increased the difficulty of effect anticipation. Onset of response-locked lateralized readiness potentials (R-LRPs) occurred earlier under incompatible conditions indicating extended motor processing. Together, these results strongly suggest that effect anticipation affects all (i.e., perceptual, cognitive, and motor) phases of response preparation. PMID:26858621

  2. 新一代事件相关电位认知功能评定和监测系统的实验方法建立--脑干听觉反应的临床应用%Establishment and application of experimental method of a new generation of event related potential cognitive function assessment and monitoring system---clinical application of auditory brainstem response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任清涛; 刘情情; 张勤峰; 宗文斌; 陈兴时; 张群峰; 茅顺明; 杨武庆; 刘群

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics of auditory brainstem response ( ABR) in patients with depression disorder and schizophrenia . Methods The ABR measurement were carried out in 43 patients with depressive disorders ( the depression group ) , 43 patients with schizophrenias ( the schizophrenia group ) , and 50 normal controls ( the control group ) by using the NTS-2000 type ERP instrument . Results The differences between three groups in the absolute latency wave V ( Pz brain area ) , the absolute amplitude wave Ⅲ ( Pz brain area ) and wave V ( Pz brain area ) were significant ( all P<0.01 ) .Compared with that in the control group and the depression group , the schizophrenia group had significantly delayed the absolute latency wave V ( Pz brain area ) ( all P<0.01 ) as well as significantly decreased absolute wave amplitude Ⅲ( Pz brain area ) and absolute wave Ⅴ( Pz brain area ) . Conclusion ABR is of value for clinical differentiate the depression disorder and schizophrenia .%目的:探讨抑郁症患者和精神分裂症患者的脑干听觉反应( ABR)的特点。方法应用NTS-2000型ERP仪及Click短声刺激,测查43例抑郁症(抑郁症组)、43例精神分裂症(精神分裂症组)和50名健康成人对照(对照组)的ABR。结果抑郁症组、精神分裂症组及对照组在绝对潜伏期波Ⅴ( Pz脑区)、绝对波幅波Ⅲ( Pz脑区)、波Ⅴ( Pz脑区)上的差异有显著统计学意义(P均<0.01)。与对照组和抑郁症组相比,精神分裂症组的绝对潜伏期波Ⅴ(Pz脑区)显著延迟(P均<0.01),绝对波幅波Ⅲ( Pz脑区)和绝对波幅波Ⅴ( Pz脑区)亦显著降低。结论 ABR对临床鉴别抑郁症和精神分裂症有参考价值。

  3. Neurophysiological correlates of response inhibition predict relapse in detoxified alcoholic patients: some preliminary evidence from event-related potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petit G

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Géraldine Petit, Agnieszka Cimochowska, Charles Kornreich, Catherine Hanak, Paul Verbanck, Salvatore CampanellaLaboratory of Psychological Medicine and Addictology, ULB Neuroscience Institute (UNI, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB, Brussels, BelgiumBackground: Alcohol dependence is a chronic relapsing disease. The impairment of response inhibition and alcohol-cue reactivity are the main cognitive mechanisms that trigger relapse. Despite the interaction suggested between the two processes, they have long been investigated as two different lines of research. The present study aimed to investigate the interaction between response inhibition and alcohol-cue reactivity and their potential link with relapse.Materials and methods: Event-related potentials were recorded during a variant of a “go/no-go” task. Frequent and rare stimuli (to be inhibited were superimposed on neutral, nonalcohol-related, and alcohol-related contexts. The task was administered following a 3-week detoxification course. Relapse outcome was measured after 3 months, using self-reported abstinence. There were 27 controls (seven females and 27 patients (seven females, among whom 13 relapsed during the 3-month follow-up period. The no-go N2, no-go P3, and the “difference” wave (P3d were examined with the aim of linking neural correlates of response inhibition on alcohol-related contexts to the observed relapse rate.Results: Results showed that 1 at the behavioral level, alcohol-dependent patients made significantly more commission errors than controls (P<0.001, independently of context; 2 through the subtraction no-go P3 minus go P3, this inhibition deficit was neurophysiologically indexed in patients with greater P3d amplitudes (P=0.034; and 3 within the patient group, increased P3d amplitude enabled us to differentiate between future relapsers and nonrelapsers (P=0.026.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that recently detoxified alcoholics are characterized by poorer

  4. Auditory cortical and hippocampal-system mismatch responses to duration deviants in urethane-anesthetized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Ruusuvirta

    Full Text Available Any change in the invariant aspects of the auditory environment is of potential importance. The human brain preattentively or automatically detects such changes. The mismatch negativity (MMN of event-related potentials (ERPs reflects this initial stage of auditory change detection. The origin of MMN is held to be cortical. The hippocampus is associated with a later generated P3a of ERPs reflecting involuntarily attention switches towards auditory changes that are high in magnitude. The evidence for this cortico-hippocampal dichotomy is scarce, however. To shed further light on this issue, auditory cortical and hippocampal-system (CA1, dentate gyrus, subiculum local-field potentials were recorded in urethane-anesthetized rats. A rare tone in duration (deviant was interspersed with a repeated tone (standard. Two standard-to-standard (SSI and standard-to-deviant (SDI intervals (200 ms vs. 500 ms were applied in different combinations to vary the observability of responses resembling MMN (mismatch responses. Mismatch responses were observed at 51.5-89 ms with the 500-ms SSI coupled with the 200-ms SDI but not with the three remaining combinations. Most importantly, the responses appeared in both the auditory-cortical and hippocampal locations. The findings suggest that the hippocampus may play a role in (cortical manifestation of MMN.

  5. Lower-frequency event-related desynchronization: a signature of late mismatch responses to sounds, which is reduced or absent in children with specific language impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, D V M; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.

    2010-01-01

    Poor discrimination of non-linguistic sounds has been implicated in language-learning problems in children, but research evidence has been inconsistent. This study included 32 participants with specific language impairment (SLI) and 32 typically-developing controls aged 7 to 16 years. Frequency discrimination thresholds were estimated in a task where participants had to distinguish a higher-frequency tone from a 1000 Hz tone. Neurophysiological responses were assessed in an oddball paradigm. Stimuli were either (a) 1030- or 1200-Hz pure tones (deviants) presented in a series of standard 1000-Hz tones, or (b) syllables: deviant [da] or [bi] in a series of standard [ba]. On the behavioural task, children (7 to 11-year-olds) had high thresholds, regardless of language status, but teenagers (12-16 yr) with SLI had higher thresholds than their controls. Conventional analysis of electrophysiological responses showed no difference between groups for the mismatch negativity (MMN), but the late discriminative negativity (LDN) was reduced in amplitude for smaller deviants in participants with SLI. Time-frequency analysis revealed that whereas the MMN reflected enhanced inter-trial coherence in the theta frequency band, the LDN corresponded to a period of event-related desynchronization extending across a wide low-frequency band including delta, theta and alpha. This manifested as a drop in power in those frequencies, which was marked in the controls but reduced or absent in children with SLI across all stimulus types. This provides compelling evidence for a low-level auditory perceptual impairment in SLI that affects a processing stage after initial detection of a sound change. PMID:21084613

  6. Recovery Sleep Reverses Impaired Response Inhibition due to Sleep Restriction: Evidence from a Visual Event Related Potentials Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Jin

    Full Text Available To investigate response inhibition after total sleep deprivation (TSD and the restorative effects of one night of recovery sleep (RS.Fourteen healthy male participants performed a visual Go/NoGo task, and electroencephalogram recordings were conducted at five time points: (1 baseline, (2 after 12 h of TSD, (3 after 24 h of TSD, (4 after 36 h of TSD, and (5 following 8 h of RS. The dynamic changes in response inhibition during TSD and after 8 h of RS were investigated by examining the NoGo-N2 and NoGo-P3 event-related potential components.Compared with baseline, NoGo-P3 amplitudes were decreased, while the NoGo-N2 latency increased along with the awake time prolonged. NoGo anteriorization, which was minimized after 24 h of TSD, progressively decreased with increasing TSD. After 8 h of RS, recoveries of both the NoGo-P3 amplitude and NoGo-N2 latency in the prefrontal cortex were observed compared with the values after 36 h of TSD.TSD induced a dose-dependent functional decline in the response inhibition of NoGo-N2 and NoGo-P3 on prefrontal cortex activation, and 8 h of RS resulted in recovery or maintenance of the response inhibition. However, it was not restored to baseline levels.Participants were chosen male college students only, thus the findings cannot be generalized to older people and women. Additionally, the sample size was small, and, thus, speculations on the meaning of the results of this study should be cautious. The EEG continuous recording should be employed to monitor the decline of alertness following TSD.

  7. Event-Related Potential Responses to Beloved and Familiar Faces in Different Marriage Styles: Evidence from Mosuo Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Luo, Li; Dai, Junqiang; Yang, Suyong; Wang, Naiyi; Luo, Yue-jia

    2016-01-01

    Research on familiar face recognition has largely focused on the neural correlates of recognizing a beloved partner or family member. However, no research has explored the effect of marriage style on the recognition of a beloved partner’s face, especially in matriarchal societies. Here, we examined the time course of event-related potentials (ERP) in response to the face of a beloved partner, sibling, or unknown person in a sample of individuals from the matriarchal Mosuo tribe. Two groups were assessed: intermarriage and walking marriage groups (i.e., couples in a committed relationship who do not cohabitate during the daytime). In agreement with previous reports, ERP results revealed more positive VPP, N250, and P300 waveforms for beloved faces than sibling faces in both groups. Moreover, P300 was more positive for beloved partner versus sibling faces; however, this difference emerged at fronto-central sites for the walking marriage group and at posterior sites for the intermarriage group. Overall, we observed that marriage style affects the later stage processing of a beloved partner’s face, and this may be associated with greater affective arousal and familiarity. PMID:26925002

  8. Event-Related Potential Responses to Beloved and Familiar Faces in Different Marriage Styles: Evidence from Mosuo Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Luo, Li; Dai, Junqiang; Yang, Suyong; Wang, Naiyi; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2016-01-01

    Research on familiar face recognition has largely focused on the neural correlates of recognizing a beloved partner or family member. However, no research has explored the effect of marriage style on the recognition of a beloved partner's face, especially in matriarchal societies. Here, we examined the time course of event-related potentials (ERP) in response to the face of a beloved partner, sibling, or unknown person in a sample of individuals from the matriarchal Mosuo tribe. Two groups were assessed: intermarriage and walking marriage groups (i.e., couples in a committed relationship who do not cohabitate during the daytime). In agreement with previous reports, ERP results revealed more positive VPP, N250, and P300 waveforms for beloved faces than sibling faces in both groups. Moreover, P300 was more positive for beloved partner versus sibling faces; however, this difference emerged at fronto-central sites for the walking marriage group and at posterior sites for the intermarriage group. Overall, we observed that marriage style affects the later stage processing of a beloved partner's face, and this may be associated with greater affective arousal and familiarity. PMID:26925002

  9. The Impact of Maternal Smoking on Fast Auditory Brainstem Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Kable, Julie A.; Coles, Claire D.; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Carroll, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Deficits in auditory processing have been posited as one of the underlying neurodevelopmental consequences of maternal smoking during pregnancy that leads to later language and reading deficits. Fast auditory brainstem responses were used to assess differences in the sensory processing of auditory stimuli among infants with varying degrees of prenatal cigarette exposure. Maternal report of consumption of cigarettes and blood samples were collected in the hospital to assess exposure levels and...

  10. Modeling auditory evoked brainstem responses to transient stimuli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, Filip Munch; Dau, Torsten; Harte, James;

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative model is presented that describes the formation of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) to tone pulses, clicks and rising chirps as a function of stimulation level. The model computes the convolution of the instantaneous discharge rates using the “humanized” nonlinear auditory-nerve ...

  11. 40 Hz auditory steady state response to linguistic features of stimuli during auditory hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jun; Yan, Zheng; Gao, Xiao-rong

    2013-10-01

    The auditory steady state response (ASSR) may reflect activity from different regions of the brain, depending on the modulation frequency used. In general, responses induced by low rates (≤40 Hz) emanate mostly from central structures of the brain, and responses from high rates (≥80 Hz) emanate mostly from the peripheral auditory nerve or brainstem structures. Besides, it was reported that the gamma band ASSR (30-90 Hz) played an important role in working memory, speech understanding and recognition. This paper investigated the 40 Hz ASSR evoked by modulated speech and reversed speech. The speech was Chinese phrase voice, and the noise-like reversed speech was obtained by temporally reversing the speech. Both auditory stimuli were modulated with a frequency of 40 Hz. Ten healthy subjects and 5 patients with hallucination symptom participated in the experiment. Results showed reduction in left auditory cortex response when healthy subjects listened to the reversed speech compared with the speech. In contrast, when the patients who experienced auditory hallucinations listened to the reversed speech, the auditory cortex of left hemispheric responded more actively. The ASSR results were consistent with the behavior results of patients. Therefore, the gamma band ASSR is expected to be helpful for rapid and objective diagnosis of hallucination in clinic. PMID:24142731

  12. Spectrotemporal resolution tradeoff in auditory processing as revealed by human auditory brainstem responses and psychophysical indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Syed Khaja, Ameenuddin

    2014-06-20

    Auditory filter theory dictates a physiological compromise between frequency and temporal resolution of cochlear signal processing. We examined neurophysiological correlates of these spectrotemporal tradeoffs in the human auditory system using auditory evoked brain potentials and psychophysical responses. Temporal resolution was assessed using scalp-recorded auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) elicited by paired clicks. The inter-click interval (ICI) between successive pulses was parameterized from 0.7 to 25 ms to map ABR amplitude recovery as a function of stimulus spacing. Behavioral frequency difference limens (FDLs) and auditory filter selectivity (Q10 of psychophysical tuning curves) were obtained to assess relations between behavioral spectral acuity and electrophysiological estimates of temporal resolvability. Neural responses increased monotonically in amplitude with increasing ICI, ranging from total suppression (0.7 ms) to full recovery (25 ms) with a temporal resolution of ∼3-4 ms. ABR temporal thresholds were correlated with behavioral Q10 (frequency selectivity) but not FDLs (frequency discrimination); no correspondence was observed between Q10 and FDLs. Results suggest that finer frequency selectivity, but not discrimination, is associated with poorer temporal resolution. The inverse relation between ABR recovery and perceptual frequency tuning demonstrates a time-frequency tradeoff between the temporal and spectral resolving power of the human auditory system. PMID:24793771

  13. Self-esteem modulates automatic attentional responses to self-relevant stimuli: evidence from event-related brain potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Jie eChen; Qing eShui; Yiping eZhong

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have widely shown that self-esteem modulates the attention bias towards social rejection or emotion-related information. However, little is known about the influences of self-esteem on attention bias towards self-relevant stimuli. We aimed to investigate neural correlates that underlie the modulation effect of self-esteem on self-relevant processing. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded for subjects’ own names and close others’ names (the names of their friends) while...

  14. Voluntary Pressing and Releasing Actions Induce Different Senses of Time: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Zhao; Ruolei Gu; Liang Wang; Ping Xiao; Yu-Hsin Chen; Jing Liang; Li Hu; Xiaolan Fu

    2014-01-01

    The timing intervals initiated by voluntary pressing actions are subjectively compressed compared with those initiated by voluntary releasing actions. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were employed in the present study to uncover the temporal mechanisms underlying this temporal illusion. The results revealed that the mean amplitude of the P1 component over the frontal-central recording sites, but not the P2 component, was larger in the voluntary pressing condition than in the voluntary releasi...

  15. Electrophysiological mismatch response recorded in awake pigeons from the avian functional equivalent of the primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Ulrich; Müller, Bernhard W; Kärgel, Christian; Güntürkün, Onur

    2015-03-25

    The neural response to occasional variations in acoustic stimuli in a regular sequence of sounds generates an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-modulated event-related potential in primates and rodents in the primary auditory cortex known as mismatch negativity (MMN). The current study investigated MMN in pigeons (Columba livia L) through intracranial recordings from Field L of the caudomedial nidopallium, the avian functional equivalent of the mammalian primary auditory cortex. Auditory evoked field potentials were recorded from awake birds using a low-frequency (800 Hz) and high-frequency (1400 Hz) deviant auditory oddball procedure with deviant-as-standard (flip-flop design) and multiple-standard control conditions. An MMN-like field potential was recorded and blocked with systemic 5 mg/kg ketamine administration. Our results are similar to human and rodent findings of an MMN-like event-related potential in birds suggestive of similar auditory sensory memory mechanisms in birds and mammals that are homologue from a common ancestor 300 million years ago or resulted from convergent evolution. PMID:25646582

  16. Cochlear Responses and Auditory Brainstem Response Functions in Adults with Auditory Neuropathy/ Dys-Synchrony and Individuals with Normal Hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jafari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Physiologic measures of cochlear and auditory nerve function may be of assis¬tance in distinguishing between hearing disorders due primarily to auditory nerve impairment from those due primarily to cochlear hair cells dysfunction. The goal of present study was to measure of co-chlear responses (otoacoustic emissions and cochlear microphonics and auditory brainstem response in some adults with auditory neuropathy/ dys-synchrony and subjects with normal hearing. Materials and Methods: Patients were 16 adults (32 ears in age range of 14-30 years with auditory neu¬ropathy/ dys-synchrony and 16 individuals in age range of 16-30 years from both sexes. The results of transient otoacoustic emissions, cochlear microphonics and auditory brainstem response measures were compared in both groups and the effects of age, sex, ear and degree of hearing loss were studied. Results: The pure-tone average was 48.1 dB HL in auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony group and the fre¬quency of low tone loss and flat audiograms were higher among other audiogram's shapes. Transient oto¬acoustic emissions were shown in all auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony people except two cases and its average was near in both studied groups. The latency and amplitude of the biggest reversed co-chlear microphonics response were higher in auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony patients than control peo¬ple significantly. The correlation between cochlear microphonics amplitude and degree of hearing loss was not significant, and age had significant effect in some cochlear microphonics measures. Audi-tory brainstem response had no response in auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony patients even with low stim¬uli rates. Conclusion: In adults with speech understanding worsen than predicted from the degree of hearing loss that suspect to auditory neuropathy/ dys-synchrony, the frequency of low tone loss and flat audiograms are higher. Usually auditory brainstem response is absent in

  17. Corticofugal modulation of peripheral auditory responses

    OpenAIRE

    Terreros, Gonzalo; Delano, Paul H.

    2015-01-01

    The auditory efferent system originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the medial geniculate body (MGB), inferior colliculus (IC), cochlear nucleus (CN) and superior olivary complex (SOC) reaching the cochlea through olivocochlear (OC) fibers. This unique neuronal network is organized in several afferent-efferent feedback loops including: the (i) colliculo-thalamic-cortico-collicular; (ii) cortico-(collicular)-OC; and (iii) cortico-(collicular)-CN pathways. Recent experiments demonstr...

  18. Corticofugal modulation of peripheral auditory responses

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Hinckley Delano

    2015-01-01

    The auditory efferent system originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the medial geniculate body, inferior colliculus, cochlear nucleus and superior olivary complex reaching the cochlea through olivocochlear fibers. This unique neuronal network is organized in several afferent-efferent feedback loops including: the (i) colliculo-thalamic-cortico-collicular, (ii) cortico-(collicular)-olivocochlear and (iii) cortico-(collicular)-cochlear nucleus pathways. Recent experiments demonstrate...

  19. 纯音听阈正常的言语交流障碍患者听觉事件相关电位分析%Characteristics of Auditory Evoked Event-Related Potentials in Patients of Auditory Disability with Normal Hearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁茂金; 郑亿庆; 杨海弟; 张志刚; 陈俊明

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the auditory evoked event - related potentials characteristics in patients of auditory disability with normal hearing. Methods 10 patients, complaining of difficulty in conversation, especially in noisy backgrounds, were continuously studied. 20 sex - and age-matched healthy volunteers without hearing problems were used as controls. Both the patients and volunteers have normal hearing threshold and middle ear status and distortion product otoacoustic emission(DPOAE) and auditory brainstem responses(ABR). They recieced 128 - channel ERP test with speech stimuli, in quiet and noisy backgrounds, respectively. Results Both the patients and controls had P1-N1-P2 and MMN in quiet. In noisy background, 2 patients had neither P1-N1-P2 nor MMN. In quiet. MMN latencies of the patients were 221. 8±23. 9 ms, significantly prolonged compare to the controls' 200. 4±28.1 ms(P=0. 049). In noisy background. MMN latencies of patients and controls were 267.1±27. 8 ms and 233. 4±25. 8 ma. Respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P=0. 003). There were no statistical differences in latencies or amplititudes of P1 -N1 - P2, or in amplititudes of MMN between patients and normal controls. Conclusion Prolonged MMN latencies in patients of auditory disability with normal hearing, may indicate the possible existence of the central auditory processing disorders.%目的 初步探讨纯音听阈正常的言语交流障碍患者听觉事件相关电位的特征.方法 因听觉障碍尤其在噪声环境下言语理解困难的患者10例作为患者组,正常对照组为性别、年龄匹配的无听力及交流障碍的健康志愿者20例,所有患者及志愿者纯音听阈、鼓室导抗图、畸变耳声发射( DPOAE)及听性脑干反应(ABR)检测均无异常.两组分别在安静和噪声背景下行128导联言语刺激音的听觉事件相关电位(event- related potentials,ERP)检测,比较两组的ERP成分P1—N1—P2

  20. An auditory-periphery model of the effects of acoustic trauma on auditory nerve responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Ian C.; Sachs, Murray B.; Young, Eric D.

    2003-01-01

    Acoustic trauma degrades the auditory nerve's tonotopic representation of acoustic stimuli. Recent physiological studies have quantified the degradation in responses to the vowel eh and have investigated amplification schemes designed to restore a more correct tonotopic representation than is achieved with conventional hearing aids. However, it is difficult from the data to quantify how much different aspects of the cochlear pathology contribute to the impaired responses. Furthermore, extensive experimental testing of potential hearing aids is infeasible. Here, both of these concerns are addressed by developing models of the normal and impaired auditory peripheries that are tested against a wide range of physiological data. The effects of both outer and inner hair cell status on model predictions of the vowel data were investigated. The modeling results indicate that impairment of both outer and inner hair cells contribute to degradation in the tonotopic representation of the formant frequencies in the auditory nerve. Additionally, the model is able to predict the effects of frequency-shaping amplification on auditory nerve responses, indicating the model's potential suitability for more rapid development and testing of hearing aid schemes.

  1. Auditory sensory processing deficits in sensory gating and mismatch negativity-like responses in the social isolation rat model of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witten, Louise; Oranje, Bob; Mørk, Arne;

    2014-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia exhibit disturbances in information processing. These disturbances can be investigated with different paradigms of auditory event related potentials (ERP), such as sensory gating in a double click paradigm (P50 suppression) and the mismatch negativity (MMN) component i...... current study supports the face validity of the SI reared rat model for schizophrenia.......Patients with schizophrenia exhibit disturbances in information processing. These disturbances can be investigated with different paradigms of auditory event related potentials (ERP), such as sensory gating in a double click paradigm (P50 suppression) and the mismatch negativity (MMN) component in...... an auditory oddball paradigm. The aim of the current study was to test if rats subjected to social isolation, which is believed to induce some changes that mimic features of schizophrenia, displays alterations in sensory gating and MMN-like response. Male Lister-Hooded rats were separated into two...

  2. Simultaneous EEG-fMRI in patients with Unverricht-Lundborg disease: event-related desynchronization/synchronization and hemodynamic response analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visani, Elisa; Minati, Ludovico; Canafoglia, Laura; Gilioli, Isabella; Salvatoni, Lucia; Varotto, Giulia; Fazio, Patrik; Aquino, Domenico; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; Franceschetti, Silvana; Panzica, Ferruccio

    2010-01-01

    We performed simultaneous acquisition of EEG-fMRI in seven patients with Unverricht-Lundborg disease (ULD) and in six healthy controls using self-paced finger extension as a motor task. The event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis showed a greater and more diffuse alpha desynchronization in central regions and a strongly reduced post-movement beta-ERS in patients compared with controls, suggesting a significant dysfunction of the mechanisms regulating active movement and movement end. The event-related hemodynamic response obtained from fMRI showed delayed BOLD peak latency in the contralateral primary motor area suggesting a less efficient activity of the neuronal populations driving fine movements, which are specifically impaired in ULD. PMID:20111730

  3. Short- and long-term habituation of auditory event-related potentials in the rat [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1l3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kestutis Gurevicius

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An auditory oddball paradigm in humans generates a long-duration cortical negative potential, often referred to as mismatch negativity. Similar negativity has been documented in monkeys and cats, but it is controversial whether mismatch negativity also exists in awake rodents. To this end, we recorded cortical and hippocampal evoked responses in rats during alert immobility under a typical passive oddball paradigm that yields mismatch negativity in humans. The standard stimulus was a 9 kHz tone and the deviant either 7 or 11 kHz tone in the first condition. We found no evidence of a sustained potential shift when comparing evoked responses to standard and deviant stimuli. Instead, we found repetition-induced attenuation of the P60 component of the combined evoked response in the cortex, but not in the hippocampus. The attenuation extended over three days of recording and disappeared after 20 intervening days of rest. Reversal of the standard and deviant tones resulted is a robust enhancement of the N40 component not only in the cortex but also in the hippocampus. Responses to standard and deviant stimuli were affected similarly. Finally, we tested the effect of scopolamine in this paradigm. Scopolamine attenuated cortical N40 and P60 as well as hippocampal P60 components, but had no specific effect on the deviant response. We conclude that in an oddball paradigm the rat demonstrates repetition-induced attenuation of mid-latency responses, which resembles attenuation of the N1-component of human auditory evoked potential, but no mismatch negativity.

  4. The effects of methadone maintenance treatment on heroin addicts with response inhibition function impairments: Evidence from event-related potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Yang; Qiongying Xu; Shifeng Li; Xin Zhao; Li Ma; Youfen Zheng; Juanjuan Zhang; Yi Li

    2015-01-01

    Response inhibition has been a core issue in addictive behavior. Many previous studies have found that response inhibition abilities are damaged in those with drug dependence. However, whether heroin addicts who are treated with methadone maintenance have an abnormal response inhibition ability is not clear. In order to investigate the response inhibition functions in heroin addicts who were treated with methadone maintenance, electroencephalography (EEG) was used to examine 14 heroin addicts...

  5. Weak responses to auditory feedback perturbation during articulation in persons who stutter: evidence for abnormal auditory-motor transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanqing Cai

    Full Text Available Previous empirical observations have led researchers to propose that auditory feedback (the auditory perception of self-produced sounds when speaking functions abnormally in the speech motor systems of persons who stutter (PWS. Researchers have theorized that an important neural basis of stuttering is the aberrant integration of auditory information into incipient speech motor commands. Because of the circumstantial support for these hypotheses and the differences and contradictions between them, there is a need for carefully designed experiments that directly examine auditory-motor integration during speech production in PWS. In the current study, we used real-time manipulation of auditory feedback to directly investigate whether the speech motor system of PWS utilizes auditory feedback abnormally during articulation and to characterize potential deficits of this auditory-motor integration. Twenty-one PWS and 18 fluent control participants were recruited. Using a short-latency formant-perturbation system, we examined participants' compensatory responses to unanticipated perturbation of auditory feedback of the first formant frequency during the production of the monophthong [ε]. The PWS showed compensatory responses that were qualitatively similar to the controls' and had close-to-normal latencies (∼150 ms, but the magnitudes of their responses were substantially and significantly smaller than those of the control participants (by 47% on average, p<0.05. Measurements of auditory acuity indicate that the weaker-than-normal compensatory responses in PWS were not attributable to a deficit in low-level auditory processing. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that stuttering is associated with functional defects in the inverse models responsible for the transformation from the domain of auditory targets and auditory error information into the domain of speech motor commands.

  6. Modeling of Auditory Neuron Response Thresholds with Cochlear Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Venail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the prosthetic-neural interface is a critical point for cochlear implant efficiency. It depends not only on technical and anatomical factors such as electrode position into the cochlea (depth and scalar placement, electrode impedance, and distance between the electrode and the stimulated auditory neurons, but also on the number of functional auditory neurons. The efficiency of electrical stimulation can be assessed by the measurement of e-CAP in cochlear implant users. In the present study, we modeled the activation of auditory neurons in cochlear implant recipients (nucleus device. The electrical response, measured using auto-NRT (neural responses telemetry algorithm, has been analyzed using multivariate regression with cubic splines in order to take into account the variations of insertion depth of electrodes amongst subjects as well as the other technical and anatomical factors listed above. NRT thresholds depend on the electrode squared impedance (β = −0.11 ± 0.02, P<0.01, the scalar placement of the electrodes (β = −8.50 ± 1.97, P<0.01, and the depth of insertion calculated as the characteristic frequency of auditory neurons (CNF. Distribution of NRT residues according to CNF could provide a proxy of auditory neurons functioning in implanted cochleas.

  7. Modeling of Auditory Neuron Response Thresholds with Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venail, Frederic; Mura, Thibault; Akkari, Mohamed; Mathiolon, Caroline; Menjot de Champfleur, Sophie; Piron, Jean Pierre; Sicard, Marielle; Sterkers-Artieres, Françoise; Mondain, Michel; Uziel, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The quality of the prosthetic-neural interface is a critical point for cochlear implant efficiency. It depends not only on technical and anatomical factors such as electrode position into the cochlea (depth and scalar placement), electrode impedance, and distance between the electrode and the stimulated auditory neurons, but also on the number of functional auditory neurons. The efficiency of electrical stimulation can be assessed by the measurement of e-CAP in cochlear implant users. In the present study, we modeled the activation of auditory neurons in cochlear implant recipients (nucleus device). The electrical response, measured using auto-NRT (neural responses telemetry) algorithm, has been analyzed using multivariate regression with cubic splines in order to take into account the variations of insertion depth of electrodes amongst subjects as well as the other technical and anatomical factors listed above. NRT thresholds depend on the electrode squared impedance (β = -0.11 ± 0.02, P electrodes (β = -8.50 ± 1.97, P < 0.01), and the depth of insertion calculated as the characteristic frequency of auditory neurons (CNF). Distribution of NRT residues according to CNF could provide a proxy of auditory neurons functioning in implanted cochleas. PMID:26236725

  8. Hippocampal negative event-related potential recorded in humans is not time-locked to the motor response execution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roman, R.; Brázdil, M.; Chládek, Jan; Rektor, I.; Jurák, Pavel; Světlák, M.; Damborská, A.; Shaw, D. J.; Kukleta, M.

    Elsevier. Roč. 126, č. 3 (2015), e36. ISSN 1388-2457. [Congress of the Czech and Slovak Society of Clinical Neurophysiology /61./. 15.10.2015-18.10.2015, Olomouc] Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : ERP * hippocampus * motor response intracerebral EEG * movement * intracerebral EEG Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  9. The auditory brainstem response in two lizard species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brittan-Powell, Elizabeth F; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tang, Yezhong;

    2010-01-01

    Although lizards have highly sensitive ears, it is difficult to condition them to sound, making standard psychophysical assays of hearing sensitivity impractical. This paper describes non-invasive measurements of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) in both Tokay geckos (Gekko gecko; nocturnal...... in most bird species....

  10. Auditory Brainstem Evoked Responses in Newborns with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittler, Phyllis M.; Phan, Ha T. T.; Gardner, Judith M.; Miroshnichenko, Inna; Gordon, Anne; Karmel, Bernard Z.

    2009-01-01

    Auditory brainstem evoked responses (ABRs) were compared in 15 newborns with Down syndrome and 15 sex-, age-, and weight-matched control newborns. Participants had normal ABRs based upon values specific to 32- to 42-weeks postconceptional age. Although Wave III and Wave V component latencies and the Wave I-III interpeak latency (IPL) were shorter…

  11. Error detection and response adjustment in youth with mild spastic cerebral palsy: an event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Elina; Pirilä, Silja; Kaartinen, Jukka; van der Meere, Jaap J

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluated the brain activation state during error making in youth with mild spastic cerebral palsy and a peer control group while carrying out a stimulus recognition task. The key question was whether patients were detecting their own errors and subsequently improving their performance in a future trial. Findings indicated that error responses of the group with cerebral palsy were associated with weak motor preparation, as indexed by the amplitude of the late contingent negative variation. However, patients were detecting their errors as indexed by the amplitude of the response-locked negativity and thus improved their performance in a future trial. Findings suggest that the consequence of error making on future performance is intact in a sample of youth with mild spastic cerebral palsy. Because the study group is small, the present findings need replication using a larger sample. PMID:22899795

  12. Middle components of the auditory evoked response in bilateral temporal lobe lesions. Report on a patient with auditory agnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, A; Salomon, G; Elberling, Claus;

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the middle components of the auditory evoked response (10--50 msec post-stimulus) in a patient with auditory agnosia is reported. Bilateral temporal lobe infarctions were proved by means of brain scintigraphy, CAT scanning, and regional cerebral blood flow measurements. The mi...

  13. Genetic influences on sociability: Heightened amygdala reactivity and event-related responses to positive social stimuli in Williams syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Brian W.; Mills, Debra; Yam, Anna; Hoeft, Fumiko; Bellugi, Ursula; Reiss, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder caused by a hemizygous microdeletion on chromosome 7q11.23. WS is associated with a compelling neurocognitive profile characterized by relative deficits in visiospatial function, relative strengths in face and language processing, and enhanced drive towards social engagement. We used a combined fMRI and ERP approach to examine the neural basis of social responsiveness in WS participants to two types of social stimuli, negative (fearful) and positiv...

  14. Dogs cannot bark: event-related brain responses to true and false negated statements as indicators of higher-order conscious processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Herbert

    Full Text Available The present study investigated event-related brain potentials elicited by true and false negated statements to evaluate if discrimination of the truth value of negated information relies on conscious processing and requires higher-order cognitive processing in healthy subjects across different levels of stimulus complexity. The stimulus material consisted of true and false negated sentences (sentence level and prime-target expressions (word level. Stimuli were presented acoustically and no overt behavioral response of the participants was required. Event-related brain potentials to target words preceded by true and false negated expressions were analyzed both within group and at the single subject level. Across the different processing conditions (word pairs and sentences, target words elicited a frontal negativity and a late positivity in the time window from 600-1000 msec post target word onset. Amplitudes of both brain potentials varied as a function of the truth value of the negated expressions. Results were confirmed at the single-subject level. In sum, our results support recent suggestions according to which evaluation of the truth value of a negated expression is a time- and cognitively demanding process that cannot be solved automatically, and thus requires conscious processing. Our paradigm provides insight into higher-order processing related to language comprehension and reasoning in healthy subjects. Future studies are needed to evaluate if our paradigm also proves sensitive for the detection of consciousness in non-responsive patients.

  15. Dogs cannot bark: event-related brain responses to true and false negated statements as indicators of higher-order conscious processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Cornelia; Kübler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated event-related brain potentials elicited by true and false negated statements to evaluate if discrimination of the truth value of negated information relies on conscious processing and requires higher-order cognitive processing in healthy subjects across different levels of stimulus complexity. The stimulus material consisted of true and false negated sentences (sentence level) and prime-target expressions (word level). Stimuli were presented acoustically and no overt behavioral response of the participants was required. Event-related brain potentials to target words preceded by true and false negated expressions were analyzed both within group and at the single subject level. Across the different processing conditions (word pairs and sentences), target words elicited a frontal negativity and a late positivity in the time window from 600-1000 msec post target word onset. Amplitudes of both brain potentials varied as a function of the truth value of the negated expressions. Results were confirmed at the single-subject level. In sum, our results support recent suggestions according to which evaluation of the truth value of a negated expression is a time- and cognitively demanding process that cannot be solved automatically, and thus requires conscious processing. Our paradigm provides insight into higher-order processing related to language comprehension and reasoning in healthy subjects. Future studies are needed to evaluate if our paradigm also proves sensitive for the detection of consciousness in non-responsive patients. PMID:22022414

  16. Event-related potentials in a Go/Nogo task of abnormal response inhibition in heroin addicts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitory control dysfunction is regarded as a core feature in addicts.The major objective of this study was to explore the time course of response inhibition in chronic heroin addicts and provide the neurophysiological evidence of their inhibitory control dysfunction.The amplitudes and latencies of ERP components were studied in fourteen heroin addicts(mean duration of heroin use being(13.54±5.71) years(Mean±SD),average abstinence being((4.67±6.44) months)) and fourteen matched healthy controls with a visual Go/Nogo task.Our results showed that heroin addicts demonstrated significantly larger Go-N2 amplitudes which results in a decreased N2 Go/Nogo effect,but no statistically significant differences were found between heroin addicts and controls in P3.The ERP data suggest that fronto-central areas of heroin addicts were impaired during the inhibition process(200-300 ms) and over-activated to targets.The impaired early process might reflect an abnormal conflict monitoring process in heroin addicts.These results consolidate the inhibitory control dysfunction hypothesis in chronic heroin users.

  17. Measuring the dynamics of neural responses in primary auditory cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Depireux, Didier A; Simon, Jonathan Z.; Shamma, Shihab A.

    1998-01-01

    We review recent developments in the measurement of the dynamics of the response properties of auditory cortical neurons to broadband sounds, which is closely related to the perception of timbre. The emphasis is on a method that characterizes the spectro-temporal properties of single neurons to dynamic, broadband sounds, akin to the drifting gratings used in vision. The method treats the spectral and temporal aspects of the response on an equal footing.

  18. Low voltage alpha EEG phenotype is associated with reduced amplitudes of alpha event-related oscillations, increased cortical phase synchrony, and a low level of response to alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Wills, Derek N; Phillips, Evelyn; Havstad, James

    2015-10-01

    Low voltage EEG (LVEEG) is a heritable phenotype that differs depending on ancestral heritage, yet its impact on brain networks and cognition remain relatively unexplored. In this study we assessed energy and task related phase locking of event-related oscillation (EROs), behavioral responses, measures of IQ and personality, and expected responses to alcohol in a large sample of individuals with LVEEG compared to those with higher voltage variants. Participants (n=762) were recruited from a Native American community and completed a diagnostic interview, the Quick Test, the Subjective High Assessment Scale Expectation Version (SHAS-E) and the Maudsley Personality Inventory. Clinical and spectral analyzed EEGs were collected for determination of the presence of a LVEEG variant. EROs were generated using a facial expression recognition task. Participants with LVEEG (n=451) were significantly more likely to be older, married and have higher degrees of Native American heritage but did not differ in gender, income or education. Individuals with LVEEG were also found to have decreased energy in their alpha EROs, increased phase locking between stimulus trials, and increased phase-locking between cortical brain areas. No significant differences in the cognitive tests, personality variables or alcohol dependence or anxiety diagnoses were found, however, individuals with LVEEG did report a larger number of drinks ever consumed in a 24-h period and a less intense expected response to alcohol. These data suggest that alpha power in the resting EEG is highly associated with energy and cortical connectivity measures generated by event-related stimuli, as well as potentially increased risk for alcohol use. PMID:26151497

  19. The impact of severity of hypertension on auditory brainstem responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdev Lal Goyal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Auditory brainstem response is an objective electrophysiological method for assessing the auditory pathways from the auditory nerve to the brainstem. The aim of this study was to correlate and to assess the degree of involvement of peripheral and central regions of brainstem auditory pathways with increasing severity of hypertension, among the patients of essential hypertension. Method: This study was conducted on 50 healthy age and sex matched controls (Group I and 50 hypertensive patients (Group II. Later group was further sub-divided into - Group IIa (Grade 1 hypertension, Group IIb (Grade 2 hypertension, and Group IIc (Grade 3 hypertension, as per WHO guidelines. These responses/potentials were recorded by using electroencephalogram electrodes on a root-mean-square electromyography, EP MARC II (PC-based machine and data were statistically compared between the various groups by way of one-way ANOVA. The parameters used for analysis were the absolute latencies of Waves I through V, interpeak latencies (IPLs and amplitude ratio of Wave V/I. Result: The absolute latency of Wave I was observed to be significantly increased in Group IIa and IIb hypertensives, while Wave V absolute latency was highly significantly prolonged among Group IIb and IIc, as compared to that of normal control group. All the hypertensives, that is, Group IIa, IIb, and IIc patients were found to have highly significant prolonged III-V IPL as compared to that of normal healthy controls. Further, intergroup comparison among hypertensive patients revealed a significant prolongation of Wave V absolute latency and III-V IPL in Group IIb and IIc patients as compared to Group IIa patients. These findings suggest a sensory deficit along with synaptic delays, across the auditory pathways in all the hypertensives, the deficit being more markedly affecting the auditory processing time at pons to midbrain (IPL III-V region of auditory pathways among Grade 2 and 3

  20. The role of vowel perceptual cues in compensatory responses to perturbations of speech auditory feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, Kevin J.; Dougherty, Kathleen E.

    2013-01-01

    The perturbation of acoustic features in a speaker's auditory feedback elicits rapid compensatory responses that demonstrate the importance of auditory feedback for control of speech output. The current study investigated whether responses to a perturbation of speech auditory feedback vary depending on the importance of the perturbed feature to perception of the vowel being produced. Auditory feedback of speakers' first formant frequency (F1) was shifted upward by 130 mels in randomly selecte...

  1. Material-dependent and material-independent selection processes in the frontal and parietal lobes: an event-related fMRI investigation of response competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazeltine, Eliot; Bunge, Silvia A.; Scanlon, Michael D.; Gabrieli, John D E.

    2003-01-01

    The present study used the flanker task [Percept. Psychophys. 16 (1974) 143] to identify neural structures that support response selection processes, and to determine which of these structures respond differently depending on the type of stimulus material associated with the response. Participants performed two versions of the flanker task while undergoing event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Both versions of the task required participants to respond to a central stimulus regardless of the responses associated with simultaneously presented flanking stimuli, but one used colored circle stimuli and the other used letter stimuli. Competition-related activation was identified by comparing Incongruent trials, in which the flanker stimuli indicated a different response than the central stimulus, to Neutral stimuli, in which the flanker stimuli indicated no response. A region within the right inferior frontal gyrus exhibited significantly more competition-related activation for the color stimuli, whereas regions within the middle frontal gyri of both hemispheres exhibited more competition-related activation for the letter stimuli. The border of the right middle frontal and inferior frontal gyri and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were significantly activated by competition for both types of stimulus materials. Posterior foci demonstrated a similar pattern: left inferior parietal cortex showed greater competition-related activation for the letters, whereas right parietal cortex was significantly activated by competition for both materials. These findings indicate that the resolution of response competition invokes both material-dependent and material-independent processes.

  2. Auditory Evoked Potential Response and Hearing Loss: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Paulraj, M. P; Subramaniam, Kamalraj; Yaccob, Sazali Bin; Adom, Abdul H. Bin; Hema, C.R.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoacusis is the most prevalent sensory disability in the world and consequently, it can lead to impede speech in human beings. One best approach to tackle this issue is to conduct early and effective hearing screening test using Electroencephalogram (EEG). EEG based hearing threshold level determination is most suitable for persons who lack verbal communication and behavioral response to sound stimulation. Auditory evoked potential (AEP) is a type of EEG signal emanated from the brain scalp...

  3. Automatic hearing loss detection system based on auditory brainstem response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldonate, J.; Mercuri, C.; Reta, J.; Biurrun, J.; Bonell, C.; Gentiletti, G.; Escobar, S.; Acevedo, R.

    2007-11-01

    Hearing loss is one of the pathologies with the highest prevalence in newborns. If it is not detected in time, it can affect the nervous system and cause problems in speech, language and cognitive development. The recommended methods for early detection are based on otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and/or auditory brainstem response (ABR). In this work, the design and implementation of an automated system based on ABR to detect hearing loss in newborns is presented. Preliminary evaluation in adults was satisfactory.

  4. Automatic hearing loss detection system based on auditory brainstem response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearing loss is one of the pathologies with the highest prevalence in newborns. If it is not detected in time, it can affect the nervous system and cause problems in speech, language and cognitive development. The recommended methods for early detection are based on otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and/or auditory brainstem response (ABR). In this work, the design and implementation of an automated system based on ABR to detect hearing loss in newborns is presented. Preliminary evaluation in adults was satisfactory

  5. Effects of Hyperbilirubinemia on Auditory Brainstem Response of Neonates Treated with Phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Salehi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion:  The results of this study underline the importance of the Auditory Brainstem Response Test as an efficient tool for monitoring the auditory brainstem pathway in neonates who are at risk of neurotoxicity and for diagnosing the earliest stages of auditory damage caused by high levels of bilirubin.

  6. Inhibition deficit in the spatial tendency of the response in multiple-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment. An event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cespón

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal studies have shown that a high percentage of people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI develop Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Prodromal AD is known to involve deficits in executive control processes. In the present study, we examined such deficits by recording EEG in 13 single-domain amnestic MCI (sdaMCI, 12 multiple-domain amnestic MCI (mdaMCI and 18 healthy elderly (control group, CG participants while they performed a Simon task. The Simon task demands deployment of executive processes because participants have to respond to non-spatial features of a lateralized stimulus and inhibit the more automatic spatial tendency of the response. We specifically focused on the negativity central contralateral (N2cc, an event-related potential (ERP component related to brain activity that prevents the cross-talk between direction of spatial attention and manual response preparation. The reaction time was not significantly different among the three groups of participants. The percentage of errors (PE was higher in mdaMCI than in CG and sdaMCI participants. In addition, N2cc latency was delayed in mdaMCI (i.e. delayed implementation of mechanisms for controlling the spatial tendency of the response. The N2cc latency clearly distinguished among mdaMCI and CG/sdaMCI participants (area under curve: 0.91. Longer N2cc was therefore associated with executive control deficits, which suggests that N2cc latency is a correlate of mdaMCI.

  7. Neural responses to complex auditory rhythms: the role of attending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HeatherLChapin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the role of attention in pulse and meter perception using complex rhythms. We used a selective attention paradigm in which participants attended to either a complex auditory rhythm or a visually presented word list. Performance on a reproduction task was used to gauge whether participants were attending to the appropriate stimulus. We hypothesized that attention to complex rhythms – which contain no energy at the pulse frequency – would lead to activations in motor areas involved in pulse perception. Moreover, because multiple repetitions of a complex rhythm are needed to perceive a pulse, activations in pulse related areas would be seen only after sufficient time had elapsed for pulse perception to develop. Selective attention was also expected to modulate activity in sensory areas specific to the modality. We found that selective attention to rhythms led to increased BOLD responses in basal ganglia, and basal ganglia activity was observed only after the rhythms had cycled enough times for a stable pulse percept to develop. These observations suggest that attention is needed to recruit motor activations associated with the perception of pulse in complex rhythms. Moreover, attention to the auditory stimulus enhanced activity in an attentional sensory network including primary auditory, insula, anterior cingulate, and prefrontal cortex, and suppressed activity in sensory areas associated with attending to the visual stimulus.

  8. Event-related evoked potentials in chronic respiratory encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Tahan, A R Al; Zaidan, R.; Jones, S; Husain, A.; Mobeireek, A; Bahammam, A

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cognitive event-related potential (P300) is an index of cognitive processing time. It was found to be prolonged in dementia, renal, and hepatic encephalopathies, but was not extensively assessed in respiratory failure. Objective: To evaluate P300 changes in patients with respiratory failure, and especially those with mild or subclinical hypoxic–hypercapnic encephalopathy. Methods: Auditory event-related evoked potential P300 latency was measured using an oddball paradigm in patien...

  9. Event-related Potentials During Target-response Tasks to Study Cognitive Processes of Upper Limb Use in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Ingar Marie; Steenbergen, Bert; Baas, C. Marjolein; Aarts, Pauline; Jongsma, Marijtje L. A.

    2016-01-01

    Unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is a very common cause of disability in childhood. It is characterized by unilateral motor impairments that are frequently dominated in the upper limb. In addition to a reduced movement capacity of the affected upper limb, several children with unilateral CP show a reduced awareness of the remaining movement capacity of that limb. This phenomenon of disregarding the preserved capacity of the affected upper limb is regularly referred to as Developmental Disregard (DD). Different theories have been postulated to explain DD, each suggesting slightly different guidelines for therapy. Still, cognitive processes that might additionally contribute to DD in children with unilateral CP have never been directly studied. The current protocol was developed to study cognitive aspects involved in upper limb control in children with unilateral CP with and without DD. This was done by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) extracted from the ongoing EEG during target-response tasks asking for a hand-movement response. ERPs consist of several components, each of them associated with a well-defined cognitive process (e.g., the N1 with early attention processes, the N2 with cognitive control and the P3 with cognitive load and mental effort). Due to its excellent temporal resolution, the ERP technique enables to study several covert cognitive processes preceding overt motor responses and thus allows insight into the cognitive processes that might contribute to the phenomenon of DD. Using this protocol adds a new level of explanation to existing behavioral studies and opens new avenues to the broader implementation of research on cognitive aspects of developmental movement restrictions in children. PMID:26780483

  10. Auditory deficit as a consequence rather than endophenotype of specific language impairment: electrophysiological evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, DV; Hardiman, MJ; Barry, JG

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Are developmental language disorders caused by poor auditory discrimination? This is a popular theory, but behavioural evidence has been inconclusive. Here we studied children with specific language impairment, measuring the brain's electrophysiological response to sounds in a passive paradigm. We focused on the T-complex, an event-related peak that has different origins and developmental course from the well-known vertex response. METHODS: We analysed auditory event-related poten...

  11. Cholinergic modulation of auditory steady-state response in the auditory cortex of the freely moving rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Ma, L; Li, W; Yang, P; Qin, L

    2016-06-01

    As disturbance in auditory steady-state response (ASSR) has been consistently found in many neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia, there is considerable interest in the development of translational rat models to elucidate the underlying neural and neurochemical mechanisms involved in ASSR. This is the first study to investigate the effects of the non-selective muscarinic antagonist scopolamine and the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil (also in combination with scopolamine) on ASSR. We recorded the local field potentials through the chronic microelectrodes implanted in the auditory cortex of freely moving rat. ASSRs were recorded in response to auditory stimuli delivered over a range of frequencies (10-80Hz) and averaged over 60 trials. We found that a single dose of scopolamine produced a temporal attenuation in response to auditory stimuli; the most attenuation occurred at 40Hz. Time-frequency analysis revealed deficits in both power and phase-locking to 40Hz. Donepezil augmented 40-Hz steady-state power and phase-locking. Scopolamine combined with donepezil had an enhanced effect on the phase-locking, but not power of ASSR. These changes induced by cholinergic drugs suggest an involvement of muscarinic neurotransmission in auditory processing and provide a rodent model investigating the neurochemical mechanism of neurophysiological deficits seen in patients. PMID:26964684

  12. Effects of Hyperbilirubinemia on Auditory Brainstem Response of Neonates Treated with Phototherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Negin; Bagheri, Fereshte; Ramezani Farkhani, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: One of the most common pathologies in neonates is hyperbilirubinemia, which is a good marker for damage to the central nervous system. The sensitivity of the auditory system to bilirubin has been previously documented, with much discrepancy in its effects on Auditory Brainstem Response results. Thus the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of hyperbilirubinemia on Auditory Brainstem Response of neonates treated with phototherapy. Materials and Methods: Forty-two t...

  13. Potencial evocado auditivo tardio relacionado a eventos (P300 na síndrome de Down Late auditory event-related evoked potential (P300 in Down's syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Patrícia Hernandez Alves Ribeiro César

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de Down é causada pela trissomia do cromossomo 21 e está associada com alteração do processamento auditivo, distúrbio de aprendizagem e, provavelmente, início precoce de Doença de Alzheimer. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as latências e amplitudes do potencial evocado auditivo tardio relacionado a eventos (P300 e suas alterações em indivíduos jovens adultos com síndrome de Down. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo de caso prospectivo. Latências e amplitudes do P300 foram avaliadas em 17 indivíduos com síndrome de Down e 34 indivíduos sadios. RESULTADOS: Foram identificadas latências do P300 (N1, P2, N2 e P3 prolongadas e amplitude N2 - P3 diminuída nos indivíduos com síndrome de Down quando comparados ao grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: Em indivíduos jovens adultos com síndrome de Down ocorre aumento das latências N1, P2, N2 e P3, e diminuição significativa da amplitude N2-P3 do potencial evocado auditivo tardio relacionado a eventos (P300, sugerindo prejuízo da integração da área de associação auditiva com as áreas corticais e subcorticais do sistema nervoso central.Down syndrome is caused by a trisomy of chromosome 21 and is associated with central auditory processing deficit, learning disability and, probably, early-onset Alzheimer's disease. AIM: to evaluate the latencies and amplitudes of evoked late auditory potential related to P300 events and their changes in young adults with Down's syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective case study. P300 test latency and amplitudes were evaluated in 17 individuals with Down's syndrome and 34 healthy individuals. RESULTS The P300 latency (N1, P2, N2 and P3 was longer and the N2-P3 amplitude was lower in individuals with Down syndrome when compared to those in the control group. CONCLUSION: In young adults with Down syndrome, N1, P2, N2 and P3 latencies of late auditory evoked potential related to P300 events were prolonged, and N2 - P3 amplitudes were significantly reduced

  14. Brain Event-Related Potential Correlates of Concept Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Pat-Anthony

    An irrelevant auditory probe procedure was used to evoke brain event-related potentials (ERPs) in 56 Navy recruits while they learned pulsed radar concepts presented to them in study booklets. A mastery test was administered to assess concept acquisition. The research issue was whether brain ERPs recorded while students are in the process of…

  15. Modeling auditory-nerve responses to electrical stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Suyash Narendra; Dau, Torsten; Epp, Bastian

    2014-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CI) directly stimulate the auditory nerve (AN), bypassing the mechano-electricaltransduction in the inner ear. Trains of biphasic, charge-balanced pulses (anodic and cathodic) areused as stimuli to avoid damage of the tissue. The pulses of either polarity are capable of producing...... andcathodic stimulation of the AN of cat [4]. The models' responses to the electrical pulses of variousshapes [5] were also analyzed. It was found that, while the models can account for the ring rates inresponse to various biphasic pulse shapes, they fail to correctly describe the timing of AP in response to...... monophasic pulses. Strategies for improving the model performance with respect to correct AP timing are discussed. Eventually, a model that is able to account for correct spike timing in electrichearing will be useful for objective evaluation and improvement of CI stimulation strategies....

  16. Event-related Potential Abnormalities in Schizophrenia: A Failure to “Gate In” Salient Information?

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, Colleen A.; Kieffaber, Paul D.; Clementz, B.A.; Johannesen, J.K.; Shekhar, A; O’Donnell, B.F.; Hetrick, W.P.

    2009-01-01

    Sensory gating refers to the central nervous system’s ability to filter sensory inputs, and can be measured by comparing the suppression of event-related brain potential (ERP) amplitudes in a paired auditory stimulus procedure. Poor gating scores in schizophrenia may be caused by abnormal responses to the first (S1), the second (S2) or both of the paired stimuli. However, since S1 and S2 responses may index separate psychological phenomenon, corresponding to the ability to “gate in” and “gate...

  17. Maturational differences in thalamocortical white matter microstructure and auditory evoked response latencies in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Timothy P. L.; Lanza, Matthew R.; Dell, John; Qasmieh, Saba; Hines, Katherine; Blaskey, Lisa; Zarnow, Deborah M.; Levy, Susan E; Edgar, J. Christopher; Berman, Jeffrey I.

    2013-01-01

    White matter diffusion anisotropy in the acoustic radiations was characterized as a function of development in autistic and typically developing children. Auditory-evoked neuromagnetic fields were also recorded from the same individuals and the latency of the left and right middle latency superior temporal gyrus auditory ~50ms response (M50)1 was measured. Group differences in structural and functional auditory measures were examined, as were group differences in associations between white ma...

  18. Abnormal auditory forward masking pattern in the brainstem response of individuals with Asperger syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Källstrand, Johan; Olsson, Olle; Nehlstedt, Sara Fristedt; Ling, Mia; Nielzén, Sören

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal auditory information processing has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the present study auditory processing was investigated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) elicited by forward masking in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS). Sixteen AS subjects were included in the forward masking experiment and compared to three control groups consisting of healthy individuals (n = 16), schizophrenic patients (n = 16) and attention defici...

  19. Abnormal auditory forward masking pattern in the brainstem response of individuals with Asperger syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Nielzen, Soren

    2010-01-01

    Johan Källstrand1, Olle Olsson2, Sara Fristedt Nehlstedt1, Mia Ling Sköld1, Sören Nielzén21SensoDetect AB, Lund, Sweden; 2Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, SwedenAbstract: Abnormal auditory information processing has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the present study auditory processing was investigated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) elicited by forward...

  20. Auditory distraction transmitted by a cochlear implant alters allocation of attentional resources

    OpenAIRE

    Finke, Mareike; Sandmann, Pascale; Kopp, Bruno; Lenarz, Thomas; Büchner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are auditory prostheses which restore hearing via electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. The successful adaptation of auditory cognition to the CI input depends to a substantial degree on individual factors. We pursued an electrophysiological approach toward an analysis of cortical responses that reflect perceptual processing stages and higher-level responses to CI input. Performance and event-related potentials on two cross-modal discrimination-following-distra...

  1. Auditory Cortex Basal Activity Modulates Cochlear Responses in Chinchillas

    OpenAIRE

    León, Alex; Elgueda, Diego; Silva, María A.; Hamamé, Carlos M.; Delano, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The auditory efferent system has unique neuroanatomical pathways that connect the cerebral cortex with sensory receptor cells. Pyramidal neurons located in layers V and VI of the primary auditory cortex constitute descending projections to the thalamus, inferior colliculus, and even directly to the superior olivary complex and to the cochlear nucleus. Efferent pathways are connected to the cochlear receptor by the olivocochlear system, which innervates outer hair cells and auditory...

  2. Dogs Cannot Bark: Event-Related Brain Responses to True and False Negated Statements as Indicators of Higher-Order Conscious Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia Herbert; Andrea Kübler

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated event-related brain potentials elicited by true and false negated statements to evaluate if discrimination of the truth value of negated information relies on conscious processing and requires higher-order cognitive processing in healthy subjects across different levels of stimulus complexity. The stimulus material consisted of true and false negated sentences (sentence level) and prime-target expressions (word level). Stimuli were presented acoustically and no ...

  3. Pitch-induced responses in the right auditory cortex correlate with musical ability in normal listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschmann, Sebastian; Özyurt, Jale; Uppenkamp, Stefan; Thiel, Christiane M

    2013-10-23

    Previous work compellingly shows the existence of functional and structural differences in human auditory cortex related to superior musical abilities observed in professional musicians. In this study, we investigated the relationship between musical abilities and auditory cortex activity in normal listeners who had not received a professional musical education. We used functional MRI to measure auditory cortex responses related to auditory stimulation per se and the processing of pitch and pitch changes, which represents a prerequisite for the perception of musical sequences. Pitch-evoked responses in the right lateral portion of Heschl's gyrus were correlated positively with the listeners' musical abilities, which were assessed using a musical aptitude test. In contrast, no significant relationship was found for noise stimuli, lacking any musical information, and for responses induced by pitch changes. Our results suggest that superior musical abilities in normal listeners are reflected by enhanced neural encoding of pitch information in the auditory system. PMID:23995293

  4. EVALUATION OF AUDITORY & BRAINSTEM RESPONSES IN HYPERBILIRUBINEMIC INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Jaundice is a common finding in neonates affecting 70% of term and 80% of preterm neonates during the first week of life. So the objective of this study is to evaluate auditory and brainstem responses in hyper bilirubinemic infants and to see if there is any statistically significant increase in latencies of wave I and V waves. To initiate rehabilitative procedure as early in life as possible a screening method to detect auditory disabilities in hyper bilirubinemic infants is of great importance. So the present study is done to know the incidence of hearing loss in hyper bilirubinemic infants & to evaluate the waves I and V in those subjects. METHODS: 45 Infants with hyper bilirubinemia>12mg% & with no other risk factor who visited pediatric OPD of Bapuji Child Health Centre were evaluated using RMS EMG. EP MARK –II machine. Latencies of Waves I and V and interpeak latency of I-V were recorded. RESULTS: On one sample t-test, latency of wave I and IPL I-V were significantly increased (p-value <0.001, latency of V was prolonged which was statistically significant (p-value <0.01. Hearing impairment in the affected infants and complete deafness where none of the waves were recorded signify that it is a risk factor for deafness. CONCLUSION: Since hyper bilirubinemia is a risk factor for hearing impairment, their hearing screening by BERA at the earliest will help in their earliest initiation of rehabilitation when the brain is sensitive to the development of speech & language.

  5. Evaluation of peripheral compression and auditory nerve fiber intensity coding using auditory steady-state responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Encina Llamas, Gerard; M. Harte, James; Epp, Bastian

    2015-01-01

    . Evaluation of these properties provides information about the health state of the system. It has been shown that a loss of outer hair cells leads to a reduction in peripheral compression. It has also recently been shown in animal studies that noise over-exposure, producing temporary threshold shifts, can......The compressive nonlinearity of the auditory system is assumed to be an epiphenomenon of a healthy cochlea and, particularly, of outer-hair cell function. Another ability of the healthy auditory system is to enable communication in acoustical environments with high-level background noises...

  6. Modeling of Auditory Neuron Response Thresholds with Cochlear Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Frederic Venail; Thibault Mura; Mohamed Akkari; Caroline Mathiolon; Sophie Menjot de Champfleur; Jean Pierre Piron; Marielle Sicard; Françoise Sterkers-Artieres; Michel Mondain; Alain Uziel

    2015-01-01

    The quality of the prosthetic-neural interface is a critical point for cochlear implant efficiency. It depends not only on technical and anatomical factors such as electrode position into the cochlea (depth and scalar placement), electrode impedance, and distance between the electrode and the stimulated auditory neurons, but also on the number of functional auditory neurons. The efficiency of electrical stimulation can be assessed by the measurement of e-CAP in cochlear implant users. In the ...

  7. Sensory Responses during Sleep in Primate Primary and Secondary Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Issa, Elias B.; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2008-01-01

    Most sensory stimuli do not reach conscious perception during sleep. It has been thought that the thalamus prevents the relay of sensory information to cortex during sleep, but the consequences for cortical responses to sensory signals in this physiological state remain unclear. We recorded from two auditory cortical areas downstream of the thalamus in naturally sleeping marmoset monkeys. Single neurons in primary auditory cortex either increased or decreased their responses during sleep comp...

  8. The Effects of Attention and Genders on P3 Component of Auditory Event-related Potential%不同注意状态及性别对听觉事件相关电位P3影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡旭君; 李芳芳; 刘婷

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of genders and attention on the latencies and amplitudes of P3 and to assess the potential clinical value of P3.Methods Forty normal-hearing college students were selected as the subjects, including 20 males and 20 females (40 ears). The P3s were recorded under the standard (auditory), reading (auditory and visual) and tasting (auditory and tasting) status respectively.Results Genders had no significant effects on the latencies and amplitudes of P3 (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in P3 latencies and amplitudes among the three status (P>0.05). Conclusion The P3 component of auditory event-related potential is a stable and objective electrophysiological parameter. There was no significant difference in P3 between young men and women. It is supposed that appropriate attractive stimulations can be helpful in performing P3 test for pediatric subjects.%目的:探讨性别及不同注意状态与听觉事件相关电位P3的关系,考察这些因素对P3潜伏期、振幅的影响,研究P3的临床应用价值。方法选取听力正常在校大学生40例,男女各20例(40耳)。分别在标准状态(听觉)、阅读状态(听觉加视觉)和味觉状态(听觉加味觉)下进行听觉事件相关电位P3测试,记录测试结果。结果①性别对P3潜伏期和振幅无影响(P>0.05);②三种状态下P3潜伏期和振幅无显著性差异(P>0.05)。结论听觉事件相关电位P3是一客观稳定的电生理检测指标,不受性别及注意状态影响,推测可在低龄受试者P3测试中适当给予其感兴趣的刺激以帮助测试顺利进行。

  9. Temporal factors affecting somatosensory-auditory interactions in speech processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki eIto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Speech perception is known to rely on both auditory and visual information. However, sound specific somatosensory input has been shown also to influence speech perceptual processing (Ito et al., 2009. In the present study we addressed further the relationship between somatosensory information and speech perceptual processing by addressing the hypothesis that the temporal relationship between orofacial movement and sound processing contributes to somatosensory-auditory interaction in speech perception. We examined the changes in event-related potentials in response to multisensory synchronous (simultaneous and asynchronous (90 ms lag and lead somatosensory and auditory stimulation compared to individual unisensory auditory and somatosensory stimulation alone. We used a robotic device to apply facial skin somatosensory deformations that were similar in timing and duration to those experienced in speech production. Following synchronous multisensory stimulation the amplitude of the event-related potential was reliably different from the two unisensory potentials. More importantly, the magnitude of the event-related potential difference varied as a function of the relative timing of the somatosensory-auditory stimulation. Event-related activity change due to stimulus timing was seen between 160-220 ms following somatosensory onset, mostly around the parietal area. The results demonstrate a dynamic modulation of somatosensory-auditory convergence and suggest the contribution of somatosensory information for speech processing process is dependent on the specific temporal order of sensory inputs in speech production.

  10. Speech sound discrimination training improves auditory cortex responses in a rat model of autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal T Engineer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism often have language impairments and degraded cortical responses to speech. Extensive behavioral interventions can improve language outcomes and cortical responses. Prenatal exposure to the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA increases the risk for autism and language impairment. Prenatal exposure to VPA also causes weaker and delayed auditory cortex responses in rats. In this study, we document speech sound discrimination ability in VPA exposed rats and document the effect of extensive speech training on auditory cortex responses. VPA exposed rats were significantly impaired at consonant, but not vowel, discrimination. Extensive speech training resulted in both stronger and faster anterior auditory field responses compared to untrained VPA exposed rats, and restored responses to control levels. This neural response improvement generalized to non-trained sounds. The rodent VPA model of autism may be used to improve the understanding of speech processing in autism and contribute to improving language outcomes.

  11. Simultaneous extratympanic electrocochleography and auditory brainstem responses revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Minaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to revisit the two-channel, simultaneous click-evoked extratympanic electrocochleography and auditory brainstem response (ECoG/ABR recording technique for clinical use in normal hearing participants. Recording the compound action potential (AP of the ECoG simultaneously with ABR may be useful when Wave I of the ABR is small or diminished in patients with sensorineural or retrocochlear disorder and minimizes overall test time. In contrast to some previous studies that used the extratympanic electrode both as non-inverting electrode for the ECoG and inverting electrode for ABR, this study maintained separate recording channel montages unique to conventional click-evoked ECoG and ABR recordings. That is, the ABR was recorded using a vertical channel (Cz to ipsilateral earlobe, while the ECoG with custom extratympanic electrode was recorded using a horizontal channel (tympanic membrane to contralateral earlobe. The extratympanic electrode is easy to fabricate inhouse, or can be purchased commercially. Maintaining the conventional ABR montage permits continued use of traditional normative data. Broadband clicks at a fixed level of 85 dB nHL were presented with alternating polarity at stimulus rates of 9.3, 11.3, and 15.3/s. Different stimulation rates were explored to identify the most efficient rate without sacrificing time or waveform morphology. Results revealed larger ECoG AP than ABR Wave I, as expected, and no significant difference across stimulation rate and no interaction effect. Extratympanic electrode placement takes little additional clinic time and may improve the neurodiagnostic utility of the ABR.

  12. Hypnotizability and Placebo Analgesia in Waking and Hypnosis as Modulators of Auditory Startle Responses in Healthy Women: An ERP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Scacchia, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of hypnotizability, pain expectation, placebo analgesia in waking and hypnosis on tonic pain relief. We also investigated how placebo analgesia affects somatic responses (eye blink) and N100 and P200 waves of event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by auditory startle probes. Although expectation plays an important role in placebo and hypnotic analgesia, the neural mechanisms underlying these treatments are still poorly understood. We used the cold cup test (CCT) to induce tonic pain in 53 healthy women. Placebo analgesia was initially produced by manipulation, in which the intensity of pain induced by the CCT was surreptitiously reduced after the administration of a sham analgesic cream. Participants were then tested in waking and hypnosis under three treatments: (1) resting (Baseline); (2) CCT-alone (Pain); and (3) CCT plus placebo cream for pain relief (Placebo). For each painful treatment, we assessed pain and distress ratings, eye blink responses, N100 and P200 amplitudes. We used LORETA analysis of N100 and P200 waves, as elicited by auditory startle, to identify cortical regions sensitive to pain reduction through placebo and hypnotic analgesia. Higher pain expectation was associated with higher pain reductions. In highly hypnotizable participants placebo treatment produced significant reductions of pain and distress perception in both waking and hypnosis condition. P200 wave, during placebo analgesia, was larger in the frontal left hemisphere while placebo analgesia, during hypnosis, involved the activity of the left hemisphere including the occipital region. These findings demonstrate that hypnosis and placebo analgesia are different processes of top-down regulation. Pain reduction was associated with larger EMG startle amplitudes, N100 and P200 responses, and enhanced activity within the frontal, parietal, and anterior and posterior cingulate gyres. LORETA results showed that placebo analgesia modulated pain-responsive areas

  13. Evaluation of Auditory Brain Stems Evoked Response in Newborns With Pathologic Hyperbilirubinemia in Mashhad, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Okhravi, Tooba; Tarvij Eslami, Saeedeh; Hushyar Ahmadi, Ali; Nassirian, Hossain; Najibpour, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neonatal jaundice is a common cause of sensorneural hearing loss in children. Objectives: We aimed to detect the neurotoxic effects of pathologic hyperbilirubinemia on brain stem and auditory tract by auditory brain stem evoked response (ABR) which could predict early effects of hyperbilirubinemia. Patients and Methods: This case-control study was performed on newborns with pathologic hyperbilirubinemia. The inclusion criteria were healthy term and near term (35 - 37 weeks) newbor...

  14. Psychophysical Responses Comparison in Spatial Visual, Audiovisual, and Auditory BCI-Spelling Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Moonjeong; Nishikawa, Nozomu; Cai, Zhenyu; Makino, Shoji; Rutkowski, Tomasz M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a pilot study conducted with spatial visual, audiovisual and auditory brain-computer-interface (BCI) based speller paradigms. The psychophysical experiments are conducted with healthy subjects in order to evaluate a difficulty and a possible response accuracy variability. We also present preliminary EEG results in offline BCI mode. The obtained results validate a thesis, that spatial auditory only paradigm performs as good as the traditional visual and audiovisual speller B...

  15. Gender modulates the development of theta event related oscillations in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorlian, David B; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Kamarajan, Chella; Pandey, Ashwini K; Edenberg, Howard; Kuperman, Samuel; Porjesz, Bernice

    2015-10-01

    The developmental trajectories of theta band (4-7 Hz) event-related oscillations (EROs), a key neurophysiological constituent of the P3 response, were assessed in 2170 adolescents and young adults ages 12 to 25. The theta EROs occurring in the P3 response, important indicators of neurocognitive function, were elicited during the evaluation of task-relevant target stimuli in visual and auditory oddball tasks. These tasks call upon attentional and working memory resources. Large differences in developmental rates between males and females were found; scalp location and task modality (visual or auditory) differences within males and females were small compared to gender differences. Trajectories of interregional and intermodal correlations between ERO power values exhibited increases with age in both genders, but showed a divergence in development between auditory and visual systems during ages 16 to 21. These results are consistent with previous electrophysiological and imaging studies and provide additional temporal detail about the development of neurophysiological indices of cognitive activity. Since measures of the P3 response has been found to be a useful endophenotypes for the study of a number of clinical and behavioral disorders, studies of its development in adolescents and young adults may illuminate neurophysiological factors contributing to the onset of these conditions. PMID:26102560

  16. Diminished Auditory Responses during NREM Sleep Correlate with the Hierarchy of Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman-Haran, Edna; Arzi, Anat; Levkovitz, Yechiel; Malach, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Natural sleep provides a powerful model system for studying the neuronal correlates of awareness and state changes in the human brain. To quantitatively map the nature of sleep-induced modulations in sensory responses we presented participants with auditory stimuli possessing different levels of linguistic complexity. Ten participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the waking state and after falling asleep. Sleep staging was based on heart rate measures validated independently on 20 participants using concurrent EEG and heart rate measurements and the results were confirmed using permutation analysis. Participants were exposed to three types of auditory stimuli: scrambled sounds, meaningless word sentences and comprehensible sentences. During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, we found diminishing brain activation along the hierarchy of language processing, more pronounced in higher processing regions. Specifically, the auditory thalamus showed similar activation levels during sleep and waking states, primary auditory cortex remained activated but showed a significant reduction in auditory responses during sleep, and the high order language-related representation in inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) cortex showed a complete abolishment of responses during NREM sleep. In addition to an overall activation decrease in language processing regions in superior temporal gyrus and IFG, those areas manifested a loss of semantic selectivity during NREM sleep. Our results suggest that the decreased awareness to linguistic auditory stimuli during NREM sleep is linked to diminished activity in high order processing stations. PMID:27310812

  17. Diminished Auditory Responses during NREM Sleep Correlate with the Hierarchy of Language Processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meytal Wilf

    Full Text Available Natural sleep provides a powerful model system for studying the neuronal correlates of awareness and state changes in the human brain. To quantitatively map the nature of sleep-induced modulations in sensory responses we presented participants with auditory stimuli possessing different levels of linguistic complexity. Ten participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during the waking state and after falling asleep. Sleep staging was based on heart rate measures validated independently on 20 participants using concurrent EEG and heart rate measurements and the results were confirmed using permutation analysis. Participants were exposed to three types of auditory stimuli: scrambled sounds, meaningless word sentences and comprehensible sentences. During non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, we found diminishing brain activation along the hierarchy of language processing, more pronounced in higher processing regions. Specifically, the auditory thalamus showed similar activation levels during sleep and waking states, primary auditory cortex remained activated but showed a significant reduction in auditory responses during sleep, and the high order language-related representation in inferior frontal gyrus (IFG cortex showed a complete abolishment of responses during NREM sleep. In addition to an overall activation decrease in language processing regions in superior temporal gyrus and IFG, those areas manifested a loss of semantic selectivity during NREM sleep. Our results suggest that the decreased awareness to linguistic auditory stimuli during NREM sleep is linked to diminished activity in high order processing stations.

  18. Auditory Brainstem Responses in Young Males with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joanne; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Anderson, Kathleen; Roush, Jackson; Gravel, Judith; Skinner, Martie; Misenheimer, Jan; Reitz, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited cause of mental retardation resulting in developmental delays in males. Atypical outer ear morphology is characteristic of FXS and may serve as a marker for abnormal auditory function. Despite this abnormality, studies of the hearing of young males with FXS are generally lacking. A few studies…

  19. Auditory Long Latency Responses to Tonal and Speech Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swink, Shannon; Stuart, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of type of stimuli (i.e., nonspeech vs. speech), speech (i.e., natural vs. synthetic), gender of speaker and listener, speaker (i.e., self vs. other), and frequency alteration in self-produced speech on the late auditory cortical evoked potential were examined. Method: Young adult men (n = 15) and women (n = 15), all with…

  20. Can place-specific cochlear dispersion be represented by auditory steady-state responses?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paredes Gallardo, Andreu; Epp, Bastian; Dau, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated to what extent properties of local cochlear dispersion can be objectively assessed through auditory steady-state responses (ASSR). The hypothesis was that stimuli compensating for the phase response at a particular cochlear location generate a maximally modulated...... basilar membrane (BM) response at that BM position, due to the large "within-channel" synchrony of activity. This would lead, in turn, to a larger ASSR amplitude than other stimuli of corresponding intensity and bandwidth. Two stimulus types were chosen: 1] Harmonic tone complexes consisting of equal......-amplitude tones with a starting phase following an algorithm developed by Schroeder [IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 16, 85-89 (1970)] that have earlier been considered in behavioral studies to estimate human auditory filter phase responses; and 2] simulations of auditory-filter impulse responses (IR). In both cases...

  1. Cortical contributions to the auditory frequency-following response revealed by MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Emily B J; Herholz, Sibylle C; Chepesiuk, Alexander M P; Baillet, Sylvain; Zatorre, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    The auditory frequency-following response (FFR) to complex periodic sounds is used to study the subcortical auditory system, and has been proposed as a biomarker for disorders that feature abnormal sound processing. Despite its value in fundamental and clinical research, the neural origins of the FFR are unclear. Using magnetoencephalography, we observe a strong, right-asymmetric contribution to the FFR from the human auditory cortex at the fundamental frequency of the stimulus, in addition to signal from cochlear nucleus, inferior colliculus and medial geniculate. This finding is highly relevant for our understanding of plasticity and pathology in the auditory system, as well as higher-level cognition such as speech and music processing. It suggests that previous interpretations of the FFR may need re-examination using methods that allow for source separation. PMID:27009409

  2. Auditory-neurophysiological responses to speech during early childhood: Effects of background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Schwoch, Travis; Davies, Evan C; Thompson, Elaine C; Woodruff Carr, Kali; Nicol, Trent; Bradlow, Ann R; Kraus, Nina

    2015-10-01

    Early childhood is a critical period of auditory learning, during which children are constantly mapping sounds to meaning. But this auditory learning rarely occurs in ideal listening conditions-children are forced to listen against a relentless din. This background noise degrades the neural coding of these critical sounds, in turn interfering with auditory learning. Despite the importance of robust and reliable auditory processing during early childhood, little is known about the neurophysiology underlying speech processing in children so young. To better understand the physiological constraints these adverse listening scenarios impose on speech sound coding during early childhood, auditory-neurophysiological responses were elicited to a consonant-vowel syllable in quiet and background noise in a cohort of typically-developing preschoolers (ages 3-5 yr). Overall, responses were degraded in noise: they were smaller, less stable across trials, slower, and there was poorer coding of spectral content and the temporal envelope. These effects were exacerbated in response to the consonant transition relative to the vowel, suggesting that the neural coding of spectrotemporally-dynamic speech features is more tenuous in noise than the coding of static features-even in children this young. Neural coding of speech temporal fine structure, however, was more resilient to the addition of background noise than coding of temporal envelope information. Taken together, these results demonstrate that noise places a neurophysiological constraint on speech processing during early childhood by causing a breakdown in neural processing of speech acoustics. These results may explain why some listeners have inordinate difficulties understanding speech in noise. Speech-elicited auditory-neurophysiological responses offer objective insight into listening skills during early childhood by reflecting the integrity of neural coding in quiet and noise; this paper documents typical response

  3. Event-related potentials demonstrate deficits in acoustic segmentation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Brian A; Haigh, Sarah M; Murphy, Tim K; Salisbury, Dean F

    2016-05-01

    Segmentation of the acoustic environment into discrete percepts is an important facet of auditory scene analysis (ASA). Segmentation of auditory stimuli into perceptually meaningful and localizable groups is central to ASA in everyday situations; for example, separation of discrete words from continuous sentences when processing language. This is particularly relevant to schizophrenia, where deficits in perceptual organization have been linked to symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. Here we examined event-related potentials in response to grouped tones to elucidate schizophrenia-related differences in acoustic segmentation. We report for the first time in healthy subjects a sustained potential that begins with group initiation and ends with the last tone of the group. These potentials were reduced in schizophrenia, with the greatest differences in responses to first and final tones. Importantly, reductions in sustained potentials in schizophrenia patients were associated with greater negative symptoms and deficits in IQ, working memory, learning, and social cognition. These results suggest deficits in auditory pattern segmentation in schizophrenia may compound deficits in many higher-order facets of the disorder. PMID:27032476

  4. Priming and competition of associated memory representations: A comparison between response times and event-related potentials following lesions to left temporal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Piai

    2015-05-01

    These results suggest that associated concepts and words in memory prime each other (as indexed by the N400 effect, but also incur a stronger competition between them (as indicated by the RT effect, delaying response selection.

  5. Processamento auditivo e potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco cerebral (BERA Auditory precessing and auditory brainstem response (ABR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Pfeiffer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar relação existente entre os potenciais auditivos de tronco cerebral e a avaliação comportamental do processamento auditivo. MÉTODOS: foi realizada em um grupo de 60 meninas residentes de Paraíba do Sul na idade de nove a 12 anos com limiares tonais dentro dos padrões de normalidade e timpanometria tipo A com presença dos reflexos acústicos. Os testes utilizados para a avaliação comportamental do processamento auditivo foram: avaliação simplificada do processamento auditivo, teste de fala no ruído, teste de dissílabos alternados e teste dicótico não verbal. Após a avaliação do processamento auditivo, as crianças foram subdivididas em dois grupos, G1 (sem alteração no processamento auditivo e G2 (com alteração no processamento auditivo e submetidas aos potenciais auditivos de tronco cerebral. Os parâmetros utilizados na comparação dos dois grupos foram: latência absoluta das ondas I, III e V; latência interpicos das ondas I-III, I-V, III-V; diferença interaural da latência interpico I-V; e diferença interaural da latência da onda V. RESULTADOS: foram encontradas diferenças estatísticas nos parâmetros de latência interpico das ondas I-V na orelha esquerda (p=0,009, diferença interaural da latência interpico de ondas I-V (p=0,020 e diferença da latência interpico de ondas I e V da orelha direita para a esquerda entre os grupos G1 e G2 (p=0,025. CONCLUSÃO: foi possível encontrar relação dos potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco cerebral com a avaliação comportamental do processamento auditivo nos parâmetros de latência interpico entre as ondas I e V da orelha esquerda e diferença interaural da latência interpico I-V na orelha esquerda.PURPOSE: to investigate the correlation of auditory brainstem response (ABR and behavioral auditory processing evaluation. METHODS: sixty girls, from Paraíba do Sul, ranging from 9 to 12-year-old were evaluated. In order to take part in the study

  6. Brainstem reflexes and brainstem auditory evoked responses in Huntington's chorea.

    OpenAIRE

    Bollen, E; Arts, R.J.; Roos, R A; van der Velde, E A; Buruma, O J

    1986-01-01

    Blink reflex, corneal reflex, jaw reflex, exteroceptive suppression in masseter muscles and brainstem auditory evoked potentials were measured in 20 patients with Huntington's chorea and 12 controls. A significantly increased latency of the second component of the homolateral and heterolateral blink reflex was found in the patient group as compared with the controls. The other investigations revealed no significant differences between patients and controls except for some facilitation of the ...

  7. Visual-induced expectations modulate auditory cortical responses

    OpenAIRE

    van Wassenhove, Virginie; Grzeczkowski, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    Active sensing has important consequences on multisensory processing (Schroeder et al., 2010). Here, we asked whether in the absence of saccades, the position of the eyes and the timing of transient color changes of visual stimuli could selectively affect the excitability of auditory cortex by predicting the “where” and the “when” of a sound, respectively. Human participants were recorded with magnetoencephalography (MEG) while maintaining the position of their eyes on the left, right, or cen...

  8. A model of auditory nerve responses to electrical stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Suyash Narendra; Dau, Torsten; Epp, Bastian

    peripheral for the cathodic phase. This results in an average difference of 200 μs in spike latency for AP generated by anodic vs cathodic pulses. It is hypothesized here that this difference is large enough to corrupt the temporal coding in the AN. To quantify effects of pulse polarity on auditory...... as a framework to test various stimulation strategies and to quantify their effect on the performance of CI listeners in psychophysical tasks....

  9. Effect of neonatal asphyxia on the impairment of the auditory pathway by recording auditory brainstem responses in newborn piglets: a new experimentation model to study the perinatal hypoxic-ischemic damage on the auditory system.

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    Francisco Jose Alvarez

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-ischemia (HI is a major perinatal problem that results in severe damage to the brain impairing the normal development of the auditory system. The purpose of the present study is to study the effect of perinatal asphyxia on the auditory pathway by recording auditory brain responses in a novel animal experimentation model in newborn piglets.Hypoxia-ischemia was induced to 1.3 day-old piglets by clamping 30 minutes both carotid arteries by vascular occluders and lowering the fraction of inspired oxygen. We compared the Auditory Brain Responses (ABRs of newborn piglets exposed to acute hypoxia/ischemia (n = 6 and a control group with no such exposure (n = 10. ABRs were recorded for both ears before the start of the experiment (baseline, after 30 minutes of HI injury, and every 30 minutes during 6 h after the HI injury.Auditory brain responses were altered during the hypoxic-ischemic insult but recovered 30-60 minutes later. Hypoxia/ischemia seemed to induce auditory functional damage by increasing I-V latencies and decreasing wave I, III and V amplitudes, although differences were not significant.The described experimental model of hypoxia-ischemia in newborn piglets may be useful for studying the effect of perinatal asphyxia on the impairment of the auditory pathway.

  10. (Amusicality in Williams syndrome: Examining relationships among auditory perception, musical skill, and emotional responsiveness to music

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    Miriam eLense

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS, a genetic, neurodevelopmental disorder, is of keen interest to music cognition researchers because of its characteristic auditory sensitivities and emotional responsiveness to music. However, actual musical perception and production abilities are more variable. We examined musicality in WS through the lens of amusia and explored how their musical perception abilities related to their auditory sensitivities, musical production skills, and emotional responsiveness to music. In our sample of 73 adolescents and adults with WS, 11% met criteria for amusia, which is higher than the 4% prevalence rate reported in the typically developing population. Amusia was not related to auditory sensitivities but was related to musical training. Performance on the amusia measure strongly predicted musical skill but not emotional responsiveness to music, which was better predicted by general auditory sensitivities. This study represents the first time amusia has been examined in a population with a known neurodevelopmental genetic disorder with a range of cognitive abilities. Results have implications for the relationships across different levels of auditory processing, musical skill development, and emotional responsiveness to music, as well as the understanding of gene-brain-behavior relationships in individuals with WS and typically developing individuals with and without amusia.

  11. Differences in the neural mechanisms of selective attention in children from different socioeconomic backgrounds: An event-related brain potential study

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Courtney; Lauinger, Brittni; Neville, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Previous research indicates that children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds show deficits in aspects of attention, including a reduced ability to filter irrelevant information and to suppress prepotent responses. However, less is known about the neural mechanisms of group differences in attention, which could reveal the stages of processing at which attention deficits arise. The present study examined this question using an event-related brain potential (ERP) measure of selective auditory ...

  12. Modulation of auditory cortex response to pitch variation following training with microtonal melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatorre, Robert J; Delhommeau, Karine; Zarate, Jean Mary

    2012-01-01

    We tested changes in cortical functional response to auditory patterns in a configural learning paradigm. We trained 10 human listeners to discriminate micromelodies (consisting of smaller pitch intervals than normally used in Western music) and measured covariation in blood oxygenation signal to increasing pitch interval size in order to dissociate global changes in activity from those specifically associated with the stimulus feature that was trained. A psychophysical staircase procedure with feedback was used for training over a 2-week period. Behavioral tests of discrimination ability performed before and after training showed significant learning on the trained stimuli, and generalization to other frequencies and tasks; no learning occurred in an untrained control group. Before training the functional MRI data showed the expected systematic increase in activity in auditory cortices as a function of increasing micromelody pitch interval size. This function became shallower after training, with the maximal change observed in the right posterior auditory cortex. Global decreases in activity in auditory regions, along with global increases in frontal cortices also occurred after training. Individual variation in learning rate was related to the hemodynamic slope to pitch interval size, such that those who had a higher sensitivity to pitch interval variation prior to learning achieved the fastest learning. We conclude that configural auditory learning entails modulation in the response of auditory cortex to the trained stimulus feature. Reduction in blood oxygenation response to increasing pitch interval size suggests that fewer computational resources, and hence lower neural recruitment, is associated with learning, in accord with models of auditory cortex function, and with data from other modalities. PMID:23227019

  13. Modulation of auditory cortex response to pitch variation following training with microtonal melodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Zatorre

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We tested changes in cortical functional response to auditory configural learning by training ten human listeners to discriminate micromelodies (consisting of smaller pitch intervals than normally used in Western music. We measured covariation in blood oxygenation signal to increasing pitch-interval size in order to dissociate global changes in activity from those specifically associated with the stimulus feature of interest. A psychophysical staircase procedure with feedback was used for training over a two-week period. Behavioral tests of discrimination ability performed before and after training showed significant learning on the trained stimuli, and generalization to other frequencies and tasks; no learning occurred in an untrained control group. Before training the functional MRI data showed the expected systematic increase in activity in auditory cortices as a function of increasing micromelody pitch-interval size. This function became shallower after training, with the maximal change observed in the right posterior auditory cortex. Global decreases in activity in auditory regions, along with global increases in frontal cortices also occurred after training. Individual variation in learning rate was related to the hemodynamic slope to pitch-interval size, such that those who had a higher sensitivity to pitch-interval variation prior to learning achieved the fastest learning. We conclude that configural auditory learning entails modulation in the response of auditory cortex specifically to the trained stimulus feature. Reduction in blood oxygenation response to increasing pitch-interval size suggests that fewer computational resources, and hence lower neural recruitment, is associated with learning, in accord with models of auditory cortex function, and with data from other modalities.

  14. Reevaluation of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap Using Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospers, J. Mirjam Boeschen; Smits, Niels; Smits, Cas; Stam, Mariska; Terwee, Caroline B.; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We reevaluated the psychometric properties of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH; Kramer, Kapteyn, Festen, & Tobi, 1995) using item response theory. Item response theory describes item functioning along an ability continuum. Method: Cross-sectional data from 2,352 adults with and without hearing…

  15. Electrophysiological Auditory Responses and Language Development in Infants with Periventricular Leukomalacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avecilla-Ramirez, G. N.; Ruiz-Correa, S.; Marroquin, J. L.; Harmony, T.; Alba, A.; Mendoza-Montoya, O.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents evidence suggesting that electrophysiological responses to language-related auditory stimuli recorded at 46 weeks postconceptional age (PCA) are associated with language development, particularly in infants with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). In order to investigate this hypothesis, electrophysiological responses to a set…

  16. Comparative Study of Determining of the Responsible Person and the Basis of Compensation in Civil Liability Results from Events Related to Nuclear Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Sayyed Mohammad Mahdi Qabuli Dorafshan; Vahid Rezadoost

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear facilities, though have large advantages for human being, they also creates heavy hazards. Thus, the question of civil liability results from events of mentioned facilities are so significant. This paper studies the question of the basis and responsible for compensation results from aforementioned events in international instruments, Iran and French law. Outcome of this study shows that in this regard, Paris and Vienna conventions and the other related conventions and protocols adjust...

  17. Lower-frequency event-related desynchronization: a signature of late mismatch responses to sounds, which is reduced or absent in children with specific language impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, D.V.M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.

    2010-01-01

    Poor discrimination of non-linguistic sounds has been implicated in language-learning problems in children, but research evidence has been inconsistent. This study included 32 participants with specific language impairment (SLI) and 32 typically-developing controls aged 7 to 16 years. Frequency discrimination thresholds were estimated in a task where participants had to distinguish a higher-frequency tone from a 1000 Hz tone. Neurophysiological responses were assessed in an oddball paradigm. ...

  18. Comparative Study of Determining of the Responsible Person and the Basis of Compensation in Civil Liability Results from Events Related to Nuclear Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Mohammad Mahdi Qabuli Dorafshan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear facilities, though have large advantages for human being, they also creates heavy hazards. Thus, the question of civil liability results from events of mentioned facilities are so significant. This paper studies the question of the basis and responsible for compensation results from aforementioned events in international instruments, Iran and French law. Outcome of this study shows that in this regard, Paris and Vienna conventions and the other related conventions and protocols adjust a special legal régime. In this respect, the international instruments while distancing themselves from liability based on fault, highlight the exclusive responsibility of the operator of nuclear facilities and they have commited the operator to insurance or appropriate secure financing. Also French legal régime have followed this manner with the impact of the Paris Convention and its amendments and additions. There is no special provisions in Iran legal régime in this matter so civil liability results from nuclear events is under general rules of civil liability and rules such Itlaf (loss, Tasbib (causation, Taqsir (fault and La-zarar (no damage in the context of Imamye jurisprudence. Ofcourse, the responsible is basically the one who the damage is attributable to him. Finaly, It is appropriate that the Iranian legislator predict favorable régime and provides special financial fund for compensation of possible injured parties in accordance with necessities and specific requirements related to nuclear energy

  19. Mismatch responses in the awake rat: evidence from epidural recordings of auditory cortical fields.

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    Fabienne Jung

    Full Text Available Detecting sudden environmental changes is crucial for the survival of humans and animals. In the human auditory system the mismatch negativity (MMN, a component of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs, reflects the violation of predictable stimulus regularities, established by the previous auditory sequence. Given the considerable potentiality of the MMN for clinical applications, establishing valid animal models that allow for detailed investigation of its neurophysiological mechanisms is important. Rodent studies, so far almost exclusively under anesthesia, have not provided decisive evidence whether an MMN analogue exists in rats. This may be due to several factors, including the effect of anesthesia. We therefore used epidural recordings in awake black hooded rats, from two auditory cortical areas in both hemispheres, and with bandpass filtered noise stimuli that were optimized in frequency and duration for eliciting MMN in rats. Using a classical oddball paradigm with frequency deviants, we detected mismatch responses at all four electrodes in primary and secondary auditory cortex, with morphological and functional properties similar to those known in humans, i.e., large amplitude biphasic differences that increased in amplitude with decreasing deviant probability. These mismatch responses significantly diminished in a control condition that removed the predictive context while controlling for presentation rate of the deviants. While our present study does not allow for disambiguating precisely the relative contribution of adaptation and prediction error processing to the observed mismatch responses, it demonstrates that MMN-like potentials can be obtained in awake and unrestrained rats.

  20. Influence of a latrophilin 3 (LPHN3) risk haplotype on event-related potential measures of cognitive response control in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallgatter, Andreas J; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Dresler, Thomas; Reif, Andreas; Jacob, Christian P; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Muenke, Maximilian; Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2013-06-01

    Current research strategies have made great efforts to further elucidate the complex genetic architecture of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study examined the impact of an LPHN3 haplotype that has recently been associated with ADHD (Arcos-Burgos et al., 2010) on neural activity in a visual Go-NoGo task. Two hundred sixteen adult ADHD patients completed a Continuous Performance Test (CPT) while the ongoing EEG was simultaneously recorded. Results showed that patients carrying two copies of the LPHN3 risk haplotype (n=114) made more omission errors and had a more anterior Go-centroid of the P300 than patients carrying at least one LPHN3 non-risk haplotype (n=102). Accordingly, the NoGo-Anteriorization (NGA; topographical ERP difference of the Go- and NoGo-condition), a neurophysiological marker of prefrontal functioning, was reduced in the LPHN3 high risk group. However, in the NoGo-condition itself no marked differences attributable to the LPHN3 haplotype could be found. Our findings indicate that, within a sample of ADHD patients, the LPHN3 gene impacts behavioral and neurophysiological measures of cognitive response control. The results of our study further strengthen the concept of an LPHN3 risk haplotype for ADHD and support the usefulness of the endophenotype approach in psychiatric and psychological research. PMID:23245769

  1. Distraction task rather than focal attention modulates gamma activity associated with auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griskova-Bulanova, Inga; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Dapsys, Kastytis; Maciulis, Valentinas; Arnfred, Sidse Marie Hemmingsen

    2011-01-01

    To explore the modulation of auditory steady-state response (ASSR) by experimental tasks, differing in attentional focus and arousal level.......To explore the modulation of auditory steady-state response (ASSR) by experimental tasks, differing in attentional focus and arousal level....

  2. Auditory distraction transmitted by a cochlear implant alters allocation of attentional resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Mareike; Sandmann, Pascale; Kopp, Bruno; Lenarz, Thomas; Büchner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are auditory prostheses which restore hearing via electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. The successful adaptation of auditory cognition to the CI input depends to a substantial degree on individual factors. We pursued an electrophysiological approach toward an analysis of cortical responses that reflect perceptual processing stages and higher-level responses to CI input. Performance and event-related potentials on two cross-modal discrimination-following-distraction (DFD) tasks from CI users and normal-hearing (NH) individuals were compared. The visual-auditory distraction task combined visual distraction with following auditory discrimination performance. Here, we observed similar cortical responses to visual distractors (Novelty-N2) and slowed, less accurate auditory discrimination performance in CI users when compared to NH individuals. Conversely, the auditory-visual distraction task was used to combine auditory distraction with visual discrimination performance. In this task we found attenuated cortical responses to auditory distractors (Novelty-P3), slowed visual discrimination performance, and attenuated cortical P3-responses to visual targets in CI users compared to NH individuals. These results suggest that CI users process auditory distractors differently than NH individuals and that the presence of auditory CI input has an adverse effect on the processing of visual targets and the visual discrimination ability in implanted individuals. We propose that this attenuation of the visual modality occurs through the allocation of neural resources to the CI input. PMID:25798083

  3. Is the auditory evoked P2 response a biomarker of learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Kelly L; Ross, Bernhard; Inoue, Kayo; McClannahan, Katrina; Collet, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Even though auditory training exercises for humans have been shown to improve certain perceptual skills of individuals with and without hearing loss, there is a lack of knowledge pertaining to which aspects of training are responsible for the perceptual gains, and which aspects of perception are changed. To better define how auditory training impacts brain and behavior, electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) have been used to determine the time course and coincidence of cortical modulations associated with different types of training. Here we focus on P1-N1-P2 auditory evoked responses (AEP), as there are consistent reports of gains in P2 amplitude following various types of auditory training experiences; including music and speech-sound training. The purpose of this experiment was to determine if the auditory evoked P2 response is a biomarker of learning. To do this, we taught native English speakers to identify a new pre-voiced temporal cue that is not used phonemically in the English language so that coinciding changes in evoked neural activity could be characterized. To differentiate possible effects of repeated stimulus exposure and a button-pushing task from learning itself, we examined modulations in brain activity in a group of participants who learned to identify the pre-voicing contrast and compared it to participants, matched in time, and stimulus exposure, that did not. The main finding was that the amplitude of the P2 auditory evoked response increased across repeated EEG sessions for all groups, regardless of any change in perceptual performance. What's more, these effects are retained for months. Changes in P2 amplitude were attributed to changes in neural activity associated with the acquisition process and not the learned outcome itself. A further finding was the expression of a late negativity (LN) wave 600-900 ms post-stimulus onset, post-training exclusively for the group that learned to identify the pre-voiced contrast

  4. Is the auditory evoked P2 response a biomarker of learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly eTremblay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Even though auditory training exercises for humans have been shown to improve certain perceptual skills of individuals with and without hearing loss, there is a lack of knowledge pertaining to which aspects of training are responsible for the perceptual gains, and which aspects of perception are changed. To better define how auditory training impacts brain and behavior, electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography have been used to determine the time course and coincidence of cortical modulations associated with different types of training. Here we focus on P1-N1-P2 auditory evoked responses (AEP, as there are consistent reports of gains in P2 amplitude following various types of auditory training experiences; including music and speech-sound training. The purpose of this experiment was to determine if the auditory evoked P2 response is a biomarker of learning. To do this, we taught native English speakers to identify a new pre-voiced temporal cue that is not used phonemically in the English language so that coinciding changes in evoked neural activity could be characterized. To differentiate possible effects of repeated stimulus exposure and a button-pushing task from learning itself, we examined modulations in brain activity in a group of participants who learned to identify the pre-voicing contrast and compared it to participants, matched in time, and stimulus exposure, that did not. The main finding was that the amplitude of the P2 auditory evoked response increased across repeated EEG sessions for all groups, regardless of any change in perceptual performance. What’s more, these effects were retained for months. Changes in P2 amplitude were attributed to changes in neural activity associated with the acquisition process and not the learned outcome itself. A further finding was the expression of a late negativity (LN wave 600-900 ms post-stimulus onset, post-training, exclusively for the group that learned to identify the pre

  5. Auditory cues increase the hippocampal response to unimodal virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreano, Joseph; Liang, Kevin; Kong, Lingjun; Hubbard, David; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Wiederhold, Mark D

    2009-06-01

    Previous research suggests that the effectiveness of virtual reality exposure therapy should increase as the experience becomes more immersive. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the experience of immersion are not yet well understood. To address this question, neural activity during exposure to two virtual worlds was measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Two levels of immersion were used: unimodal (video only) and multimodal (video plus audio). The results indicated increased activity in both auditory and visual sensory cortices during multimodal presentation. Additionally, multimodal presentation elicited increased activity in the hippocampus, a region well known to be involved in learning and memory. The implications of this finding for exposure therapy are discussed. PMID:19500000

  6. Comparison of cochlear delay estimates using otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harte, James; Pigasse, Gilles; Dau, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    Different attempts have been made to directly measure frequency specific basilar membrane (BM) delays in animals, e.g., laser velocimetry of BM vibrations and auditory nerve fiber recordings. The present study uses otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to estimate B...... synaptic delays. This allows a comparison between individual OAE and BM delays over a large frequency range in the same subjects, and offers support to the theory that OAEs are reflected from a tonotopic place and carried back to the cochlear base via a reverse traveling wave....

  7. Brainstem auditory evoked responses and ophthalmic findings in llamas and alpacas in eastern Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Aubrey A.; Cullen, Cheryl L.; Lamont, Leigh A.

    2006-01-01

    Seventeen llamas and 23 alpacas of various coat and iris colors were evaluated for: 1) deafness by using brainstem auditory evoked response testing; and 2) for ocular abnormalities via complete ophthalmic examination. No animals were deaf. The most common ocular abnormalities noted were iris-to-iris persistent pupillary membranes and incipient cataracts.

  8. Modelling the level-dependent latency of the auditory brainstem response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, Filip Munch; Dau, Torsten; Harte, James;

    2011-01-01

    Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) are used for both clinical and research purposes to objectively assess human hearing. A prominent feature of the transient evoked ABR is the level-dependent latency of the distinct peaks in its waveform. The latency of the most prominent peak, wave-V, is about 8...

  9. Can auditory stady-state responses reflect place-specific cochlear dispersion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paredes Gallardo, Andreu; Epp, Bastian; Dau, Torsten

    . Previous studies showed the applicability of auditory evoked potentials (AEP) to investigate cochlear dispersion along the basilar membrane (BM) (e.g. Dau et al., 2000). In contrast to those studies, the present study maximizes the response in a given frequency region, aiming to objectively estimate local...

  10. Auditory Brainstem Response to Complex Sounds Predicts Self-Reported Speech-in-Noise Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Samira; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the ability of the auditory brainstem response to complex sounds (cABR) to predict subjective ratings of speech understanding in noise on the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ; Gatehouse & Noble, 2004) relative to the predictive ability of the Quick Speech-in-Noise test (QuickSIN; Killion, Niquette,…

  11. Selective attention modulates human auditory brainstem responses: relative contributions of frequency and spatial cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Lehmann

    Full Text Available Selective attention is the mechanism that allows focusing one's attention on a particular stimulus while filtering out a range of other stimuli, for instance, on a single conversation in a noisy room. Attending to one sound source rather than another changes activity in the human auditory cortex, but it is unclear whether attention to different acoustic features, such as voice pitch and speaker location, modulates subcortical activity. Studies using a dichotic listening paradigm indicated that auditory brainstem processing may be modulated by the direction of attention. We investigated whether endogenous selective attention to one of two speech signals affects amplitude and phase locking in auditory brainstem responses when the signals were either discriminable by frequency content alone, or by frequency content and spatial location. Frequency-following responses to the speech sounds were significantly modulated in both conditions. The modulation was specific to the task-relevant frequency band. The effect was stronger when both frequency and spatial information were available. Patterns of response were variable between participants, and were correlated with psychophysical discriminability of the stimuli, suggesting that the modulation was biologically relevant. Our results demonstrate that auditory brainstem responses are susceptible to efferent modulation related to behavioral goals. Furthermore they suggest that mechanisms of selective attention actively shape activity at early subcortical processing stages according to task relevance and based on frequency and spatial cues.

  12. Altered auditory BOLD response to conspecific birdsong in zebra finches with stuttered syllables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning U Voss

    Full Text Available How well a songbird learns a song appears to depend on the formation of a robust auditory template of its tutor's song. Using functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging we examine auditory responses in two groups of zebra finches that differ in the type of song they sing after being tutored by birds producing stuttering-like syllable repetitions in their songs. We find that birds that learn to produce the stuttered syntax show attenuated blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD responses to tutor's song, and more pronounced responses to conspecific song primarily in the auditory area field L of the avian forebrain, when compared to birds that produce normal song. These findings are consistent with the presence of a sensory song template critical for song learning in auditory areas of the zebra finch forebrain. In addition, they suggest a relationship between an altered response related to familiarity and/or saliency of song stimuli and the production of variant songs with stuttered syllables.

  13. Improved Electrically Evoked Auditory Steady-State Response Thresholds in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Michael; Wouters, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Electrically evoked auditory steady-state responses (EASSRs) are EEG potentials in response to periodic electrical stimuli presented through a cochlear implant. For low-rate pulse trains in the 40-Hz range, electrophysiological thresholds derived from response amplitude growth functions correlate well with behavioral T levels at these rates. The aims of this study were: (1) to improve the correlation between electrophysiological thresholds and behavioral T levels at 900 pps by using amplitude...

  14. Visuo-tactile interactions in the congenitally deaf: A behavioral and event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Hauthal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory deprivation is known to be accompanied by alterations in visual processing. Yet not much is known about tactile processing and the interplay of the intact sensory modalities in the deaf. We presented visual, tactile, and visuo-tactile stimuli to congenitally deaf and hearing individuals in a speeded detection task. Analyses of multisensory responses showed a redundant signals effect that was attributable to a coactivation mechanism in both groups, although the redundancy gain was less in the deaf. In hearing but not deaf participants, N200 latencies of somatosensory event-related potentials were modulated by simultaneous visual stimulation. In deaf but not hearing participants, however, there was a modulation of N200 latencies of visual event-related potentials due to simultaneous tactile stimulation. A comparison of unisensory responses between groups revealed larger N200 amplitudes for visual and shorter N200 latencies for tactile stimuli in the deaf. P300 amplitudes in response to both stimuli were larger in deaf participants. The differences in visual and tactile processing between deaf and hearing participants, however, were not reflected in behavior. The electroencephalography (EEG results suggest an asymmetry in visuo-tactile interactions between deaf and hearing individuals. Visuo-tactile enhancements could neither be fully explained by perceptual deficiency nor by inverse effectiveness. Instead, we suggest that results might be explained by a shift in the relative importance of touch and vision in deaf individuals.

  15. Cerebral Responses to Vocal Attractiveness and Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia: A Functional MRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiko eKoeda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Impaired self-monitoring and abnormalities of cognitive bias have been implicated as cognitive mechanisms of hallucination; regions fundamental to these processes including inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and superior temporal gyrus (STG are abnormally activated in individuals that hallucinate. A recent study showed activation in IFG-STG to be modulated by auditory attractiveness, but no study has investigated whether these IFG-STG activations are impaired in schizophrenia. We aimed to clarify the cerebral function underlying the perception of auditory attractiveness in schizophrenia patients. Cerebral activation was examined in 18 schizophrenia patients and 18 controls when performing Favourability Judgment Task (FJT and Gender Differentiation Task (GDT for pairs of greetings using event-related functional MRI. A full-factorial analysis revealed that the main effect of task was associated with activation of left IFG and STG. The main effect of Group revealed less activation of left STG in schizophrenia compared with controls, whereas significantly greater activation in schizophrenia than in controls was revealed at the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG, right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ, right occipital lobe, and right amygdala (p<0.05, FDR-corrected. A significant positive correlation was observed at the right TPJ and right MFG between cerebral activation under FJT minus GDT contrast and the score of hallucinatory behaviour on the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. Findings of hypo-activation in the left STG could designate brain dysfunction in accessing vocal attractiveness in schizophrenia, whereas hyper-activation in the right TPJ and MFG may reflect the process of mentalizing other person’s behaviour by auditory hallucination by abnormality of cognitive bias.

  16. Attention and response control in ADHD. Evaluation through integrated visual and auditory continuous performance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-García, Inmaculada; Delgado-Pardo, Gracia; Roldán-Blasco, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses attention and response control through visual and auditory stimuli in a primary care pediatric sample. The sample consisted of 191 participants aged between 7 and 13 years old. It was divided into 2 groups: (a) 90 children with ADHD, according to diagnostic (DSM-IV-TR) (APA, 2002) and clinical (ADHD Rating Scale-IV) (DuPaul, Power, Anastopoulos, & Reid, 1998) criteria, and (b) 101 children without a history of ADHD. The aims were: (a) to determine and compare the performance of both groups in attention and response control, (b) to identify attention and response control deficits in the ADHD group. Assessments were carried out using the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test (IVA/CPT, Sandford & Turner, 2002). Results showed that the ADHD group had visual and auditory attention deficits, F(3, 170) = 14.38; p ADHD showed inattention, mental processing speed deficits, and loss of concentration with visual stimuli. Both groups yielded a better performance in attention with auditory stimuli. PMID:25734571

  17. Formation of associations in auditory cortex by slow changes of tonic firing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosch, Michael; Selezneva, Elena; Scheich, Henning

    2011-01-01

    We review event-related slow firing changes in the auditory cortex and related brain structures. Two types of changes can be distinguished, namely increases and decreases of firing, lasting in the order of seconds. Triggering events can be auditory stimuli, reinforcers, and behavioral responses. Slow firing changes terminate with reinforcers and possibly with auditory stimuli and behavioral responses. A necessary condition for the emergence of slow firing changes seems to be that subjects have learnt that consecutive sensory or behavioral events are contingent on reinforcement. They disappear when the contingencies are no longer present. Slow firing changes in auditory cortex bear similarities with slow changes of neuronal activity that have been observed in subcortical parts of the auditory system and in other non-sensory brain structures. We propose that slow firing changes in auditory cortex provide a neuronal mechanism for anticipating, memorizing, and associating events that are related to hearing and of behavioral relevance. This may complement the representation of the timing and types of auditory and auditory-related events which may be provided by phasic responses in auditory cortex. The presence of slow firing changes indicates that many more auditory-related aspects of a behavioral procedure are reflected in the neuronal activity of auditory cortex than previously assumed. PMID:20488230

  18. Using auditory steady state responses to outline the functional connectivity in the tinnitus brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried Schlee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tinnitus is an auditory phantom perception that is most likely generated in the central nervous system. Most of the tinnitus research has concentrated on the auditory system. However, it was suggested recently that also non-auditory structures are involved in a global network that encodes subjective tinnitus. We tested this assumption using auditory steady state responses to entrain the tinnitus network and investigated long-range functional connectivity across various non-auditory brain regions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using whole-head magnetoencephalography we investigated cortical connectivity by means of phase synchronization in tinnitus subjects and healthy controls. We found evidence for a deviating pattern of long-range functional connectivity in tinnitus that was strongly correlated with individual ratings of the tinnitus percept. Phase couplings between the anterior cingulum and the right frontal lobe and phase couplings between the anterior cingulum and the right parietal lobe showed significant condition x group interactions and were correlated with the individual tinnitus distress ratings only in the tinnitus condition and not in the control conditions. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge this is the first study that demonstrates existence of a global tinnitus network of long-range cortical connections outside the central auditory system. This result extends the current knowledge of how tinnitus is generated in the brain. We propose that this global extend of the tinnitus network is crucial for the continuos perception of the tinnitus tone and a therapeutical intervention that is able to change this network should result in relief of tinnitus.

  19. Event-related evoked potentials in chronic respiratory encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Al Tahan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A R Al Tahan1, R Zaidan1, S Jones2, A Husain3, A Mobeireek1, A Bahammam11Department of Medicine, 3Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Neurophysiology, Institute of Neurology, London, UKBackground: Cognitive event-related potential (P300 is an index of cognitive processing time. It was found to be prolonged in dementia, renal, and hepatic encephalopathies, but was not extensively assessed in respiratory failure.Objective: To evaluate P300 changes in patients with respiratory failure, and especially those with mild or subclinical hypoxic–hypercapnic encephalopathy.Methods: Auditory event-related evoked potential P300 latency was measured using an oddball paradigm in patients with respiratory failure due to any cause (partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PO2 should be 75 mm/Hg or less. Apart from blood gases measurement, patients underwent the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. Patient performances were compared with that of matched normal control. Patients were admitted into the study from outpatient clinics and wards at King Khalid University Hospital and Sahara Hospital.Results: Thirty-four patients (12 women, 22 men were admitted to the study. Ages ranged from 19–67 years with a mean of 46.1 years. Respiratory failure was severe or very severe in 11 patients (33%, and mild or moderate in the rest (66%. Mean value for PO2 and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PCO2 were 63.7 and 45.2 mm/Hg, respectively. pH mean was 7.4 and O2 saturation was 90.7%. P300 latency ranged from 218 to 393 milliseconds, with a mean of 338.4 milliseconds. In comparison with control (309.9 milliseconds, there was a significant difference (P = 0.007. P300 amplitude differences were not significant. No significant difference in MMSE was noted between mild and severe respiratory failure. Results of detailed neuropsychological assessment were clearly abnormal but were

  20. Electrically evoked auditory nerve responses in the cochlea with normal outer hair cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Tianying; Guo, Menghe; He, Wenxuan; Miller, Josef M.; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2009-01-01

    As hybrid cochlear implant devices are increasingly used for restoring hearing in patients with residual hearing it is important to understand electrically evoked responses in cochleae having functional hair cells. To test the hypothesis that extracochlear electrical stimulation (EES) from sinusoidal current can provoke an auditory nerve response with normal frequency selectivity, the EES-evoked compound action potential (ECAP) was investigated in this study. Brief sinusoidal electrical curre...

  1. Sex differences and endocrine regulation of auditory-evoked, neural responses in African clawed frogs (Xenopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ian C; Woolley, Sarah M N; Kwong-Brown, Ursula; Kelley, Darcy B

    2016-01-01

    Mating depends on the accurate detection of signals that convey species identity and reproductive state. In African clawed frogs, Xenopus, this information is conveyed by vocal signals that differ in temporal patterns and spectral features between sexes and across species. We characterized spectral sensitivity using auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs), commonly known as the auditory brainstem response, in males and females of four Xenopus species. In female X. amieti, X. petersii, and X. laevis, peripheral auditory sensitivity to their species own dyad-two, species-specific dominant frequencies in the male advertisement call-is enhanced relative to males. Males were most sensitive to lower frequencies including those in the male-directed release calls. Frequency sensitivity was influenced by endocrine state; ovariectomized females had male-like auditory tuning while dihydrotestosterone-treated, ovariectomized females maintained female-like tuning. Thus, adult, female Xenopus demonstrate an endocrine-dependent sensitivity to the spectral features of conspecific male advertisement calls that could facilitate mating. Xenopus AEPs resemble those of other species in stimulus and level dependence, and in sensitivity to anesthetic (MS222). AEPs were correlated with body size and sex within some species. A frequency following response, probably encoded by the amphibian papilla, might facilitate dyad source localization via interaural time differences. PMID:26572136

  2. Abnormal auditory forward masking pattern in the brainstem response of individuals with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Källstrand

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Johan Källstrand1, Olle Olsson2, Sara Fristedt Nehlstedt1, Mia Ling Sköld1, Sören Nielzén21SensoDetect AB, Lund, Sweden; 2Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, SwedenAbstract: Abnormal auditory information processing has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. In the present study auditory processing was investigated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs elicited by forward masking in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS. Sixteen AS subjects were included in the forward masking experiment and compared to three control groups consisting of healthy individuals (n = 16, schizophrenic patients (n = 16 and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients (n = 16, respectively, of matching age and gender. The results showed that the AS subjects exhibited abnormally low activity in the early part of their ABRs that distinctly separated them from the three control groups. Specifically, wave III amplitudes were significantly lower in the AS group than for all the control groups in the forward masking condition (P < 0.005, which was not the case in the baseline condition. Thus, electrophysiological measurements of ABRs to complex sound stimuli (eg, forward masking may lead to a better understanding of the underlying neurophysiology of AS. Future studies may further point to specific ABR characteristics in AS individuals that separate them from individuals diagnosed with other neurodevelopmental diseases.Keywords: asperger syndrome, auditory brainstem response, forward masking, psychoacoustics

  3. Restoration of auditory evoked responses by human ES-cell-derived otic progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Jongkamonwiwat, Nopporn; Abbas, Leila; Eshtan, Sarah Jacob; Johnson, Stuart L; Kuhn, Stephanie; Milo, Marta; Thurlow, Johanna K; Andrews, Peter W; Marcotti, Walter; Moore, Harry D; Rivolta, Marcelo N

    2012-10-11

    Deafness is a condition with a high prevalence worldwide, produced primarily by the loss of the sensory hair cells and their associated spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Of all the forms of deafness, auditory neuropathy is of particular concern. This condition, defined primarily by damage to the SGNs with relative preservation of the hair cells, is responsible for a substantial proportion of patients with hearing impairment. Although the loss of hair cells can be circumvented partially by a cochlear implant, no routine treatment is available for sensory neuron loss, as poor innervation limits the prospective performance of an implant. Using stem cells to recover the damaged sensory circuitry is a potential therapeutic strategy. Here we present a protocol to induce differentiation from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) using signals involved in the initial specification of the otic placode. We obtained two types of otic progenitors able to differentiate in vitro into hair-cell-like cells and auditory neurons that display expected electrophysiological properties. Moreover, when transplanted into an auditory neuropathy model, otic neuroprogenitors engraft, differentiate and significantly improve auditory-evoked response thresholds. These results should stimulate further research into the development of a cell-based therapy for deafness. PMID:22972191

  4. A comparison of event-related potential of humans and rats elicited by a serial feature-positive discrimination task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sambeth, A.; Maes, J.H.R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to compare components of the human and rat auditory event-related potential (ERP) in a serial feature-positive discrimination task. Subjects learned to respond to an auditory target stimulus when it followed a visual feature (X→A+), but to not respond when it was p

  5. Near-infrared spectroscopic imaging of stimulus-related hemodynamic responses on the neonatal auditory cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilahti, Kalle; Nissila, Ilkka; Makela, Riikka; Noponen, Tommi; Lipiainen, Lauri; Gavrielides, Nasia; Kajava, Timo; Huotilainen, Minna; Fellman, Vineta; Merilainen, Pekka; Katila, Toivo

    2005-04-01

    We have used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to study hemodynamic auditory evoked responses on 7 full-term neonates. Measurements were done simultaneously above both auditory cortices to study the distribution of speech and music processing between hemispheres using a 16-channel frequency-domain instrument. The stimulation consisted of 5-second samples of music and speech with a 25-second silent interval. In response to stimulation, a significant increase in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin ([HbO2]) was detected in 6 out of 7 subjects. The strongest responses in [HbO2] were seen near the measurement location above the ear on both hemispheres. The mean latency of the maximum responses was 9.42+/-1.51 s. On the left hemisphere (LH), the maximum amplitude of the average [HbO2] response to the music stimuli was 0.76+/- 0.38 μ M (mean+/-std.) and to the speech stimuli 1.00+/- 0.45 μ+/- μM. On the right hemisphere (RH), the maximum amplitude of the average [HbO2] response was 1.29+/- 0.85 μM to the music stimuli and 1.23+/- 0.93 μM to the speech stimuli. The results indicate that auditory information is processed on both auditory cortices, but LH is more concentrated to process speech than music information. No significant differences in the locations and the latencies of the maximum responses relative to the stimulus type were found.

  6. Neural Hyperactivity of the Central Auditory System in Response to Peripheral Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly appreciated that cochlear pathology is accompanied by adaptive responses in the central auditory system. The cause of cochlear pathology varies widely, and it seems that few commonalities can be drawn. In fact, despite intricate internal neuroplasticity and diverse external symptoms, several classical injury models provide a feasible path to locate responses to different peripheral cochlear lesions. In these cases, hair cell damage may lead to considerable hyperactivity in the central auditory pathways, mediated by a reduction in inhibition, which may underlie some clinical symptoms associated with hearing loss, such as tinnitus. Homeostatic plasticity, the most discussed and acknowledged mechanism in recent years, is most likely responsible for excited central activity following cochlear damage.

  7. A new method for detecting interactions between the senses in event-related potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Röder, B.

    2006-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) can be used in multisensory research to determine the point in time when different senses start to interact, for example, the auditory and the visual system. For this purpose, the ERP to bimodal stimuli (AV) is often compared to the sum of the ERPs to auditory (A...... not contain common activity: This activity would be subtracted twice from one ERP and would, therefore, contaminate the result. In the present study, ERPs to unimodal, bimodal, and trimodal auditory, visual, and tactile stimuli (T) were recorded. We demonstrate that (T + TAV) - (TA + TV) is equivalent...

  8. 古琴音乐与钢琴音乐对中国被试认知反应的不同影响:事件相关电位研究%Differential cognitive responses to guqin music and piano music in Chinese subjects: an event-related potential study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸薇娜; 张俊俊; 刘海卫; 丁晓君; 马原野; 周昌乐

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare the cognitive effects of guqin (the oldest Chinese instrument) music and piano music.Methods Behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) data in a standard two-stimulus auditory oddball task were recorded and analyzed. Results This study replicated the previous results of culture-familiar music effect on Chinese subjects: the greater P300 amplitude in frontal areas in a culture-familiar music environment. At the same time, the difference between guqin music and piano music was observed in N1 and later positive complex (LPC: including P300 and P500): a relatively higher participation of right anterior-temporal areas in Chinese subjects. Conclusion The results suggest that the special features of ERP responses to guqin music are the outcome of Chinese tonal language environments given the similarity between Guqin's tones and Mandarin lexical tones.%目的 研究古琴(一种古老的中国乐器)和钢琴音乐对认知的影响.方法 记录和分析了中国被试在两种音乐背景(古琴音乐,钢琴音乐)下完成听觉oddball任务的行为和事件相关电位(event-related potential,ERP)数据.结果 中国被试在本土文化的音乐环境(古琴音乐)下,前额区诱导出更大的P300,这一结果和已有的相关研究是相符的.同时,不同音乐背景对ERP产生的影响在N1和LPC(包括P300和P500)上也表现出差别:中国被试在古琴音乐背景下比钢琴音乐背景下表现出更多的右前侧颞叶的参与.结论 因为古琴音乐的五声调式和汉语发音的音调具有对应关系,因此我们推断在古琴音乐下所表现出的这种特性与被试的汉语环境有关.

  9. P3 Event-Related Potentials and Childhood Maltreatment in Successful and Unsuccessful Psychopaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Schug, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Although P3 event-related potential abnormalities have been found in psychopathic individuals, it is unknown whether successful (uncaught) psychopaths and unsuccessful (caught) psychopaths show similar deficits. In this study, P3 amplitude and latency were assessed from a community sample of 121 male adults using an auditory three-stimulus oddball…

  10. The Effect of Objective Room Acoustic Parameters on Auditory Steady-State Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zapata Rodriguez, Valentina; M. Harte, James; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Verification that Hearing Aids (HA) have been fitted correctly in pre-lingual infants and hard-to-test adults is an important emerging application in technical audiology. These test subjects are unable to undergo reliable behavioral testing, so an objective method is required. Auditory steady-state...... responses (ASSR), recorded in a sound field is a promising technology to verify the hearing aid fitting. The test involves the presentation of the auditory stimuli via a loudspeaker, unlike the usual procedure of delivering via insert earphones. Room reverberation clearly may significantly affect the...... features of the stimulus important for eliciting a strong electrophysiological response, and thus complicate its detection. This study investigates the effect of different room acoustic conditions on recorded ASSRs via an auralisation approach using insert earphones. Fifteen normal-hearing listeners were...

  11. Prediction of hearing thresholds: Comparison of cortical evoked response audiometry and auditory steady state response audiometry techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, LLN; Yeung, KNK

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated how well auditory steady state response (ASSR) and tone burst cortical evoked response audiometry (CERA) thresholds predict behavioral thresholds in the same participants. A total of 63 ears were evaluated. For ASSR testing, 100% amplitude modulated and 10% frequency modulated tone stimuli at a modulation frequency of 40Hz were used. Behavioral thresholds were closer to CERA thresholds than ASSR thresholds. ASSR and CERA thresholds were closer to behavioral thresho...

  12. Altered Neural Responses to Sounds in Primate Primary Auditory Cortex during Slow-Wave Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Issa, Elias B.; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2011-01-01

    How sounds are processed by the brain during sleep is an important question for understanding how we perceive the sensory environment in this unique behavioral state. While human behavioral data have indicated selective impairments of sound processing during sleep, brain imaging and neurophysiology studies have reported that overall neural activity in auditory cortex during sleep is surprisingly similar to that during wakefulness. This responsiveness to external stimuli leaves open the questi...

  13. Clinical Experience of Auditory Brainstem Response Testing on Pediatric Patients in the Operating Room

    OpenAIRE

    Wheaton Hinchion; Briana Dornan; Guangwei Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To review our experience of conducting auditory brainstem response (ABR) test on children in the operating room and discuss the benefits versus limitations of this practice. Methods. Retrospective review study conducted in a pediatric tertiary care facility. A total of 267 patients identified with usable data, including ABR results, medical and surgical notes, and follow-up evaluation. Results. Hearing status successfully determined in all patients based on the ABR results form th...

  14. Restoration of auditory evoked responses by human ES cell-derived otic progenitors

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei; Jongkamonwiwat, Nopporn; Abbas, Leila; Eshtan, Sarah Jacob; Johnson, Stuart L.; Kuhn, Stephanie; Milo, Marta; Thurlow, Johanna K.; Peter W Andrews; Marcotti, Walter; Moore, Harry D.; Rivolta, Marcelo N

    2012-01-01

    Deafness is a condition with a high prevalence worldwide, produced primarily by the loss of the sensory hair cells and their associated spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Of all the forms of deafness, auditory neuropathy is of a particular concern. This condition, defined primarily by damage to the SGNs with relative preservation of the hair cells 1 , is responsible for a substantial proportion of patients with hearing impairment 2 . While the loss of hair cells can be circumvented partially by ...

  15. Frequency difference beyond behavioral limen reflected by frequency following response of human auditory Brainstem

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qin; Gong, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study investigated whether the frequency-following response (FFR) of the auditory brainstem can represent individual frequency-discrimination ability. Method We measured behavioral frequency-difference limens (FDLs) in normal hearing young adults. Then FFRs were evoked by two pure tones, whose frequency difference was no larger than behavioral FDL. Discrimination of FFRs to individual frequencies was conducted as the neural representation of stimulus frequency differenc...

  16. Short GSM mobile phone exposure does not alter human auditory brainstem response

    OpenAIRE

    Thuróczy György; Kubinyi Györgyi; Molnár Ferenc; Kellényi Lóránd; Stefanics Gábor; Hernádi István

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background There are about 1.6 billion GSM cellular phones in use throughout the world today. Numerous papers have reported various biological effects in humans exposed to electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones. The aim of the present study was to advance our understanding of potential adverse effects of the GSM mobile phones on the human hearing system. Methods Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) was recorded with three non-polarizing Ag-AgCl scalp electrodes in thirty young ...

  17. Using Concha Electrodes to Measure Cochlear Microphonic Waveforms and Auditory Brainstem Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ming

    2010-01-01

    During electrocochleography, that is, ECochG or ECoG, a recording electrode can be placed in the ear canal lateral to the tympanic membrane. We designed a concha electrode to record both sinusoidal waveforms of cochlear microphonics (CMs) and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). The amplitudes of CM waveforms and Wave I or compound action potentials (CAPs) recorded at the concha were greater than those recorded at the mastoid but slightly lower than those recorded at the ear canal. Wave V amp...

  18. Age dependent changes of distractibility and reorienting of attention revisited: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Stefan; Grunwald, Martin; Schröger, Erich

    2013-01-23

    Adults of three age groups (18-27, 39-45, and 59-66 years) performed an auditory duration discrimination task with short (200 ms) or long (400 ms) sinusoidal tones. Performance was highly accurate and reaction times were on the same level in all groups, indicating no differences in auditory duration processing. Task irrelevant rare changes of the frequency of the stimuli were introduced to check whether the subjects, firstly, were distracted by changes in the environment while focusing on the task relevant information (indicated by prolonged responses), and, secondly, could re-focus on the relevant task after distraction. The results show that a distraction effect is present in all groups. Importantly, the 59-66 years group showed a behavioral distraction effect nearly twice as high as the other groups. The event-related brain potentials (ERPs) show mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a, and reorienting negativity (RON) elicited by deviants which are present in all groups. Aging effects on these ERP components were observable in all three components but a revealed a weak significant effect for the MMN only. Taken together, the behavioral and ERP results suggest that the function of balancing the processing of task irrelevant changes in the stimulation while focusing on task relevant information is effective during adulthood until the 7th decade of life. PMID:23159833

  19. Brain stem auditory evoked responses in human infants and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecox, K.; Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Brain stem evoked potentials were recorded by conventional scalp electrodes in infants (3 weeks to 3 years of age) and adults. The latency of one of the major response components (wave V) is shown to be a function both of click intensity and the age of the subject; this latency at a given signal strength shortens postnatally to reach the adult value (about 6 msec) by 12 to 18 months of age. The demonstrated reliability and limited variability of these brain stem electrophysiological responses provide the basis for an optimistic estimate of their usefulness as an objective method for assessing hearing in infants and adults.

  20. Directionality of auditory nerve fiber responses to pure tone stimuli in the grassfrog, Rana temporaria. I. Spike rate responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M B; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J

    1997-01-01

    We studied the directionality of spike rate responses of auditory nerve fibers of the grassfrog, Rana temporaria, to pure tone stimuli. All auditory fibers showed spike rate directionality. The strongest directionality was seen at low frequencies (200-400 Hz), where the spike rate could change by...

  1. Auditory responses in the amygdala to social vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadziola, Marie A.

    The underlying goal of this dissertation is to understand how the amygdala, a brain region involved in establishing the emotional significance of sensory input, contributes to the processing of complex sounds. The general hypothesis is that communication calls of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) transmit relevant information about social context that is reflected in the activity of amygdalar neurons. The first specific aim analyzed social vocalizations emitted under a variety of behavioral contexts, and related vocalizations to an objective measure of internal physiological state by monitoring the heart rate of vocalizing bats. These experiments revealed a complex acoustic communication system among big brown bats in which acoustic cues and call structure signal the emotional state of a sender. The second specific aim characterized the responsiveness of single neurons in the basolateral amygdala to a range of social syllables. Neurons typically respond to the majority of tested syllables, but effectively discriminate among vocalizations by varying the response duration. This novel coding strategy underscores the importance of persistent firing in the general functioning of the amygdala. The third specific aim examined the influence of acoustic context by characterizing both the behavioral and neurophysiological responses to natural vocal sequences. Vocal sequences differentially modify the internal affective state of a listening bat, with lower aggression vocalizations evoking the greatest change in heart rate. Amygdalar neurons employ two different coding strategies: low background neurons respond selectively to very few stimuli, whereas high background neurons respond broadly to stimuli but demonstrate variation in response magnitude and timing. Neurons appear to discriminate the valence of stimuli, with aggression sequences evoking robust population-level responses across all sound levels. Further, vocal sequences show improved discrimination among stimuli

  2. Early changes of auditory brain stem evoked response after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma - a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, S.K.; Wei, W.I.; Sham, J.S.T.; Choy, D.T.K.; Hui, Y. (Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong (Hong Kong))

    1992-10-01

    A prospective study of the effect of radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma on hearing was carried out on 49 patients who had pure tone, impedance audiometry and auditory brain stem evoked response (ABR) recordings before, immediately, three, six and 12 months after radiotherapy. Fourteen patients complained of intermittent tinnitus after radiotherapy. We found that 11 initially normal ears of nine patients developed a middle ear effusion, three to six months after radiotherapy. There was mixed sensorineural and conductive hearing impairment after radiotherapy. Persistent impairment of ABR was detected immediately after completion of radiotherapy. The waves I-III and I-V interpeak latency intervals were significantly prolonged one year after radiotherapy. The study shows that radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma impairs hearing by acting on the middle ear, the cochlea and the brain stem auditory pathway. (Author).

  3. Effect of Infant Prematurity on Auditory Brainstem Response at Preschool Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hasani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm birth is a risk factor for a number of conditions that requires comprehensive examination. Our study was designed to investigate the impact of preterm birth on the processing of auditory stimuli and brain structures at the brainstem level at a preschool age.   Materials and Methods: An auditory brainstem response (ABR test was performed with low rates of stimuli in 60 children aged 4 to 6 years. Thirty subjects had been born following a very preterm labor or late-preterm labor and 30 control subjects had been born following a full-term labor.   Results: Significant differences in the ABR test result were observed in terms of the inter-peak intervals of the I–III and III–V waves, and the absolute latency of the III wave (P

  4. Missing and delayed auditory responses in young and older children with autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Christopher Edgar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development of left and right superior temporal gyrus (STG 50ms (M50 and 100ms (M100 auditory responses in typically developing children (TD and in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD was examined. It was hypothesized that (1 M50 responses would be observed equally often in younger and older children, (2 M100 responses would be observed more often in older than younger children indicating later development of secondary auditory areas, and (3 M100 but not M50 would be observed less often in ASD than TD in both age groups, reflecting slower maturation of later developing auditory areas in ASD. Methods: 35 typically developing controls, 63 ASD without language impairment (ASD-LI, and 38 ASD with language impairment (ASD+LI were recruited.The presence or absence of a STG M50 and M100 was scored. Subjects were grouped into younger (6 to 10-years-old and older groups (11 to 15-years-old. Results: Although M50 responses were observed equally often in older and younger subjects and equally often in TD and ASD, left and right M50 responses were delayed in ASD-LI and ASD+LI. Group comparisons showed that in younger subjects M100 responses were observed more often in TD than ASD+LI (90% vs 66%, p=0.04, with no differences between TD and ASD-LI (90% vs 76% p=0.14 or between ASD-LI and ASD+LI (76% vs 66%, p=0.53. In older subjects, whereas no differences were observed between TD and ASD+LI, responses were observed more often in ASD-LI than ASD+LI. Conclusions: Although present in all groups, M50 responses were delayed in ASD, suggesting delayed development of earlier developing auditory areas. Examining the TD data, findings indicated that by 11 years a right M100 should be observed in 100% of subjects and a left M100 in 80% of subjects. Thus, by 11years, lack of a left and especially right M100 offers neurobiological insight into sensory processing that may underlie language or cognitive impairment.

  5. Source analysis of magnetic field responses from the human auditory cortex elicited by short speech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriki, S; Okita, Y; Hirata, Y

    1995-01-01

    We made a detailed source analysis of the magnetic field responses that were elicited in the human brain by different monosyllabic speech sounds, including vowel, plosive, fricative, and nasal speech. Recordings of the magnetic field responses from a lateral area of the left hemisphere of human subjects were made using a multichannel SQUID magnetometer, having 37 field-sensing coils. A single source of the equivalent current dipole of the field was estimated from the spatial distribution of the evoked responses. The estimated sources of an N1m wave occurring at about 100 ms after the stimulus onset of different monosyllables were located close to each other within a 10-mm-sided cube in the three-dimensional space of the brain. Those sources registered on the magnetic resonance images indicated a restricted area in the auditory cortex, including Heschl's gyri in the superior temporal plane. In the spatiotemporal domain the sources exhibited apparent movements, among which anterior shift with latency increase on the anteroposterior axis and inferior shift on the inferosuperior axis were common in the responses to all monosyllables. However, selective movements that depended on the type of consonants were observed on the mediolateral axis; the sources of plosive and fricative responses shifted laterally with latency increase, but the source of the vowel response shifted medially. These spatiotemporal movements of the sources are discussed in terms of dynamic excitation of the cortical neurons in multiple areas of the human auditory cortex. PMID:7621933

  6. Event-related desynchronization/synchronization during discrimination task conditions in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dushanova, Juliana; Philipova, Dolja; Nikolova, Gloria

    2009-09-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder with symptoms, which include movement disturbances and changes of cognitive information processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional relationships between oscillatory electroencephalographic (EEG) dominant components with event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) method for idiopathic non-demented Parkinson's patients (PP) and control subjects (CS) during auditory discrimination tasks within two post-stimulus intervals of 0-250 and 250-600 ms. When comparing the CS and PP during the first post-stimulus period, we found delta- and theta-ERS significantly pronounced in CS for both tone types (low--800, high--1,000 Hz) with the following exceptions: at Fz, PP displayed higher delta-ERS, while at C3' theta-ERD in response to a high tone. Alpha-ERS was found in PP in response to either tone at all electrodes and mainly alpha-ERD in CS. In the second post-stimulus interval, the significant differences between the groups were: (i) delta-ERS in CS and delta-ERD in PP in response to the low tone and (ii) delta-ERS for both groups in answer to the high tone, more prominent in CS at Cz and Pz, except for delta-ERD in PP at C3'. For both groups, we detected predominantly theta-ERD and alpha-ERD following both tone types within this second interval. PP showed more expressed theta-ERD at Fz and parietal theta-ERS. Alpha-ERD was significantly higher in CS, while frontal alpha-ERD was more prominent in the PP in response to both tones. The data obtained showed specific functional differences of event-related oscillatory activity in cognitive and sensory-motor information processing between the PP and CS. PMID:19291392

  7. Comparison of Auditory Brainstem Response in Noise Induced Tinnitus and Non-Tinnitus Control Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassem Mohammadkhani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Tinnitus is an unpleasant sound which can cause some behavioral disorders. According to evidence the origin of tinnitus is not only in peripheral but also in central auditory system. So evaluation of central auditory system function is necessary. In this study Auditory brainstem responses (ABR were compared in noise induced tinnitus and non-tinnitus control subjects.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic study is conducted in 60 cases in two groups including of 30 noise induced tinnitus and 30 non-tinnitus control subjects. ABRs were recorded ipsilateraly and contralateraly and their latencies and amplitudes were analyzed.Results: Mean interpeak latencies of III-V (p= 0.022, I-V (p=0.033 in ipsilatral electrode array and mean absolute latencies of IV (p=0.015 and V (p=0.048 in contralatral electrode array were significantly increased in noise induced tinnitus group relative to control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded from that there are some decrease in neural transmission time in brainstem and there are some sign of involvement of medial nuclei in olivery complex in addition to lateral lemniscus.

  8. Stress and Auditory Responses of the Otophysan Fish, Cyprinella venusta, to Road Traffic Noise.

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    Jenna A Crovo

    Full Text Available Noise pollution from anthropogenic sources is an increasingly problematic challenge faced by many taxa, including fishes. Recent studies demonstrate that road traffic noise propagates effectively from bridge crossings into surrounding freshwater ecosystems; yet, its effect on the stress response and auditory function of freshwater stream fishes is unexamined. The blacktail shiner (Cyprinella venusta was used as a model to investigate the degree to which traffic noise impacts stress and hearing in exposed fishes. Fish were exposed to an underwater recording of traffic noise played at approximately 140 dB re 1 μPa. Waterborne cortisol samples were collected and quantified using enzyme immunoassay (EIA. Auditory thresholds were assessed in control and traffic exposed groups by measuring auditory evoked potentials (AEPs. After acute exposure to traffic noise, fish exhibited a significant elevation in cortisol levels. Individuals exposed to 2 hours of traffic noise playback had elevated hearing thresholds at 300 and 400 Hz, corresponding to the most sensitive bandwidth for this species.

  9. Auditory ERP Differences in the Perception of Anticipated Speech Sequences in 5 - 6 Years Old Children and Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Portnova Galina; Martynova Olga

    2014-01-01

    The perception of complex auditory information such as complete speech sequences develops during human ontogeny. In order to explore age differences in the auditory perception of predictable speech sequences we compared event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded in 5- to 6-year-old children (N = 15) and adults (N = 15) in response to anticipated speech sequences as successive and reverse digital series with randomly omitted digits. The ERPs obtained from the omitted digits significantly differe...

  10. Identifying the Threshold of Iron Deficiency in the Central Nervous System of the Rat by the Auditory Brainstem Response

    OpenAIRE

    Greminger, Allison R.; Mayer-Pröschel, Margot

    2015-01-01

    The deleterious effects of anemia on auditory nerve (AN) development have been well investigated; however, we have previously reported that significant functional consequences in the auditory brainstem response (ABR) can also occur as a consequence of marginal iron deficiency (ID). As the ABR has widespread clinical use, we evaluated the ability of this electrophysiological method to characterize the threshold of tissue ID in rats by examining the relationship between markers of tissue ID and...

  11. Continued Maturation of the Click-Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Emily; White-Schwoch, Travis; Carr, Kali Woodruff; Skoe, Erika; Kraus, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Background Click-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) are a valuable tool for probing auditory system function and development. Although it has long been thought that the human auditory brainstem is fully mature by age 2 yr, recent evidence indicates a prolonged developmental trajectory. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the time course of ABR maturation in a preschool population and fill a gap in the knowledge of development. Research Design Using a cross-sectional design, we investigated the effect of age on absolute latencies, interwave latencies, and amplitudes (waves I, III, V) of the click-evoked ABR. Study Sample A total of 71 preschoolers (ages 3.12–4.99 yr) participated in the study. All had normal peripheral auditory function and IQ. Data Collection and Analysis ABRs to a rarefaction click stimulus presented at 31/sec and 80 dB SPL (73 dB nHL) were recorded monaurally using clinically-standard recording and filtering procedures while the participant sat watching a movie. Absolute latencies, interwave latencies, and amplitudes were then correlated to age. Results Developmental changes were restricted to absolute latencies. Wave V latency decreased significantly with age, whereas wave I and III latencies remained stable, even in this restricted age range. Conclusions The ABR does not remain static after age 2 yr, as seen by a systematic decrease in wave V latency between ages 3 and 5 yr. This finding suggests that the human brainstem has a continued developmental time course during the preschool years. Latency changes in the age 3–5 yr range should be considered when using ABRs as a metric of hearing health. PMID:25597458

  12. Is the effect of tinnitus on auditory steady-state response amplitude mediated by attention?

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    Eugen eDiesch

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The amplitude of the auditory steady-state response (ASSR is enhanced in tinnitus. As ASSR ampli¬tude is also enhanced by attention, the effect of tinnitus on ASSR amplitude could be interpreted as an effect of attention mediated by tinnitus. As attention effects on the N1 are signi¬fi¬cantly larger than those on the ASSR, if the effect of tinnitus on ASSR amplitude were due to attention, there should be similar amplitude enhancement effects in tinnitus for the N1 component of the auditory evoked response. Methods: MEG recordings of auditory evoked responses which were previously examined for the ASSR (Diesch et al. 2010 were analysed with respect to the N1m component. Like the ASSR previously, the N1m was analysed in the source domain (source space projection. Stimuli were amplitude-modulated tones with one of three carrier fre¬quen¬cies matching the tinnitus frequency or a surrogate frequency 1½ octaves above the audio¬metric edge frequency in con¬trols, the audiometric edge frequency, and a frequency below the audio¬metric edgeResults: In the earlier ASSR study (Diesch et al., 2010, the ASSR amplitude in tinnitus patients, but not in controls, was significantly larger in the (surrogate tinnitus condition than in the edge condition. In the present study, both tinnitus patients and healthy controls show an N1m-amplitude profile identical to the one of ASSR amplitudes in healthy controls. N1m amplitudes elicited by tonal frequencies located at the audiometric edge and at the (surrogate tinnitus frequency are smaller than N1m amplitudes elicited by sub-edge tones and do not differ among each other.Conclusions: There is no N1-amplitude enhancement effect in tinnitus. The enhancement effect of tinnitus on ASSR amplitude cannot be accounted for in terms of attention induced by tinnitus.

  13. Task-specific modulation of human auditory evoked responses in a delayed-match-to-sample task

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    Feng eRong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we focus our investigation on task-specific cognitive modulation of early cortical auditory processing in human cerebral cortex. During the experiments, we acquired whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG data while participants were performing an auditory delayed-match-to-sample (DMS task and associated control tasks. Using a spatial filtering beamformer technique to simultaneously estimate multiple source activities inside the human brain, we observed a significant DMS-specific suppression of the auditory evoked response to the second stimulus in a sound pair, with the center of the effect being located in the vicinity of the left auditory cortex. For the right auditory cortex, a non-invariant suppression effect was observed in both DMS and control tasks. Furthermore, analysis of coherence revealed a beta band (12 ~ 20 Hz DMS-specific enhanced functional interaction between the sources in left auditory cortex and those in left inferior frontal gyrus, which has been shown to involve in short-term memory processing during the delay period of DMS task. Our findings support the view that early evoked cortical responses to incoming acoustic stimuli can be modulated by task-specific cognitive functions by means of frontal-temporal functional interactions.

  14. Frequency-specific disruptions of neuronal oscillations reveal aberrant auditory processing in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayrynen, Lauren K; Hamm, Jordan P; Sponheim, Scott R; Clementz, Brett A

    2016-06-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit abnormalities in evoked brain responses in oddball paradigms. These could result from (a) insufficient salience-related cortical signaling (P300), (b) insufficient suppression of irrelevant aspects of the auditory environment, or (c) excessive neural noise. We tested whether disruption of ongoing auditory steady-state responses at predetermined frequencies informed which of these issues contribute to auditory stimulus relevance processing abnormalities in schizophrenia. Magnetoencephalography data were collected for 15 schizophrenia and 15 healthy subjects during an auditory oddball paradigm (25% targets; 1-s interstimulus interval). Auditory stimuli (pure tones: 1 kHz standards, 2 kHz targets) were administered during four continuous background (auditory steady-state) stimulation conditions: (1) no stimulation, (2) 24 Hz, (3) 40 Hz, and (4) 88 Hz. The modulation of the auditory steady-state response (aSSR) and the evoked responses to the transient stimuli were quantified and compared across groups. In comparison to healthy participants, the schizophrenia group showed greater disruption of the ongoing aSSR by targets regardless of steady-state frequency, and reduced amplitude of both M100 and M300 event-related field components. During the no-stimulation condition, schizophrenia patients showed accentuation of left hemisphere 40 Hz response to both standard and target stimuli, indicating an effort to enhance local stimulus processing. Together, these findings suggest abnormalities in auditory stimulus relevance processing in schizophrenia patients stem from insufficient amplification of salient stimuli. PMID:26933842

  15. Habituation of Auditory Steady State Responses Evoked by Amplitude-Modulated Acoustic Signals in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Gutierrez, Pavel; Castro-Fariñas, Anisleidy; Morgado-Rodriguez, Lisbet; Velarde-Reyes, Ernesto; Martínez, Agustín D.; Martínez-Montes, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Generation of the auditory steady state responses (ASSR) is commonly explained by the linear combination of random background noise activity and the stationary response. Based on this model, the decrease of amplitude that occurs over the sequential averaging of epochs of the raw data has been exclusively linked to the cancelation of noise. Nevertheless, this behavior might also reflect the non-stationary response of the ASSR generators. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing the ASSR time course in rats with different auditory maturational stages. ASSR were evoked by 8-kHz tones of different supra-threshold intensities, modulated in amplitude at 115 Hz. Results show that the ASSR amplitude habituated to the sustained stimulation and that dishabituation occurred when deviant stimuli were presented. ASSR habituation increased as animals became adults, suggesting that the ability to filter acoustic stimuli with no-relevant temporal information increased with age. Results are discussed in terms of the current model of the ASSR generation and analysis procedures. They might have implications for audiometric tests designed to assess hearing in subjects who cannot provide reliable results in the psychophysical trials. PMID:26557360

  16. Auditory steady state response in hearing assessment in infants with cytomegalovirus

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    Daniela Polo C. Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report an infant with congenital cytomegalovirus and progressive sensorineural hearing loss, who was assessed by three methods of hearing evaluation. CASE DESCRIPTION: In the first audiometry, at four months of age, the infant showed abnormal response in Otoacoustic Emissions and normal Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR, with electrophysiological threshold in 30dBnHL, in both ears. With six months of age, he showed bilateral absence of the ABR at 100dBnHL. The behavioral observational audiometry was impaired due to the delay in neuropsychomotor development. At eight months of age, he was submitted to Auditory Steady State Response (ASSR and the thresholds were 50, 70, absent in 110 and in 100dB, respectively for 500, 1,000, 2,000 and 4,000Hz in the right ear, and 70, 90, 90 and absent in 100dB, respectively for 500, 1,000, 2,000 and 4,000Hz in the left ear. COMMENTS: In the first evaluation, the infant had abnormal Otoacoustic Emission and normal ABR, which became altered at six months of age. The hearing loss severity could be identified only by the ASSR, which allowed the best procedure for hearing aids adaptation. The case description highlights the importance of the hearing status follow-up for children with congenital cytomegalovirus.

  17. Habituation of auditory steady state responses evoked by amplitudemodulated acoustic signals in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Prado-Gutierrez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Generation of the auditory steady state responses (ASSR is commonly explained by the linear combination of random background noise activity and the stationary response. Based on this model, the decrease of amplitude that occurs over the sequential averaging of epochs of the raw data has been exclusively linked to the cancelation of noise. Nevertheless, this behavior might also reflect the non-stationary response of the ASSR generators. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing the ASSR time course in rats with different auditory maturational stages. ASSR were evoked by 8-kHz tones of different supra-threshold intensities, modulated in amplitude at 115 Hz. Results show that the ASSR amplitude habituated to the sustained stimulation and that dishabituation occurred when deviant stimuli were presented. ASSR habituation increased as animals became adults, suggesting that the ability to filter acoustic stimuli with no-relevant temporal information increased with age. Results are discussed in terms of the current model of the ASSR generation and analysis procedures. They might have implications for audiometric tests designed to assess hearing in subjects who cannot provide reliable results in the psychophysical trials.

  18. Auditory steady-state responses in cochlear implant users: Effect of modulation frequency and stimulation artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gransier, Robin; Deprez, Hanne; Hofmann, Michael; Moonen, Marc; van Wieringen, Astrid; Wouters, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that objective measures based on stimulation with low-rate pulse trains fail to predict the threshold levels of cochlear implant (CI) users for high-rate pulse trains, as used in clinical devices. Electrically evoked auditory steady-state responses (EASSRs) can be elicited by modulated high-rate pulse trains, and can potentially be used to objectively determine threshold levels of CI users. The responsiveness of the auditory pathway of profoundly hearing-impaired CI users to modulation frequencies is, however, not known. In the present study we investigated the responsiveness of the auditory pathway of CI users to a monopolar 500 pulses per second (pps) pulse train modulated between 1 and 100 Hz. EASSRs to forty-three modulation frequencies, elicited at the subject's maximum comfort level, were recorded by means of electroencephalography. Stimulation artifacts were removed by a linear interpolation between a pre- and post-stimulus sample (i.e., blanking). The phase delay across modulation frequencies was used to differentiate between the neural response and a possible residual stimulation artifact after blanking. Stimulation artifacts were longer than the inter-pulse interval of the 500pps pulse train for recording electrodes ipsilateral to the CI. As a result the stimulation artifacts could not be removed by artifact removal on the bases of linear interpolation for recording electrodes ipsilateral to the CI. However, artifact-free responses could be obtained in all subjects from recording electrodes contralateral to the CI, when subject specific reference electrodes (Cz or Fpz) were used. EASSRs to modulation frequencies within the 30-50 Hz range resulted in significant responses in all subjects. Only a small number of significant responses could be obtained, during a measurement period of 5 min, that originate from the brain stem (i.e., modulation frequencies in the 80-100 Hz range). This reduced synchronized activity of brain stem

  19. Speaking Two Languages Enhances an Auditory but Not a Visual Neural Marker of Cognitive Inhibition

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    Mercedes Fernandez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to replicate and extend our original findings of enhanced neural inhibitory control in bilinguals. We compared English monolinguals to Spanish/English bilinguals on a non-linguistic, auditory Go/NoGo task while recording event-related brain potentials. New to this study was the visual Go/NoGo task, which we included to investigate whether enhanced neural inhibition in bilinguals extends from the auditory to the visual modality. Results confirmed our original findings and revealed greater inhibition in bilinguals compared to monolinguals. As predicted, compared to monolinguals, bilinguals showed increased N2 amplitude during the auditory NoGo trials, which required inhibitory control, but no differences during the Go trials, which required a behavioral response and no inhibition. Interestingly, during the visual Go/NoGo task, event related brain potentials did not distinguish the two groups, and behavioral responses were similar between the groups regardless of task modality. Thus, only auditory trials that required inhibitory control revealed between-group differences indicative of greater neural inhibition in bilinguals. These results show that experience-dependent neural changes associated with bilingualism are specific to the auditory modality and that the N2 event-related brain potential is a sensitive marker of this plasticity.

  20. (A)musicality in Williams syndrome: examining relationships among auditory perception, musical skill, and emotional responsiveness to music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lense, Miriam D.; Shivers, Carolyn M.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic, neurodevelopmental disorder, is of keen interest to music cognition researchers because of its characteristic auditory sensitivities and emotional responsiveness to music. However, actual musical perception and production abilities are more variable. We examined musicality in WS through the lens of amusia and explored how their musical perception abilities related to their auditory sensitivities, musical production skills, and emotional responsiveness to music. In our sample of 73 adolescents and adults with WS, 11% met criteria for amusia, which is higher than the 4% prevalence rate reported in the typically developing (TD) population. Amusia was not related to auditory sensitivities but was related to musical training. Performance on the amusia measure strongly predicted musical skill but not emotional responsiveness to music, which was better predicted by general auditory sensitivities. This study represents the first time amusia has been examined in a population with a known neurodevelopmental genetic disorder with a range of cognitive abilities. Results have implications for the relationships across different levels of auditory processing, musical skill development, and emotional responsiveness to music, as well as the understanding of gene-brain-behavior relationships in individuals with WS and TD individuals with and without amusia. PMID:23966965

  1. The cat's meow: A high-field fMRI assessment of cortical activity in response to vocalizations and complex auditory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amee J; Butler, Blake E; Lomber, Stephen G

    2016-02-15

    Sensory systems are typically constructed in a hierarchical fashion such that lower level subcortical and cortical areas process basic stimulus features, while higher level areas reassemble these features into object-level representations. A number of anatomical pathway tracing studies have suggested that the auditory cortical hierarchy of the cat extends from a core region, consisting of the primary auditory cortex (A1) and the anterior auditory field (AAF), to higher level auditory fields that are located ventrally. Unfortunately, limitations on electrophysiological examination of these higher level fields have resulted in an incomplete understanding of the functional organization of the auditory cortex. Thus, the current study uses functional MRI in conjunction with a variety of simple and complex auditory stimuli to provide the first comprehensive examination of function across the entire cortical hierarchy. Auditory cortex function is shown to be largely lateralized to the left hemisphere, and is concentrated bilaterally in fields surrounding the posterior ectosylvian sulcus. The use of narrowband noise stimuli enables the visualization of tonotopic gradients in the posterior auditory field (PAF) and ventral posterior auditory field (VPAF) that have previously been unverifiable using fMRI and pure tones. Furthermore, auditory fields that are inaccessible to more invasive techniques, such as the insular (IN) and temporal (T) cortices, are shown to be selectively responsive to vocalizations. Collectively, these data provide a much needed functional correlate for anatomical examinations of the hierarchy of cortical structures within the cat auditory cortex. PMID:26658927

  2. P3 event-related potentials and childhood maltreatment in successful and unsuccessful psychopaths

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Schug, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Although P3 event-related potential abnormalities have been found in psychopathic individuals, it is unknown whether successful (uncaught) psychopaths and unsuccessful (caught) psychopaths show similar deficits. In this study, P3 amplitude and latency were assessed from a community sample of 121 male adults using an auditory three-stimulus oddball task. Psychopathy was assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (Hare, 2003) while childhood physical maltreatment was assessed using the Co...

  3. Cognitive deficits following exposure to pneumococcal meningitis: an event-related potential study

    OpenAIRE

    Kihara Michael; de Haan Michelle; Were Eugene O; Garrashi Harrun H; Neville Brian GR; Newton Charles RJC

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Pneumococcal meningitis (PM) is a severe and life-threatening disease that is associated with cognitive impairment including learning difficulties, cognitive slowness, short-term memory deficits and poor academic performance. There are limited data on cognitive outcomes following exposure to PM from Africa mainly due to lack of culturally appropriate tools. We report cognitive processes of exposed children as measured by auditory and visual event-related potentials. Method...

  4. Meditation (Vipassana) and the P3a Event-Related Brain Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Cahn, B. Rael; Polich, John

    2008-01-01

    A three-stimulus auditory oddball series was presented to experienced Vipassana meditators during meditation and a control thought period to elicit event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in the two different mental states. The stimuli consisted of a frequent standard tone (500 Hz), an infrequent oddball tone (1000 Hz), and an infrequent distracter (white noise), with all stimuli passively presented through headphones and no task imposed. The strongest meditation compared to control state effec...

  5. Auditory steady-state evoked response in diagnosing and evaluating hearing in infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Mai; Xiaozhuang Zhang; Qunxin Lai; Yanfei Wu; Nanping Liao; Yi Ye; Zhenghui Zhong

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Auditory steady-state evoked response (ASSR) is one of the new objective electrophysiological methods to test hearing in infants. It can provide a reliable and complete audiogram with specific frequency to help the hearing diagnosis and rehabilitation of hearing and languaging following auditory screening.OBJECTIVE: To compare the response threshold of ASSR with auditory threshold of visual reinforcement audiometry (VRA) in infants failed in the hearing screening for investigating their hearing loss.DESIGN: A comparative observation.SETTINGS: Maternal and child health care hospitals of Guangdong province, Shunde city, Nanhai city and Huadu district.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 321 infants of 0-3 years undergoing ASSR test were selected from the Hearing Center of Guangdong Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital from January 2002 to December 2004.Informed consents were obtained from their guardians. There were 193 cases (60.2%) of 0-6 months, 31 cases (9.7%) of 7-12 months, 17 cases (5.3%) of 13-18 months, 14 cases (4.4%) of 19-24 months, 33 cases of 25-30 months, and 33 cases (10.2%) of 31-36 months.METHODS: ① The 321 infants failed in the hearing screening were tested under sleeping status, the ranges of response threshold distribution in ASSR of different frequencies were analyzed in each age group. ② The infants above 2 years old were also tested with VRA, and their response thresholds were compared between VRA and ASSR. ③ Evaluative standards: The response threshold was < 30 dB for normal hearing, 31-50 dB for mild hearing loss, 51-70 dB for moderate hearing loss, 71-90 dB for severe hearing loss, and > 91 dB for extremely severe hearing loss.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① ASSR results of the infants failed in the screening; ② Proportion of cases of each response threshold in each age group; ③ Comparison of ASSR response thresholds and VRA auditory thresholds in the infants of 2-3 years old.RESULTS: ①The response threshold was < 30 dB in 47

  6. Brain responses and looking behaviour during audiovisual speech integration in infants predict auditory speech comprehension in the second year of life.

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    ElenaVKushnerenko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of visual cues during the processing of audiovisual speech is known to be less efficient in children and adults with language difficulties and difficulties are known to be more prevalent in children from low-income populations. In the present study, we followed an economically diverse group of thirty-seven infants longitudinally from 6-9 months to 14-16 months of age. We used eye-tracking to examine whether individual differences in visual attention during audiovisual processing of speech in 6 to 9 month old infants, particularly when processing congruent and incongruent auditory and visual speech cues, might be indicative of their later language development. Twenty-two of these 6-9 month old infants also participated in an event-related potential (ERP audiovisual task within the same experimental session. Language development was then followed-up at the age of 14-16 months, using two measures of language development, the Preschool Language Scale (PLS and the Oxford Communicative Development Inventory (CDI. The results show that those infants who were less efficient in auditory speech processing at the age of 6-9 months had lower receptive language scores at 14-16 months. A correlational analysis revealed that the pattern of face scanning and ERP responses to audio-visually incongruent stimuli at 6-9 months were both significantly associated with language development at 14-16 months. These findings add to the understanding of individual differences in neural signatures of audiovisual processing and associated looking behaviour in infants.

  7. Brain responses and looking behavior during audiovisual speech integration in infants predict auditory speech comprehension in the second year of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnerenko, Elena; Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Ballieux, Haiko; Potton, Anita; Birtles, Deidre; Frostick, Caroline; Moore, Derek G.

    2013-01-01

    The use of visual cues during the processing of audiovisual (AV) speech is known to be less efficient in children and adults with language difficulties and difficulties are known to be more prevalent in children from low-income populations. In the present study, we followed an economically diverse group of thirty-seven infants longitudinally from 6–9 months to 14–16 months of age. We used eye-tracking to examine whether individual differences in visual attention during AV processing of speech in 6–9 month old infants, particularly when processing congruent and incongruent auditory and visual speech cues, might be indicative of their later language development. Twenty-two of these 6–9 month old infants also participated in an event-related potential (ERP) AV task within the same experimental session. Language development was then followed-up at the age of 14–16 months, using two measures of language development, the Preschool Language Scale and the Oxford Communicative Development Inventory. The results show that those infants who were less efficient in auditory speech processing at the age of 6–9 months had lower receptive language scores at 14–16 months. A correlational analysis revealed that the pattern of face scanning and ERP responses to audiovisually incongruent stimuli at 6–9 months were both significantly associated with language development at 14–16 months. These findings add to the understanding of individual differences in neural signatures of AV processing and associated looking behavior in infants. PMID:23882240

  8. Visuo-tactile interactions in the congenitally deaf: a behavioral and event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauthal, Nadine; Debener, Stefan; Rach, Stefan; Sandmann, Pascale; Thorne, Jeremy D

    2014-01-01

    Auditory deprivation is known to be accompanied by alterations in visual processing. Yet not much is known about tactile processing and the interplay of the intact sensory modalities in the deaf. We presented visual, tactile, and visuo-tactile stimuli to congenitally deaf and hearing individuals in a speeded detection task. Analyses of multisensory responses showed a redundant signals effect that was attributable to a coactivation mechanism in both groups, although the redundancy gain was less in the deaf. In line with these behavioral results, on a neural level, there were multisensory interactions in both groups that were again weaker in the deaf. In hearing but not deaf participants, somatosensory event-related potential N200 latencies were modulated by simultaneous visual stimulation. A comparison of unisensory responses between groups revealed larger N200 amplitudes for visual and shorter N200 latencies for tactile stimuli in the deaf. Furthermore, P300 amplitudes were also larger in the deaf. This group difference was significant for tactile and approached significance for visual targets. The differences in visual and tactile processing between deaf and hearing participants, however, were not reflected in behavior. Both the behavioral and electroencephalography (EEG) results suggest more pronounced multisensory interaction in hearing than in deaf individuals. Visuo-tactile enhancements could not be explained by perceptual deficiency, but could be partly attributable to inverse effectiveness. PMID:25653602

  9. Correlation of auditory brain stem response and the MRI measurements in neuro-degenerative disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, Hidekazu (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate correlations of several MRI measurements of the cranium and brain, functioning as a volume conductor, to the auditory brain stem response (ABR) in neuro-degenerative disorders. The subjects included forty-seven patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and sixteen of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Statistically significant positive correlations were found between I-V and III-V interpeak latencies (IPLs) and the area of cranium and brain in the longitudinal section of SCD patients, and between I-III and III-V IPLs and the area in the longitudinal section of those with ALS. And, also there were statistically significant correlations between the amplitude of the V wave and the area of brain stem as well as that of the cranium in the longitudinal section of SCD patients, and between the amplitude of the V wave and the area of the cerebrum in the longitudinal section of ALS. In conclusion, in the ABR, the IPLs were prolonged and the amplitude of the V wave was decreased while the MRI size of the cranium and brain increased. When the ABR is applied to neuro-degenerative disorders, it might be important to consider not only the conduction of the auditory tracts in the brain stem, but also the correlations of the size of the cranium and brain which act as a volume conductor. (author).

  10. Auditory brainstem responses in a Rhesus Macaque model of neuro-AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, L A; Wallace, D; Berman, N E; Marcario, J; Foresman, L; Joag, S V; Raghavan, R; Narayan, O; Cheney, P D

    1998-10-01

    Nine rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were inoculated with a combination of two passaged strains of SIVmac (R71 and 17E), both of which are known to be neurovirulent. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded at regular intervals from these animals both before and after inoculation. Increases in ABR peak and interpeak latency were observed corresponding to progression of SIV disease. Post-inoculation increases in latency were observed for all five peaks of the ABR and for interpeak intervals I-V and III-V. The largest increases in latency were associated with end-stage disease. Within 14 weeks of inoculation, all but two animals developed end-stage simian AIDS and were euthanized. Histopathological examination revealed multifocal lesions in the cerebral gray and white matter as well as in the auditory structures of the brainstem. In most animals, ABR changes were accompanied by evidence of underlying neuropathology. However, cases of severe neuropathology with no ABR abnormalities and vice versa were also noted. Though in a much shorter time frame, SIVmac R71/17E produced both physiological and histopathological abnormalities similar to those associated with HIV disease in humans. These results further support the SIVmac R71/17E infected rhesus macaque as an animal model of HIV related neurological disease in humans. PMID:9839648

  11. Short GSM mobile phone exposure does not alter human auditory brainstem response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuróczy György

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are about 1.6 billion GSM cellular phones in use throughout the world today. Numerous papers have reported various biological effects in humans exposed to electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones. The aim of the present study was to advance our understanding of potential adverse effects of the GSM mobile phones on the human hearing system. Methods Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR was recorded with three non-polarizing Ag-AgCl scalp electrodes in thirty young and healthy volunteers (age 18–26 years with normal hearing. ABR data were collected before, and immediately after a 10 minute exposure to 900 MHz pulsed electromagnetic field (EMF emitted by a commercial Nokia 6310 mobile phone. Fifteen subjects were exposed to genuine EMF and fifteen to sham EMF in a double blind and counterbalanced order. Possible effects of irradiation was analyzed by comparing the latency of ABR waves I, III and V before and after genuine/sham EMF exposure. Results Paired sample t-test was conducted for statistical analysis. Results revealed no significant differences in the latency of ABR waves I, III and V before and after 10 minutes of genuine/sham EMF exposure. Conclusion The present results suggest that, in our experimental conditions, a single 10 minute exposure of 900 MHz EMF emitted by a commercial mobile phone does not produce measurable immediate effects in the latency of auditory brainstem waves I, III and V.

  12. Correlation of auditory brain stem response and the MRI measurements in neuro-degenerative disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate correlations of several MRI measurements of the cranium and brain, functioning as a volume conductor, to the auditory brain stem response (ABR) in neuro-degenerative disorders. The subjects included forty-seven patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and sixteen of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Statistically significant positive correlations were found between I-V and III-V interpeak latencies (IPLs) and the area of cranium and brain in the longitudinal section of SCD patients, and between I-III and III-V IPLs and the area in the longitudinal section of those with ALS. And, also there were statistically significant correlations between the amplitude of the V wave and the area of brain stem as well as that of the cranium in the longitudinal section of SCD patients, and between the amplitude of the V wave and the area of the cerebrum in the longitudinal section of ALS. In conclusion, in the ABR, the IPLs were prolonged and the amplitude of the V wave was decreased while the MRI size of the cranium and brain increased. When the ABR is applied to neuro-degenerative disorders, it might be important to consider not only the conduction of the auditory tracts in the brain stem, but also the correlations of the size of the cranium and brain which act as a volume conductor. (author)

  13. Linguistic category structure influences early auditory processing: Converging evidence from mismatch responses and cortical oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharinger, Mathias; Monahan, Philip J; Idsardi, William J

    2016-03-01

    While previous research has established that language-specific knowledge influences early auditory processing, it is still controversial as to what aspects of speech sound representations determine early speech perception. Here, we propose that early processing primarily depends on information propagated top-down from abstractly represented speech sound categories. In particular, we assume that mid-vowels (as in 'bet') exert less top-down effects than the high-vowels (as in 'bit') because of their less specific (default) tongue height position as compared to either high- or low-vowels (as in 'bat'). We tested this assumption in a magnetoencephalography (MEG) study where we contrasted mid- and high-vowels, as well as the low- and high-vowels in a passive oddball paradigm. Overall, significant differences between deviants and standards indexed reliable mismatch negativity (MMN) responses between 200 and 300ms post-stimulus onset. MMN amplitudes differed in the mid/high-vowel contrasts and were significantly reduced when a mid-vowel standard was followed by a high-vowel deviant, extending previous findings. Furthermore, mid-vowel standards showed reduced oscillatory power in the pre-stimulus beta-frequency band (18-26Hz), compared to high-vowel standards. We take this as converging evidence for linguistic category structure to exert top-down influences on auditory processing. The findings are interpreted within the linguistic model of underspecification and the neuropsychological predictive coding framework. PMID:26780574

  14. Top-down modulation of the auditory steady-state response in a task-switch paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Müller

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Auditory selective attention is an important mechanism for top-down selection of the vast amount of auditory information our perceptual system is exposed to. In the present study, the impact of attention on auditory steady-state responses - previously shown to be generated in primary auditory regions - was investigated. This issue is still a matter of debate and recent findings point to a complex pattern of attentional effects on the aSSR. The present study aimed at shedding light on the involvement of ipsilateral and contralateral activations to the attended sound taking into account hemispheric differences and a possible dependency on modulation frequency. In aid of this, a dichotic listening experiment was designed using amplitude-modulated tones that were presented to the left and right ear simultaneously. Participants had to detect target tones in a cued ear while their brain activity was assessed using MEG. Thereby, a modulation of the aSSR by attention could be revealed, interestingly restricted to the left hemisphere and 20 Hz responses: Contralateral activations were enhanced while ipsilateral activations turned out to be reduced. Thus, our findings support and extend recent findings, showing that auditory attention can influence the aSSR, but only under specific circumstances and in a complex pattern regarding the different effects for ipsilateral and contralateral activations.

  15. The afferent signaling complex: Regulation of type I spiral ganglion neuron responses in the auditory periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijntjes, Daniël O J; Pyott, Sonja J

    2016-06-01

    The spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are the first action potential generating neurons in the auditory pathway. The type I SGNs contact the sensory inner hair cells via their peripheral dendrites and relay auditory information to the brainstem via their central axon fibers. Individual afferent fibers show differences in response properties that are essential for normal hearing. The mechanisms that give rise to the heterogeneity of afferent responses are very poorly understood but are likely already in place at the peripheral dendrites where synapses are formed and action potentials are generated. To identify these molecular mechanisms, this review synthesizes a variety of literature and comprehensively outlines the cellular and molecular components positioned to regulate SGN afferent dendrite excitability, especially following glutamate release. These components include 1) proteins of the SGN postsynapses and neighboring supporting cells that together shape glutamatergic signaling, 2) the ion channels and transporters that determine the intrinsic excitability of the SGN afferent dendrites, and 3) the neurotransmitter receptors that extrinsically modify this excitability via synaptic input from the lateral olivocochlear efferents. This cellular and molecular machinery, together with presynaptic specializations of the inner hair cells, can be collectively referred to as the type I afferent signaling complex. As this review underscores, interactions of this signaling complex determine excitability of the SGN afferent dendrites and the afferent fiber responses. Moreover, this complex establishes the environmental milieu critical for the development and maintenance of the SGN afferent dendrites and synapses. Motivated by these important functions, this review also indicates areas of future research to elucidate the contributions of the afferent signaling complex to both normal hearing and also hearing loss. PMID:27018296

  16. Crossmodal effects of Guqin and piano music on selective attention: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weina; Zhang, Junjun; Ding, Xiaojun; Zhou, Changle; Ma, Yuanye; Xu, Dan

    2009-11-27

    To compare the effects of music from different cultural environments (Guqin: Chinese music; piano: Western music) on crossmodal selective attention, behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) data in a standard two-stimulus visual oddball task were recorded from Chinese subjects in three conditions: silence, Guqin music or piano music background. Visual task data were then compared with auditory task data collected previously. In contrast with the results of the auditory task, the early (N1) and late (P300) stages exhibited no differences between Guqin and piano backgrounds during the visual task. Taking our previous study and this study together, we can conclude that: although the cultural-familiar music influenced selective attention both in the early and late stages, these effects appeared only within a sensory modality (auditory) but not in cross-sensory modalities (visual). Thus, the musical cultural factor is more obvious in intramodal than in crossmodal selective attention. PMID:19766172

  17. Infant temperament and the brainstem auditory evoked response in later childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, S A; McManis, M H; Kagan, J; Deldin, P; Snidman, N; Lewis, M; Kahn, V

    2001-07-01

    Brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAERs) were evaluated on 10-12-year-old children (N = 56) who had been classified as high or low reactive to unfamiliar stimuli at 4 months of age. BAER measurement was selected because high reactive infants tend to become inhibited or fearful young children, and adult introverts have a faster latency to wave V of the BAER than do extroverts. Children previously classified as high reactive at 4 months had larger wave V components than did low reactive children, a finding that possibly suggests greater excitability in projections to the inferior colliculus. The fact that a fundamental feature of brainstem activity differentiated preadolescent children belonging to two early temperamental groups supports the value of gathering physiological data in temperament research. PMID:11444488

  18. Auditory Brainstem Response Wave Amplitude Characteristics as a Diagnostic Tool in Children with Speech Delay with Unknown Causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Susan; Khanbabaee, Ghamartaj; Sheibani, Kourosh

    2016-09-01

    Speech delay with an unknown cause is a problem among children. This diagnosis is the last differential diagnosis after observing normal findings in routine hearing tests. The present study was undertaken to determine whether auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli are different between normally developing children and children suffering from delayed speech with unknown causes. In this cross-sectional study, we compared click auditory brainstem responses between 261 children who were clinically diagnosed with delayed speech with unknown causes based on normal routine auditory test findings and neurological examinations and had >12 months of speech delay (case group) and 261 age- and sex-matched normally developing children (control group). Our results indicated that the case group exhibited significantly higher wave amplitude responses to click stimuli (waves I, III, and V) than did the control group (P=0.001). These amplitudes were significantly reduced after 1 year (P=0.001); however, they were still significantly higher than those of the control group (P=0.001). The significant differences were seen regardless of the age and the sex of the participants. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups considering the latency of waves I, III, and V. In conclusion, the higher amplitudes of waves I, III, and V, which were observed in the auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli among the patients with speech delay with unknown causes, might be used as a diagnostic tool to track patients' improvement after treatment. PMID:27582591

  19. Scalp-recorded induced γ-band responses to auditory stimulation and its correlations with saccadic muscle-activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuval-Greenberg, Shlomit; Deouell, Leon Y

    2011-03-01

    We previously showed that the transient broadband induced gamma-band response in EEG (iGBRtb) appearing around 200-300 ms following a visual stimulus reflects the contraction of extra-ocular muscles involved in the execution of saccades, rather than neural oscillations. Several previous studies reported induced gamma-band responses also following auditory stimulation. It is still an open question whether, similarly to visual paradigms, such auditory paradigms are also sensitive to the saccadic confound. In the current study we address this question using simultaneous eye-tracking and EEG recordings during an auditory oddball paradigm. Subjects were instructed to respond to a rare target defined by sound source location, while fixating on a central screen. Results show that, similar to what was found in visual paradigms, saccadic rate displayed typical temporal dynamics including a post-stimulus decrease followed by an increase. This increase was more moderate, had a longer latency, and was less consistent across subjects than was found in the visual case. Crucially, the temporal dynamics of the induced gamma response were similar to those of saccadic-rate modulation. This suggests that the auditory induced gamma-band responses recorded on the scalp may also be affected by saccadic muscle activity. PMID:20665099

  20. In-air hearing of a diving duck: A comparison of psychoacoustic and auditory brainstem response thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Sara E; Wells-Berlin, Alicia M; Therrien, Ronald E; Yannuzzi, Sally E; Carr, Catherine E

    2016-05-01

    Auditory sensitivity was measured in a species of diving duck that is not often kept in captivity, the lesser scaup. Behavioral (psychoacoustics) and electrophysiological [the auditory brainstem response (ABR)] methods were used to measure in-air auditory sensitivity, and the resulting audiograms were compared. Both approaches yielded audiograms with similar U-shapes and regions of greatest sensitivity (2000-3000 Hz). However, ABR thresholds were higher than psychoacoustic thresholds at all frequencies. This difference was least at the highest frequency tested using both methods (5700 Hz) and greatest at 1000 Hz, where the ABR threshold was 26.8 dB higher than the behavioral measure of threshold. This difference is commonly reported in studies involving many different species. These results highlight the usefulness of each method, depending on the testing conditions and availability of the animals. PMID:27250191

  1. 孤独症患儿听性脑干反应结果分析%Auditory Brainstem Responses in Children with Autism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晶; 刘维荣; 曾祥丽

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨孤独症患儿听性脑干反应(ABR)的特点.方法 对12例孤独症患儿分别进行声导抗、畸变产物耳声发射(DPOAE)、40 Hz相关电位及听性脑干反应(ABR)测试,并对其中3例ABR异常者进行分析.结果 12例双耳均为A型鼓室导抗图,双耳同侧及对侧声反射均可引出,DPOAE均可正常引出,40 Hz相关电位500、1000 Hz阈值均≤25 dB nHL;12例ABR反应阈均正常,其中9例波形分化好,重复性好,各波潜伏期及波间期正常;3例ABR表现异常:1例双耳波Ⅱ以后各波潜伏期延长;1例双耳Ⅰ-Ⅲ波间期延长;1例双耳波Ⅰ潜伏期正常,波Ⅲ后各波潜伏期、波间期缩短.结论 部分孤独症患儿虽中耳及耳蜗功能正常,但其脑干及下丘之间中枢听传导通路可能异常,故对孤独症患者应常规行听功能检测.%Objective To study the characteristics of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) in children with Autism. Methods Acoustic impedance, otoacoustic emission(OAE) > 40 Hz auditory event related potential and auditory brainstem responses were recorded in 12 children with autism. Among of these, 3 cases of ABR were abnormal. Results The Type A tympanograms were found in 12 children. The ipsilateral and contralateral acoustic reflexes and distortion product acoustic emission(DPOAE) were elicited. The thresholds of ABR were normal. The incubation period and wave interphase of all waves was normal. 3 cases of ABR were abnormal. 1 case of incubation periods of all waves were prolonged after wave II. 1 case of I-III wave interphase was prolonged. 1 case of incubation period of wave I was normal, incubation periods and wave interphases of all waves were prolonged after wave III were shorter. Conclusion Although middle ears and cochlea of Autistic children may be normal, the auditory pathway of those children may be abnormal. Therefore, appropriate central auditory processing testing may be needed.

  2. Bayesian Modeling of the Dynamics of Phase Modulations and their Application to Auditory Evoked Responses at Different Loudness Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab eMortezapouraghdam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the effect of long-term habituation signatures of auditory selective attention reflected in the instantaneous phase information of the auditory event-related potentials (ERPs at four distinct stimuli levels of 60dB SPL, 70dB SPL, 80dB SPL and 90dB SPL. The analysis is based on the single-trial level. The effect of habituation can be observed in terms of the changes (jitter in the instantaneous phase information of ERPs. In particular, the absence of habituation is correlated with a consistently high phase synchronization over ERP trials.We estimate the changes in phase concentration over trials using a Bayesian approach, in which the phase is modeled as being drawn from a von Mises distribution with a concentration parameter which varies smoothly over trials. The smoothness assumption reflects the fact that habituation is a gradual process.We differentiate between different stimuli based on the relative changes and absolute values of the estimated concentration parameter using the proposed Bayesian model.

  3. Event-related potentials study on cross-modal discrimination of Chinese characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗跃嘉; 魏景汉

    1999-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured in 15 normal young subjects (18—22 years old) using the "cross-modal and delayed response" paradigm, which is able to improve inattention purity. The stimuli consisted of written and spoken single Chinese characters. The presentation probability of standard stimuli was 82.5% and that of deviant stimuli was 17.5%. The attention components were obtained by subtracting the ERPs of inattention condition from those of attention condition. The results of the N1 scalp distribution demonstrated a cross-modal difference. This result is in contrast to studies with non-verbal as well as with English verbal stimuli. This probably reflected the brain mechanism feature of Chinese language processing. The processing location of attention was varied along with verbal/non-verbal stimuli, auditory/visual modalities and standard/deviant stimuli, and thus it has plasticity. The early attention effects occurred before the exogenous components, and thus provided evidence support

  4. On the relationship between human sensorimotor adaptability and event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Tram Hong; Jansen, Ben H

    2011-06-01

    It was explored if the speed with which an individual learns to deal with new environments and challenges can be predicted on the basis of his/her brain's response to irrelevant (repeating) and novel auditory stimuli. In this study, 26 subjects threw 30 light-weight balls at a target with and without vision-distorting goggles. The horizontal displacement from a bull's-eye target was measured and the rate and degree of adaptation were computed. The adaptation parameters were correlated with evoked and event-related potential (EP/ERP) measures of the subject's ability to suppress irrelevant information and respond to novel stimuli. Only a weak (or a trend to) correlation was found between the behavioral adaptation and some of the EP/ERP measures. The correlations were limited to EP parameters in the 100 to 200 ms post-stimulus range reflecting the ability to suppress irrelevant information. Thus we conclude that the speed with which an individual adapts to a new environment is at best weakly correlated with brain activity associated with stimulus memory and classification. PMID:21714139

  5. Auditory Learning. Dimensions in Early Learning Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigmond, Naomi K.; Cicci, Regina

    The monograph discusses the psycho-physiological operations for processing of auditory information, the structure and function of the ear, the development of auditory processes from fetal responses through discrimination, language comprehension, auditory memory, and auditory processes related to written language. Disorders of auditory learning…

  6. Pre-Attentive Mental Processing of Music Expectation: Event-Related Potentials of a Partially Violating and Resolving Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chung, Chia-Ying; Chou, Shi-Wei; Wong, Alice M. K.; Tang, Simon F. T.

    2004-01-01

    Auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) were investigated in an oddball paradigm to verify electrophysiological evidence of music expectation, which is a key component of artistic presentation. The non-target condition consisted of four-chord harmonic chord sequences, while the target condition was manifested by a partially violating third chord…

  7. Effects of ZNF804A on auditory P300 response in schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donoghue, T

    2014-01-01

    The common variant rs1344706 within the zinc-finger protein gene ZNF804A has been strongly implicated in schizophrenia (SZ) susceptibility by a series of recent genetic association studies. Although associated with a pattern of altered neural connectivity, evidence that increased risk is mediated by an effect on cognitive deficits associated with the disorder has been equivocal. This study investigated whether the same ZNF804A risk allele was associated with variation in the P300 auditory-evoked response, a cognitively relevant putative endophenotype for SZ. We compared P300 responses in carriers and noncarriers of the ZNF804A risk allele genotype groups in Irish patients and controls (n=97). P300 response was observed to vary according to genotype in this sample, such that risk allele carriers showed relatively higher P300 response compared with noncarriers. This finding accords with behavioural data reported by our group and others. It is also consistent with the idea that ZNF804A may have an impact on cortical efficiency, reflected in the higher levels of activations required to achieve comparable behavioural accuracy on the task used.

  8. Present and past: Can writing abilities in school children be associated with their auditory discrimination capacities in infancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaadt, Gesa; Männel, Claudia; van der Meer, Elke; Pannekamp, Ann; Oberecker, Regine; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-12-01

    Literacy acquisition is highly associated with auditory processing abilities, such as auditory discrimination. The event-related potential Mismatch Response (MMR) is an indicator for cortical auditory discrimination abilities and it has been found to be reduced in individuals with reading and writing impairments and also in infants at risk for these impairments. The goal of the present study was to analyze the relationship between auditory speech discrimination in infancy and writing abilities at school age within subjects, and to determine when auditory speech discrimination differences, relevant for later writing abilities, start to develop. We analyzed the MMR registered in response to natural syllables in German children with and without writing problems at two points during development, that is, at school age and at infancy, namely at age 1 month and 5 months. We observed MMR related auditory discrimination differences between infants with and without later writing problems, starting to develop at age 5 months-an age when infants begin to establish language-specific phoneme representations. At school age, these children with and without writing problems also showed auditory discrimination differences, reflected in the MMR, confirming a relationship between writing and auditory speech processing skills. Thus, writing problems at school age are, at least, partly grounded in auditory discrimination problems developing already during the first months of life. PMID:26479824

  9. Spectral and Temporal Acoustic Features Modulate Response Irregularities within Primary Auditory Cortex Columns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Carrasco

    Full Text Available Assemblies of vertically connected neurons in the cerebral cortex form information processing units (columns that participate in the distribution and segregation of sensory signals. Despite well-accepted models of columnar architecture, functional mechanisms of inter-laminar communication remain poorly understood. Hence, the purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effects of sensory information features on columnar response properties. Using acute recording techniques, extracellular response activity was collected from the right hemisphere of eight mature cats (felis catus. Recordings were conducted with multichannel electrodes that permitted the simultaneous acquisition of neuronal activity within primary auditory cortex columns. Neuronal responses to simple (pure tones, complex (noise burst and frequency modulated sweeps, and ecologically relevant (con-specific vocalizations acoustic signals were measured. Collectively, the present investigation demonstrates that despite consistencies in neuronal tuning (characteristic frequency, irregularities in discharge activity between neurons of individual A1 columns increase as a function of spectral (signal complexity and temporal (duration acoustic variations.

  10. The Reduced Cochlear Output and the Failure to Adapt the Central Auditory Response Causes Tinnitus in Noise Exposed Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rüttiger, Lukas; Singer, Wibke; Panford-Walsh, Rama; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Lee, Sze Chim; Zuccotti, Annalisa; Zimmermann, Ulrike; Jaumann, Mirko; Rohbock, Karin; Xiong, Hao; Knipper, Marlies

    2013-01-01

    Tinnitus is proposed to be caused by decreased central input from the cochlea, followed by increased spontaneous and evoked subcortical activity that is interpreted as compensation for increased responsiveness of central auditory circuits. We compared equally noise exposed rats separated into groups with and without tinnitus for differences in brain responsiveness relative to the degree of deafferentation in the periphery. We analyzed (1) the number of CtBP2/RIBEYE-positive particles in ribbo...

  11. Effect of sex and rate of stimulus on auditory brainstem responses of children with history of preterm birth

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    Sara hasani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Preterm birth is one of the risk factors need comprehensive audiological assessment. In this study, the effect of sex and rate of stimulation on response of children with history of preterm birth was investigated by auditory brainstem response (ABR. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using convinience sampling. Click-evoked a uditory brainstem response test with both low (21.1 c/s and high (51.1 c/s stimulus rates was recorded in 30 children with a history of preterm birth and 30 ones with history of term labor, as controls. Results: Significant differences were observed in inter-peak latencies of I-III in both rates, III-V in the low rate, I-V in the high rate, and absolute latency of III wave between high and low stimulus rates (p<0.05 for all. Rate of stimulus affect on auditory brainstem response of preterm birth group was more than controls. Sex also affected on some parameters of auditory brainstem response test. Conclusion: Preterm birth group showed longer latencies than normal group in both rates. Rate of stimulus had significant effect on results of children with history of preterm birth compared normal group. These findings may reflect the negative effect of preterm birth on neural synchronization function in response to transient stimuli.

  12. IAEA’s Assistance in Events Related to Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological emergencies due to improper use or loss of control over radioactive sources continue to occur. Arrangements are in place for notification, information exchange and providing of international assistance when capabilities of States to mitigate the consequences of such events are exceeded. IAEA’s Incident and Emergency Centre is the international focal point for the providing of international assistance in events related to radioactive sources. For the provision of efficient assistance upon request, the IAEA has established the Response and Assistance Network (RANET), which forms an operational mechanism to provide assistance in different technical areas with the help of national capabilities registered in the network. The continued occurrence of these events and the experience accumulated by the IAEA and Member States in response to the events related to radiation sources underline the need to strengthen the international emergency preparedness and response framework; reinforce the emergency notification system, reporting and information sharing arrangements and capabilities; strengthen the way to cope with emergencies; and support the international assistance arrangements and capabilities by enhancing the IAEA’s RANET. (author)

  13. Auditory responses of engrailed and invected-expressing Johnston's Organ neurons in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline Pézier

    Full Text Available The roles of the transcription factor Engrailed (En, and its paralogue Invected (Inv, in adult Drosophila Johnston's Organ sensory neurons are unknown. We used en-GAL4 driven CD8-GFP and antibody staining to characterize these neurons in the pedicel (second antennal segment. The majority of En and Inv-expressing Johnston's Organ neurons (En-JONs are located in the ventral part of the posterior group of JONs, with only a few in the medial group. Anatomical classification of En-JON axon projections shows they are mainly type A and E, with a few type B. Extracellular recording of sound-evoked potentials (SEPs from the antennal nerve was used along with Kir2.1 silencing to assess the contribution that En-JONs make to the auditory response to pure-tone sound stimuli. Silencing En-JONs reduces the SEP amplitude at the onset of the stimulus by about half at 100, 200 and 400 Hz, and also reduces the steady-state response to 200 Hz. En-JONs respond to 82 dB and 92 dB sounds but not 98 dB. Despite their asymmetrical distribution in the Johnston's Organ they respond equally strongly to both directions of movement of the arista. This implies that individual neurons are excited in both directions, a conclusion supported by reanalysis of the morphology of the pedicel-funicular joint. Other methods of silencing the JONs were also used: RNAi against the voltage-gated Na⁺ channel encoded by the para gene, expression of attenuated diphtheria toxin, and expression of a modified influenza toxin M2(H37A. Only the latter was found to be more effective than Kir2.1. Three additional JON subsets were characterized using Flylight GAL4 lines. inv-GAL4 88B12 and Gycβ100B-GAL4 12G03 express in different subsets of A group neurons and CG12484-GAL4 91G04 is expressed in B neurons. All three contribute to the auditory response to 200 Hz tones.

  14. Auditory stimulation with music influences the geometric indices of heart rate variability in response to the postural change maneuver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca C. R. de Castro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is poor in the literature the behavior of the geometric indices of heart rate variability (HRV during the musical auditory stimulation. The objective is to investigate the acute effects of classic musical auditory stimulation on the geometric indexes of HRV in women in response to the postural change maneuver (PCM. We evaluated 11 healthy women between 18 and 25 years old. We analyzed the following indices: Triangular index, Triangular interpolation of RR intervals and Poincarι plot (standard deviation of the instantaneous variability of the beat-to beat heart rate [SD1], standard deviation of long-term continuous RR interval variability and Ratio between the short - and long-term variations of RR intervals [SD1/SD2] ratio. HRV was recorded at seated rest for 10 min. The women quickly stood up from a seated position in up to 3 s and remained standing still for 15 min. HRV was recorded at the following periods: Rest, 0-5 min, 5-10 min and 10-15 min during standing. In the second protocol, the subject was exposed to auditory musical stimulation (Pachelbel-Canon in D for 10 min at seated position before standing position. Shapiro-Wilk to verify normality of data and ANOVA for repeated measures followed by the Bonferroni test for parametric variables and Friedman′s followed by the Dunn′s posttest for non-parametric distributions. In the first protocol, all indices were reduced at 10-15 min after the volunteers stood up. In the protocol musical auditory stimulation, the SD1 index was reduced at 5-10 min after the volunteers stood up compared with the music period. The SD1/SD2 ratio was decreased at control and music period compared with 5-10 min after the volunteers stood up. Musical auditory stimulation attenuates the cardiac autonomic responses to the PCM.

  15. Gap prepulse inhibition of the auditory late response in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Yunseo; Ahn, Joong Woo; Kwon, Chiheon; Suh, Myung-Whan; Lee, Jun Ho; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Hee Chan

    2015-11-01

    The gap-startle paradigm has been used as a behavioral method for tinnitus screening in animal studies. This study aimed to investigate gap prepulse inhibition (GPI) of the auditory late response (ALR) as the objective response of the gap-intense sound paradigm in humans. ALRs were recorded in response to gap-intense and no-gap-intense sound stimuli in 27 healthy subjects. The amplitudes of the baseline-to-peak (N1, P2, and N2) and the peak-to-peak (N1P2 and P2N2) were compared between two averaged ALRs. The variations in the inhibition ratios of N1P2 and P2N2 during the experiment were analyzed by increasing stimuli repetitions. The effect of stimulus parameter adjustments on GPI ratios was evaluated. No-gap-intense sound stimuli elicited greater peak amplitudes than gap-intense sound stimuli, and significant differences were found across all peaks. The overall mean inhibition ratios were significantly lower than 1.0, where the value 1.0 indicates that there were no differences between gap-intense and no-gap-intense sound responses. The initial decline in GPI ratios was shown in N1P2 and P2N2 complexes, and this reduction was nearly complete after 100 stimulus repetitions. Significant effects of gap length and interstimulus interval on GPI ratios were observed. We found significant inhibition of ALR peak amplitudes in performing the gap-intense sound paradigm in healthy subjects. The N1P2 complex represented GPI well in terms of suppression degree and test-retest reliability. Our findings offer practical information for the comparative study of healthy subjects and tinnitus patients using the gap-intense sound paradigm with the ALR. PMID:26272085

  16. Klinefelter syndrome has increased brain responses to auditory stimuli and motor output, but not to visual stimuli or Stroop adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Skakkebæk, Anne; Bojesen, Anders; Fedder, Jens; Laurberg, Peter; Østergaard, John R; Hertz, Jens Michael; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg

    2016-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) (KS) is a genetic syndrome characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome and low level of testosterone, resulting in a number of neurocognitive abnormalities, yet little is known about brain function. This study investigated the fMRI-BOLD response from KS relative to a group of Controls to basic motor, perceptual, executive and adaptation tasks. Participants (N: KS = 49; Controls = 49) responded to whether the words "GREEN" or "RED" were displayed in green or red (incongruent versus congruent colors). One of the colors was presented three times as often as the other, making it possible to study both congruency and adaptation effects independently. Auditory stimuli saying "GREEN" or "RED" had the same distribution, making it possible to study effects of perceptual modality as well as Frequency effects across modalities. We found that KS had an increased response to motor output in primary motor cortex and an increased response to auditory stimuli in auditory cortices, but no difference in primary visual cortices. KS displayed a diminished response to written visual stimuli in secondary visual regions near the Visual Word Form Area, consistent with the widespread dyslexia in the group. No neural differences were found in inhibitory control (Stroop) or in adaptation to differences in stimulus frequencies. Across groups we found a strong positive correlation between age and BOLD response in the brain's motor network with no difference between groups. No effects of testosterone level or brain volume were found. In sum, the present findings suggest that auditory and motor systems in KS are selectively affected, perhaps as a compensatory strategy, and that this is not a systemic effect as it is not seen in the visual system. PMID:26958463

  17. Klinefelter syndrome has increased brain responses to auditory stimuli and motor output, but not to visual stimuli or Stroop adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Wallentin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY (KS is a genetic syndrome characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome and low level of testosterone, resulting in a number of neurocognitive abnormalities, yet little is known about brain function. This study investigated the fMRI-BOLD response from KS relative to a group of Controls to basic motor, perceptual, executive and adaptation tasks. Participants (N: KS = 49; Controls = 49 responded to whether the words “GREEN” or “RED” were displayed in green or red (incongruent versus congruent colors. One of the colors was presented three times as often as the other, making it possible to study both congruency and adaptation effects independently. Auditory stimuli saying “GREEN” or “RED” had the same distribution, making it possible to study effects of perceptual modality as well as Frequency effects across modalities. We found that KS had an increased response to motor output in primary motor cortex and an increased response to auditory stimuli in auditory cortices, but no difference in primary visual cortices. KS displayed a diminished response to written visual stimuli in secondary visual regions near the Visual Word Form Area, consistent with the widespread dyslexia in the group. No neural differences were found in inhibitory control (Stroop or in adaptation to differences in stimulus frequencies. Across groups we found a strong positive correlation between age and BOLD response in the brain's motor network with no difference between groups. No effects of testosterone level or brain volume were found. In sum, the present findings suggest that auditory and motor systems in KS are selectively affected, perhaps as a compensatory strategy, and that this is not a systemic effect as it is not seen in the visual system.

  18. Prediction of auditory and visual p300 brain-computer interface aptitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Halder

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs provide a non-muscular communication channel for patients with late-stage motoneuron disease (e.g., amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or otherwise motor impaired people and are also used for motor rehabilitation in chronic stroke. Differences in the ability to use a BCI vary from person to person and from session to session. A reliable predictor of aptitude would allow for the selection of suitable BCI paradigms. For this reason, we investigated whether P300 BCI aptitude could be predicted from a short experiment with a standard auditory oddball. METHODS: Forty healthy participants performed an electroencephalography (EEG based visual and auditory P300-BCI spelling task in a single session. In addition, prior to each session an auditory oddball was presented. Features extracted from the auditory oddball were analyzed with respect to predictive power for BCI aptitude. RESULTS: Correlation between auditory oddball response and P300 BCI accuracy revealed a strong relationship between accuracy and N2 amplitude and the amplitude of a late ERP component between 400 and 600 ms. Interestingly, the P3 amplitude of the auditory oddball response was not correlated with accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Event-related potentials recorded during a standard auditory oddball session moderately predict aptitude in an audiory and highly in a visual P300 BCI. The predictor will allow for faster paradigm selection. SIGNIFICANCE: Our method will reduce strain on patients because unsuccessful training may be avoided, provided the results can be generalized to the patient population.

  19. Auditory Processing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auditory Processing Disorders Auditory processing disorders (APDs) are referred to by many names: central auditory processing disorders , auditory perceptual disorders , and central auditory disorders . APDs ...

  20. Phase-locking index and power of 40-Hz auditory steady-state response are not related to major personality trait dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korostenskaja, Milena; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Pipinis, Evaldas; Griskova-Bulanova, Inga

    2016-03-01

    Although a number of studies have demonstrated state-related dependence of auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs), the investigations assessing trait-related ASSR changes are limited. Five consistently identified major trait dimensions, also referred to as "big five" (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness), are considered to account for virtually all personality variances in both healthy people and those with psychiatric disorders. The purpose of the present study was, for the first time, to establish the link between 40-Hz ASSR and "big five" major personality trait dimensions in young healthy adults. Ninety-four young healthy volunteers participated (38 males and 56 females; mean age ± SD 22.180 ± 2.75). The 40-Hz click trains were presented for each subject 30 times with an inter-train interval of 1-1.5 s. The EEG responses were recorded from F3, Fz, F4, C3, Cz, C4, P3, Pz and P4 locations according to 10/20 electrode placement system. Phase-locking index (PLI) and event-related power perturbation (ERSP) were calculated, each providing the following characteristics: peak time, entrainment frequency, peak value and mean value. For assessing "big five" personality traits, NEO Personality Inventory Revised (NEO-PI-R) was used. No significant correlation between 40-Hz ASSR PLI or ERSP and "big five" personality traits was observed. Our results indicate that there is no dependence between 40-Hz ASSR entrainment and personality traits, demonstrating low individual 40-Hz variability in this domain. Our results support further development of 40-Hz ASSR as a neurophysiological marker allowing distinguishing between healthy population and patients with psychiatric disorders. PMID:26586270

  1. Dynamic faces speed up the onset of auditory cortical spiking responses during vocal detection

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekaran, Chandramouli; Lemus, Luis; Asif A Ghazanfar

    2013-01-01

    We combine facial motion with voices to help us hear better, but the role that low-level sensory areas such as the auditory cortex may play in this process is unclear. We combined a vocalization detection task with auditory cortical physiology in monkeys to bridge this epistemic gap. Surprisingly, and contrary to previous assumptions and hypotheses, changes in firing rate had no clear relationship to the detection advantage that dynamic faces provided when listening for vocalizations. Instead...

  2. Development of a Chirp Stimulus PC-Based Auditory Brainstem Response Audiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali AL-Afsaa

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Hearing losses during infancy and childhood have many negative future effects and impacts on the child life and productivity. The earlier detection of hearing losses, the earlier medical intervention and then the greater benefit of remediation will be. During this research a PC-based audiometer is designed and, currently, the audiometer prototype is in its final development steps. It is based on the auditory brainstem response (ABR method. Chirp stimuli instead of traditional click stimuli will be used to invoke the ABR signal. The stimulus is designed to synchronize the hair cells movement when it spreads out over the cochlea. In addition to the available hardware utilization (PC and PCI board, the efforts confined to design and implement a hardware prototype and to develop a software package that enables the system to behave as ABR audiometer. By using such a method and chirp stimulus, it is expected to be able to detect hearing impairment (sensorineural in the first few days of the life and conduct hearing test at low frequency of stimulus. Currently, the intended chirp stimulus has been successfully generated and the implemented module is able to amplify a signal (on the order of ABR signal to a recordable level. Moreover, a NI-DAQ data acquisition board has been chosen to implement the PC-prototype interface.

  3. Auditory assessment of children with severe hearing loss using behavioural observation audiometry and brainstem evoked response audiometry

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhi Kumari; Priyanko Chakraborty; Jain, R K; Dhananjay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early detection of hearing loss has been a long-standing priority in the field of audiology. Currently available auditory testing methods include both behavioural and non-behavioural or objective tests of hearing. This study was planned with an objective to assess hearing loss in children using behavioural observation audiometry and brain stem evoked response audiometry. Methods: A total of 105 cases suffering from severe to profound hearing loss were registered. After proper h...

  4. Modeling the Anti-masking Effects of the Olivocochlear Reflex in Auditory Nerve Responses to Tones in Sustained Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Chintanpalli, Ananthakrishna; Jennings, Skyler G.; Heinz, Michael G.; Strickland, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The medial olivocochlear reflex (MOCR) has been hypothesized to provide benefit for listening in noise. Strong physiological support for an anti-masking role for the MOCR has come from the observation that auditory nerve (AN) fibers exhibit reduced firing to sustained noise and increased sensitivity to tones when the MOCR is elicited. The present study extended a well-established computational model for normal-hearing and hearing-impaired AN responses to demonstrate that these anti-masking ef...

  5. 40 Hz Auditory Steady-State Response Is a Pharmacodynamic Biomarker for Cortical NMDA Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivarao, Digavalli V; Chen, Ping; Senapati, Arun; Yang, Yili; Fernandes, Alda; Benitex, Yulia; Whiterock, Valerie; Li, Yu-Wen; Ahlijanian, Michael K

    2016-08-01

    Schizophrenia patients exhibit dysfunctional gamma oscillations in response to simple auditory stimuli or more complex cognitive tasks, a phenomenon explained by reduced NMDA transmission within inhibitory/excitatory cortical networks. Indeed, a simple steady-state auditory click stimulation paradigm at gamma frequency (~40 Hz) has been reproducibly shown to reduce entrainment as measured by electroencephalography (EEG) in patients. However, some investigators have reported increased phase locking factor (PLF) and power in response to 40 Hz auditory stimulus in patients. Interestingly, preclinical literature also reflects this contradiction. We investigated whether a graded deficiency in NMDA transmission can account for such disparate findings by administering subanesthetic ketamine (1-30 mg/kg, i.v.) or vehicle to conscious rats (n=12) and testing their EEG entrainment to 40 Hz click stimuli at various time points (~7-62 min after treatment). In separate cohorts, we examined in vivo NMDA channel occupancy and tissue exposure to contextualize ketamine effects. We report a robust inverse relationship between PLF and NMDA occupancy 7 min after dosing. Moreover, ketamine could produce inhibition or disinhibition of the 40 Hz response in a temporally dynamic manner. These results provide for the first time empirical data to understand how cortical NMDA transmission deficit may lead to opposite modulation of the auditory steady-state response (ASSR). Importantly, our findings posit that 40 Hz ASSR is a pharmacodynamic biomarker for cortical NMDA function that is also robustly translatable. Besides schizophrenia, such a functional biomarker may be of value to neuropsychiatric disorders like bipolar and autism spectrum where 40 Hz ASSR deficits have been documented. PMID:26837462

  6. Which People with Specific Language Impairment have Auditory Processing Deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, G M; Bishop, D V M

    2004-02-01

    An influential theory attributes developmental disorders of language and literacy to low-level auditory perceptual difficulties. However, evidence to date has been inconsistent and contradictory. We investigated whether this mixed picture could be explained in terms of heterogeneity in the language-impaired population. In Experiment 1, the behavioural responses of 16 people with specific language impairment (SLI) and 16 control listeners (aged 10 to 19 years) to auditory backward recognition masking (ABRM) stimuli and unmasked tones indicated that a subgroup of people with SLI are less able to discriminate between the frequencies of sounds regardless of their rate of presentation. Further, these people tended to be the younger participants, and were characterised by relatively poor nonword reading. In Experiment 2, the auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) of the same groups to unmasked tones were measured. Listeners with SLI tended to have age-inappropriate waveforms in the N1-P2-N2 region, regardless of their auditory discrimination scores in Experiment 1. Together, these results suggest that SLI may be characterised by immature development of auditory cortex, such that adult-level frequency discrimination performance is attained several years later than normal. PMID:21038192

  7. When memory meets beauty: Insights from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, T; Viggiano, M P

    2010-05-01

    Facial attractiveness plays a key role in human social and affective behavior. To study the time course of the neural processing of attractiveness and its influence on recognition memory we investigated the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited in an old/new recognition task in response to faces with a neutral expression that, at encoding, were rated for their attractiveness. Highly attractive faces elicited a specific early positive-going component on frontal sites; in addition, with respect to less attractive faces, they elicited larger later components related to structural encoding and recognition memory. All in all, our results show that facial attractiveness, independently from facial expression, modulates face processing throughout all stages from encoding to retrieval. PMID:20109520

  8. Space distribution of EEG responses to hanoi-moving visual and auditory stimulation with Fourier Independent Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun eLi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The relationship between EEG source signals and action-related visual and auditory stimulation is still not well understood. The objective of this study was to identify EEG source signals and their associated action-related visual and auditory responses, especially independent components of EEG.Methods: A hand-moving-Hanoi video paradigm was used to study neural correlates of the action-related visual and auditory information processing determined by mu rhythm (8-12 Hz in 16 healthy young subjects. Independent component analysis (ICA was applied to identify separate EEG sources, and further computed in the frequency domain by applying-Fourier transform ICA (F-ICA.Results: F-ICA found more sensory stimuli-related independent components located within the sensorimotor region than ICA did. The total number of independent components of interest from F-ICA was 768, twice that of 384 from traditional time-domain ICA (p0.05.Conclusions: These results support the hypothesis that mu rhythm was sensitive to detection of the cognitive expression, which could be reflected by the function in the parietal lobe sensory-motor region. The results of this study could potentially be applied into early diagnosis for those with visual and hearing impairments in the future.

  9. DEVELOPING ‘STANDARD NOVEL ‘VAD’ TECHNIQUE’ AND ‘NOISE FREE SIGNALS’ FOR SPEECH AUDITORY BRAINSTEM RESPONSES FOR HUMAN SUBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ranganadh Narayanam*

    2016-01-01

    In this research as a first step we have concentrated on collecting non-intra cortical EEG data of Brainstem Speech Evoked Potentials from human subjects in an Audiology Lab in University of Ottawa. The problems we have considered are the most advanced and most essential problems of interest in Auditory Neural Signal Processing area in the world: The first problem is the Voice Activity Detection (VAD) in Speech Auditory Brainstem Responses (ABR); The second problem is to identify the best De-...

  10. Auditory Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    volume. The conference's topics include auditory exploration of data via sonification and audification; real time monitoring of multivariate date; sound in immersive interfaces and teleoperation; perceptual issues in auditory display; sound in generalized computer interfaces; technologies supporting...

  11. Enhanced auditory brainstem response and parental bonding style in children with gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizuka Seino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The electrophysiological properties of the brain and influence of parental bonding in childhood irritable bowel syndrome (IBS are unclear. We hypothesized that children with chronic gastrointestinal (GI symptoms like IBS may show exaggerated brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP responses and receive more inadequate parental bonding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Children aged seven and their mothers (141 pairs participated. BAEP was measured by summation of 1,000 waves of the electroencephalogram triggered by 75 dB click sounds. The mothers completed their Children's Somatization Inventory (CSI and Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI. CSI results revealed 66 (42% children without GI symptoms (controls and 75 (58% children with one or more GI symptoms (GI group. The III wave in the GI group (median 4.10 interquartile range [3.95-4.24] ms right, 4.04 [3.90-4.18] ms left had a significantly shorter peak latency than controls (4.18 [4.06-4.34] ms right, p = 0.032, 4.13 [4.02-4.24] ms left, p = 0.018. The female GI group showed a significantly shorter peak latency of the III wave (4.00 [3.90-4.18] ms than controls (4.18 [3.97-4.31] ms, p = 0.034 in the right side. BAEP in the male GI group did not significantly differ from that in controls. GI scores showed a significant correlation with the peak latency of the III wave in the left side (rho = -0.192, p = 0.025. The maternal care PBI scores in the GI group (29 [26]-[33] were significantly lower than controls (31 [28.5-33], p = 0.010, while the maternal over-protection PBI scores were significantly higher in the GI group (16 [12]-[17] than controls (13 [10.5-16], p = 0.024. Multiple regression analysis in females also supported these findings. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that children with chronic GI symptoms have exaggerated brainstem responses to environmental stimuli and inadequate parental behaviors aggravate these symptoms.

  12. Validation of fetal auditory evoked cortical responses to enhance the assessment of early brain development using fetal MEG measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maturation of fetal auditory evoked cortical responses (fAECRs) is an important aspect of developmental medicine, but their reliable identification is limited due to the technical restrictions in prenatal diagnosis. The signal-to-noise ratio of the fAECRs extracted exclusively from fetal magnetoencephalography is a known issue which limits their analysis as markers of brain development. The objective of this work was to develop a signal analysis strategy to address these problems and find appropriate processing steps. In this study, a group of 147 normal fetuses with gestations between 26 and 41 weeks underwent auditory evoked response testing. We combine different approaches that address data cleaning, fAECR determination and statistical fAECR validation to reduce the uncertainty in the detection of the auditory evoked responses. For the statistical validation of the evoked responses, we use parameters computed from bootstrap-based test statistics and the correlation between different averaging modes. Appropriate thresholds for those parameters are identified using linear regression analyses by looking at the maximum correlation coefficients. The results show that by using different validation parameters, the selected fAECRs conduct to similar regression slopes with an average of −13.6 ms/week gestational age which agree with previous studies. Our novel processing framework provides an objective way to identify and eliminate non-physiological variation in the data induced by artifacts. This approach has the potential to produce more reliable data needed in clinical studies for fetal brain maturation as well as extending the investigations to high-risk groups

  13. The response properties of neurons in different fields of the auditory cortex in the rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Profant, Oliver; Burianová, Jana; Syka, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 296, February (2013), s. 51-59. ISSN 0378-5955 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1347; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : auditory cortex * fequency representation * axon terminals Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.848, year: 2013

  14. Electrophysiological Responses to Auditory Novelty in Temperamentally Different 9-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Peter J.; Reeb, Bethany C.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral reactivity to novel stimuli in the first half-year of life has been identified as a key aspect of early temperament and a significant precursor of approach and withdrawal tendencies to novelty in later infancy and early childhood. The current study examines the neural signatures of reactivity to novel auditory stimuli in 9-month-old…

  15. Yoga breathing through a particular nostril is associated with contralateral event-related potential changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Telles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In earlier studies uninostril yoga breathing was shown to influence the activity of the cerebral hemispheres differently, based on (i auditory evoked potentials recorded from bilateral scalp sites, and (ii performance in hemisphere-specific tasks. But change in P300 (event-related potential generated when subjects attend to and discriminate between stimuli from bilateral scalp sites when subjects were practicing uni- and alternate-nostril breathing are yet to be explored. Aim: The present study was designed to determine whether or not immediately after uninostril or alternate nostril yoga breathing there would be a change in the ability to pay attention to a given stimulus. Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine healthy male volunteers, with ages between 20 and 45 years were randomly allocated to five sessions, viz., (i right-, (ii left-, (iii alternate-nostril yoga breathing, (iv breath awareness and (v no intervention, each for 45 min on separate days. The P300 event related potential was recorded using an auditory oddball paradigm from sites on the left (C3 and right (C4, referenced to linked earlobes, before and after each session. Results: Post-hoc analysis with Bonferroni adjustment showed that the P300 peak latency was significantly lower at C3 compared to that at C4, following right nostril yoga breathing (P<0.05. Conclusion: These results suggest that right nostril yoga breathing facilitates the activity of contralateral (left hemisphere, in the performance of the P300 task.

  16. Event-related oscillations (ERO) during an active discrimination task: Effects of lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2016-05-01

    The cholinergic system in the brain is involved in attentional processes that are engaged for the identification and selection of relevant information in the environment and the formation of new stimulus associations. In the present study we determined the effects of cholinergic lesions of nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) on amplitude and phase characteristics of event related oscillations (EROs) generated in an auditory active discrimination task in rats. Rats were trained to press a lever to begin a series of 1kHz tones and to release the lever upon hearing a 2kHz tone. A time-frequency based representation was used to determine ERO energy and phase synchronization (phase lock index, PLI) across trials, recorded within frontal cortical structures. Lesions in NBM produced by an infusion of a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) resulted in (1) a reduction of the number of correct behavioral responses in the active discrimination task, (2) an increase in ERO energy in the delta frequency bands, (3) an increase in theta, alpha and beta ERO energy in the N1, P3a and P3b regions of interest (ROI), and (4) an increase in PLI in the theta frequency band in the N1 ROIs. These studies suggest that the NBM cholinergic system is involved in maintaining the synchronization/phase resetting of oscillations in different frequencies in response to the presentation of the target stimuli in an active discrimination task. PMID:25660307

  17. A STUDY OF HEARING EVALUATION FOR NEONATES WITH HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA USING OTOACOUSTIC EMISSION AND BRAIN STEM AUDITORY EVOKED RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jaundice is one of the most common problems occurring in newborns. Although most of jaundiced patients are normal; because of the bilirubin toxicity, high serum levels can lead to kernicterus. It is important to identify and evaluate the jaundice early to prevent complications like bilirubin encephalopathy leading to hearing loss. Such early detection is possible only if some form of routine screening is used, one of which is otoacoustic emission. By detecting the hearing loss in time with screening methods we can ensure normal language development by appropriate intervention like hearing aids and infant stimulation. In this study otoacoustic emission will be followed by brain stem auditory evoked response and the results will be analyzed to look for the effectiveness of using otoacoustic emission for mass screening. METHODOLOGY: after obtaining approval and clearance from the institutional ethics committee this study included 105 children which satisfied the inclusion criteria. A standard case record was maintained for each subject. The neonate was subjected to otoacoustic emission just before discharge from the hospital. Otoacoustic emission was followed by brain stem auditory evoked response and the results compiled. Result of brain stem auditory evoked response was taken as gold standard and the results were analyzed. RESULTS: Abnormal OAE changes were seen in 6 and abnormal BERA was seen in 9 babies out of a total of 105 babies tested with hyperbilirubinemia. CONCLUSION: use of otoacoustic emissions as initial screening test provides as easy, cost effective and quick method to detect infants with hearing loss. As it is less invasive and less time consuming than BERA, dpOAE can be used as initial screening method for hearing loss in infants with BERA being reserved for infants that fail dpOAE.

  18. Neonatal hearing screening of high-risk infants using automated auditory brainstem response: a retrospective analysis of referral rates.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGurgan, I J

    2013-10-07

    The past decade has seen the widespread introduction of universal neonatal hearing screening (UNHS) programmes worldwide. Regrettably, such a programme is only now in the process of nationwide implementation in the Republic of Ireland and has been largely restricted to one screening modality for initial testing; namely transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE). The aim of this study is to analyse the effects of employing a different screening protocol which utilises an alternative initial test, automated auditory brainstem response (AABR), on referral rates to specialist audiology services.

  19. Visual–auditory spatial processing in auditory cortical neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Bizley, Jennifer K.; King, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    Neurons responsive to visual stimulation have now been described in the auditory cortex of various species, but their functions are largely unknown. Here we investigate the auditory and visual spatial sensitivity of neurons recorded in 5 different primary and non-primary auditory cortical areas of the ferret. We quantified the spatial tuning of neurons by measuring the responses to stimuli presented across a range of azimuthal positions and calculating the mutual information (MI) between the ...

  20. AROUSAL-RELATED P3a TO NOVEL AUDITORY STIMULI IS ABOLISHED BY MODERATELY LOW ALCOHOL DOSE

    OpenAIRE

    Marinkovic, Ksenija; Halgren, Eric; Maltzman, Irving

    2001-01-01

    Concurrent measures of event-related potentials (ERPs) and skin conductance responses were obtained in an auditory oddball task consisting of rare target, rare non-signal unique novel and frequent standard tones. Twelve right-handed male social drinkers participated in all four cells of the balanced placebo design in which effects of beverage and instructions as to the beverage content (expectancy) were independently manipulated. The beverage contained either juice only, or vodka mixed with j...

  1. Pleasurable Emotional Response to Music: A Case of Neurodegenerative Generalized Auditory Agnosia

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Brandy R.; Chang, Chiung-Chih; May, Mary; Engstrom, John; Bruce L. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Recent functional neuroimaging studies implicate the network of mesolimbic structures known to be active in reward processing as the neural substrate of pleasure associated with listening to music. Psychoacoustic and lesion studies suggest that there is a widely distributed cortical network involved in processing discreet musical variables. Here we present the case of a young man with auditory agnosia as the consequence of cortical neurodegeneration who continues to experience pleasure when e...

  2. Responses of mink to auditory stimuli: Prerequisites for applying the ‘cognitive bias’ approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Maj; Malmkvist, Jens; Halekoh, Ulrich;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine and validate prerequisites for applying a cognitive (judgement) bias approach to assessing welfare in farmed mink (Neovison vison). We investigated discrimination ability and associative learning ability using auditory cues. The mink (n = 15 females) were...... farmed mink in a judgement bias approach would thus appear to be feasible. However several specific issues are to be considered in order to successfully adapt a cognitive bias approach to mink, and these are discussed....

  3. A temperature rise reduces trial-to-trial variability of locust auditory neuron responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Monika J B; Schleimer, Jan-Hendrik; Schreiber, Susanne; Ronacher, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    The neurophysiology of ectothermic animals, such as insects, is affected by environmental temperature, as their body temperature fluctuates with ambient conditions. Changes in temperature alter properties of neurons and, consequently, have an impact on the processing of information. Nevertheless, nervous system function is often maintained over a broad temperature range, exhibiting a surprising robustness to variations in temperature. A special problem arises for acoustically communicating insects, as in these animals mate recognition and mate localization typically rely on the decoding of fast amplitude modulations in calling and courtship songs. In the auditory periphery, however, temporal resolution is constrained by intrinsic neuronal noise. Such noise predominantly arises from the stochasticity of ion channel gating and potentially impairs the processing of sensory signals. On the basis of intracellular recordings of locust auditory neurons, we show that intrinsic neuronal variability on the level of spikes is reduced with increasing temperature. We use a detailed mathematical model including stochastic ion channel gating to shed light on the underlying biophysical mechanisms in auditory receptor neurons: because of a redistribution of channel-induced current noise toward higher frequencies and specifics of the temperature dependence of the membrane impedance, membrane potential noise is indeed reduced at higher temperatures. This finding holds under generic conditions and physiologically plausible assumptions on the temperature dependence of the channels' kinetics and peak conductances. We demonstrate that the identified mechanism also can explain the experimentally observed reduction of spike timing variability at higher temperatures. PMID:26041833

  4. Event-related potential studies of post-traumatic stress disorder: a critical review and synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javanbakht Arash

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the sparseness of the currently available data, there is accumulating evidence of information processing impairment in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Studies of event-related potentials (ERPs are the main tool in real time examination of information processing. In this paper, we sought to critically review the ERP evidence of information processing abnormalities in patients with PTSD. We also examined the evidence supporting the existence of a relationship between ERP abnormalities and symptom profiles or severity in PTSD patients. An extensive Medline search was performed. Keywords included PTSD or post-traumatic stress disorder, electrophysiology or EEG, electrophysiology, P50, P100, N100, P2, P200, P3, P300, sensory gating, CNV (contingent negative variation and MMN (mismatch negativity. We limited the review to ERP adult human studies with control groups which were reported in the English language. After applying our inclusion-exclusion review criteria, 36 studies were included. Subjects exposed to wide ranges of military and civilian traumas were studied in these reports. Presented stimuli were both auditory and visual. The most widely studied components included P300, P50 gating, N100 and P200. Most of the studies reported increased P300 response to trauma-related stimuli in PTSD patients. A smaller group of studies reported dampening of responses or no change in responses to trauma-related and/or unrelated stimuli. P50 studies were strongly suggestive of impaired gating in patients with PTSD. In conclusion, the majority of reports support evidence of information processing abnormalities in patients with PTSD diagnosis. The predominance of evidence suggests presence of mid-latency and late ERP components differences in PTSD patients in comparison to healthy controls. Heterogeneity of assessment methods used contributes to difficulties in reaching firm conclusions regarding the nature of these differences. We suggest

  5. Direct recordings from the auditory cortex in a cochlear implant user.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourski, Kirill V; Etler, Christine P; Brugge, John F; Oya, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Reale, Richard A; Abbas, Paul J; Brown, Carolyn J; Howard, Matthew A

    2013-06-01

    Electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve with a cochlear implant (CI) is the method of choice for treatment of severe-to-profound hearing loss. Understanding how the human auditory cortex responds to CI stimulation is important for advances in stimulation paradigms and rehabilitation strategies. In this study, auditory cortical responses to CI stimulation were recorded intracranially in a neurosurgical patient to examine directly the functional organization of the auditory cortex and compare the findings with those obtained in normal-hearing subjects. The subject was a bilateral CI user with a 20-year history of deafness and refractory epilepsy. As part of the epilepsy treatment, a subdural grid electrode was implanted over the left temporal lobe. Pure tones, click trains, sinusoidal amplitude-modulated noise, and speech were presented via the auxiliary input of the right CI speech processor. Additional experiments were conducted with bilateral CI stimulation. Auditory event-related changes in cortical activity, characterized by the averaged evoked potential and event-related band power, were localized to posterolateral superior temporal gyrus. Responses were stable across recording sessions and were abolished under general anesthesia. Response latency decreased and magnitude increased with increasing stimulus level. More apical intracochlear stimulation yielded the largest responses. Cortical evoked potentials were phase-locked to the temporal modulations of periodic stimuli and speech utterances. Bilateral electrical stimulation resulted in minimal artifact contamination. This study demonstrates the feasibility of intracranial electrophysiological recordings of responses to CI stimulation in a human subject, shows that cortical response properties may be similar to those obtained in normal-hearing individuals, and provides a basis for future comparisons with extracranial recordings. PMID:23519390

  6. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Alters Auditory-motor Integration For Voice Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Chen, Ziyi; Yan, Nan; Jones, Jeffery A.; Guo, Zhiqiang; Huang, Xiyan; Chen, Shaozhen; Liu, Peng; Liu, Hanjun

    2016-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common drug-refractory focal epilepsy in adults. Previous research has shown that patients with TLE exhibit decreased performance in listening to speech sounds and deficits in the cortical processing of auditory information. Whether TLE compromises auditory-motor integration for voice control, however, remains largely unknown. To address this question, event-related potentials (ERPs) and vocal responses to vocal pitch errors (1/2 or 2 semitones upward) heard in auditory feedback were compared across 28 patients with TLE and 28 healthy controls. Patients with TLE produced significantly larger vocal responses but smaller P2 responses than healthy controls. Moreover, patients with TLE exhibited a positive correlation between vocal response magnitude and baseline voice variability and a negative correlation between P2 amplitude and disease duration. Graphical network analyses revealed a disrupted neuronal network for patients with TLE with a significant increase of clustering coefficients and path lengths as compared to healthy controls. These findings provide strong evidence that TLE is associated with an atypical integration of the auditory and motor systems for vocal pitch regulation, and that the functional networks that support the auditory-motor processing of pitch feedback errors differ between patients with TLE and healthy controls. PMID:27356768

  7. Are Auditory Steady-State Responses Useful to Evaluate Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasel, Signe Schuster; de Almeida, Edigar Rezende; Beck, Roberto Miquelino de Oliveira; Goffi-Gomez, Maria Valéria Schmidt; Ramos, Henrique Faria; Rossi, Amanda Costa; Koji Tsuji, Robinson; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; de Brito, Rubens

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate Auditory Steady-State Responses (ASSR) at high intensities in pediatric cochlear implant candidates and to compare the results to behavioral tests responses. Methods. This prospective study evaluated 42 children with suspected severe-to-profound hearing loss, aged from 3 to 72 months. All had absent ABR and OAE responses. ASSR were evoked using binaural single frequency stimuli at 110 dB HL with a 10 dB down-seeking procedure. ASSR and behavioral test results were compared. Results. Forty-two subjects completed both ASSR and behavioral evaluation. Eleven children (26.2%) had bilateral responses. Four (9.5%) showed unilateral responses in at least two frequencies, all confirmed by behavioral results. Overall 61 ASSR responses were obtained, most (37.7%) in 500 Hz. Mean thresholds were between 101.3 and 104.2 dB HL. Among 27 subjects with absent ASSR, fifteen had no behavioral responses. Seven subjects showed behavioral responses with absent ASSR responses. No spurious ASSR responses were observed at 100 or 110 dB HL. Conclusion. ASSR is a valuable tool to detect residual hearing. No false-positive ASSR results were observed among 42 children, but in seven cases with absent ASSR, the test underestimated residual hearing as compared to the behavioral responses. PMID:26557677

  8. Auditory agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevc, L Robert; Shell, Alison R

    2015-01-01

    Auditory agnosia refers to impairments in sound perception and identification despite intact hearing, cognitive functioning, and language abilities (reading, writing, and speaking). Auditory agnosia can be general, affecting all types of sound perception, or can be (relatively) specific to a particular domain. Verbal auditory agnosia (also known as (pure) word deafness) refers to deficits specific to speech processing, environmental sound agnosia refers to difficulties confined to non-speech environmental sounds, and amusia refers to deficits confined to music. These deficits can be apperceptive, affecting basic perceptual processes, or associative, affecting the relation of a perceived auditory object to its meaning. This chapter discusses what is known about the behavioral symptoms and lesion correlates of these different types of auditory agnosia (focusing especially on verbal auditory agnosia), evidence for the role of a rapid temporal processing deficit in some aspects of auditory agnosia, and the few attempts to treat the perceptual deficits associated with auditory agnosia. A clear picture of auditory agnosia has been slow to emerge, hampered by the considerable heterogeneity in behavioral deficits, associated brain damage, and variable assessments across cases. Despite this lack of clarity, these striking deficits in complex sound processing continue to inform our understanding of auditory perception and cognition. PMID:25726291

  9. Identifying the threshold of iron deficiency in the central nervous system of the rat by the auditory brainstem response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greminger, Allison R; Mayer-Pröschel, Margot

    2015-01-01

    The deleterious effects of anemia on auditory nerve (AN) development have been well investigated; however, we have previously reported that significant functional consequences in the auditory brainstem response (ABR) can also occur as a consequence of marginal iron deficiency (ID). As the ABR has widespread clinical use, we evaluated the ability of this electrophysiological method to characterize the threshold of tissue ID in rats by examining the relationship between markers of tissue ID and severity of ABR latency defects. To generate various levels of ID, female Long-Evans rats were exposed to diets containing sufficient, borderline, or deficient iron (Fe) concentrations throughout gestation and offspring lifetime. We measured hematological indices of whole body iron stores in dams and offspring to assess the degree of ID. Progression of AN ID in the offspring was measured as ferritin protein levels at different times during postnatal development to complement ABR functional measurements. The severity of ABR deficits correlated with the level of Fe restriction in each diet. The sufficient Fe diet did not induce AN ID and consequently did not show an impaired ABR latency response. The borderline Fe diet, which depleted AN Fe stores but did not cause systemic anemia resulted in significantly increased ABR latency isolated to Peak I.The low Fe diet, which induced anemia and growth retardation, significantly increased ABR latencies of Peaks I to IV. Our findings indicate that changes in the ABR could be related to various degrees of ID experienced throughout development. PMID:25732706

  10. Event-related alpha suppression in response to facial motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Girges

    Full Text Available While biological motion refers to both face and body movements, little is known about the visual perception of facial motion. We therefore examined alpha wave suppression as a reduction in power is thought to reflect visual activity, in addition to attentional reorienting and memory processes. Nineteen neurologically healthy adults were tested on their ability to discriminate between successive facial motion captures. These animations exhibited both rigid and non-rigid facial motion, as well as speech expressions. The structural and surface appearance of these facial animations did not differ, thus participants decisions were based solely on differences in facial movements. Upright, orientation-inverted and luminance-inverted facial stimuli were compared. At occipital and parieto-occipital regions, upright facial motion evoked a transient increase in alpha which was then followed by a significant reduction. This finding is discussed in terms of neural efficiency, gating mechanisms and neural synchronization. Moreover, there was no difference in the amount of alpha suppression evoked by each facial stimulus at occipital regions, suggesting early visual processing remains unaffected by manipulation paradigms. However, upright facial motion evoked greater suppression at parieto-occipital sites, and did so in the shortest latency. Increased activity within this region may reflect higher attentional reorienting to natural facial motion but also involvement of areas associated with the visual control of body effectors.

  11. Evaluation of auditory brain-stem evoked response in middle: Aged type 2 diabetes mellitus with normal hearing subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debadatta Mahallik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is commonly metabolic disorders of carbohydrate in which blood glucose levels are abnormally high due to relative or absolute insulin deficiency. In addition, it is characterized by abnormal metabolism of fat, protein resulting from insulin deficit or insulin action, or both. There are two broad categories of DM are designated as type 1 and type 2. Type 2 diabetes is due to predominantly insulin resistance with relative insulin deficiency noninsulin-dependent DM. Type 2 diabetes is much more common than insulin-dependent DM. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess, if there is any abnormality in neural conduction in auditory brain-stem pathway in type 2 DM patients having normal hearing sensitivity when compared to age-matched healthy populations. Materials and Methods: This study included middle - aged 25 subjects having normal hearing with diabetes type 2 mellitus. All were submitted to the full audiological history taking, otological examination, basic audiological evaluation and auditory brain-stem response audiometry which was recorded in both ears, followed by calculation of the absolute latencies of wave I, III and V, as well as interpeak latencies I-III, III-V, I-V. Results: Type 2 DM patients showed significant prolonged absolute latencies of I, III (P = 0.001 and interpeak latencies I-III, III-V and I-V in left ear (P = 0.001 and absolute latencies of I, V (P = 0.001, interpeak latencies III-V was statistically significant in right ear. Conclusions: The prolonged absolute latencies and interpeak latencies suggests abnormal neural firing synchronization or in the transmission in the auditory pathways in normal hearing type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  12. Validation of the Emotiv EPOC® EEG gaming system for measuring research quality auditory ERPs

    OpenAIRE

    Badcock, Nicholas A.; Petroula Mousikou; Yatin Mahajan; Peter de Lissa; Johnson Thie; Genevieve McArthur

    2013-01-01

    Background. Auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) have proved useful in investigating the role of auditory processing in cognitive disorders such as developmental dyslexia, specific language impairment (SLI), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, and autism. However, laboratory recordings of auditory ERPs can be lengthy, uncomfortable, or threatening for some participants – particularly children. Recently, a commercial gaming electroencephalography (EEG) system ha...

  13. Attention in essential tremor: evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauletti, C; Mannarelli, D; Locuratolo, N; Vanacore, N; De Lucia, M C; Mina, C; Fattapposta, F

    2013-07-01

    Clinically subtle executive dysfunctions have recently been described in essential tremor (ET), though the presence of attentional deficits is still unclear. We investigated the psychophysiological aspects of attention in ET, using event-related potentials (ERPs). Twenty-one non-demented patients with ET and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent a psychophysiological evaluation. P300 components and the Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) were recorded. The latencies and amplitudes of the P3a and P3b subcomponents and CNV areas were evaluated. Possible correlations between clinical parameters and ERP data were investigated. P3a latency was significantly longer in the ET group (p < 0.05), while no differences emerged between patients and controls in P3b latency. No differences were observed between the two groups in the CNV parameters. ET patients display a difficulty in the response to novelty and in the recruitment of prefrontal attentive circuits, while the memory context-updating process appears to be spared. This selective cognitive dysfunction does not appear to interfere with the attentional set linked to the expectancy evaluated during a complex choice-reaction time task, which is preserved in ET. This multitask psychophysiological approach reveals the presence of a peculiar attentional deficit in patients with ET, thus expanding the clinical features of this disease. PMID:23196980

  14. Characterization of the blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response in cat auditory cortex using high-field fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Trecia A; Joanisse, Marc F; Gati, Joseph S; Hughes, Sarah M; Nixon, Pam L; Menon, Ravi S; Lomber, Stephen G

    2013-01-01

    Much of what is known about the cortical organization for audition in humans draws from studies of auditory cortex in the cat. However, these data build largely on electrophysiological recordings that are both highly invasive and provide less evidence concerning macroscopic patterns of brain activation. Optical imaging, using intrinsic signals or dyes, allows visualization of surface-based activity but is also quite invasive. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) overcomes these limitations by providing a large-scale perspective of distributed activity across the brain in a non-invasive manner. The present study used fMRI to characterize stimulus-evoked activity in auditory cortex of an anesthetized (ketamine/isoflurane) cat, focusing specifically on the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal time course. Functional images were acquired for adult cats in a 7 T MRI scanner. To determine the BOLD signal time course, we presented 1s broadband noise bursts between widely spaced scan acquisitions at randomized delays (1-12 s in 1s increments) prior to each scan. Baseline trials in which no stimulus was presented were also acquired. Our results indicate that the BOLD response peaks at about 3.5s in primary auditory cortex (AI) and at about 4.5 s in non-primary areas (AII, PAF) of cat auditory cortex. The observed peak latency is within the range reported for humans and non-human primates (3-4 s). The time course of hemodynamic activity in cat auditory cortex also occurs on a comparatively shorter scale than in cat visual cortex. The results of this study will provide a foundation for future auditory fMRI studies in the cat to incorporate these hemodynamic response properties into appropriate analyses of cat auditory cortex. PMID:23000258

  15. A temporal predictive code for voice motor control: Evidence from ERP and behavioral responses to pitch-shifted auditory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Sangtian, Stacey; Korzyukov, Oleg; Larson, Charles R

    2016-04-01

    The predictive coding model suggests that voice motor control is regulated by a process in which the mismatch (error) between feedforward predictions and sensory feedback is detected and used to correct vocal motor behavior. In this study, we investigated how predictions about timing of pitch perturbations in voice auditory feedback would modulate ERP and behavioral responses during vocal production. We designed six counterbalanced blocks in which a +100cents pitch-shift stimulus perturbed voice auditory feedback during vowel sound vocalizations. In three blocks, there was a fixed delay (500, 750 or 1000ms) between voice and pitch-shift stimulus onset (predictable), whereas in the other three blocks, stimulus onset delay was randomized between 500, 750 and 1000ms (unpredictable). We found that subjects produced compensatory (opposing) vocal responses that started at 80ms after the onset of the unpredictable stimuli. However, for predictable stimuli, subjects initiated vocal responses at 20ms before and followed the direction of pitch shifts in voice feedback. Analysis of ERPs showed that the amplitudes of the N1 and P2 components were significantly reduced in response to predictable compared with unpredictable stimuli. These findings indicate that predictions about temporal features of sensory feedback can modulate vocal motor behavior. In the context of the predictive coding model, temporally-predictable stimuli are learned and reinforced by the internal feedforward system, and as indexed by the ERP suppression, the sensory feedback contribution is reduced for their processing. These findings provide new insights into the neural mechanisms of vocal production and motor control. PMID:26835556

  16. Brainstem auditory evoked response characteristics in normal-hearing subjects with chronic tinnitus and in non-tinnitus group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadman Nemati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: While most of the people with tinnitus have some degrees of hearing impairment, a small percent of patients admitted to ear, nose and throat clinics or hearing evaluation centers are those who complain of tinnitus despite having normal hearing thresholds. This study was performed to better understanding of the reasons of probable causes of tinnitus and to investigate possible changes in the auditory brainstem function in normal-hearing patients with chronic tinnitus.Methods: In this comparative cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic study, 52 ears (26 with and 26 without tinnitus were examined. Components of the auditory brainstem response (ABR including wave latencies and wave amplitudes were determined in the two groups and analyzed using appropriate statistical methods.Results: The mean differences between the absolute latencies of waves I, III and V was less than 0.1 ms between the two groups that was not statistically significant. Also, the interpeak latency values of waves I-III, III-V and I-V in both groups had no significant difference. Only, the V/I amplitude ratio in the tinnitus group was significantly higher (p=0.04.Conclusion: The changes observed in amplitude of waves, especially in the latter ones, can be considered as an indication of plastic changes in neuronal activity and its possible role in generation of tinnitus in normal-hearing patients.

  17. Investigation into the response of the auditory and acoustic communications systems in the Beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) of the St. Lawrence River Estuary to noise, using vocal classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifele, Peter Martin

    2003-06-01

    Noise pollution has only recently become recognized as a potential danger to marine mammals in general, and to the Beluga Whale (Delphinapterus leucas) in particular. These small gregarious Odontocetes make extensive use of sound for social communication and pod cohesion. The St. Lawrence River Estuary is habitat to a small, critically endangered population of about 700 Beluga whales who congregate in four different sites in its upper estuary. The population is believed to be threatened by the stress of high-intensity, low frequency noise. One way to determine whether noise is having an effect on an animal's auditory ability might be to observe a natural and repeatable response of the auditory and vocal systems to varying noise levels. This can be accomplished by observing changes in animal vocalizations in response to auditory feedback. A response such as this observed in humans and some animals is known as the Lombard Vocal Response, which represents a reaction of the auditory system directly manifested by changes in vocalization level. In this research this population of Beluga Whales was tested to determine whether a vocalization-as-a-function-of-noise phenomenon existed by using Hidden Markhov "classified" vocalizations as targets for acoustical analyses. Correlation and regression analyses indicated that the phenomenon does exist and results of a human subjects experiment along with results from other animal species known to exhibit the response strongly implicate the Lombard Vocal Response in the Beluga.

  18. Auditory Evoked M100 Response Latency is Delayed in Children with 16p11.2 Deletion but not 16p11.2 Duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Julian; Chow, Vivian; Blaskey, Lisa; Kuschner, Emily; Qasmieh, Saba; Gaetz, Leah; Edgar, J Christopher; Mukherjee, Pratik; Buckner, Randall; Nagarajan, Srikantan S; Chung, Wendy K; Spiro, John E; Sherr, Elliott H; Berman, Jeffrey I; Roberts, Timothy P L

    2016-05-01

    Individuals with the 16p11.2 BP4-BP5 copy number variant (CNV) exhibit a range of behavioral phenotypes that may include mild impairment in cognition and clinical diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To better understand auditory processing impairments in populations with this chromosomal variation, auditory evoked responses were examined in children with the 16p11.2 deletion, 16p11.2 duplication, and age-matched controls. Stimuli consisted of sinusoidal binaural tones presented passively while children underwent recording with magnetoencephalography (MEG). The primary indicator of auditory processing impairment was the latency of the ∼100-ms "M100" auditory response detected by MEG, with the 16p11.2 deletion population exhibiting profoundly delayed M100 latencies relative to controls. This delay remained even after controlling for potential confounds such as age and cognitive ability. No significant difference in M100 latency was observed between 16p11.2 duplication carriers and controls. Additionally, children meeting diagnostic criteria for ASD (16p11.2 deletion carriers) exhibited nonsignificant latency delays when compared with the corresponding CNV carriers not meeting criteria for ASD. Present results indicate that 16p11.2 deletion is associated with auditory processing delays analogous to (but substantially more pronounced than) those previously reported in "idiopathic" ASD. PMID:25678630

  19. Covariation of phasic cortical and cardiovascular responses: Effects of alertness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. van der Veen; L.J.M. Mulder; G. Mulder

    1999-01-01

    Effects of maintaining an alert state on event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and evoked cardiovascular responses were examined in an auditory detection task. Subjects were instructed to detect a possible difference in frequency between two successively presented tones in 5 s periods. Two types of

  20. The auditory characteristics of children with inner auditory canal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yu; Xu, Lei; Li, Li; Li, Jianfeng; Luo, Jianfen; Wang, Mingming; Fan, Zhaomin; Wang, Haibo

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions This study shows that the prevalence of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) in the children with inner auditory canal (IAC) stenosis is much higher than those without IAC stenosis, regardless of whether they have other inner ear anomalies. In addition, the auditory characteristics of ANSD with IAC stenosis are significantly different from those of ANSD without any middle and inner ear malformations. Objectives To describe the auditory characteristics in children with IAC stenosis as well as to examine whether the narrow inner auditory canal is associated with ANSD. Method A total of 21 children, with inner auditory canal stenosis, participated in this study. A series of auditory tests were measured. Meanwhile, a comparative study was conducted on the auditory characteristics of ANSD, based on whether the children were associated with isolated IAC stenosis. Results Wave V in the ABR was not observed in all the patients, while cochlear microphonic (CM) response was detected in 81.1% ears with stenotic IAC. Sixteen of 19 (84.2%) ears with isolated IAC stenosis had CM response present on auditory brainstem responses (ABR) waveforms. There was no significant difference in ANSD characteristics between the children with and without isolated IAC stenosis. PMID:26981851

  1. Enhanced audio-visual interactions in the auditory cortex of elderly cochlear-implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierholz, Irina; Finke, Mareike; Schulte, Svenja; Hauthal, Nadine; Kantzke, Christoph; Rach, Stefan; Büchner, Andreas; Dengler, Reinhard; Sandmann, Pascale

    2015-10-01

    Auditory deprivation and the restoration of hearing via a cochlear implant (CI) can induce functional plasticity in auditory cortical areas. How these plastic changes affect the ability to integrate combined auditory (A) and visual (V) information is not yet well understood. In the present study, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to examine whether age, temporary deafness and altered sensory experience with a CI can affect audio-visual (AV) interactions in post-lingually deafened CI users. Young and elderly CI users and age-matched NH listeners performed a speeded response task on basic auditory, visual and audio-visual stimuli. Regarding the behavioral results, a redundant signals effect, that is, faster response times to cross-modal (AV) than to both of the two modality-specific stimuli (A, V), was revealed for all groups of participants. Moreover, in all four groups, we found evidence for audio-visual integration. Regarding event-related responses (ERPs), we observed a more pronounced visual modulation of the cortical auditory response at N1 latency (approximately 100 ms after stimulus onset) in the elderly CI users when compared with young CI users and elderly NH listeners. Thus, elderly CI users showed enhanced audio-visual binding which may be a consequence of compensatory strategies developed due to temporary deafness and/or degraded sensory input after implantation. These results indicate that the combination of aging, sensory deprivation and CI facilitates the coupling between the auditory and the visual modality. We suggest that this enhancement in multisensory interactions could be used to optimize auditory rehabilitation, especially in elderly CI users, by the application of strong audio-visually based rehabilitation strategies after implant switch-on. PMID:26302946

  2. Effects of glutamate receptor agonists on the P13 auditory evoked potential and startle response in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EdgarGarcia-Rill

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The P13 potential is the rodent equivalent of the P50 potential, which is an evoked response recorded at the vertex (Vx 50 msec following an auditory stimulus in humans. Both the P13 and P50 potentials are only present during waking and rapid eye movement (REM sleep, and are considered to be measures of level of arousal. The source of the P13 and P50 potentials appears to be the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN, a brainstem nucleus with indirect ascending projections to the cortex through the intralaminar thalamus (ILT, mediating arousal, and descending inhibitory projections to the caudal pontine reticular formation (CPRF, which mediates the auditory startle response (SR. We tested the hypothesis that intracranial microinjection (ICM of glutamate (GLU or GLU receptor agonists will increase the activity of PPN neurons, resulting in an increased P13 potential response, and decreased SR due to inhibitory projections from the PPN to the CPRF, in freely moving animals. Cannulae were inserted into the PPN to inject neuroactive agents, screws were inserted into the Vx in order to record the P13 potential, and electrodes inserted into the dorsal nuchal muscle to record electromyograms (EMGs and SR amplitude. Our results showed that ICM of GLU into the PPN dose-dependently increased the amplitude of the P13 potential and decreased the amplitude of the SR. Similarly, ICM of NMDA or KA into the PPN increased the amplitude of the P13 potential. These findings indicate that glutamatergic input to the PPN plays a role in arousal control in vivo, and changes in glutamatergic input, or excitability of PPN neurons, could be implicated in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders with the common symptoms of hyperarousal and REM sleep dysregulation.

  3. Working memory processes show different degrees of lateralization : Evidence from event-related potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D; Wijers, A.A.; Klaver, P; Mulder, G.

    2001-01-01

    This study aimed to identify different processes in working memory, using event-related potentials (ERPs) and response times. Abstract polygons were presented for memorization and subsequent recall in a delayed matching-to-sample paradigm. Two polygons were presented bilaterally for memorization and

  4. Event-related potential evidence of dysfunction in automatic processing in abstinent alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, G; Begleiter, H; Odencrantz, J; Porjesz, B

    The preattentive automatic processing of 63 alcoholics and 27 controls was evaluated with an auditory inattentive event-related oddball paradigm. We examined the mismatch negativity and the N2-P3 complex. Results showed significantly greater amplitude for N2, P3 and the N2-P3 complex for controls but no individual lead (Fz, Cz, Pz) differences by group. A group-by-lead interaction was found for N2 and for the N2-P3 complex. There were no significant latency differences between groups; however, a significant age-by-group interaction effect on latency was greatest at the Cz electrode. Results reflect a possible aberration of automatic processing in alcoholics because of a defect in the mnemonic template necessary to match with an infrequent deviant stimuli. We also found suggestive evidence of a relative weakness of frontal cortical organization in alcoholics. Future studies are suggested that would help clarify these differences in alcoholics. PMID:8329490

  5. Adaptation in the auditory system: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    David ePérez-González; Malmierca, Manuel S.

    2014-01-01

    The early stages of the auditory system need to preserve the timing information of sounds in order to extract the basic features of acoustic stimuli. At the same time, different processes of neuronal adaptation occur at several levels to further process the auditory information. For instance, auditory nerve fiber responses already experience adaptation of their firing rates, a type of response that can be found in many other auditory nuclei and may be useful for emphasizing the onset of the s...

  6. Attentional demands influence vocal compensations to pitch errors heard in auditory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumber, Anupreet K; Scheerer, Nichole E; Jones, Jeffery A

    2014-01-01

    Auditory feedback is required to maintain fluent speech. At present, it is unclear how attention modulates auditory feedback processing during ongoing speech. In this event-related potential (ERP) study, participants vocalized/a/, while they heard their vocal pitch suddenly shifted downward a ½ semitone in both single and dual-task conditions. During the single-task condition participants passively viewed a visual stream for cues to start and stop vocalizing. In the dual-task condition, participants vocalized while they identified target stimuli in a visual stream of letters. The presentation rate of the visual stimuli was manipulated in the dual-task condition in order to produce a low, intermediate, and high attentional load. Visual target identification accuracy was lowest in the high attentional load condition, indicating that attentional load was successfully manipulated. Results further showed that participants who were exposed to the single-task condition, prior to the dual-task condition, produced larger vocal compensations during the single-task condition. Thus, when participants' attention was divided, less attention was available for the monitoring of their auditory feedback, resulting in smaller compensatory vocal responses. However, P1-N1-P2 ERP responses were not affected by divided attention, suggesting that the effect of attentional load was not on the auditory processing of pitch altered feedback, but instead it interfered with the integration of auditory and motor information, or motor control itself. PMID:25303649

  7. Effects of glutamate on distortion-product otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses in guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Qing; SUN Jian-he; SHAN Xi-zheng; LI Xing-qi

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate changes in evoked potentials and structure of the guinea pig cochleae during whole cochlear perfusion with glutamate. Methods CM, CAP, DPOAE, and ABR were recorded as indicators of cochlear functions during whole cochlear perfusion. The morphology of the cochlea was studied via transmission electron microscopy. Results There were no significant changes in DPOAE amplitude before and after glutamate perfusion. CM I/O function remained nonlinear during perfusion. ABR latencies were delayed following glutamate perfusion. The average CAP threshold was elevated 35 dB SPL following glutamate perfusion.. The OHCs appeared normal, but the IHCs and afferent dendrites showed cytoplasmic blebs after glutamate perfusion. Conclusions While being a primary amino acid neurotransmitter at the synapses between hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons, excessive glutamate is neurotoxic and can destroy IHCs and spiral ganglion neurons. The technique used in this study can also be used to build an animal model of auditory neuropathy.

  8. Simultaneous measurement of auditory-steady-state responses and otoacoustic emissions to estimate peripheral compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez Lopez, Raul; Epp, Bastian

    2016-01-01

    outer hair cells in the inner ear play an important role in the compressive nonlinearity, it is desirable to selectively obtain information about the inner ear. In the current study, the signal in the ear canal present during ASSR measurements is utilized to extract sinusoidally-amplitude modulated...... otoacoustic emissions (SAMOAEs). It is hypothesized that the stimulus used to evoke ASSRs will cause acoustic energy to be reflected back from the inner ear into the ear canal, where it can be picked up as an otoacoustic emission (OAE) and provide information about cochlear processing. Results indicate that...... SAMOAE in connection with ASSR may be possible by a proposed method to minimize the distortion. The ability to evaluate SAMOAE over a large input level range during ASSR measurement will provide information about the state of the peripheral auditory system without the need of additional measurement time....

  9. Abnormal auditory mismatch response in tinnitus sufferers with high-frequency hearing loss is associated with subjective distress level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg Patrick

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus is an auditory sensation frequently following hearing loss. After cochlear injury, deafferented neurons become sensitive to neighbouring intact edge-frequencies, guiding an enhanced central representation of these frequencies. As psychoacoustical data 123 indicate enhanced frequency discrimination ability for edge-frequencies that may be related to a reorganization within the auditory cortex, the aim of the present study was twofold: 1 to search for abnormal auditory mismatch responses in tinnitus sufferers and 2 relate these to subjective indicators of tinnitus. Results Using EEG-mismatch negativity, we demonstrate abnormalities (N = 15 in tinnitus sufferers that are specific to frequencies located at the audiometrically normal lesion-edge as compared to normal hearing controls (N = 15. Groups also differed with respect to the cortical locations of mismatch responsiveness. Sources in the 90–135 ms latency window were generated in more anterior brain regions in the tinnitus group. Both measures of abnormality correlated with emotional-cognitive distress related to tinnitus (r ~ .76. While these two physiological variables were uncorrelated in the control group, they were correlated in the tinnitus group (r = .72. Concerning relationships with parameters of hearing loss (depth and slope, slope turned out to be an important variable. Generally, the steeper the hearing loss is the less distress related to tinnitus was reported. The associations between slope and the relevant neurophysiological variables are in agreement with this finding. Conclusions The present study is the first to show near-to-complete separation of tinnitus sufferers from a normal hearing control group based on neurophysiological variables. The finding of lesion-edge specific effects and associations with slope of hearing loss corroborates the assumption that hearing loss is the basis for tinnitus development. It is likely that some central

  10. Assessment of Electrically Evoked Auditory Brain Stem Response of 30 Implanted Patients With Nucleus Multichannel Cochlear Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Soqrat Faghihzadeh

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Methods and Materials: Investigation of electrically evoked auditory brain stem response (EABR is a new issue, especially in implanted patients. Experiments were performed in C.I Center of Iranian Institute for Science and research expansion,1996 on 30 implanted patients with 22 spectra and MSP cochlear implant system and 30 normal subjects with the range of 3-33 years. Findings: I- EABR was obtained in the implanted patients. 2- Absolute latency of EABR waves is 1-1.5 ms shorter than ABR waves ‘P<0.05. 3-Absolute latency of wave V decreases as a function of electric stimulus magnitude (P<0.05. 4- No significant difference was observed in IPL Ill-V between ABR and EABR.

  11. Mismatch negativity in children with specific language impairment and auditory processing disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Nunes Rocha-Muniz; Débora Maria Befi-Lopes; Eliane Schochat

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mismatch negativity, an electrophysiological measure, evaluates the brain's capacity to discriminate sounds, regardless of attentional and behavioral capacity. Thus, this auditory event-related potential is promising in the study of the neurophysiological basis underlying auditory processing.OBJECTIVE: To investigate complex acoustic signals (speech) encoded in the auditory nervous system of children with specific language impairment and compare with children with auditory proce...

  12. Auditory cortical responses evoked by pure tones in healthy and sensorineural hearing loss subjects: functional MRI and magnetoencephalography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yun-ting; GENG Zuo-jun; ZHANG Quan; LI Wei; ZHANG Jing

    2006-01-01

    hearing loss and the healthy subjects, the most evident audio evoked fields activated by pure tone were N100m,which located precisely on the Heschl's gyms. Compared with the hearing loss subjects, N100m of the healthy subjects was stronger and had longer latencies in fight hemisphere.Conclusions Under proper pure tone stimulus the activation of auditory cortex can be elicited both in the healthy and the sensorineural hearing loss subjects. Either at objective equivalent stimuli or at subjectively perceived equivalent stimuli, the auditory responses were more intensive in healthy subjects than hearing loss subjects. The tone stimuli were processed in a network in human brain and there was an intrinsic relation between the auditory and visual cortex. Blood oxygen level dependent fMRI and magnetoencephalography could reinforce each other.

  13. Loss of reliable temporal structure in event-related averaging of naturalistic stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yakov, Aya; Honey, Christopher, J.; Lerner, Yulia; Hasson, Uri

    2014-01-01

    To separate neural signals from noise, brain responses measured in neuroimaging are routinely averaged across space and time. However, such procedures may obscure some properties of neural activity. Recently, multi-voxel pattern analysis methods have demonstrated that patterns of activity across voxels contain valuable information that is concealed by spatial averaging. Here we show that temporal patterns of neural activity contain information that can discriminate different stimuli, even within brain regions that show no net activation to that stimulus class. Furthermore, we find that in many brain regions, responses to natural stimuli are highly context dependent. In such cases, prototypical event-related responses do not even exist for individual stimuli, so that averaging responses to the same stimulus within different contexts may worsen the effective signal-to-noise. As a result, analysis of the temporal structures of single events can reveal aspects of neural dynamics which cannot be detected using standard event-related averaging methods. PMID:22813575

  14. Event-related potentials to expectancy violation in musical context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tervaniemi, M; Huotilainen, M; Brattico, E;

    2003-01-01

    The present study addressed neuronal processing of musical tones that violate expectancies primed by auditorily and visually presented musical material. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while the musically trained subjects were presented with short melodies composed for the...

  15. Event-Related Potentials Index Segmentation of Nonsense Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Lisa D.; Ameral, Victoria; Sayles, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    To understand the world around us, continuous streams of information including speech must be segmented into units that can be mapped onto stored representations. Recent evidence has shown that event-related potentials (ERPs) can index the online segmentation of sound streams. In the current study, listeners were trained to recognize sequences of…

  16. Event-Related Potentials and the Stroop Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahinoglu, Babur; Dogan, Gamze

    2016-02-01

    In this manuscript, the researches on the Event-Related Potentials (ERP) elicited by the standard Stroop effect were reviewed. For the sake of clarity, only the parts of the manuscripts that reported the standard Stroop effect - ERPs relation were taken into consideration. PMID:27026765

  17. Intracerebral Event-related Potentials to Subthreshold Target Stimuli

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brázdil, M.; Rektor, I.; Daniel, P.; Dufek, M.; Jurák, Pavel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 4 (2001), s. 650-661. ISSN 1388-2457 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/98/0490 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : event-related potentials * intracerebral recordings * oddball paradigm Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.922, year: 2001

  18. Increased Event-Related Potentials and Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-Activity Associated with Intentional Actions

    OpenAIRE

    Karch, Susanne; Loy, Fabian; Krause, Daniela; Schwarz, Sandra; Kiesewetter, Jan; Segmiller, Felix; Chrobok, Agnieszka I.; Keeser, Daniel; Pogarell, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Internally guided actions are defined as being purposeful, self-generated and offering choices between alternatives. Intentional actions are essential to reach individual goals. In previous empirical studies, internally guided actions were predominantly related to functional responses in frontal and parietal areas. The aim of the present study was to distinguish event-related potentials and oscillatory responses of intentional actions and externally guided actions. In addition, we ...

  19. Auditory Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... field differ in their opinions about the potential benefits of hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other technologies for people with auditory neuropathy. Some professionals report that hearing aids and personal listening devices such as frequency modulation (FM) systems are ...

  20. The influence of cochlear traveling wave and neural adaptation on auditory brainstem responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junius, D.; Dau, Torsten

    2005-01-01

    B SPL), disparities occurred between the responses, reflecting a nonlinearity in the processing when neural activity is integrated across frequency. In the third experiment, the effect of within-train rate on wave-V response was investigated. The response to the chirp presented at a within-train rate of...

  1. Event-related evoked potentials in chronic respiratory encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Zaidan, Radwan

    2010-01-01

    A R Al Tahan1, R Zaidan1, S Jones2, A Husain3, A Mobeireek1, A Bahammam11Department of Medicine, 3Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Neurophysiology, Institute of Neurology, London, UKBackground: Cognitive event-related potential (P300) is an index of cognitive processing time. It was found to be prolonged in dementia, renal, and hepatic encephalopathies, but was not extensively assessed in respiratory failure.Objective: T...

  2. Event-related fMRI in Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Huettel, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    A primary advantage of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) over other techniques in neuroscience is its flexibility. Researchers have used fMRI to study a remarkable diversity of topics, from basic processes of perception and memory, to the complex mechanisms of economic decision making and moral cognition. The chief contributor to this experimental flexibility – indeed, to the growth of fMRI itself – has been the development of event-related experimental designs and associated analy...

  3. Iconic Meaning in Music: An Event-Related Potential Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Liman; Huang, Ping; Luo, Qiuling; Huang, Hong; Mo, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been extensive research on the processing of the emotional meaning of music, little is known about other aspects of listeners’ experience of music. The present study investigated the neural correlates of the iconic meaning of music. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded while a group of 20 music majors and a group of 20 non-music majors performed a lexical decision task in the context of implicit musical iconic meaning priming. ERP analysis revealed a significant N40...

  4. Visual event-related potential studies supporting the validity of VARK learning styles' visual and read/write learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepsatitporn, Sarawin; Pichitpornchai, Chailerd

    2016-06-01

    The validity of learning styles needs supports of additional objective evidence. The identification of learning styles using subjective evidence from VARK questionnaires (where V is visual, A is auditory, R is read/write, and K is kinesthetic) combined with objective evidence from visual event-related potential (vERP) studies has never been investigated. It is questionable whether picture superiority effects exist in V learners and R learners. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate whether vERP could show the relationship between vERP components and VARK learning styles and to identify the existence of picture superiority effects in V learners and R learners. Thirty medical students (15 V learners and 15 R learners) performed recognition tasks with vERP and an intermediate-term memory (ITM) test. The results of within-group comparisons showed that pictures elicited larger P200 amplitudes than words at the occipital 2 site (P < 0.05) in V learners and at the occipital 1 and 2 sites (P < 0.05) in R learners. The between-groups comparison showed that P200 amplitudes elicited by pictures in V learners were larger than those of R learners at the parietal 4 site (P < 0.05). The ITM test result showed that a picture set showed distinctively more correct responses than that of a word set for both V learners (P < 0.001) and R learners (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the result indicated that the P200 amplitude at the parietal 4 site could be used to objectively distinguish V learners from R learners. A lateralization existed to the right brain (occipital 2 site) in V learners. The ITM test demonstrated the existence of picture superiority effects in both learners. The results revealed the first objective electrophysiological evidence partially supporting the validity of the subjective psychological VARK questionnaire study. PMID:27105739

  5. Noise-Induced “Toughening” Effect in Wistar Rats: Enhanced Auditory Brainstem Responses Are Related to Calretinin and Nitric Oxide Synthase Upregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Juan C.; Fuentes-Santamaría, Verónica; Gabaldón-Ull, María C.; Jareño-Flores, Tania; Miller, Josef M.; Juiz, José M.

    2016-01-01

    An appropriate conditioning noise exposure may reduce a subsequent noise-induced threshold shift. Although this “toughening” effect helps to protect the auditory system from a subsequent traumatic noise exposure, the mechanisms that regulate this protective process are not fully understood yet. Accordingly, the goal of the present study was to characterize physiological processes associated with “toughening” and to determine their relationship to metabolic changes in the cochlea and cochlear nucleus (CN). Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were evaluated in Wistar rats before and after exposures to a sound conditioning protocol consisting of a broad-band white noise of 118 dB SPL for 1 h every 72 h, four times. After the last ABR evaluation, animals were perfused and their cochleae and brains removed and processed for the activity markers calretinin (CR) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Toughening was demonstrated by a progressively faster recovery of the threshold shift, as well as wave amplitudes and latencies over time. Immunostaining revealed an increase in CR and nNOS levels in the spiral ganglion, spiral ligament, and CN in noise-conditioned rats. Overall, these results suggest that the protective mechanisms of the auditory toughening effect initiate in the cochlea and extend to the central auditory system. Such phenomenon might be in part related to an interplay between CR and nitric oxide signaling pathways, and involve an increased cytosolic calcium buffering capacity induced by the noise conditioning protocol. PMID:27065815

  6. Detecting consciousness in a total locked-in syndrome: an active event-related paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnakers, Caroline; Perrin, Fabien; Schabus, Manuel; Hustinx, Roland; Majerus, Steve; Moonen, Gustave; Boly, Melanie; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Bruno, Marie-Aurelie; Laureys, Steven

    2009-08-01

    Total locked-in syndrome is characterized by tetraplegia, anarthria and paralysis of eye motility. In this study, consciousness was detected in a 21-year-old woman who presented a total locked-in syndrome after a basilar artery thrombosis (49 days post-injury) using an active event-related paradigm. The patient was presented sequences of names containing the patient's own name and other names. The patient was instructed to count her own name or to count another target name. Similar to 4 age- and gender-matched healthy controls, the P3 response recorded for the voluntarily counted own name was larger than while passively listening. This P3 response was observed 14 days before the first behavioral signs of consciousness. This study shows that our active event-related paradigm allowed to identify voluntary brain activity in a patient who would behaviorally be diagnosed as comatose. PMID:19241281

  7. P300 event-related potential as an indicator of inattentional deafness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Giraudet

    Full Text Available An analysis of airplane accidents reveals that pilots sometimes purely fail to react to critical auditory alerts. This inability of an auditory stimulus to reach consciousness has been coined under the term of inattentional deafness. Recent data from literature tends to show that tasks involving high cognitive load consume most of the attentional capacities, leaving little or none remaining for processing any unexpected information. In addition, there is a growing body of evidence for a shared attentional capacity between vision and hearing. In this context, the abundant information in modern cockpits is likely to produce inattentional deafness. We investigated this hypothesis by combining electroencephalographic (EEG measurements with an ecological aviation task performed under contextual variation of the cognitive load (high or low, including an alarm detection task. Two different audio tones were played: standard tones and deviant tones. Participants were instructed to ignore standard tones and to report deviant tones using a response pad. More than 31% of the deviant tones were not detected in the high load condition. Analysis of the EEG measurements showed a drastic diminution of the auditory P300 amplitude concomitant with this behavioral effect, whereas the N100 component was not affected. We suggest that these behavioral and electrophysiological results provide new insights on explaining the trend of pilots' failure to react to critical auditory information. Relevant applications concern prevention of alarms omission, mental workload measurements and enhanced warning designs.

  8. P300 event-related potential as an indicator of inattentional deafness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudet, Louise; St-Louis, Marie-Eve; Scannella, Sébastien; Causse, Mickaël

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of airplane accidents reveals that pilots sometimes purely fail to react to critical auditory alerts. This inability of an auditory stimulus to reach consciousness has been coined under the term of inattentional deafness. Recent data from literature tends to show that tasks involving high cognitive load consume most of the attentional capacities, leaving little or none remaining for processing any unexpected information. In addition, there is a growing body of evidence for a shared attentional capacity between vision and hearing. In this context, the abundant information in modern cockpits is likely to produce inattentional deafness. We investigated this hypothesis by combining electroencephalographic (EEG) measurements with an ecological aviation task performed under contextual variation of the cognitive load (high or low), including an alarm detection task. Two different audio tones were played: standard tones and deviant tones. Participants were instructed to ignore standard tones and to report deviant tones using a response pad. More than 31% of the deviant tones were not detected in the high load condition. Analysis of the EEG measurements showed a drastic diminution of the auditory P300 amplitude concomitant with this behavioral effect, whereas the N100 component was not affected. We suggest that these behavioral and electrophysiological results provide new insights on explaining the trend of pilots' failure to react to critical auditory information. Relevant applications concern prevention of alarms omission, mental workload measurements and enhanced warning designs. PMID:25714746

  9. Analysis and visualization of single-trial event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, T P; Makeig, S; Westerfield, M; Townsend, J; Courchesne, E; Sejnowski, T J

    2001-11-01

    In this study, a linear decomposition technique, independent component analysis (ICA), is applied to single-trial multichannel EEG data from event-related potential (ERP) experiments. Spatial filters derived by ICA blindly separate the input data into a sum of temporally independent and spatially fixed components arising from distinct or overlapping brain or extra-brain sources. Both the data and their decomposition are displayed using a new visualization tool, the "ERP image," that can clearly characterize single-trial variations in the amplitudes and latencies of evoked responses, particularly when sorted by a relevant behavioral or physiological variable. These tools were used to analyze data from a visual selective attention experiment on 28 control subjects plus 22 neurological patients whose EEG records were heavily contaminated with blink and other eye-movement artifacts. Results show that ICA can separate artifactual, stimulus-locked, response-locked, and non-event-related background EEG activities into separate components, a taxonomy not obtained from conventional signal averaging approaches. This method allows: (1) removal of pervasive artifacts of all types from single-trial EEG records, (2) identification and segregation of stimulus- and response-locked EEG components, (3) examination of differences in single-trial responses, and (4) separation of temporally distinct but spatially overlapping EEG oscillatory activities with distinct relationships to task events. The proposed methods also allow the interaction between ERPs and the ongoing EEG to be investigated directly. We studied the between-subject component stability of ICA decomposition of single-trial EEG epochs by clustering components with similar scalp maps and activation power spectra. Components accounting for blinks, eye movements, temporal muscle activity, event-related potentials, and event-modulated alpha activities were largely replicated across subjects. Applying ICA and ERP image

  10. Analysis and visualization of single-trial event-related potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, T. P.; Makeig, S.; Westerfield, M.; Townsend, J.; Courchesne, E.; Sejnowski, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a linear decomposition technique, independent component analysis (ICA), is applied to single-trial multichannel EEG data from event-related potential (ERP) experiments. Spatial filters derived by ICA blindly separate the input data into a sum of temporally independent and spatially fixed components arising from distinct or overlapping brain or extra-brain sources. Both the data and their decomposition are displayed using a new visualization tool, the "ERP image," that can clearly characterize single-trial variations in the amplitudes and latencies of evoked responses, particularly when sorted by a relevant behavioral or physiological variable. These tools were used to analyze data from a visual selective attention experiment on 28 control subjects plus 22 neurological patients whose EEG records were heavily contaminated with blink and other eye-movement artifacts. Results show that ICA can separate artifactual, stimulus-locked, response-locked, and non-event-related background EEG activities into separate components, a taxonomy not obtained from conventional signal averaging approaches. This method allows: (1) removal of pervasive artifacts of all types from single-trial EEG records, (2) identification and segregation of stimulus- and response-locked EEG components, (3) examination of differences in single-trial responses, and (4) separation of temporally distinct but spatially overlapping EEG oscillatory activities with distinct relationships to task events. The proposed methods also allow the interaction between ERPs and the ongoing EEG to be investigated directly. We studied the between-subject component stability of ICA decomposition of single-trial EEG epochs by clustering components with similar scalp maps and activation power spectra. Components accounting for blinks, eye movements, temporal muscle activity, event-related potentials, and event-modulated alpha activities were largely replicated across subjects. Applying ICA and ERP image

  11. Event-related potentials elicited by errors during the stop-signal task. I: Macaque monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Godlove, David C.; Emeric, Erik E.; Segovis, Courtney M.; Young, Michelle S.; Schall, Jeffrey D.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.

    2011-01-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) and positivity (Pe) are components of event-related potential (ERP) waveforms recorded from humans that are thought to reflect performance monitoring. Error-related signals have also been found in single-neuron responses and local-field potentials recorded in supplementary eye field and anterior cingulate cortex of macaque monkeys. However, the homology of these neural signals across species remains controversial. Here, we show that monkeys exhibit ERN and P...

  12. Maximin and maximin-efficient event-related fMRI designs under a nonlinear model

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Ming-Hung; Majumdar, Dibyen; Mandal, Abhyuday; Stufken, John

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies on event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experimental designs are primarily based on linear models, in which a known shape of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) is assumed. However, the HRF shape is usually uncertain at the design stage. To address this issue, we consider a nonlinear model to accommodate a wide spectrum of feasible HRF shapes, and propose efficient approaches for obtaining maximin and maximin-efficient designs. Our approaches involve a redu...

  13. Neonatal Heart-Rate Response to Tactile, Auditory, and Vestibular Stimulation in Different States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerleau-Malcuit, Andree; Clifton, Rachel K.

    1973-01-01

    Newborn cardiac activity was analyzed in the context of the orienting response before and after a feeding, while sleeping and awake. Newborns tended to respond to stimuli with less variability when tested before feeding. The newborn's cardiac response to stimuli in different modalities is affected by arousal state and feeding condition. (ST)

  14. The relationship between spoken language and speech and nonspeech processing in children with autism: a magnetic event-related field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Shu Hui; Brock, Jon; McArthur, Genevieve

    2016-09-01

    It has been proposed that language impairments in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) stem from atypical neural processing of speech and/or nonspeech sounds. However, the strength of this proposal is compromised by the unreliable outcomes of previous studies of speech and nonspeech processing in ASD. The aim of this study was to determine whether there was an association between poor spoken language and atypical event-related field (ERF) responses to speech and nonspeech sounds in children with ASD (n = 14) and controls (n = 18). Data from this developmental population (ages 6-14) were analysed using a novel combination of methods to maximize the reliability of our findings while taking into consideration the heterogeneity of the ASD population. The results showed that poor spoken language scores were associated with atypical left hemisphere brain responses (200 to 400 ms) to both speech and nonspeech in the ASD group. These data support the idea that some children with ASD may have an immature auditory cortex that affects their ability to process both speech and nonspeech sounds. Their poor speech processing may impair their ability to process the speech of other people, and hence reduce their ability to learn the phonology, syntax, and semantics of their native language. PMID:27146167

  15. An Efficient Method for Mining Event-Related Potential Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Mousavi, Seyed Aliakbar; Mohamed, Hasimah Hj; Alomari, Saleh Ali

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper, we propose a Neuroelectromagnetic Ontology Framework (NOF) for mining Event-related Potentials (ERP) patterns as well as the process. The aim for this research is to develop an infrastructure for mining, analysis and sharing the ERP domain ontologies. The outcome of this research is a Neuroelectromagnetic knowledge-based system. The framework has 5 stages: 1) Data pre-processing and preparation; 2) Data mining application; 3) Rule Comparison and Evaluation; 4) Association rules Post-processing 5) Domain Ontologies. In 5th stage a new set of hidden rules can be discovered base on comparing association rules by domain ontologies and expert rules.

  16. An Efficient Method for Mining Event-Related Potential Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Aliakbar Mousavi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we propose a Neuroelectromagnetic Ontology Framework (NOF for mining Event-related Potentials (ERP patterns as well as the process. The aim for this research is to develop an infrastructure for mining, analysis and sharing the ERP domain ontologies. The outcome of this research is a Neuroelectromagnetic knowledge-based system. The framework has 5 stages: 1 Data pre-processing and preparation; 2 Data mining application; 3 Rule Comparison and Evaluation; 4 Association rules Post-processing 5 Domain Ontologies. In 5th stage a new set of hidden rules can be discovered base on comparing association rules by domain ontologies and expert rules.

  17. Multivariate evaluation of brain function by measuring regional cerebral blood flow and event-related potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Yoshihiko; Mochida, Masahiko; Shutara, Yoshikazu; Nakagawa, Kazumi [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Nagata, Ken

    1998-07-01

    To measure the effect of events on human cognitive function, effects of odors by measurement regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and P300 were evaluated during the auditory odd-ball exercise. PET showed the increase in rCBF on the right hemisphere of the brain by coffee aroma. rCBF was measured by PET in 9 of right-handed healthy adults men, and P300 was by event-related potential (ERP) in each sex of 20 right-handed healthy adults. ERP showed the difference of the P300 amplitude between men and women, and showed the tendency, by odors except the lavender oil, that women had higher in the P300 amplitude than men. These results suggest the presence of effects on the cognitive function through emotional actions. Next, the relationship between rCBF and ERP were evaluated. The subjects were 9 of the right-handed healthy adults (average: 25.6{+-}3.4 years old). rCBF by PET and P300 amplitude by ERP were simultaneously recorded during the auditory odd-ball exercise using the tone-burst method (2 kHz of the low frequency aimed stimuli and 1 kHz of the high frequency non-aimed stimuli). The rCBF value was the highest at the transverse gyrus of Heschl and the lowest at the piriform cortex among 24 regions of interest (ROI) from both sides. The difference of P300 peak latent time among ROI was almost the same. The brain waves from Cz and Pz were similar and the average amplitude was highest at Pz. We found the high correlation in the right piriform cortex (Fz), and right (Fz, Cz) and left (Cz, Pz) transverse gyrus of Heschl between the P300 amplitude and rCBF. (K.H.)

  18. Multivariate evaluation of brain function by measuring regional cerebral blood flow and event-related potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To measure the effect of events on human cognitive function, effects of odors by measurement regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and P300 were evaluated during the auditory odd-ball exercise. PET showed the increase in rCBF on the right hemisphere of the brain by coffee aroma. rCBF was measured by PET in 9 of right-handed healthy adults men, and P300 was by event-related potential (ERP) in each sex of 20 right-handed healthy adults. ERP showed the difference of the P300 amplitude between men and women, and showed the tendency, by odors except the lavender oil, that women had higher in the P300 amplitude than men. These results suggest the presence of effects on the cognitive function through emotional actions. Next, the relationship between rCBF and ERP were evaluated. The subjects were 9 of the right-handed healthy adults (average: 25.6±3.4 years old). rCBF by PET and P300 amplitude by ERP were simultaneously recorded during the auditory odd-ball exercise using the tone-burst method (2 kHz of the low frequency aimed stimuli and 1 kHz of the high frequency non-aimed stimuli). The rCBF value was the highest at the transverse gyrus of Heschl and the lowest at the piriform cortex among 24 regions of interest (ROI) from both sides. The difference of P300 peak latent time among ROI was almost the same. The brain waves from Cz and Pz were similar and the average amplitude was highest at Pz. We found the high correlation in the right piriform cortex (Fz), and right (Fz, Cz) and left (Cz, Pz) transverse gyrus of Heschl between the P300 amplitude and rCBF. (K.H.)

  19. Searching for the optimal stimulus eliciting auditory brainstem responses in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fobel, Oliver; Dau, Torsten

    2004-01-01

    frequency-dependent neural delays exist which are not reflected in the design of these chirps. (iii) The A-chirp produced the largest responses, particularly at low stimulation levels. This chirp might therefore be valuable for clinical applications, particularly in tests where the click stimulus has been...

  20. A Comparison of Thresholds in Auditory Steady - State Response with Pure Tone Audiometry in Subjects with Normal Hearing and Those with Mild and Moderate Sensorineural Hearing los

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Jafarzadeh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Among all auditory assessment tools, auditory steady state response (ASSR is a modern test. Modulation frequency for this test is usually 80 Hz. The purpose of this study, was to examined adult subjects with 40 Hz and 80 Hz ASSR and compare the results.Materials and Methods: Thirty adult (60 ears were evaluated by ASSR and PTA test, Results were divided into three groups: normal hearing, mild and moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Results: In all groups, forty hertz ASSR thresholds were relatively closer to behavioral threshold than those of 80 Hz ASSR(p<0.05. Besides, the more severe hearing loss, the lower the difference between those two thresholds. Correlation coefficients were also higher in 40 Hz ASSR(p<0.05. Conclusion: Frequency modulation thresholds with 40 Hz are more likely to be closer to the behavioral thresholds. Moreover, it has better results than the thresholds with 80 Hz.

  1. A NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 impairs consolidating extinction of auditory conditioned fear responses in a Pavlovian model.

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    Jun-Li Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In auditory fear conditioning, repeated presentation of the tone in the absence of shock leads to extinction of the acquired fear responses. The glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR is thought to be involved in the extinction of the conditioned fear responses, but its detailed role in initiating and consolidating or maintaining the fear extinction memory is unclear. Here we investigated this issue by using a NMDAR antagonist, MK-801. METHODS/MAIN FINDINGS: The effects of immediate (beginning at 10 min after the conditioning and delayed (beginning at 24 h after conditioning extinctions were first compared with the finding that delayed extinction caused a better and long-lasting (still significant on the 20(th day after extinction depression on the conditioned fear responses. In a second experiment, MK-801 was intraperitoneally (i.p. injected at 40 min before, 4 h or 12 h after the delayed extinction, corresponding to critical time points for initiating, consolidating or maintaining the fear extinction memory. i.p. injection of MK-801 at either 40 min before or 4 h after delayed extinction resulted in an impairment of initiating and consolidating fear extinction memory, which caused a long lasting increased freezing score that was still significant on the 7th day after extinction, compared with extinction group. However, MK-801 administered at 12 h after the delayed extinction, when robust consolidation has been occurred and stabilized, did not affect the established extinction memory. Furthermore, the changed freezing behaviors was not due to an alteration in general anxiety levels, since MK-801 treatment had no effect on the percentage of open-arm time or open-arm entries in an Elevated Plus Maze (EPM task. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggested that the activation of NMDARs plays important role in initiation and consolidation but not maintenance of fear extinction memory. Together with the fact that NMDA receptor is

  2. Sensitivity of cortical auditory evoked potential detection for hearing-impaired infants in response to short speech sounds

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    Bram Van Dun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs are an emerging tool for hearing aid fitting evaluation in young children who cannot provide reliable behavioral feedback. It is therefore useful to determine the relationship between the sensation level of speech sounds and the detection sensitivity of CAEPs.

    Design and methods: Twenty-five sensorineurally hearing impaired infants with an age range of 8 to 30 months were tested once, 18 aided and 7 unaided. First, behavioral thresholds of speech stimuli /m/, /g/, and /t/ were determined using visual reinforcement orientation audiometry (VROA. Afterwards, the same speech stimuli were presented at 55, 65, and 75 dB SPL, and CAEP recordings were made. An automatic statistical detection paradigm was used for CAEP detection.

    Results: For sensation levels above 0, 10, and 20 dB respectively, detection sensitivities were equal to 72 ± 10, 75 ± 10, and 78 ± 12%. In 79% of the cases, automatic detection p-values became smaller when the sensation level was increased by 10 dB.

    Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the presence or absence of CAEPs can provide some indication of the audibility of a speech sound for infants with sensorineural hearing loss. The detection of a CAEP provides confidence, to a degree commensurate with the detection probability, that the infant is detecting that sound at the level presented. When testing infants where the audibility of speech sounds has not been established behaviorally, the lack of a cortical response indicates the possibility, but by no means a certainty, that the sensation level is 10 dB or less.

  3. Auditory brain-stem response, CT and MR imaging in a family with classical type Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A family in which 5 males in successive generations were clinically suspected to be affected with the classical X-linked recessive form of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is presented. Two brothers and their maternal uncle were examined by one of the author (MS). In two brothers, aged 3 years and 2 years, the disease became obvious within a month after birth with nystagmus and head tremor. Head control and sitting were achieved at the age of 18 months at which time they began to speak. They could not stand nor walk without support. They had dysmetria, weakness and hyper-reflexia of lower extremities, and mild mental retardation. Their maternal uncle, aged 37 years, showed psychomotor retardation from birth and subsequently developed spastic paraplegia. He had been able to walk with crutches until adolescence. He had dysmetria, scanning speech, athetoid posture of fingers and significant intellectual deficits. Auditory brainstem response in both brothers revealed well defined waves I and II, low amplitude wave III and an absence of all subsequent components. CT demonstrated mild cerebral atrophy in the elder brother and was normal in the younger brother, but in their uncle, CT showed atrophy of the brainstem, cerebellum and cerebrum, and low density of the white matter of the centrum semiovale. MRI was performed in both brothers. Although the brainstem, the internal capsule and the thalamus were myelinated, the myelination in the subcortical white matter was restricted to periventricular regions on IR sequence scans. On SE sequence, the subcortical white matter was imaged as a brighter area than the cerebral cortex. These results demonstrate that the degree of myelination in these patients was roughly equal to that of 3-to 6-month old infants. (J.P.N.)

  4. Auditory brain-stem response, CT and MR imaging in a family with classical type Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiomi, M.; Ookuni, H.; Sugita, T.

    1987-05-01

    A family in which 5 males in successive generations were clinically suspected to be affected with the classical X-linked recessive form of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is presented. Two brothers and their maternal uncle were examined by one of the authors (MS). In two brothers, aged 3 years and 2 years, the disease became obvious within a month after birth with nystagmus and head tremor. Head control and sitting were achieved at the age of 18 months at which time they began to speak. They could not stand nor walk without support. They had dysmetria, weakness and hyper-reflexia of lower extremities, and mild mental retardation. Their maternal uncle, aged 37 years, showed psychomotor retardation from birth and subsequently developed spastic paraplegia. He had been able to walk with crutches until adolescence. He had dysmetria, scanning speech, athetoid posture of fingers and significant intellectual deficits. Auditory brainstem response in both brothers revealed well defined waves I and II, low amplitude wave III and an absence of all subsequent components. CT demonstrated mild cerebral atrophy in the elder brother and was normal in the younger brother, but in their uncle, CT showed atrophy of the brainstem, cerebellum and cerebrum, and low density of the white matter of the centrum semiovale. MRI was performed in both brothers. Although the brainstem, the internal capsule and the thalamus were myelinated, the myelination in the subcortical white matter was restricted to periventricular regions on IR sequence scans. On SE sequence, the subcortical white matter was imaged as a brighter area than the cerebral cortex. These results demonstrate that the degree of myelination in these patients was roughly equal to that of 3-to 6-month old infants.

  5. Simultaneous functional near-infrared brain imaging and event-related potential studies of Stroop effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jiahuan; Li, Ting; Zhang, Zhongxing; Gong, Hui

    2009-02-01

    Functional near-infrared brain imaging (fNIRI) and event-related potential (ERP) were used simultaneous to detect the prefrontal cortex (PFC) which is considered to execute cognitive control of the subjects while performing the Chinese characters color-word matching Stroop task with event-related design. The fNIRI instrument is a portable system operating at three wavelengths (735nm & 805nm &850nm) with continuous-wave. The event-related potentials were acquired by Neuroscan system. The locations of optodes corresponding to the electrodes were defined four areas symmetrically. In nine native Chinese-speaking fit volunteers, fNIRI measured the hemodynamic parameters (involving oxy-/deoxy- hemoglobin) changes when the characteristic waveforms (N500/P600) were recorded by ERP. The interference effect was obvious as a longer reaction time for incongruent than congruent and neutral stimulus. The responses of hemodynamic and electrophysiology were also stronger during incongruent compared to congruent and neutral trials, and these results are similar to those obtained with fNIRI or ERP separately. There are high correlations, even linear relationship, in the two kinds of signals. In conclusion, the multi-modality approach combining of fNIRI and ERP is feasible and could obtain more cognitive function information with hemodynamic and electrophysiology signals. It also provides a perspective to prove the neurovascular coupling mechanism.

  6. Study of Object Substitution Masking Using Event-related Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuruki, Atsuo; Yamada, Masafumi; Kawabata, Takuro; Shimozono, Tomoyuki; Yunokuchi, Kazutomo

    We make use of especially visual information though we are using a lot of information among modality in daily life. However, there is a difference between the real world and the perception of visual world. For instance, conscious perception of a briefly presented target can be reduced by a subsequent dot mask that does not touch it. However, the theory of this phenomenon, called Object Substitution Masking (OSM), is not clear. We investigated this issue by examining the effect of OSM on the N170 component of the event-related potential (ERP). As expected, subsequent dot mask significantly reduced accuracy in identifying the target. The N170 amplitude of P4 was also diminished by OSM. It was suggested that OSM is concerned in right posterior parietal cortex.

  7. Retinotopic mapping of visual event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capilla, Almudena; Melcón, María; Kessel, Dominique; Calderón, Rosbén; Pazo-Álvarez, Paula; Carretié, Luis

    2016-07-01

    Visual stimulation is frequently employed in electroencephalographic (EEG) research. However, despite its widespread use, no studies have thoroughly evaluated how the morphology of the visual event-related potentials (ERPs) varies according to the spatial location of stimuli. Hence, the purpose of this study was to perform a detailed retinotopic mapping of visual ERPs. We recorded EEG activity while participants were visually stimulated with 60 pattern-reversing checkerboards placed at different polar angles and eccentricities. Our results show five pattern-reversal ERP components. C1 and C2 components inverted polarity between the upper and lower hemifields. P1 and N1 showed higher amplitudes and shorter latencies to stimuli located in the contralateral lower quadrant. In contrast, P2 amplitude was enhanced and its latency was reduced by stimuli presented in the periphery of the upper hemifield. The retinotopic maps presented here could serve as a guide for selecting optimal visuo-spatial locations in future ERP studies. PMID:27235686

  8. Event-Related Potentials and Emotion Processing in Child Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia eChronaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been increasing interest in the neural mechanisms underlying altered emotional processes in children and adolescents with psychopathology. This review provides a brief overview of the most up-to-date findings in the field of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs to facial and vocal emotional expressions in the most common child psychopathological conditions. In regards to externalising behaviour (i.e. ADHD, CD, ERP studies show enhanced early components to anger, reflecting enhanced sensory processing, followed by reductions in later components to anger, reflecting reduced cognitive-evaluative processing. In regards to internalising behaviour, research supports models of increased processing of threat stimuli especially at later more elaborate and effortful stages. Finally, in autism spectrum disorders abnormalities have been observed at early visual-perceptual stages of processing. An affective neuroscience framework for understanding child psychopathology can be valuable in elucidating underlying mechanisms and inform preventive intervention.

  9. Event-Related Potentials and Emotion Processing in Child Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronaki, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in the neural mechanisms underlying altered emotional processes in children and adolescents with psychopathology. This review provides a brief overview of the most up-to-date findings in the field of event-related potentials (ERPs) to facial and vocal emotional expressions in the most common child psychopathological conditions. In regards to externalizing behavior (i.e., ADHD, CD), ERP studies show enhanced early components to anger, reflecting enhanced sensory processing, followed by reductions in later components to anger, reflecting reduced cognitive-evaluative processing. In regards to internalizing behavior, research supports models of increased processing of threat stimuli especially at later more elaborate and effortful stages. Finally, in autism spectrum disorders abnormalities have been observed at early visual-perceptual stages of processing. An affective neuroscience framework for understanding child psychopathology can be valuable in elucidating underlying mechanisms and inform preventive intervention. PMID:27199803

  10. Event-Related Potentials and Emotion Processing in Child Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronaki, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in the neural mechanisms underlying altered emotional processes in children and adolescents with psychopathology. This review provides a brief overview of the most up-to-date findings in the field of event-related potentials (ERPs) to facial and vocal emotional expressions in the most common child psychopathological conditions. In regards to externalizing behavior (i.e., ADHD, CD), ERP studies show enhanced early components to anger, reflecting enhanced sensory processing, followed by reductions in later components to anger, reflecting reduced cognitive-evaluative processing. In regards to internalizing behavior, research supports models of increased processing of threat stimuli especially at later more elaborate and effortful stages. Finally, in autism spectrum disorders abnormalities have been observed at early visual-perceptual stages of processing. An affective neuroscience framework for understanding child psychopathology can be valuable in elucidating underlying mechanisms and inform preventive intervention. PMID:27199803

  11. Adaptation in the auditory system: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pérez-González

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The early stages of the auditory system need to preserve the timing information of sounds in order to extract the basic features of acoustic stimuli. At the same time, different processes of neuronal adaptation occur at several levels to further process the auditory information. For instance, auditory nerve fiber responses already experience adaptation of their firing rates, a type of response that can be found in many other auditory nuclei and may be useful for emphasizing the onset of the stimuli. However, it is at higher levels in the auditory hierarchy where more sophisticated types of neuronal processing take place. For example, stimulus-specific adaptation, where neurons show adaptation to frequent, repetitive stimuli, but maintain their responsiveness to stimuli with different physical characteristics, thus representing a distinct kind of processing that may play a role in change and deviance detection. In the auditory cortex, adaptation takes more elaborate forms, and contributes to the processing of complex sequences, auditory scene analysis and attention. Here we review the multiple types of adaptation that occur in the auditory system, which are part of the pool of resources that the neurons employ to process the auditory scene, and are critical to a proper understanding of the neuronal mechanisms that govern auditory perception.

  12. Implicit Temporal Expectation Attenuates Auditory Attentional Blink

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Dawei; Alain, Claude

    2012-01-01

    Attentional blink (AB) describes a phenomenon whereby correct identification of a first target impairs the processing of a second target (i.e., probe) nearby in time. Evidence suggests that explicit attention orienting in the time domain can attenuate the AB. Here, we used scalp-recorded, event-related potentials to examine whether auditory AB is also sensitive to implicit temporal attention orienting. Expectations were set up implicitly by varying the probability (i.e., 80% or 20%) that the ...

  13. Probabilistic delay differential equation modeling of event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostwald, Dirk; Starke, Ludger

    2016-08-01

    "Dynamic causal models" (DCMs) are a promising approach in the analysis of functional neuroimaging data due to their biophysical interpretability and their consolidation of functional-segregative and functional-integrative propositions. In this theoretical note we are concerned with the DCM framework for electroencephalographically recorded event-related potentials (ERP-DCM). Intuitively, ERP-DCM combines deterministic dynamical neural mass models with dipole-based EEG forward models to describe the event-related scalp potential time-series over the entire electrode space. Since its inception, ERP-DCM has been successfully employed to capture the neural underpinnings of a wide range of neurocognitive phenomena. However, in spite of its empirical popularity, the technical literature on ERP-DCM remains somewhat patchy. A number of previous communications have detailed certain aspects of the approach, but no unified and coherent documentation exists. With this technical note, we aim to close this gap and to increase the technical accessibility of ERP-DCM. Specifically, this note makes the following novel contributions: firstly, we provide a unified and coherent review of the mathematical machinery of the latent and forward models constituting ERP-DCM by formulating the approach as a probabilistic latent delay differential equation model. Secondly, we emphasize the probabilistic nature of the model and its variational Bayesian inversion scheme by explicitly deriving the variational free energy function in terms of both the likelihood expectation and variance parameters. Thirdly, we detail and validate the estimation of the model with a special focus on the explicit form of the variational free energy function and introduce a conventional nonlinear optimization scheme for its maximization. Finally, we identify and discuss a number of computational issues which may be addressed in the future development of the approach. PMID:27114057

  14. Relations between perceptual measures of temporal processing, auditory-evoked brainstem responses and speech intelligibility in noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papakonstantinou, Alexandra; Strelcyk, Olaf; Dau, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates behavioural and objective measures of temporal auditory processing and their relation to the ability to understand speech in noise. The experiments were carried out on a homogeneous group of seven hearing-impaired listeners with normal sensitivity at low frequencies (up to...

  15. Conceptual priming for realistic auditory scenes and for auditory words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Aline; Aramaki, Mitsuko; Besson, Mireille

    2014-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted using both behavioral and Event-Related brain Potentials methods to examine conceptual priming effects for realistic auditory scenes and for auditory words. Prime and target sounds were presented in four stimulus combinations: Sound-Sound, Word-Sound, Sound-Word and Word-Word. Within each combination, targets were conceptually related to the prime, unrelated or ambiguous. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to judge whether the primes and targets fit together (explicit task) and in Experiment 2 they had to decide whether the target was typical or ambiguous (implicit task). In both experiments and in the four stimulus combinations, reaction times and/or error rates were longer/higher and the N400 component was larger to ambiguous targets than to conceptually related targets, thereby pointing to a common conceptual system for processing auditory scenes and linguistic stimuli in both explicit and implicit tasks. However, fine-grained analyses also revealed some differences between experiments and conditions in scalp topography and duration of the priming effects possibly reflecting differences in the integration of perceptual and cognitive attributes of linguistic and nonlinguistic sounds. These results have clear implications for the building-up of virtual environments that need to convey meaning without words. PMID:24378910

  16. Seeing the song: left auditory structures may track auditory-visual dynamic alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A Mossbridge

    Full Text Available Auditory and visual signals generated by a single source tend to be temporally correlated, such as the synchronous sounds of footsteps and the limb movements of a walker. Continuous tracking and comparison of the dynamics of auditory-visual streams is thus useful for the perceptual binding of information arising from a common source. Although language-related mechanisms have been implicated in the tracking of speech-related auditory-visual signals (e.g., speech sounds and lip movements, it is not well known what sensory mechanisms generally track ongoing auditory-visual synchrony for non-speech signals in a complex auditory-visual environment. To begin to address this question, we used music and visual displays that varied in the dynamics of multiple features (e.g., auditory loudness and pitch; visual luminance, color, size, motion, and organization across multiple time scales. Auditory activity (monitored using auditory steady-state responses, ASSR was selectively reduced in the left hemisphere when the music and dynamic visual displays were temporally misaligned. Importantly, ASSR was not affected when attentional engagement with the music was reduced, or when visual displays presented dynamics clearly dissimilar to the music. These results appear to suggest that left-lateralized auditory mechanisms are sensitive to auditory-visual temporal alignment, but perhaps only when the dynamics of auditory and visual streams are similar. These mechanisms may contribute to correct auditory-visual binding in a busy sensory environment.

  17. Seeing the song: left auditory structures may track auditory-visual dynamic alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossbridge, Julia A; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Auditory and visual signals generated by a single source tend to be temporally correlated, such as the synchronous sounds of footsteps and the limb movements of a walker. Continuous tracking and comparison of the dynamics of auditory-visual streams is thus useful for the perceptual binding of information arising from a common source. Although language-related mechanisms have been implicated in the tracking of speech-related auditory-visual signals (e.g., speech sounds and lip movements), it is not well known what sensory mechanisms generally track ongoing auditory-visual synchrony for non-speech signals in a complex auditory-visual environment. To begin to address this question, we used music and visual displays that varied in the dynamics of multiple features (e.g., auditory loudness and pitch; visual luminance, color, size, motion, and organization) across multiple time scales. Auditory activity (monitored using auditory steady-state responses, ASSR) was selectively reduced in the left hemisphere when the music and dynamic visual displays were temporally misaligned. Importantly, ASSR was not affected when attentional engagement with the music was reduced, or when visual displays presented dynamics clearly dissimilar to the music. These results appear to suggest that left-lateralized auditory mechanisms are sensitive to auditory-visual temporal alignment, but perhaps only when the dynamics of auditory and visual streams are similar. These mechanisms may contribute to correct auditory-visual binding in a busy sensory environment. PMID:24194873

  18. Second pain event related potentials to argon laser stimuli: recording and quantification.

    OpenAIRE

    Arendt-Nielsen, L.

    1990-01-01

    A non-invasive technique for quantification of argon laser induced burning second pain (C-fibre) is suggested. Using frequency analysis event related responses to burning pain can be detected in the EEG interval 1-2 seconds after laser stimulation. When the laser stimulus induced a burning pain perception, the power from 0.5-2.5 Hz of the EEG interval 1-2 seconds after stimulation differed significantly from the power calculated from the same time interval when no burning pain was perceived.

  19. Asymmetries in the representation of space in the human auditory cortex depend on the global stimulus context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Paul M; Goman, Adele M; Summerfield, A Quentin

    2016-03-01

    Studies on humans and other mammals have provided evidence for a two-channel or three-channel representation of horizontal space in the auditory system, with one channel maximally responsive to each of the left hemispace, the right hemispace and, possibly, the midline. Mammalian studies have suggested that the contralateral channel is larger in both cortices, but human studies have found this contralateral preference in only one of the cortices. However, human studies are in conflict as to whether the contralateral preference is in the left or the right auditory cortex, and there are a number of methodological differences that this conflict could be attributed to. A key difference between studies is the duration of the silent interval preceding each stimulus and any perception of sound-source movement that the absence of a silent interval creates. We presented auditory noises that alternated between -90° (left) and +90° (right) and recorded neural responses (event-related potentials) using electroencephalography. We randomly varied the duration of the silent interval preceding each stimulus to create a condition with an immediate (local) stimulus context similar to that used in a study reporting contralateral preference in the left auditory cortex, a condition with a local context similar to that in a study reporting contralateral preference in the right auditory cortex, and an intermediate condition. Surprisingly, we found that both auditory cortices exhibited a similarly strong contralateral preference under all conditions, with responses 27% greater, on average, to the contralateral than the ipsilateral space. This suggests that both the cortices can exhibit a contralateral preference, but whether these preferences manifest depends on the global, rather than the local, stimulus context. PMID:26730514

  20. Cholinergic modulation of event-related oscillations (ERO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Robledo, Patricia; Wills, Derek N; Havstad, James; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2014-04-22

    The cholinergic system in the brain modulates patterns of activity involved in general arousal, attention processing, memory and consciousness. In the present study we determined the effects of selective cholinergic lesions of the medial septum area (MS) or nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) on amplitude and phase characteristics of event related oscillations (EROs). A time-frequency based representation was used to determine ERO energy, phase synchronization across trials, recorded within a structure (phase lock index, PLI), and phase synchronization across trials, recorded between brain structures (phase difference lock index, PDLI), in the frontal cortex (Fctx), dorsal hippocampus (DHPC) and central amygdala (Amyg). Lesions in MS produced: (1) decreases in ERO energy in delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma frequencies in Amyg, (2) reductions in gamma ERO energy and PLI in Fctx, (3) decreases in PDLI between the Fctx-Amyg in the theta, alpha, beta and gamma frequencies, and (4) decreases in PDLI between the DHPC-Amyg and Fctx-DHPC in the theta frequency bands. Lesions in NBM resulted in: (1) increased ERO energy in delta and theta frequency bands in Fctx, (2) reduced gamma ERO energy in Fctx and Amyg, (3) reductions in PLI in the theta, beta and gamma frequency ranges in Fctx, (4) reductions in gamma PLI in DHPC and (5) reduced beta PLI in Amyg. These studies suggest that the MS cholinergic system can alter phase synchronization between brain areas whereas the NBM cholinergic system modifies phase synchronization/phase resetting within a brain area. PMID:24594019

  1. Event-related potential alterations in fragile X syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Sophia eKnoth

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X Syndrome (FXS is the most common form of X-linked intellectual disability, associated with a wide range of cognitive and behavioural impairments. FXS is caused by a trinucleotide repeat expansion in the FMR1 gene located on the X-chromosome. FMR1 is expected to prevent the expression of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP, which results in altered structural and functional development of the synapse, including a loss of synaptic plasticity. This review aims to unveil the contribution of electrophysiological signal studies for the understanding of the information processing impairments in FXS patients. We discuss relevant event-related potential (ERP studies conducted with full mutation FXS patients and clinical populations sharing symptoms with FXS in a developmental perspective. Specific deviances found in FXS ERP profiles are described. Alterations are reported in N1, P2, Mismatch Negativity (MMN, N2 and P3 components in FXS compared to healthy controls. Particularly, deviances in N1 and P2 amplitude seem to be specific to FXS. The presented results suggest a cascade of impaired information processes that are in line with symptoms and anatomical findings in FXS.

  2. Potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico em frentistas Auditory brainstem response in gas station attendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenita da Silva Quevedo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A ototoxidade dos solventes orgânicos pode atingir o sistema auditivo a nível coclear e retrococlear. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a integridade neurofisiológica do sistema auditivo até tronco cerebral por meio do PEATE. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo. Estudados frentistas de três postos de gasolina da cidade de Santa Maria/RS. A amostra ficou composta por 21 sujeitos, que foram avaliados por meio de potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico. RESULTADOS: Alteração nas latências absolutas das ondas I e III e em todas as latências interpicos, na orelha direita. Na orelha esquerda houve alteração na latência absoluta de todas as ondas, e em todos os intervalos interpicos. Alteração na diferença interaural da onda V foi verificada em 19% dos sujeitos. No grupo exposto há mais de cinco anos, foram estatisticamente significantes o número de sujeitos com alteração: no intervalo interpico I-V da orelha direita; na latência absoluta da onda I e no intervalo interpico III-V da orelha esquerda. CONCLUSÃO: A exposição a combustíveis pode causar alterações no sistema auditivo central.Ototoxicity of organic solvents can affect the hearing system up to the cochlea level and the central structures of hearing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the neurophysiological integrity of the hearing system in subjects exposed to fuels using ABR. METHOD: Prospective study. We evaluated attendants from three gas stations in Santa Maria/RS. The sample had 21 subjects, who were evaluated by auditory brainstem response. RESULTS: We found an alteration in the absolute latencies of Waves I and III and in all the interpeak latencies, in the right ear. In the left ear there was a change in the absolute latencies of all Waves, and in all the interpeak intervals. A change in the interaural difference of Wave V was found in 19% of the individuals. In the group exposed for more than five years, there were subjects with a statistically significant changes: in the I

  3. A Cochlear Implant Performance Prognostic Test Based on Electrical Field Interactions Evaluated by eABR (Electrical Auditory Brainstem Responses)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Nicolas; Hoen, Michel; Truy, Eric; Gallego, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Background Cochlear implants (CIs) are neural prostheses that have been used routinely in the clinic over the past 25 years. They allow children who were born profoundly deaf, as well as adults affected by hearing loss for whom conventional hearing aids are insufficient, to attain a functional level of hearing. The “modern” CI (i.e., a multi-electrode implant using sequential coding strategies) has yielded good speech comprehension outcomes (recognition level for monosyllabic words about 50% to 60%, and sentence comprehension close to 90%). These good average results however hide a very important interindividual variability as scores in a given patients’ population often vary from 5 to 95% in comparable testing conditions. Our aim was to develop a prognostic model for patients with unilateral CI. A novel method of objectively measuring electrical and neuronal interactions using electrical auditory brainstem responses (eABRs) is proposed. Methods and Findings The method consists of two measurements: 1) eABR measurements with stimulation by a single electrode at 70% of the dynamic range (four electrodes distributed within the cochlea were tested), followed by a summation of these four eABRs; 2) Measurement of a single eABR with stimulation from all four electrodes at 70% of the dynamic range. A comparison of the eABRs obtained by these two measurements, defined as the monaural interaction component (MIC), indicated electrical and neural interactions between the stimulation channels. Speech recognition performance without lip reading was measured for each patient using a logatome test (64 "vowel-consonant-vowel"; VCV; by forced choice of 1 out of 16). eABRs were measured in 16 CI patients (CIs with 20 electrodes, Digisonic SP; Oticon Medical ®, Vallauris, France). Significant correlations were found between speech recognition performance and the ratio of the amplitude of the V wave of the eABRs obtained with the two measurements (Pearson's linear regression

  4. A Cochlear Implant Performance Prognostic Test Based on Electrical Field Interactions Evaluated by eABR (Electrical Auditory Brainstem Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Guevara

    Full Text Available Cochlear implants (CIs are neural prostheses that have been used routinely in the clinic over the past 25 years. They allow children who were born profoundly deaf, as well as adults affected by hearing loss for whom conventional hearing aids are insufficient, to attain a functional level of hearing. The "modern" CI (i.e., a multi-electrode implant using sequential coding strategies has yielded good speech comprehension outcomes (recognition level for monosyllabic words about 50% to 60%, and sentence comprehension close to 90%. These good average results however hide a very important interindividual variability as scores in a given patients' population often vary from 5 to 95% in comparable testing conditions. Our aim was to develop a prognostic model for patients with unilateral CI. A novel method of objectively measuring electrical and neuronal interactions using electrical auditory brainstem responses (eABRs is proposed.The method consists of two measurements: 1 eABR measurements with stimulation by a single electrode at 70% of the dynamic range (four electrodes distributed within the cochlea were tested, followed by a summation of these four eABRs; 2 Measurement of a single eABR with stimulation from all four electrodes at 70% of the dynamic range. A comparison of the eABRs obtained by these two measurements, defined as the monaural interaction component (MIC, indicated electrical and neural interactions between the stimulation channels. Speech recognition performance without lip reading was measured for each patient using a logatome test (64 "vowel-consonant-vowel"; VCV; by forced choice of 1 out of 16. eABRs were measured in 16 CI patients (CIs with 20 electrodes, Digisonic SP; Oticon Medical ®, Vallauris, France. Significant correlations were found between speech recognition performance and the ratio of the amplitude of the V wave of the eABRs obtained with the two measurements (Pearson's linear regression model, parametric correlation: r

  5. On the comparison of VR-responses, as performance measures in prospective memory, with auditory P300 responses in MCI detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnanas, Ioannis; Laskaris, Nikos; Tsolaki, Magda

    2012-01-01

    Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment are at high risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. Besides episodic memory dysfunction they show deficits in accessing contextual knowledge that further specifies a general spatial navigation task or an executive function (EF) virtual action planning. There has been only one previous work with virtual reality and the use of a virtual action planning supermarket for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. The authors of that study examined the feasibility and the validity of the virtual action planning supermarket (VAP-S) for the diagnosis of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and found that the VAP-S is a viable tool to assess EF deficits. In our study we employed the in-house platform of virtual action planning museum (VAP-M) and a sample of 25 MCI and 25 controls, in order to investigate deficits in spatial navigation, prospective memory and executive function. In addition, we used the morphology of late components in event-related potential (ERP) responses, as a marker for cognitive dysfunction. The related measurements were fed to a common classification scheme facilitating the direct comparison of both approaches. Our results indicate that both the VAP-M and ERP averages were able to differentiate between healthy elders and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and agree with the findings of the virtual action planning supermarket (VAP-S). The sensitivity (specificity) was 100% (98%) for the VAP-M data and 87%(90%) for the ERP responses. Considering that ERPs have proven to advance the early detection and diagnosis of "presymptomatic AD", the suggested VAP-M platform appears as an appealing alternative. PMID:22954847

  6. Coping with Trial-to-Trial Variability of Event Related Signals: A Bayesian Inference Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Mingzhou; Chen, Youghong; Knuth, Kevin H.; Bressler, Steven L.; Schroeder, Charles E.

    2005-01-01

    In electro-neurophysiology, single-trial brain responses to a sensory stimulus or a motor act are commonly assumed to result from the linear superposition of a stereotypic event-related signal (e.g. the event-related potential or ERP) that is invariant across trials and some ongoing brain activity often referred to as noise. To extract the signal, one performs an ensemble average of the brain responses over many identical trials to attenuate the noise. To date, h s simple signal-plus-noise (SPN) model has been the dominant approach in cognitive neuroscience. Mounting empirical evidence has shown that the assumptions underlying this model may be overly simplistic. More realistic models have been proposed that account for the trial-to-trial variability of the event-related signal as well as the possibility of multiple differentially varying components within a given ERP waveform. The variable-signal-plus-noise (VSPN) model, which has been demonstrated to provide the foundation for separation and characterization of multiple differentially varying components, has the potential to provide a rich source of information for questions related to neural functions that complement the SPN model. Thus, being able to estimate the amplitude and latency of each ERP component on a trial-by-trial basis provides a critical link between the perceived benefits of the VSPN model and its many concrete applications. In this paper we describe a Bayesian approach to deal with this issue and the resulting strategy is referred to as the differentially Variable Component Analysis (dVCA). We compare the performance of dVCA on simulated data with Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and analyze neurobiological recordings from monkeys performing cognitive tasks.

  7. The influence of visual information on auditory processing in individuals with congenital amusia: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuejing; Ho, Hao T; Sun, Yanan; Johnson, Blake W; Thompson, William F

    2016-07-15

    While most normal hearing individuals can readily use prosodic information in spoken language to interpret the moods and feelings of conversational partners, people with congenital amusia report that they often rely more on facial expressions and gestures, a strategy that may compensate for deficits in auditory processing. In this investigation, we used EEG to examine the extent to which individuals with congenital amusia draw upon visual information when making auditory or audio-visual judgments. Event-related potentials (ERP) were elicited by a change in pitch (up or down) between two sequential tones paired with a change in spatial position (up or down) between two visually presented dots. The change in dot position was either congruent or incongruent with the change in pitch. Participants were asked to judge (1) the direction of pitch change while ignoring the visual information (AV implicit task), and (2) whether the auditory and visual changes were congruent (AV explicit task). In the AV implicit task, amusic participants performed significantly worse in the incongruent condition than control participants. ERPs showed an enhanced N2-P3 response to incongruent AV pairings for control participants, but not for amusic participants. However when participants were explicitly directed to detect AV congruency, both groups exhibited enhanced N2-P3 responses to incongruent AV pairings. These findings indicate that amusics are capable of extracting information from both modalities in an AV task, but are biased to rely on visual information when it is available, presumably because they have learned that auditory information is unreliable. We conclude that amusic individuals implicitly draw upon visual information when judging auditory information, even though they have the capacity to explicitly recognize conflicts between these two sensory channels. PMID:27132045

  8. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26541581

  9. Iconic Meaning in Music: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Liman; Huang, Ping; Luo, Qiuling; Huang, Hong; Mo, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been extensive research on the processing of the emotional meaning of music, little is known about other aspects of listeners' experience of music. The present study investigated the neural correlates of the iconic meaning of music. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded while a group of 20 music majors and a group of 20 non-music majors performed a lexical decision task in the context of implicit musical iconic meaning priming. ERP analysis revealed a significant N400 effect of congruency in time window 260-510 ms following the onset of the target word only in the group of music majors. Time-course analysis using 50 ms windows indicated significant N400 effects both within the time window 410-460 ms and 460-510 ms for music majors, whereas only a partial N400 effect during time window 410-460 ms was observed for non-music majors. There was also a trend for the N400 effects in the music major group to be stronger than those in the non-major group in the sub-windows of 310-360 ms and 410-460 ms. Especially in the sub-window of 410-460 ms, the topographical map of the difference waveforms between congruent and incongruent conditions revealed different N400 distribution between groups; the effect was concentrated in bilateral frontal areas for music majors, but in central-parietal areas for non-music majors. These results imply probable neural mechanism differences underlying automatic iconic meaning priming of music. Our findings suggest that processing of the iconic meaning of music can be accomplished automatically and that musical training may facilitate the understanding of the iconic meaning of music. PMID:26161561

  10. The Role of Auditory and Kinaesthetic Feedback Mechanisms on Phonatory Stability in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Rathna Kumar, S. B.; Azeem, Suhail; Choudhary, Abhishek Kumar; Prakash, S. G. R.

    2012-01-01

    Auditory feedback plays an important role in phonatory control. When auditory feedback is disrupted, various changes are observed in vocal motor control. Vocal intensity and fundamental frequency (F0) levels tend to increase in response to auditory masking. Because of the close reflexive links between the auditory and phonatory systems, it is likely that phonatory stability may be disrupted when auditory feedback is disrupted or altered. However, studies on phonatory stability under auditory ...

  11. The sensory channel of presentation alters subjective ratings and autonomic responses towards disgusting stimuli -Blood pressure, heart rate and skin conductance in response to visual, auditory, haptic and olfactory presented disgusting stimuli-

    OpenAIRE

    Ilona eCroy; Kerstin eLaqua; Frank eSuess; Peter eJoraschky; Tjalf eZiemssen; Thomas eHummel

    2013-01-01

    Disgust causes specific reaction patterns, observable in mimic responses and body reactions. Most research on disgust deals with visual stimuli. However, pictures may cause another disgust experience than sounds, odors or tactile stimuli. Therefore disgust experience evoked by four different sensory channels was compared.A total of 119 participants received 3 different disgusting and one control stimulus, each presented through the visual, auditory, tactile and olfactory channel. Ratings of e...

  12. The sensory channel of presentation alters subjective ratings and autonomic responses toward disgusting stimuli – Blood pressure, heart rate and skin conductance in response to visual, auditory, haptic and olfactory presented disgusting stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Croy, Ilona; Laqua, Kerstin; Süß, Frank; Joraschky, Peter; Ziemssen, Tjalf; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Disgust causes specific reaction patterns, observable in mimic responses and body reactions. Most research on disgust deals with visual stimuli. However, pictures may cause another disgust experience than sounds, odors, or tactile stimuli. Therefore, disgust experience evoked by four different sensory channels was compared. A total of 119 participants received 3 different disgusting and one control stimulus, each presented through the visual, auditory, tactile, and olfactory channel. Ratings ...

  13. Reduced habituation of auditory evoked potentials indicate cortical hyper-excitability in Fragile X Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethridge, L E; White, S P; Mosconi, M W; Wang, J; Byerly, M J; Sweeney, J A

    2016-01-01

    Sensory hypersensitivities are common, clinically distressing features of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS). Preclinical evidence suggests this abnormality may result from synaptic hyper-excitability in sensory systems. This model predicts reduced sensory habituation to repeated stimulus presentation. Fourteen adolescents and adults with FXS and 15 age-matched controls participated in a modified auditory gating task using trains of 4 identical tones during dense array electroencephalography (EEG). Event-related potential and single trial time-frequency analyses revealed decreased habituation of the N1 event-related potential response in FXS, and increased gamma power coupled with decreases in gamma phase-locking during the early-stimulus registration period. EEG abnormalities in FXS were associated with parent reports of heightened sensory sensitivities and social communication deficits. Reduced habituation and altered gamma power and phase-locking to auditory cues demonstrated here in FXS patients parallels preclinical findings with Fmr1 KO mice. Thus, the EEG abnormalities seen in FXS patients support the model of neocortical hyper-excitability in FXS, and may provide useful translational biomarkers for evaluating novel treatment strategies targeting its neural substrate. PMID:27093069

  14. Statistical language learning in neonates revealed by event-related brain potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Näätänen Risto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statistical learning is a candidate for one of the basic prerequisites underlying the expeditious acquisition of spoken language. Infants from 8 months of age exhibit this form of learning to segment fluent speech into distinct words. To test the statistical learning skills at birth, we recorded event-related brain responses of sleeping neonates while they were listening to a stream of syllables containing statistical cues to word boundaries. Results We found evidence that sleeping neonates are able to automatically extract statistical properties of the speech input and thus detect the word boundaries in a continuous stream of syllables containing no morphological cues. Syllable-specific event-related brain responses found in two separate studies demonstrated that the neonatal brain treated the syllables differently according to their position within pseudowords. Conclusion These results demonstrate that neonates can efficiently learn transitional probabilities or frequencies of co-occurrence between different syllables, enabling them to detect word boundaries and in this way isolate single words out of fluent natural speech. The ability to adopt statistical structures from speech may play a fundamental role as one of the earliest prerequisites of language acquisition.

  15. Long-term exposure to music enhances the sensitivity of the auditory system in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Martin; Elmer, Stefan; Ringli, Maya; Oechslin, Mathias S; Baumann, Simon; Jancke, Lutz

    2011-09-01

    This event-related brain potential study aims to contribute to the present debate regarding the effect of musical training on the maturation of the human auditory nervous system. To address this issue, we recorded the mismatch negativity (MMN) evoked by violin and pure sine-wave tones in a group of 7.5- to 12-year-old children who had either several years of musical experience with Suzuki violin lessons, or no musical training. The strength of the MMN responses to violin tones evident in the Suzuki students clearly surpassed responses in controls; the reverse pattern was observed for sine-wave tones. Suzuki students showed significantly shorter MMN latencies to violin tones than to pure tones; the MMN latency did not differ significantly between pure tones and violin sounds in the control group. Thus, our data provide general evidence of how and to what extent extensive musical experience affects the maturation of human auditory function at multiple levels, namely, accuracy and speed of auditory discrimination processing. Our findings add to the present understanding of neuroplastic organization and function of the mammalian nervous system. Furthermore, behavioural recordings obtained from the participating children provide corroborating evidence for a relationship between the duration and intensity of training, the specific sensitivity to instrumental timbre, and pitch recognition abilities. PMID:21848923

  16. Attentional Bias in Patients with Decompensated Tinnitus: Prima Facie Evidence from Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhicheng; Gu, Ruolei; Zeng, Xiangli; Zhong, Weifang; Qi, Min; Cen, Jintian

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus refers to the auditory perception of sound in the absence of external sound or electric stimuli. The influence of tinnitus on cognitive processing is at the cutting edge of ongoing tinnitus research. In this study, we adopted an objective indicator of attentional processing, i.e. the mismatch negativity (MMN), to assess the attentional bias in patients with decompensated tinnitus. Three kinds of pure tones, D1 (8,000 Hz), S (8,500 Hz) and D2 (9,000 Hz), were used to induce event-related potentials (ERPs) in the normal ear. Employing the oddball paradigm, the task was divided into two blocks in which D1 and D2 were set as deviation stimuli, respectively. Only D2 induced a significant MMN in the tinnitus group, while neither D1 nor D2 was able to induce MMN in the control group. In addition, the ERPs in the left hemisphere, which were recorded within the time window of 90-150 ms (ERP90-150 ms), were significantly higher than those in the right hemisphere in the tinnitus group, while no significant difference was observed in the control group. Lastly, the amplitude of ERP90-150 ms in the tinnitus group was significantly higher than that in the control group. These findings suggest that patients with decompensated tinnitus showed automatic processing of acoustic stimuli, thereby indicating that these patients allocated more cognitive resources to acoustic stimulus processing. We suggest that the difficulty in disengaging or facilitated attention of patients might underlie this phenomenon. The limitations of the current study are discussed. PMID:26800229

  17. Hippocampal Negative Event-Related Potential Recorded in Humans During a Simple Sensorimotor Task Occurs Independently of Motor Execution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roman, R.; Brázdil, M.; Chládek, Jan; Rektor, I.; Jurák, Pavel; Světlák, M.; Damborská, A.; Shaw, D. J.; Kukleta, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 12 (2013), s. 1337-1344. ISSN 1050-9631 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR GAP103/11/0933 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : intracranial recordings * auditory task * hippocampus * ERP latency * motor response Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 4.302, year: 2013

  18. Effects of etizolam and ethyl loflazepate on the P300 event-related potential in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujisaki Mihisa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benzodiazepines carry the risk of inducing cognitive impairments, which may go unnoticed while profoundly disturbing social activity. Furthermore, these impairments are partly associated with the elimination half-life (EH of the substance from the body. The object of the present study was to examine the effects of etizolam and ethyl loflazepate, with EHs of 6 h and 122 h, respectively, on information processing in healthy subjects. Methods Healthy people were administered etizolam and ethyl loflazepate acutely and subchronically (14 days. The auditory P300 event-related potential and the neuropsychological batteries described below were employed to assess the effects of drugs on cognition. The P300 event-related potential was recorded before and after drug treatments. The digit symbol test, trail making test, digit span test and verbal paired associates test were administered to examine mental slowing and memory functioning. Results Acute administration of drugs caused prolongation in P300 latency and reduction in P300 amplitude. Etizolam caused a statistically significant prolongation in P300 latency compared to ethyl loflazepate. Furthermore, subchronic administration of etizolam, but not ethyl loflazepate, still caused a weak prolongation in P300 latency. In contrast, neuropsychological tests showed no difference. Conclusions The results indicate that acute administration of ethyl loflazepate induces less effect on P300 latency than etizolam.

  19. EEG phase reset due to auditory attention: an inverse time-scale approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a novel tool to evaluate the electroencephalograph (EEG) phase reset due to auditory attention by utilizing an inverse analysis of the instantaneous phase for the first time. EEGs were acquired through auditory attention experiments with a maximum entropy stimulation paradigm. We examined single sweeps of auditory late response (ALR) with the complex continuous wavelet transform. The phase in the frequency band that is associated with auditory attention (6–10 Hz, termed as theta–alpha border) was reset to the mean phase of the averaged EEGs. The inverse transform was applied to reconstruct the phase-modified signal. We found significant enhancement of the N100 wave in the reconstructed signal. Analysis of the phase noise shows the effects of phase jittering on the generation of the N100 wave implying that a preferred phase is necessary to generate the event-related potential (ERP). Power spectrum analysis shows a remarkable increase of evoked power but little change of total power after stabilizing the phase of EEGs. Furthermore, by resetting the phase only at the theta border of no attention data to the mean phase of attention data yields a result that resembles attention data. These results show strong connections between EEGs and ERP, in particular, we suggest that the presentation of an auditory stimulus triggers the phase reset process at the theta–alpha border which leads to the emergence of the N100 wave. It is concluded that our study reinforces other studies on the importance of the EEG in ERP genesis

  20. The Auditory-Visual Speech Benefit on Working Memory in Older Adults with Hearing Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frtusova, Jana B; Phillips, Natalie A

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of auditory-visual (AV) speech stimuli on working memory in older adults with poorer-hearing (PH) in comparison to age- and education-matched older adults with better hearing (BH). Participants completed a working memory n-back task (0- to 2-back) in which sequences of digits were presented in visual-only (i.e., speech-reading), auditory-only (A-only), and AV conditions. Auditory event-related potentials (ERP) were collected to assess the relationship between perceptual and working memory processing. The behavioral results showed that both groups were faster in the AV condition in comparison to the unisensory conditions. The ERP data showed perceptual facilitation in the AV condition, in the form of reduced amplitudes and latencies of the auditory N1 and/or P1 components, in the PH group. Furthermore, a working memory ERP component, the P3, peaked earlier for both groups in the AV condition compared to the A-only condition. In general, the PH group showed a more robust AV benefit; however, the BH group showed a dose-response relationship between perceptual facilitation and working memory improvement, especially for facilitation of processing speed. Two measures, reaction time and P3 amplitude, suggested that the presence of visual speech cues may have helped the PH group to counteract the demanding auditory processing, to the level that no group differences were evident during the AV modality despite lower performance during the A-only condition. Overall, this study provides support for the theory of an integrated perceptual-cognitive system. The practical significance of these findings is also discussed. PMID:27148106

  1. The Auditory-Visual Speech Benefit on Working Memory in Older Adults with Hearing Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana B. Frtusova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of auditory-visual (AV speech stimuli on working memory in hearing impaired participants (HIP in comparison to age- and education-matched normal elderly controls (NEC. Participants completed a working memory n-back task (0- to 2-back in which sequences of digits were presented in visual-only (i.e., speech-reading, auditory-only (A-only, and AV conditions. Auditory event-related potentials (ERP were collected to assess the relationship between perceptual and working memory processing. The behavioural results showed that both groups were faster in the AV condition in comparison to the unisensory conditions. The ERP data showed perceptual facilitation in the AV condition, in the form of reduced amplitudes and latencies of the auditory N1 and/or P1 components, in the HIP group. Furthermore, a working memory ERP component, the P3, peaked earlier for both groups in the AV condition compared to the A-only condition. In general, the HIP group showed a more robust AV benefit; however, the NECs showed a dose-response relationship between perceptual facilitation and working memory improvement, especially for facilitation of processing speed. Two measures, reaction time and P3 amplitude, suggested that the presence of visual speech cues may have helped the HIP to counteract the demanding auditory processing, to the level that no group differences were evident during the AV modality despite lower performance during the A-only condition. Overall, this study provides support for the theory of an integrated perceptual-cognitive system. The practical significance of these findings is also discussed.

  2. Comparison of peripheral compression estimates using auditory steady-state responses (ASSR) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Encina Llamas, Gerard; Epp, Bastian; Dau, Torsten

    The healthy auditory system shows a compressive input/output (I/O) function as a result of healthy outer-hair cell function. Hearing impairment often leads to a decrease in sensitivity and a reduction of compression, mainly caused by loss of inner and/or outer hair cells. Compression is commonly...... (DPOAEs) recordings. Results show compressive ASSR I/O functions for NH subjects. For HI subjects, ASSR reveal the loss of sensitivity at low stimulus levels. Growth slopes are smaller (more compressive) in ASSR than in DPOAE I/O functions....

  3. Event-related frontal alpha asymmetries: electrophysiological correlates of approach motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöne, Benjamin; Schomberg, Jessica; Gruber, Thomas; Quirin, Markus

    2016-02-01

    Over the last decades, frontal alpha asymmetries observed during resting state periods of several minutes have been used as a marker of affective-motivational states. To date, there is no evidence that alpha asymmetries can be observed in response to brief affective-motivational stimuli, as typically presented in event-related designs. As we argue, frontal alpha asymmetry might indeed be elicited by brief events if they are salient enough. In an event-related design, we used erotic pictures, i.e., highly salient incentives to elicit approach motivation, and contrasted them with pictures of dressed attractive women. As expected, we found significant alpha asymmetries for erotic pictures as compared to control pictures. Our findings suggest that the highly reactive reward system can lead to immediate, phasic changes in frontal alpha asymmetries. We discuss the findings with respect to the notion that high salience of erotic pictures derives from their potential of satisfying an individuals' need by mere visual inspection, which is not the case for pictures showing other types of motivational stimuli such as food. PMID:26537961

  4. Information processing becomes slower and predominantly serial in aging: Characterization of response-related brain potentials in an auditory-visual distraction-attention task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid-Fernández, Susana; Lindín, Mónica; Díaz, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aging and attentional capture provoked by novel auditory stimuli on behavior (reaction time [RT], hits) and on response-related brain potentials (preRFP, CRN, postRFP, parietalRP) to target visual stimuli. Twenty-two young, 27 middle-aged, and 24 old adults performed an auditory-visual distraction-attention task. The RTs and latencies of preRFP, postRFP and parietalRT were longer in old and middle-aged than in young participants, reflecting the well-established age-related slowing of processing and performance. The inter-peak latencies (P3b-preRFP, preRFP-parietalRP, parietalRP-postRFP) were also longer in old and middle-aged than in young participants, further indicating an age-related tendency to increased predominance of serial (rather than parallel) processing of information, and that preRFP, CRN, postRFP, and parietalRP represent different cognitive processes from those indexed by the stimulus-related P3b. Finally, a distraction effect in performance (all three groups) and in postRFP latency (only middle-aged group) was also observed. PMID:26589359

  5. Action-related auditory ERP attenuation: Paradigms and hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, János

    2015-11-11

    A number studies have shown that the auditory N1 event-related potential (ERP) is attenuated when elicited by self-induced or self-generated sounds. Because N1 is a correlate of auditory feature- and event-detection, it was generally assumed that N1-attenuation reflected the cancellation of auditory re-afference, enabled by the internal forward modeling of the predictable sensory consequences of the given action. Focusing on paradigms utilizing non-speech actions, the present review summarizes recent progress on action-related auditory attenuation. Following a critical analysis of the most widely used, contingent paradigm, two further hypotheses on the possible causes of action-related auditory ERP attenuation are presented. The attention hypotheses suggest that auditory ERP attenuation is brought about by a temporary division of attention between the action and the auditory stimulation. The pre-activation hypothesis suggests that the attenuation is caused by the activation of a sensory template during the initiation of the action, which interferes with the incoming stimulation. Although each hypothesis can account for a number of findings, none of them can accommodate the whole spectrum of results. It is suggested that a better understanding of auditory ERP attenuation phenomena could be achieved by systematic investigations of the types of actions, the degree of action-effect contingency, and the temporal characteristics of action-effect contingency representation-buildup and -deactivation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. PMID:25843932

  6. Neural Correlates of an Auditory Afterimage in Primary Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Noreña, A. J.; Eggermont, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Zwicker tone (ZT) is defined as an auditory negative afterimage, perceived after the presentation of an appropriate inducer. Typically, a notched noise (NN) with a notch width of 1/2 octave induces a ZT with a pitch falling in the frequency range of the notch. The aim of the present study was to find potential neural correlates of the ZT in the primary auditory cortex of ketamine-anesthetized cats. Responses of multiunits were recorded simultaneously with two 8-electrode arrays during 1 s...

  7. Euclidean distance and Kolmogorov-Smirnov analyses of multi-day auditory event-related potentials: a longitudinal stability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durato, M. V.; Albano, A. M.; Rapp, P. E.; Nawang, S. A.

    2015-06-01

    The validity of ERPs as indices of stable neurophysiological traits is partially dependent on their stability over time. Previous studies on ERP stability, however, have reported diverse stability estimates despite using the same component scoring methods. This present study explores a novel approach in investigating the longitudinal stability of average ERPs—that is, by treating the ERP waveform as a time series and then applying Euclidean Distance and Kolmogorov-Smirnov analyses to evaluate the similarity or dissimilarity between the ERP time series of different sessions or run pairs. Nonlinear dynamical analysis show that in the absence of a change in medical condition, the average ERPs of healthy human adults are highly longitudinally stable—as evaluated by both the Euclidean distance and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test.

  8. Natural stimuli improve auditory BCIs with respect to ergonomics and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhne, Johannes; Krenzlin, Konrad; Dähne, Sven; Tangermann, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Moving from well-controlled, brisk artificial stimuli to natural and less-controlled stimuli seems counter-intuitive for event-related potential (ERP) studies. As natural stimuli typically contain a richer internal structure, they might introduce higher levels of variance and jitter in the ERP responses. Both characteristics are unfavorable for a good single-trial classification of ERPs in the context of a multi-class brain-computer interface (BCI) system, where the class-discriminant information between target stimuli and non-target stimuli must be maximized. For the application in an auditory BCI system, however, the transition from simple artificial tones to natural syllables can be useful despite the variance introduced. In the presented study, healthy users (N = 9) participated in an offline auditory nine-class BCI experiment with artificial and natural stimuli. It is shown that the use of syllables as natural stimuli does not only improve the users’ ergonomic ratings; also the classification performance is increased. Moreover, natural stimuli obtain a better balance in multi-class decisions, such that the number of systematic confusions between the nine classes is reduced. Hopefully, our findings may contribute to make auditory BCI paradigms more user friendly and applicable for patients.

  9. Effects of Auditory Attention Training with the Dichotic Listening Task: Behavioural and Neurophysiological Evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Tallus

    Full Text Available Facilitation of general cognitive capacities such as executive functions through training has stirred considerable research interest during the last decade. Recently we demonstrated that training of auditory attention with forced attention dichotic listening not only facilitated that performance but also generalized to an untrained attentional task. In the present study, 13 participants underwent a 4-week dichotic listening training programme with instructions to report syllables presented to the left ear (FL training group. Another group (n = 13 was trained using the non-forced instruction, asked to report whichever syllable they heard the best (NF training group. The study aimed to replicate our previous behavioural results, and to explore the neurophysiological correlates of training through event-related brain potentials (ERPs. We partially replicated our previous behavioural training effects, as the FL training group tended to show more allocation of auditory spatial attention to the left ear in a standard dichotic listening task. ERP measures showed diminished N1 and enhanced P2 responses to dichotic stimuli after training in both groups, interpreted as improvement in early perceptual processing of the stimuli. Additionally, enhanced anterior N2 amplitudes were found after training, with relatively larger changes in the FL training group in the forced-left condition, suggesting improved top-down control on the trained task. These results show that top-down cognitive training can modulate the left-right allocation of auditory spatial attention, accompanied by a change in an evoked brain potential related to cognitive control.

  10. Correlation between event-related potentials and MR measurements in chronic alcoholic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Event-related potentials were recorded in 25 abstinent alcoholics, and 25 gender- and age-matched controls during a two-tone discrimination (odd ball) task. All the subjects were free from medication and dextral. MR images were examined in the alcoholics. The amplitudes of N100, N200 and P300 in the alcoholics were reduced compared with those of the controls. In order to identify morphological changes responsible for ERP abnormalities, linear regression analyses were performed between ERP measures and MRI parameters. The amplitude of N100 was inversely correlated with ventricular size. The amplitudes of P300 were inversely correlated with both ventricular size and width of cortical sulci. It was suggested that the N100 abnormality was related to subcortical structure, and P300 alteration was related to both subcortical and cortical structures in the alcoholics. (author)

  11. The cognitive demands of second order manual control: Applications of the event related brain potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, C.; Gill, R.; Kramer, A.; Ross, W.; Donchin, E.

    1981-01-01

    Three experiments are described in which tracking difficulty is varied in the presence of a covert tone discrimination task. Event related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by the tones are employed as an index of the resource demands of tracking. The ERP measure reflected the control order variation, and this variable was thereby assumed to compete for perceptual/central processing resources. A fine-grained analysis of the results suggested that the primary demands of second order tracking involve the central processing operations of maintaining a more complex internal model of the dynamic system, rather than the perceptual demands of higher derivative perception. Experiment 3 varied tracking bandwidth in random input tracking, and the ERP was unaffected. Bandwidth was then inferred to compete for response-related processing resources that are independent of the ERP.

  12. Conveying the concept of movement in music: An event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Linshu; Jiang, Cunmei; Wu, Yingying; Yang, Yufang

    2015-10-01

    This study on event-related brain potential investigated whether music can convey the concept of movement. Using a semantic priming paradigm, natural musical excerpts were presented to non-musicians, followed by semantically congruent or incongruent pictures that depicted objects either in motion or at rest. The priming effects were tested in object decision and implicit recognition tasks to distinguish the effects of automatic conceptual activation from response competition. Results showed that in both tasks, pictures that were incongruent to preceding musical excerpts elicited larger N400 than congruent pictures, suggesting that music can prime the representations of movement concepts. Results of the multiple regression analysis showed that movement expression could be well predicted by specific acoustic and musical features, indicating the associations between music per se and the processing of iconic musical meaning. PMID:26254996

  13. Brain-stem auditory evoked responses during microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia: Predicting post-operative hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramnarayan Ramachandran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The importance of brainstem auditory evoked potential monitoring in reducing hearing loss during microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia is now accepted. However the extent of the changes in the pattern of these potentials and the safe limits to which these changes are relevant in reducing postoperative hearing loss have not been established. Aims: The aim of this study is to quantify these changes and relate these to the postoperative hearing loss. Settings and Design: This study was done at the Walton Centre for neurology and neurosurgery, Liverpool, United Kingdom. The study was designed to give a measure of the change in the wave pattern following microvascular decompression and relate it to postoperative hearing loss. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five patients undergoing microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia had preoperative and postoperative hearing assessments and intraoperative brainstem auditory evoked potential monitoring. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square tests. Results: It was found that the wave V latency was increased by more than 0.9ms in nine patients, eight of whom suffered significant postoperative hearing loss as demonstrated by audiometry. It was also seen that progressive decrease in amplitude of wave V showed progressive hearing loss with 25% loss when amplitude fell by 50 and 100% loss when wave V was lost completely. However most of the patients did not have a clinically manifest hearing loss. Conclusions: A per-operative increase in the latency of wave V greater than 0.9 ms and a fall of amplitude of wave V of more than 50% indicates a risk to hearing.

  14. Inhibitory control in bilinguals and musicians: event related potential (ERP evidence for experience-specific effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Moreno

    Full Text Available Bilinguals and musicians exhibit behavioral advantages on tasks with high demands on executive functioning, particularly inhibitory control, but the brain mechanisms supporting these differences are unclear. Of key interest is whether these forms of experience influence cognition through similar or distinct information processing mechanisms. Here, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs in three groups - bilinguals, musicians, and controls - who completed a visual go-nogo task that involved the withholding of key presses to rare targets. Participants in each group achieved similar accuracy rates and responses times but the analysis of cortical responses revealed significant differences in ERP waveforms. Success in withholding a prepotent response was associated with enhanced stimulus-locked N2 and P3 wave amplitude relative to go trials. For nogo trials, there were altered timing-specific ERP differences and graded amplitude differences observed in the neural responses across groups. Specifically, musicians showed an enhanced early P2 response accompanied by reduced N2 amplitude whereas bilinguals showed increased N2 amplitude coupled with an increased late positivity wave relative to controls. These findings demonstrate that bilingualism and music training have differential effects on the brain networks supporting executive control over behavior.

  15. Effects of I(h) and I(KLT) on the response of the auditory nerve to electrical stimulation in a stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negm, Mohamed H; Bruce, Ian C

    2008-01-01

    An accurate model of auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) would help in improving cochlear implant (CI) functionality. Previous studies have shown that the original Hodgkin-Huxley (1952) model (with kinetics adjusted for mammalian body temperature) may be better at describing nodes of Ranvier in ANFs than models for other mammalian axon types. However, the HH model is still unable to explain a number of phenomena observed in auditory nerve responses to CI stimulation such as long-term accommodation, adaptation and the time-course of relative refractoriness. Recent physiological investigations of spiral ganglion cells have shown the presence of a number of ion channel types not considered in the previous modeling studies, including low-threshold potassium (I(KLT)) channels and hyperpolarization-activated cation (I(h)) channels. In this paper we investigate inclusion of these ion channel types in a stochastic HH model. For single biphasic charge-balanced pulse, an increase in spike threshold was typically produced by inclusion of one or both of these channel types. The addition of I(KLT) increases random threshold fluctuations in the stochastic model, particularly for longer pulse widths. Pulse-train responses were investigated for pulse rates of 200, 800, and 2000 pulse/s. Initial results suggests that both the I(KLT) channels and I(h) channels can produce adaptation in the spike rate. However, the adaptation due to I(KLT) is restricted to higher stimulation rates, whereas the adaptation due to I(h) is observed across all stimulation rates. PMID:19163972

  16. Suppression Measured from Chinchilla Auditory-Nerve-Fiber Responses Following Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: Adaptive-Tracking and Systems-Identification Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayles, Mark; Walls, Michael K; Heinz, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    The compressive nonlinearity of cochlear signal transduction, reflecting outer-hair-cell function, manifests as suppressive spectral interactions; e.g., two-tone suppression. Moreover, for broadband sounds, there are multiple interactions between frequency components. These frequency-dependent nonlinearities are important for neural coding of complex sounds, such as speech. Acoustic-trauma-induced outer-hair-cell damage is associated with loss of nonlinearity, which auditory prostheses attempt to restore with, e.g., "multi-channel dynamic compression" algorithms.Neurophysiological data on suppression in hearing-impaired (HI) mammals are limited. We present data on firing-rate suppression measured in auditory-nerve-fiber responses in a chinchilla model of noise-induced hearing loss, and in normal-hearing (NH) controls at equal sensation level. Hearing-impaired (HI) animals had elevated single-fiber excitatory thresholds (by ~ 20-40 dB), broadened frequency tuning, and reduced-magnitude distortion-product otoacoustic emissions; consistent with mixed inner- and outer-hair-cell pathology. We characterized suppression using two approaches: adaptive tracking of two-tone-suppression threshold (62 NH, and 35 HI fibers), and Wiener-kernel analyses of responses to broadband noise (91 NH, and 148 HI fibers). Suppression-threshold tuning curves showed sensitive low-side suppression for NH and HI animals. High-side suppression thresholds were elevated in HI animals, to the same extent as excitatory thresholds. We factored second-order Wiener-kernels into excitatory and suppressive sub-kernels to quantify the relative strength of suppression. We found a small decrease in suppression in HI fibers, which correlated with broadened tuning. These data will help guide novel amplification strategies, particularly for complex listening situations (e.g., speech in noise), in which current hearing aids struggle to restore intelligibility. PMID:27080669

  17. Auditory Neuropathy/Dyssynchrony in Biotinidase Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghini, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is a disorder inherited autosomal recessively showing evidence of hearing loss and optic atrophy in addition to seizures, hypotonia, and ataxia. In the present study, a 2-year-old boy with Biotinidase deficiency is presented in which clinical symptoms have been reported with auditory neuropathy/auditory dyssynchrony (AN/AD). In this case, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions showed bilaterally normal responses representing normal function of outer hair cells. In contrast, acoustic reflex test showed absent reflexes bilaterally, and visual reinforcement audiometry and auditory brainstem responses indicated severe to profound hearing loss in both ears. These results suggest AN/AD in patients with Biotinidase deficiency. PMID:27144235

  18. Auditory Connections and Functions of Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BethanyPlakke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The functional auditory system extends from the ears to the frontal lobes with successively more complex functions occurring as one ascends the hierarchy of the nervous system. Several areas of the frontal lobe receive afferents from both early and late auditory processing regions within the temporal lobe. Afferents from the early part of the cortical auditory system, the auditory belt cortex, which are presumed to carry information regarding auditory features of sounds, project to only a few prefrontal regions and are most dense in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC. In contrast, projections from the parabelt and the rostral superior temporal gyrus (STG most likely convey more complex information and target a larger, widespread region of the prefrontal cortex. Neuronal responses reflect these anatomical projections as some prefrontal neurons exhibit responses to features in acoustic stimuli, while other neurons display task-related responses. For example, recording studies in non-human primates indicate that VLPFC is responsive to complex sounds including vocalizations and that VLPFC neurons in area 12/47 respond to sounds with similar acoustic morphology. In contrast, neuronal responses during auditory working memory involve a wider region of the prefrontal cortex. In humans, the frontal lobe is involved in auditory detection, discrimination, and working memory. Past research suggests that dorsal and ventral subregions of the prefrontal cortex process different types of information with dorsal cortex processing spatial/visual information and ventral cortex processing non-spatial/auditory information. While this is apparent in the non-human primate and in some neuroimaging studies, most research in humans indicates that specific task conditions, stimuli or previous experience may bias the recruitment of specific prefrontal regions, suggesting a more flexible role for the frontal lobe during auditory cognition.

  19. An Efficient Decoder for the Recognition of Event-Related Potentials in High-Density MEG Recordings

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Reichert; Stefan Dürschmid; Rudolf Kruse; Hermann Hinrichs

    2016-01-01

    Brain–computer interfacing (BCI) is a promising technique for regaining communication and control in severely paralyzed people. Many BCI implementations are based on the recognition of task-specific event-related potentials (ERP) such as P300 responses. However, because of the high signal-to-noise ratio in noninvasive brain recordings, reliable detection of single trial ERPs is challenging. Furthermore, the relevant signal is often heterogeneously distributed over several channels. In this pa...

  20. Fast joint detection-estimation of evoked brain activity in event-related fMRI using a variational approach

    OpenAIRE

    Chaari, Lotfi; Vincent, Thomas; Forbes, Florence; Dojat, Michel; Ciuciu, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    International audience In standard within-subject analyses of event-related fMRI data, two steps are usually performed separately: detection of brain activity and estimation of the hemodynamic response. Because these two steps are inherently linked, we adopt the socalled region-based Joint Detection-Estimation (JDE) framework that addresses this joint issue using a multivariate inference for detection and estimation. JDE is built by making use of a regional bilinear generative model of the...

  1. Deficits in Error-Monitoring by College Students with Schizotypal Traits: An Event-Related Potential Study

    OpenAIRE

    Seo-Hee Kim; Kyoung-Mi Jang; Myung-Sun Kim

    2015-01-01

    The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate deficits in error-monitoring by college students with schizotypal traits. Scores on the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) were used to categorize the participants into schizotypal-trait (n = 17) and normal control (n = 20) groups. The error-monitoring abilities of the participants were evaluated using the Simon task, which consists of congruent (locations of stimulus and response are the same) and incongruent (loc...

  2. A One-Hour Sleep Restriction Impacts Brain Processing in Young Children Across Tasks: Evidence From Event-related Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Molfese, Dennis L.; Ivanenko, Anna; Key, Alexandra Fonaryova; Roman, Adrienne; Molfese, Victoria J.; O'Brien, Louise M.; Gozal, David; Kota, Srinivas; Hudac, Caitlin M.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of mild sleep restriction on cognitive functioning in young children is unclear, yet sleep loss may impact children's abilities to attend to tasks with high processing demands. In a preliminary investigation, six children (6.6 - 8.3 years of age) with normal sleep patterns performed three tasks: attention (“Oddball”), speech perception (conconant-vowel syllables) and executive function (Directional Stroop). Event-related potentials (ERP) responses were recorded before (Control) and...

  3. Explaining the high voice superiority effect in polyphonic music: evidence from cortical evoked potentials and peripheral auditory models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Laurel J; Marie, Céline; Bruce, Ian C; Bidelman, Gavin M

    2014-02-01

    Natural auditory environments contain multiple simultaneously-sounding objects and the auditory system must parse the incoming complex sound wave they collectively create into parts that represent each of these individual objects. Music often similarly requires processing of more than one voice or stream at the same time, and behavioral studies demonstrate that human listeners show a systematic perceptual bias in processing the highest voice in multi-voiced music. Here, we review studies utilizing event-related brain potentials (ERPs), which support the notions that (1) separate memory traces are formed for two simultaneous voices (even without conscious awareness) in auditory cortex and (2) adults show more robust encoding (i.e., larger ERP responses) to deviant pitches in the higher than in the lower voice, indicating better encoding of the former. Furthermore, infants also show this high-voice superiority effect, suggesting that the perceptual dominance observed across studies might result from neurophysiological characteristics of the peripheral auditory system. Although musically untrained adults show smaller responses in general than musically trained adults, both groups similarly show a more robust cortical representation of the higher than of the lower voice. Finally, years of experience playing a bass-range instrument reduces but does not reverse the high voice superiority effect, indicating that although it can be modified, it is not highly neuroplastic. Results of new modeling experiments examined the possibility that characteristics of middle-ear filtering and cochlear dynamics (e.g., suppression) reflected in auditory nerve firing patterns might account for the higher-voice superiority effect. Simulations show that both place and temporal AN coding schemes well-predict a high-voice superiority across a wide range of interval spacings and registers. Collectively, we infer an innate, peripheral origin for the higher-voice superiority observed in human

  4. Implicit temporal expectation attenuates auditory attentional blink.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Shen

    Full Text Available Attentional blink (AB describes a phenomenon whereby correct identification of a first target impairs the processing of a second target (i.e., probe nearby in time. Evidence suggests that explicit attention orienting in the time domain can attenuate the AB. Here, we used scalp-recorded, event-related potentials to examine whether auditory AB is also sensitive to implicit temporal attention orienting. Expectations were set up implicitly by varying the probability (i.e., 80% or 20% that the probe would occur at the +2 or +8 position following target presentation. Participants showed a significant AB, which was reduced with the increased probe probability at the +2 position. The probe probability effect was paralleled by an increase in P3b amplitude elicited by the probe. The results suggest that implicit temporal attention orienting can facilitate short-term consolidation of the probe and attenuate auditory AB.

  5. Atypical auditory refractory periods in children from lower socio-economic status backgrounds: ERP evidence for a role of selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Courtney; Paulsen, David; Yasen, Alia; Neville, Helen

    2015-02-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies indicate that lower socio-economic status (SES) is associated with reduced effects of selective attention on auditory processing. Here, we investigated whether lower SES is also associated with differences in a stimulus-driven aspect of auditory processing: the neural refractory period, or reduced amplitude response at faster rates of stimulus presentation. Thirty-two children aged 3 to 8 years participated, and were divided into two SES groups based on maternal education. Event-related brain potentials were recorded to probe stimuli presented at interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 200, 500, or 1000 ms. These probes were superimposed on story narratives when attended and ignored, permitting a simultaneous experimental manipulation of selective attention. Results indicated that group differences in refractory periods differed as a function of attention condition. Children from higher SES backgrounds showed full neural recovery by 500 ms for attended stimuli, but required at least 1000 ms for unattended stimuli. In contrast, children from lower SES backgrounds showed similar refractory effects to attended and unattended stimuli, with full neural recovery by 500 ms. Thus, in higher SES children only, one functional consequence of selective attention is attenuation of the response to unattended stimuli, particularly at rapid ISIs, altering basic properties of the auditory refractory period. Together, these data indicate that differences in selective attention impact basic aspects of auditory processing in children from lower SES backgrounds. PMID:25003553

  6. Characterization of auditory synaptic inputs to gerbil perirhinal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhakar C Kotak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The representation of acoustic cues involves regions downstream from the auditory cortex (ACx. One such area, the perirhinal cortex (PRh, processes sensory signals containing mnemonic information. Therefore, our goal was to assess whether PRh receives auditory inputs from the auditory thalamus (MG and ACx in an auditory thalamocortical brain slice preparation and characterize these afferent-driven synaptic properties. When the MG or ACx was electrically stimulated, synaptic responses were recorded from the PRh neurons. Blockade of GABA-A receptors dramatically increased the amplitude of evoked excitatory potentials. Stimulation of the MG or ACx also evoked calcium transients in most PRh neurons. Separately, when fluoro ruby was injected in ACx in vivo, anterogradely labeled axons and terminals were observed in the PRh. Collectively, these data show that the PRh integrates auditory information from the MG and ACx and that auditory driven inhibition dominates the postsynaptic responses in a non-sensory cortical region downstream from the auditory cortex.

  7. Integration and segregation in auditory scene analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Elyse S.

    2005-03-01

    Assessment of the neural correlates of auditory scene analysis, using an index of sound change detection that does not require the listener to attend to the sounds [a component of event-related brain potentials called the mismatch negativity (MMN)], has previously demonstrated that segregation processes can occur without attention focused on the sounds and that within-stream contextual factors influence how sound elements are integrated and represented in auditory memory. The current study investigated the relationship between the segregation and integration processes when they were called upon to function together. The pattern of MMN results showed that the integration of sound elements within a sound stream occurred after the segregation of sounds into independent streams and, further, that the individual streams were subject to contextual effects. These results are consistent with a view of auditory processing that suggests that the auditory scene is rapidly organized into distinct streams and the integration of sequential elements to perceptual units takes place on the already formed streams. This would allow for the flexibility required to identify changing within-stream sound patterns, needed to appreciate music or comprehend speech..

  8. 中国精神分裂症患者的事件相关电位研究%Research in China on event-related potentials in patients with schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继军; 郭茜

    2012-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) are objective electrophysiological indicators that can be used to assess cognitive processes in the human brain. Psychiatric researchers in China have applied this method to study schizophrenia since the early 1980s. ERP measures used in the study of schizophrenia include contingent negative variation (CNV), P300, mismatch negativity (MMN), error-related negativity (ERN) and auditory P50 inhibition. This review summarizes the main findings of ERP research in patients with schizophrenia reported by Chinese investigators.

  9. ERPWAVELAB A toolbox for multi-channel analysis of time-frequency transformed event related potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai; Arnfred, Sidse M.

    2006-01-01

    The toolbox 'ERPWAVELAB' is developed for multi-channel time-frequency analysis of event related activity of EEG and MEG data. The toolbox provides tools for data analysis and visualization of the most commonly used measures of time-frequency transformed event related data as well as data...

  10. The peripheral auditory characteristics of noctuid moths: responses to the search-phase echolocation calls of bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters; Jones

    1996-01-01

    The noctuid moths Agrotis segetum and Noctua pronuba show peak auditory sensitivity between 15 and 25 kHz, and a maximum sensitivity of 35 dB SPL. A. segetum shows a temporal integration time of 69 ms. It is predicted that bats using high-frequency and short-duration calls will be acoustically less apparent to these moths. Short-duration frequency-modulated (FM) calls of Plecotus auritus are not significantly less acoustically apparent than those of other FM bats with slightly longer call durations, based on their combined frequency and temporal structure alone. Long-duration, high-frequency, constant-frequency (CF) calls of Rhinolophus hipposideros at 113 kHz are significantly less apparent than those of the FM bats tested. The predicted low call apparency of the 83 kHz CF calls of R. ferrumequinum appears to be counteracted by their long duration. It is proposed that two separate mechanisms are exploited by bats to reduce their call apparency, low intensity in FM bats and high frequency in CF bats. Within the FM bats tested, shorter-duration calls do not significantly reduce the apparency of the call at the peripheral level, though they may limit the amount of information available to the central nervous system. PMID:9318627

  11. Modulation of early and late event-related potentials by emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Hart

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although emotionally salient stimuli influence higher order information processing, the relative vulnerability of specific stages of cognitive processing to modulation by emotional input remains elusive. To test the temporal dynamics of emotional interference during executive function, we recorded event-related potentials while participants performed an effortful anticipation task with aversive emotional and neutral distracters. Participants were presented with a modified delayed Stroop task that dissociated the anticipation of an easier or more difficult task (instructional cues to attend to word versus color from the response to the Stroop stimulus, while aversive and neutral pictures were displayed during the delay period. Our results indicated a relative decrease in the amplitude of the contingent negative variation (CNV during aversive trials that was greater during the early anticipatory phase than during the later response preparation phase, and greater during (the more difficult color than word trials. During the initial stage of cue processing, there was also significant interaction between emotion and anticipatory difficulty on N1 amplitude, where emotional stimuli led to significantly enhanced negativity during color cues relative to word cues. These results suggest that earlier processes of orientation and effortful anticipation may reflect executive engagement that is influenced by emotional interference while later phases of response preparation may be modulated by emotional interference regardless of anticipatory difficulty.

  12. An event-related potential study of working memory in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Rong; GUO Chunyan; JIANG Yang

    2006-01-01

    To examine the neural mechanisms of working memory in children, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from the 12―13 year-old while they performed a delayed match-to-sample task. The ERP results revealed that new and studied objects both evoked a late positive ERP component peaking around 350 ms during the working memory process. New objects evoke a more positive ERP waveform than the studied objects. The scalp distribution showed that the frontal-central electrode sites were associated with object working memory processes. When tracking new or studied targets among visual distracters, ERPs of targets and distracters revealed differential responses as early as 150 ms. The visual targets evoked larger and more positive ERP responses than the distracters. The typical old-new effect was observed between ERPs of studied and new distracters. However, ERPs of new and studied targets differed at about 250 ms, in which new targets evoked more positive-going and slightly earlier ERP responses. In addition, a P3a component was found for new targets only, and was absent in ERPs of studied targets at frontal and central sites. The present study results reveal the spatial and temporal characteristics of neural mechanisms underlying working memory in children, some of which are distinct from those in adults.

  13. An Event-related Potential Study on the Interaction between Lighting Level and Stimulus Spatial Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretié, Luis; Ruiz-Padial, Elisabeth; Mendoza, María T.

    2015-01-01

    Due to heterogeneous photoreceptor distribution, spatial location of stimulation is crucial to study visual brain activity in different light environments. This unexplored issue was studied through occipital event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded from 40 participants in response to discrete visual stimuli presented at different locations and in two environmental light conditions, low mesopic (L, 0.03 lux) and high mesopic (H, 6.5 lux), characterized by a differential photoreceptor activity balance: rod > cone and rod < cone, respectively. Stimuli, which were exactly the same in L and H, consisted of squares presented at fixation, at the vertical periphery (above or below fixation) or at the horizontal periphery (left or right). Analyses showed that occipital ERPs presented important L vs. H differences in the 100 to 450 ms window, which were significantly modulated by spatial location of stimulation: differences were greater in response to peripheral stimuli than to stimuli presented at fixation. Moreover, in the former case, significance of L vs. H differences was even stronger in response to stimuli presented at the horizontal than at the vertical periphery. These low vs. high mesopic differences may be explained by photoreceptor activation and their retinal distribution, and confirm that ERPs discriminate between rod– and cone-originated visual processing. PMID:26635588

  14. An event-related potential study on the interaction between lighting level and stimulus spatial location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eCarretié

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to heterogeneous photoreceptor distribution, spatial location of stimulation is crucial to study visual brain activity in different light environments. This unexplored issue was studied through occipital event-related potentials (ERPs recorded from 40 participants in response to discrete visual stimuli presented at different locations and in two environmental light conditions, low mesopic (L, 0.03 lux and high mesopic (H, 6.5 lux, characterized by a differential photoreceptor activity balance: rod>cone and rodresponse to peripheral stimuli than to stimuli presented at fixation. Moreover, in the former case, significance of L vs. H differences was even stronger in response to stimuli presented at the horizontal than at the vertical periphery. These low vs. high mesopic differences may be explained by photoreceptor activation and their retinal distribution, and confirm that ERPs discriminate between rod- and cone-originated visual processing.

  15. A Mixed L2 Norm Regularized HRF Estimation Method for Rapid Event-Related fMRI Experiments

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    Yu Lei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain state decoding or “mind reading” via multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA has become a popular focus of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies. In brain decoding, stimulus presentation rate is increased as fast as possible to collect many training samples and obtain an effective and reliable classifier or computational model. However, for extremely rapid event-related experiments, the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD signals evoked by adjacent trials are heavily overlapped in the time domain. Thus, identifying trial-specific BOLD responses is difficult. In addition, voxel-specific hemodynamic response function (HRF, which is useful in MVPA, should be used in estimation to decrease the loss of weak information across voxels and obtain fine-grained spatial information. Regularization methods have been widely used to increase the efficiency of HRF estimates. In this study, we propose a regularization framework called mixed L2 norm regularization. This framework involves Tikhonov regularization and an additional L2 norm regularization term to calculate reliable HRF estimates. This technique improves the accuracy of HRF estimates and significantly increases the classification accuracy of the brain decoding task when applied to a rapid event-related four-category object classification experiment. At last, some essential issues such as the impact of low-frequency fluctuation (LFF and the influence of smoothing are discussed for rapid event-related experiments.

  16. The sensory channel of presentation alters subjective ratings and autonomic responses towards disgusting stimuli -Blood pressure, heart rate and skin conductance in response to visual, auditory, haptic and olfactory presented disgusting stimuli-

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    Ilona eCroy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Disgust causes specific reaction patterns, observable in mimic responses and body reactions. Most research on disgust deals with visual stimuli. However, pictures may cause another disgust experience than sounds, odors or tactile stimuli. Therefore disgust experience evoked by four different sensory channels was compared.A total of 119 participants received 3 different disgusting and one control stimulus, each presented through the visual, auditory, tactile and olfactory channel. Ratings of evoked disgust as well as responses of the autonomic nervous system (heart rate, skin conductance level, systolic blood pressure were recorded and the effect of stimulus labeling and of repeated presentation was analyzed. Ratings suggested that disgust could be evoked through all senses; they were highest for visual stimuli. However, autonomic reaction towards disgusting stimuli differed according to the channel of presentation. In contrast to the other, olfactory disgust stimuli provoked a strong decrease of systolic blood pressure. Additionally, labeling enhanced disgust ratings and autonomic reaction for olfactory and tactile, but not for visual and auditory stimuli. Repeated presentation indicated that participant’s disgust rating diminishes to all but olfactory disgust stimuli. Taken together we argue that the sensory channel through which a disgust reaction is evoked matters.

  17. Distinct neural responses to chord violations: a multiple source analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza Villarreal, Eduardo A; Brattico, Elvira; Leino, Sakari; Ostergaard, Leif; Vuust, Peter

    2011-05-10

    The human brain is constantly predicting the auditory environment by representing sequential similarities and extracting temporal regularities. It has been proposed that simple auditory regularities are extracted at lower stations of the auditory cortex and more complex ones at other brain regions, such as the prefrontal cortex. Deviations from auditory regularities elicit a family of early negative electric potentials distributed over the frontal regions of the scalp. In this study, we wished to disentangle the brain processes associated with sequential vs. hierarchical auditory regularities in a musical context by studying the event-related potentials (ERPs), the behavioral responses to violations of these regularities, and the localization of the underlying ERP generators using two different source analysis algorithms. To this aim, participants listened to musical cadences constituted by seven chords, each containing either harmonically congruous chords, harmonically incongruous chords, or harmonically congruous but mistuned chords. EEG was recorded and multiple source analysis was performed. Incongruous chords violating the rules of harmony elicited a bilateral ERAN, whereas mistuned chords within chord sequences elicited a right-lateralized MMN. We found that the dominant cortical sources for the ERAN were localized around Broca's area and its right homolog, whereas the MMN generators were localized around the primary auditory cortex. These findings suggest a predominant role of the auditory cortices in detecting sequential scale regularities and the posterior prefrontal cortex in parsing hierarchical regularities in music. PMID:21382359

  18. Error-dependent modulation of speech-induced auditory suppression for pitch-shifted voice feedback

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    Larson Charles R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The motor-driven predictions about expected sensory feedback (efference copies have been proposed to play an important role in recognition of sensory consequences of self-produced motor actions. In the auditory system, this effect was suggested to result in suppression of sensory neural responses to self-produced voices that are predicted by the efference copies during vocal production in comparison with passive listening to the playback of the identical self-vocalizations. In the present study, event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded in response to upward pitch shift stimuli (PSS with five different magnitudes (0, +50, +100, +200 and +400 cents at voice onset during active vocal production and passive listening to the playback. Results Results indicated that the suppression of the N1 component during vocal production was largest for unaltered voice feedback (PSS: 0 cents, became smaller as the magnitude of PSS increased to 200 cents, and was almost completely eliminated in response to 400 cents stimuli. Conclusions Findings of the present study suggest that the brain utilizes the motor predictions (efference copies to determine the source of incoming stimuli and maximally suppresses the auditory responses to unaltered feedback of self-vocalizations. The reduction of suppression for 50, 100 and 200 cents and its elimination for 400 cents pitch-shifted voice auditory feedback support the idea that motor-driven suppression of voice feedback leads to distinctly different sensory neural processing of self vs. non-self vocalizations. This characteristic may enable the audio-vocal system to more effectively detect and correct for unexpected errors in the feedback of self-produced voice pitch compared with externally-generated sounds.

  19. Cortical substrates and functional correlates of auditory deviance processing deficits in schizophrenia

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    Anthony J. Rissling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although sensory processing abnormalities contribute to widespread cognitive and psychosocial impairments in schizophrenia (SZ patients, scalp-channel measures of averaged event-related potentials (ERPs mix contributions from distinct cortical source-area generators, diluting the functional relevance of channel-based ERP measures. SZ patients (n = 42 and non-psychiatric comparison subjects (n = 47 participated in a passive auditory duration oddball paradigm, eliciting a triphasic (Deviant−Standard tone ERP difference complex, here termed the auditory deviance response (ADR, comprised of a mid-frontal mismatch negativity (MMN, P3a positivity, and re-orienting negativity (RON peak sequence. To identify its cortical sources and to assess possible relationships between their response contributions and clinical SZ measures, we applied independent component analysis to the continuous 68-channel EEG data and clustered the resulting independent components (ICs across subjects on spectral, ERP, and topographic similarities. Six IC clusters centered in right superior temporal, right inferior frontal, ventral mid-cingulate, anterior cingulate, medial orbitofrontal, and dorsal mid-cingulate cortex each made triphasic response contributions. Although correlations between measures of SZ clinical, cognitive, and psychosocial functioning and standard (Fz scalp-channel ADR peak measures were weak or absent, for at least four IC clusters one or more significant correlations emerged. In particular, differences in MMN peak amplitude in the right superior temporal IC cluster accounted for 48% of the variance in SZ-subject performance on tasks necessary for real-world functioning and medial orbitofrontal cluster P3a amplitude accounted for 40%/54% of SZ-subject variance in positive/negative symptoms. Thus, source-resolved auditory deviance response measures including MMN may be highly sensitive to SZ clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics.

  20. Auditory agnosia due to long-term severe hydrocephalus caused by spina bifida - specific auditory pathway versus nonspecific auditory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Kaga, Kimitaka; Hayashi, Akimasa

    2011-07-01

    A 27-year-old female showed auditory agnosia after long-term severe hydrocephalus due to congenital spina bifida. After years of hydrocephalus, she gradually suffered from hearing loss in her right ear at 19 years of age, followed by her left ear. During the time when she retained some ability to hear, she experienced severe difficulty in distinguishing verbal, environmental, and musical instrumental sounds. However, her auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emissions were largely intact in the left ear. Her bilateral auditory cortices were preserved, as shown by neuroimaging, whereas her auditory radiations were severely damaged owing to progressive hydrocephalus. Although she had a complete bilateral hearing loss, she felt great pleasure when exposed to music. After years of self-training to read lips, she regained fluent ability to communicate. Clinical manifestations of this patient indicate that auditory agnosia can occur after long-term hydrocephalus due to spina bifida; the secondary auditory pathway may play a role in both auditory perception and hearing rehabilitation. PMID:21413843

  1. Auditory imagery: empirical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2010-03-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear). PMID:20192565

  2. Laterality of pain in migraine distinguished by interictal rates of habituation of electrodermal responses to visual and auditory stimuli.

    OpenAIRE

    Gruzelier, J. H.; Nicolaou, T; Connolly, J. F.; Peatfield, R. C.; Davies, P T; Clifford-Rose, F

    1987-01-01

    Support is provided for a primary neural factor in migraine by studies in autonomic responsiveness to sensory stimuli in relation to the laterality of pain. Migraineurs with consistently lateralised headaches were found in two studies to exhibit extremes of autonomic responsiveness to sensory stimuli during the interictal phase. The direction of responsiveness was predictive of the laterality of pain; left-sided pain was associated with under-responsiveness and fast habituation, right-sided p...

  3. The esthetic preference of Chinese typefaces--an event-related potential study.

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    Li, Rui; Qin, Ruilin; Zhang, Junsong; Wu, Junjie; Zhou, Changle

    2015-02-19

    Emotional stimuli such as pictures, logos, geometric shapes, etc can evoke human esthetic preference from previous neuroesthetic studies. Chinese characters can be considered as emotional stimuli as they have an important property: typeface. Intuitively, the emotional meaning of Chinese characters can cause esthetic preference. However, whether a typeface can cause esthetic preference or not from an empirical perspective is still unknown. To address this issue, participants׳ event-related potential (ERP) waves are recorded while they are presented a series of Chinese characters in different typefaces. Participants are asked to distinguish specific target from the others. Afterwards, from the Chinese characters presented in this task, participants are asked individually to select the characters they like the most and dislike the most. By recording the ERP responses (a response of implicit preference to Chinese characters themselves) during the experiment to different typefaces of Chinese characters, we find a significant difference between disliked and all characters in the frontal-central area in the 200-300 ms window after the stimulus׳ onset. In the 400-600 ms window, after the stimulus׳ onset, a significant bias for disliked characters emerges in frontal, central, parietal and occipital areas. Our results suggest that people could make a rapid, implicit esthetic preference for the typefaces of Chinese characters. PMID:25498863

  4. Imaging cortical dynamics of language processing with the event-related optical signal.

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    Tse, Chun-Yu; Lee, Chia-Lin; Sullivan, Jason; Garnsey, Susan M; Dell, Gary S; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele

    2007-10-23

    Language processing involves the rapid interaction of multiple brain regions. The study of its neurophysiological bases would therefore benefit from neuroimaging techniques combining both good spatial and good temporal resolution. Here we use the event-related optical signal (EROS), a recently developed imaging method, to reveal rapid interactions between left superior/middle temporal cortices (S/MTC) and inferior frontal cortices (IFC) during the processing of semantically or syntactically anomalous sentences. Participants were presented with sentences of these types intermixed with nonanomalous control sentences and were required to judge their acceptability. ERPs were recorded simultaneously with EROS and showed the typical activities that are elicited when processing anomalous stimuli: the N400 and the P600 for semantic and syntactic anomalies, respectively. The EROS response to semantically anomalous words showed increased activity in the S/MTC (corresponding in time with the N400), followed by IFC activity. Syntactically anomalous words evoked a similar sequence, with a temporal-lobe EROS response (corresponding in time with the P600), followed by frontal activity. However, the S/MTC activity corresponding to a semantic anomaly was more ventral than that corresponding to a syntactic anomaly. These data suggest that activation related to anomaly processing in sentences proceeds from temporal to frontal brain regions for both semantic and syntactic anomalies. This first EROS study investigating language processing shows that EROS can be used to image rapid interactions across cortical areas. PMID:17942677

  5. Lexical processing deficits in children with developmental language disorder: An event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilov, Sergey A; Magnuson, James S; Rakhlin, Natalia; Landi, Nicole; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2015-05-01

    Lexical processing deficits in children with developmental language disorder (DLD) have been postulated to arise as sequelae of their grammatical deficits (either directly or via compensatory mechanisms) and vice versa. We examined event-related potential indices of lexical processing in children with DLD (n = 23) and their typically developing peers (n = 16) using a picture-word matching paradigm. We found that children with DLD showed markedly reduced N400 amplitudes in response both to auditorily presented words that had initial phonological overlap with the name of the pictured object and to words that were not semantically or phonologically related to the pictured object. Moreover, this reduction was related to behavioral indices of phonological and lexical but not grammatical development. We also found that children with DLD showed a depressed phonological mapping negativity component in the early time window, suggesting deficits in phonological processing or early lexical access. The results are partially consistent with the overactivation account of lexical processing deficits in DLD and point to the relative functional independence of lexical/phonological and grammatical deficits in DLD, supporting a multidimensional view of the disorder. The results also, although indirectly, support the neuroplasticity account of DLD, according to which language impairment affects brain development and shapes the specific patterns of brain responses to language stimuli. PMID:25997765

  6. EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS EXTRACTION OF WORKING MEMORY USING WAVELET ALGORITHM

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    SitiZubaidahMohd Tumari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to classify and determine the Event-Related Potentials (ERPs signal pattern of normal children on visual response. Thirty-eight children aged between 10 to 12 years old were subjected to a two-phase computer-based assessment while their working memory activity was recorded using a Neurofax-EEG 9200 machine. For children, it is anticipated that some information can be lost when there is too much information given at any one time due to limited memory capacity and this is a type of memory impairment. Based on the visual stimulus responses, EEG signal were recorded and captured from channel location at Fz. This paper explains the extraction of raw EEG signals into grand mean ERPs signal which to determine the pattern of signal developed. The ERPs concerning latency and amplitude variability of the P300 component was evaluated. The analysis was based on Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT algorithm and focused on alpha rhythm. Results indicated that the Daubechies wavelet at a decomposition level of 4 (db4 was the most suitable wavelet for pre-processing raw EEG signal of working memory. A significant increase of latency was detected in children aged 10 to 12 years old at channel Fz (frontal midline when the visual stimuli became more difficult. For amplitude variability, the girls gave higher amplitude at Phase 1. These results supported the concept of increased cognitive memory in children.

  7. Visual and Auditory Synchronization Deficits Among Dyslexic Readers as Compared to Non-impaired Readers: A Cross-Correlation Algorithm Analysis

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    Zvia Breznitz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual and auditory temporal processing and crossmodal integration are crucial factors in the word decoding process. The speed of processing gap (Asynchrony between these two modalities, which has been suggested as related to the dyslexia phenomenon, is the focus of the current study. Nineteen dyslexic and 17 non-impaired University adult readers were given stimuli in a reaction time procedure where participants were asked to identify whhether the stimulus type was only visual, only auditory or crossmodally integrated. Accuracy, reaction time, and Event Related Potential (ERP measures were obtained for each of the three conditions. An algorithm to measure the contribution of the temporal speed of processing of each modality to the crossmodal integration in each group of participants was developed. Results obtained using this model for the analysis of the current study data, indicated that in the crossmodal integration condition the presence of the auditory modality at the pre-response time frame (between 170- 240 ms after stimulus presentation, increased processing speed in the visual modality among the non-impaired readers, but not in the dyslexic group. The differences between the temporal speed of processing of the modalities among the dyslexics and the non-impaired readers give additional support to the theory that an asynchrony between the visual and auditory modalities is a cause of dyslexia.

  8. Transient and steady-state auditory gamma-band responses in first-degree relatives of people with autism spectrum disorder

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    Rojas Donald C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stimulus-related γ-band oscillations, which may be related to perceptual binding, are reduced in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The purpose of this study was to examine auditory transient and steady-state γ-band findings in first-degree relatives of people with ASD to assess the potential familiality of these findings in ASD. Methods Magnetoencephalography (MEG recordings in 21 parents who had a child with an autism spectrum disorder (pASD and 20 healthy adult control subjects (HC were obtained. Gamma-band phase locking factor (PLF, and evoked and induced power to 32, 40 and 48 Hz amplitude-modulated sounds were measured for transient and steady-state responses. Participants were also tested on a number of behavioral and cognitive assessments related to the broad autism phenotype (BAP. Results Reliable group differences were seen primarily for steady-state responses. In the left hemisphere, pASD subjects exhibited lower phase-locked steady-state power in all three conditions. Total γ-band power, including the non-phase-locked component, was also reduced in the pASD group. In addition, pASD subjects had significantly lower PLF than the HC group. Correlations were seen between MEG measures and BAP measures. Conclusions The reduction in steady-state γ-band responses in the pASD group is consistent with previous results for children with ASD. Steady-state responses may be more sensitive than transient responses to phase-locking errors in ASD. Together with the lower PLF and phase-locked power in first-degree relatives, correlations between γ-band measures and behavioral measures relevant to the BAP highlight the potential of γ-band deficits as a potential new autism endophenotype.

  9. Electrophysiological correlates of auditory change detection and change deafness in complex auditory scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschmann, Sebastian; Sandmann, Pascale; Ahrens, Janina; Thorne, Jeremy; Weerda, Riklef; Klump, Georg; Debener, Stefan; Thiel, Christiane M

    2013-07-15

    Change deafness describes the failure to perceive even intense changes within complex auditory input, if the listener does not attend to the changing sound. Remarkably, previous psychophysical data provide evidence that this effect occurs independently of successful stimulus encoding, indicating that undetected changes are processed to some extent in auditory cortex. Here we investigated cortical representations of detected and undetected auditory changes using electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings and a change deafness paradigm. We applied a one-shot change detection task, in which participants listened successively to three complex auditory scenes, each of them consisting of six simultaneously presented auditory streams. Listeners had to decide whether all scenes were identical or whether the pitch of one stream was changed between the last two presentations. Our data show significantly increased middle-latency Nb responses for both detected and undetected changes as compared to no-change trials. In contrast, only successfully detected changes were associated with a later mismatch response in auditory cortex, followed by increased N2, P3a and P3b responses, originating from hierarchically higher non-sensory brain regions. These results strengthen the view that undetected changes are successfully encoded at sensory level in auditory cortex, but fail to trigger later change-related cortical responses that lead to conscious perception of change. PMID:23466938

  10. The spatial reliability of task-irrelevant sounds modulates bimodal audiovisual integration: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Yu, Hongtao; Wu, Yan; Gao, Ning

    2016-08-26

    The integration of multiple sensory inputs is essential for perception of the external world. The spatial factor is a fundamental property of multisensory audiovisual integration. Previous studies of the spatial constraints on bimodal audiovisual integration have mainly focused on the spatial congruity of audiovisual information. However, the effect of spatial reliability within audiovisual information on bimodal audiovisual integration remains unclear. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effect of spatial reliability of task-irrelevant sounds on audiovisual integration. Three relevant ERP components emerged: the first at 140-200ms over a wide central area, the second at 280-320ms over the fronto-central area, and a third at 380-440ms over the parieto-occipital area. Our results demonstrate that ERP amplitudes elicited by audiovisual stimuli with reliable spatial relationships are larger than those elicited by stimuli with inconsistent spatial relationships. In addition, we hypothesized that spatial reliability within an audiovisual stimulus enhances feedback projections to the primary visual cortex from multisensory integration regions. Overall, our findings suggest that the spatial linking of visual and auditory information depends on spatial reliability within an audiovisual stimulus and occurs at a relatively late stage of processing. PMID:27392755

  11. Event-related potentials reflect the efficacy of pharmaceutical treatments in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Ota, Toyosaku; Iida, Junzo; Nakanishi, Yoko; Matsuura, Hiroki; Uratani, Mitsuhiro; Okazaki, Kosuke; Kishimoto, Naoko; Tanaka, Shohei; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2016-08-30

    Few objective biological measures of pharmacological treatment efficacy exist for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although we have previously demonstrated that event-related potentials (ERPs) reflect the effects of osmotic-release methylphenidate in treatment of naïve pediatric patients with ADHD, whether this is true for the therapeutic effects of atomoxetine (ATX) is unknown. Here, we used the Japanese version of the ADHD rating-scale IV to evaluate 14 patients with ADHD, and compared their ERP data with 14 age- and sex-matched controls. We measured P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN) components during an auditory oddball task before treatment (treatment naïve) and after 2 months of ATX treatment. Compared with controls, P300 components at baseline were attenuated and prolonged in the ADHD group at Fz (fronto-central), Cz (centro-parietal), Pz (parietal regions), C3 and C4 electrodes. ATX treatment reduced ADHD symptomology, and after 2 months of treatment, P300 latencies at Fz, Cz, Pz, C3, and C4 electrodes were significantly shorter than those at baseline. Moreover, MMN amplitudes at Cz and C3 electrodes were significantly greater than those at baseline. Thus, ERPs may be useful for evaluating the pharmacological effects of ATX in pediatric and adolescent patients with ADHD. PMID:27318633

  12. Perceiving musical scale structures. A cross-cultural event-related brain potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Christiane

    2003-11-01

    In this study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) are used to investigate the processing of musical scale structures from a cross-cultural perspective. ERP reactions reveal that universal listening strategies per se are modified by culture. PMID:14681138

  13. Emotion and the processing of symbolic gestures: an event-related brain potential study

    OpenAIRE

    Flaisch, Tobias; Häcker, Frank; Renner, Britta; Schupp, Harald

    2010-01-01

    The present study used event-related brain potentials to examine the hypothesis that emotional gestures draw attentional resources at the level of distinct processing stages. Twenty healthy volunteers viewed pictures of hand gestures with negative (insult) and positive (approval) emotional meaning as well as neutral control gestures (pointing) while dense sensor event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Emotion effects were reflected in distinct ERP modulations in early and later time wi...

  14. Recognition memory for emotional and neutral faces: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Mikael; Mecklinger, Axel; Treese, Anne-Cécile

    2004-12-01

    This study examined emotional influences on the hypothesized event-related potential (ERP) correlates of familiarity and recollection (Experiment 1) and the states of awareness (Experiment 2) accompanying recognition memory for faces differing in facial affect. Participants made gender judgments to positive, negative, and neutral faces at study and were in the test phase instructed to discriminate between studied and nonstudied faces. Whereas old-new discrimination was unaffected by facial expression, negative faces were recollected to a greater extent than both positive and neutral faces as reflected in the parietal ERP old-new effect and in the proportion of remember judgments. Moreover, emotion-specific modulations were observed in frontally recorded ERPs elicited by correctly rejected new faces that concurred with a more liberal response criterion for emotional as compared to neutral faces. Taken together, the results are consistent with the view that processes promoting recollection are facilitated for negative events and that emotion may affect recognition performance by influencing criterion setting mediated by the prefrontal cortex. PMID:15701233

  15. Multi-objective optimal experimental designs for event-related fMRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ming-Hung; Mandal, Abhyuday; Lazar, Nicole; Stufken, John

    2009-02-01

    In this article, we propose an efficient approach to find optimal experimental designs for event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (ER-fMRI). We consider multiple objectives, including estimating the hemodynamic response function (HRF), detecting activation, circumventing psychological confounds and fulfilling customized requirements. Taking into account these goals, we formulate a family of multi-objective design criteria and develop a genetic-algorithm-based technique to search for optimal designs. Our proposed technique incorporates existing knowledge about the performance of fMRI designs, and its usefulness is shown through simulations. Although our approach also works for other linear combinations of parameters, we primarily focus on the case when the interest lies either in the individual stimulus effects or in pairwise contrasts between stimulus types. Under either of these popular cases, our algorithm outperforms the previous approaches. We also find designs yielding higher estimation efficiencies than m-sequences. When the underlying model is with white noise and a constant nuisance parameter, the stimulus frequencies of the designs we obtained are in good agreement with the optimal stimulus frequencies derived by Liu and Frank, 2004, NeuroImage 21: 387-400. In addition, our approach is built upon a rigorous model formulation. PMID:18948212

  16. Altered semantic integration in autism beyond language: a cross-modal event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Tatiane C; Valasek, Claudia A; Minati, Ludovico; Boggio, Paulo S

    2013-05-29

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by impaired communication, particularly pragmatic and semantic language, resulting in verbal comprehension deficits. Semantic processing in these conditions has been studied extensively, but mostly limited only to linguistic material. Emerging evidence, however, suggests that semantic integration deficits may extend beyond the verbal domain. Here, we explored cross-modal semantic integration using visual targets preceded by musical and linguistic cues. Particularly, we have recorded the event-related potentials to evaluate whether the N400 and late positive potential (LPP) components, two widely studied electrophysiological markers of semantic processing, are differently sensitive to congruence with respect to typically developing children. Seven ASD patients and seven neurotypical participants matched by age, education and intelligence quotient provided usable data. Neuroelectric activity was recorded in response to visual targets that were related or unrelated to a preceding spoken sentence or musical excerpt. The N400 was sensitive to semantic congruence in the controls but not the patients, whereas the LPP showed a complementary pattern. These results suggest that semantic processing in ASD children is also altered in the context of musical and visual stimuli, and point to a functional decoupling between the generators of the N400 and LPP, which may indicate delayed semantic processing. These novel findings underline the importance of exploring semantic integration across multiple modalities in ASDs and provide motivation for further investigation in large clinical samples. PMID:23629689

  17. Event-related potentials elicited by social commerce and electronic-commerce reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yan; Yao, Zhong; Cong, Fengyu; Zhang, Linlin

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing interest regarding the use of electroencephalography (EEG) in social commerce and electronic commerce (e-commerce) research. There are several reviews in the field of social commerce or e-commerce; these have great potential value and mining them is fundamental and significant. To our knowledge, EEG is rarely applied to study these. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of social commerce reviews (SCRs) and e-commerce reviews (ECRs) by using them as stimuli to evoke event-related potentials. All SCRs were from friends through a social media platform, whereas ECRs were from strangers through an e-commerce platform. The experimental design was similar to that of a priming paradigm, and included 40 pairs of stimuli consisting of product information (prime stimulus) and reviews (target stimulus). The results showed that the P300 component was successfully evoked by SCR and ECR stimuli. Moreover, the P300 components elicited by SCRs had higher amplitudes than those elicited by ECRs. These findings indicate that participants paid more attention to SCRs than to ECRs. In addition, the associations between neural responses and reviews in social commerce have the potential to assist companies in studying consumer behaviors, thus permitting them to enhance their social commerce strategies. PMID:26557933

  18. Aesthetic appreciation of poetry correlates with ease of processing in event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, Christian; Kotz, Sonja A; Jessen, Sarah; Raettig, Tim; von Koppenfels, Martin; Menninghaus, Winfried

    2016-04-01

    Rhetorical theory suggests that rhythmic and metrical features of language substantially contribute to persuading, moving, and pleasing an audience. A potential explanation of these effects is offered by "cognitive fluency theory," which stipulates that recurring patterns (e.g., meter) enhance perceptual fluency and can lead to greater aesthetic appreciation. In this article, we explore these two assertions by investigating the effects of meter and rhyme in the reception of poetry by means of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Participants listened to four versions of lyrical stanzas that varied in terms of meter and rhyme, and rated the stanzas for rhythmicity and aesthetic liking. The behavioral and ERP results were in accord with enhanced liking and rhythmicity ratings for metered and rhyming stanzas. The metered and rhyming stanzas elicited smaller N400/P600 ERP responses than their nonmetered, nonrhyming, or nonmetered and nonrhyming counterparts. In addition, the N400 and P600 effects for the lyrical stanzas correlated with aesthetic liking effects (metered-nonmetered), implying that modulation of the N400 and P600 has a direct bearing on the aesthetic appreciation of lyrical stanzas. We suggest that these effects are indicative of perceptual-fluency-enhanced aesthetic liking, as postulated by cognitive fluency theory. PMID:26697879

  19. Short-Term Effects of Prosocial Video Games on Aggression: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling eLiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that exposure to violent video games increases aggression, whereas exposure to prosocial video games can reduce aggressive behavior. However, little is known about the neural correlates of these behavioral effects. This work is the first to investigate the electrophysiological features of the relationship between playing a prosocial video game and inhibition of aggressive behavior. Forty-nine subjects played either a prosocial or a neutral video game for 20 minutes, then participated in an event-related potential (ERP experiment based on an oddball paradigm and designed to test electrophysiological responses to prosocial and violent words. Finally, subjects completed a competitive reaction time task (CRTT, which is based on Taylor’s Aggression Paradigm and measures both reaction time and noise intensity preference as indices of aggressive behavior. The results show that the prosocial video game group (compared to the neutral video game group displayed smaller P300 amplitudes, were more accurate in distinguishing violent words, and were less aggressive as evaluated by the CRTT (noise intensity preference. A mediation analysis shows that the P300 amplitude evoked by violent words partially mediates the relationship between type of video game and subsequent aggressive behavior. The results support theories based on the General Learning Model. We provide converging behavioral and neural evidence that exposure to prosocial media may reduce aggression.

  20. Short-term effects of prosocial video games on aggression: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanling; Teng, Zhaojun; Lan, Haiying; Zhang, Xin; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to violent video games increases aggression, whereas exposure to prosocial video games can reduce aggressive behavior. However, little is known about the neural correlates of these behavioral effects. This work is the first to investigate the electrophysiological features of the relationship between playing a prosocial video game and inhibition of aggressive behavior. Forty-nine subjects played either a prosocial or a neutral video game for 20 min, then participated in an event-related potential (ERP) experiment based on an oddball paradigm and designed to test electrophysiological responses to prosocial and violent words. Finally, subjects completed a competitive reaction time task (CRTT) which based on Taylor's Aggression Paradigm and contains reaction time and noise intensity chosen as a measure of aggressive behavior. The results show that the prosocial video game group (compared to the neutral video game group) displayed smaller P300 amplitudes, were more accurate in distinguishing violent words, and were less aggressive as evaluated by the CRTT of noise intensity chosen. A mediation analysis shows that the P300 amplitude evoked by violent words partially mediates the relationship between type of video game and subsequent aggressive behavior. The results support theories based on the General Learning Model. We provide converging behavioral and neural evidence that exposure to prosocial media may reduce aggression. PMID:26257620

  1. Relationship between early and late stages of information processing: an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Portella

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a visual oddball paradigm. We found a moderate positive correlation among the latency of P200 (electrode O2, N200 (electrode O2, PMP (electrode C3, P300 (electrode PZ and the reaction time (RT. In addition, moderate negative correlation between the amplitude of P200 and the latencies of N200 (electrode O2, PMP (electrode C3, P300 (electrode PZ was found. Therefore, we propose that if the secondary processing of visual input (P200 latency occurs faster, the following will also happen sooner: discrimination and classification process of this input (N200 latency, motor response processing (PMP latency, reorganization of attention and working memory update (P300 latency, and RT. N200, PMP, and P300 latencies are also anticipated when higher activation level of occipital areas involved in the secondary processing of visual input rise (P200 amplitude.

  2. Tracking the intrusion of unwanted memories into awareness with event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellerstedt, Robin; Johansson, Mikael; Anderson, Michael C

    2016-08-01

    Involuntary retrieval of unwanted memories is a common symptom in several clinical disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder. With an aim to track the temporal dynamics of such memory intrusions, we recorded electrophysiological measures of brain activity while participants engaged in a Think/No-Think task. We presented the left hand word (the cue) of previously encoded word pairs in green or red font. We asked participants to think of the associated right hand word (the associate) when the cue appeared in green (Think condition) and to avoid thinking of the associate when the cue appeared in red (No-Think condition). To isolate cases when participants experienced an intrusive memory, at the end of each trial, participants judged whether the response had come to mind; we classified memories that came to mind during No-Think trials, despite efforts to stop retrieval, as intrusions. In an event-related potential (ERP) analysis, we observed a negative going slow wave (NSW) effect that indexed the duration of a trace in mnemonic awareness; whereas voluntary retrieval and maintenance of the associate was related to a sustained NSW that lasted throughout the 3-s recording epoch, memory intrusions generated short-lived NSWs that were rapidly truncated. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that the intrusion-NSW reflects the associate briefly penetrating working memory. More broadly, these findings exploit the high temporal resolution of ERPs to track the online dynamics of memory intrusions. PMID:27396675

  3. Impaired Early Attentional Processes in Parkinson's Disease: A High-Resolution Event-Related Potentials Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrine Bocquillon

    Full Text Available The selection of task-relevant information requires both the focalization of attention on the task and resistance to interference from irrelevant stimuli. A previous study using the P3 component of the event-related potentials suggested that a reduced ability to resist interference could be responsible for attention disorders at early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD, with a possible role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC.Our objective was to better determine the origin of this impairment, by studying an earlier ERP component, the N2, and its subcomponents, as they reflect early inhibition processes and as they are known to have sources in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, which is involved together with the DLPFC in inhibition processes. Fifteen early-stage PD patients and 15 healthy controls (HCs performed a three-stimulus visual oddball paradigm, consisting in detecting target inputs amongst standard stimuli, while resisting interference from distracter ones. A 128-channel electroencephalogram was recorded during this task and the generators of the N2 subcomponents were identified using standardized weighted low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (swLORETA.PD patients displayed fewer N2 generators than HCs in both the DLPFC and the ACC, for all types of stimuli. In contrast to controls, PD patients did not show any differences between their generators for different N2 subcomponents.Our data suggest that impaired inhibition in PD results from dysfunction of the DLPFC and the ACC during the early stages of attentional processes.

  4. On the violation of causal, emotional, and locative inferences: An event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Pablo; Sánchez-Carmona, Alberto; Smith, Cybelle; Pozo, Miguel A; Hinojosa, José A; Moreno, Eva M

    2016-07-01

    Previous event-related potential studies have demonstrated the online generation of inferences during reading for comprehension tasks. The present study contrasted the brainwave patterns of activity to the fulfilment or violation of various types of inferences (causal, emotional, locative). Relative to inference congruent sentence endings, a typical centro-parietal N400 was elicited for the violation of causal and locative inferences. This N400 effect was initially absent for emotional inferences, most likely due to their lower cloze probability. Between 500 and 750ms, a larger frontal positivity (pN400FP) was elicited by inference incongruent sentence endings in the causal condition. In emotional sentences, both inference congruent and incongruent endings exerted this frontally distributed late positivity. For the violation of locative inferences, the larger positivity was only marginally significant over left posterior scalp locations. Thus, not all inference eliciting sentences evoked a similar pattern of ERP responses. We interpret and discuss our results in line with recent views on what the N400, the P600 and the pN400FP brainwave potentials index. PMID:27150706

  5. Event-related potentials reveal rapid registration of features of infrequent changes during change blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astikainen Piia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Change blindness refers to a failure to detect changes between consecutively presented images separated by, for example, a brief blank screen. As an explanation of change blindness, it has been suggested that our representations of the environment are sparse outside focal attention and even that changed features may not be represented at all. In order to find electrophysiological evidence of neural representations of changed features during change blindness, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs in adults in an oddball variant of the change blindness flicker paradigm. Methods ERPs were recorded when subjects performed a change detection task in which the modified images were infrequently interspersed (p = .2 among the frequently (p = .8 presented unmodified images. Responses to modified and unmodified images were compared in the time window of 60-100 ms after stimulus onset. Results ERPs to infrequent modified images were found to differ in amplitude from those to frequent unmodified images at the midline electrodes (Fz, Pz, Cz and Oz at the latency of 60-100 ms even when subjects were unaware of changes (change blindness. Conclusions The results suggest that the brain registers changes very rapidly, and that changed features in images are neurally represented even without participants' ability to report them.

  6. Cortical perfusion response to an electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve in profoundly deaf patients: Study with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single photon emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Scao, Y.; Robier, A.; Beuter, P. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 37 - Tours (France). Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology); Baulieu, J.L.; Pourcelot, L. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 37 - Tours (France). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1992-04-01

    Brain activation procedures associated with single photon emission tomography (SPET) have recently been developed in healthy controls and diseased patients in order to help in their diagnosis and treatment. We investigated the effects of a promontory test (PT) on the cerebral distribution of technetium-99m hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) in 7 profoundly deaf patients, 6 PT+ and PT-. The count variation in the temporal lobe was calculated on 6 coronal slices using the ratio (R{sub stimulation}-R{sub deprivation})/R{sub deprivation} where R=counts in the temporal lobe was observed in all patients and was higher in all patients with PT+ than in the patient with PT-. The problems of head positioning and resolution of the system were taken into account, and we considered that the maximal count increment was related to the auditory cortex response to the stimulus. Further clinical investigations with high-resolution systems have to be performed in order to validate this presurgery test in cochlear implant assessment. (orig.).

  7. Cortical perfusion response to an electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve in profoundly deaf patients: Study with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain activation procedures associated with single photon emission tomography (SPET) have recently been developed in healthy controls and diseased patients in order to help in their diagnosis and treatment. We investigated the effects of a promontory test (PT) on the cerebral distribution of technetium-99m hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) in 7 profoundly deaf patients, 6 PT+ and PT-. The count variation in the temporal lobe was calculated on 6 coronal slices using the ratio (Rstimulation-Rdeprivation)/Rdeprivation where R=counts in the temporal lobe was observed in all patients and was higher in all patients with PT+ than in the patient with PT-. The problems of head positioning and resolution of the system were taken into account, and we considered that the maximal count increment was related to the auditory cortex response to the stimulus. Further clinical investigations with high-resolution systems have to be performed in order to validate this presurgery test in cochlear implant assessment. (orig.)

  8. Automatic temporal expectancy: a high-density event-related potential study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Mento

    Full Text Available How we compute time is not fully understood. Questions include whether an automatic brain mechanism is engaged in temporally regular environmental structure in order to anticipate events, and whether this can be dissociated from task-related processes, including response preparation, selection and execution. To investigate these issues, a passive temporal oddball task requiring neither time-based motor response nor explicit decision was specifically designed and delivered to participants during high-density, event-related potentials recording. Participants were presented with pairs of audiovisual stimuli (S1 and S2 interspersed with an Inter-Stimulus Interval (ISI that was manipulated according to an oddball probabilistic distribution. In the standard condition (70% of trials, the ISI lasted 1,500 ms, while in the two alternative, deviant conditions (15% each, it lasted 2,500 and 3,000 ms. The passive over-exposition to the standard ISI drove participants to automatically and progressively create an implicit temporal expectation of S2 onset, reflected by the time course of the Contingent Negative Variation response, which always peaked in correspondence to the point of S2 maximum expectation and afterwards inverted in polarity towards the baseline. Brain source analysis of S1- and ISI-related ERP activity revealed activation of sensorial cortical areas and the supplementary motor area (SMA, respectively. In particular, since the SMA time course synchronised with standard ISI, we suggest that this area is the major cortical generator of the temporal CNV reflecting an automatic, action-independent mechanism underlying temporal expectancy.

  9. Automatic temporal expectancy: a high-density event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mento, Giovanni; Tarantino, Vincenza; Sarlo, Michela; Bisiacchi, Patrizia Silvia

    2013-01-01

    How we compute time is not fully understood. Questions include whether an automatic brain mechanism is engaged in temporally regular environmental structure in order to anticipate events, and whether this can be dissociated from task-related processes, including response preparation, selection and execution. To investigate these issues, a passive temporal oddball task requiring neither time-based motor response nor explicit decision was specifically designed and delivered to participants during high-density, event-related potentials recording. Participants were presented with pairs of audiovisual stimuli (S1 and S2) interspersed with an Inter-Stimulus Interval (ISI) that was manipulated according to an oddball probabilistic distribution. In the standard condition (70% of trials), the ISI lasted 1,500 ms, while in the two alternative, deviant conditions (15% each), it lasted 2,500 and 3,000 ms. The passive over-exposition to the standard ISI drove participants to automatically and progressively create an implicit temporal expectation of S2 onset, reflected by the time course of the Contingent Negative Variation response, which always peaked in correspondence to the point of S2 maximum expectation and afterwards inverted in polarity towards the baseline. Brain source analysis of S1- and ISI-related ERP activity revealed activation of sensorial cortical areas and the supplementary motor area (SMA), respectively. In particular, since the SMA time course synchronised with standard ISI, we suggest that this area is the major cortical generator of the temporal CNV reflecting an automatic, action-independent mechanism underlying temporal expectancy. PMID:23650537

  10. Pain-reduction strategies in hypnotic context and hypnosis: ERPs and SCRs during a secondary auditory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Bellusci, Anna; Gallo, Carlo; Magurano, Maria Rosaria; Chen, Andrew C N

    2004-10-01

    Pain-rating scores were obtained from 10 high, 10 medium, and 10 low hypnotizable subjects who were holding a painful cold bottle in their left hands and were exposed to pain reduction treatments while they were performing a secondary oddball task. All subjects received suggestions of dissociative imagery and focused analgesia as cognitive strategies for pain reduction. The following measures were obtained for tone targets of the auditory oddball task: (a) reaction time; (b) P300 peak amplitude of the event-related potentials; (c) skin conductance levels and skin conductance responses. Focused analgesia produced the most pain reduction in high, but not medium or low, hypnotizable subjects who showed shorter reaction times, higher central and parietal P300 peaks, and higher skin conductance responses. These findings were discussed vis-a-vis the dissociated-control model assuming that capacity demands of hypnotic suggestion are low. PMID:15590503

  11. Spectral vs. Temporal Auditory Processing in Specific Language Impairment: A Developmental ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceponiene, R.; Cummings, A.; Wulfeck, B.; Ballantyne, A.; Townsend, J.

    2009-01-01

    Pre-linguistic sensory deficits, especially in "temporal" processing, have been implicated in developmental language impairment (LI). However, recent evidence has been equivocal with data suggesting problems in the spectral domain. The present study examined event-related potential (ERP) measures of auditory sensory temporal and spectral…

  12. Klinefelter syndrome has increased brain responses to auditory stimuli and motor output, but not to visual stimuli or Stroop adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Skakkebæk, Anne; Bojesen, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    widespread dyslexia in the group. No neural differences were found in inhibitory control (Stroop) or in adaptation to differences in stimulus frequencies. Across groups we found a strong positive correlation between age and BOLD response in the brain’s motor network with no difference between groups. No...

  13. Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how auditory-motor learning influences performers' memory for music. Skilled pianists learned novel melodies in four conditions: auditory only (listening), motor only (performing without sound), strongly coupled auditory-motor (normal performance), and weakly coupled auditory-motor (performing along with auditory recordings). Pianists' recognition of the learned melodies was better following auditory-only or auditory-motor (weakly coupled and strongly coupled) learning than following motor-only learning, and better following strongly coupled auditory-motor learning than following auditory-only learning. Auditory and motor imagery abilities modulated the learning effects: Pianists with high auditory imagery scores had better recognition following motor-only learning, suggesting that auditory imagery compensated for missing auditory feedback at the learning stage. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 with melodies that contained greater variation in acoustic features. Melodies that were slower and less variable in tempo and intensity were remembered better following weakly coupled auditory-motor learning. These findings suggest that motor learning can aid performers' auditory recognition of music beyond auditory learning alone, and that motor learning is influenced by individual abilities in mental imagery and by variation in acoustic features. PMID:22271265

  14. Source reconstruction of the P300 event-related potential as a biomarker for the efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation in epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Staljanssens, Willeke; Strobbe, Gregor; De Taeye, Leen; Van Roost, Dirk; Vonck, Kristl; Raedt, Robrecht; Van Holen, Roel; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; van Mierlo, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    The working mechanism of VNS remains to be fully understood, making it impossible to predict a patient’s response to the treatment. In the present study, we explore whether EEG source reconstruction of the P300 event-related potential can provide information about the working mechanism and efficacy of VNS.

  15. Effects of explicit knowledge and predictability on auditory distraction and target performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, Caroline; Widmann, Andreas; Schröger, Erich; Sussman, Elyse

    2015-11-01

    This study tested effects of task requirements and knowledge on auditory distraction effects. This was done by comparing the response to a pitch change (an irrelevant, distracting tone feature) that occurred predictably in a tone sequence (every 5th tone) under different task conditions. The same regular sound sequence was presented with task conditions varying in what information the participant was given about the predictability of the pitch change, and when this information was relevant for the task to be performed. In all conditions, participants performed a tone duration judgment task. Behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) measures were obtained to measure distraction effects and deviance detection. Predictable deviants produced behavioral distraction effects in all conditions. However, the P3a amplitude evoked by the predictable pitch change was largest when participants were uninformed about the regular structure of the sound sequence, showing an effect of knowledge on involuntary orienting of attention. In contrast, the mismatch negativity (MMN) component was only modulated when the regularity was relevant for the task and not by stimulus predictability itself. P3a and behavioral indices of distraction were not fully concordant. Overall, our results show differential effects of knowledge and predictability on auditory distraction effects indexed by neurophysiological (P3a) and behavioral measures. PMID:26386396

  16. Auditory and motion metaphors have different scalp distributions: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Snoek, Gwenda L; Drew, Ashley R; Barile, Elizabeth C; Agauas, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    While many links have been established between sensory-motor words used literally (kick the ball) and sensory-motor regions of the brain, it is less clear whether metaphorically used words (kick the habit) also show such signs of "embodiment." Additionally, not much is known about the timing or nature of the connection between language and sensory-motor neural processing. We used stimuli divided into three figurativeness conditions-literal, metaphor, and anomalous-and two modality conditions-auditory (Her limousine was a privileged snort) and motion (The editorial was a brass-knuckle punch). The conditions were matched on a large number of potentially confounding factors including cloze probability. The electroencephalographic response to the final word of each sentence was measured at 64 electrode sites on the scalp of 22 participants and event-related potentials (ERPs) calculated. Analysis revealed greater amplitudes for metaphorical than literal sentences in both 350-500 ms and 500-650 ms timeframes. Results supported the possibility of different neural substrates for motion and auditory sentences. Greater differences for motion sentences were seen in the left posterior and left central electrode sites than elsewhere on the scalp. These findings are consistent with a sensory-motor neural categorization of language and with the integration of modal and amodal information during the N400 and P600 timeframes. PMID:25821433

  17. The amplitude and phase precision of 40 Hz auditory steady-state response depend on the level of arousal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griskova, Inga; Morup, Morten; Parnas, Josef; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Arnfred, Sidse M

    2007-01-01

    level of arousal, but the findings are somewhat controversial. Generally, ASSR is diminished in sleep but it may be increased in drowsiness. Besides, ASSR reduction has been observed in schizophrenia. However, schizophrenic patients are known to have a disturbance of arousal level, what makes it...... pertinent to know the effects of fluctuations in arousal on passive response to gamma-range stimulation. In nine healthy volunteers trains of 40 Hz click stimuli were applied during two conditions: in the "high arousal" condition subjects were sitting upright silently reading a book of interest; in the "low...

  18. Event-related potentials during discourse-level semantic integration of complex pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, W Caroline; Holcomb, Phillip J

    2002-05-01

    This study examined event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited in response to semantic processing of non-verbal stories. ERPs were recorded from 29 scalp electrodes on 16 participants while they viewed series of complex gray-scale pictures, each of which relayed a simple story. The final picture of each story was either congruous or incongruous with the preceding context. Participants made delayed meaningfulness judgments for each story. Averaged ERPs time-locked to the onset of the final picture were more negative for incongruous than congruous pictures. Two distinct components were sensitive to congruency. The first component peaked at approximately 325 ms (N300) and was distributed over central and frontal sites. The second component peaked at approximately 500 ms and also had a centro-frontal maximum but was more widespread than the earlier component (anterior N400). The distinct scalp topographies of these two negativities provide strong evidence that the N300 and N400 are separate and distinguishable components. Furthermore, the presence of the N300 in this exclusively pictorial task suggests that the N300 is specific to the semantic processing of non-verbal stimuli and is not due to linguistic mediation. This study also revealed that the N400 can be modulated by discourse-level coherence manipulations with pictures. Finally, the different patterns of ERP effects observed during the semantic processing of verbal and non-verbal information suggest that non-identical neuronal sources, and thus non-identical representational systems, are accessed by these different types of materials. These findings strongly support at least partial modularity of semantic representations and processing mechanisms in the human brain. PMID:11919001

  19. Who Are the True Fans? Evidence from an Event-Related Potential Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingguo Ma

    Full Text Available Fans of celebrities commonly exist in modern society. Researchers from social science have been concerned with this problem for years. Furthermore, such researchers have attempted to measure people's involvement with celebrities in various ways. However, no study measured the degree of addiction to a specific celebrity at the neurological level. Therefore, the current study employed visually evoked event related potentials (ERPs to examine people's attitude toward celebrities by comparing different brain activities of fans and non-fans when they were shown a set of photos. These photos include a specific celebrity, a familiar person, a stranger and a butterfly. Furthermore, to examine the validity of the detected neural index, we also investigated the correlation between brain activity and the score of the Celebrity Attitude Scale (CAS, which was a questionnaire used to explore people's attitude toward celebrities at behavioral level. Two groups of subjects were asked to complete an implicit task, i.e., to press a button when a picture of a butterfly appeared. Results revealed that fans showed significant positive N2 and P300 deflection when viewing the photos of their favorite celebrity, whereas in the non-fan group, the subjects only showed larger P300 amplitude as a response to the celebrity's photos. Furthermore, a positive correlation between P300 amplitude elicited by the stimuli of a celebrity face and CAS scores was also observed. These findings indicated fan attitude to a specific celebrity can also be observed at the neurological level and suggested the potential utility of using ERP component as an index of fandom involvement.

  20. Relationship between perceptual and semantic levels of representation: An event-related potential study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG YunHong; GUO ChunYan

    2008-01-01

    An event-related potential study was conducted to make clear the relationships between perceptual and semantic levels of representation. Subjects judged the semantic relationship between a picture sample and a word match using the delayed match-to-sample paradigm. The experiment includes three types of matching trials, i.e., identical match trials, where the words had the same meanings as the pictures, categorical match trials where the words matched the pictures in category, and non-match trials where the words matched neither in identification nor in category with the pictures. The three conditions evoke significantly different N400-1ike and P300 ERP components. Specifically, for the N400-like negative responses, the averaged amplitude of the non-match condition is the largest and the most negative-going, that of the categorical match condition is less negative-going, and that of the identical match condition is the smallest among all three conditions. In addition, only the identical match condition evokes an early P300 component. As for the late P300 component, the averaged amplitude of the categorical match condition is more robust in the frontal brain areas. In contrast, ERPs of the non-match condition are stronger in the posterior brain areas. From 250 to 450 ms, the difference waves between the identical match and non-match conditions are located in the central areas, and the difference waves between categorical match and non-match conditions occur in the right frontal areas.Our results suggest that cross-form picture-word identical matching and categorical matching involve different underlying mechanisms. The existence of the early P300 component evokes by the identical match condition provides support for theories of template matching and facilitation model.

  1. Event-related rTMS at encoding affects differently deep and shallow memory traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Iglis; Giovannelli, Fabio; Cincotta, Massimo; Feurra, Matteo; Polizzotto, Nicola R; Bianco, Giovanni; Cappa, Stefano F; Rossi, Simone

    2010-10-15

    The "level of processing" effect is a classical finding of the experimental psychology of memory. Actually, the depth of information processing at encoding predicts the accuracy of the subsequent episodic memory performance. When the incoming stimuli are analyzed in terms of their meaning (semantic, or deep, encoding), the memory performance is superior with respect to the case in which the same stimuli are analyzed in terms of their perceptual features (shallow encoding). As suggested by previous neuroimaging studies and by some preliminary findings with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), the left prefrontal cortex may play a role in semantic processing requiring the allocation of working memory resources. However, it still remains unclear whether deep and shallow encoding share or not the same cortical networks, as well as how these networks contribute to the "level of processing" effect. To investigate the brain areas casually involved in this phenomenon, we applied event-related repetitive TMS (rTMS) during deep (semantic) and shallow (perceptual) encoding of words. Retrieval was subsequently tested without rTMS interference. RTMS applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) abolished the beneficial effect of deep encoding on memory performance, both in terms of accuracy (decrease) and reaction times (increase). Neither accuracy nor reaction times were instead affected by rTMS to the right DLPFC or to an additional control site excluded by the memory process (vertex). The fact that online measures of semantic processing at encoding were unaffected suggests that the detrimental effect on memory performance for semantically encoded items took place in the subsequent consolidation phase. These results highlight the specific causal role of the left DLPFC among the wide left-lateralized cortical network engaged by long-term memory, suggesting that it probably represents a crucial node responsible for the improved memory performance induced by

  2. Fluid Intelligence and Automatic Neural Processes in Facial Expression Perception: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongran Liu

    Full Text Available The relationship between human fluid intelligence and social-emotional abilities has been a topic of considerable interest. The current study investigated whether adolescents with different intellectual levels had different automatic neural processing of facial expressions. Two groups of adolescent males were enrolled: a high IQ group and an average IQ group. Age and parental socioeconomic status were matched between the two groups. Participants counted the numbers of the central cross changes while paired facial expressions were presented bilaterally in an oddball paradigm. There were two experimental conditions: a happy condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8 and happy expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2, and a fearful condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8 and fearful expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2. Participants were required to concentrate on the primary task of counting the central cross changes and to ignore the expressions to ensure that facial expression processing was automatic. Event-related potentials (ERPs were obtained during the tasks. The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN components were analyzed to index the automatic neural processing of facial expressions. For the early vMMN (50-130 ms, the high IQ group showed more negative vMMN amplitudes than the average IQ group in the happy condition. For the late vMMN (320-450 ms, the high IQ group had greater vMMN responses than the average IQ group over frontal and occipito-temporal areas in the fearful condition, and the average IQ group evoked larger vMMN amplitudes than the high IQ group over occipito-temporal areas in the happy condition. The present study elucidated the close relationships between fluid intelligence and pre-attentive change detection on social-emotional information.

  3. Fluid Intelligence and Automatic Neural Processes in Facial Expression Perception: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongran; Xiao, Tong; Li, Xiaoyan; Shi, Jiannong

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between human fluid intelligence and social-emotional abilities has been a topic of considerable interest. The current study investigated whether adolescents with different intellectual levels had different automatic neural processing of facial expressions. Two groups of adolescent males were enrolled: a high IQ group and an average IQ group. Age and parental socioeconomic status were matched between the two groups. Participants counted the numbers of the central cross changes while paired facial expressions were presented bilaterally in an oddball paradigm. There were two experimental conditions: a happy condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8) and happy expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2), and a fearful condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8) and fearful expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2). Participants were required to concentrate on the primary task of counting the central cross changes and to ignore the expressions to ensure that facial expression processing was automatic. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were obtained during the tasks. The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) components were analyzed to index the automatic neural processing of facial expressions. For the early vMMN (50-130 ms), the high IQ group showed more negative vMMN amplitudes than the average IQ group in the happy condition. For the late vMMN (320-450 ms), the high IQ group had greater vMMN responses than the average IQ group over frontal and occipito-temporal areas in the fearful condition, and the average IQ group evoked larger vMMN amplitudes than the high IQ group over occipito-temporal areas in the happy condition. The present study elucidated the close relationships between fluid intelligence and pre-attentive change detection on social-emotional information. PMID:26375031

  4. The modulating effect of personality traits on neural error monitoring: evidence from event-related FMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinka Sosic-Vasic

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the association between traits of the Five Factor Model of Personality (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness for Experiences, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness and neural correlates of error monitoring obtained from a combined Eriksen-Flanker-Go/NoGo task during event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging in 27 healthy subjects. Individual expressions of personality traits were measured using the NEO-PI-R questionnaire. Conscientiousness correlated positively with error signaling in the left inferior frontal gyrus and adjacent anterior insula (IFG/aI. A second strong positive correlation was observed in the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC. Neuroticism was negatively correlated with error signaling in the inferior frontal cortex possibly reflecting the negative inter-correlation between both scales observed on the behavioral level. Under present statistical thresholds no significant results were obtained for remaining scales. Aligning the personality trait of Conscientiousness with task accomplishment striving behavior the correlation in the left IFG/aI possibly reflects an inter-individually different involvement whenever task-set related memory representations are violated by the occurrence of errors. The strong correlations in the ACC may indicate that more conscientious subjects were stronger affected by these violations of a given task-set expressed by individually different, negatively valenced signals conveyed by the ACC upon occurrence of an error. Present results illustrate that for predicting individual responses to errors underlying personality traits should be taken into account and also lend external validity to the personality trait approach suggesting that personality constructs do reflect more than mere descriptive taxonomies.

  5. Does cigarette smoking relieve stress? Evidence from the event-related potential (ERP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Damee; Ota, Shotaro; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have reported a paradox that cigarette smoking reduces stress psychologically; however, it increases the arousal level physiologically. To examine this issue, our study aimed to investigate whether cigarette smoking relieves stress by measuring the late positive potential (LPP), a component of the event-related potential (ERP). In Experiment 1, participants first watched emotionally neutral images; second, they received a break; and finally, they watched emotionally neutral images again. In the break, they smoked a cigarette (smoking condition) or simply rested without smoking (non-smoking condition). The procedure of Experiment 2 was the same as that of Experiment 1, except that the participants watched unpleasant images as stress stimuli before the break. In Experiment 1, the LPP decreased from before to after the break in the smoking condition, but not in the non-smoking condition, suggesting that smoking cigarettes in the neutral state reduces the arousal level. In Experiment 2, the LPP for 400-600 ms decreased from before to after the break, both in the smoking and non-smoking conditions; however, the LPP for 200-400 ms decreased from before to after the break only in the smoking condition. This suggests the possibility that cigarette smoking in the unpleasant state may facilitate a decrease in the arousal level faster than with non-smoking. In both Experiments 1 and 2, the subjective rating results also suggested that cigarette smoking decreased anxiety. Taken together, both the physiological (LPP) and the psychological responses from our study suggest that cigarette smoking perhaps relieves stress. PMID:26497442

  6. Prognostic value of evoked and event-related potentials in moderate to severe brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Henry L; Poole, John H; Castaneda, Annabel; Salerno, Rose Marie; Gray, Max

    2006-01-01

    Clinicians are often expected to project patients' clinical outcomes to allow effective planning for future care. This can be a challenge in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) who are often unable to participate reliably in clinical evaluations. With recent advances in computer instrumentation and signal processing, evoked potentials and event-related potentials show increasing promise as powerful tools for prognosticating the trajectory of recovery and ultimate outcome from the TBI. Short- and middle-latency evoked potentials can now effectively predict coma outcomes in patients with acute TBI. Long-latency event-related potential components hold promise in predicting recovery of higher order cognitive abilities. PMID:16915010

  7. Auditory Integration Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jafari

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Auditory integration training (AIT is a hearing enhancement training process for sensory input anomalies found in individuals with autism, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, dyslexia, hyperactivity, learning disability, language impairments, pervasive developmental disorder, central auditory processing disorder, attention deficit disorder, depressin, and hyperacute hearing. AIT, recently introduced in the United States, and has received much notice of late following the release of The Sound of a Moracle, by Annabel Stehli. In her book, Mrs. Stehli describes before and after auditory integration training experiences with her daughter, who was diagnosed at age four as having autism.

  8. Impact of totally and partially predictive alert in distracted and undistracted subjects: An event related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Alexandra; Collette, Boris; Bueno, Mercedes; Deleurence, Philippe; Bonnard, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Rear-end collisions represent about 30% of all car crashes and generate a significant economic cost for society. Driver inattention has been identified as the most important contributing factor in rear-end collisions. One possible countermeasure is the use of systems that warn drivers of potential collisions. Nevertheless, because of technical constraints, the conception of perfect warning systems is difficult to achieve and technical literature shows that these kinds of systems can be prone to false alerts or misses. The main objective of this study is to assess the impact of such a warning system on the processing of a relevant driving visual cue while taking into account the reliability of the system and the attentional state of the participants. For this, we designed a laboratory experiment during which we recorded behavioral data and brain activity (event related potential, ERP) following the detection of a visual target. Three warning conditions were designed: (1) no alert was presented before the visual target; (2) an auditory alert was presented before each target; (3) an alert was presented before the target in 70% of the trials (15% only had the alert without the target, and 15% only had the target without the alert). In addition, participants had to perform this visual detection task either alone (simple task) or with a concurrent problem-solving task (dual task). Behavioral and electrophysiological data contribute to revealing (1) that there is a behavioral gain induced by the alert and (2) that this gain is at least linked with a time-saving aspect at both the sensory and cognitive stages of neural information processing. Nevertheless, this impact depends on the attentional states of the participant and on the reliability of the alert. PMID:22742776

  9. Functionally integrated neural processing of linguistic and talker information: An event-related fMRI and ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caicai; Pugh, Kenneth R; Mencl, W Einar; Molfese, Peter J; Frost, Stephen J; Magnuson, James S; Peng, Gang; Wang, William S-Y

    2016-01-01

    Speech signals contain information of both linguistic content and a talker's voice. Conventionally, linguistic and talker processing are thought to be mediated by distinct neural systems in the left and right hemispheres respectively, but there is growing evidence that linguistic and talker processing interact in many ways. Previous studies suggest that talker-related vocal tract changes are processed integrally with phonetic changes in the bilateral posterior superior temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus (STG/STS), because the vocal tract parameter influences the perception of phonetic information. It is yet unclear whether the bilateral STG is also activated by the integral processing of another parameter - pitch, which influences the perception of lexical tone information and is related to talker differences in tone languages. In this study, we conducted separate functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potential (ERP) experiments to examine the spatial and temporal loci of interactions of lexical tone and talker-related pitch processing in Cantonese. We found that the STG was activated bilaterally during the processing of talker changes when listeners attended to lexical tone changes in the stimuli and during the processing of lexical tone changes when listeners attended to talker changes, suggesting that lexical tone and talker processing are functionally integrated in the bilateral STG. It extends the previous study, providing evidence for a general neural mechanism of integral phonetic and talker processing in the bilateral STG. The ERP results show interactions of lexical tone and talker processing 500-800ms after auditory word onset (a simultaneous posterior P3b and a frontal negativity). Moreover, there is some asymmetry in the interaction, such that unattended talker changes affect linguistic processing more than vice versa, which may be related to the ambiguity that talker changes cause in speech perception and/or attention bias

  10. Vegetative versus minimally conscious states: a study using TMS-EEG, sensory and event-related potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Ragazzoni

    Full Text Available Differential diagnoses between vegetative and minimally conscious states (VS and MCS, respectively are frequently incorrect. Hence, further research is necessary to improve the diagnostic accuracy at the bedside. The main neuropathological feature of VS is the diffuse damage of cortical and subcortical connections. Starting with this premise, we used electroencephalography (EEG recordings to evaluate the cortical reactivity and effective connectivity during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS in chronic VS or MCS patients. Moreover, the TMS-EEG data were compared with the results from standard somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs and event-related potentials (ERPs. Thirteen patients with chronic consciousness disorders were examined at their bedsides. A group of healthy volunteers served as the control group. The amplitudes (reactivity and scalp distributions (connectivity of the cortical potentials evoked by TMS (TEPs of the primary motor cortex were measured. Short-latency median nerve SEPs and auditory ERPs were also recorded. Reproducible TEPs were present in all control subjects in both the ipsilateral and the contralateral hemispheres relative to the site of the TMS. The amplitudes of the ipsilateral and contralateral TEPs were reduced in four of the five MCS patients, and the TEPs were bilaterally absent in one MCS patient. Among the VS patients, five did not manifest ipsilateral or contralateral TEPs, and three of the patients exhibited only ipsilateral TEPs with reduced amplitudes. The SEPs were altered in five VS and two MCS patients but did not correlate with the clinical diagnosis. The ERPs were impaired in all patients and did not correlate with the clinical diagnosis. These TEP results suggest that cortical reactivity and connectivity are severely impaired in all VS patients, whereas in most MCS patients, the TEPs are preserved but with abnormal features. Therefore, TEPs may add valuable information to the current clinical and

  11. Vegetative versus minimally conscious states: a study using TMS-EEG, sensory and event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzoni, Aldo; Pirulli, Cornelia; Veniero, Domenica; Feurra, Matteo; Cincotta, Massimo; Giovannelli, Fabio; Chiaramonti, Roberta; Lino, Mario; Rossi, Simone; Miniussi, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses between vegetative and minimally conscious states (VS and MCS, respectively) are frequently incorrect. Hence, further research is necessary to improve the diagnostic accuracy at the bedside. The main neuropathological feature of VS is the diffuse damage of cortical and subcortical connections. Starting with this premise, we used electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to evaluate the cortical reactivity and effective connectivity during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in chronic VS or MCS patients. Moreover, the TMS-EEG data were compared with the results from standard somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) and event-related potentials (ERPs). Thirteen patients with chronic consciousness disorders were examined at their bedsides. A group of healthy volunteers served as the control group. The amplitudes (reactivity) and scalp distributions (connectivity) of the cortical potentials evoked by TMS (TEPs) of the primary motor cortex were measured. Short-latency median nerve SEPs and auditory ERPs were also recorded. Reproducible TEPs were present in all control subjects in both the ipsilateral and the contralateral hemispheres relative to the site of the TMS. The amplitudes of the ipsilateral and contralateral TEPs were reduced in four of the five MCS patients, and the TEPs were bilaterally absent in one MCS patient. Among the VS patients, five did not manifest ipsilateral or contralateral TEPs, and three of the patients exhibited only ipsilateral TEPs with reduced amplitudes. The SEPs were altered in five VS and two MCS patients but did not correlate with the clinical diagnosis. The ERPs were impaired in all patients and did not correlate with the clinical diagnosis. These TEP results suggest that cortical reactivity and connectivity are severely impaired in all VS patients, whereas in most MCS patients, the TEPs are preserved but with abnormal features. Therefore, TEPs may add valuable information to the current clinical and

  12. Dynamics of Distraction: Competition among Auditory Streams Modulates Gain and Disrupts Inter-Trial Phase Coherence in the Human Electroencephalogram

    OpenAIRE

    Ponjavic-Conte, Karla D.; Hambrook, Dillon A.; Pavlovic, Sebastian; Tata, Matthew S.

    2013-01-01

    Auditory distraction is a failure to maintain focus on a stream of sounds. We investigated the neural correlates of distraction in a selective-listening pitch-discrimination task with high (competing speech) or low (white noise) distraction. High-distraction impaired performance and reduced the N1 peak of the auditory Event-Related Potential evoked by probe tones. In a series of simulations, we explored two theories to account for this effect: disruption of sensory gain or a disruption of int...

  13. P300 component in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder type I, bipolar disorder type II and healthy controls: a preliminary event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, Francesco S; Minichino, Amedeo; Fattapposta, Francesco; Mannarelli, Daniela; Pauletti, Caterina; Imperatori, Claudio; Spagnoli, Francesco; Biondi, Massimo; Delle Chiaie, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate P300 event-related potential components in euthymic bipolar disorder type I (BDI) and bipolar disorder type II (BDII) patients and matched controls. A total of 10 BDI patients, 10 BDII patients and 10 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Event-related potential data were collected according to a standard auditory 'oddball' paradigm. A significant groups effect in both the peak amplitude (P<0.001) and the mean amplitude (P<0.001) was observed; post-hoc comparisons showed that the peak and mean amplitudes of BDI and BDII patients were significantly lower than the peak and mean amplitudes of the healthy controls. The neurophysiological patterns found in the present study might at least partially reflect the presence of a mild selective cognitive impairment in euthymic BDI and BDII patients. From a clinical point of view, these evidences support the potential role of cognitive interventions in the treatment of BD. PMID:25674905

  14. Influence of an antivertiginous combination preparation of cinnarizine and dimenhydrinate on event-related potentials, reaction time and psychomotor performance--a randomized, double-blind, 3-way crossover study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipova, D; Tzenova, B; Iwanowitsch, A; Bognar-Steinberg, I

    2004-04-01

    In the present comparative, double-blind, 3-way crossover study, possible effects of an antivertiginous combination preparation on event-related potentials (ERPs) and performance were investigated. Twenty-one healthy volunteers received 4 doses (within 24 h) of a fixed combination of cinnarizine 20 mg and dimenhydrinate 40 mg (Arlevert, ARL), dimenhydrinate 50 mg, or a placebo, in randomized order at 1-week intervals. Auditory event-related potentials (ERPs), reaction time (RT) and psychometric tests were assessed before as well as 60 and 150 minutes after the intake of the 1st (Day 1) and the 4th (Day 2) dose of study medication. The evaluation was primarily based on the difference in the outcomes measured 150 min after the 4th dose (t5) and those before the start of medication intake (t0). None of the medications affected the latency and amplitude of the sensory ERP component N100, neither under passive listening nor under discrimination task conditions. The latency of P300 in response to the rare target tones (oddball paradigm and binary series), showed significant (p < 0.05) delays after 4 doses of dimenhydrinate (18-24 ms), and no significant differences between ARL (3-17 ms) and either dimenhydrinate or placebo (4-13 ms). Responses to nontarget tones remained almost unaffected after medication intake. The secondary analysis of the P300 amplitude showed the greatest decreases under DH in both active series, with no significant differences between ARL and either DH or placebo. The 3 medications did not significantly prolong RT nor did they impair the performance of psychometric tests, or cause significant shifts of current mood. The combination preparation ARL showed the lowest rate of adverse events (n = 1), followed by dimenhydrinate (n = 3) and placebo (n = 6). Two subjects withdrew because of adverse events, both after the intake of placebo. In conclusion, the results gave no evidence for an impairment of central information processing and psychomotor

  15. THE EFFECTS OF SALICYLATE ON AUDITORY EVOKED POTENTIAL AMPLITWDE FROM THE AUDITORY CORTEX AND AUDITORY BRAINSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian Sawka; SUN Wei

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus has often been studied using salicylate in animal models as they are capable of inducing tempo-rary hearing loss and tinnitus. Studies have recently observed enhancement of auditory evoked responses of the auditory cortex (AC) post salicylate treatment which is also shown to be related to tinnitus like behavior in rats. The aim of this study was to observe if enhancements of the AC post salicylate treatment are also present at structures in the brainstem. Four male Sprague Dawley rats with AC implanted electrodes were tested for both AC and auditory brainstem response (ABR) recordings pre and post 250 mg/kg intraperitone-al injections of salicylate. The responses were recorded as the peak to trough amplitudes of P1-N1 (AC), ABR wave V, and ABR waveⅡ. AC responses resulted in statistically significant enhancement of ampli-tude at 2 hours post salicylate with 90 dB stimuli tone bursts of 4, 8, 12, and 20 kHz. Wave V of ABR re-sponses at 90 dB resulted in a statistically significant reduction of amplitude 2 hours post salicylate and a mean decrease of amplitude of 31%for 16 kHz. WaveⅡamplitudes at 2 hours post treatment were signifi-cantly reduced for 4, 12, and 20 kHz stimuli at 90 dB SPL. Our results suggest that the enhancement chang-es of the AC related to salicylate induced tinnitus are generated superior to the level of the inferior colliculus and may originate in the AC.

  16. Functional definition of the N450 event-related brain potential marker of conflict processing: a numerical stroop study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szűcs Dénes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several conflict processing studies aimed to dissociate neuroimaging phenomena related to stimulus and response conflict processing. However, previous studies typically did not include a paradigm-independent measure of either stimulus or response conflict. Here we have combined electro-myography (EMG with event-related brain potentials (ERPs in order to determine whether a particularly robust marker of conflict processing, the N450 ERP effect usually related to the activity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC, is related to stimulus- or to response-conflict processing. EMG provided paradigm-independent measure of response conflict. In a numerical Stroop paradigm participants compared pairs of digits and pressed a button on the side where they saw the larger digit. 50% of digit-pairs were preceded by an effective cue which provided accurate information about the required response. 50% of trials were preceded by a neutral cue which did not communicate the side of response. Results EMG showed that response conflict was significantly larger in neutrally than in effectively cued trials. The N450 was similar when response conflict was high and when it was low. Conclusions We conclude that the N450 is related to stimulus or abstract, rather than to response conflict detection/resolution. Findings may enable timing ACC conflict effects.

  17. Localization of the event-related potential novelty response as defined by principal components analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dien, Joseph; Spencer, Kevin M; Donchin, Emanuel

    2003-10-01

    Recent research indicates that novel stimuli elicit at least two distinct components, the Novelty P3 and the P300. The P300 is thought to be elicited when a context updating mechanism is activated by a wide class of deviant events. The functional significance of the Novelty P3 is uncertain. Identification of the generator sources of the two components could provide additional information about their functional significance. Previous localization efforts have yielded conflicting results. The present report demonstrates that the use of principal components analysis (PCA) results in better convergence with knowledge about functional neuroanatomy than did previous localization efforts. The results are also more convincing than that obtained by two alternative methods, MUSIC-RAP and the Minimum Norm. Source modeling on 129-channel data with BESA and BrainVoyager suggests the P300 has sources in the temporal-parietal junction whereas the Novelty P3 has sources in the anterior cingulate. PMID:14561451

  18. Error processing and response inhibition in excessive computer game players: an event-related potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Littel, M.; Berg, I. van den; Luijten, M.; Rooij, A.J. van; Keemink, L.; Franken, I.H.A.

    2012-01-01

    Excessive computer gaming has recently been proposed as a possible pathological illness. However, research on this topic is still in its infancy and underlying neurobiological mechanisms have not yet been identified. The determination of underlying mechanisms of excessive gaming might be useful for

  19. Alterations in event-related potential responses to empathy for pain in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Liencres, Cristina; Brown, Elliot C; Tas, Cumhur; Breidenstein, Anja; Brüne, Martin

    2016-07-30

    Lack of empathy is a critical factor impacting on social functioning and quality of life in schizophrenia. There is, however, a paucity of research into the underlying neurophysiological correlates of empathy deficits in this disorder. Accordingly, we sought: (1) to identify whether dysfunctional empathic abilities in schizophrenia are related to alterations in early or late brain processes, and (2) to explore the potential relationship between brain activity and mood, self-reported empathy and symptom severity. Eighteen patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy matched controls performed an empathy-for-pain paradigm where photographs of hands in neutral or painful situations were shown while we recorded their electroencephalography (EEG), and we examined mood, empathic concern for others and symptom severity. Significant group differences between patients and controls emerged in early (50-150ms after stimulus onset) and late (after 300ms) timeframes. Moreover, brain activity was related with unpleasantness ratings in all participants, with self-reported empathic concern only in controls and with negative mood and personal distress only in patients. Differences in social behavior in schizophrenia may be explained by early as well as late differences, affecting mostly the early frontocentral ERPs, i.e. those suggested to correspond to the emotional sharing component of empathy. PMID:27152905

  20. How Children Process Over-Regularizations: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clahsen, Harald; Luck, Monika; Hahne, Anja

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the mental processes involved in children's on-line recognition of inflected word forms using event-related potentials (ERPs). Sixty children in three age groups (20 six- to seven-year-olds, 20 eight- to nine-year-olds, 20 eleven- to twelve-year-olds) and 23 adults (tested in a previous study) listened to sentences containing…