WorldWideScience

Sample records for audience outdoor obesity-related

  1. A cross-sectional prevalence study of ethnically targeted and general audience outdoor obesity-related advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, Antronette K; Cole, Brian L; Brown, Rochelle; Williams, Jerome D; Hillier, Amy; Kline, Randolph S; Ashe, Marice; Grier, Sonya A; Backman, Desiree; McCarthy, William J

    2009-03-01

    Commercial marketing is a critical but understudied element of the sociocultural environment influencing Americans' food and beverage preferences and purchases. This marketing also likely influences the utilization of goods and services related to physical activity and sedentary behavior. A growing literature documents the targeting of racial/ethnic and income groups in commercial advertisements in magazines, on billboards, and on television that may contribute to sociodemographic disparities in obesity and chronic disease risk and protective behaviors. This article examines whether African Americans, Latinos, and people living in low-income neighborhoods are disproportionately exposed to advertisements for high-calorie, low nutrient-dense foods and beverages and for sedentary entertainment and transportation and are relatively underexposed to advertising for nutritious foods and beverages and goods and services promoting physical activities. Outdoor advertising density and content were compared in zip code areas selected to offer contrasts by area income and ethnicity in four cities: Los Angeles, Austin, New York City, and Philadelphia. Large variations were observed in the amount, type, and value of advertising in the selected zip code areas. Living in an upper-income neighborhood, regardless of its residents' predominant ethnicity, is generally protective against exposure to most types of obesity-promoting outdoor advertising (food, fast food, sugary beverages, sedentary entertainment, and transportation). The density of advertising varied by zip code area race/ethnicity, with African American zip code areas having the highest advertising densities, Latino zip code areas having slightly lower densities, and white zip code areas having the lowest densities. The potential health and economic implications of differential exposure to obesity-related advertising are substantial. Although substantive legal questions remain about the government's ability to regulate

  2. Audience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Kim Christian; Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby

    2018-01-01

    discusses the concept audience in relation to a number of competing theoretical concepts such as ‘publics’, ‘users’, and ‘participants’. The second part outlines the historical development of audience research through three consecutive and now co-existing paradigms: the behavioural paradigm, the reception......The entry defines audiences in a digital, mediatized society as the people who, in their capacity of social actors, are attending to, negotiating the meaning of, and sometimes participating in the multimodal processes initiated or carried by institutional media. The first part of the entry...... paradigm, and the participation paradigm. The third part discusses the ways in which the audience perspective has been handled in the field of strategic communication, noting for instance how the concept of stakeholders has developed as an alternative to, or refinement of, the traditional understanding...

  3. Outdoor Education for Bereaved Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Hans-Georg

    2011-01-01

    For many outdoor education providers, bereaved children and young people at first appear to be a new target audience. A new target audience naturally raises questions of programme planning and can give the provider a pressurised need to succeed: "Do I as the organiser have to develop a whole new programme?", "May I be required to provide some form…

  4. Mobile Phones and Outdoor Advertising: Measurable Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Quercia, Daniele; Di Lorenzo, Giusy; Calabrese, Francesco; Ratti, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Television and newspapers sit at the top of many agency marketing plans, while outdoor advertising stays at the bottom. The reason for this is that it’s difficult to account for who views a billboard, so there is no way of consistently determining the effectiveness of outdoor advertising. As a result, agencies do not consider the medium and allocate their money elsewhere. To change this situation, one needs to create new credible audience measurements for the outdoor marketing industry. He...

  5. Perception of Virtual Audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, Mathieu; Scherer, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that virtual audiences are a valuable tool in the treatment of social anxiety, and recent works show that it also a useful in public-speaking training programs. However, little research has focused on how such audiences are perceived and on how the behavior of virtual audiences can be manipulated to create various types of stimuli. The authors used a crowdsourcing methodology to create a virtual audience nonverbal behavior model and, with it, created a dataset of videos with virtual audiences containing varying behaviors. Using this dataset, they investigated how virtual audiences are perceived and which factors affect this perception.

  6. Obesity-Related Diseases Dietary Modulation of the Gut Microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahe, Lena Kirchner

    strategies to reduce obesity-related morbidity and mortality are essential. It has been hypothesized that the microbes in the human gut are involved in the development of obesity-related diseases and that intake of nutrients affecting the gut microbial community in specific ways, can be a new strategy...

  7. Who Is Audience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeching, Angela M.

    2016-01-01

    Music conservatoires have generally neglected focusing on a key issue: that of audiences--their needs and wants, why they value particular music, and how music actually functions in any particular community. Yet audience is typically a musician's first contact with the "real world"; understanding audience (one's market or customers) is…

  8. Outdoor Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Valynda

    2010-01-01

    An outdoor classroom is the ideal vehicle for community involvement: Parents, native plant societies, 4-H, garden clubs, and master naturalists are all resources waiting to be tapped, as are local businesses offering support. If you enlist your community in the development and maintenance of your outdoor classroom, the entire community will…

  9. Pediatric Obesity-Related Asthma: The Role of Metabolic Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakanthi, Nandini; Greally, John M; Rastogi, Deepa

    2016-05-01

    The burden of obesity-related asthma among children, particularly among ethnic minorities, necessitates an improved understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms. Although obesity is an independent risk factor for asthma, not all obese children develop asthma. Several recent studies have elucidated mechanisms, including the role of diet, sedentary lifestyle, mechanical fat load, and adiposity-mediated inflammation that may underlie the obese asthma pathophysiology. Here, we review these recent studies and emerging scientific evidence that suggest metabolic dysregulation may play a role in pediatric obesity-related asthma. We also review the genetic and epigenetic factors that may underlie susceptibility to metabolic dysregulation and associated pulmonary morbidity among children. Lastly, we identify knowledge gaps that need further exploration to better define pathways that will allow development of primary preventive strategies for obesity-related asthma in children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Perelman's Universal Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, John W.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the concept of the universal audience as the basic factor of Chaim Perelman's rhetorical theory and concludes that it is subject to the same criticism as Rousseau's general will and Kant's categorical imperative. (JMF)

  11. Belief in Food Addiction and Obesity-Related Policy Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examines whether belief in the food addiction construct is associated with support for obesity-related policies (e.g., restrictions on foods served in schools and workplace cafeterias, subsidies on fruits and vegetables), while simultaneously examining other factors associated with policy support (e.g., political party affiliation). Design Cross-sectional. Setting Online Community. Participants 200 individuals were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Measurements Participants (n = 193) responded to three questions about belief in food addiction and a measure evaluating support for 13 obesity-related policy initiatives. Individuals also completed the modified Yale Food Addiction Scale (mYFAS), self-reported height and weight, and provided demographic information (age, gender, race, political party affiliation). Results Belief in food addiction was significantly associated with greater support for obesity-related initiatives, even when accounting for the significant associations of age, gender, and political party. Belief in food addiction and political party both had moderate effect sizes for predicting support for obesity-related policy. There was an interaction between age and belief in food addiction, with significant associations with policy support for both younger and older individuals, though the effect was larger for younger participants. Conclusion The current study provides evidence that belief in food addiction is associated with increased obesity-related policy support, comparable to the influence of one’s political party. Growing evidence for the role of an addictive process in obesity may have important implications for public support of obesity-related policy initiatives. PMID:26808427

  12. Audience Activity and Media Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan M.

    1993-01-01

    Explores a view of audience behavior that lies between the extremes of a passive audience expected to be influenced by communication messages and an active audience expected to make rational decisions about what media content to accept and reject. (RS)

  13. Outdoor recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Bowker; Ashley Askew; H. Ken Cordell; John C. Bergstrom

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsBy 2060, the number of southern adults participating in each of 10 different popular outdoor recreation activities is projected to increase. Depending on future demographic, economic, land use, and population changes, the activity demonstrating the least growth in participants is hunting (8–25 percent). The activity projected to...

  14. Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Obesity-Related Glomerulopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jinhua; Yan, Haidong; Zhuang, Shougang

    2012-01-01

    Obesity-related glomerulopathy is an increasing cause of end-stage renal disease. Obesity has been considered a state of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and chronic oxidative stress. Augmented inflammation in adipose and kidney tissues promotes the progression of kidney damage in obesity. Adipose tissue, which is accumulated in obesity, is a key endocrine organ that produces multiple biologically active molecules, including leptin, adiponectin, resistin, that affect inflammation, and ...

  15. Towards Broadening the Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakimoto, P. J.

    2008-06-01

    The strand Towards Broadening the Audience was intended to seed thoughtful conversations about building bridges for outreach programs across cultural barriers. Many participants spoke about progress in increasing the diversity of their outreach audiences, but it was new voices from time-honored sources that offered fundamentally new wisdom. From the religious traditions and tensions that mark the Holy Land came the simple concept of bringing unity through teaching the commonalities found in basic concepts of the observed sky. From Mayan traditions, both contemporary and ancient, came the reminder that the sky is intimately connected to all aspects of our lives. Astronomy outreach should therefore be a part of much larger family and community celebrations. Ideas such as these offer renewed hope for major advances in bringing space science outreach to much broader audiences. They tell us about the importance of learning from voices with perspectives different from our own, and of building partnerships based upon genuine cross-cultural understanding and mutual love of the sky.

  16. In search of an audience...

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractFor an academic, finding an audience is critical. However, finding an audience is not always easy for most marketing academics. This inaugural address explores what the challenges are in finding an audience, among fellow scholars, students, public policy, industry, or society in general.

  17. Sleeping with the enemy: Audience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marloes Mol; Annika van den Berg; Dr. Joke Hermes

    2013-01-01

    Audience studies is not the vibrant field it was in its 1980s and early 1990s heyday. Cultural studies today has a more balanced interest in production, audiences and texts. A renewed focus in audience studies on everyday meaning production, identity and relations of power could benefit from recent

  18. Some Outdoor Educators' Experiences of Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Terry

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenological study presented in this paper attempts to determine, from outdoor educators, what it meant for them to be teaching outdoor education in Victorian secondary schools during 2004. In 1999, Lugg and Martin surveyed Victorian secondary schools to determine the types of outdoor education programs being run, the objectives of those…

  19. Obesity related factors in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Parvaneh Reza; Ghanbari, Atefeh; Rad, Afagh Hasanzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Overweight and obesity is becoming an increasingly prevalent problem in both developed and developing world, and is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21(st) century. Although various studies demonstrated pediatric obesity-related factors, but, due to its ongoing hazardous effects, researchers aimed to assess obesity-related factors in school-aged children in Rasht, Iran. This was a case-control study which was performed in eight primary schools of Rasht. A cluster sampling method was used to select 320 students including 80 in case (BMI ≥85(th) percentile for age and gender) and 240 in control group (BMI = 5(th)-85(th) percentile for age and gender). Data were collected by a scale, a tape meter, and a form which consisted of obesity-related factors, and were analyzed by Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and stepwise multivariate regression tests in SPSS 19. Findings showed that the mean and standard deviation of birth weight (g) in case and control groups were 3671 ± 5.64 and 190 ± 5.46, respectively (P = 0.000). 82.5% of case and 92.9% of control group had exclusive breastfeeding for 4-6 months (P = 0.024). Also, multivariate regression analysis indicated that birth weight, age, exclusive breastfeeding, and frequency of meals have significant effects on body mass index (BMI). It seems that more accurate interventions for primordial prevention are essential to reduce childhood obesity risk factors, including promotion of pre-pregnancy and prenatal care to have neonates who are appropriate for gestational age and also improving exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life. In addition, identifying children at risk for adolescent obesity provides physicians and midwives with an opportunity for earlier intervention with the goal of limiting the progression of abnormal weight gain.

  20. The Czech Approach to Outdoor Adventure and Experiential Education: The Influence of Jaroslav Foglar's Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirásek, Ivo; Turcova, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    While key personalities often connected with the roots of outdoor education and experiential learning, like Dewey, Seton, Hahn or Naess, are well known internationally, Jaroslav Foglar, a Czech outdoor and experiential educator, is mostly unknown to the international audience. The article adds to the literature related to Czech outdoor experience…

  1. Obesity-related cardiorenal disease: the benefits of bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Wiebke; Athanasiou, Thanos; Harling, Leanne; Drechsler, Christiane; Darzi, Ara; Ashrafian, Hutan

    2013-09-01

    The inexorable increase in the prevalence of obesity is a global health concern, which will result in a concomitant escalation in health-care costs. Obesity-related metabolic syndrome affects approximately 25% of adults and is associated with cardiovascular and renal disease. The heart and kidneys are physiologically interdependent, and the pathological effects of obesity can lead to cardiorenal syndrome and, ultimately, kidney and heart failure. Weight loss can prevent or ameliorate obesity-related cardiorenal syndrome, but long-term maintenance of a healthy weight has been difficult to achieve through lifestyle changes or pharmacotherapy. Bariatric surgery offers both sustained weight loss and favourable metabolic changes, including dramatic improvements in glycaemic control and symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Procedures such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass offer immediate multisystemic benefits, including bile flow alteration, reduced gastric size, anatomical gut rearrangement and altered flow of nutrients, vagal manipulation and enteric hormone modulation. In patients with cardiorenal syndrome, bariatric surgery also offers renoprotection and cardioprotection, and attenuates both kidney and heart failure by improving organ perfusion and reversing metabolic dysfunction. However, further research is required to understand how bariatric surgery acts on the cardiorenal axis, and its pioneering role in novel treatments and interventions for cardiorenal disease.

  2. Obesity-related differences in neural correlates of force control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ranjana K; Shortz, Ashley E

    2014-01-01

    Greater body segment mass due to obesity has shown to impair gross and fine motor functions and reduce balance control. While recent studies suggest that obesity may be linked with altered brain functions involved in fine motor tasks, this association is not well investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the neural correlates of motor performance in non-obese and obese adults during force control of two upper extremity muscles. Nine non-obese and eight obese young adults performed intermittent handgrip and elbow flexion exertions at 30% of their respective muscle strengths for 4 min. Functional near infrared spectroscopy was employed to measure neural activity in the prefrontal cortex bilaterally, joint steadiness was computed using force fluctuations, and ratings of perceived exertions (RPEs) were obtained to assess perceived effort. Obesity was associated with higher force fluctuations and lower prefrontal cortex activation during handgrip exertions, while RPE scores remained similar across both groups. No obesity-related differences in neural activity, force fluctuation, or RPE scores were observed during elbow flexion exertions. The study is one of the first to examine obesity-related differences on prefrontal cortex activation during force control of the upper extremity musculature. The study findings indicate that the neural correlates of motor activity in the obese may be muscle-specific. Future work is warranted to extend the investigation to monitoring multiple motor-function related cortical regions and examining obesity differences with different task parameters (e.g., longer duration, increased precision demands, larger muscles, etc.).

  3. [Obesity-related metabolic disorders in childhood and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, D; Carrascosa, A

    2011-08-01

    Obesity is the most frequent nutritional disorder in childhood and adolescence. The rise in its prevalence and severity has underlined the numerous and significant obesity-related metabolic disorders. Altered glucose metabolism, manifested as impaired glucose tolerance, appears early in severely obese children and adolescents. Obese young people with glucose intolerance are characterized by marked peripheral insulin resistance and relative beta-cell failure. Lipid deposition in muscle and the visceral compartment, and not only obesity per se, is related to increased peripheral insulin resistance, the triggering factor of the metabolic syndrome. Other elements of the metabolic syndrome, such as dyslipidaemia, and hypertension, are already present in obese youngsters and worsen with the degree of obesity. The long-term impact of obesity-related insulin resistance on cardiovascular morbidity in these patients is expected to emerge as these youngsters become young adults. Copyright © 2011 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Movies: the Audience Favorites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern screen art over its success to the use of folklore, myth, synthesis of the natural and supernatural, and a consistent orientation toward the most popular plot schemes. Their metaphorical appeal is not to the rational but to the emotional, through identification with the magic power of heroes and standardization of ideas, situations, characters and so on in compensation for dreams not realized in life, there are illusions – happy endings. In movies, TV shows, and music videos' rhythmic organization, viewers' feelings are influenced as much by the order of changing shots as by the content of productions. On the basis of the foregoing, it can be concluded that the media texts of popular culture obliged to a variety of factors for its success. These include: reliance on folklore and mythological sources, constancy metaphors, focus on consistent implementation of the most persistent plot schemes, the synthesis of the natural and the supernatural, the appeal not to rational and emotional, through the identification of (imaginary transformation in of active characters merge with the atmosphere, the aura of works, “magic power” of heroes, standardization (replication, unification, adaptation ideas, situations, characters, etc., mosaic, seriality, the compensation (of the cherished illusion, but not come true desires, the happy ending, the use of such rhythmic organization movies, TV shows, clips, where the feeling of the audience with the content of the frame affects the order of their shift; intuitive guessing subconscious audience interests, etc.

  5. Audience information needs assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nealey, S.M.; Sutthoff, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    According to the authors public involvement is absolutely indispensable to the successful implementation of waste disposal programs, and communication is absolutely indispensable for successful public involvement. Frequent, effective, and open two-way communication is the primary mechanism through which non-technical issues can be raised, discussed and eventually resolved. Public information programs developed by the agencies responsible for waste disposal are supposed to contribute to this process, but it is the authors contention that they frequently fall short for a simple reason they are insufficiently consumer oriented. They do not adequately assess the information needs of the various publics with which they are supposed to facilitate effective communication. In the language of communication models, attention is given to the messages the agency wishes to send, but not enough attention is given to feedback from the audiences the agency is addressing. A set of audience information needs assessment methods have evolved that can go a long way toward answering these questions. Seven of these methods are described and illustrated with examples from on-going radioactive waste management programs

  6. Audiences as citizens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Kim Christian

    2013-01-01

    This chapter traces the insights about citizenship offered by audience reception research since its inception in the 1980s, through a theoretical and analytical portrait of five historical stages of reception research about mediated citizenship: (1) hegemonic citizenship; (2) monitorial citizenship......; (3) popular citizenship; (4) participatory citizenship; and (5) ubiquitous citizenship. Maintaining a strong empirical commitment throughout, mostly to the findings of qualitative research, the chapter also reports substantially from recent and ongoing reception research into the ways in which...... the news media – and popular and entertainment media in a broader sense – may serve as resources for a political and cultural citizenship that is anchored in everyday life. The five stages of reception research, conceptualized as scientific paradigms, are modeled into a historical typology that synthesizes...

  7. Outdoors classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanska-Markowska, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Why should students be trapped within the four walls of the classroom when there are a lot of ideas to have lessons led in the different way? I am not a fan of having lessons at school. For many students it is also boring to stay only at school, too. So I decided to organize workshops and trips to Universities or outdoors. I created KMO ( Discoverer's Club for Teenagers) at my school where students gave me some ideas and we started to make them real. I teach at school where students don't like science. I try hard to change their point of view about it. That's why I started to take parts in different competitions with my students. Last year we measured noise everywhere by the use of applications on a tablet to convince them that noise is very harmful for our body and us. We examined that the most harmful noises were at school's breaks, near the motorways and in the households. We also proved that acoustic screens, which were near the motorways, didn't protect us from noise. We measured that 30 meters from the screens the noise is the same as the motorway. We won the main prize for these measurements. We also got awards for calculating the costs of a car supplied by powered by a solar panel. We measured everything by computer. This year we decided to write an essay about trees and weather. We went to the forest and found the cut trees because we wanted to read the age of tree from the stump. I hadn't known earlier that we could read the weather from the tree's grain. We examined a lot of trees and we can tell that trees are good carriers of information about weather and natural disasters. I started studies safety education and I have a lot of ideas how to get my students interested in this subject that is similar to P.E., physics and chemistry, too. I hope that I will use my abilities from European Space Education Resource Office and GIFT workshop. I plan to use satellite and space to teach my students how they can check information about terrorism, floods or other

  8. Cultivating Audiences: Taming, Teaching, Transforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolucci, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Satisfying and successful school concerts require an active, empathic, and cooperative partnership between performers and audience members. As music educators work to prepare artful, dignified, and confident performers, "audiences" for these performers must be cultivated just as purposefully. Concertgoers can be motivated to consume school…

  9. Nudging towards nutrition? Soft paternalism and obesity-related reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is one of the most contentious issues facing the United States today. Some researchers warn of an obesity "epidemic" that poses a grave threat to our nation's health, while others attack these claims as alarmist and misguided. This divide reinforces the political schism between advocates of government intervention and anti-regulatory groups. As a result, obesity science finds itself entangled in partisan battles that leave little room for compromise. This paper explores the potential for the political philosophy of soft paternalism to provide a regulatory framework that may appeal to both sides of the obesity reform debate. Soft paternalism draws upon social science research in order to develop policies that encourage better decision-making, while preserving individual choice. Applying this framework to the issue of obesity, I look at two areas of potential reform: 1) information-based policies such as nutritional label design, and 2) policies that affect default choices, such as portion size norms. I find that while soft paternalism is an appealing framework that offers many promising reforms, it is not a panacea. Instead, I argue that these proposals should be considered on their own merit, not as a complete solution precluding other measures. In addition, in light of potential criticism concerning the stigmatizing effect of some obesity-related measures, I suggest that reforms based on soft paternalism can and should be tailored to promote more mindful eating habits. With these concerns in mind, I conclude that soft paternalism is a promising approach that warrants serious consideration by policymakers.

  10. Obesity-related glomerulopathy: pathogenesis, pathologic, clinical characteristics and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianhua; Sheng, Zitong; Yao, Li

    2017-09-01

    In light of the rapid increase in the number of obesity incidences worldwide, obesity has become an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease. Obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG) is characterized by glomerulomegaly in the presence or absence of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis lesions. IgM and complement 3 (C3) nonspecifically deposit in lesions without immune-complex-type deposits during ORG immunofluorescence. ORG-associated glomerulomegaly and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis can superimpose on other renal pathologies. The mechanisms under ORG are complex, especially hemodynamic changes, inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and reduced functioning nephrons. These mechanisms synergize with obesity to induce end-stage renal disease. A slow increase of subnephrotic proteinuria ( < 3.5 g/d) is the most common clinical manifestation of ORG. Several treatment methods for ORG have been developed. Of these methods, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade and weight loss are proven effective. Targeting mitochondria may offer a novel strategy for ORG therapy. Nevertheless, more research is needed to further understand ORG.

  11. The advertising and children's audience

    OpenAIRE

    A.S. Teletov; T.Ye. Ivanova

    2015-01-01

    The aim of article. The article shows that today more and more citizens supply from advertising. Children's perception of the world is radically different from the adults’ perception. Modern advertising industry affects children's audience more and more. The aim of the article is to analyze the impact of advertising on children's audience with further proposals. The results of the analysis. Some social critics believe that advertising provides new information that helps to be more adaptive...

  12. Crowdfunding: How audiences promote innovation in journalism

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera-Gonzalez, Maria de los Angeles

    2014-01-01

    With the development of technology and media, the role of the audience has been changing. Thanks to the interactivity of new media, the audience is no longer just a passive receiver. Interactivity allows audiences to comment, vote, share, produce and complete the content of new media. All these new audience capabilities have led to concepts such as prosumers (consumers and producers of content). Consequently, a whole new audience role has emerged. Audiences are now directly promoters of journ...

  13. Videoethnographic approaches to audience research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildermuth, Norbert

    recordings in doing mediaethnographic audience research. Moreover, I will discuss the use and potentials of hypermedia in presenting the results of ethnographic audience research. Based on recent conceptualisations and theories of hypermodality and multimodal ethnography (Lemke, 2002; Idema, 2003; Dicks......  In my paper I will explore the methodological uses and epistemological consequences of videoethnography in audience studies. With reference to research done on young people and their media appropriations in Recife (Brazil), in December 2005, I will argue for the creative integration of video......'. Finally, considerations regarding a planned hypermediated presentation of my research project in Recife, will be related to the experiences made with video as tool of mediaethnographic investigation and analysis. How the potential of non-sequentiality enshrined in hypermedia applications can...

  14. Outdoorsman: Outdoor Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    This Outdoor Cookery manual provides information and instruction on the basic outdoor skills of building suitable cooking fires, handling fires safely, and storing food. The necessity of having the right kind of fire is stressed (high flames for boiling, low for stewing, and coals for frying and broiling). Tips on gauging temperature, what types…

  15. In seach of the invisible (audiences)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    The paper shows need to distinguish between: ignored audiences (invisible in the literature, in our case very young children and ) and post-communist audiences Literally or actual invisible (online lurking and unintended) audiences the unintended or lurking audiences are invisible in a two-fold way...... : both as cases of study, but also as actual audiences. a lack of historical contextualization in the studies...

  16. An Audience for the Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryer, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This account of the making and sharing of self-authored digital videos in a Year 5 classroom focuses on the way that the children appear to be influenced by their awareness of audience. Drawing on evidence of video observation, written and moving image texts produced by the children and semi-structured interviews with them, I examine the factors…

  17. Immersive Learning: Realism, Authenticity & Audience

    OpenAIRE

    Livingstone, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    For almost 20 years the Digital Design Studio has been exploring and applying virtual reality for a wide range of industrial, commercial and educational applications. Drawing from a range of recent projects, we explore the complex relationships between realism, authenticity and audience for effective engagement and education in immersive learning.

  18. The American Jazz Music Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Harold

    This publication reports the findings of research carried out in recognition of the need for an in-depth analysis of the U.S. jazz music audience in order to identify and assess ways to shape the future of jazz as part of the "Survey of Public Participation in The Arts" conducted in 1982. The research problem was to learn the size,…

  19. WHAT DOES LESBIAN AUDIENCE LIKE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ibiti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to identify the mechanisms that define the pleasure (taste and disgust (disgust of the lesbian audience in receiving audiovisual set in lesbian communities. After viewing two stories constructed from the series The  L Word, 25 lesbians WERE interviewed in depth. Next, we conducted a qualitative content anaLysis of the interviews. The results are discussed from the theories of Entertainment (Media Psychology.

  20. Winter Weather: Outdoor Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...

  1. Outdoor thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2011-06-01

    A review of the various approaches in understanding outdoor thermal comfort is presented. The emphasis on field surveys from around the world, particularly across Europe, enables us to understand thermal perception and evaluate outdoor thermal comfort conditions. The consistent low correlations between objective microclimatic variables, subjective thermal sensation and comfort outdoors, internationally, suggest that thermophysiology alone does not adequate describe these relationships. Focusing on the concept of adaptation, it tries to explain how this influences outdoor comfort, enabling us to inhabit and get satisfaction from outdoor spaces throughout the year. Beyond acclimatization and behavioral adaptation, through adjustments in clothing and changes to the metabolic heat, psychological adaptation plays a critical role to ensure thermal comfort and satisfaction with the outdoor environment. Such parameters include recent experiences and expectations; personal choice and perceived control, more important than whether that control is actually exercised; and the need for positive environmental stimulation suggesting that thermal neutrality is not a pre-requisite for thermal comfort. Ultimately, enhancing environmental diversity can influence thermal perception and experience of open spaces.

  2. Applications of geographic information systems (GIS) data and methods in obesity-related research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, P; Cheng, X; Xue, H; Wang, Y

    2017-04-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) data/methods offer good promise for public health programs including obesity-related research. This study systematically examined their applications and identified gaps and limitations in current obesity-related research. A systematic search of PubMed for studies published before 20 May 2016, utilizing synonyms for GIS in combination with synonyms for obesity as search terms, identified 121 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We found primary applications of GIS data/methods in obesity-related research included (i) visualization of spatial distribution of obesity and obesity-related phenomena, and basic obesogenic environmental features, and (ii) construction of advanced obesogenic environmental indicators. We found high spatial heterogeneity in obesity prevalence/risk and obesogenic environmental factors. Also, study design and characteristics varied considerably across studies because of lack of established guidance and protocols in the field, which may also have contributed to the mixed findings about environmental impacts on obesity. Existing findings regarding built environment are more robust than those regarding food environment. Applications of GIS data/methods in obesity research are still limited, and related research faces many challenges. More and better GIS data and more friendly analysis methods are needed to expand future GIS applications in obesity-related research. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  3. Online Tracking of Outdoor Lighting Variations for Augmented Reality with Moving Cameras

    OpenAIRE

    Liu , Yanli; Granier , Xavier

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In augmented reality, one of key tasks to achieve a convincing visual appearance consistency between virtual objects and video scenes is to have a coherent illumination along the whole sequence. As outdoor illumination is largely dependent on the weather, the lighting condition may change from frame to frame. In this paper, we propose a full image-based approach for online tracking of outdoor illumination variations from videos captured with moving cameras. Our key ide...

  4. Messages with Impact: Creativity in Traditional Outdoor Advertising Platforms in Castellón

    OpenAIRE

    Breva Franch, Eva; Balado Albiol, Consuelo; Rutherford

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor advertising is currently undergoing a transformation as both the variety and popularity of digital platforms increases. This will inevitably involve significant changes in both the conception and production of advertising materials designed for digital platforms, including ‘smartboards’. Notwithstanding the technological advantages of outdoor digital advertising platforms (such as the means to incorporate motion) in attracting the attention of audiences, as a consequence of the cost o...

  5. Audience Perceptions of Family Viewing Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Brian F.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a survey on Family Viewing Time designed to determine audience reactions to program content including violent and sexual content, audience perceptions of the suitability of program offerings for family viewing, and audience viewing habits with respect to Family Viewing Time. (MH)

  6. Discourse swings in understanding audiences:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.

    Traditional discourses of the relationship between media producers and consumers have been challenged as of late in post-industrialized countries.  The blurring of established consumer/producer identities due to changes in the mediascape, forecasted for decades, has changed how both academics......’s cooptation of these consumers, conceptualizing the people who engage with their media products as a combination of the previous two, or "audience-as-pusher".  This paper is an account of this discourse swing through the description of case studies that demonstrate the utilization of interactive marketing...

  7. In search of the invisble (audiences)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaun, Anne; Hartley, Jannie Møller; Juzefovičs, Jānis

    2016-01-01

    that are literally invisible including practices of lurking in social media environments as well as unintended audiences. The literature review of research of the past ten years on invisible audiences identifies important gaps for both forms of invisible audiences. In conclusion, we suggest more extensive research...... on the diverse groups of invisible audiences on a more structural level, i.e. questions of certain social, political as well as cultural groups are rendered invisible. Furthermore we suggest that studies consider practices of invisible audiences on the micro, experiential level from the perspective of members...

  8. Genetic Evidence for Causal Relationships Between Maternal Obesity-Related Traits and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Richmond, Rebecca C; Palmer, Tom M

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To test for genetic evidence...... of causal associations of maternal body mass index (BMI) and related traits with birth weight. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Mendelian randomization to test whether maternal BMI and obesity-related traits are potentially causally related to offspring birth weight. Data from 30,487 women in 18 studies...

  9. Predicting outdoor sound

    CERN Document Server

    Attenborough, Keith; Horoshenkov, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction  2. The Propagation of Sound Near Ground Surfaces in a Homogeneous Medium  3. Predicting the Acoustical Properties of Outdoor Ground Surfaces  4. Measurements of the Acoustical Properties of Ground Surfaces and Comparisons with Models  5. Predicting Effects of Source Characteristics on Outdoor Sound  6. Predictions, Approximations and Empirical Results for Ground Effect Excluding Meteorological Effects  7. Influence of Source Motion on Ground Effect and Diffraction  8. Predicting Effects of Mixed Impedance Ground  9. Predicting the Performance of Outdoor Noise Barriers  10. Predicting Effects of Vegetation, Trees and Turbulence  11. Analytical Approximations including Ground Effect, Refraction and Turbulence  12. Prediction Schemes  13. Predicting Sound in an Urban Environment.

  10. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation....... In the UK the focus on underrepresented groups seems closely related to the focus on equality for access, while specific focus on access for ethnic minorities is not addressed in the forest and nature legislation and the national forest programs in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. Paper 4 proposes...

  11. Genetic evidence for causal relationships between maternal obesity-related traits and birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W.R. Tyrrell; R.C. Richmond (Rebecca C.); T.M. Palmer (Tom); B. Feenstra (Bjarke); J. Rangarajan (Janani); S. Metrustry (Sarah); A. Cavadino (Alana); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); L.L. Armstrong (Loren L.); N.M.G. De Silva (N. Maneka G.); A.R. Wood (Andrew); M. Horikoshi (Momoko); F. Geller (Frank); R. Myhre (Ronny); J.P. Bradfield (Jonathan); E. Kreiner-Møller (Eskil); I. Huikari (Ille); J.N. Painter (Jodie N.); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); C. Allard (Catherine); D. Berry (Diane); L. Bouchard (Luigi); S. Das (Shikta); D.M. Evans (David); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); M.G. Hayes (M. Geoffrey); J. Heikkinen (Jani); A. Hofman (Albert); B.A. Knight (Bridget); P.A. Lind (Penelope); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); G. Mcmahon (George); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); M. Melbye (Mads); A.P. Morris (Andrew); M. Nodzenski (Michael); C. Reichetzeder (Christoph); S.M. Ring (Susan); S. Sebert (Sylvain); V. Sengpiel (Verena); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); T.D. Spector (Timothy); C. Power (Christine); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); H. Bisgaard (Hans); S.F.A. Grant (Struan); C. Nohr (Christian); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); B. Jacobsson (Bo); J.C. Murray (Jeffrey C.); B. Hocher (Berthold); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); D.M. Scholtens (Denise M.); G.D. Smith; M.-F. Hivert (Marie-France); J.F. Felix (Janine); E. Hypponen (Elina); W.L. Lowe Jr. (William); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); R.M. Freathy (Rachel)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIMPORTANCE Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. OBJECTIVE To test for genetic

  12. A Systematic Review of Environmental Correlates of Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviors in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Oenema, A.; Ferreira, I.; Wendel-Vos, W.; Giskes, K.; van Lenthe, F.; Brug, J.

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the role the environment plays in shaping the dietary behavior of youth, particularly in the context of obesity prevention. An overview of environmental factors associated with obesity-related dietary behaviors among youth is needed to inform the development of interventions. A systematic review of observational…

  13. A systematic review of environmental correlates of obesity-related dietary behaviors in youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. van der Horst (Klazine); A. Oenema (Anke); A. Ferreira (Isabel); G.C.W. Wendel-Vos (Wanda); K. Giskes (Katrina); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); J. Brug (Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThere is increasing interest in the role the environment plays in shaping the dietary behavior of youth, particularly in the context of obesity prevention. An overview of environmental factors associated with obesity-related dietary behaviors among youth is needed to inform the

  14. Role of the Gut Microbiome in the Pathogenesis of Obesity and Obesity-Related Metabolic Dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouter, Kristien E.; van Raalte, Daniël H.; Groen, Albert K.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2017-01-01

    The potential role of intestinal microbiota in the etiology of various human diseases has attracted massive attention in the last decade. As such, the intestinal microbiota has been advanced as an important contributor in the development of obesity and obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, amongst

  15. Role of the Gut Microbiome in the Pathogenesis of Obesity and Obesity-Related Metabolic Dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouter, Kristien E.; van Raalte, Daniel H.; Groen, Albert K.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    The potential role of intestinal microbiota in the etiology of various human diseases has attracted massive attention in the last decade. As such, the intestinal microbiota has been advanced as an important contributor in the development of obesity and obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, amongst

  16. Influence of obesity-related risk factors in the aetiology of glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Disney-Hogg, Linden; Sud, Amit; Law, Philip J

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity and related factors have been implicated as possible aetiological factors for the development of glioma in epidemiological observation studies. We used genetic markers in a Mendelian randomisation framework to examine whether obesity-related traits influence glioma risk. This ...

  17. The Dirt on Outdoor Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Explains the planning procedure for outdoor classrooms and introduces an integrated unit on monarch butterflies called the Monarch Watch program. Makes recommendations to solve financial problems of outdoor classrooms. (YDS)

  18. Digital TV, advertising and audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Cruz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the advertisingsegment and their relationship with the development process of the digital television. We intent to observe the new perspectives of production and consumption of media. Among other things, that involves the issues of interactivity, the exhaustion of the traditional media models, and the relationship of the new media with the audience, considering the analysis of the tripod: digital television, advertising and audience. In Brazil, with the implementation of the Brazilian System of Digital Television (SBTVD, the problem takes bigger proportions, as a consequence of the possibility to issue and track down the digital content consumed. That happens as a consequence of the consumer ability to watch the program withor without the commercial break. At the current model of television, the public is the legitimizing factor: the broadcasters issues the public a ention asan instrument to obtain pecuniary rewarding of theadvertisers. That model constitutes itself as the main funding source of the channels and networks. On the one hand, digital television represents an advantage at the quality of picture and audio, multiplying the capacity to transmit television signals and to transport new features and services. On the other hand, it seems impossible to transform this industry without some reaction. The many interests involved constitute the main cause of that scenario: the agents interested in advertising are those concerned with the role of ideology, the support of capitalism and the industrial culture. Considering all these questions, it seems almost impossible to produce deep chances,contrary to the interests involved.

  19. Criminal Justice Contact, Stressors, and Obesity-Related Health Problems Among Black Adults in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Paul C; Parker, Lauren; Thorpe, Roland

    2018-04-01

    Criminal justice contact-defined as lifetime arrest, parole, or incarceration, seems to exacerbate chronic conditions, and those who are most likely to have had contact with the criminal justice system, such as Black adults, often already have pre-existing disproportionately high rates of stress and chronic conditions due to the social determinants of health that affect underrepresented minorities. Findings from this study suggest that there is a mechanism that links the stressors among Black adults manifested by such factors as family, financial, neighborhood, and personal problems with criminal justice contact to obesity-related health status. Using the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), modified Poisson regression analyses were used to determine the association between criminal justice contact, stressors, and obesity-related health problems among a national sample of Black adults (n = 5008). In the full model, the odds of experiencing obesity-related health problems for Black adults who had criminal justice contact was reduced (PR, 1.23 to 1.14) and not statistically significant. Black adults who reported experiencing family stressors (PR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.08, 1.36), financial stressors (PR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.16, 1.47), and personal stressors (PR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02, 1.31) were statistically significant and higher than those who reported not experiencing any of these stressors; neighborhood stressors was not statistically significant. The evidence suggests a relationship between the stressors associated with criminal justice contact and obesity-related health status. These findings emphasize the need to further explore the family, financial, and personal stressors for Black adults with criminal justice contact in order to further our understanding of their obesity-related health problems.ᅟ.

  20. Mapping of Outdoor Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Victor G.

    Mapping symbols adopted by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources are presented with their explanations. In an effort to provide standardization and familiarity teachers and other school people involved in an outdoor education program are encouraged to utilize the same symbols in constructing maps. (DK)

  1. Innovation and Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beames, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Within our fast-paced, fluid society, it is arguable that outdoor education needs to be innovative to play a useful role in young people's overall educational enterprise. A critical view, however, would suggest that we must beware of accepting technological innovation for its own sake. Innovations (or improvements) in education can take the form…

  2. Teaching audience analysis to the technical student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debs, M. B.; Brillhart, L. V.

    1981-01-01

    Teaching audience analysis, as practiced in a technical writing course for engineering students, is discussed. Audience analysis is described as the task of defining the audience for a particular piece of writing and determining those characteristics of the audience which constrain the writer and effect reception of the message. A mature technical writing style that shows the tension produced when a text is written to be read and understood is considered in terms of audience analysis. Techniques include: (1) conveying to students the concept that a reader with certain expectations exist, (2) team teaching to preserve the context of a given technical discipline, and (3) assigning a technical report that addresses a variety of readers, thus establishing the complexity of audience oriented writing.

  3. Characterizing Health Information for Different Target Audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yueping; Hou, Zhen; Hou, Li; Li, Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Different groups of audiences in health care: health professionals and health consumers, each have different information needs. Health monographs targeting different audiences are created by leveraging readers' background knowledge. The NCI's Physician Data Query (PDQ®) Cancer Information Summaries provide parallel cancer information and education resources with different target audiences. In this paper, we used targeted audience-specific cancer information PDQs to measure characteristic differences on the element level between audiences. In addition, we compared vocabulary coverage. Results show a significant difference between the professional and patient version of cancer monographs in both content organization and vocabulary. This study provides a new view to assess targeted audience-specific health information, and helps editors to improve the quality and readability of health information.

  4. Outdoor Education and Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, José M.; Brewer, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Elementary students have limited opportunities to learn science in an outdoor setting at school. Some suggest this is partially due to a lack of teacher efficacy teaching in an outdoor setting. Yet the research literature indicates that outdoor learning experiences develop positive environmental attitudes and can positively affect science…

  5. An adaptive, data driven sound field control strategy for outdoor concerts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuchel, Franz Maria; Caviedes Nozal, Diego; Brunskog, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    One challenge of outdoor concerts is to ensure adequate levels for the audience while avoiding disturbance of the surroundings. We outline the initial concept of a sound field control (SFC) system for tackling this issue using sound-zoning. The system uses Bayesian inference to update a sound...

  6. Developing Public Health Initiatives through Understanding Motivations of the Audience at Mass-Gathering Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Alison; Ranse, Jamie; Munn, Matthew Brendan

    2018-04-01

    This report identifies what is known about audience motivations at three different mass-gathering events: outdoor music festivals, religious events, and sporting events. In light of these motivations, the paper discusses how these can be harnessed by the event organizer and Emergency Medical Services. Lastly, motivations tell what kinds of interventions can be used to achieve an understanding of audience characteristics and the opportunity to develop tailor-made programs to maximize safety and make long-lasting public health interventions to a particular "cohort" or event population. A lot of these will depend on what the risks/hazards are with the particular populations in order to "target" them with public health interventions. Audience motivations tell the event organizer and Emergency Medical Services about the types of behaviors they should expect from the audience and how this may affect their health while at the event. Through these understandings, health promotion and event safety messages can be developed for a particular type of mass-gathering event based on the likely composition of the audience in attendance. Health promotion and providing public information should be at the core of any mass-gathering event to minimize public health risk and to provide opportunities for the promotion of healthy behaviors in the local population. Audience motivations are a key element to identify and agree on what public health information is needed for the event audience. A more developed understanding of audience behavior provides critical information for event planners, event risk managers, and Emergency Medical Services personnel to better predict and plan to minimize risk and reduce patient presentations at events. Mass-gathering event organizers and designers intend their events to be positive experiences and to have meaning for those who attend. Therefore, continual vigilance to improve public health effectiveness and efficiency can become best practice at events

  7. Dietary patterns and relationship to obesity-related health outcomes and mortality in adults 75 years of age or greater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The prevalence of obesity-related adverse health outcomes is increasing among older adults. Because it is thought that nutrition plays an important role in successful aging, there has been considerable interest in the association between dietary patterns of older adults and obesity-relat...

  8. The Imagined Audience on Social Network Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eden Litt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available When people construct and share posts on social network sites like Facebook and Twitter, whom do they imagine as their audience? How do users describe this imagined audience? Do they have a sub-audience in mind (e.g., “friends who like reality television”? Do they share more broadly and abstractly (e.g., “the public”? Do such imaginings fluctuate each time a person posts? Using a mixed-methods approach involving a 2-month-long diary study of 119 diverse American adults and their 1,200 social network site posts, supplemented with follow-up interviews (N = 30, this study explores the imagined audience on social network sites. The findings reveal that even though users often interacted with large diverse audiences as they posted, they coped by envisioning either very broad abstract imagined audiences or more targeted specific imagined audiences composed of personal ties, professional ties, communal ties, and/or phantasmal ties. When people had target imagined audiences in mind, they were most often homogeneous and composed of people’s friends and family. Users’ imaginings typically fluctuated among these audience types as they posted even though the potential audience as per their posts’ privacy settings often did not change. The findings provide a list of audience types, as well as detailed descriptions, examples, and frequencies on which future research can build. With people’s online presence playing an important role for their reputations, these findings provide more insight into for whom people are managing their privacy and whom they have in mind as they share.

  9. Electronic health records to support obesity-related patient care: Results from a survey of United States physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronder, Kayla L; Dooyema, Carrie A; Onufrak, Stephen J; Foltz, Jennifer L

    2015-08-01

    Obesity-related electronic health record functions increase the rates of measuring Body Mass Index, diagnosing obesity, and providing obesity services. This study describes the prevalence of obesity-related electronic health record functions in clinical practice and analyzes characteristics associated with increased obesity-related electronic health record sophistication. Data were analyzed from DocStyles, a web-based panel survey administered to 1507 primary care providers practicing in the United States in June, 2013. Physicians were asked if their electronic health record has specific obesity-related functions. Logistical regression analyses identified characteristics associated with improved obesity-related electronic health record sophistication. Of the 88% of providers with an electronic health record, 83% of electronic health records calculate Body Mass Index, 52% calculate pediatric Body Mass Index percentile, and 32% flag patients with abnormal Body Mass Index values. Only 36% provide obesity-related decision support and 17% suggest additional resources for obesity-related care. Characteristics associated with having a more sophisticated electronic health record include age ≤45years old, being a pediatrician or family practitioner, and practicing in a larger, outpatient practice. Few electronic health records optimally supported physician's obesity-related clinical care. The low rates of obesity-related electronic health record functions currently in practice highlight areas to improve the clinical health information technology in primary care practice. More work can be done to develop, implement, and promote the effective utilization of obesity-related electronic health record functions to improve obesity treatment and prevention efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation...... often reported using green areas to “drink beer with friends” and “do sunbathing”. The third paper reflects on the different national approaches towards ethnic minorities’ access to natural areas, in four example-countries Germany, Denmark, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. This was done through....... In the UK the focus on underrepresented groups seems closely related to the focus on equality for access, while specific focus on access for ethnic minorities is not addressed in the forest and nature legislation and the national forest programs in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. Paper 4 proposes...

  11. Measuring and manipulating audiences : A personal reflection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulterman, Dick C A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the emotional reactions of audiences to a wide range of content types is an important area of research. In this article, I provide a personal reflection on various approaches to modeling, quantifying and understanding audience behavior based on a broad range of evaluation techniques.

  12. Rational Wizards: Audience Interpreters in French Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bourdon, Jérôme; Méadel, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    abstractThis paper will tell the story of the smallgroup of people who, in France, have been in charge of the measurement and theappreciation of the audience of television, and had to invent audience research,to organize it and to communicate its results to "clients" whodepended on it much earlier

  13. Abdominal obesity: causal factor or simply a symptom of obesity-related health risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sechang Oh,1 Kiyoji Tanaka,2 Jin-won Noh,3 Rina So,2,4 Takehiko Tsujimoto,2 Hiroyuki Sasai,1,4 Mijung Kim,5 Junichi Shoda11Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; 2Faculty of Health and Sports Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; 3Department of Healthcare Management, Eulji University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea; 4Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan; 5Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, JapanBackground: Abdominal fat (AF reduction is advocated in the treatment of obesity-related diseases. Nonetheless, recent studies have shown additional beneficial effects against obesity-related health risks, independent of AF reduction. Therefore it is important to determine whether AF plays a causal role in promoting metabolic disorders or is simply a symptom of increased obesity-related health risk factors. Clarification of the primary role of AF in the pathogenesis of obesity-related disease is also important.Objective: This retrospective study was conducted with the objectives of 1 comparison between groups exhibiting equivalent amounts of AF loss that resulted from distinct treatments (exercise and dietary restriction with respect to degrees of improvement in obesity-related health risk factors and 2 determination of definite differences in the outcomes of obesity-related health risk in subjects receiving identical treatment (exercise but exhibiting a remarkable difference in AF reduction.Design: In 66 subjects who completed a 12-week exercise or dietary restriction program, 17 parameters (systolic blood pressure [SBP] and diastolic blood pressure [DBP]; high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]; leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-6; alanine aminotransferase [ALT], gamma glutamyl transpeptidase [γGT]; lipid profile: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDLC], triglyceride [TG

  14. Genetic Association of Major Depression With Atypical Features and Obesity-Related Immunometabolic Dysregulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milaneschi, Yuri; Lamers, Femke; Peyrot, Wouter J

    2017-01-01

    Importance: The association between major depressive disorder (MDD) and obesity may stem from shared immunometabolic mechanisms particularly evident in MDD with atypical features, characterized by increased appetite and/or weight (A/W) during an active episode. Objective: To determine whether...... subgroups of patients with MDD stratified according to the A/W criterion had a different degree of genetic overlap with obesity-related traits (body mass index [BMI] and levels of C-reactive protein [CRP] and leptin). Design, Setting, and Patients: This multicenter study assembled genome-wide genotypic...... between atypical depressive symptoms and obesity-related traits may arise from shared pathophysiologic mechanisms in patients with MDD. Development of treatments effectively targeting immunometabolic dysregulations may benefit patients with depression and obesity, both syndromes with important disability....

  15. Glucagon-like peptide 1: A potential anti-inflammatory pathway in obesity-related asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dan-Vinh; Linderholm, Angela; Haczku, Angela; Kenyon, Nicholas

    2017-12-01

    Alterations in arginine metabolism and accelerated formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), crucial mechanisms in obesity-related asthma, can be modulated by glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). l-arginine dysregulation in obesity promotes inflammation and bronchoconstriction. Prolonged hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress leads to production of AGEs, that bind to their receptor (RAGE) further potentiating inflammation. By binding to its widely distributed receptor, GLP-1 blunts the effects of RAGE activation and arginine dysregulation. The GLP-1 pathway, while comprehensively studied in the endocrine and cardiovascular literature, is under-recognized in pulmonary research. Insights into GLP-1 and the lung may lead to novel treatments for obesity-related asthma. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Support for food policy initiatives is associated with knowledge of obesity-related cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Watson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate community support for government-led policy initiatives to positively influence the food environment, and to identify whether there is a relationship between support for food policy initiatives and awareness of the link between obesity-related lifestyle risk factors and cancer. Methods: An online survey of knowledge of cancer risk factors and attitudes to policy initiatives that influence the food environment was completed by 2474 adults from New South Wales, Australia. The proportion of participants in support of seven food policy initiatives was quantified in relation to awareness of the link between obesity, poor diet, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity with cancer and other health conditions. Results: Overall, policies that involved taxing unhealthy foods received the least support (41.5%. Support was highest for introducing a colour-coded food labelling system (85.9%, restricting claims being made about the health benefits of foods which are, overall, unhealthy (82.6%, displaying health warning labels on unhealthy foods (78.7% and banning unhealthy food advertising that targets children (72.6%. Participants who were aware that obesity-related lifestyle factors are related to cancer were significantly more likely to support food policy initiatives than those who were unaware. Only 17.5% of participants were aware that obesity, poor diet, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity are linked to cancer. Conclusions: There is strong support for all policies related to food labelling and a policy banning unhealthy food advertising to children. Support for food policy initiatives that positively influence the food environment was higher among those who were aware of the link between cancer and obesity-related lifestyle factors than among those who were unaware of this link. Increasing awareness of the link between obesity-related lifestyle factors and cancer

  17. Neurocognitive correlates of obesity and obesity-related behaviors in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, J.; Matheson, BE.; Kaye, WH.; Boutelle, KN.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity rates have risen dramatically over the past few decades. Although obesity has been linked to poorer neurocognitive functioning in adults, much less is known about this relationship in children and adolescents. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to examine the relationship between obesity and obesity-related behaviors with neurocognitive functioning in youth. We reviewed articles from 1976 to 2013 using PsycInfo, PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar. Search terms inclu...

  18. Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Obesity-Related Eating Behaviors: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    O’Reilly, Gillian A.; Cook, Lauren; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Black, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) targeting eating behaviors have gained popularity in recent years. A literature review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of MBIs for treating obesity-related eating behaviors, such as binge eating, emotional eating, and external eating. A search protocol was conducted using the online databases Google Scholar, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Ovid Healthstar. Articles were required to meet the following criteria to be included in this review: (1) describ...

  19. New Insight into Adiponectin Role in Obesity and Obesity-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersilia Nigro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem strongly increasing the risk for various severe related complications such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, diabetic retinopathy, and cancer. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that produces biologically active molecules defined “adipocytokines,” protein hormones with pleiotropic functions involved in the regulation of energy metabolism as well as in appetite, insulin sensitivity, inflammation, atherosclerosis, cell proliferation, and so forth. In obesity, fat accumulation causes dysregulation of adipokine production that strongly contributes to the onset of obesity-related diseases. Several advances have been made in the treatment and prevention of obesity but current medical therapies are often unsuccessful even in compliant patients. Among the adipokines, adiponectin shows protective activity in various processes such as energy metabolism, inflammation, and cell proliferation. In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge regarding the protective properties of adiponectin and its receptors, AdipoRs (“adiponectin system”, on metabolic complications in obesity and obesity-related diseases. Adiponectin, exhibiting antihyperglycemic, antiatherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, could have important clinical benefits in terms of development of therapies for the prevention and/or for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases.

  20. The Role of Sympatho-Inhibition in Combination Treatment of Obesity-Related Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnagarin, Revathy; Gregory, Cynthia; Azzam, Omar; Hillis, Graham S; Schultz, Carl; Watts, Gerald F; Bell, Damon; Matthews, Vance; Schlaich, Markus P

    2017-10-28

    Obesity-related hypertension is commonly characterized by increased sympathetic nerve activity and is therefore acknowledged as a predominantly neurogenic form of hypertension. The sustained sympatho-excitation not only contributes to the rise in blood pressure but also elicits a vicious cycle which facilitates further weight gain and progression of associated co-morbidities. While weight loss and exercise remain at the forefront of therapy for obesity and obesity-related hypertension, the difficulties in achieving and maintaining long-term weight loss with lifestyle measures and the variable blood pressure response to weight loss often necessitate prescription of antihypertensive drug therapy. Remarkably, there are no specific recommendations for pharmacologic treatment for obese patients with arterial hypertension in any of the current guidelines and general principles of antihypertensive treatment are applied. The use of β-blockers and diuretics is commonly discouraged as first- or second-line therapy due to their unfavorable metabolic effects. This review explores evolving therapeutic strategies which based on their interference with pathophysiologic mechanism relevant in the context of obesity may guide optimized treatment of obesity-related hypertension.

  1. Mindfulness-based interventions for obesity-related eating behaviours: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, G A; Cook, L; Spruijt-Metz, D; Black, D S

    2014-06-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) targeting eating behaviours have gained popularity in recent years. A literature review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of MBIs for treating obesity-related eating behaviours, such as binge eating, emotional eating and external eating. A search protocol was conducted using the online databases Google Scholar, PubMed, PsycINFO and Ovid Healthstar. Papers were required to meet the following criteria to be included in this review: (i) describe a MBI or the use of mindfulness exercises as part of an intervention; (ii) include at least one obesity-related eating behaviour as an outcome; (iii) include quantitative outcomes; and (iv) be published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. A total of N = 21 papers were included in this review. Interventions used a variety of approaches to implement mindfulness training, including combined mindfulness and cognitive behavioural therapies, mindfulness-based stress reduction, acceptance-based therapies, mindful eating programmes, and combinations of mindfulness exercises. Targeted eating behaviour outcomes included binge eating, emotional eating, external eating and dietary intake. Eighteen (86%) of the reviewed studies reported improvements in the targeted eating behaviours. Overall, the results of this first review on the topic support the efficacy of MBIs for changing obesity-related eating behaviours, specifically binge eating, emotional eating and external eating. © 2014 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  2. Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Obesity-Related Eating Behaviors: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Reilly, Gillian A.; Cook, Lauren; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Black, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) targeting eating behaviors have gained popularity in recent years. A literature review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of MBIs for treating obesity-related eating behaviors, such as binge eating, emotional eating, and external eating. A search protocol was conducted using the online databases Google Scholar, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Ovid Healthstar. Articles were required to meet the following criteria to be included in this review: (1) describe a MBI or the use of mindfulness exercises as part of an intervention, (2) include at least one obesity-related eating behavior as an outcome, (3) include quantitative outcomes, and (4) be published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. A total of N=21 articles were included in this review. Interventions used a variety of approaches to implement mindfulness training, including combined mindfulness and cognitive behavioral therapies, mindfulness-based stress reduction, acceptance-based therapies, mindful eating programs, and combinations of mindfulness exercises. Targeted eating behavior outcomes included binge eating, emotional eating, external eating, and dietary intake. Eighteen (86%) of the reviewed studies reported improvements in the targeted eating behaviors. Overall, the results of this first review on the topic support the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions for changing obesity-related eating behaviors, specifically binge eating, emotional eating, and external eating. PMID:24636206

  3. Economic Recession and Obesity-Related Internet Search Behavior in Taiwan: Analysis of Google Trends Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ho-Wei; Chen, Duan-Rung

    2018-04-06

    Obesity is highly correlated with the development of chronic diseases and has become a critical public health issue that must be countered by aggressive action. This study determined whether data from Google Trends could provide insight into trends in obesity-related search behaviors in Taiwan. Using Google Trends, we examined how changes in economic conditions-using business cycle indicators as a proxy-were associated with people's internet search behaviors related to obesity awareness, health behaviors, and fast food restaurants. Monthly business cycle indicators were obtained from the Taiwan National Development Council. Weekly Taiwan Stock Exchange (TWSE) weighted index data were accessed and downloaded from Yahoo Finance. The weekly relative search volumes (RSV) of obesity-related terms were downloaded from Google Trends. RSVs of obesity-related terms and the TWSE from January 2007 to December 2011 (60 months) were analyzed using correlation analysis. During an economic recession, the RSV of obesity awareness and health behaviors declined (r=.441, P<.001; r=.593, P<.001, respectively); however, the RSV for fast food restaurants increased (r=-.437, P<.001). Findings indicated that when the economy was faltering, people tended to be less likely to search for information related to health behaviors and obesity awareness; moreover, they were more likely to search for fast food restaurants. Macroeconomic conditions can have an impact on people's health-related internet searches. ©Ho-Wei Wang, Duan-Rung Chen. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 06.04.2018.

  4. Mapping and annotating obesity-related genes in pig and human genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Pier Luigi; Fontanesi, Luca; Piovesan, Damiano; Fariselli, Piero; Casadio, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Background. Obesity is a major health problem in both developed and emerging countries. Obesity is a complex disease whose etiology involves genetic factors in strong interplay with environmental determinants and lifestyle. The discovery of genetic factors and biological pathways underlying human obesity is hampered by the difficulty in controlling the genetic background of human cohorts. Animal models are then necessary to further dissect the genetics of obesity. Pig has emerged as one of the most attractive models, because of the similarity with humans in the mechanisms regulating the fat deposition. Results. We collected the genes related to obesity in humans and to fat deposition traits in pig. We localized them on both human and pig genomes, building a map useful to interpret comparative studies on obesity. We characterized the collected genes structurally and functionally with BAR+ and mapped them on KEGG pathways and on STRING protein interaction network. Conclusions. The collected set consists of 361 obesity related genes in human and pig genomes. All genes were mapped on the human genome, and 54 could not be localized on the pig genome (release 2012). Only for 3 human genes there is no counterpart in pig, confirming that this animal is a good model for human obesity studies. Obesity related genes are mostly involved in regulation and signaling processes/pathways and relevant connection emerges between obesity-related genes and diseases such as cancer and infectious diseases.

  5. Transnational television audiences and modes of engagement: studying audience engagement as a set of experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keinonen, Heidi; Jensen, Pia Majbritt; Esser, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Audience engagement is attracting increasing attention in various academic disciplines. Recently, the industry- and technology-oriented conceptualizations of engagement have been challenged by a more audience-oriented understanding. This article aims at contributing to the development of a more...... nuanced audience-oriented approach. First, we make a theoretical argument by bringing various key theories together and, second, we present an empirical contribution by analysing audience engagement as a set of experiences. Our analysis builds on the empirical material produced by conducting two rounds...... and ritualistic engagement, ludic engagement. We also discovered that audiences at times get disengaged or opt to actively resist engagement....

  6. Open Interactivity: A Model for Audience Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Gould

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Artists have increasingly acknowledged the role of the audience as collaborators both in the construction of meaning (Bathes, 1977, through subjective experience (Dewey, 1934 and in contributing to the creative act by externalising the work. (Duchamp Lucy Lippard identifies 1966-72 as a period where artists turned increasingly towards the audience, representing a "dematerialization of the art object" (Lippard, 1997 through "Happenings" and "Fluxus" movements. Digital media has facilitated this trajectory, implicit in the interactive computer interface (Manovich, 2005, but interactivity per se may offer no more than a series of choices put forward by the artist (Daniels, 2011. Interactivity represents interplay between artist and audience (Dinka, 1996 and is potentially a process of audience empowerment to offer agency, defined as real and creative choice (Browning, 1964. Public screen installation "Peoples Screen" Guangzhou, linking China to Perth Australia (Sermon & Gould, 2015 offered a partnership between artist and audience to co-create content though playful narratives and active engagement in a drama that unfolds using improvisation and play. Initially visitors enjoy observing the self on the screen but audiences quickly start to interact with the environment and other participants. Immersed in play they lose a sense of the self (Callois, 2011 and enter a virtual third space where possibilities for creativity and direction of play are limitless. The self becomes an avatar where the audience can inhabit "the other" thereby exploring alternative realities through ludic play, promoting tolerance and empathy and developing collective memory.

  7. When do Logos Talk to their Audience?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tore; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    This study is based on two experiments where the ability of a new logo to reach and audience is explored. The approach is inspired by cybernetics and is based on measuring the variation of the reception of a logo seen just once. The variation is measured as the combined variation of between...... to the audience. A big variation within-subject means that the individual receives a varied, deep, and nuanced message. The ability to do this rests partly on the ability to activate competences and experiences from the past and thus making sense. The findings are that few logo elements are received by audiences...

  8. Engagement with physics across diverse festival audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Joseph; Stanley, Jessica; Davis, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    Science shows provide a method of introducing large public audiences to physics concepts in a nonformal learning environment. While these shows have the potential to provide novel means of educational engagement, it is often difficult to measure that engagement. We present a method of producing an interactive physics show that seeks to provide effective and measurable audience engagement. We share our results from piloting this method at a leading music and arts festival as well as a science festival. This method also facilitated the collection of opinions and feedback directly from the audience which helps explore the benefits and limitations of this type of nonformal engagement in physics education.

  9. Dialogues between audience research and production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redvall, Eva Novrup

    2017-01-01

    This article offers a historical analysis of the audience testing of television drama from The Danish Broadcasting Corporation (DR) by the in-house DR Media Research Department from the mid-1990s until 2016. The article investigates how the methods for testing have changed from more traditional...... focus groups and surveys to include biometric methods (e.g. skin conductance) to measure audience arousal. While audience testing is often primarily viewed as a quality measurement tool for executives, the article argues that testing can also be a dialogue-based tool offering creative practitioners...

  10. Indoor and Outdoor Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhavi; Hays, Amy

    2016-09-01

    In last 30 to 40 years there has been a significant increase in the incidence of allergy. This increase cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. Increasing air pollution and its interaction with biological allergens along with changing lifestyles are contributing factors. Dust mites, molds, and animal allergens contribute to most of the sensitization in the indoor setting. Tree and grass pollens are the leading allergens in the outdoor setting. Worsening air pollution and increasing particulate matter worsen allergy symptoms and associated morbidity. Cross-sensitization of allergens is common. Treatment involves avoidance of allergens, modifying lifestyle, medical treatment, and immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Creating Visual Design and Meaningful Audience Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur; Ion Wille, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the EU Interreg funded Classical Composition Music and Experience Design project, was to rethink audience experiences and develop knowledge of applied technologies connected to classical music and live concerts. The project and its main objectives was motivated by at least thee...... conditions. The most important being 1) the development in new technology creating new expectations in audiences attending cultural events, including classical concerts, 2) resent decline in audiences attending classical music and 3) a will to strengthen relations between cultural institutions, creative...... businesses and educational institutions in the Øresund region (including the city and surroundings of Malmø and Copenhagen). Therefore the project Classical Composition Music and Experience Design focused on developing new and meaningful audience experiences where live classical music meets new digital...

  12. Effective Climate Communication with Difficult Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, S.

    2015-12-01

    Climate communication is often fraught with ideological baggage ("noise") that makes it very difficult to connect to audiences. In these cases, it is helpful to use "best practices" known from other fields of communication. Engaging audiences with authenticity, using plain language, respecting cultural and political differences, and a sprinkling of humor can go a long way toward establishing a connection. It's important to avoid common but polarizing tropes from popular media, and often quite helpful to frame climate issues in novel or unexpected ways that cut across entrenched political discourse. Emerging social science research Beyond ideology, climate change is Simple, Serious, and Solvable. Effective communication of these three key ideas can succeed when the science argument is carefully framed to avoid attack of the audience's ethical identity. Simple arguments from common sense and everyday experience are more successful than data. Serious consequences to values that resonate with the audience can be avoided by solutions that don't threaten those values.

  13. The Disappearing Audience and Reflexive Visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Girginova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to popular opinion and some academic writing that celebrates the renewed visibility of new media audiences, this essay argues that they are increasingly going into retreat. To understand how new media audiences “disappear” from view of one another, I borrow from Brighenti’s typology of visibility and develop the idea of “reflexive visibility.” The latter describes the ability to socially orient ourselves in a digital environment through the textual and contextual cues of others—an activity that is of utmost importance not only to researchers wishing to “see” various audiences but also for audiences writ large, wishing to know themselves.

  14. The child audience from TV professionals' viewpoints

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Sara

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the viewpoints of a range of television professionals regarding young audiences - how they define children, how they see this special kind of audience, including its needs and interests, and how they view the role of television in children's lives. Focusing on these ideas, our goal is to understand how they translate into decisions about the format and content of schedules, programming, production, marketing campaigns, regulation measures and also res...

  15. Journal "Kas Jauns": audience uses and gratifications

    OpenAIRE

    Mehtijeva, Jekaterina

    2012-01-01

    The goal of barchelors work „Journal "Kas Jauns": audience uses and gratifications” is to analize and define what are the main readers needs and to what extenct these needs are being satisfied. As well as to define readers habits In the theoretical part the definition of audience is provided as well, as breakdown of the main readers expectations in respect of the theory of media uses and gratification. In order to appropriately analyze the theory behind these Academic thesis the magazine "...

  16. Media brand loyalty through online audience integration?

    OpenAIRE

    Lischka, Juliane A

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the question whether audience members become loyal toward a media brand when sharing, liking or commenting on online media content – or are loyal readers more inclined to write comments on online articles or to like and share them? The aim is to answer this chicken-egg causality dilemma on the audience integration-loyalty relation on a theoretical basis. Therefore, the concept of attitude-behavior consistency, the theory of reasoned action, involvement theory, uses and ...

  17. Believing that certain foods are addictive is associated with support for obesity-related public policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Alyssa; Musicus, Aviva; Soo, Jackie; Gearhardt, Ashley N; Gollust, Sarah E; Roberto, Christina A

    2016-09-01

    There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that certain foods may be addictive. Although evidence that nicotine is addictive generated support for anti-tobacco policies, little research has examined whether beliefs about the addictiveness of food are associated with support for policies to address overconsumption of nutritionally poor foods. U.S. adults (n=999) recruited from an online marketplace in February 2015 completed a survey. Using logistic regression, we examined the relationship between beliefs about the addictiveness of certain foods and support for twelve obesity-related policies while controlling for demographics, health status, political affiliation and ideology, beliefs about obesity, and attitudes towards food companies. We examined whether the association between beliefs about addictiveness and support for policies was consistent across other products and behaviors viewed as addictive (i.e., tobacco, alcohol, drugs, compulsive behaviors). In multivariable models, there was a significant association (OR; 95% CI) between beliefs about addictiveness and support for policies for compulsive behaviors (1.48; 1.26-1.74), certain foods (1.32; 1.14-1.53), drugs (1.23; 1.05-1.45), and alcohol (1.21; 1.08-1.36) but not for tobacco (1.11; 0.90-1.37). For foods, the association between beliefs about addictiveness and obesity-related policy support was the strongest between such beliefs and support for labels warning that certain foods may be addictive, industry reductions in salt and sugar, energy drink bans, and sugary drink portion size limits. Overall, believing that products/behaviors are addictive was associated with support for policies intended to curb their use. If certain foods are found to be addictive, framing them as such may increase obesity-related policy support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Length of stay and associated costs of obesity related hospital admissions in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vellinga, Akke

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is the cause of other chronic diseases, psychological problems, obesity shortens the lifespan and puts strain on health systems. The risk associated with childhood obesity in particular, which will accelerate the development of adult morbidity and mortality, has been identified as an emerging public health problem. METHODS: To estimate the length of stay and associated hospital costs for obesity related illnesses a cost of illness study was set up. All discharges from all acute hospitals in the Republic of Ireland from 1997 to 2004 with a principal or secondary diagnostic code for obesity for all children from 6 to 18 years of age and for adults were collected.A discharge frequency was calculated by dividing obesity related discharges by the total number of diagnoses (principal and secondary) for each year. The hospital costs related to obesity was calculated based on the total number of days care. RESULTS: The discharge frequency of obesity related conditions increased from 1.14 in 1997 to 1.49 in 2004 for adults and from 0.81 to 1.37 for children. The relative length of stay (number of days in care for obesity related conditions per 1000 days of hospital care given) increased from 1.47 in 1997 to 4.16 in 2004 for children and from 3.68 in 1997 to 6.74 in 2004 for adults.Based on the 2001 figures for cost per inpatient bed day, the annual hospital cost was calculated to be 4.4 Euromillion in 1997, increasing to 13.3 Euromillion in 2004. At a 20% variable hospital cost the cost ranges from 0.9 Euromillion in 1997 to 2.7 Euromillion in 2004; a 200% increase. CONCLUSION: The annual increase in the proportion of hospital discharges related to obesity is alarming. This increase is related to a significant increase in economic costs. This paper emphasises the need for action at an early stage of life. Health promotion and primary prevention of obesity should be high on the political agenda.

  19. [Polycystic ovary syndrome: an example of obesity-related cardiovascular complication affecting young women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, Francesco; Cascella, Teresa; Giallauria, Francesco; Palomba, Stefano; De Lorenzo, Anna; Lucci, Rosa; Ambrosino, Elena; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Vigorito, Carlo

    2006-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a good example of obesity-related cardiovascular complication affecting young women. PCOS is not only considered a reproductive problem but rather represents a complex endocrine, multifaceted syndrome with important health implications. Several evidences suggest an increased cardiovascular risk of cardiovascular disease associated with this syndrome, characterized by an impairment of heart structure and function, endothelial dysfunction and lipid abnormalities. All these features, probably linked to insulin-resistance, are often present in obese PCOS patients. Cardiovascular abnormalities represent important long-term sequelae of PCOS that need further investigations.

  20. Group Cooperation in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    Utilizing the Beatles' Yellow Submarine fantasy (e.g., the Blue Meanies), this outdoor education program is designed for sixth graders and special education students. Activities developed at the Cortland Resident Outdoor Education Camp include a series of group stress/challenge activities to be accomplished by everyone in the group, as a group.…

  1. Outdoor Education: Definition and Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Phyllis

    Because outdoor education programs occur in every geographic location, are sponsored by all levels of educational institutions, state and local government agencies, and private entrepreneurs, and have no nationally standardized curriculum or measures of competency or knowledge, outdoor education may best be defines as "education in, about, and for…

  2. Bringing Astronomy Directly to New Audiences (50,000 People) at Outdoor Concerts and Music Festivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.

    2014-07-01

    My NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) has brought astronomy to 50,000 music lovers at the National Mall (co-sponsor OSTP); Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood music festivals; and classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts in parks assisted by astronomy clubs (55 events since 2009). Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Tony Orlando, and Wilco performed at these events. MAUS combines solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; large posters/banners (From the Earth to the Universe; Visions of the Universe); videos; hands-on activities (Night Sky Network; Harvard-Smithsonian CfA); imaging with a cell phone mount; and hand-outs (info on science museums, astronomy clubs, and citizen science) before and after the concerts or at intermission. MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large enthusiastic crowds. Many young children participated in this family learning experience-often the first time they looked through a telescope. Outcomes: While education!

  3. Teaching Audience Adaptation Using Connected Presentations and Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opt, Susan K.

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Introduction to Communication, Public Speaking, Persuasion, Business Communication. Objective: This activity increases students' understanding of audience adaptation and improves their ability to adapt presentations to specific audiences.

  4. Outdoor schools: Limits and dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Smetáčková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor school is a stable element of Czech educational system. However,many changes have occurred during the last twenty years in the purposes of outdoorschools and in their organization. The article presents various school statistics andresults of research which included questionnaire survey in elementary schools in Pragueand a case study of two classes. The study found that the outdoor school programmesare getting shorter, budgets for outdoor schools are reduced, and prices of outdoorschool programmes for parents are increasing. Because of high prices, almost 20 % ofpupils cannot attend outdoor schools. Nevertheless, according to teachers, pupils andparents, the main purpose of outdoor school programmes is to create a better socialclimate in peer groups. Because of high rates of absence, this goal is partly invalid.Another purpose should be that teachers and children get to know each other better.This goal is invalid as well because many schools hire commercial agencies which limitsthe time that pupils and teachers spend together.

  5. An assessment of the relationships between overweight, obesity, related chronic health conditions and worker absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jeffrey T; Potter, Lloyd B

    2014-01-01

    Worker absenteeism is an important area of study within the field of occupational health. Prior studies have linked the presence of obesity to higher rates of absenteeism, but have not examined whether or not the relationship is moderated by the presence of other chronic health conditions or whether or not the relationships have been stable over time. Data from the 2000 and 2010 National Health Interview Survey, a nationally representative sample of the US population, were analyzed to determine the extent to which the presence of 5 obesity-related chronic health conditions moderates the relationship between overweight/obesity and worker absenteeism, and whether or not these relationships are stable over time. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between overweight/obesity, the obesity-related chronic health conditions and worker absenteeism, while controlling for demographic, socio-economic, occupational, health related and behavioral variables. The findings suggest that obesity (p absenteeism, and that the effect is doubled for those with both class III obesity (BMI ≥ 40) and diabetes. The moderating effect between class III obesity and diabetes was observed only in 2010, indicating that this may be a relatively new phenomenon. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviors among Racially and Ethnically Diverse Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Harris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Obesity is common among reproductive age women and disproportionately impacts racial/ethnic minorities. Our objective was to assess racial/ethnic differences in obesity-related dietary behaviors among pregnant and postpartum women, to inform peripartum weight management interventions that target diverse populations. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 212 Black (44%, Hispanic (31%, and White (25% women, aged ≥ 18, pregnant or within one year postpartum, in hospital-based clinics in Baltimore, Maryland, in 2013. Outcomes were fast food or sugar-sweetened beverage intake once or more weekly. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between race/ethnicity and obesity-related dietary behaviors, adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Results. In adjusted analyses, Black women had 2.4 increased odds of fast food intake once or more weekly compared to White women (CI = 1.08, 5.23. There were no racial/ethnic differences in the odds of sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Discussion. Compared with White or Hispanic women, Black women had 2-fold higher odds of fast food intake once or more weekly. Black women might benefit from targeted counseling and intervention to reduce fast food intake during and after pregnancy.

  7. Genetic association analysis of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and obesity-related phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Rodríguez, M; Carrillo-Ávila, J A; Schmidt-RioValle, J; González-Jiménez, E; Vargas, S; Martín, J; Rueda-Medina, B

    2018-01-15

    Vitamin D has been established as a key factor in the development of obesity through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of the VDR gene to obesity-related phenotypes in a population of Caucasian young adults. The study population consisted of 701 healthy Spanish young adults (mean age 20.41±2.48). Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of VDR (TaqI, BsmI and FokI) were selected as genetic markers. Body composition measurements including weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), percentage of fat mass (PFM), fat-free mass (FFM) and visceral fat level (VFL) were analysed. Differences in obesity traits across the genotypes were determined using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The FokI polymorphism showed a significant association with PFM across the whole population after adjusting for age and sex (p=0.022). Age-adjusted analysis revealed an association between body weight and the TaqI and BsmI SNPs in males (p=0.033 and p=0.028, respectively). However, these positive findings did not remain significant after applying the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Our findings suggest that VDR genetic variants are unlikely to play a major role in obesity-related phenotypes in a population of Caucasian young adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Association of peripheral total and differential leukocyte counts with obesity-related complications in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Aya; Ohnishi, Shunsuke; Orito, Chieko; Kawahara, Yukako; Takasaki, Hiroyo; Takeda, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Hashino, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been demonstrated to be associated with elevated leukocytes in adults and children. This study assessed the associations between peripheral total and differential leukocyte counts and obesity-related complications in young adults. 12 obese (median age 21.5 (range 19-28) years, median BMI 35.7 (range 32.0-44.9) kg/m(2)) and 11 normal (median age 23 (range 18-27) years, median BMI 19.5 (range 18.1-21.7) kg/m(2)) adults were enrolled. Complete blood count and serum levels of liver enzymes, fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipids were measured, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was calculated. Fat mass was calculated using a bioimpedance analysis device, and ultrasonography was performed to measure fat thickness and to detect fatty change of the liver. Total leukocyte and monocyte counts were significantly increased in obese young adults. Total leukocyte count was associated with liver enzyme levels, insulin resistance as well as visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness. Neutrophil count was associated with insulin resistance. Lymphocyte count was associated with serum liver enzymes, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Monocyte count was associated with serum liver enzyme, insulin resistance, visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness, body fat mass, and percentage body fat. The results of this study suggest that chronic low-grade systemic inflammation is associated with obesity-related complications such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia in young adults. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  9. Preparing Planetary Scientists to Engage Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupla, C. B.; Shaner, A. J.; Hackler, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    While some planetary scientists have extensive experience sharing their science with audiences, many can benefit from guidance on giving presentations or conducting activities for students. The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) provides resources and trainings to support planetary scientists in their communication efforts. Trainings have included sessions for students and early career scientists at conferences (providing opportunities for them to practice their delivery and receive feedback for their poster and oral presentations), as well as separate communication workshops on how to engage various audiences. LPI has similarly begun coaching planetary scientists to help them prepare their public presentations. LPI is also helping to connect different audiences and their requests for speakers to planetary scientists. Scientists have been key contributors in developing and conducting activities in LPI education and public events. LPI is currently working with scientists to identify and redesign short planetary science activities for scientists to use with different audiences. The activities will be tied to fundamental planetary science concepts, with basic materials and simple modifications to engage different ages and audience size and background. Input from the planetary science community on these efforts is welcome. Current results and resources, as well as future opportunities will be shared.

  10. TV Audience Measurement with Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Shawndra

    2014-06-01

    TV audience measurement involves estimating the number of viewers tuned into a TV show at any given time as well as their demographics. First introduced shortly after commercial television broadcasting began in the late 1940s, audience measurement allowed the business of television to flourish by offering networks a way to quantify the monetary value of TV audiences for advertisers, who pay for the estimated number of eyeballs watching during commercials. The first measurement techniques suffered from multiple limitations because reliable, large-scale data were costly to acquire. Yet despite these limitations, measurement standards remained largely unchanged for decades until devices such as cable boxes, video-on-demand boxes, and cell phones, as well as web apps, Internet browser clicks, web queries, and social media activity, resulted in an explosion of digitally available data. TV viewers now leave digital traces that can be used to track almost every aspect of their daily lives, allowing the potential for large-scale aggregation across data sources for individual users and groups and enabling the tracking of more people on more dimensions for more shows. Data are now more comprehensive, available in real time, and cheaper to acquire, enabling accurate and fine-grained TV audience measurement. In this article, I discuss the evolution of audience measurement and what the recent data explosion means for the TV industry and academic research.

  11. How to take absorptive surfaces into account when designing outdoor sound reinforcement systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten bo

    1996-01-01

    When sound reinforcement systems are used outdoors, absorptive surfaces are usually present along the propagation path of the sound. This may lead to a very significant colouration of the spectrum received by the audience. The colouration depends on the location and directivity of the loudspeaker......, the nature of the absorptive surface (eg grass) and the location of the audience. It is discussed how this effect may be calculated and numerical examples are shown. The results show a significant colouration and attenuation of the sound due to grass-covered surfaces....

  12. Outdoor recreation-related outdoor education: scope of the research (1995-2010) 2

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Philippa

    2012-01-01

    Article made available with the permission of the New Zealand Journal of Outdoor Education. This is part two of an article on the scope of the New Zealand outdoor recreation-related outdoor education research published from January 1995 to June 2010. It draws on the literature covered the 2010 Sport and Recreation New Zealand-funded Outdoor Recreation Research Stocktake, which included outdoor education material. This part covers resources for outdoor recreation-related outdoor education, ...

  13. Audience studies 2.0: on the theory, politics and method of qualitative audience research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, J.

    2009-01-01

    Audience research, this paper suggests, is an excellent field to test the claims of Media Studies 2.0. Moreover, 2.0 claims are a good means to review qualitative audience research itself too. Working from a broad strokes analysis of the theory, politics and method of interpretative research with

  14. Flipping the Audience Script: An Activity That Integrates Research and Audience Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chris; Hannah, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a flipped classroom activity that requires students to integrate research and audience analysis. The activity uses Twitter as a data source. In the activity, students identify a sample, collect customer tweets, and analyze the language of the tweets in an effort to construct knowledge about an audience's values, needs, and…

  15. Keeping Your Audience in Mind: Applying Audience Analysis to the Design of Interactive Score Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Rivera, Juan Diego; Katz, Irvin R.

    2014-01-01

    Score reports have one or more intended audiences: the people who use the reports to make decisions about test takers, including teachers, administrators, parents and test takers. Attention to audience when designing a score report supports assessment validity by increasing the likelihood that score users will interpret and use assessment results…

  16. The design of virtual audiences: Noticeable and recognizable behavioral styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kang, N.; Brinkman, W.P.; Birna Van Riemsdijk, M.; Neerincx, M.

    2016-01-01

    Expressive virtual audiences are used in scientific research, psychotherapy, and training. To create an expressive virtual audience, developers need to know how specific audience behaviors are associated with certain characteristics of an audience, such as attitude, and how well people can recognize

  17. Inventory of Determinants of Obesity-Related Behaviors in Adolescents: Development and Psychometric Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Parisa; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Jalali-Farahani, Sara; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Hooman, Haidar Ali; Parvin, Parnian; Ghasemi, Mohammadreza

    2015-07-01

    The rising prevalence of childhood obesity is a major health problem worldwide. Hence, there is a growing need for health professionals to become capable of assessing the factors that determine lifestyle in a culturally relevant manner. This study aimed to develop and assess a questionnaire for measuring determinants of obesity-related behaviors in Tehranian adolescents. Based on the results of a qualitative study and an extensive literature review, the 44-item "Inventory of determinants of obesity-related behaviors in adolescents (IDOBA)" with eight subscales was developed: 1) unhealthy nutrition and physical inactivity; 2) stress-related eating; 3) perceived inability; 4) perceived lack of threat; 5) perceived priority of educational achievement; 6) perceived acceptability; 7) motivation loss; and 8) lack of support. Validity of IDOBA was assessed, utilizing face, content, and construct validity methods. To confirm face validity, ten overweight/obese adolescents completed the questionnaire. To calculate content validity ratio (CVR) and content validity index (CVI), a different panel of ten experts commented independently on the necessity, relevance, clarity, and simplicity of each item. To assess construct validity using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), a total of 478 adolescents (57.7% male) aged 13 to 18 years, who were recruited from schools, participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test whether the data fit the hypothesized measurement model that was derived from EFA. Test-retest and internal consistency methods were used to assess reliability of the IDOBA scale. All items were perceived as relevant and comprehendible by adolescents. Content validity was confirmed by the panel of experts. The internal consistency, as measured by Cronbach's alpha coefficients, exceeded the minimum reliability standard of 0.60 for eight subscales. No ceiling effects were observed. Detected floor effects ranged from 0.2% for perceived

  18. The impact of bariatric surgery on obesity-related infertility and in vitro fertilization outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Orkun; Carr, Bruce R

    2012-12-01

    Obesity-related infertility is one of the most common problems of reproductive-age obese women who desire childbearing. The various types of bariatric surgeries have proved effective in controlling excessive weight gain, improving fertility, and preventing certain maternal and fetal complications in these women. This article summarizes the current evidence regarding the impact of bariatric surgery on obesity-related infertility and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. We have also attempted to draw conclusions about maternal and fetal risks and the benefits of bariatric surgery. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and Roux-en-Y procedures are the two most commonly performed bariatric surgeries. Bariatric surgery was believed to improve menstrual irregularity and increase ovulation rate in anovulatory obese women, which lead to increased pregnancy rates. Although there are data in the literature suggesting the improvement of both the ovulatory function and the spontaneous pregnancy rates in obese women who lost weight after bariatric surgery, most of these are case-control studies with a small number of patients. The data are insufficient to determine an ideal time interval for pregnancy after bariatric surgery; however, the general consensus is that pregnancy should be delayed 12 to 18 months after bariatric surgery to avoid nutritional deficiencies. Few data exist regarding IVF success rates in women who have undergone bariatric surgery. One pairwise study discussed five patients who underwent bariatric surgery followed by IVF that resulted in three term pregnancies in three patients after the first IVF cycle. Many studies reported reductions in obesity-related pregnancy complications such as gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders after bariatric surgery. Although data are inconsistent, some studies reported increased rate of preterm delivery and small for gestational age infants after bariatric surgery. Pregnancies after bariatric surgery may be

  19. The Disappearing Audience and Reflexive Visibility

    OpenAIRE

    Katerina Girginova

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to popular opinion and some academic writing that celebrates the renewed visibility of new media audiences, this essay argues that they are increasingly going into retreat. To understand how new media audiences “disappear” from view of one another, I borrow from Brighenti’s typology of visibility and develop the idea of “reflexive visibility.” The latter describes the ability to socially orient ourselves in a digital environment through the textual and contextual cues of others—an ac...

  20. Definition: Conservation Education, Environmental Education, Outdoor Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970

    Conservation education, outdoor education, and environmental education all have as a common goal the understanding and appreciation of the natural world. Outdoor education is a method of teaching wherein established disciplines, topics, and concepts which can best be taught outdoors are taught outdoors. Conservation education is the study of man's…

  1. The Cost of Becoming an Outdoor Instructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashel, Chris

    This article describes instructor criteria in three outdoor organizations: Outward Bound (OB), the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS), and the Wilderness Education Association (WEA). Common requirements for outdoor leadership programs are outdoor experience and skills, advanced first aid, CPR, and a minimum age requirement. Traditionally…

  2. 9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.27 Section 3.27... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.27 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Hamsters shall not be housed in outdoor facilities. (b) Guinea pigs shall not be housed in outdoor facilities unless...

  3. Could the improvement of obesity-related co-morbidities depend on modified gut hormones secretion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, Carmine; Padula, Maria Carmela; Martelli, Giuseppe; Tarantino, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and its associated diseases are a worldwide epidemic disease. Usual weight loss cures - as diets, physical activity, behavior therapy and pharmacotherapy - have been continuously implemented but still have relatively poor long-term success and mainly scarce adherence. Bariatric surgery is to date the most effective long term treatment for morbid obesity and it has been proven to reduce obesity-related co-morbidities, among them nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and mortality. This article summarizes such variations in gut hormones following the current metabolic surgery procedures. The profile of gut hormonal changes after bariatric surgery represents a strategy for the individuation of the most performing surgical procedures to achieve clinical results. About this topic, experts suggest that the individuation of the crosslink among the gut hormones, microbiome, the obesity and the bariatric surgery could lead to new and more specific therapeutic interventions for severe obesity and its co-morbidities, also non surgical. PMID:25469034

  4. Gut microbiota and sirtuins in obesity-related inflammation and bowel dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhan Shaheen E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by persistent low-grade inflammation with alterations in gut motility. Motor abnormalities suggest that obesity has effects on the enteric nervous system (ENS, which controls virtually all gut functions. Recent studies have revealed that the gut microbiota can affect obesity and increase inflammatory tone by modulating mucosal barrier function. Furthermore, the observation that inflammatory conditions influence the excitability of enteric neurons may add to the gut dysfunction in obesity. In this article, we discuss recent advances in understanding the role of gut microbiota and inflammation in the pathogenesis of obesity and obesity-related gastrointestinal dysfunction. The potential contribution of sirtuins in protecting or regulating the circuitry of the ENS under inflamed states is also considered.

  5. CFC Outdoor Tournament 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of whether you’re a fan of the "beautiful game", you’ve probably heard that the CFC Outdoor Tournament 2011 is the sporting event of the year for the CERN Football Club. This unmissable social, cultural and sporting event will be a chance for CERNois to mingle with external visitors. In the 2011 edition of this legendary tournament, which is over 45 years old, the principle of “fair play” is once again on display. Ten teams – 8 from CERN – are competing for the CFC title. The tournament concludes with a final on 7 July final. Along with a thrilling match, there will also be a host of festivities for the final, including an exhibition game, the final awards ceremony, surprise gifts, a barbeque, musical performances, and more! Make sure to highlight 7 July (after 18.00) on your agenda, and take advantage of what will surely be an unforgettable day! The final tournament matches have been in progress since April and are ...

  6. Dietary factors and cancer chemoprevention: An overview of obesity-related malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a growing health problem in developed nations and in countries that are in the process of westernization like India. Obesity is linked with several health disorders such as hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and certain cancers. Currently, obesity-related malignancies, e.g., cancers of the breast, prostate and colon are the leading cancers in the industrialized societies. An increased amount of fat or adipose tissue in an overweight or obese person probably influences the development of cancer by releasing several hormone-like factors or adipokines. The majority of adipokines are pro-inflammatory, which promote pathological conditions like insulin resistance and cancer. On the other hand, many recent studies have shown that adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine, has anti-cancer and insulin-sensitizing effects. Adiponectin exerts its physiological functions chiefly by activation of AMP kinase via adiponectin receptors. Interestingly, several fruits and vegetables may contain adiponectin-like molecules or may increase the biosynthesis of adiponectin in our body. Studies on adiponectin analogues or adiponectin receptor agonists are a promising area of cancer chemoprevention research. In general, fruits and vegetables contain various dietary substances such as vitamins, minerals (like calcium and selenium, fiber and phytochemicals or phenolic compounds (like flavonoids and vanilloids, which may act as anti-cancer agents. Similarly, several dietary constituents including phytochemicals may have anti-obesity effects. Consumption of such dietary compounds along with caloric restriction and physical activity may be helpful in preventing obesity-related cancers. For this review article, we searched PubMed primarily to get the relevant literature.

  7. Neurocognitive correlates of obesity and obesity-related behaviors in children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, J.; Matheson, BE.; Kaye, WH.; Boutelle, KN.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity rates have risen dramatically over the past few decades. Although obesity has been linked to poorer neurocognitive functioning in adults, much less is known about this relationship in children and adolescents. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to examine the relationship between obesity and obesity-related behaviors with neurocognitive functioning in youth. We reviewed articles from 1976 to 2013 using PsycInfo, PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar. Search terms included cognitive function, neurocognitive function/performance, executive function, impulsivity, self-regulation, effortful control, cognitive control, inhibition, delayed gratification, memory, attention, language, motor, visuo-spatial, academic achievement, obesity, overweight, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, adiposity and body fat. Articles were excluded if participants had health problems known to affect cognitive functioning, the study used imaging as the only outcome measure, they were non-peer-reviewed dissertations, theses, review papers, commentaries, or they were non-English articles. Sixty-seven studies met inclusion criteria for this review. Overall, we found data that support a negative relationship between obesity and various aspects of neurocognitive functioning, such as executive functioning, attention, visuo-spatial performance, and motor skill. The existing literature is mixed on the effects among obesity, general cognitive functioning, language, learning, memory, and academic achievement. Executive dysfunction is associated with obesity-related behaviors, such as increased intake, disinhibited eating, and less physical activity. Physical activity is positively linked with motor skill. More longitudinal research is needed to determine the directionality of such relationships, to point towards crucial intervention time periods in the development of children, and to inform effective treatment programs. PMID:23913029

  8. Associations between serum apelin-12 levels and obesity-related markers in Chinese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Jun Ba

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate possible correlations between apelin-12 levels and obesity in children in China and associations between apelin-12 and obesity-related markers, including lipids, insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR. METHODS: Forty-eight obese and forty non-obese age- and gender-matched Chinese children were enrolled between June 2008 and June 2009. Mean age was 10.42 ± 2.03 and 10.86±2.23 years in obesity and control groups, respectively. Main outcome measures were apelin-12, BMI, lipids, glucose and insulin. HOMA-IR was calculated for all subjects. RESULTS: All obesity group subjects had significantly higher total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, insulin levels and HOMA-IR (all P<0.05. In separate analyses, obese girls had significantly higher LDL-C, insulin and HOMA-IR than controls, and obese boys had significantly higher TC, TG, insulin and HOMA-IR than controls (all P<0.05. Apelin-12 levels were significantly higher in obese girls compared to controls (P = 0.024, and correlated positively with TG in all obese subjects. Among obese girls, apelin-12 levels correlated positively with TG, insulin and HOMA-IR after adjusting for age and BMI. In all boys (obese and controls apelin-12 was positively associated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG. No significant correlations were found in either group between apelin-12 levels and other characteristics after adjusting for age, sex, and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Apelin-12 levels are significantly higher in obese vs. non-obese girls in China and correlate significantly with obesity-related markers insulin, HOMA-IR, and TG. Increased apelin-12 levels may be involved in the pathological mechanism of childhood obesity.

  9. Audiences, museums and the English middle class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Longhurst

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly accepted way to analyse any media product is to consider production, text and audience processes. In a deceptively simple way, a television programme, for example, can be examined in the institutional, social and political context in which it is produced and with respect to the organizational framework that provides its immediate production environment. Second, its textual structures and strategies can be analysed using different approaches, such as structuralism or (in certain respects content analysis. Third, the way in which the audience understands (or decodes the text can be considered, as can the makeup of the audience, in terms of standard factors such as class, gender, age, ethnicity and so on. There are many variations on this sort of approach. This paper starts from such a premise. It suggests that in addition to the well formulated approaches to the study of the museum that focus generally on the institutional and wider social context for museums, or on specific museums and the processes that occur within them, or on the much studied strategies for display and narration of texts, the audiences for museums are also important.

  10. Complicating Audience: A Critical Communication Pedagogy Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joshua E.; Potter, David J.

    2018-01-01

    Courses: This activity is designed specifically for public-speaking courses, but it could be used in the general introductory communication course. It also holds potential for use in persuasion, argumentation, or strategic communication courses. Objectives: This activity helps students understand audience as a more complicated concept--one that…

  11. Audience development and its blind spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelof, Anja Mølle

    2015-01-01

    The term ‘audience development’ addresses current dilemmas in publicly funded arts institutions. It is increasingly deployed in cultural policies and insti- tutional practices in the Nordic countries, and the article provides a critical dis- cussion of the term. The article argues that the discou...

  12. The Audience of One: In Weakness, Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Thom

    1981-01-01

    Two approaches to the teaching of composition at the college level have evolved: concern with correctness and concern with expression. If the place of the audience in written communication is emphasized, it will be easier to make students see the difference between self-expression and self-indulgence. (MLW)

  13. Mirror Your Audience's Attitude: A Global Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meussling, Vonne

    Recent advertising research has suggested that to gain initial entry into and retain continual success with a targeted audience of consumers, it is wise to mirror the attitudes and desires of those consumers. This has proven effective in the United States, where companies such as Chevrolet, Levi Strauss, and Coca-Cola have successfully catered to…

  14. Conditioning audience patronage using subject matters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conditioning audience patronage using subject matters in Nollywood films: the example of 30 days in Atlanta. ... Abstract. Films are subject-based and when producers set out to communicate their viewpoints, some do it flamboyantly while others take the subtle path. Unlike live theatre before it, the possibility of a virile spiral ...

  15. Language, gay pornography, and audience reception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leap, William L

    2011-01-01

    Erotic imagery is an important component of gay pornographic cinema, particularly, where work of audience reception is concerned. However, to assume the audience engagement with the films is limited solely to the erotic realm is to underestimate the workings of ideological power in the context and aftermath of reception. For example, the director of the film under discussion here (Men of Israel; Lucas, 2009b) intended to present an erotic celebration of the nation-state. Yet, most viewers ignore the particulars of context in their comments about audience reception, placing the "Israeli" narrative within a broader framework, using transnational rather than film-specific criteria to guide their "reading" of the Israeli-centered narrative. This article uses as its entry point the language that viewers employ when describing their reactions to Men of Israel on a gay video club's Web site; this article shows how the work of audience reception may draw attention to a film's erotic details while invoking social and political messages that completely reframe the film's erotic narrative.

  16. Engagement with Physics across Diverse Festival Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Joseph; Stanley, Jessica; Davis, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Science shows provide a method of introducing large public audiences to physics concepts in a nonformal learning environment. While these shows have the potential to provide novel means of educational engagement, it is often difficult to measure that engagement. We present a method of producing an interactive physics show that seeks to provide…

  17. Audiences for the Theory of Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Howard

    2004-01-01

    In his closing comments, Howard Gardner discusses the various audiences that have emerged over the years for the theory of multiple intelligences. Under that rubric, he places the various papers in this issue and speculates about future lines of work on MI theory.

  18. Towards Biometric Assessment of Audience Affect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng Wieland, Jakob; Larsen, Lars Bo; Laursen, Jeanette Kølbæk

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how reliable affective responses can be obtained using objective biometric measures for media audience research. We use Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) to detect sixteen respondents’ arousal levels and as an objective measure to show how self- reporting disrupts the experience...

  19. Expanding the Audience for the Performing Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Alan R.

    Becoming involved in the arts is a process that involves movement through several stages, from disinterest to active attendance at and enthusiasm for performing arts events. Since target consumers at any time will differ in their placement on this continuum, marketing programs to expand arts audiences must first identify where each target segment…

  20. Systems Analysis and Design: Know Your Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinicke, Bryan A.

    2012-01-01

    Systems analysis and design (SAD) classes are required in both Information Systems and Accounting programs, but these audiences have very different needs for these skills. This article will review the requirements for SAD within each of these disciplines and compare and contrast the different requirements for teaching systems analysis and design…

  1. Methods of Speakers\\' Effects on the Audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    فریبا حسینی

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods of Speakers' Effects on the Audience    Nasrollah Shameli *   Fariba Hosayni **     Abstract   This article is focused on four issues. The first issue is related to the speaker's external appearance including the beauty of face, the power of his voice, moves and signals by hand, the stick and eyebrow as well as the height. Such characteristics could have an important effect on the audience. The second issue is related to internal features of the speaker. These include the ethics of the preacher , his/her piety and intention on the speakers based on their personalities, habits and emotions, knowledge and culture, and speed of learning. The third issue is concerned with the appearance of the lecture. Words should be clear enough as well as being mixed with Quranic verses, poetry and proverbs. The final issue is related to the content. It is argued that the subject of the talk should be in accordance with the level of understanding of listeners as well as being new and interesting for them.   3 - A phenomenon rhetoric: It was noted in this section How to give words and phrases so that these words and phrases are clear, correct, mixed in parables, governance and Quranic verses, and appropriate their meaning.   4 - the content of Oratory : It was noted in this section to the topic of Oratory and say that the Oratory should be the theme commensurate with the minds of audiences and also should mean that agree with the case may be, then I say: that the rhetoric if the theme was innovative and new is affecting more and more on the audience.     Key words : Oratory , Preacher , Audience, Influence of speech     * Associate Professor, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, University of Isfahan E-mail: Dr-Nasrolla Shameli@Yahoo.com   * * M.A. in Arabic Language and Literature from Isfahan University E-mail: faribahosayni@yahoo.com

  2. Selling Participation to Audiences in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Huang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Media globalization is facilitated by the development of new technologies within a framework of digitization and convergence. Contemporary new media provide networks through which the mingling of media occurs, shaping a “multi-mediacy” age, and a connecting of mediated/mediating venues in a condition of “immediacy”. Additionally, the business of communication has evolved from being the “communication of business” to the “business of business”. Multi-mediacy and immediacy have generated new avenues of profit from media. The paper will draw on Chitty’s theorization on web transactional venues to discuss new ways of farming of revenue from media. Media revenues have in the past and today been drawn from licence fees, media subscriptions and advertising. Today, media networks also sell “participation” to audiences directly by charging for text message voting/gaming, or sell a range of products and services through web-venue based commerce. This paper will undertake case studies to examine the increasing trend of “direct audience payment for participation”. The case studies that will be used are (A the intervention of Chinese Service Providers in reality TV shows and (B E-commerce on the Internet. Monternet (mo[bile I]nternet and Linktone are investigated as Service Providers (SPs and the consumer-to-consumer (C2C website www.taobao.com is studied compared with Eachnet (eBay in China. The paper will also investigate the influences of “direct audience payment for participation” on the quality of media products and communication flow between media and audience and generally discuss the consequences of the “direct audience payment for participation” from the perspective of communication ethics.

  3. OUTDOOR EDUCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA GUARAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reflection on the relationship between values and methodological principles of Outdoor Education and spatial and geographical education perspectives, especially in pre-school and primary school, which relates to the age between 3 and 10 years. Outdoor Education is an educational practice that is already rooted in the philosophical thought of the 16th and the 17th centuries, from John Locke to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and in the pedagogical thought, in particular Friedrich Fröbel, and it has now a quite stable tradition in Northern Europe countries. In Italy, however, there are still few experiences and they usually do not have a systematic and structural modality, but rather a temporarily and experimentally outdoor organization. In the first part, this paper focuses on the reasons that justify a particular attention to educational paths that favour outdoors activities, providing also a definition of outdoor education and highlighting its values. It is also essential to understand that educational programs in open spaces, such as a forest or simply the schoolyard, surely offers the possibility to learn geographical situations. Therefore, the question that arises is how to finalize the best stimulus that the spatial location guarantees for the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities about space and geography.

  4. Rational Wizards: Audience Interpreters in French Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Bourdon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will tell the story of the smallgroup of people who, in France, have been in charge of the measurement and theappreciation of the audience of television, and had to invent audience research,to organize it and to communicate its results to "clients" whodepended on it much earlier than usually assumed: television managers andprofessionals, public authorities, and, last but not least, advertisers. The paper will explore both change andcontinuity. First, change: the professional origin and training of measurerschanged much over the years. In the early days, they could have an almostliterary profile. The first person in charge of the audience at the RadioTélévision Française was a teacher of philosophy. His followers had a formationin sociology and semiology. They all insisted on the fact that they were not"simply" measurers, and also worried about appreciation, quality,culture. They always figures did produce figures, but rarely only about thenumber of people present in front of the screen, mostly about satisfaction,appreciation, preferences for given genres, viewing habits. As there was onlyone channel – until 1964, with the number of TV sets rising sharply, ratings,in the modern sense, were not critical.Things started to change gradually. In 1974,the public broadcasting corporation was divided into several companies,including three competing channels. The service in charge of measuring audiencewas put under the direct authority of the Prime Minister. Audience figuresplayed a part in the distribution of resources, not only advertising but throughthe license fee sharing. However, the law also provided a clause about an indexof quality, which never functioned satisfactorily, although the service incharge of audiences put much effort into it. In 1985, around the time of deregulation,change came. From outside, this was translated into the rise of daily,detailed, fast produced figures of the audience through audimeters, thenpeoplemeters

  5. The Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Digital News Audiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Chris

    2016-01-01

    of changing the socially-situated affordances of news use. Having sketched these contours, the chapter then highlights analytical challenges for understanding and conceptualizing the new interrelations between digital news content, production, and consumption, grounding this analysis with theoretical insights...... that emphasize the significance of spatiotemporal dynamics. The emphasis here is on the interrelations and mobilities of digital news audiences, based on a recognition of the productive impacts of media use while being careful to note the limitations of a paradigm shift that points solely to the possibilities...... generated by the ubiquitous presence of media in our everyday lives. Aspects of interaction and personalization beget by new media technologies certainly shape the possibilities, practices and power audiences have to choose news wherever, whenever, and however they want. However, this simultaneously...

  6. Trailer-targeting a potential audience

    OpenAIRE

    Brůnová, Lada

    2013-01-01

    How can movie production companies speak to their potential audience thru movie trailers? Which means do they use and what is the public reception? How does a viewer interpret a movie trailer? What can we learn about viewers from movie trailers? This thesis is offering all the answers to questions mentioned above in two different parts - in the first part the concepts of movie trailers are introduced and explained, the second part analyses the outcomes of a research which studies the affects ...

  7. Imagining Rural Audiences in Remote Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelia Green

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1979, Australia’s then-Communication Minister Tony Staley commented that the introduction of satellite communications to the bush would “dispel the dis-tance – mental as well as geographical – between urban and regional dwellers, between the haves and the have-nots in a communication society” (Staley 1979: 2225, 2228-9. In saying this, Staley imagined a marginalised and disadvantaged audience of “have-nots”, paying for their isolation in terms of their mental dis-tance from the networked communications of the core. This paper uses ethnographic audience studies surveys and interviews (1986-9 to examine the validity of Staley’s imaginations in terms of four communication technologies: the telephone, broadcast radio, 2-way radio and the satellite. The notion of a mental difference is highly problematic for the remote audience. Inso-far as a perception of lack and of difference is accepted, it is taken to reflect the perspective and the product of the urban policy-maker. Far from accepting the “distance” promulgated from the core, remote audiences see such statements as indicating an ignorance of the complexity and sophistica-tion of communications in an environment where the stakes are higher and the options fewer. This is not to say that remote people were not keen to acquire satel-lite services – they were – it is to say that when they imagined such services it was in terms of equity and interconnections, rather than the “dispelling of distance”.

  8. The changes of serum leptin and insulin contents in elderly male patients with obesity-related hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan Hao; Huang Daijuan; Yuan Bin; He Yong; Zhang Yongxue

    2004-01-01

    To study the contents of serum leptin and insulin in elderly male patients with obesity-related hypertension, the levels of serum leptin and insulin in 21 normotensive cases and 41 hypertensive cases of them were determined by RIA. The results showed that the levels of serum leptin and insulin between hypertensives and normotensives in the non-obese groups were not significantly different (P>0.05). Compared with normotensives, the levels of serum leptin and insulin of hypertensives in the obese groups remarkably increased 1.8μg/L and 2.7 mIU/L respectively (P<0.01). The levels of serum leptin and insulin in the patients with obesity - related hypertension were markedly higher than those in the patients with non-obesity-related hypertension and elevated 2.7μg/L and 4.7mIU/L (P<0.01) respectively. Insulin-sensitivity index (ISI) successively decreased in the groups of HBPOb, NBPOb, HBPNOb and NBPNOb (relative ISI 0.50, 0.68, 0.92, 1 respectively). It is concluded that leptin-resistance and insulin-resistance exist in male elderly patients with obesity-related hypertension

  9. Obesity-Related Dietary Patterns and Health Status of Diabetes among At-Risk Latino College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Silvia J.; Hurtado-Ortiz, Maria T.; Armendariz, Marina; vanTwist, Victoria; Castillo, Yessenia

    2017-01-01

    This study examined within-group differences in obesity-related dietary behaviors and the health status of 156 Latino students at risk for diabetes due to family history. Approximately 58% of students were overweight and/or obese, with female students reporting a greater risk for diabetes. Consumption of meats, fried potatoes, breads, and…

  10. Determinants of Perceived Stress in Individuals with Obesity: Exploring the Relationship of Potentially Obesity-Related Factors and Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junne, Florian; Ziser, Katrin; Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Schag, Kathrin; Skoda, Eva; Mack, Isabelle; Niess, Andreas; Zipfel, Stephan; Teufel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Associations of specific types of stress with increased food intake and subsequent weight gain have been demonstrated in animal models as well as in experimental and epidemiological studies on humans. This study explores the research question of to what extent potentially obesity-related factors determine perceived stress in individuals with obesity. N = 547 individuals with obesity participated in a cross-sectional study assessing perceived stress as the outcome variable and potential determinants of stress related to obesity. Based on the available evidence, a five factorial model of 'obesity-related obesogenic stressors' was hypothesized, including the dimensions, 'drive for thinness', 'impulse regulation', 'ineffectiveness', 'social insecurity', and 'body dissatisfaction'. The model was tested using multiple linear regression analyses. The five factorial model of 'potentially obesity-related stressors' resulted in a total variance explanation of adjusted R² = 0.616 for males and adjusted R² = 0.595 for females for perceived stress. The relative variance contribution of the five included factors differed substantially for the two sexes. The findings of this cross-sectional study support the hypothesized, potentially obesity-related factors: 'drive for thinness', 'impulse regulation', 'ineffectiveness', 'social insecurity', and 'body dissatisfaction' as relevant determinants of perceived stress in individuals with obesity. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  11. Association between the SPRY1 gene polymorphism and obesity-related traits and osteoporosis in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hyun-Seok; Kim, Bo-Young; Kim, Jeonghyun; Hong, Kyung-Won; Jung, Suk-Yul; Lee, Yun-Seok; Huh, Dam; Oh, Bermseok; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Jeong, Seon-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence has revealed a close relationship between obesity and osteoporosis. It was reported recently that conditional knockout of the Spry1 gene in mice adipocytes causes an increase in body fat and a decrease in bone mass, and that these phenotypes are rescued by Spry1 overexpression in adipose tissue. In this study, we investigated whether genetic variation in the human SPRY1 gene is associated with obesity-related phenotypes and/or osteoporosis in humans. We performed a candidate gene association analysis between the four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 14 imputed SNPs in the SPRY1 gene and obesity-related traits and osteoporosis in a Korean women cohort (3013 subjects). All four SPRY1 gene SNPs were significantly associated with either obesity-related traits or osteoporosis. The TGCC haplotype in the SRPY1 gene showed simultaneous association with an increased risk for obesity-related traits, percentage body fat (p=0.0087) and percentage abdominal fat (p=0.047), and osteoporosis (odds ratio=1.50; p=0.025) in the recessive genetic model. Our results support a previous finding in conditional Spry1 gene knockout mice and suggest that the SPRY1 gene is an important genetic factor for determining the risk of both obesity and osteoporosis in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Using New Media to Reach Broad Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, P. L.

    2008-06-01

    The International Year of Astronomy New Media Working Group (IYA NMWG) has a singular mission: To flood the Internet with ways to learn about astronomy, interact with astronomers and astronomy content, and socially network with astronomy. Within each of these areas, we seek to build lasting programs and partnerships that will continue beyond 2009. Our weapon of choice is New Media. It is often easiest to define New Media by what it is not. Television, radio, print and their online redistribution of content are not New Media. Many forms of New Media start as user provided content and content infrastructures that answer that individual's creative whim in a way that is adopted by a broader audience. Classic examples include Blogs and Podcasts. This media is typically distributed through content specific websites and RSS feeds, which allow syndication. RSS aggregators (iTunes has audio and video aggregation abilities) allow subscribers to have content delivered to their computers automatically when they connect to the Internet. RSS technology is also being used in such creative ways as allowing automatically updating Google-maps that show the location of someone with an intelligent GPS system, and in sharing 100 word microblogs from anyone (Twitters) through a single feed. In this poster, we outline how the IYA NMWG plans to use New Media to reach target primary audiences of astronomy enthusiasts, image lovers, and amateur astronomers, as well as secondary audiences, including: science fiction fans, online gamers, and skeptics.

  13. Obesity-related metabolic dysfunction in dogs: a comparison with human metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Ceron, Jose J; Holden, Shelley L; Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Biourge, Vincent; Morris, Penelope J; German, Alexander J

    2012-08-28

    Recently, metabolic syndrome (MS) has gained attention in human metabolic medicine given its associations with development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Canine obesity is associated with the development of insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and mild hypertension, but the authors are not aware of any existing studies examining the existence or prevalence of MS in obese dogs.Thirty-five obese dogs were assessed before and after weight loss (median percentage loss 29%, range 10-44%). The diagnostic criteria of the International Diabetes Federation were modified in order to define canine obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD), which included a measure of adiposity (using a 9-point body condition score [BCS]), systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma cholesterol, plasma triglyceride, and fasting plasma glucose. By way of comparison, total body fat mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, whilst total adiponectin, fasting insulin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured using validated assays. Systolic blood pressure (P = 0.008), cholesterol (P = 0.003), triglyceride (P = 0.018), and fasting insulin (P disease associations and outcomes of weight loss.

  14. Treatment of Obesity-Related Complications with Novel Classes of Naturally Occurring PPAR Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Guri, Amir J; Hontecillas, Raquel

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and its associated comorbidities has grown to epidemic proportions in the US and worldwide. Thus, developing safe and effective therapeutic approaches against these widespread and debilitating diseases is important and timely. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) α, γ, and δ through several classes of pharmaceuticals can prevent or treat a variety of metabolic and inflammatory diseases, including type II diabetes (T2D). Thus, PPARs represent important molecular targets for developing novel and better treatments for a wide range of debilitating and widespread obesity-related diseases and disorders. However, available PPAR γ agonistic drugs such as Avandia have significant adverse side effects, including weight gain, fluid retention, hepatotoxicity, and congestive heart failure. An alternative to synthetic agonists of PPAR γ is the discovery and development of naturally occurring and safer nutraceuticals that may be dual or pan PPAR agonists. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the health effects of three plant-derived PPAR agonists: abscisic acid (ABA), punicic acid (PUA), and catalpic acid (CAA) in the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory and metabolic diseases and disorders.

  15. Adipocytes properties and crosstalk with immune system in obesity-related inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurizi, Giulia; Della Guardia, Lucio; Maurizi, Angela; Poloni, Antonella

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is a condition likely associated with several dysmetabolic conditions or worsening of cardiovascular and other chronic disturbances. A key role in this mechanism seem to be played by the onset of low-grade systemic inflammation, highlighting the importance of the interplay between adipocytes and immune system cells. Adipocytes express a complex and highly adaptive biological profile being capable to selectively activate different metabolic pathways in order to respond to environmental stimuli. It has been demonstrated how adipocytes, under appropriate stimulation, can easily differentiate and de-differentiate thereby converting themselves into different phenotypes according to metabolic necessities. Although underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, growing in adipocyte size and the inability of storing triglycerides under overfeeding conditions seem to be crucial for the switching to a dysfunctional metabolic profile, which is characterized by inflammatory and apoptotic pathways activation, and by the shifting to pro-inflammatory adipokines secretion. In obesity, changes in adipokines secretion along with adipocyte deregulation and fatty acids release into circulation contribute to maintain immune cells activation as well as their infiltration into regulatory organs. Over the well-established role of macrophages, recent findings suggest the involvement of new classes of immune cells such as T regulatory lymphocytes and neutrophils in the development inflammation and multi systemic worsening. Deeply understanding the pathways of adipocyte regulation and the de-differentiation process could be extremely useful for developing novel strategies aimed at curbing obesity-related inflammation and related metabolic disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Nutraceutical Approach for Preventing Obesity-Related Colorectal and Liver Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisataka Moriwaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and its related metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, alterations in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1/IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R axis, and the state of chronic inflammation, increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. However, these findings also indicate that the metabolic disorders caused by obesity might be effective targets to prevent the development of CRC and HCC in obese individuals. Green tea catechins (GTCs possess anticancer and chemopreventive properties against cancer in various organs, including the colorectum and liver. GTCs have also been known to exert anti-obesity, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory effects, indicating that GTCs might be useful for the prevention of obesity-associated colorectal and liver carcinogenesis. Further, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA, which improve protein malnutrition and prevent progressive hepatic failure in patients with chronic liver diseases, might be also effective for the suppression of obesity-related carcinogenesis because oral supplementation with BCAA reduces the risk of HCC in obese cirrhotic patients. BCAA shows these beneficial effects because they can improve insulin resistance. Here, we review the detailed relationship between metabolic abnormalities and the development of CRC and HCC. We also review evidence, especially that based on our basic and clinical research using GTCs and BCAA, which indicates that targeting metabolic abnormalities by either pharmaceutical or nutritional intervention may be an effective strategy to prevent the development of CRC and HCC in obese individuals.

  17. The protein type within a hypocaloric diet affects obesity-related inflammation: the RESMENA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Legarrea, Patricia; de la Iglesia, Rocio; Abete, Itziar; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Martinez, J Alfredo; Zulet, M Angeles

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two energy-restricted, differing with regard to protein content, on the inflammation state of obese individuals with features of metabolic syndrome. Ninety-six participants completed an 8-wk randomized intervention trial that compared the RESMENA diet (-30% energy, with 30% energy from protein) with a control diet (-30% energy, with 15% energy from protein) that was based on American Heart Association criteria. The mean body weight losses were 7.09 ± 0.82 kg and 6.73 ± 0.71 kg, respectively, with no differences seen between the groups. The endpoint inflammation score-which was based on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels-was significantly lower (P = 0.012) in the low-protein group (6.81 ± 2.32 versus 7.94 ± 1.94). The linear regression analyses revealed that total protein intake was positively associated with inflammation (P = 0.007) as well as with animal protein (P = 0.025) and meat protein (P = 0.015), but neither vegetable- nor fish-derived proteins were found to influence inflammatory status. Our results suggest that the type of protein consumed (more than the total protein consumed) within an energy-restricted diet influences the inflammation status associated with obesity-related comorbidities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Obesity Related Alterations in Plasma Cytokines and Metabolic Hormones in Chimpanzees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Nehete

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation and serves as a major risk factor for hypertension, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemias, and type-2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in metabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines, and immune function, in lean, overweight, and obese chimpanzees in a controlled environment. We observed increased plasma circulating levels of proinflammatory TH-1 cytokines, Interferon gamma, interleukin-6, interleukin-12p40, tumor necrosis factor, soluble CD40 ligand, and Interleukin-1β and anti-inflammatory TH-2 cytokines, Interleukin-4, Interleukin-RA, Interleukin-10, and Interleukin-13 in overweight and obese chimpanzees. We also observed increased levels of metabolic hormones glucagon-like-peptide-1, glucagon, connecting peptide, insulin, pancreatic peptide YY3–36, and leptin in the plasma of overweight and obese chimpanzees. Chemokine, eotaxin, fractalkine, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were higher in lean compared to obese chimpanzees, while chemokine ligand 8 increased in plasma of obese chimpanzees. We also observed an obesity-related effect on immune function as demonstrated by lower mitogen induced proliferation, and natural killer activity and higher production of IFN-γ by PBMC in Elispot assay, These findings suggest that lean, overweight, and obese chimpanzees share circulating inflammatory cytokines and metabolic hormone levels with humans and that chimpanzees can serve as a useful animal model for human studies.

  19. Effects of Obesity and Obesity-Related Molecules on Canine Mammary Gland Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H-Y; Im, K-S; Kim, N-H; Kim, H-W; Shin, J-I; Yhee, J-Y; Sur, J-H

    2015-11-01

    Obesity can affect the clinical course of a number of diseases, including breast cancer in women and mammary gland tumors in female dogs, via the secretion of various cytokines and hormones. The objective of this study was to examine the expression patterns of obesity-related molecules such as aromatase, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1 R) in canine mammary carcinomas (CMCs) on the basis of the body condition score (BCS). Comparative analyses of the expression of these molecules, together with prognostic factors for CMCs, including hormone receptors (HRs; estrogen and progesterone receptors), lymphatic invasion, central necrosis of the tumor, and histologic grade, were performed on 56 CMCs. The mean age of CMC onset was lower in the overweight or obese group (8.7 ± 1.9 years) than in the lean or ideal body weight group (10.4 ± 2.7 years). The proportion of poorly differentiated (grade III) tumors was significantly higher in the overweight or obese female dogs. Aromatase expression was significantly higher in the overweight or obese group and was correlated with the expression of HRs (P = .025). These findings suggest that overweight or obese status might affect the development and behavior of CMCs by tumor-adipocyte interactions and increased HR-related tumor growth. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Influence of Physical Activity and Nutrition on Obesity-Related Immune Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jung Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research examining immune function during obesity suggests that excessive adiposity is linked to impaired immune responses leading to pathology. The deleterious effects of obesity on immunity have been associated with the systemic proinflammatory profile generated by the secretory molecules derived from adipose cells. These include inflammatory peptides, such as TNF-α, CRP, and IL-6. Consequently, obesity is now characterized as a state of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, a condition considerably linked to the development of comorbidity. Given the critical role of adipose tissue in the inflammatory process, especially in obese individuals, it becomes an important clinical objective to identify lifestyle factors that may affect the obesity-immune system relationship. For instance, stress, physical activity, and nutrition have each shown to be a significant lifestyle factor influencing the inflammatory profile associated with the state of obesity. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to comprehensively evaluate the impact of lifestyle factors, in particular psychological stress, physical activity, and nutrition, on obesity-related immune function with specific focus on inflammation.

  1. Interaction between the RGS6 gene and psychosocial stress on obesity-related traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2017-03-31

    Obesity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases and arises from the interactions between environmental factors and multiple genes. Psychosocial stress may affect the risk for obesity, modifying food intake and choice. A recent study suggested regulator of G-protein signaling 6 (RGS6) as a novel candidate gene for obesity in terms of reward-related feeding under stress. In this study, we tried to verify the unidentified connection between RGS6 and human obesity with psychosocial stress in a Korean population. A total of 1,462 adult subjects, who participated in the Korean Association Resource cohort project, were included for this analysis. Obesity-related traits including waist circumference, body mass index, and visceral adipose tissue were recorded. A total of 4 intronic SNPs for the RGS6 gene were used for this study. We found that interactions between SNP rs2239219 and psychosocial stress are significantly associated with abdominal obesity (p = 0.007). As risk allele of this SNP increased, prevalence of abdominal obesity under high-stress conditions gradually increased (p = 0.013). However, we found no SNPs-by-stress interaction effect on other adiposity phenotypes. This study suggests that RGS6 is closely linked to stress-induced abdominal obesity in Korean adults.

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in obesity and obesity-related disorders: An expanded view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliassotti, Michael J; Kim, Paul Y; Estrada, Andrea L; Stewart, Claire M; Gentile, Christopher L

    2016-09-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is most notable for its central roles in calcium ion storage, lipid biosynthesis, and protein sorting and processing. By virtue of its extensive membrane contact sites that connect the ER to most other organelles and to the plasma membrane, the ER can also regulate diverse cellular processes including inflammatory and insulin signaling, nutrient metabolism, and cell proliferation and death via a signaling pathway called the unfolded protein response (UPR). Chronic UPR activation has been observed in liver and/or adipose tissue of dietary and genetic murine models of obesity, and in human obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Activation of the UPR in obesity and obesity-related disorders likely has two origins. One linked to classic ER stress involving the ER lumen and one linked to alterations to the ER membrane environment. This review discusses both of these origins and also considers the role of post-translational protein modifications, such as acetylation and palmitoylation, and ER-mitochondrial interactions to obesity-mediated impairments in the ER and activation of the UPR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbiome Remodeling via the Montmorillonite Adsorption-Excretion Axis Prevents Obesity-related Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Xu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and its related metabolic disorders are closely correlated with gut dysbiosis. Montmorillonite is a common medicine used to treat diarrhea. We have previously found that dietary lipid adsorbent-montmorillonite (DLA-M has an unexpected role in preventing obesity. The aim of this study was to further investigate whether DLA-M regulates intestinal absorption and gut microbiota to prevent obesity-related metabolic disorders. Here, we show that DLA-M absorbs free fatty acids (FFA and endotoxins in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the combination of fluorescent tracer technique and polarized light microscopy showed that DLA-M crystals immobilized BODIPY® FL C16 and FITC-LPS, respectively, in the digestive tract in situ. HFD-fed mice treated with DLA-M showed mild changes in the composition of the gut microbiota, particularly increases in short-chain fatty acids (SCFA-producing Blautia bacteria and decreases in endotoxin-producing Desulfovibrio bacteria, these changes were positively correlated with obesity and inflammation. Our results indicated that DLA-M immobilizes FFA and endotoxins in the digestive tract via the adsorption-excretion axis and DLA-M may potentially be used as a prebiotic to prevent intestinal dysbiosis and obesity-associated metabolic disorders in obese individuals.

  4. Association between obesity-related biomarkers and cognitive and motor development in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Ana Cristina R; Mendonça, Vanessa A; Oliveira, Katherine S C; de Andrade, Camila Alves; Leite, Hércules Ribeiro; da Fonseca, Sueli Ferreira; Vieira, Erica Leandro Marciano; Teixeira Júnior, Antônio Lúcio; Lacerda, Ana Cristina Rodrigues

    2017-05-15

    This study aimed to verify the association between obesity-related biomarkers and cognitive and motor development in infants between 6 and 24 months of age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 50 infants and plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2), chemokines, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serum cortisol and redox status were measured. The Bayley-III test was utilized to evaluate cognitive and motor development, and multiple linear stepwise regression models were performed to verify the association between selected biomarkers and cognitive and motor development. A significant association was found among plasma leptin and sTNFR1 levels with cognitive composite scores, and these two independents variables together explained 37% of the variability of cognitive composite scores (p=0.001). Only plasma sTNFR1 levels were associated and explained 24% of the variability of motor composite scores (p=0.003). Plasma levels of sTNFR1 were associated with the increase in cognitive and motor development scores in infants between 6 and 24 months of age through a mechanism not directly related to excess body weight. Moreover, increase in plasma levels of leptin reduced the cognitive development in this age range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Noni and Its Potential in Obesity-Related Metabolic Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Carla Inada

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cultural and economic shifts in the early 19th century led to the rapid development of companies that made good profits from technologically-produced commodities. In this way, some habits changed in society, such as the overconsumption of processed and micronutrient-poor foods and devices that gave rise to a sedentary lifestyle. These factors influenced host-microbiome interactions which, in turn, mediated the etiopathogenesis of “new-era” disorders and diseases, which are closely related, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hypertension, and inflammatory bowel disease, which are characterized by chronic dysregulation of metabolic and immune processes. These pathological conditions require novel and effective therapeutic approaches. Morinda citrifolia (noni is well known as a traditional healing plant due to its medicinal properties. Thus, many studies have been conducted to understand its bioactive compounds and their mechanisms of action. However, in obesity and obesity-related metabolic (dysfunction syndrome, other studies are necessary to better elucidate noni’s mechanisms of action, mainly due to the complexity of the pathophysiology of obesity and its metabolic dysfunction. In this review, we summarize not only the clinical effects, but also important cell signaling pathways in in vivo and in vitro assays of potent bioactive compounds present in the noni plant which have been reported in studies of obesity and obesity-associated metabolic dysfunction.

  6. Sex Commonalities and Differences in Obesity-Related Alterations in Intrinsic Brain Activity and Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A; Labus, Jennifer S; Bhatt, Ravi R; Ju, Tiffany; Love, Aubrey; Bal, Amanat; Tillisch, Kirsten; Naliboff, Bruce; Sanmiguel, Claudia P; Kilpatrick, Lisa A

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to characterize obesity-related sex differences in the intrinsic activity and connectivity of the brain's reward networks. Eighty-six women (n = 43) and men (n = 43) completed a 10-minute resting functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Sex differences and commonalities in BMI-related frequency power distribution and reward seed-based connectivity were investigated by using partial least squares analysis. For whole-brain activity in both men and women, increased BMI was associated with increased slow-5 activity in the left globus pallidus (GP) and substantia nigra. In women only, increased BMI was associated with increased slow-4 activity in the right GP and bilateral putamen. For seed-based connectivity in women, increased BMI was associated with reduced slow-5 connectivity between the left GP and putamen and the emotion and cortical regulation regions, but in men, increased BMI was associated with increased connectivity with the medial frontal cortex. In both men and women, increased BMI was associated with increased slow-4 connectivity between the right GP and bilateral putamen and the emotion regulation and sensorimotor-related regions. The stronger relationship between increased BMI and decreased connectivity of core reward network components with cortical and emotion regulation regions in women may be related to the greater prevalence of emotional eating. The present findings suggest the importance of personalized treatments for obesity that consider the sex of the affected individual. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  7. Fighting obesity or obese persons? Public perceptions of obesity-related health messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R; Peterson, J L; Luedicke, J

    2013-06-01

    This study examined public perceptions of obesity-related public health media campaigns with specific emphasis on the extent to which campaign messages are perceived to be motivating or stigmatizing. In summer 2011, data were collected online from a nationally representative sample of 1014 adults. Participants viewed a random selection of 10 (from a total of 30) messages from major obesity public health campaigns from the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia, and rated each campaign message according to positive and negative descriptors, including whether it was stigmatizing or motivating. Participants also reported their familiarity with each message and their intentions to comply with the message content. Participants responded most favorably to messages involving themes of increased fruit and vegetable consumption, and general messages involving multiple health behaviors. Messages that have been publicly criticized for their stigmatizing content received the most negative ratings and the lowest intentions to comply with message content. Furthermore, messages that were perceived to be most positive and motivating made no mention of the word 'obesity' at all, and instead focused on making healthy behavioral changes without reference to body weight. These findings have important implications for framing messages in public health campaigns to address obesity, and suggest that certain types of messages may lead to increased motivation for behavior change among the public, whereas others may be perceived as stigmatizing and instill less motivation to improve health.

  8. Obesity-related behaviors among poor adolescents and young adults: Is social position associated with risk behaviors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Lucia Ritterman Weintraub

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study examines multiple dimensions of social position in relation to obesity-related behaviors in an adolescent and young adult population. In addition to using conventional measures of social position, including parental education and household expenditures, we explore the usefulness of three youth-specific measures of social position—community and society subjective social status and school dropout status. Data is taken from a 2004 house-to-house survey of urban households within the bottom 20th percentile of income distribution within seven states in Mexico. A total of 5,321 Mexican adolescents, aged 12-22 years, provided information on obesity-related behaviors (e.g. diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior and indicators of subjective and objective social position. A parent in each household provided information on socioeconomic status of the parent and household. Ordinal logistic regressions are used to estimate the associations of parental, household and adolescent indicators of social position and obesity-related risk behaviors. Those adolescents with the highest odds of adopting obesity risk behaviors were the ones who perceived themselves as lower in social status in reference to their peer community and those who had dropped out of school. We found no significant associations between parental education or household expenditures and obesity-related risk behaviors. Immediate social factors in adolescents' lives may have a strong influence on their health-related behaviors. This study provides evidence for the usefulness of two particular measures, both of which are youth-specific. Adolescents and young adults who have dropped out of school and those with lower perceived relative social position within their community are more likely to be at-risk for obesity-related behaviors than those with higher relative social position. We conclude that youth-specific measures may be important in identifying the most at

  9. 1 Aquatic Theatre: Women as Performing Audience Sunday ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    audience relationship. Keywords: Aquatic theatre, women, performing audience, festival, ... "Fine and Performing Arts" in the book The Land and People of Rivers. State. .... Jefferson as saying in the New York Times that “there is something.

  10. Audience and Young Bilingual Writers: Building on Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Leah

    2017-01-01

    This study explored how an audience-focused writing curriculum mediated the literacy development of bilingual Latina/o first-grade students. Drawing on translingual theories of literacy and scholarship describing the role of audience and audience awareness in skilled writing, this study qualitatively documented and analyzed students' writing and…

  11. Watching Dallas Again 1 : Doing Retro Audience Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilroy, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This essay and the audience reception projects it introduces alleviate the desperation of seeking the television audience by recourse to Ien Ang's influential book, Watching Dallas ([1982] 1985). Within the context of a unit on audience research in a master's-level course on media, two groups of

  12. Visualization Mode, Perceived Immediacy and Audience Evaluation of TV News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksobiech, Kenneth; And Others

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of audience perceptions of videotaped versus filmed actualities on television newscasts suggested that videotaped actualities were perceived as more immediate than filmed actualities, and that audience evaluation of newscasts using videotaped actualities was higher than audience evaluation of newscasts using filmed actualities. (GT)

  13. The Motion Picture Audience: A Neglected Aspect of Film Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Bruce A.

    There has been little valid and reliable research of the motion picture audience. Specific reasons for the movie industry's own inattention to audience research include the early popularity of films and the fact that since the industry does not sell advertising it does not need to account for its audience size and preferences. Some researchers…

  14. Sleeping with the enemy: Audience studies and critical literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, J.; van den Berg, A.; Mol, M.

    2013-01-01

    Audience studies is not the vibrant field it was in its 1980s and early 1990s heyday. Cultural studies today has a more balanced interest in production, audiences and texts. A renewed focus in audience studies on everyday meaning production, identity and relations of power could benefit from recent

  15. From 'folkism' to performance: a new scenic strategy for audience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performances of plays based on 'Folkism' are not accessible to the general audience due to the kind of staging techniques used for the performances of these plays. Instead of attaining total audience integration, the audience is alienated and estranged because of a natural gulf that exists in the proscenium theatre.

  16. Formal education in outdoor studies: introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Regional cultural perspectives involve outdoor studies in different ways in formal curricula. This section focuses on Western Europe, particularly the UK and Scandinavia, although also has a more international reach in Backman’s consideration of the training of teachers and in place-responsive teaching as described by Mannion and Lynch. ‘Outdoor studies’ is not seen in curricula per se but under various more specialised aspects such as outdoor play, outdoor learning, environmental education, ...

  17. Fear of moving outdoors and development of outdoor walking difficulty in older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    To study which individual characteristics and environmental factors correlate with fear of moving outdoors and whether fear of moving outdoors predicts development of mobility limitation.......To study which individual characteristics and environmental factors correlate with fear of moving outdoors and whether fear of moving outdoors predicts development of mobility limitation....

  18. Taking the New Curriculum Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsey, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    A review of research on outdoor learning by Rickinson "et al." (2004) highlights the demonstrable educational benefits and provides a source of support, justification and an evidence base for educators looking to undertake more learning outside the classroom. Bird (2004) also reviewed the widely reported health benefits of outdoor…

  19. Signature Pedagogies in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Glyn

    2015-01-01

    The new National health and physical education curriculum in Australia includes outdoor education activities as a viable way to achieve intended learning outcomes. However, most health and physical education teacher education courses do not provide a strong focus on the theories, skills and pedagogies that are unique to the effective use of…

  20. Multilayer Controller for Outdoor Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reske-Nielsen, Anders; Mejnertsen, Asbjørn; Andersen, Nils Axel

    2006-01-01

    A full software and hardware solution has been designed, implemented and tested for control of a small agricultural automatic tractor. The objective was to realise a user-friendly, multi-layer controller architecture for an outdoor platform. The collaborative research work was done as a part of a...

  1. Expanding & strengthening outdoor recreation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter S. Hopkins

    1971-01-01

    Though the Forest Service has pioneered in outdoor recreation research, the funding for recreation research has been inadequate. Specific needs for research are outlined. There is a need to define recreation and recreation research in terms that busy legislators can understand.

  2. A Phenomenology of Outdoor Education Leader Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Stephanie C.; Lauzon, Lara L.; Meldrum, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Limited qualitative research exists on the experiences of outdoor education leaders. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the job-related experiences of outdoor education leaders within and outside the workplace. Five participants who had experience as outdoor education leaders completed in-depth, one-on-one interviews about…

  3. Benchmarking Outdoor Expeditionary Program Risk Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerts-Brandsma, Lisa; Furman, Nate; Sibthorp, Jim

    2017-01-01

    In 2003, the University of Utah and the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) completed a study that developed a risk management taxonomy in the outdoor adventure industry and assessed how different outdoor expeditionary programs (OEPs) managed risk (Szolosi, Sibthorp, Paisley, & Gookin, 2003). By unifying the language around risk, the…

  4. Hinterbrand Lodge Outdoor Education Center. Program Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC. European Area.

    Describing Department of Defense Dependents Schools Europe (DODDSEUR) use of Hinterbrand Lodge Outdoor Education Center, this document is directed to sponsors wishing to take groups to Hinterbrand for one or more of the five program options (outdoor education week, teacher weekend, school-designed outdoor education program, administrative faculty…

  5. Outdoor Leadership Skills: A Program Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooter, Wynn; Sibthorp, Jim; Paisley, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Successful hiring, training, and pairing or grouping of staff requires administrators to consider the relationship between their programs' goals and the specific outdoor leadership skills of individual leaders. Authors have divided outdoor leadership skills into a three-category structure, and models of outdoor leadership have focused on skills…

  6. 9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.52 Section 3.52 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... outdoors when the atmospheric temperature falls below 40 °F. (d) Protection from predators. Outdoor housing...

  7. Genetic Evidence for Causal Relationships Between Maternal Obesity-Related Traits and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Richmond, Rebecca C; Palmer, Tom M; Feenstra, Bjarke; Rangarajan, Janani; Metrustry, Sarah; Cavadino, Alana; Paternoster, Lavinia; Armstrong, Loren L; De Silva, N Maneka G; Wood, Andrew R; Horikoshi, Momoko; Geller, Frank; Myhre, Ronny; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Huikari, Ville; Painter, Jodie N; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Allard, Catherine; Berry, Diane J; Bouchard, Luigi; Das, Shikta; Evans, David M; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Heikkinen, Jani; Hofman, Albert; Knight, Bridget; Lind, Penelope A; McCarthy, Mark I; McMahon, George; Medland, Sarah E; Melbye, Mads; Morris, Andrew P; Nodzenski, Michael; Reichetzeder, Christoph; Ring, Susan M; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengpiel, Verena; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J C; Martin, Nicholas G; Spector, Tim D; Power, Christine; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Bisgaard, Hans; Grant, Struan F A; Nohr, Ellen A; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Jacobsson, Bo; Murray, Jeffrey C; Hocher, Berthold; Hattersley, Andrew T; Scholtens, Denise M; Davey Smith, George; Hivert, Marie-France; Felix, Janine F; Hyppönen, Elina; Lowe, William L; Frayling, Timothy M; Lawlor, Debbie A; Freathy, Rachel M

    2016-03-15

    Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. To test for genetic evidence of causal associations of maternal body mass index (BMI) and related traits with birth weight. Mendelian randomization to test whether maternal BMI and obesity-related traits are potentially causally related to offspring birth weight. Data from 30,487 women in 18 studies were analyzed. Participants were of European ancestry from population- or community-based studies in Europe, North America, or Australia and were part of the Early Growth Genetics Consortium. Live, term, singleton offspring born between 1929 and 2013 were included. Genetic scores for BMI, fasting glucose level, type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure (SBP), triglyceride level, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level, vitamin D status, and adiponectin level. Offspring birth weight from 18 studies. Among the 30,487 newborns the mean birth weight in the various cohorts ranged from 3325 g to 3679 g. The maternal genetic score for BMI was associated with a 2-g (95% CI, 0 to 3 g) higher offspring birth weight per maternal BMI-raising allele (P = .008). The maternal genetic scores for fasting glucose and SBP were also associated with birth weight with effect sizes of 8 g (95% CI, 6 to 10 g) per glucose-raising allele (P = 7 × 10(-14)) and -4 g (95% CI, -6 to -2 g) per SBP-raising allele (P = 1×10(-5)), respectively. A 1-SD ( ≈ 4 points) genetically higher maternal BMI was associated with a 55-g higher offspring birth weight (95% CI, 17 to 93 g). A 1-SD ( ≈ 7.2 mg/dL) genetically higher maternal fasting glucose concentration was associated with 114-g higher offspring birth weight (95% CI, 80 to 147 g). However, a 1-SD ( ≈ 10 mm Hg) genetically higher maternal SBP was associated with a 208-g

  8. Dietary modification dampens liver inflammation and fibrosis in obesity-related fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larter, Claire Z; Yeh, Matthew M; Haigh, W Geoffrey; Van Rooyen, Derrick M; Brooling, John; Heydet, Deborah; Nolan, Christopher J; Teoh, Narci C; Farrell, Geoffrey C

    2013-06-01

    Alms1 mutant (foz/foz) mice develop hyperphagic obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver (steatosis). High-fat (HF) feeding converts pathology from bland steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with fibrosis, which leads to cirrhosis in humans. We sought to establish how dietary composition contributes to NASH pathogenesis. foz/foz mice were fed HF diet or chow 24 weeks, or switched HF to chow after 12 weeks. Serum ALT, NAFLD activity score (NAS), fibrosis severity, neutrophil, macrophage and apoptosis immunohistochemistry, uncoupling protein (UCP)2, ATP, NF-κB activation/expression of chemokines/adhesion molecules/fibrogenic pathways were determined. HF intake upregulated liver fatty acid and cholesterol transporter, CD36. Dietary switch expanded adipose tissue and decreased hepatomegaly by lowering triglyceride, cholesterol ester, free cholesterol and diacylglyceride content of liver. There was no change in lipogenesis or fatty acid oxidation pathways; instead, CD36 was suppressed. These diet-induced changes in hepatic lipids improved NAS, reduced neutrophil infiltration, normalized UCP2 and increased ATP; this facilitated apoptosis with a change in macrophage phenotype favoring M2 cells. Dietary switch also abrogated NF-κB activation and chemokine/adhesion molecule expression, and arrested fibrosis by dampening stellate cell activation. Reversion to a physiological dietary composition after HF feeding in foz/foz mice alters body weight distribution but not obesity. This attenuates NASH severity and fibrotic progression by suppressing NF-κB activation and reducing neutrophil and macrophage activation. However, adipose inflammation persists and is associated with continuing apoptosis in the residual fatty liver disease. Taken together, these findings indicate that other measures, such as weight reduction, may be required to fully reverse obesity-related NASH. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  9. Impact of Weight of the Nation Community Screenings on Obesity-Related Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecking, Courtney T.; Noar, Seth M.; Dooley, Rachel M.; Gizlice, Ziya; Ammerman, Alice S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction HBO’s Weight of the Nation was a collaborative effort among several national organizations to raise awareness about the complexity of the obesity epidemic and promote action through media and community forums. The primary aim of this study was to assess the short-term effects of Weight of the Nation community screenings on obesity-related beliefs, intentions, and policy support. Methods Five Prevention Research Centers across the U.S. administered surveys at nine Weight of the Nation community screenings between September 2012 and May 2013. Adults aged ≥18 years who completed pre–post surveys were included. The survey assessed demographic information, perceptions of the documentary, efficacy to take action and influence policies that affect obesity, intentions to take actions to support a healthy weight, and positions on policy changes that impact food systems. Data were analyzed in 2015. Results A convenience sample of 442 individuals completed surveys. The sample was mostly health workers, female, college educated, aged 25–44 years, and racially and ethnically diverse. Significant increases (p<0.001) were observed for perceived self- and collective efficacy that individuals and communities can influence policies and environmental factors that affect obesity, intentions to take actions that contribute to a healthy weight, and support for policies that change the food system. Conclusions A broad, nationwide effort, such as Weight of the Nation, that combines media with opportunities to bring community members together for discussion, may play a role in influencing beliefs, intentions, and policy support regarding obesity prevention. PMID:28215388

  10. Obesity-related metabolic dysfunction in dogs: a comparison with human metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tvarijonaviciute Asta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, metabolic syndrome (MS has gained attention in human metabolic medicine given its associations with development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Canine obesity is associated with the development of insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and mild hypertension, but the authors are not aware of any existing studies examining the existence or prevalence of MS in obese dogs. Thirty-five obese dogs were assessed before and after weight loss (median percentage loss 29%, range 10-44%. The diagnostic criteria of the International Diabetes Federation were modified in order to define canine obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD, which included a measure of adiposity (using a 9-point body condition score [BCS], systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma cholesterol, plasma triglyceride, and fasting plasma glucose. By way of comparison, total body fat mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, whilst total adiponectin, fasting insulin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP were measured using validated assays. Results Systolic blood pressure (P = 0.008, cholesterol (P = 0.003, triglyceride (P = 0.018, and fasting insulin (P P = 0.001. However, hsCRP did not change with weight loss. Prior to weight loss, 7 dogs were defined as having ORMD, and there was no difference in total fat mass between these dogs and those who did not meet the criteria for ORMD. However, plasma adiponectin concentration was less (P = 0.031, and plasma insulin concentration was greater (P = 0.030 in ORMD dogs. Conclusions In this study, approximately 20% of obese dogs suffer from ORMD, and this is characterized by hypoadiponectinaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. These studies can form the basis of further investigations to determine path genetic mechanisms and the health significance for dogs, in terms of disease associations and outcomes of weight loss.

  11. Obesity-related differences between women and men in brain structure and goal-directed behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette eHorstmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences in the regulation of body weight are well documented. Here, we assessed obesity-related influences of gender on brain structure as well as performance in the Iowa Gambling Task. This task requires evaluation of both immediate rewards and long-term outcomes and thus mirrors the trade-off between immediate reward from eating and the long-term effect of overeating on body weight. In women, but not in men, we show that the preference for salient immediate rewards in the face of negative long-term consequences is higher in obese than in lean subjects. In addition, we report structural differences in the left dorsal striatum (i.e. putamen and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for women only. Functionally, both regions are known to play complimentary roles in habitual and goal-directed control of behavior in motivational contexts. For women as well as men, gray matter volume correlates positively with measures of obesity in regions coding the value and saliency of food (i.e. nucleus accumbens, orbitofrontal cortex as well as in the hypothalamus (i.e. the brain's central homeostatic centre. These differences between lean and obese subjects in hedonic and homeostatic control systems may reflect a bias in eating behavior towards energy intake exceeding the actual homeostatic demand. Although we cannot infer from our results the etiology of the observed structural differences, our results resemble neural and behavioral differences well known from other forms of addiction, however, with marked differences between women and men. These findings are important for designing gender-appropriate treatments of obesity and possibly its recognition as a form of addiction.

  12. Public health obesity-related TV advertising: lessons learned from tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Sherry L; Szczypka, Glen; Powell, Lisa M; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2007-10-01

    Over the past 25 years, the percent of overweight and obese adults and children in the United States has increased dramatically. The magnitude and scope of the public health threat from obesity have resulted in calls for a national comprehensive obesity prevention strategy, akin to tobacco use prevention strategies undertaken over the past two decades. The purpose of this paper is to describe and compare population exposure to paid media campaigns for tobacco and obesity prevention, draw lessons from tobacco advertising, and compare tobacco and obesity behaviors/influences to identify priorities and pitfalls for further research on obesity adverting. This is a descriptive study. Ratings data for the years 1999-2003, for the top 75 designated market areas in the U.S. were used to quantify exposure levels to anti-obesity and anti-smoking advertising in the U.S. Anti-tobacco campaigns preceded anti-obesity campaigns by several years, and in each year exposure levels--both total and average--for anti-tobacco media campaigns far outweighed those of anti-obesity campaigns. It is important to compare both similarities and differences between smoking- and obesity-related behaviors, which might affect the potential impact of anti-obesity media campaigns. Given the scope of the public health risks attributable to obesity, and the amount of federal, state, and other resources devoted to anti-obesity media campaigns, there is a clear need to evaluate the potential impact of such campaigns efforts. Nonetheless, the challenges are significant in both motivating and monitoring such complex behavior change, and in attributing changes to a given media campaign.

  13. Manifestation of renal disease in obesity: pathophysiology of obesity-related dysfunction of the kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A D’Elia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available John A D’Elia, Bijan Roshan, Manish Maski, Larry A WeinrauchJoslin Diabetes Center, Renal Unit, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Mount Auburn Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston and Cambridge, MassachusettsAbstract: Albuminuria in individuals whose body mass index exceeds 40 kg/m2 is associated with the presence of large glomeruli, thickened basement membrane and epithelial cellular (podocyte distortion. Obstructive sleep apnea magnifies glomerular injury as well, probably through a vasoconstrictive mechanism. Insulin resistance from excess fatty acids is exacerbated by decreased secretion of high molecular weight adiponectin from adipose cells in the obese state. Adiponectin potentiates insulin in its post-receptor signaling resulting in glucose oxidation in mitochondria. Recent studies of podocyte physiology have concentrated on the structural and functional requirements that prevent glomerular albumin leakage. The architecture of the podocyte involves nephrin and podocin, proteins that cooperate to keep slit pores between foot processes competent to retain albumin. Insulin and adiponectin are necessary for high-energy phosphate generation. When fatty acids bind to albumin, the toxicity to proximal renal tubules is magnified. Albumin and fatty acids are elevated in urine of individuals with obesity related nephrotic syndrome. Fatty acid accumulation and resistin inhibit insulin and adiponectin. Study of cytokines produced by adipose tissue (adiponectin and leptin and macrophages (resistin has led to a better understanding of the relationship between weight and hypertension. Leptin, is presumably secreted after food intake to inhibit the midbrain/ hypothalamic appetite centers. Resistance to leptin results in excess signaling to hypothalamic sympathetics leading to hypertension. Demonstration of the existence of a cerebral receptor mutation provide evidence for a role in hypertension of a central nervous

  14. Elevated uric acid and obesity-related cardiovascular disease risk factors among hypertensive youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, Lauren D; Miller, Edgar R; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Loeffler, Lauren F; Holmes, Kathryn W; Appel, Lawrence J; Brady, Tammy M

    2015-12-01

    Uric acid (UA) is associated with high blood pressure in adolescents and with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults. We sought to determine if UA is independently associated with CVD risk factors and left ventricular mass (LVM) over time in hypertensive youth. This was a 1-year prospective observational study of hypertensive children aged 3-19 years. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of serum UA with CVD risk factors and LVM were explored. Of the 49 children who completed both the baseline and 12-month assessments, at baseline the mean age was 13.8 years and mean UA was 5.5 mg/dL; 24% had elevated UA, 51% were overweight/obese and 39% had LVH. Measures of adiposity, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, LVM and LVH were all significantly associated with elevated UA at baseline, but not with change over time. Each 1 mg/dL increase in baseline UA was associated with a 2.5 g/m(2.7) increase in the LVM index at follow-up (95% confidence interval 0.64, 4.39; p = 0.01); after adjustment for age, sex, race, body mass index z-score, change in UA, time, blood pressure and medication use, this association was no longer significant. Hypertensive children with elevated UA have a higher prevalence of obesity-related CVD risk factors. Among hypertensive children, UA may be a marker of adiposity and not an independent CVD risk factor.

  15. Outdoor recreation-related outdoor education: scope of the research (1995-2010) I

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Philippa

    2012-01-01

    Article made available with the permission of the New Zealand Journal of Outdoor Education. This article reports on the scope of the New Zealand outdoor recreationrelated outdoor education research literature published from January 1995 to June 2010. It draws on the literature covered by the 2010 Sport and Recreation New Zealand-funded Outdoor Recreation Research Stocktake, which included outdoor education material. This article is divided into two parts, both published in this issue of th...

  16. Engaging Audiences in Planetary Science Through Visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupla, C. B.; Mason, T.; Peticolas, L. M.; Hauck, K.

    2017-12-01

    One way to share compelling stories is through visuals. The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), in collaboration with Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) and Space Science Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley, has been working with planetary scientists to reach and engage audiences in their research through the use of visualizations. We will share how images and animations have been used in multiple mediums, including the planetarium, Science on a Sphere, the hyperwall, and within apps. Our objectives are to provide a tool that planetary scientists can use to tell their stories, as well as to increase audience awareness of and interest in planetary science. While scientists are involved in the selection of topics and the development of the visuals, LPI and partners seek to increase the planetary science community's awareness of these resources and their ability to incorporate them into their own public engagement efforts. This presentation will share our own resources and efforts, as well as the input received from scientists on how education and public engagement teams can best assist them in developing and using these resources, and disseminating them to both scientists and to informal science education venues.

  17. Can donated media placements reach intended audiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Chu, Jennifer; Polonec, Lindsey

    2013-09-01

    Donated media placements for public service announcements (PSAs) can be difficult to secure, and may not always reach intended audiences. Strategies used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign (SFL) to obtain donated media placements include producing a diverse mix of high-quality PSAs, co-branding with state and tribal health agencies, securing celebrity involvement, monitoring media trends to identify new distribution opportunities, and strategically timing the release of PSAs. To investigate open-ended recall of PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, CDC conducted 12 focus groups in three U.S. cities with men and women either nearing age 50 years, when screening is recommended to begin, or aged 50-75 years who were not in compliance with screening guidelines. In most focus groups, multiple participants recalled exposure to PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, and most of these individuals reported having seen SFL PSAs on television, in transit stations, or on the sides of public buses. Some participants reported exposure to SFL PSAs without prompting from the moderator, as they explained how they learned about the disease. Several participants reported learning key campaign messages from PSAs, including that colorectal cancer screening should begin at age 50 years and screening can find polyps so they can be removed before becoming cancerous. Donated media placements can reach and educate mass audiences, including millions of U.S. adults who have not been screened appropriately for colorectal cancer.

  18. Pepsin Egg White Hydrolysate Ameliorates Obesity-Related Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Steatosis in Zucker Fatty Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Garcés-Rimón

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the administration of egg white hydrolysates on obesity-related disorders, with a focus on lipid metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress, in Zucker fatty rats. Obese Zucker rats received water, pepsin egg white hydrolysate (750 mg/kg/day or Rhizopus aminopeptidase egg white hydrolysate (750 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks. Lean Zucker rats received water. Body weight, solid and liquid intakes were weekly measured. At the end of the study, urine, faeces, different organs and blood samples were collected. The consumption of egg white hydrolysed with pepsin significantly decreased the epididymal adipose tissue, improved hepatic steatosis, and lowered plasmatic concentration of free fatty acids in the obese animals. It also decreased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and reduced oxidative stress. Pepsin egg white hydrolysate could be used as a tool to improve obesity-related complications.

  19. Outdoor radon variation in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simion, Elena; Simion, Florin

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The results of a long-term survey (1992 - 2006) of the variations of outdoor radon concentrations in semi-natural location from Romania are reported in the present paper. Measurements, covering between two and four sessions of the day (morning, afternoon, evening and night), were performed on a daily bases by 37 Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring Stations from National Environmental Radioactivity Survey Network. The method used was based on indirect determination of outdoor radon from aerosol samples collected on glass micro-fibre filters by drawing the air through the filters. The sampling was performed in a fixed place at a height of 2 m above the ground surface. Total beta counting of aerosol samples collected was performed immediately and after 20 hours. Values recorded during the years of continuous measurement indicated the presence of several patterns in the long-term variation of outdoor radon concentration: diurnal, seasonal and annual variation. For diurnal variation, outdoor radon concentration shows a maximum values in the night (early hours) and minimum values by day (in the afternoon). On average, this maximum is a factor of 2 higher than the minimum. Late autumn - beginning of winter maximum and an early spring minimum are characteristic for seasonal patterns. In the long term a seasonal pattern was observed for diurnal variation, with an average diurnal maximum to minimum ratio of 1.33 in winter compared with 3.0 in the summer months. The variations of outdoor radon levels showed little correlation with the uranium concentration of the ground and were attributed to changes in soil moisture content. In dry seasons, because of the low precipitation, the soil was drying out in the summer allowing fractures to develop and radon to migrate easily through the ground. Depending on micro-climatic and geological conditions, outdoor radon average concentrations in different regions of Romania are from 1200 mBq/mc to 13065 mBq/mc. The smallest

  20. Parents' obesity-related behavior and confidence to support behavioral change in their obese child: data from the STAR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Lisa N; Xu, Kathleen; Taveras, Elsie M; Hacker, Karen A

    2014-01-01

    Successful childhood obesity interventions frequently focus on behavioral modification and involve parents or family members. Parental confidence in supporting behavior change may be an element of successful family-based prevention efforts. We aimed to determine whether parents' own obesity-related behaviors were related to their confidence in supporting their child's achievement of obesity-related behavioral goals. Cross-sectional analyses of data collected at baseline of a randomized control trial testing a treatment intervention for obese children (n = 787) in primary care settings (n = 14). Five obesity-related behaviors (physical activity, screen time, sugar-sweetened beverage, sleep duration, fast food) were self-reported by parents for themselves and their child. Behaviors were dichotomized on the basis of achievement of behavioral goals. Five confidence questions asked how confident the parent was in helping their child achieve each goal. Logistic regression modeling high confidence was conducted with goal achievement and demographics as independent variables. Parents achieving physical activity or sleep duration goals were significantly more likely to be highly confident in supporting their child's achievement of those goals (physical activity, odds ratio 1.76; 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.60; sleep, odds ratio 1.74; 95% confidence interval 1.09-2.79) independent of sociodemographic variables and child's current behavior. Parental achievements of TV watching and fast food goals were also associated with confidence, but significance was attenuated after child's behavior was included in models. Parents' own obesity-related behaviors are factors that may affect their confidence to support their child's behavior change. Providers seeking to prevent childhood obesity should address parent/family behaviors as part of their obesity prevention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Determinants of Perceived Stress in Individuals with Obesity: Exploring the Relationship of Potentially Obesity-Related Factors and Perceived Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Junne; Katrin Ziser; Katrin Elisabeth Giel; Kathrin Schag; Eva Skoda; Isabelle Mack; Andreas Niess; Stephan Zipfel; Martin Teufel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Associations of specific types of stress with increased food intake and subsequent weight gain have been demonstrated in animal models as well as in experimental and epidemiological studies on humans. This study explores the research question of to what extent potentially obesity-related factors determine perceived stress in individuals with obesity. Methods: N = 547 individuals with obesity participated in a cross-sectional study assessing perceived stress as the outcome variable ...

  2. Quantitative variation in obesity-related traits and insulin precursors linked to the OB gene region on human chromosome 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggirala, R.; Stern, M.P.; Reinhart, L.J. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Despite the evidence that human obesity has strong genetic determinants, efforts at identifying specific genes that influence human obesity have largely been unsuccessful. Using the sibship data obtained from 32 low-income Mexican American pedigrees ascertained on a type II diabetic proband and a multipoint variance-components method, we tested for linkage between various obesity-related traits plus associated metabolic traits and 15 markers on human chromosome 7. We found evidence for linkage between markers in the OB gene region and various traits, as follows: D7S514 and extremity skinfolds (LOD = 3.1), human carboxypeptidase A1 (HCPA1) and 32,33-split proinsulin level (LOD = 4.2), and HCPA1 and proinsulin level (LOD = 3.2). A putative susceptibility locus linked to the marker D7S514 explained 56% of the total phenotypic variation in extremity skinfolds. Variation at the HCPA1 locus explained 64% of phenotypic variation in proinsulin level and {approximately}73% of phenotypic variation in split proinsulin concentration, respectively. Weaker evidence for linkage to several other obesity-related traits (e.g., waist circumference, body-mass index, fat mass by bioimpedance, etc.) was observed for a genetic location, which is {approximately}15 cM telomeric to OB. In conclusion, our study reveals that the OB region plays a significant role in determining the phenotypic variation of both insulin precursors and obesity-related traits, at least in Mexican Americans. 66 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. PARENTS ATTITUDE ABOUT OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Martinović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire-based survey was conducted on a sample of 238 parents whose children attend the third and fourth grades in two Belgrade elementary schools: “Oslobodioci Beograda” and “Borislav Pekic”. The aim of this study was to deter¬mi¬ne the incidence of outdoor activities and the attitude of the third and fourth graders’ parents towards it. Statistical data processing was based on the use of the –R, and every question represented a random variable. The analysis of the collected data has proved the presence of outdoor activities among these pupils and their positive attitude towards camping out, as well as a positive attitude of their parents.

  4. Intermediaries for youth: a vital target audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Worldwide, youth are recognized as a key target audience for HIV/STD awareness and prevention campaigns. Rural young people, who often have less access to information and prevention tools than urban youth, may be particularly vulnerable to HIV/STD infection. Many initiatives have been organized by nongovernmental organizations, governments, churches, and other organizations to help youth. However, parents, relatives, guardians, teachers, church and youth leaders, social workers, and other adults in a position to influence youth must also be helped to undertake the role of an intermediary between youth and HIV/STD interventions and other youth-oriented programs. In training adults to openly address sexual and reproductive health issues with adolescents, adults must first be encouraged to feel comfortable about discussing such issues among themselves. Intermediaries and how to target them are discussed.

  5. Communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Lester, Sarah E.; Airamé, Satie; Neeley, Elizabeth; Gaines, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    As human impacts cause ecosystem-wide changes in the oceans, the need to protect and restore marine resources has led to increasing calls for and establishment of marine reserves. Scientific information about marine reserves has multiplied over the last decade, providing useful knowledge about this tool for resource users, managers, policy makers, and the general public. This information must be conveyed to nonscientists in a nontechnical, credible, and neutral format, but most scientists are not trained to communicate in this style or to develop effective strategies for sharing their scientific knowledge. Here, we present a case study from California, in which communicating scientific information during the process to establish marine reserves in the Channel Islands and along the California mainland coast expanded into an international communication effort. We discuss how to develop a strategy for communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences and highlight the influence that effective science communication can have in discussions about marine management. PMID:20427745

  6. Audience reaction movie trailers and the Paranormal Activity franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Swanson

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the concept and growing practice of audience reaction movie trailers, specifically for films in the horror genre. Popularized by the Paranormal Activity series of films, these trailers primarily utilize green night-vision video footage of a movie theater audience reacting to the film being advertised, yet also consist of webcam recordings of screaming fans, documentary-style B-roll footage of audiences filing into preview screenings with high levels of anticipation, and...

  7. Eliciting Audience's Experience to Improve Interactive Art Installation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baharin, Hanif; Morrison, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Designing with the users in mind is one of the widely accepted design practices in the Interaction Design field. On the other hand, it can be said that audience's experience is the heart of an interactive art. Since Interaction Design has shown that user's involvement in the design process can...... be beneficial, it is speculated that involving the audiences in the creative process of developing an interactive art piece can make the artist improve the art in general and the audience's experience in particular. In this paper, the experience of eliciting the experience of the audiences of an interactive art...

  8. ‘Looting killed’ the audience: Africanlanguage writing, performance, publishing and the audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Selepe

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role played by African-language writing, performance and publishing, including critical practice, in the demise of the indigenous audience in African-language literary practice. Using implicit materialism the argument is premised on the developments wrought by the era of Modernism that has lead to a univocal writing of world history, and the era of Postmodernism that has ushered in the era of a multivocal writing of world history. The transition from oral literature to written literature will also be used to advance the argument about the subsequent exclusion of the indigenous African- language audience from literary practice. This exclusion is considered to have a direct bearing on the under-development of African societies. Finally, possible solutions will be sought by revisiting some of the causes that characterize the African language problem as a medium of communication and research.

  9. Reducing indoor residential exposures to outdoor pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-07-01

    The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.

  10. Outdoor Acoustics as a General Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1999-01-01

    A tutorial paper exploring the characteristics of sound outdoors. Outdoor acoustics is contrasted to room acoustics. A number of important aspects of outdoor acoustics are exemplified and theoretical approaches are outlined. These are influence of ground impedance, influence of weather, screening...... to the application in question. In this way results providing a certain level of accuracy are obtained using methods which are balanced with the accuracy of the input data. Advanced measurement techniques are looked into and suggestions for future research are made...

  11. Definitions of Outdoor Recreation and Other Associated Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Maurice L.

    This document defines terms related to outdoor recreation: (1) outdoor recreation includes activities that occur outdoors in an urban and man-made environment as well as those activities traditionally associated with the natural environment; (2) outdoor education is education in, about, and for the outdoors; (3) environmental education is an…

  12. Effect of the anti-IL-17 antibody on allergic inflammation in an obesity-related asthma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lin; Hur, Jung; Kang, Ji Young; Rhee, Chin Kook; Kim, Young Kyoon; Lee, Sook Young

    2018-04-19

    The co-occurrence of obesity aggravates asthma symptoms. Diet-induced obesity increases helper T cell (TH) 17 cell differentiation in adipose tissue and the spleen. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor pravastatin can potentially be used to treat asthma in obese patients by inhibiting interleukin 17 (IL-17) expression. This study investigated the combined effects of pravastatin and anti-IL-17 antibody treatment on allergic inflammation in a mouse model of obesity-related asthma. High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity was induced in C57BL/6 mice with or without ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge. Mice were administered the anti-IL-17 antibody, pravastatin, or both, and pathophysiological and immunological responses were analyzed. HFD exacerbated allergic airway inflammation in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of HFD-OVA mice as compared to OVA mice. Blockading of the IL-17 in the HFD-OVA mice decreased airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation compared to the HFD-OVA mice. Moreover, the administration of the anti-IL-17 antibody decreased the leptin/adiponectin ratio in the HFD-OVA but not the OVA mice. Co-administration of pravastatin and anti-IL-17 inhibited airway inflammation and AHR, decreased goblet cell numbers, and increased adipokine levels in obese asthmatic mice. These results suggest that the IL-17-leptin/adiponectin axis plays a key role in airway inflammation in obesity-related asthma. Our findings suggest a potential new treatment for IL-17 as a target that may benefit obesity-related asthma patients who respond poorly to typical asthma medications.

  13. Communication of technical information to lay audiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowes, J.E.; Stamm, K.R.; Jackson, K.M.; Moore, J.

    1978-05-01

    One of the objectives of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to provide terminal storage facilities for commercial radioactive wastes in various geologic formations at multiple locations in the United States. The activities performed under the NWTS Program will affect regional, state, and local areas, and widespread public interest in this program is expected. Since a large part of the NWTS Program deals with technical information it was considered desirable to initiate a study dealing with possible methods of effectively transmitting this technical information to the general public. This study has the objective of preparing a state-of-the-art report on the communication of technical information to lay audiences. The particular task of communicating information about the NWTS Program to the public is discussed where appropriate. The results of this study will aid the NWTS Program in presenting to the public the quite diverse technical information generated within the program so that a widespread, thorough public understanding of the NWTS Program might be achieved. An annotated bibliography is included

  14. Media perspective - new opportunities for reaching audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haswell, Katy

    2007-08-01

    The world of media is experiencing a period of extreme and rapid change with the rise of internet television and the download generation. Many young people no longer watch standard TV. Instead, they go on-line, talking to friends and downloading pictures, videos, music clips to put on their own websites and watch/ listen to on their laptops and mobile phones. Gone are the days when TV controllers determined what you watched and when you watched it. Now the buzzword is IPTV, Internet Protocol Television, with companies such as JOOST offering hundreds of channels on a wide range of subjects, all of which you can choose to watch when and where you wish, on your high-def widescreen with stereo surround sound at home or on your mobile phone on the train. This media revolution is changing the way organisations get their message out. And it is encouraging companies such as advertising agencies to be creative about new ways of accessing audiences. The good news is that we have fresh opportunities to reach young people through internet-based media and material downloaded through tools such as games machines, as well as through the traditional media. And it is important for Europlanet to make the most of these new and exciting developments.

  15. Prevalence of Canine Obesity, Obesity-Related Metabolic Dysfunction, and Relationship with Owner Obesity in an Obesogenic Region of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya-Alonso, J. Alberto; Bautista-Casta?o, Inmaculada; Pe?a, Cristina; Su?rez, Lourdes; Juste, M. Candelaria; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of canine obesity and obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD) in the obesogenic area in Spain. The prevalence of overweight/obesity among owners of obese pets was also evaluated. In the sample population studied (93 client-owned dogs), 40.9% of dogs presented obesity (body condition score 7–9/9), 40.9% of dogs presented hypertension, 20.4% of dogs presented fasting hypertriglyceridemia, 20.4% fasting hypercholesterolemia, an...

  16. Genome-wide association scan shows genetic variants in the FTO gene are associated with obesity-related traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Scuteri

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The obesity epidemic is responsible for a substantial economic burden in developed countries and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The disease is the result not only of several environmental risk factors, but also of genetic predisposition. To take advantage of recent advances in gene-mapping technology, we executed a genome-wide association scan to identify genetic variants associated with obesity-related quantitative traits in the genetically isolated population of Sardinia. Initial analysis suggested that several SNPs in the FTO and PFKP genes were associated with increased BMI, hip circumference, and weight. Within the FTO gene, rs9930506 showed the strongest association with BMI (p = 8.6 x10(-7, hip circumference (p = 3.4 x 10(-8, and weight (p = 9.1 x 10(-7. In Sardinia, homozygotes for the rare "G" allele of this SNP (minor allele frequency = 0.46 were 1.3 BMI units heavier than homozygotes for the common "A" allele. Within the PFKP gene, rs6602024 showed very strong association with BMI (p = 4.9 x 10(-6. Homozygotes for the rare "A" allele of this SNP (minor allele frequency = 0.12 were 1.8 BMI units heavier than homozygotes for the common "G" allele. To replicate our findings, we genotyped these two SNPs in the GenNet study. In European Americans (N = 1,496 and in Hispanic Americans (N = 839, we replicated significant association between rs9930506 in the FTO gene and BMI (p-value for meta-analysis of European American and Hispanic American follow-up samples, p = 0.001, weight (p = 0.001, and hip circumference (p = 0.0005. We did not replicate association between rs6602024 and obesity-related traits in the GenNet sample, although we found that in European Americans, Hispanic Americans, and African Americans, homozygotes for the rare "A" allele were, on average, 1.0-3.0 BMI units heavier than homozygotes for the more common "G" allele. In summary, we have completed a whole genome-association scan for

  17. VCR Use and the Concept of Audience Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Mark R.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the audience experience with home video cassette recorders (VCRs) from the perspective of the active audience concept. Finds the orientation of Israeli VCR owners to VCRs is selective, somewhat involved, and generally productive of gratifications. Also finds the kinds and levels of activities associated with VCR use are moderately…

  18. Audience Insights: Communicating to Teens (Aged 12-17)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009

    2009-01-01

    CDC's Marketing and Communication Strategy Branch (MCSB) in the National Center for Health Marketings Division of Health Communication and Marketing divides audiences into segments with similar needs, preferences, and characteristics and provides CDC programs with audience-specific information, marketing expertise, and communication planning. To…

  19. Physical Activity in the Mass Media: An Audience Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ben J.; Bonfiglioli, Catriona M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity's role in promoting health is highlighted in public health campaigns, news and current affairs, reality television and other programs. An investigation of audience exposure, beliefs and reactions to media portrayals of physical activity offers insights into the salience and influence of this communication. An audience reception…

  20. Reframing "The Italian": Questions of Audience Address in Early Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Charlie

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes "The Italian" (1915), an early "immigrant" film, examining its problematic relation to questions of working-class and middle-class audience composition. Shows how this film reveals that the creation of narratives suitable for diverse audiences requires continuous readjustment of an adequate mode of address. (MM)

  1. Audience and the Use of Minority Languages on Twitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Dong-Phuong; Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend; Cornips, Leonie

    On Twitter, many users tweet in more than one language. In this study, we examine the use of two Dutch minority languages. Users can engage with different audiences and by analyzing different types of tweets, we find that characteristics of the audience influence whether a minority language is used.

  2. How Communication Goals Determine when Audience Tuning Biases Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echterhoff, Gerald; Higgins, E. Tory; Kopietz, Rene; Groll, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    After tuning their message to suit their audience's attitude, communicators' own memories for the original information (e.g., a target person's behaviors) often reflect the biased view expressed in their message--producing an audience-congruent memory bias. Exploring the motivational circumstances of message production, the authors investigated…

  3. Mediated co-construction of museums and audiences on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronemann, Sigurd Trolle; Kristiansen, Erik; Drotner, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    This article asks how we should research museum communication with audiences through social media. We argue that museums and audiences co-construct one another on social media, and we explore how particular modes of communication and discursive genres serve to generate mutual online positionings...

  4. World Wide Web Homepages: An Examination of Content and Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Betty; And Others

    This paper shows how the content of a World Wide Web page is selected and how an examination of the intended audience influences content. Examples from the New Mexico Tech (NMT) Library homepage show what sources are selected and what level of detail is appropriate for the intended audience. Six fundamental functions of libraries and information…

  5. Museum Accessibility: Combining Audience Research and Staff Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levent, Nina; Reich, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses an audience-informed professional development model that combines audience research focus groups and staff training that includes interaction and direct feedback from visitors, in this case, visitors with low vision. There are two critical components to this model: one is that museums' programming decisions are informed by…

  6. Cui narro haec ? Augustine and his Manichaean audience: A re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Augustine and his Manichaean audience: A re-reading of the first three books of the Confessions. ... The issue of intended audience in the first three books of Augustine's Confessions is investigated in light of the presence of terms and phrases that may have had special connotations for potential Manichaean readers.

  7. Audience noise in concert halls during musical performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Marie, Pierre; Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    functions of the sound pressure levels were obtained in octave bands, which were fitted with three Gaussian distribution curves. The Gaussian distribution curve with the lowest mean value corresponds to a mixture of the technical background noise and audience generated noise, which is named the mixed...... background noise. Finally, the audience noise distribution is extracted by energy subtraction of the technical background noise levels measured in an empty condition from the mixed background noise levels. As a single index, L-90 of the audience noise distribution is named the audience noise level. Empirical...... prediction models were made using the four orchestra concert halls, revealing that the audience noise level is significantly correlated with the technical background noise level. It is therefore concluded that a relaxation of the current background noise recommendations for concert halls is not recommended...

  8. Audience noise in concert halls during musical performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marie, Pierre; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    functions of the sound pressure levels were obtained in octave bands, which were fitted with three Gaussian distribution curves. The Gaussian distribution curve with the lowest mean value corresponds to a mixture of the technical background noise and audience generated noise, which is named the mixed...... background noise. Finally, the audience noise distribution is extracted by energy subtraction of the technical background noise levels measured in an empty condition from the mixed background noise levels. As a single index, L90 of the audience noise distribution is named the audience noise level. Empirical...... prediction models were made using the four orchestra concert halls, revealing that the audience noise level is significantly correlated with the technical background noise level. It is therefore concluded that a relaxation of the current background noise recommendations for concert halls is not recommended....

  9. Audience Research for the Performing Arts: Romanian Music Festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin G. LUCHIAN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the strategic marketing tools (instruments such as segmentation and targeting for a better understanding of current and potential audiences of classical music festivals. Arts administrators need to locate and address the audience segmentation, enhancing communication with audiences of all segments. The marketing strategies for music festivals should include improving music festival branding as well as developing diverse programs and engaging with the community on multiple levels. The study incorporates a literature review of the recent sociological research dealing with the consumption of arts products and a case study approach on the fifteenth edition of Romanian Music Festival in Iași, involving an audience survey. The research can be used as a tool to inform marketing and audience development plans for the organisers of Romanian Music Festival and other arts organisations. It also contains insights that organisations might find useful in the development of an arts activity itself.

  10. Social Audience in Spain: Succesful strategies in national TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Saavedra Llamas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research presents the concept of social audience, as a new narrative space born in the convergence of the TV audience and the user’s conversations in Twitter, and examine strategies of TV programs in Spain with higher social audience. Understand what exactly the social audience is, how does it works or what kind of metrics are made for it, becomes more necessary than ever to deepen into the uses and opportunities facing both the television media and advertisers who choose to invest in a TV space.Through the study of successful cases already implemented is to establish formulas for success that achieve a more active participation of users, transfer from social to traditional audience and the profitable inclusion of brands in this full of possibilities new communication scenario.

  11. Extending IPY Data to a Wider Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrin, M.; Bell, R. E.; Pfirman, S. L.

    2010-12-01

    Perhaps the most significant IPY contribution to science education was the vast amount of data collected at the polar-regions on Earth systems and processes that was made immediately available to teachers and curriculum developers. Supplementing textbooks with the Internet as an education partner, allowed participating teachers to transform science education through: their use of current data as an integral component of their classroom teaching; their training of students to seek out data as evidence of Earth processes; and their instruction to students on how to validate sources and uses of data. Yet, for every teacher and student who has been part of this successful IPY outreach there are many more who have not been reached, don’t know how to include polar science into their coursework, or don’t comfortably work with data. Our experience with data education projects suggests that to reach the next round of students, teachers, educators and the wider adult population we need to translate this data so it is accessible through carefully constructed activities, simulations, and games. In addition we need to actively seek new partnership and outlet opportunities. The collected measurements tell us that our poles are warming on a human timescale. Using data to tell the story, the unambiguous signal of warming makes it accessible to a much broader audience. Our experience has shown that, for a novice population working with data, the educational effectiveness is significantly enhanced when the signal in the data is strong and the Earth processes are clear. Building upon IPY data and resources, focusing on the Earth’s changing climate, and working with partnerships developed over the last two years, Lamont has put together several new education and outreach collaborations. Our goal is to reach new audiences through: 1) Inventorying, Assessing and Planning - Through an NSF planning grant we are leveraging IPY connections and findings in a Polar Climate Education

  12. Integration of human adipocyte chromosomal interactions with adipose gene expression prioritizes obesity-related genes from GWAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, David Z; Garske, Kristina M; Alvarez, Marcus; Bhagat, Yash V; Boocock, James; Nikkola, Elina; Miao, Zong; Raulerson, Chelsea K; Cantor, Rita M; Civelek, Mete; Glastonbury, Craig A; Small, Kerrin S; Boehnke, Michael; Lusis, Aldons J; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Mohlke, Karen L; Laakso, Markku; Pajukanta, Päivi; Ko, Arthur

    2018-04-17

    Increased adiposity is a hallmark of obesity and overweight, which affect 2.2 billion people world-wide. Understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms that underlie obesity-related phenotypes can help to improve treatment options and drug development. Here we perform promoter Capture Hi-C in human adipocytes to investigate interactions between gene promoters and distal elements as a transcription-regulating mechanism contributing to these phenotypes. We find that promoter-interacting elements in human adipocytes are enriched for adipose-related transcription factor motifs, such as PPARG and CEBPB, and contribute to heritability of cis-regulated gene expression. We further intersect these data with published genome-wide association studies for BMI and BMI-related metabolic traits to identify the genes that are under genetic cis regulation in human adipocytes via chromosomal interactions. This integrative genomics approach identifies four cis-eQTL-eGene relationships associated with BMI or obesity-related traits, including rs4776984 and MAP2K5, which we further confirm by EMSA, and highlights 38 additional candidate genes.

  13. Gene expression profiling and association of circulating lactoferrin level with obesity-related phenotypes in Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J Y; Campbell, L E; Shaibi, G Q; Coletta, D K

    2015-10-01

    Low-grade inflammation is an underlying feature of obesity and identifying inflammatory markers is crucial to understanding this disease. Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold: (i) to perform a global microarray analysis and (ii) to investigate the role of lactoferrin (LTF), one of the most altered genes, in relation to obesity in Latino youth. Non-diabetic Latino youth (71 males/92 females; 15.6 ± 3.2 years) were studied. A subset of 39 participants was randomly selected for global microarray analysis profiling from the whole blood sample. Serum LTF was compared between lean (n = 78) and overweight/obese (n = 85) participants. Microarray analysis revealed that a total of 1870 probes were altered in expression ≥1.2-fold and P obese participants compared with lean. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis revealed significant enrichment for pathways including toll-like receptor (TLR) and B cell receptor signalling pathways. LTF and TLR5 were increased in expression by 2.2 and 1.5 fold, respectively, in the overweight/obese participants. Increased LTF concentrations were significantly associated with high risk of obesity-related phenotypes (all P obesity risk among Latino youth. This finding is discordant to what has been shown in adults and suggests that age may modulate the association between LTF and obesity-related health. © 2014 World Obesity.

  14. United States of America: outdoor recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.Ken Cordell; G.Theodore Green; V.R. Leeworthy; R. Stephens; M.J. Fly; Carter J. Betz

    2005-01-01

    the first nationwide survey of outdoor recreation in the USA was conducted in 1960 for the outdoor recreation resources review commission (ORRC, 1962; Cordell et al., 1996). since that time, seven additional national surveys have been conducted, in 1965, 1970, 1972, 1977, 1983, 1995, and 2000/01 - summary details are presented in Table 16.1.

  15. Planning School Grounds for Outdoor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Cheryl; Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This publication covers the planning and design of school grounds for outdoor learning in new and existing K-12 facilities. Curriculum development as well as athletic field planning and maintenance are not covered although some references on these topics are provided. It discusses the different types of outdoor learning environments that can be…

  16. The "F" Word: Feminism in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Tonia

    2016-01-01

    Women have embarked on outdoor careers believing the profession to be a level playing field and one that offers occupational alternatives to traditional sporting activities and educational opportunities. This paper seeks to provide a critical analysis of the pockets of bias associated with the status of women in outdoor education (OE),…

  17. Monitoring Outdoor Alcohol Advertising in Developing Countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analyses on the placement, channels, size and content of outdoor alcohol advertising practices (N=807) in relation to existing regulations are given. For example, in Gambia, the country with the most stringent alcohol marketing regulations of all countries studied, outdoor alcohol advertisements are on average smaller and ...

  18. UNBC: Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Pat

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC's) Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management (ORTM) Program, which focuses squarely on the management of outdoor recreation as it relates to conservation (i.e., in and around parks and protected areas), tourism that is both based in and concerned with the natural/cultural…

  19. Een toekomst voor outdoor fitness in Nederland?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggers, Hiske

    De eerste kennismaking met outdoor fitness was in het Fuxing Park in Shanghai, een park waar jong en oud samen komen om te sporten (outdoor fitness, dans en tai-chi) of om ontspannen hun vrije dag door te brengen. een unieke ervaring die verwarring en allerlei vragen tot gevolg had. waarom komen

  20. 77 FR 33597 - Great Outdoors Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... Outdoors Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation America's natural... launch the America's Great Outdoors Initiative. Building on input from tens of thousands of people across... engine of growth. As part of our National Travel and Tourism Strategy, my Administration is working to...

  1. Lyme Disease: A Challenge for Outdoor Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcombe, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Describes signs and symptoms of Lyme disease; life cycle and feeding habits of the deer tick (Ixodes dammini), which transmits the spirochete bacterium; tick control measures; outdoor precautions; and veterinary considerations. Discusses the disease's potential impact on outdoor education, and suggests a reasoned, nonhysterical approach. Contains…

  2. Engaging Latino audiences in informal science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfield, Susan B.

    Environment for the Americas (EFTA), a non-profit organization, developed a four-year research project to establish a baseline for Latino participation and to identify practical tools that would enable educators to overcome barriers to Latino participation in informal science education (ISE). Its national scope and broad suite of governmental and non-governmental, Latino and non-Latino partners ensured that surveys and interviews conducted in Latino communities reflected the cosmopolitan nature of the factors that influence participation in ISE programs. Information about economic and education levels, country of origin, language, length of residence in the US, and perceptions of natural areas combined with existing demographic information at six study sites and one control site provided a broader understanding of Latino communities. The project team's ability to work effectively in these communities was strengthened by the involvement of native, Spanish-speaking Latino interns in the National Park Service's Park Flight Migratory Bird Program. The project also went beyond data gathering by identifying key measures to improve participation in ISE and implementing these measures at established informal science education programs, such as International Migratory Bird Day, to determine effectiveness. The goals of Engaging Latino Audiences in Informal Science Education (ISE) were to 1) identify and reduce the barriers to Latino participation in informal science education; 2) provide effective tools to assist educators in connecting Latino families with science education, and 3) broadly disseminate these tools to agencies and organizations challenged to engage this audience in informal science education (ISE). The results answer questions and provide solutions to a challenge experienced by parks, refuges, nature centers, and other informal science education sites across the US. Key findings from this research documented low participation rates in ISE by Latinos, and that

  3. Radon parameters in outdoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porstendoerfer, J.; Zock, Ch.; Wendt, J.; Reineking, A.

    2002-01-01

    For dose estimation by inhalation of the short lived radon progeny in outdoor air, the equilibrium factor (F), the unattached fraction (f p ), and the activity size distribution of the radon progeny were measured. Besides the radon parameter the meteorological parameter like temperature, wind speed, and rainfall intensity were registered. The measurements were carried out continuously for several weeks to find out the variation with time (day/night) and for different weather conditions. The radon gas, the unattached and aerosol-attached radon progenies were measured with an monitor developed for continuous measurements in outdoor air with low activity concentrations. For the determination of the activity size distribution a low pressure online alpha cascade impactor was used. The measured values of the equilibrium factor varied between 0.5-0.8 depending on weather conditions and time of the day. For high pressure weather conditions a diurnal variation of the F-factor was obtained. A lower average value (F=0.25) was registered during rainy days. The obtained f p -values varied between 0.04 and 0.12. They were higher than expected. The measured activity size distribution of the radon progeny averaged over a measurement period of three weeks can be approximated by a sum of three log-normal distributions. The greatest activity fraction is adsorbed on aerosol particles in the accumulation size range (100-1000 nm) with activity median diameters and geometric standard deviation values between 250-450 nm and 1.5-3.0, respectively. The activity median diameter of this accumulation mode in outdoor air was significantly greater than in indoor air (150-250 nm). An influence of the weather conditions on the activity of the accumulation particles was not significant. In contrast to the results of measurements in houses a small but significant fraction of the radon progeny (average value: 2%) is attached on coarse particles (>1000 nm). This fraction varied between 0-10%. 20

  4. Genetics of serum carotenoid concentrations and their correlation with obesity-related traits in Mexican American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farook, Vidya S; Reddivari, Lavanya; Mummidi, Srinivas; Puppala, Sobha; Arya, Rector; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Fowler, Sharon P; Chittoor, Geetha; Resendez, Roy G; Kumar, Birunda Mohan; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Curran, Joanne E; Lehman, Donna M; Jenkinson, Christopher P; Lynch, Jane L; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Blangero, John; Hale, Daniel E; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Vanamala, Jairam Kp

    2017-07-01

    Background: Dietary intake of phytonutrients present in fruits and vegetables, such as carotenoids, is associated with a lower risk of obesity and related traits, but the impact of genetic variation on these associations is poorly understood, especially in children. Objective: We estimated common genetic influences on serum carotenoid concentrations and obesity-related traits in Mexican American (MA) children. Design: Obesity-related data were obtained from 670 nondiabetic MA children, aged 6-17 y. Serum α- and β-carotenoid concentrations were measured in ∼570 (α-carotene in 565 and β-carotene in 572) of these children with the use of an ultraperformance liquid chromatography-photodiode array. We determined heritabilities for both carotenoids and examined their genetic relation with 10 obesity-related traits [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, fat mass (FM), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin and glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance] by using family data and a variance components approach. For these analyses, carotenoid values were inverse normalized, and all traits were adjusted for significant covariate effects of age and sex. Results: Carotenoid concentrations were highly heritable and significant [α-carotene: heritability ( h 2 ) = 0.81, P = 6.7 × 10 -11 ; β-carotene: h 2 = 0.90, P = 3.5 × 10 -15 ]. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found significant ( P ≤ 0.05) negative phenotypic correlations between carotenoid concentrations and the following traits: BMI, WC, FM, and triglycerides (range: α-carotene = -0.19 to -0.12; β-carotene = -0.24 to -0.13) and positive correlations with HDL cholesterol (α-carotene = 0.17; β-carotene = 0.24). However, when the phenotypic correlations were partitioned into genetic and environmental correlations, we found marginally significant ( P = 0.051) genetic correlations only between

  5. Outdoor recreation in forest policy and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Carsten; Pouta, Eija; Gentin, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    in the field of outdoor recreation, and reveal similarities, differences, gaps and future needs. Among the main findings is a contradiction between the expressed political importance of outdoor recreation at the national level, and the absence of binding commitments for action. The majority of the countries...... surveyed recognise and express outdoor recreation in some form of political and/or legislative way. However, recreation monitoring or measurements are rarely mentioned in relevant policies or acts at the national, regional or local level, perhaps due to a l ack of political will or resources. The analysis...

  6. Safety assessment of outdoor live fire range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the outdoor live fire range facility (LFR). The purpose of this facility is to supplement the indoor LFR. In particular it provides capacity for exercises that would be inappropriate on the indoor range. This SA examines the risks that are attendant to the training on the outdoor LFR. The outdoor LFR used by EG&G Mound is privately owned. It is identified as the Miami Valley Shooting Grounds. Mondays are leased for the exclusive use of EG&G Mound.

  7. Audience as analyst: Dennis Potter's The Singing Detective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, W

    1997-06-01

    Author Dennis Potter has written an exceptional psychoanalytically informed television series in The Singing Detective. Potter succeeds by echewing the usual portrayal of psychoanalysis in cinema and television as a therapy which the viewer observes but instead creates, by means of the content and structure of the series, a production that forces the audience into a role of analyst. The story of the current life and the childhood of the protagonist, Philip Marlow, has depth and context which allows the audience to examine the personality of Marlow, including character pathology and traits, sexuality, fantasy, dreams, and delusions from several metapsychological viewpoints. Potter allows the audience to use the dynamic, genetic, topographic, and, most unusual in drama, structural viewpoints. The audience can experience aspects of an analyst's experience, including the process of formulating and evaluating over time analytic hypotheses and coping with emotional reactions to the material which at times has transferencelike qualities.

  8. Watching Dallas again 1: Doing retro audience research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Gilroy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay and the audience reception projects it introduces alleviate the desperation of seeking the television audience by recourse to Ien Ang's influential book, Watching Dallas ([1982] 1985. Within the context of a unit on audience research in a master's-level course on media, two groups of students explored the possibilities of remixing Ang in the present digital media landscape via informants' comments on the first season of the new series of Dallas (2012–14. Discourses of nostalgia circulate within and around the text, as well as the project itself. Retro audience research generates not only data about the affective memories and critical reflections of informants but also insights into research methods and the production of new nostalgic subjects.

  9. [Analysis of foods advertised to childhood audience on chilean television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Hidalgo, Catalina

    2017-01-01

    To examine food advertising aimed at childhood's audience broadcast on Chilean television. Cross-sectional study. Food advertising broadcast by 4 open signal TV channels was recorded for 12 hours daily on twelve days randomly selected. Notices were classified according to food groups and level of processing. The frequency of food advertisement aimed to childhood audience was compared with those for adults. Nutrient profile of foods advertised was described. In 144 hours of recording appeared 530 food advertisement; 53.2% were aimed to childhood audience. The most advertised foods were sugary dairy (28.4%), sweetened beverages (25.5%), and sweetened cereals (17.7%). Of the foods advertised to childhood audience, 75% exceeds the criterion for free sugars. Chilean television advertises ultra-processed foods that exceed the limits of free sugars.

  10. Audience Perception of the Portrayal of Women in Television ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Audience Perception of the Portrayal of Women in Television Advertising. ... AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender ... The survey research design was adopted, employing the questionnaire as an ...

  11. Changes in serum aldosterone are associated with changes in obesity-related factors in normotensive overweight and obese young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jennifer N; Fried, Linda; Tepper, Ping; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Conroy, Molly B; Evans, Rhobert W; Mori Brooks, Maria; Woodard, Genevieve A; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2013-10-01

    Recent data suggest excess circulating aldosterone promotes cardiometabolic decline. Weight loss may lower aldosterone levels, but little longitudinal data is available in normotensive adults. We aimed to determine whether, independent of changes in sodium excretion, reductions in serum aldosterone are associated with favorable changes in obesity-related factors in normotensive overweight/obese young adults. We studied 285 overweight/obese young adult participants (body mass index ≥ 25 andobesity-related factors were measured at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months. Weight loss was significant at 6 (7%), 12 (6%) and 24 months (4%; all Pobesity-related factors are associated with reductions in aldosterone in young adults with no risk factors besides excess weight, an important finding, given aldosterone's emergence as an important cardiometabolic risk factor.

  12. Ethnic differences in body composition and obesity related risk factors: study in Chinese and white males living in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    Full Text Available The purpose of this cross-sectional observational study was to identify ethnic differences in body composition and obesity-related risk factors between Chinese and white males living in China. 115 Chinese and 114 white male pilots aged 28-63 years were recruited. Fasting body weight, height and blood pressure were measured following standard procedures. Whole-body and segmental body composition were measured using an 8-contact electrode bioimpedance analysis (BIA system. Fasting serum glucose, fasting plasma total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG were assessed using automatic biochemistry analyzer. After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI, Chinese males had significantly higher percentage of body fat (PBF both with respect to whole body (Chinese: 23.7%±0.2% vs. Whites: 22.4%±0.2% and the trunk area (Chinese: 25.0%±0.3% vs. Whites: 23.2%±0.3% compared to their white counterparts. At all BMIs, Chinese males had significantly higher fasting glucose levels (Chinese: 5.7±1.0 mmol/L vs. Whites: 5.2±1.0 mmol/L but lower high-density lipoprotein levels (Chinese: 0.8±1.0 mmol/L vs. Whites: 1.0±1.0 mmol/L than white males. In addition, a marginally significantly higher diastolic blood pressure was found among Chinese men than that among white men (Chinese: 80±1.0 mmHg vs. Whites: 77±1.0 mmHg. Chinese males had more body fat and a greater degree of central fat deposition pattern than that seen in white males in the present study. Furthermore, data on blood pressure, fasting glucose and blood lipids suggest that Chinese men may be more prone to obesity-related risk factors than white men.

  13. Association of ALOX15 gene polymorphisms with obesity-related phenotypes in Chinese nuclear families with male offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao-hua KE; Chun WANG; Yun-qiu HU; Miao LI; Yu-juan LIU; Wen-zhen FU; Zhen-lin ZHANG; Wen-jin XIAO; Jin-wei HE; Hao ZHANG; Jin-bo YU; Wei-wei HU; Jie-mei GU; Gao GAO; Hua YUE

    2012-01-01

    Aim:Genetic variation in ALOX12,which encoded human 12-lipoxygenase,was found to be associated with fat mass in young Chinese men.The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes in the ALOX15 gene and obesity-related phenotypes in Chinese nuclear families with male offspring.Methods:We recruited 1,296 subjects from 427 nuclear families with male offspring and genotyped five SNPs (rs9894225,rs748694,rs2619112,rs2619118,and rs916055) in the ALOX15 gene locus.The total fat mass (TFM),trunk fat mass (tFM),leg fat mass (LFM) and arm fat mass (AFM) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).The percentage of fat mass (PFM) was the ratio of TFM and body weight.The association between SNPs and haplotypes of ALOX15 and obesity-related phenotypic variation was measured using quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT).Results:Using QTDT to measure family-based genetic association,we found that rs916055 had a statistically significant association with PFM (P=0.038),whereas rs916055 had a marginal but statistically insignificant association with tFM (P=0.093).The multipleparameter 1000 permutations test agreed with the family-based association results:both showed that rs916055 had a statistically significant association with PFM (P=0.033).Conclusion:rs916055 in ALOX15 gene was significantly associated with the percentage of fat mass in Chinese nuclear families with male offspring in the family-based association study using QTDT approach.

  14. Discovery and Fine-Mapping of Glycaemic and Obesity-Related Trait Loci Using High-Density Imputation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momoko Horikoshi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reference panels from the 1000 Genomes (1000G Project Consortium provide near complete coverage of common and low-frequency genetic variation with minor allele frequency ≥0.5% across European ancestry populations. Within the European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE Consortium, we have undertaken the first large-scale meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS, supplemented by 1000G imputation, for four quantitative glycaemic and obesity-related traits, in up to 87,048 individuals of European ancestry. We identified two loci for body mass index (BMI at genome-wide significance, and two for fasting glucose (FG, none of which has been previously reported in larger meta-analysis efforts to combine GWAS of European ancestry. Through conditional analysis, we also detected multiple distinct signals of association mapping to established loci for waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (RSPO3 and FG (GCK and G6PC2. The index variant for one association signal at the G6PC2 locus is a low-frequency coding allele, H177Y, which has recently been demonstrated to have a functional role in glucose regulation. Fine-mapping analyses revealed that the non-coding variants most likely to drive association signals at established and novel loci were enriched for overlap with enhancer elements, which for FG mapped to promoter and transcription factor binding sites in pancreatic islets, in particular. Our study demonstrates that 1000G imputation and genetic fine-mapping of common and low-frequency variant association signals at GWAS loci, integrated with genomic annotation in relevant tissues, can provide insight into the functional and regulatory mechanisms through which their effects on glycaemic and obesity-related traits are mediated.

  15. Discovery and Fine-Mapping of Glycaemic and Obesity-Related Trait Loci Using High-Density Imputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Momoko; Mӓgi, Reedik; van de Bunt, Martijn; Surakka, Ida; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Mahajan, Anubha; Marullo, Letizia; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Hӓgg, Sara; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ladenvall, Claes; Ried, Janina S; Winkler, Thomas W; Willems, Sara M; Pervjakova, Natalia; Esko, Tõnu; Beekman, Marian; Nelson, Christopher P; Willenborg, Christina; Wiltshire, Steven; Ferreira, Teresa; Fernandez, Juan; Gaulton, Kyle J; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Hamsten, Anders; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Willemsen, Gonneke; Milaneschi, Yuri; Robertson, Neil R; Groves, Christopher J; Bennett, Amanda J; Lehtimӓki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S; Rung, Johan; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Perola, Markus; Heid, Iris M; Herder, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Roden, Michael; Hypponen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Karssen, Lennart C; Mihailov, Evelin; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; de Craen, Anton J M; Deelen, Joris; Havulinna, Aki S; Blades, Matthew; Hengstenberg, Christian; Erdmann, Jeanette; Schunkert, Heribert; Kaprio, Jaakko; Tobin, Martin D; Samani, Nilesh J; Lind, Lars; Salomaa, Veikko; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Slagboom, P Eline; Metspalu, Andres; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Eriksson, Johan G; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Jula, Antti; Groop, Leif; Raitakari, Olli T; Power, Chris; Penninx, Brenda W J H; de Geus, Eco; Smit, Johannes H; Boomsma, Dorret I; Pedersen, Nancy L; Ingelsson, Erik; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; Ripatti, Samuli; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I; Morris, Andrew P

    2015-07-01

    Reference panels from the 1000 Genomes (1000G) Project Consortium provide near complete coverage of common and low-frequency genetic variation with minor allele frequency ≥0.5% across European ancestry populations. Within the European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE) Consortium, we have undertaken the first large-scale meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), supplemented by 1000G imputation, for four quantitative glycaemic and obesity-related traits, in up to 87,048 individuals of European ancestry. We identified two loci for body mass index (BMI) at genome-wide significance, and two for fasting glucose (FG), none of which has been previously reported in larger meta-analysis efforts to combine GWAS of European ancestry. Through conditional analysis, we also detected multiple distinct signals of association mapping to established loci for waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (RSPO3) and FG (GCK and G6PC2). The index variant for one association signal at the G6PC2 locus is a low-frequency coding allele, H177Y, which has recently been demonstrated to have a functional role in glucose regulation. Fine-mapping analyses revealed that the non-coding variants most likely to drive association signals at established and novel loci were enriched for overlap with enhancer elements, which for FG mapped to promoter and transcription factor binding sites in pancreatic islets, in particular. Our study demonstrates that 1000G imputation and genetic fine-mapping of common and low-frequency variant association signals at GWAS loci, integrated with genomic annotation in relevant tissues, can provide insight into the functional and regulatory mechanisms through which their effects on glycaemic and obesity-related traits are mediated.

  16. The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related health conditions in a large, multiethnic cohort of young adults in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebnick, Corinna; Smith, Ning; Huang, Karl; Martinez, Mayra P; Clancy, Heather A; Kushi, Lawrence H

    2012-09-01

    To identify population groups that are most susceptible to obesity-related health conditions at young age. For this population-based cross-sectional study, measured weight and height, diagnosis, laboratory, and drug prescription information were extracted from electronic medical records of 1,819,205 patients aged 20 to 39 years enrolled in two integrated health plans in California in 2007 through 2009. Overall, 29.9% of young adults were obese. Extreme obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 40 kg/m(2)) was observed in 6.1% of women and 4.5% of men. The adjusted relative risk (RR) for diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and the metabolic syndrome increased sharply for those individuals with a BMI of 40 or greater, with the sharpest increase in the adjusted RR for hypertension and the metabolic syndrome. The association between weight class and dyslipidemia, hypertension, and the metabolic syndrome but not diabetes was stronger among 20.0- to 29.9-year-olds compared with 30.0- to 39.9-year-olds (P for interaction young adults with a BMI of 40.0 to 49.9, 50.0 to 59.9, and 60 or greater kg/m(2) had a RR for hypertension of 11.73, 19.88, and 30.47 (95% confidence interval [CI], 26.39-35.17) at 20 to 29 years old, and 9.31, 12.41, and 15.43 (95% CI, 14.32-16.63) at 30 to 39 years old. Although older individuals were more likely to be extremely obese, the association between obesity-related health conditions was stronger in younger individuals. Hispanics and Blacks are also more likely to be obese, including extremely obese, putting them at an elevated risk for premature cardiovascular disease and some cancers relative to non-Hispanic Whites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Using narratives and storytelling to communicate science with nonexpert audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlstrom, Michael F

    2014-09-16

    Although storytelling often has negative connotations within science, narrative formats of communication should not be disregarded when communicating science to nonexpert audiences. Narratives offer increased comprehension, interest, and engagement. Nonexperts get most of their science information from mass media content, which is itself already biased toward narrative formats. Narratives are also intrinsically persuasive, which offers science communicators tactics for persuading otherwise resistant audiences, although such use also raises ethical considerations. Future intersections of narrative research with ongoing discussions in science communication are introduced.

  18. Troubling complicity: audience ethnography, male porn viewers and feminist critique

    OpenAIRE

    Vörös , Florian

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This article offers a self-reflexive account of an audience reception study conducted in Paris, France, examining gay, bisexual and heterosexual cisgender men's everyday (and everynight) uses of pornography. The study explores the gender dynamics at work in practices such as surfing, watching, reimagining and discussing pornography, based on in-depth interviews with 34 viewers, combined with the replication of their online sexual meanderings; this positions me as a vie...

  19. Students Prefer Audience Response System for Lecture Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W Turban

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Student evaluation of courses is an important component of overall course evaluation. The extent of student participation in the evaluation may be related to the ease of the evaluation process. The standard evaluation format is a paper form. This study examines medical students preference of utilizing Audience Response System compared to a paper method. Methods: Following several medical school lectures, students were queried if they preferred Audience Response System versus a paper method, and if they would prefer using Audience Response System more for future course evaluations. Results: 391 students were queried. Overall response rate was 94%. Using a five point Likert scale, 299 out of 361 (82% responded they agreed, or strongly agreed with the statement “We should use ARS more. . .” When asked which format they preferred to use for evaluation, 299/367 (81% responded Audience Response System, 31 (8% preferred paper, and 37 (10% were not sure, or had no opinion (chi squared = 378.936, df2, p<0.0001. Conclusion: The medical students surveyed showed a strong preference for utilizing Audience Response System as a course evaluation modality, and desired its continued use in medical school. Audience Response System should be pursued as a lecture evaluation modality, and its use in medical school education should be encouraged.

  20. Passive Audience or Who Select Beyond Media? A Comparative Study in Communication Texts & Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Mohsenian Rad; Amir Abdolreza Sepanji

    2011-01-01

    The present article is to study the characteristics and general nature of audience and is described it as "Audience phantasm" in developing countries. It firstly notes that there will be consequences such as audience distancing themselves from local and official media if policy makers and media officials' imaginations of audiences become far from related bare facts have happened in the era of global media and the nature of audiences. Knowing and analyzing the image of audiences presented in n...

  1. Fostering Trust in Outdoor Leaders: The Role of Personal Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooter, Wynn; Paisley, Karen; Sibthorp, Jim

    2012-01-01

    This study examined trust development between participants of outdoor education programs and outdoor leaders. Participants were college students enrolled in outdoor education courses. Using a factorial survey design, the technical ability, interpersonal ability, benevolence, integrity, and gender of an outdoor leader was displayed randomly in a…

  2. Towards Consensus on the Nature of Outdoor Education. Editorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Peter; Loynes, Chris

    1997-01-01

    At a European conference in Finland, various outdoor education organizations drafted a statement of intent for the newly created European Institute for Outdoor Adventure Education. Their common view of outdoor education is that it strives to stimulate personal and social development experientially through some experience of the outdoors. Discusses…

  3. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are ... skiing! Be Mindful of Time Spent in the Sun, Regardless of the Season If possible, ski early ...

  4. The little book of maths outdoors

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This is a unique book that supports the current thinking behind outdoor learning. It features over 40 ideas for outdoor activities that support mathematics in the early years and the specific areas of learning in the revised EYFS. All the ideas are tried and tested by Terry and this book will prove to be popular in the early years and well into Key stage 1.

  5. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critic...

  6. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-06-08

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N=9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N=17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N=1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: "Access to active play in nature and outdoors--with its risks--is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children's opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings--at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature." The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  7. The Contribution of Outdoor Recreation and Outdoor Education to the Economy of Scotland: Case Studies and Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor recreation and education contribute substantially to the Scottish economy. Outdoor recreation generates considerable tourism income, much of it in rural areas, and also extends the traditional tourist season. Outdoor education centers are significant employers in certain rural areas. In addition, "therapeutic" outdoor programs…

  8. Audience reaction movie trailers and the Paranormal Activity franchise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Swanson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the concept and growing practice of audience reaction movie trailers, specifically for films in the horror genre. Popularized by the Paranormal Activity series of films, these trailers primarily utilize green night-vision video footage of a movie theater audience reacting to the film being advertised, yet also consist of webcam recordings of screaming fans, documentary-style B-roll footage of audiences filing into preview screenings with high levels of anticipation, and close-up shots of spectator facial expressions, accompanied by no footage whatsoever from the film being advertised. In analyzing these audience-centric promotional paratexts, my aim is to reveal them as attempting to sell and legitimize the experiential, communal, and social qualities of the theatrical movie viewing experience while at the same time calling for increased fan investment in both physical and online spaces. Through the analysis of audience reaction trailers, this article hopes to both join and engender conversations about horror fan participation, the nature of anticipatory texts as manipulative, and the current state of horror gimmickry in the form of the promotional paratext.

  9. Mental health message appeals and audience engagement: Evidence from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Jo En; Zubcevic-Basic, Nives; Johnson, Lester W; Lodewyckx, Michaela A

    2017-09-07

    Social media platforms are increasingly used to disseminate social marketing messages about mental health and wellbeing. This study presents a range of message appeals used in social media enabled mental health promotion and stigma reduction messages. Furthermore, it examines the relationship between the type of message appeals and audience engagement. A content analysis of 65 organisation-generated YouTube videos about depression and anxiety and stigma reduction was conducted. The most utilised message appeal was Sorrow, followed by Affiliation, Ease/Convenience, Hope, Humour, Guilt/Shame, Heroic/Successful, and Fear. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between the type of message appeals and audience engagement in terms of the number of likes, comments, and shares. The analysis revealed that Sorrow is the most useful message appeal for generating audience comments. However, Sorrow is negatively associated with the number of likes and shares. The results suggest that mental health promotion messages may engage a larger audience through Affiliation and Hope as they have a positive impact on the number of shares. This could, in effect, turn audiences into vocal advocates for mental health promotion and stigma reduction messages. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The science of science outreach: methods to maximise audience engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Kathryn; Lane, Timothy

    2016-04-01

    Effective public engagement relies on a clear understanding of public audiences; their existing knowledge base and their learning preferences. Scientific content that is effective in academic spheres is not necessarily popular in the public domain. This may be due to content (e.g. beginner level to advanced terminology); presentation style (graphical, text, multimedia); audience demographic (children to adults); and entertainment value. Over the last few years, there has been a major expansion in the quantity and quality of science outreach material. For scientists, the production of outreach material, in any form, is the first giant leap to disseminating their knowledge to broader audiences. However, there is also a need to evaluate the performance of outreach material, so that its content and delivery style can be tailored and maximised for the target audience. We examine the Google Analytics data for climate science outreach website Climatica over a 12 month period in 2015. The site publishes regular posts, which take the form of short written articles, graphics, videos, or teaching resources, on all aspects of climate science. The site is publicised via social media including Twitter and Facebook. In particular, we assess website performance, in terms of website visits and post engagement. These are examined in the context of: post topic, post style, social media engagement, and the timing of post publication/advertisement. The findings of this investigation are used to explore audience preferences and mechanisms for future post development to maximise the use of this web resource.

  11. Contribution of Common Genetic Variants to Obesity and Obesity-Related Traits in Mexican Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Comparán, Marisela; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; López-Contreras, Blanca; Gutiérrez-Vidal, Roxana; Vega-Badillo, Joel; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Posadas-Romeros, Carlos; Canizalez-Román, Adrián; Río-Navarro, Blanca Del; Campos-Pérez, Francisco; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have identified multiple obesity-associated loci mainly in European populations. However, their contribution to obesity in other ethnicities such as Mexicans is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine 26 obesity-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in a sample of Mexican mestizos. Methods 9 SNPs in biological candidate genes showing replications (PPARG, ADRB3, ADRB2, LEPR, GNB3, UCP3, ADIPOQ, UCP2, and NR3C1), and 17 SNPs in or near genes associated with obesity in first, second and third wave GWAS (INSIG2, FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, FAIM2/BCDIN3, BDNF, SH2B1, GNPDA2, NEGR1, KCTD15, SEC16B/RASAL2, NPC1, SFRF10/ETV5, MAF, PRL, MTCH2, and PTER) were genotyped in 1,156 unrelated Mexican-Mestizos including 683 cases (441 obese class I/II and 242 obese class III) and 473 normal-weight controls. In a second stage we selected 12 of the SNPs showing nominal associations with obesity, to seek associations with quantitative obesity-related traits in 3 cohorts including 1,218 Mexican Mestizo children, 945 Mexican Mestizo adults, and 543 Indigenous Mexican adults. Results After adjusting for age, sex and admixture, significant associations with obesity were found for 6 genes in the case-control study (ADIPOQ, FTO, TMEM18, INSIG2, FAIM2/BCDIN3 and BDNF). In addition, SH2B1 was associated only with class I/II obesity and MC4R only with class III obesity. SNPs located at or near FAIM2/BCDIN3, TMEM18, INSIG2, GNPDA2 and SEC16B/RASAL2 were significantly associated with BMI and/or WC in the combined analysis of Mexican-mestizo children and adults, and FTO locus was significantly associated with increased BMI in Indigenous Mexican populations. Conclusions Our findings replicate the association of 8 obesity-related SNPs with obesity risk in Mexican adults, and confirm the role of some of these SNPs in BMI in Mexican adults and children. PMID:23950976

  12. Effects of Exposure to Advertisements on Audience Impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Mie; Kasuga, Masao; Nagao, Yoshihide; Shono, Toru; Norose, Yuka; Oku, Ritsuya; Nogami, Akira; Miyazawa, Yoshitaka

    This study investigated effects of listening and/or watching commercial-messages (CMs) on audience impressions. We carried out experiments of TV advertisements presentation in conditions of audio only, video only, and audio-video. As results, we confirmed the following two effects: image-multiple effect, that is, the audience brings to mind various images that are not directly expressed in the content, and marking-up effect, that is, the audience concentrates on some images that are directly expressed in the content. The image-multiple effect, in particular, strongly appeared under the audio only condition. Next, we investigated changes in the following seven subjective responses; usage image, experience, familiarity, exclusiveness, feeling at home, affection, and willingness to buy, after exposure to advertisements under conditions of audio only and audio-video. As a result, noting that the image-multiple effect became stronger as the evaluation scores of the responses increased.

  13. EMOTIONAL CONTAGION AND MOOD IN CROWD SERVING AS AUDIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beno Arnejcic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The global world is gradually becoming a world of separated crowds despite the artificial wire and wireless connection through television and the Internet. Crowds remain a prevailing subject of research in different social studies, and the research of changes in the psychological structure of crowds and their characteristics is still of primary interest. The main focus of the research is on the interpretation of the results of the research paper about a special separated crowd called audience. It was observed how students, constituting the crowd, perceive a crowd on video. The observation was focused on the research of emotional contagion and mood in the crowd serving as audience. While watching a mass event on a big screen, the crowd serving as audience emotionally converges with someone else, in our case with public speakers.

  14. Visual Peoplemeter: A Vision-based Television Audience Measurement System

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    SKELIN, A. K.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Visual peoplemeter is a vision-based measurement system that objectively evaluates the attentive behavior for TV audience rating, thus offering solution to some of drawbacks of current manual logging peoplemeters. In this paper, some limitations of current audience measurement system are reviewed and a novel vision-based system aiming at passive metering of viewers is prototyped. The system uses camera mounted on a television as a sensing modality and applies advanced computer vision algorithms to detect and track a person, and to recognize attentional states. Feasibility of the system is evaluated on a secondary dataset. The results show that the proposed system can analyze viewer's attentive behavior, therefore enabling passive estimates of relevant audience measurement categories.

  15. Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-02-01

    On January 1, 2008, the French government implemented a national ban on indoor smoking in hospitality venues. Survey results indicate the indoor ban has been successful at dramatically reducing indoor smoking; however, there are reports of an increased number of outdoor hospitality spaces (patios) where smoking can take place. This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law. Telephone interviews were conducted among 1067 adult smokers before and after the 2008 indoor ban as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. Among other topics, this survey measures how the smoking ban has influenced smoking behaviour relevant to outdoor sections of hospitality venues. In addition, 414 non-smoking adults and 164 respondents who had quit smoking between waves were also asked about support for outdoor smoking restrictions. Reported smoking outdoors at cafés/pubs/bars increased from 33.6% of smokers at Wave 1 to 75.9% at Wave 2. At restaurants, smoking outdoors increased from 28.9% to 59.0%. There was also an increase in reported non-smoking for both visits to cafés/pubs/bars, and restaurants from 13.4% to 24.7%, and 30.4% to 40.8% respectively. The majority of smokers (74.5%), non-smokers (89.4%) and quitters (74.0%) support a partial or complete ban on smoking in outdoor areas of restaurants. The indoor smoking ban moved smoking to outdoor spaces; however, the ban is also associated with increased non-smoking behaviour. The majority of respondents support outdoor smoking restrictions in patio environments.

  16. AIDS education for a low literate audience in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msimuko, A K

    1988-04-01

    A workshop funded by the USA Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) was an effort by Zambia toward prevention and control of AIDS. The lack of educational materials about AIDS for a low-literate audience was the major problem addressed by the workshop. Other problems include the lack of collaborative effort in the development of materials on AIDS, and the lack of skills needed in the development of such materials in Zambia. 1 of the objectives of the workshop was to launch the Planned Parenthood Association of Zambia's (PPAZ) materials development project. The scope of this project includes the production of educational materials on AIDS for low-literate audiences and a counseling handbook for family planning workers. Print materials should be simply written, using words, idioms, and graphics that are familiar to the target audience. Other workshop objectives included the establishment of collaborative relationships between organizations involved in existing AIDS educational activities in Zambia, and the development of practical skills needed to produce print materials. Education was identified as the most important strategy for the prevention and control of AIDS, and PPAZ should be the executing agency of the print materials project. Audience research, using focus group techniques, focus group discussions, behavioral messages, and pretesting of messages, should be the most effective means of reaching targeted audiences. PPAZ is contracted by PATH to begin development of educational materials, and 2 committees have formed to implement the project and to establish interagency collaboration. Audience research was begun between January and March of 1988, focusing on people's beliefs, practices, and ideas about AIDS. The final phase of the project will be the printing, distribution, and use of the AIDS materials and the training of family planning field workers in the proper use of these materials.

  17. Audience responses to television news coverage of medical advances: The mediating role of audience emotions and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyehyun

    2015-08-01

    Exemplifying a real person in news stories has become a popular journalistic technique to describe an event or issue. With the frequent appearance of medical news reports in local television in recent years, this news presentation style is widely believed to help audiences better engage in and understand complex medical information and to influence their perceptions and judgments. In terms of television news coverage of medical advances, this study investigates how audiences respond to embedded human examples (mainly patients who experience benefits from the advances) and to overall news stories, and how such responses are related to their perception of portrayed medical advances. The experimental results indicate that news stories with a human example were more likely to intensify the audience's positive emotions than those without, which in turn influenced favorable perceptions of the described medical advance. In addition, the extent to which the audience identified with a human example (in particular, sympathy) mediated the relationship between the audience's involvement in the news story and its perception of the portrayed medical advance. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  19. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Tremblay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9 and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17, and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908. More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  20. The Potential Role of Aerobic Exercise-Induced Pentraxin 3 on Obesity-Related Inflammation and Metabolic Dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron L. Slusher

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is defined as the excess accumulation of intra-abdominal body fat, resulting in a state of chronic, low-grade proinflammation that can directly contribute to the development of insulin resistance. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3 is an acute-phase protein that is expressed by a variety of tissue and cell sources and provides an anti-inflammatory property to downregulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines, in particular interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Although PTX3 may therapeutically aid in altering the proinflammatory milieu in obese individuals, and despite elevated expression of PTX3 mRNA observed in adipose tissue, the circulating level of PTX3 is reduced with obesity. Interestingly, aerobic activity has been demonstrated to elevate PTX3 levels. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss the therapeutic potential of PTX3 to positively regulate obesity-related inflammation and discuss the proposition for utilizing aerobic exercise as a nonpharmacological anti-inflammatory treatment strategy to enhance circulating PTX3 concentrations in obese individuals.

  1. Inflammatory stress promotes the development of obesity-related chronic kidney disease via CD36 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Xiao, Yayun; Luo, Xuan; Zhao, Yunfei; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Yan; Wu, Tingting; Wei, Li; Chen, Yaxi

    2017-07-01

    Ectopic fat located in the kidney has emerged as a novel cause of obesity-related chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we aimed to investigate whether inflammatory stress promotes ectopic lipid deposition in the kidney and causes renal injury in obese mice and whether the pathological process is mediated by the fatty acid translocase, CD36. High-fat diet (HFD) feeding alone resulted in obesity, hyperlipidemia, and slight renal lipid accumulation in mice, which nevertheless had normal kidney function. HFD-fed mice with chronic inflammation had severe renal steatosis and obvious glomerular and tubular damage, which was accompanied by increased CD36 expression. Interestingly, CD36 deficiency in HFD-fed mice eliminated renal lipid accumulation and pathological changes induced by chronic inflammation. In both human mesangial cells (HMCs) and human kidney 2 (HK2) cells, inflammatory stress increased the efficiency of CD36 protein incorporation into membrane lipid rafts, promoting FFA uptake and intracellular lipid accumulation. Silencing of CD36 in vitro markedly attenuated FFA uptake, lipid accumulation, and cellular stress induced by inflammatory stress. We conclude that inflammatory stress aggravates renal injury by activation of the CD36 pathway, suggesting that this mechanism may operate in obese individuals with chronic inflammation, making them prone to CKD. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. A Novel Wistar Rat Model of Obesity-Related Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by Sucrose-Rich Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luíza R. P. Lima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is not fully understood, and experimental models are an alternative to study this issue. We investigated the effects of a simple carbohydrate-rich diet on the development of obesity-related NAFLD and the impact of physical training on the metabolic abnormalities associated with this disorder. Sixty Wistar rats were randomly separated into experimental and control groups, which were fed with sucrose-enriched (18% simple carbohydrates and standard diet, respectively. At the end of each experimental period (5, 10, 20, and 30 weeks, 6 animals from each group were sacrificed for blood tests and liver histology and immunohistochemistry. From weeks 25 to 30, 6 animals from each group underwent physical training. The experimental group animals developed obesity and NAFLD, characterized histopathologically by steatosis and hepatocellular ballooning, clinically by increased thoracic circumference and body mass index associated with hyperleptinemia, and metabolically by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, increased levels of very low-density lipoprotein- (VLDL- cholesterol, depletion of the antioxidants liver enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, and increased hepatic levels of malondialdehyde, an oxidative stress marker. Rats that underwent physical training showed increased high-density lipoprotein- (HDL- cholesterol levels. In conclusion, a sucrose-rich diet induced obesity, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and NAFLD in rats.

  3. The Effects of Twitter Users' Gender and Weight on Viral Behavioral Intentions Toward Obesity-Related News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Nasser; Alhabash, Saleem; Hellmueller, Lea; Willis, Erin

    2018-01-01

    In this study, male and female participants were exposed to identical news stories covering obesity topics paired with tweets from Twitter users. Our study aimed at understanding how obesity-related news combined with user-generated social media posts (i.e., tweets) affect consumers' evaluations of online content and viral behavioral intentions (the intentions to like, share, and comment). An experiment (N = 316) explored how gender and weight of a Twitter user (tweeter) affect participants' evaluations and viral behavioral intentions toward news stories. Participants differed in their evaluations of and viral behavioral intentions for news stories as a function of Twitter users' gender and weight, as well as participants' gender. While participants expressed more favorable attitudes toward news stories paired with tweets by overweight than healthy females (with the opposite true for tweets by male users), participants expressed greater viral behavioral intentions for news stories paired with tweets by healthy weight than overweight user. These effects were more pronounced among male than female participants. Findings are discussed within the context of social media posts and their persuasive effects in relation to attitude and behavior changes.

  4. Obesity-related mortality in France, Italy, and the United States: a comparison using multiple cause-of-death analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Magali; Désesquelles, Aline; Egidi, Viviana; Demuru, Elena; Frova, Luisa; Meslé, France; Pappagallo, Marilena

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the reporting of obesity on death certificates in three countries (France, Italy, and the United States) with different levels of prevalence, and we examine which causes are frequently associated with obesity. We use cause-of-death data for all deaths at ages 50-89 in 2010-2011. Since obesity may not be the underlying cause (UC) of death, we compute age- and sex-standardized death rates considering all mentions of obesity (multiple causes or MC). We use cluster analyses to identify patterns of cause-of-death combinations. Obesity is selected as UC in no more than 20% of the deaths with a mention of obesity. Mortality levels, whether measured from the UC or the MC, are weakly related to levels of prevalence. Patterns of cause-of-death combinations are similar across the countries. In addition to strong links with cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, we identify several less familiar associations. Considering all mentions on the deaths certificates reduces the underestimation of obesity-related mortality based on the UC only. It also enables us to describe the various mortality patterns involving obesity.

  5. The costs of overweight and obesity-related diseases in the Brazilian public health system: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahia Luciana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major global epidemic and a burden to society and health systems. It is well known risk factor for a number of chronic medical conditions with high morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to provide an estimate of the direct costs associated to outpatient and inpatient care of overweight and obesity related diseases in the perspective of the Brazilian Health System (SUS. Methods Population attributable risk (PAR was calculated for selected diseases related to overweight and obesity and with the following parameters: Relative risk (RR ≥ 1.20 or RR ≥1.10 and  Results The estimated total costs in one year with all diseases related to overweight and obesity are US$ 2,1 billion; US$ 1,4 billion (68.4% of total costs due to hospitalizations and US$ 679 million due to ambulatory procedures. Approximately 10% of these cost is attributable to overweight and obesity. Conclusion The results confirm that overweight and obesity carry a great economic burden for Brazilian health system and for the society. The knowledge of these costs will be useful for future economic analysis of preventive and treatment interventions.

  6. Prevalence of Canine Obesity, Obesity-Related Metabolic Dysfunction, and Relationship with Owner Obesity in an Obesogenic Region of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Alonso, J Alberto; Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Peña, Cristina; Suárez, Lourdes; Juste, M Candelaria; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of canine obesity and obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD) in the obesogenic area in Spain. The prevalence of overweight/obesity among owners of obese pets was also evaluated. In the sample population studied (93 client-owned dogs), 40.9% of dogs presented obesity (body condition score 7-9/9), 40.9% of dogs presented hypertension, 20.4% of dogs presented fasting hypertriglyceridemia, 20.4% fasting hypercholesterolemia, and 5.4% of dogs presented fasting hyperglycemia. The overall prevalence of ORMD was of 22.6%. Seventy-eight percent of overweight/obese owners had overweight/obese dogs ( P  canine obesity and ORMD was shown to be elevated and related to the presence of overweight/obesity in owners. All dogs with ORMD were owned by overweight/obese persons. These results provide new inputs for future studies highlighting the relationship between owner and pet obesity and indicating the need of further efforts to control and reduce obesity prevalence in both.

  7. Prevalence of Canine Obesity, Obesity-Related Metabolic Dysfunction, and Relationship with Owner Obesity in an Obesogenic Region of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Tvarijonaviciute

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of canine obesity and obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD in the obesogenic area in Spain. The prevalence of overweight/obesity among owners of obese pets was also evaluated. In the sample population studied (93 client-owned dogs, 40.9% of dogs presented obesity (body condition score 7–9/9, 40.9% of dogs presented hypertension, 20.4% of dogs presented fasting hypertriglyceridemia, 20.4% fasting hypercholesterolemia, and 5.4% of dogs presented fasting hyperglycemia. The overall prevalence of ORMD was of 22.6%. Seventy-eight percent of overweight/obese owners had overweight/obese dogs (P < 0.001 including all dogs diagnosed with ORMD. In conclusion, in the studied obesogenic region of Spain, the prevalence of canine obesity and ORMD was shown to be elevated and related to the presence of overweight/obesity in owners. All dogs with ORMD were owned by overweight/obese persons. These results provide new inputs for future studies highlighting the relationship between owner and pet obesity and indicating the need of further efforts to control and reduce obesity prevalence in both.

  8. Analysis of Obesity-Related Factors and their Association with Aromatase Expression in Canine Malignant Mammary Tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J-I; Lim, H-Y; Kim, H-W; Seung, B-J; Ju, J-H; Sur, J-H

    2016-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of obesity in canine malignant mammary tumours (CMMTs), by assessing aromatase expression and the regulatory roles of immune mediators such as cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB), hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and adipokines (i.e. leptin) in lean, optimal body weight, overweight and obese animals. Clinicopathological data, including the breed, body weight, body condition score and age and neutering status, were collected, together with histopathological characteristics (i.e. histological types, grading and lymphatic invasion). To determine the expression of each factor, immunohistochemistry was conducted with 60 samples of malignant CMMTs. CMMTs from overweight and obese animals had significantly elevated levels of PGE2, and aromatase expression correlated significantly with PGE2, NF-κB and leptin expression. However, no significant difference was observed in terms of histopathological characteristics. The results suggest that PGE2, a known obesity-related immune mediator, could be upregulated in CMMTs from overweight and obese animals. In addition, PGE2, NF-κB and leptin influenced the expression of aromatase, as observed in women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of policy and built environment changes on obesity-related outcomes: a systematic review of naturally occurring experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, S L; Auchincloss, A H; Michael, Y L

    2015-05-01

    Policies and changes to the built environment are promising targets for obesity prevention efforts and can be evaluated as 'natural'- or 'quasi'-experiments. This systematic review examined the use of natural- or quasi-experiments to evaluate the efficacy of policy and built environment changes on obesity-related outcomes (body mass index, diet or physical activity). PubMed (Medline) was searched for studies published 2005-2013; 1,175 abstracts and 115 papers were reviewed. Of the 37 studies included, 18 studies evaluated impacts on nutrition/diet, 17 on physical activity and 3 on body mass index. Nutrition-related studies found greater effects because of bans/restrictions on unhealthy foods, mandates offering healthier foods, and altering purchase/payment rules on foods purchased using low-income food vouchers compared with other interventions (menu labelling, new supermarkets). Physical activity-related studies generally found stronger impacts when the intervention involved improvements to active transportation infrastructure, longer follow-up time or measured process outcomes (e.g., cycling rather than total physical activity), compared with other studies. Only three studies directly assessed body mass index or weight, and only one (installing light-rail system) observed a significant effect. Studies varied widely in the strength of their design and studies with weaker designs were more likely to report associations in the positive direction. © 2015 World Obesity.

  10. Geographic distribution of childhood diabetes and obesity relative to the supply of pediatric endocrinologists in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joyce M; Davis, Matthew M; Menon, Ram K; Freed, Gary L

    2008-03-01

    To determine the geographic distribution of childhood diabetes and obesity relative to the supply of US pediatric endocrinologists. Estimation of observed and "index" ratios of children with diabetes (by region and division) and obesity (body mass index >/=95th % for age and sex) (by region and state) to board-certified pediatric endocrinologists. At the national level, the ratio of children with diabetes to pediatric endocrinologists is 290:1, and the ratio of obese children to pediatric endocrinologists is 17,741:1. Ratios of children with diabetes to pediatric endocrinologists in the Midwest (370:1), South (335:1), and West (367:1) are twice as high as in the Northeast (144:1). Across states, there is up to a 19-fold difference in the observed ratios of obese children to pediatric endocrinologists. Under conditions of equitably distributed endocrinologist supply, variation across states would be mitigated considerably. The distribution of children with diabetes and obesity does not parallel the distribution of pediatric endocrinologists in the United States, due largely to geographic disparities in endocrinologist supply. Given the large burden of obese children to endocrinologists, multidisciplinary models of care delivery are essential for the US health care system to address the needs of children with diabetes and obesity.

  11. A systematic review of the influence of the retail food environment around schools on obesity-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J; Scarborough, P; Matthews, A; Cowburn, G; Foster, C; Roberts, N; Rayner, M

    2014-05-01

    The high prevalence of childhood obesity has led to questions about the influence of 'obesogenic' environments on children's health. Public health interventions targeting the retail food environment around schools have been proposed, but it is unclear if they are evidence based. This systematic review investigates associations between food outlets near schools and children's food purchases, consumption and body weight. We conducted a keyword search in 10 databases. Inclusion criteria required papers to be peer reviewed, to measure retailing around schools and to measure obesity-related outcomes among schoolchildren. Thirty papers were included. This review found very little evidence for an effect of the retail food environment surrounding schools on food purchases and consumption, but some evidence of an effect on body weight. Given the general lack of evidence for association with the mediating variables of food purchases and consumption, and the observational nature of the included studies, it is possible that the effect on body weight is a result of residual confounding. Most of the included studies did not consider individual children's journeys through the food environment, suggesting that predominant exposure measures may not account for what individual children actually experience. These findings suggest that future interventions targeting the food environment around schools need careful evaluation. © 2014 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  12. The Potential Role of Aerobic Exercise-Induced Pentraxin 3 on Obesity-Related Inflammation and Metabolic Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusher, Aaron L; Huang, Chun-Jung; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is defined as the excess accumulation of intra-abdominal body fat, resulting in a state of chronic, low-grade proinflammation that can directly contribute to the development of insulin resistance. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an acute-phase protein that is expressed by a variety of tissue and cell sources and provides an anti-inflammatory property to downregulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines, in particular interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Although PTX3 may therapeutically aid in altering the proinflammatory milieu in obese individuals, and despite elevated expression of PTX3 mRNA observed in adipose tissue, the circulating level of PTX3 is reduced with obesity. Interestingly, aerobic activity has been demonstrated to elevate PTX3 levels. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss the therapeutic potential of PTX3 to positively regulate obesity-related inflammation and discuss the proposition for utilizing aerobic exercise as a nonpharmacological anti-inflammatory treatment strategy to enhance circulating PTX3 concentrations in obese individuals.

  13. Effects of Interactivity between Audience and Urban Advertisement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Manavirad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, advertisement plays an important and impressive role in our lives and we are witnessing different works in this field. The emergence of new technologies in this field has led to the arrival of a new style of advertising with different interactivity and administrative functions. Interactive advertising is considered as one of the most up to date urban advertising. With regard to the arrival of this new style of advertising and using them in different countries, this research investigates the effectiveness of an advertisement’s interaction with the audiences in urban advertising through a descriptive/analytical approach as well as field study with regard to the type of advertising usage including commercial, promotional, educational, social etc. It is assumed that an interactive advertising confronts the audience with many challenges and makes him from a static and watching audience to an actor and explorer audience. In such advertisements, the audience enters a path with interactivity where the advertisement guides him and audience responses positively to this action; after a simple activity and in some cases, he interacts and communicates with the advertisement just by passing by it. In interactivity advertisements in urban spaces, the artist pays much attention to audience participation for challenges or performing specific activity that will lead to a result. The use of interactive advertising in various forms such as billboards, stands, and advertisements at bus stops and so on has increased in recent years, developed countries, and countries that are more familiar to technologies. These works are considered a new step in the field of urban advertising. This research selects samples of using such creative advertisements, especially in commercial areas in different countries as well as Iran. It considers the producing method, ideation, and effectiveness of each in a specific period as well as their installation and commissioning

  14. Using narratives and storytelling to communicate science with nonexpert audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlstrom, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Although storytelling often has negative connotations within science, narrative formats of communication should not be disregarded when communicating science to nonexpert audiences. Narratives offer increased comprehension, interest, and engagement. Nonexperts get most of their science information from mass media content, which is itself already biased toward narrative formats. Narratives are also intrinsically persuasive, which offers science communicators tactics for persuading otherwise resistant audiences, although such use also raises ethical considerations. Future intersections of narrative research with ongoing discussions in science communication are introduced. PMID:25225368

  15. The influence of outdoor thermal environment on young Japanese females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Ishii, Jin; Kondo, Emi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows the relations......The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows...

  16. Outdoor ultraviolet exposure of children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffey, B.L.; Gibson, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    The weekday and weekend outdoor ultraviolet exposure of young people from primary and secondary schools in three geographically distinct regions of England was determined over a 3-month period in summer. Ultraviolet exposure was measured using personal film badges worn by each young person and time spent outdoors, in hourly intervals, assessed using exposure records. In each area a class of 9-10 year-old children from a primary school and a class of 14-15-year-old adolescents from a secondary school took part, giving a total of 180 subjects. We found that primary school children received higher outdoor ultraviolet exposure than young people in secondary schools, and geographical differences in exposure could not be accounted for solely by differences in ambient ultraviolet. There was little difference between the exposure of males and females. Children and adolescents did not behave as homogeneous groups with regard to exposure. (Author)

  17. Subject related teaching in udeskole (outdoor school)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Karen Seierøe

    Subject related teaching in udeskole In this symposium, subject related teaching on a regular basis in the outdoors, known as udeskole will be described and discussed. Based on recent and ongoing research and development, the education taking the place of teaching into account of the learning...... will identify the necessity of doing research into the field, as 18,4% of all Danish schools is shown to have one or more classes working with udeskole (Barfod et al, 2016). Secondly, the subject related teaching in the outdoors will be exemplified by four research projects. First, the subject ‘Danish...... teaching in the outdoors will be supplemented with recent research upon barriers for using external learning environments ‘the open school’ in Skive Muncipiality. Closing the seminar will be a presentation of the national Danish Network UdeskoleNet and its application. Sources: Barfod, K., Ejbye-Ernst, N...

  18. Radiometric monitoring outdoor municipality Pocinhos-PB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinalli Araujo Costa, Michelle; Araujo dos Santos Junior, Jose; Dos Santos Amaral, Romilton

    2015-01-01

    Studies on human exposure to terrestrial radionuclides are important for human health. Therefore, this investigation presents aimed at making radiometric dosimetry Pocinhos municipality in the state of Paraiba. Monitoring was performed in 50 points in urban and rural areas Pocinhos. The estimated external effective dose rate in outdoor environments was obtained in triplicate using a portable gamma spectrometer, to 1.0 m away from the Earth's surface and time set acquisition in terms of environmental radiation levels. The values of these dose rates outdoor environments ranging from 0.53 to 3.94 mSv.y -1 . the arithmetic mean was 0.79 mSv.y -1 , which exceeds the value 0.07 mSv.y -1 corresponding to the global average in outdoor environments. In the city, found a higher radioactivity in rural areas that were uninhabited at the time of the survey. (Author)

  19. Decontamination of large horizontal concrete surfaces outdoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, M.M.; Chester, C.V.

    1980-01-01

    A study is being conducted of the resources and planning that would be required to clean up an extensive contamination of the outdoor environment. As part of this study, an assessment of the fleet of machines needed for decontaminating large outdoor surfaces of horizontal concrete will be attempted. The operations required are described. The performance of applicable existing equipment is analyzed in terms of area cleaned per unit time, and the comprehensive cost of decontamination per unit area is derived. Shielded equipment for measuring directional radiation and continuously monitoring decontamination work are described. Shielding of drivers' cabs and remote control vehicles is addressed

  20. Relationships in indoor/outdoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium-7 and sulphurhexaflourid has been used as tracers in measurements designed to enable an estimate of the ratio of the outdoor to indoor time-integrated concentration for aerosols and non-reactive gasses of outdoor origin with a special reference to the reduction in inhalation dose that can be achieved by staying indoors during a pollution episode, especially a reactor accident. The effect of operating a vacuum cleaner during the pollution episode and airing shortly after is also investigated. Earlier relevant literature is reviewed and shows goos agreement with the results in this study. Protection factor from 1-12 has been found. (author)

  1. Continuous measurements of outdoor radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, T.; Ikebe, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Ueno, K.; Komura, K.; Kato, I.; Jin Yihe

    1993-01-01

    The authors studied and developed an electrostatic 222 Rn monitor and have measured continuously outdoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations at Nagoya University since 1985. Four 222 Rn monitors were newly constructed to measure outdoor 222 Rn concentrations at other locations. The 222 Rn concentrations at Nagoya and Kasugai show a clear diurnal variation in autumn, and a seasonal pattern of a spring-summer minimum and a autumn-winter maximum. The results at Toki are the same pattern as that at Nagoya except spring. The concentrations at Kanazawa show a slight seasonal variation. A clear diurnal variation is observed in summer. (4 figs.)

  2. Fear of moving outdoors and development of outdoor walking difficulty in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna; Iwarsson, Susanne; Törmäkangas, Timo; Leinonen, Raija; Heikkinen, Eino; Rantanen, Taina

    2009-04-01

    To study which individual characteristics and environmental factors correlate with fear of moving outdoors and whether fear of moving outdoors predicts development of mobility limitation. Observational prospective cohort study and cross-sectional analyses. Community and research center. Seven hundred twenty-seven community-living people aged 75 to 81 were interviewed at baseline, of whom 314 took part in a 3.5-year follow-up. Fear of moving outdoors and its potential individual and environmental correlates were assessed at baseline. Perceived difficulties in walking 0.5 km and 2 km were assessed twice a year over a 3.5-year period. At baseline, 65% of the women and 29% of the men reported fear of moving outdoors. Poor socioeconomic status; musculoskeletal diseases; slow walking speed; and the presence of poor street conditions, hills in the nearby environment, and noisy traffic correlated with fear of moving outdoors. At the first 6-month follow-up, participants with fear of moving outdoors had more than four times the adjusted risk (odds ratio (OR)=4.6, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.92-11.00) of developing difficulties in walking 0.5 km and a three times greater adjusted risk (OR=3.10, 95% CI=1.49-6.46) for developing difficulty in walking 2 km compared with those without fear. The difference in the prevalence of walking difficulties remained statistically significant over the 3.5-year follow-up (P=.02 and P=.009, respectively). Fear of moving outdoors is common in older adults and increases the risk of developing self-reported difficulties in walking 0.5 km and 2 km. Knowledge about individual and environmental factors underlying fear of moving outdoors and finding ways to alleviate fear of moving outdoors are important for community planning and prevention of disability.

  3. Introduction : The Places and Spaces of News Audiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This special issue on the places and spaces of news audiences presents an initial attempt to do this; to see how the everyday digital geographies of contemporary media, communication, and information flows intersect with the everywhere “lived” geographies of individuals, and how this impacts

  4. Consider Clicking In: Using Audience Response Systems to Spark Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Joshua B.

    2013-01-01

    Audience response systems, also known as clickers, hold much promise for use in the communication classroom. Yet potential benefits notwithstanding, implementing new technology in the classroom also offers challenges for faculty who must master it themselves while managing students' learning. Successful clicker implementation, like the…

  5. Audience Research in American Broadcasting: The Early Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Donald

    The basic arrangements and practices of American broadcast audience research and measurement were established during the first decade (1920-29) of the field's existence, and were motivated by commercial and competing institutional concerns within the broader context of evolving forms of imagination and expression. A review of the evidence found in…

  6. Audience Perception of Nollywood Films | Agba | Lwati: A Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stimulus providing the drive into the writing of the article titled: audience perception of Nollywood Films in Nigeria arises as a result of the severe perceptual criticism about Nollywood Films even to the point of suggesting that the product of the industry should be of no use. Thus, this article is written after an empirical ...

  7. Tangible air: An interactive installation for visualising audience engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Röggla (Tom); C. Wang (Chen); L. Pérez Romero (Lilia); A.J. Jansen (Jack); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis article presents an end-to-end system for capturing physiological sensor data and visualising it on a real-time graphic dashboard and as part of an art installation. More specifically, it describes an event where the level of engagement of the audience was measured by means of

  8. Tangible air : An Interactive Installation for Visualising Audience Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röggla, Thomas; Wang, Chen; Perez Romero, Lilia; Jansen, Jack; Cesar Garcia, P.S.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an end-to-end system for capturing physiological sensor data and visualising it on a real-time graphic dashboard and as part of an art installation. More specifically, it describes an event where the level of engagement of the audience was measured by means of Galvanic Skin

  9. Allies and Competitors as Enscripted Audiences in Scientific Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Susan

    A set of much examined scientific papers which specifically portray a controversial topic and also manifest ally-peer and competitor-peer enscripted audiences are those written by James Watson and Francis Crick concerning their discovery of the structure of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA). The theoretical perspective of an ally-peer and…

  10. Qualitative Audience Research: Toward an Integrative Approach to Reception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Klaus Bruhn

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes research about the mass communication audience and describes a theoretical and methodological framework for further empirical studies. Discusses the (1) explanatory value of qualitative research; (2) social and cultural implications of the reception process, with special reference to television; and (3) applications and social relevance…

  11. Using Audience Segmentation to Tailor Residential Irrigation Water Conservation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Laura A.; Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Rumble, Joy N.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Momol, Esen

    2017-01-01

    Today's complex issues require technical expertise as well as the application of innovative social science techniques within Extension contexts. Researchers have suggested that a social science approach will play a critical role in water conservation, and people who use home landscape irrigation comprise a critical target audience for agriculture…

  12. Adolescent audience segmentation on alcohol attitudes : A further exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.M.; Mathijssen, J.J.P.; van Bon, M.J.H.; van Oers, J.A.M.; Garretsen, H.F.L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In an earlier audience segmentation study, Dutch adolescents aged 12–18 years were segmented into five alcohol attitudes segments: ordinaries, high spirits, consciously sobers, ordinary sobers and socials. The current study explores several aspects of alcohol consumption and leisure

  13. Renewing Audience Response in Study of Medieval Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, David V.

    Although modern readers often find the interpretation of medieval literature difficult, they should be encouraged to use their imagination to resolve the dilemmas they encounter. Often, these are the same issues with which medieval audiences had to wrestle and which the poets intended to raise. W. Iser's and H. R. Jauss's principles of…

  14. Hyperboles not turning to metaphors : How to explain audience cooperativeness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoven, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    We observe that an audience attempts to interpret the relation between a source domain and a target domain as a hyperbole before interpreting it as a metaphor. It could also first try a metaphorical reading or attempt several possible readings and successively select the relevant outcome. But it

  15. The Effects of Target Audience on Social Tagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsarhan, Hesham

    2013-01-01

    Online social bookmarking systems allow users to assign tags (i.e., keywords) to represent the content of resources. Research on the effects of target audience on social tagging suggests that taggers select different tags for themselves, their community (e.g., family, friends, colleagues), and the general public (Panke & Gaiser, 2009; Pu &…

  16. Communicating Ocean Sciences to Informal Audiences (COSIA): Interim Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Mark; Phillips, Michelle; Smith, Anita; Castori, Pam

    2009-01-01

    Communicating Ocean Sciences to Informal Audiences (COSIA) is a National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded project consisting of seven long-term three-way partnerships between the Lawrence Hall of Science (LHS) and an informal science education institution (ISEI) partnered with an institution of higher education (IHE). Together, educators from the…

  17. Communicating Ocean Sciences to Informal Audiences (COSIA): Final Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Michelle; St. John, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Communicating Ocean Sciences to Informal Audiences (COSIA) is a National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded project consisting of six three-way partnerships between the Lawrence Hall of Science (LHS) and an informal science education institution (ISEI) partnered with an institution of higher education (IHE). Together, educators from the ISEI (often…

  18. Experio: a design for novel audience participation in club settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, B.F.K.; Giacolini, L.; Hengeveld, B.J.; Funk, M.; Frens, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    When looking at modern music club settings, especially in the area of electronic music, music is consumed in a unidirectional way – from DJ or producer to the audience – with little direct means to influence and participate. In this paper we challenge this phenomenon and aim for a new bond between

  19. Narrative Writing in Digital Formats: Interpreting the Impact of Audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Joshua Fahey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital writing has enabled students to write for a variety of authentic audiences, both in and out of the classroom. As they consider audience, students shoulder a cognitive burden that they must juggle in addition to the task of composition. At the same time, writing provides students with opportunities to craft and express their identities. The ways that identity formation and cognitive load intersect may be particularly complex in digital, online writing environments, as students gain the ability to share and receive feedback from global and local audiences. In this counterbalanced experimental study, 86 seventh- and eighth-grade students responded to two narrative prompts. One prompt was written for the teacher and the other was written for the teacher and peers in an online forum. We examined student writing fluency, mechanical errors, academic word use, and setting. Students were found to be more likely to set narratives in private settings when writing for an audience that included peers. We discuss this finding from cognitive and sociocultural perspectives and how it might inform networked communication research.

  20. Pedro Gutierrez Bueno's Textbooks: Audiences, Teaching Practices and Chemical Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jose Ramon Bertomeu; Belmar, Antonio Garcia

    2006-01-01

    Pedro Gutierrez Bueno wrote two editions of a chemistry textbook between 1788 and 1802. The paper offers a comparative view of both editions taking into account Gutierrez Bueno's biography, his intended audience and the changes related to the so-called chemical revolution. Some conclusions are at odds with common images about scientific…

  1. Audience Perception of Television Animated Cartoons as Tool for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated audience perception of television animated cartoons as tool for political communication. The specific objectives of the study were: to find out the frequency of exposure to television animated cartoons between males and females; to find out the frequency of exposure to television animated cartoons ...

  2. Scientific Criticism? A Critical Approach to the Resistive Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddock, Andy

    1998-01-01

    Contends that critical audience research has resisted "scientific" discourses that appear positivist. States that recent research begins to show the same errors as earlier positivist style--re-emergence of debates on political economy and cultural imperialism are aimed at overturning what are seen as orthodoxies of opposition and…

  3. Audience awareness and use of Mobile Authentication Service ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Audience awareness and use of Mobile Authentication Service (MAS) in identifying fake and substandard drugs in Nigeria. ... Based on the research findings, this study therefore recommends an increased level of awareness through a multi-media approach, improved network services, as well as getting all drug ...

  4. Characterizing and Reaching High-Risk Drinkers Using Audience Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Howard B.; Kirby, Susan D.; Donodeo, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Background Market or audience segmentation is widely used in social marketing efforts to help planners identify segments of a population to target for tailored program interventions. Market-based segments are typically defined by behaviors, attitudes, knowledge, opinions, or lifestyles. They are more helpful to health communication and marketing planning than epidemiologically-defined groups because market-based segments are similar in respect to how they behave or might react to marketing and communication efforts. However, market segmentation has rarely been used in alcohol research. As an illustration of its utility, we employed commercial data that describes the sociodemographic characteristics of high-risk drinkers as an audience segment; where they tend to live, lifestyles, interests, consumer behaviors, alcohol consumption behaviors, other health-related behaviors, and cultural values. Such information can be extremely valuable in targeting and planning public health campaigns, targeted mailings, prevention interventions and research efforts. Methods We describe the results of a segmentation analysis of those individuals who self-report consuming five or more drinks per drinking episode at least twice in the last 30-days. The study used the proprietary PRIZM™ audience segmentation database merged with Center for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) database. The top ten of the 66 PRIZM™ audience segments for this risky drinking pattern are described. For five of these segments we provide additional in-depth details about consumer behavior and the estimates of the market areas where these risky drinkers reside. Results The top ten audience segments (PRIZM clusters) most likely to engage in high-risk drinking are described. The cluster with the highest concentration of binge drinking behavior is referred to as the “Cyber Millenials.” This cluster is characterized as “the nation's tech-savvy singles

  5. Characterizing and reaching high-risk drinkers using audience segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Howard B; Kirby, Susan D; Donodeo, Fred

    2009-08-01

    Market or audience segmentation is widely used in social marketing efforts to help planners identify segments of a population to target for tailored program interventions. Market-based segments are typically defined by behaviors, attitudes, knowledge, opinions, or lifestyles. They are more helpful to health communication and marketing planning than epidemiologically defined groups because market-based segments are similar in respect to how they behave or might react to marketing and communication efforts. However, market segmentation has rarely been used in alcohol research. As an illustration of its utility, we employed commercial data that describes the sociodemographic characteristics of high-risk drinkers as an audience segment, including where they tend to live, lifestyles, interests, consumer behaviors, alcohol consumption behaviors, other health-related behaviors, and cultural values. Such information can be extremely valuable in targeting and planning public health campaigns, targeted mailings, prevention interventions, and research efforts. We described the results of a segmentation analysis of those individuals who self-reported to consume 5 or more drinks per drinking episode at least twice in the last 30 days. The study used the proprietary PRIZM (Claritas, Inc., San Diego, CA) audience segmentation database merged with the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) database. The top 10 of the 66 PRIZM audience segments for this risky drinking pattern are described. For five of these segments we provided additional in-depth details about consumer behavior and the estimates of the market areas where these risky drinkers resided. The top 10 audience segments (PRIZM clusters) most likely to engage in high-risk drinking are described. The cluster with the highest concentration of binge-drinking behavior is referred to as the "Cyber Millenials." This cluster is characterized as "the nation's tech

  6. Turismo Activo y Outdoor Training: Metodología. (Adventure Sport Tourism and Outdoor Training: Methodology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Gómez Encinas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenUno de los aspectos más atractivos que tiene el outdoor training es su supuesta capacidad para conseguir que los aprendizajes obtenidos a través de sus actividades sean transferidos a otros ámbitos de la vida personal y profesional de sus participantes. En este sentido, la clave está en la metodología empleada. Este artículo profundiza en las fases que estructuran el proceso formativo del outdoor training describiendo: 1 las bases folosóficas que lo apoyan y que están expresadas en la teoría de la “educación a través de la experiencia” y 2 las diferentes fases que estructuran el proceso de formación de un outdoor, haciendo una descripción en profundidad de cada una de ellas: a Pre-Outdoor (Análisis y valoración de las necesidades, diseño de la actividad y reunión previa a la actividad, b Outdoor, c Post-outdoor (Reflexión y transferencia, y d Seguimiento posterior.AbstractOne of the most attractive aspects that has the outdoor training is their supposed capacity to get that the learnings obtained through their activities are transferred to other environments of the personal life and their participants' professional. In this sense, the key is in the used methodology. This article deepens in the phases that structure the formative process of the outdoor training describing: 1 the philosophy´s bases that support this process and that are expressed in the theory of experiential education, and 2 the different phases that structure the process of formation of an outdoor, making a description in depth of each one of them: to Pre-Outdoor (Analysis and valuation of the necessities, design of the activity and previous meeting to the activity, b Outdoor, c Post-outdoor (Reflection and transfer, and d Later Pursuit.

  7. Association of Bariatric Surgery vs Medical Obesity Treatment With Long-term Medical Complications and Obesity-Related Comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Gunn Signe; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Sandbu, Rune; Nordstrand, Njord; Hofsø, Dag; Lindberg, Morten; Hertel, Jens Kristoffer; Hjelmesæth, Jøran

    2018-01-16

    The association of bariatric surgery and specialized medical obesity treatment with beneficial and detrimental outcomes remains uncertain. To compare changes in obesity-related comorbidities in patients with severe obesity (body mass index ≥40 or ≥35 and at least 1 comorbidity) undergoing bariatric surgery or specialized medical treatment. Cohort study with baseline data of exposures from November 2005 through July 2010 and follow-up data from 2006 until death or through December 2015 at a tertiary care outpatient center, Vestfold Hospital Trust, Norway. Consecutive treatment-seeking adult patients (n = 2109) with severe obesity assessed (221 patients excluded and 1888 patients included). Bariatric surgery (n = 932, 92% gastric bypass) or specialized medical treatment (n = 956) including individual or group-based lifestyle intervention programs. Primary outcomes included remission and new onset of hypertension based on drugs dispensed according to the Norwegian Prescription Database. Prespecified secondary outcomes included changes in comorbidities. Adverse events included complications retrieved from the Norwegian Patient Registry and a local laboratory database. Among 1888 patients included in the study, the mean (SD) age was 43.5 (12.3) years (1249 women [66%]; mean [SD] baseline BMI, 44.2 [6.1]; 100% completed follow-up at a median of 6.5 years [range, 0.2-10.1]). Surgically treated patients had a greater likelihood of remission and lesser likelihood for new onset of hypertension (remission: absolute risk [AR], 31.9% vs 12.4%); risk difference [RD], 19.5% [95% CI, 15.8%-23.2%], relative risk [RR], 2.1 [95% CI, 2.0-2.2]; new onset: AR, 3.5% vs 12.2%, RD, 8.7% [95% CI, 6.7%-10.7%], RR, 0.4 [95% CI, 0.3-0.5]; greater likelihood of diabetes remission: AR, 57.5% vs 14.8%; RD, 42.7% [95% CI, 35.8%-49.7%], RR, 3.9 [95% CI, 2.8-5.4]; greater risk of new-onset depression: AR, 8.9% vs 6.5%; RD, 2.4% [95% CI, 1.3%-3.5%], RR, 1.5 [95% CI, 1.4-1.7]; and

  8. Prevalence and healthcare costs of obesity-related comorbidities: evidence from an electronic medical records system in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Blume, Steven W; Huang, Joanna C; Hammer, Mette; Ganz, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    This study estimated the economic burden of obesity-related comorbidities (ORCs) in the US, at both the person and population levels. The Geisinger Health System provided electronic medical records and claims between January 2004 and May 2013 for a sample of 153,561 adults (50% males and 97% white). Adults with A total of 21 chronic conditions, with established association with obesity in the literature, were identified by diagnosis codes and/or lab test results. The total healthcare costs were measured in each year. The association between annual costs and ORCs was assessed by a regression, which jointly considered all the ORCs. The per-person incremental costs of a single comorbidity, without any of the other ORCs, were calculated. The population-level economic burden was the product of each ORC's incremental costs and the annual prevalence of the ORC among 100,000 individuals. The prevalence of ORCs was stratified by obesity status to estimate the economic burden among 100,000 individuals with obesity and among those without. This study identified 56,895 adults (mean age = 47 years; mean BMI = 29.6 kg/m(2)). The annual prevalence of ORCs ranged from 0.5% for pulmonary embolism (PE) to 41.8% for dyslipidemia. The per-person annual incremental costs of a single ORC ranged from $120 for angina to $1665 for PE. Hypertensive diseases (HTND), dyslipidemia, and osteoarthritis were the three most expensive ORCs at the population level; each responsible for ≥$18 million annually among 100,000 individuals. HTND and osteoarthritis were much more costly among individuals with obesity than those without obesity. Data were from a small geographic region. ORCs are associated with substantial economic burden, especially for those requiring continuous treatments.

  9. The association between inflammatory markers and obesity-related factors in Tehranian adults: Tehran lipid and glucose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faam, Bita; Zarkesh, Maryam; Daneshpour, Maryam Sadat; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hedayati, Mehdi

    2014-08-01

    Obesity considered being a low-grade inflammatory disease. The objective of this study was to examine the association between inflammatory markers (IM) including C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and homocystein (Hcy) and obesity-related factors (e.g. BMI, waist, hip) in adult participants of Tehran lipid and glucose study (TLGS). In this cross-sectional study, 352 individuals (132 men and 220 women), age ≥19 years, were randomly recruited from participants of TLGS population. The serum levels of hs-CRP, IL-6, Hcy were determined using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Variables were compared by sample t-test. Bivariate linear correlation was estimated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Linear regression analysis was applied to investigate the association between IMs and anthropometric and biochemical variables. The mean age of participants was 46.1±16.1 years. abdominal obesity was present in 199(56.5%) individuals. levels of hs-CRP and IL-6 increased in the abdominally obese group (1507±3.3 vs. 577.8±4.3 ng/ml P<0.001) (3.6±3.3 vs. 1.9±3.8 pg/ml P< 0.001), and in the same group, the best predictors for hs-CRP, IL-6 and Hcy were waist (WC), waist to height ratio (WHtR) and wrist respectively; hip and WHtR were the best predictors for Hcy and hs-CRP in the normal group. A linear augmentation in hs-CRP and IL-6 levels was observed in association with obesity categorizes. This study provides evidence that abdominally obese individuals had higher levels of IMs. Wrist, waist and WHtR were the best predictors for Hcy, hs-CRP and IL-6 respectively in this group.

  10. SEAWEED EXTRACTS AS A POTENTIAL TOOL FOR THE ATTENUATION OF OXIDATIVE DAMAGE IN OBESITY-RELATED PATHOLOGIES1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok-Hwan; Yoon, Kye-Yoon; Kim, Kui-Jin; You, SangGuan; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that seaweed extracts are a significant source of bioactive compounds comparable to the dietary phytochemicals such as onion and tea extracts. The exploration of natural antioxidants that attenuate oxidative damage is important for developing strategies to treat obesity-related pathologies. The objective of this study was to screen the effects of seaweed extracts of 49 species on adipocyte differentiation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and to investigate their total phenol contents and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities. Our results show that high total phenol contents were observed in the extracts of Ecklonia cava (see Table 1 for taxonomic authors) (681.1 ± 16.0 μg gallic acid equivalents [GAE] · g -1 ), Dictyopteris undulata (641.3 ± 70.7 μg GAE · g -1 ), and Laurencia intermedia (560.9 ± 48.1 μg GAE · g -1 ). In addition, DPPH radical scavenging activities were markedly higher in Sargassum macrocarpum (60.2%), Polysiphonia morrowii (55.0%), and Ishige okamurae (52.9%) than those of other seaweed extracts (P Gelidium amansii, Gracilaria verrucosa, and Grateloupia lanceolata significantly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and ROS production during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, the production of ROS was positively correlated with lipid accumulation (R 2  = 0.8149). According to these preliminary results, some of the seaweed extracts can inhibit ROS generation, which may protect against oxidative stress that is linked to obesity. Further studies are required to determine the molecular mechanism between the verified seaweeds and ROS, and the resulting effects on obesity. [Table: see text]. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  11. Hepatic gene expression of Caucasian and African-American patients with obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, Maria; Hossain, Noreen; Afendy, Arian; Perry, Kellie; Goodman, Zachary D; Baranova, Ancha; Younossi, Zobair

    2010-05-01

    There is increasing data suggesting that African Americans with NAFLD tend to have less progressive liver disease. The aim of this study is to assess differences in the hepatic gene expression of African-American and Caucasian patients with NAFLD who had undergone bariatric surgery. A total of 94 patients (81 NAFLD and 13 weight-matched controls with normal liver biopsy) were included. Of the entire cohort, 73 were Caucasians and 21 were African Americans. All patients were undergoing bariatric surgery. Two liver biopsies were obtained at the time of surgery. One biopsy was snap-frozen for gene expression and the other biopsy was stained for pathologic assessment. Liver biopsy confirmed that 24 patients from our cohort had NASH while 57 had only simple steatosis. Snap-frozen liver biopsy specimens of these patients were then used for the RNA extraction. cDNA probes were hybridized with customized microarray gene chips containing 5,220 relevant genes. Gene expression profiles were compared between groups using significance analysis of microarrays algorithm. In comparison to all Caucasian patients, African-American patients had over-expression of EPB41L1, IGF2, FAH, ACSL4, FUT4, CYP3A (q values < 10(-4)). In comparison to Caucasian NAFLD patients, African-American NAFLD patients showed over-expression of EPB41L1 and ACSL4 genes. Finally, in comparison to Caucasian NASH patients, African-American NASH patients showed over-expression of GSTM 2, GSTM4 and GSTM5 as well as FH and ASCL4 genes. Some genes highlighted by this analysis, particularly cytochrome CYP3A and glutathione transferases GSTM2, 4, 5, were previously implicated in the pathogenesis of NASH. African-American patients with biopsy-proven obesity-related NAFLD and NASH have a specific hepatic gene expression pattern that may explain their differences from Caucasian patients with NAFLD in developing progressive liver disease.

  12. Effects of pioglitazone mediated activation of PPAR-γ on CIDEC and obesity related changes in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Haider Shamsi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a metabolic disorder that can lead to high blood pressure, increased blood cholesterol and triglycerides, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus. The aim was to study the effects of pioglitazone mediated sensitization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ on the relationship of Cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector C (CIDEC with obesity related changes in mice. METHODS: Sixty C57B/L6 mice weighing 10-12g at 3 weeks of age were randomly divided into 3 groups. Mice in Group 1 were fed on normal diet (ND while Group 2 mice were given high fat diet (HFD, and Group 3 mice were given high fat diet and treated with Pioglitazone (HFD+P. Body weight, length and level of blood sugar were measured weekly. Quantitative real-time PCR, fluorescence microscopy, and ELISA were performed to analyze the expression of CIDEC and PPAR-γ in visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT. RESULTS: Body weight and length of mice increased gradually with time in all groups. Blood sugar in HFD mice started to increase significantly from the mid of late phase of obesity while pioglitazone attenuated blood sugar level in HFD+P mice. The mRNA expressions and protein levels of PPAR-γ and CIDEC genes started to increase in HFD mice as compared to ND mice and decreased gradually during the late phase of obesity in VAT. Pioglitazone enhanced the expression of PPAR-γ and CIDEC genes in HFD+P mice even during the late phase of obesity. CONCLUSION: It is insinuated that VAT is associated with late phase obesity CIDEC decrease and insulin resistance, while pioglitazone enhances CIDEC through activation of PPAR-γ, increases its expression, and decreases lipolysis, hence preventing an increase of blood sugar in mice exposed to HFD.

  13. Outdoor air dominates burden of disease from indoor exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hänninen, O.; Asikainen, A.; Carrer, P.

    2014-01-01

    Both indoor and outdoor sources of air pollution have significant public health impacts in Europe. Based on quantitative modelling of the burden of disease the outdoor sources dominate the impacts by a clear margin.......Both indoor and outdoor sources of air pollution have significant public health impacts in Europe. Based on quantitative modelling of the burden of disease the outdoor sources dominate the impacts by a clear margin....

  14. 9 CFR 3.103 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrator. The fence must be constructed so that it protects marine mammals by restricting animals and... effective natural barrier that restricts the marine mammals to the facility and restricts entry by animals... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.103 Section 3...

  15. 9 CFR 3.127 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Warmblooded Animals Other Than Dogs, Cats, Rabbits, Hamsters, Guinea Pigs, Nonhuman Primates, and Marine... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.127 Section 3.127 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  16. Sensory Perception, Rationalism and Outdoor Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Matthew R.

    2008-01-01

    There is a strong emphasis on sensory perception and "hands-on" learning in the outdoor environmental education of children. In addition, normative concerns infuse children's environmental curricula, and in particular, the notion that environmental education is not a passive undertaking; when one appreciates the essential value of the…

  17. Sustainability in outdoor recreation and tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Winter; Kelly Bricker; Jeremy Schultz

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor recreation and tourism represents a major service by which the public identifies with and better understands natural resources, even to the extent that it can foster environmental stewardship (for example, see Winter and Chavez 2008). Yet, myriad threats to recreation and tourism exist which need to be addressed. Addressing these threats can be...

  18. Converging social trends - emerging outdoor recreation issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Reidel

    1980-01-01

    I can't recall when I have attended a national conference with a more clearly defined objective than this one. We are here to document outdoor recreation trends and explore their meaning for the future. The word "trend" appears no less than 45 times in the conference brochure, and the symposium organizers are determined that the proceedings will be...

  19. Outdoor i integrationsarbejde - et nyt EU projekt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lis Reinholdt

    2014-01-01

    Beskriver opstarten af det internationale projekt, hvor omgivelserne anvendes i læreprocesser for nytilkomne. Samarbejdspartnere er Linköbing Universitet i Sverige, Novia Yrkeshøgskola i Finland, Bologna Universitet i Italien. Projektet vil udvikle læreplan til anvendelse for undervisere af nytil...... nytilkomne, hvor Outdoor learning i naturen og de kulturelle omgivelser anvendes....

  20. Establishing the Competence of Outdoor Training Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Bertie

    1997-01-01

    The United Kingdom lacks a framework of nationally recognized professional qualifications for outdoor trainers and facilitators. Various definitions of competence are examined, and suggestions are offered for improving approaches to establishing staff competence. Includes a model of personal development dimensions, and compares U.K. and U.S.…

  1. 76 FR 32857 - Great Outdoors Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... protecting an iconic vast public land, or by creating a community garden or an urban park. Last year, I was... leaders, students, and community groups led to a report unveiled in February, America's Great Outdoors: A Promise to Future Generations, which lays the foundation for smarter, more community-driven action to...

  2. Indoorising the outdoors: Lifestyle sports revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salome, L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Since the early nineties, lifestyle sports such as surfing, snowboarding and skydiving are on a large scale offered in artificial sport environments. In snow domes, on artificial white water courses, in climbing halls and in wind tunnels, these alternative outdoor sports are accessible for a broad

  3. Playing with Power: An Outdoor Classroom Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood-Bird, Eden

    2017-01-01

    In this ethnographic research, discovery of how preschool-aged children use play to wield their individual power in the outdoors is documented in a single classroom. Embedded as a participant-researcher and working from constructivist and critical theory orientations, the researcher seeks to understand how children use their play to construct the…

  4. Issues in Outdoor Recreation: Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Clayne R., Comp.; Thorstenson, Clark T., Comp.

    This book is a compilation of selected writings on the subject of outdoor recreation. It is addressed to students specializing in recreation and resource management, and teachers, conservationists, and the public in general. Seven chapters contain articles discussing issues, facts, and concerns in the field of recreation and represent various…

  5. Leave no trace in the outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The essential guide for enjoying the outdoors without harming the environment. - Details the seven core principles of Leave No Trace ethics and practices - Covers hiking, campfires, food storage, and personal hygiene - Endorsed by the USDI National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Fish & Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and the USDA Forest Service

  6. Learning Leadership: Becoming an Outdoor Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoksen, Elisabeth; Lynch, Pip

    2018-01-01

    Recent leadership research has demonstrated a need for better understanding the process of becominga leader because it might be qualitatively different to being a leader. If so, there is likely to be a need for pedagogies designed deliberately to support first-time outdoor leadership experiences and any such pedagogies must be informed by the…

  7. Outdoor Education and Environmental Responsibility. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkes, Rita; Haras, Kathy

    Outdoor education programs provide opportunities for students to become environmentally conscious citizens. However, awareness of environmental issues is not enough to preserve our world of limited natural resources. Students must also recognize their environmental responsibilities and change their behaviors accordingly. This digest reviews the…

  8. Outdoor Lighting Networks: Market, Technologies and Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavalcanti, D.; Wang, J.; Chen, R.; Jiang , D.; Yang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Providing the right amount of light where and when it is needed is an opportunity to transform today’s cities into smart and livable urban spaces. New technologies are being introduced, such are adaptivecontrols and outdoor lighting networks, which can deliver energy andcost savings through adaptive

  9. Confirmation of the Conditional Outdoor Leadership Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Tim; Priest, Simon

    1991-01-01

    Responses of 75 expert outdoor leaders from Canada and the United States concerning leadership in 12 hypothetical backpacking scenarios provided partial support for a theory that predicted probability of leadership style (democratic, autocratic, or abdicratic) based on favorability of conditions, task orientation, and relationship orientation.…

  10. Designing interactive outdoor games for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soute, I.A.C.; Markopoulos, P.; Nijholt, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile outdoor games for groups of children have emerged recently as a credible technological proposition and as an area of research and development that promises substantial benefits for children regarding a more active lifestyle and the development of social skills. This chapter examines

  11. Toward a Political Economy of ‘Audience Labour’ in the Digital Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice Nixon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to a political economic theory centred on the concept of “audience labour”. First, the previous use of the concept of audience labour is briefly traced and the process of rethinking the concept as the basis of a political economic theory is begun. Second, a theory of the audience labour process is developed, drawing on previous theories of audience activities of cultural consumption as productive activities of signification and adapting Marx’s theory of the human labour process to the audience labour process. Third, a political economy of audience labour is outlined. As a theory of the basic processes through which communicative capital can control and extract value from audience labour, it describes the exploitation of audience labour and accumulation of communicative capital through distribution relationships of rent and interest. Finally, the continuing centrality of audience labour exploitation in the digital era is discussed.

  12. Shared reality in intergroup communication: Increasing the epistemic authority of an out-group audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echterhoff, Gerald; Kopietz, René; Higgins, E Tory

    2017-06-01

    Communicators typically tune messages to their audience's attitude. Such audience tuning biases communicators' memory for the topic toward the audience's attitude to the extent that they create a shared reality with the audience. To investigate shared reality in intergroup communication, we first established that a reduced memory bias after tuning messages to an out-group (vs. in-group) audience is a subtle index of communicators' denial of shared reality to that out-group audience (Experiments 1a and 1b). We then examined whether the audience-tuning memory bias might emerge when the out-group audience's epistemic authority is enhanced, either by increasing epistemic expertise concerning the communication topic or by creating epistemic consensus among members of a multiperson out-group audience. In Experiment 2, when Germans communicated to a Turkish audience with an attitude about a Turkish (vs. German) target, the audience-tuning memory bias appeared. In Experiment 3, when the audience of German communicators consisted of 3 Turks who all held the same attitude toward the target, the memory bias again appeared. The association between message valence and memory valence was consistently higher when the audience's epistemic authority was high (vs. low). An integrative analysis across all studies also suggested that the memory bias increases with increasing strength of epistemic inputs (epistemic expertise, epistemic consensus, and audience-tuned message production). The findings suggest novel ways of overcoming intergroup biases in intergroup relations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Federal outdoor recreation trends: effects on economic opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric White; J.M. Bowker; Ashley E. Askew; Linda L. Langner; J. Ross Arnold; Donald B.K. English

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor recreation is a central way that people interact with the natural environment. Federal land agencies are key providers of settings, facilities, and landscapes for recreation. Outdoor recreation is also an important driver of economic activity in rural communities near recreation destinations and across the United States. Future participation in outdoor...

  14. Determination of Science Teachers' Opinions about Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubat, Ulas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to discover what science teachers' opinions about outdoor education learning environments are. Outdoor education learning environments contribute to problem-solving, critical and creative thinking skills of students. For this reason, outdoor education learning environments are very important for students to learn by…

  15. Provoking Dialogue: A Short History of Outdoor Education in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, James

    2011-01-01

    History helps educators more clearly describe the role of outdoor education in improving society by fostering awareness of human-nature interconnections. Five branches have shaped outdoor education in Ontario: (1) agricultural education; (2) environmental education; (3) outdoor adventure education; (4) ecological education; and (5) climate change…

  16. Seeking Resilience and Sustainability: Outdoor Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter; Ho, Susanna

    2009-01-01

    Outdoor education is not a universal value. Rather, outdoor education's contributions need to be grounded in time, place and culture. In this paper we describe the historical and cultural milieu that has enabled the emergence of outdoor education in Singapore and report on exploratory survey research into Singaporean teachers' conceptions of…

  17. Outdoor Education in Senior Schooling: Clarifying the Body of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Australia has a state-based educational system. In some of these states, outdoor education exists as part of the formal accredited secondary school curriculum. In this paper I analyse the content of these senior secondary school outdoor courses as a means to help delineate and describe the body of knowledge of outdoor education. I suggest outdoor…

  18. Physical Education & Outdoor Education: Complementary but Discrete Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter; McCullagh, John

    2011-01-01

    The Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (ACHPER) includes Outdoor Education (OE) as a component of Physical Education (PE). Yet Outdoor Education is clearly thought of by many as a discrete discipline separate from Physical Education. Outdoor Education has a body of knowledge that differs from that of Physical…

  19. The Perceived Life Impact of a University Outdoor Education Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigglesworth, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Learning in the outdoors provides lasting educational experiences. Most students retain information best when doing an activity, and the outdoors allows for these opportunities. Outdoor education (OE) is a large, multi-disciplinary field cultivated from many roots. Since OE offers such vivid learning opportunities, it is an important area for…

  20. Split-second recognition: what makes outdoor advertising work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meurs, A.; Aristoff, M.

    2009-01-01

    CBS Outdoor used a tachistoscope to determine how long it takes to recognize the brand/product advertised in 187 outdoor posters in the Netherlands. Additionally, CBS Outdoor measured the creative appeal of these advertisements. Using 80 content and format variables, an explanatory model was

  1. Risk Management and Litigation Avoidance in Outdoor Recreation Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Glenda

    This paper reviews aspects of Canadian and U.S. law related to liability and negligence of outdoor programs and suggests strategies for risk management. To prove negligence, an individual injured in an outdoor program must prove that the outdoor leader had a duty of care to the participant, standards of care were breached, actual injury was…

  2. People participation in natural outdoors recreation activities and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the visitors believe natural outdoor recreation in the south-west of the country ... These identified benefits of Natural Outdoors Recreational in the course of the ... promotion, employment, urban aesthetic, healthy livings and improve tourism ... outdoor recreation centres to augment medical service in improving life span ...

  3. Parents' Perceptions of Preschool Activities: Exploring Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Avanthi; Williams, Marcia; Edwards, Todd; Tandon, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Outdoor play is important for children's health and development, yet many preschool-age children in child care settings do not receive the recommended 60 min/day of outdoor play. Child care providers have previously described parent-related barriers to increasing outdoor playtime, including parents not providing appropriate…

  4. Identifying like-minded audiences for global warming public engagement campaigns: an audience segmentation analysis and tool development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward W Maibach

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving national reductions in greenhouse gas emissions will require public support for climate and energy policies and changes in population behaviors. Audience segmentation--a process of identifying coherent groups within a population--can be used to improve the effectiveness of public engagement campaigns.In Fall 2008, we conducted a nationally representative survey of American adults (n = 2,164 to identify audience segments for global warming public engagement campaigns. By subjecting multiple measures of global warming beliefs, behaviors, policy preferences, and issue engagement to latent class analysis, we identified six distinct segments ranging in size from 7 to 33% of the population. These six segments formed a continuum, from a segment of people who were highly worried, involved and supportive of policy responses (18%, to a segment of people who were completely unconcerned and strongly opposed to policy responses (7%. Three of the segments (totaling 70% were to varying degrees concerned about global warming and supportive of policy responses, two (totaling 18% were unsupportive, and one was largely disengaged (12%, having paid little attention to the issue. Certain behaviors and policy preferences varied greatly across these audiences, while others did not. Using discriminant analysis, we subsequently developed 36-item and 15-item instruments that can be used to categorize respondents with 91% and 84% accuracy, respectively.In late 2008, Americans supported a broad range of policies and personal actions to reduce global warming, although there was wide variation among the six identified audiences. To enhance the impact of campaigns, government agencies, non-profit organizations, and businesses seeking to engage the public can selectively target one or more of these audiences rather than address an undifferentiated general population. Our screening instruments are available to assist in that process.

  5. Identifying like-minded audiences for global warming public engagement campaigns: an audience segmentation analysis and tool development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, Edward W; Leiserowitz, Anthony; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Mertz, C K

    2011-03-10

    Achieving national reductions in greenhouse gas emissions will require public support for climate and energy policies and changes in population behaviors. Audience segmentation--a process of identifying coherent groups within a population--can be used to improve the effectiveness of public engagement campaigns. In Fall 2008, we conducted a nationally representative survey of American adults (n = 2,164) to identify audience segments for global warming public engagement campaigns. By subjecting multiple measures of global warming beliefs, behaviors, policy preferences, and issue engagement to latent class analysis, we identified six distinct segments ranging in size from 7 to 33% of the population. These six segments formed a continuum, from a segment of people who were highly worried, involved and supportive of policy responses (18%), to a segment of people who were completely unconcerned and strongly opposed to policy responses (7%). Three of the segments (totaling 70%) were to varying degrees concerned about global warming and supportive of policy responses, two (totaling 18%) were unsupportive, and one was largely disengaged (12%), having paid little attention to the issue. Certain behaviors and policy preferences varied greatly across these audiences, while others did not. Using discriminant analysis, we subsequently developed 36-item and 15-item instruments that can be used to categorize respondents with 91% and 84% accuracy, respectively. In late 2008, Americans supported a broad range of policies and personal actions to reduce global warming, although there was wide variation among the six identified audiences. To enhance the impact of campaigns, government agencies, non-profit organizations, and businesses seeking to engage the public can selectively target one or more of these audiences rather than address an undifferentiated general population. Our screening instruments are available to assist in that process.

  6. Identifying Like-Minded Audiences for Global Warming Public Engagement Campaigns: An Audience Segmentation Analysis and Tool Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, Edward W.; Leiserowitz, Anthony; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Mertz, C. K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Achieving national reductions in greenhouse gas emissions will require public support for climate and energy policies and changes in population behaviors. Audience segmentation – a process of identifying coherent groups within a population – can be used to improve the effectiveness of public engagement campaigns. Methodology/Principal Findings In Fall 2008, we conducted a nationally representative survey of American adults (n = 2,164) to identify audience segments for global warming public engagement campaigns. By subjecting multiple measures of global warming beliefs, behaviors, policy preferences, and issue engagement to latent class analysis, we identified six distinct segments ranging in size from 7 to 33% of the population. These six segments formed a continuum, from a segment of people who were highly worried, involved and supportive of policy responses (18%), to a segment of people who were completely unconcerned and strongly opposed to policy responses (7%). Three of the segments (totaling 70%) were to varying degrees concerned about global warming and supportive of policy responses, two (totaling 18%) were unsupportive, and one was largely disengaged (12%), having paid little attention to the issue. Certain behaviors and policy preferences varied greatly across these audiences, while others did not. Using discriminant analysis, we subsequently developed 36-item and 15-item instruments that can be used to categorize respondents with 91% and 84% accuracy, respectively. Conclusions/Significance In late 2008, Americans supported a broad range of policies and personal actions to reduce global warming, although there was wide variation among the six identified audiences. To enhance the impact of campaigns, government agencies, non-profit organizations, and businesses seeking to engage the public can selectively target one or more of these audiences rather than address an undifferentiated general population. Our screening instruments are

  7. A targeted genotyping approach enhances identification of variants in taste receptor and appetite/reward genes of potential functional importance for obesity-related porcine traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera, S.; Clop, A.; Jacobsen, M. J.

    2018-01-01

    Taste receptors (TASRs) and appetite and reward (AR) mechanisms influence eating behaviour, which in turn affects food intake and risk of obesity. In a previous study, we used next generation sequencing to identify potentially functional mutations in TASR and AR genes and found indications...... for genetic associations between identified variants and growth and fat deposition in a subgroup of animals (n = 38) from the UNIK resource pig population. This population was created for studying obesity and obesity-related diseases. In the present study we validated results from our previous study...... by investigating genetic associations between 24 selected single nucleotide variants in TASR and AR gene variants and 35 phenotypes describing obesity and metabolism in the entire UNIK population (n = 564). Fifteen variants showed significant association with specific obesity-related phenotypes after Bonferroni...

  8. Can the relationship between ethnicity and obesity-related behaviours among school-aged children be explained by deprivation? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Catherine L; Park, Min Hae; Croker, Helen; Kessel, Anthony S; Saxena, Sonia; Viner, Russell M; Kinra, Sanjay

    2014-01-09

    It is unclear whether cultural differences or material disadvantage explain the ethnic patterning of obesogenic behaviours. The aim of this study was to examine ethnicity as a predictor of obesity-related behaviours among children in England, and to assess whether the effects of ethnicity could be explained by deprivation. Five primary care trusts in England, 2010-2011. Parents of white, black and South Asian children aged 4-5 and 10-11 years participating in the National Child Measurement Programme (n=2773). Parent-reported measures of child behaviour: low level of physical activity, excessive screen time, unhealthy dietary behaviours and obesogenic lifestyle (combination of all three obesity-related behaviours). Associations between these behaviours and ethnicity were assessed using logistic regression analyses. South Asian ethnic groups made up 22% of the sample, black ethnic groups made up 8%. Compared with white children, higher proportions of Asian and black children were overweight or obese (21-27% vs16% of white children), lived in the most deprived areas (24-47% vs 14%) and reported obesity-related behaviours (38% with obesogenic lifestyle vs 16%). After adjusting for deprivation and other sociodemographic characteristics, black and Asian children were three times more likely to have an obesogenic lifestyle than white children (OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.1 to 4.2 for Asian children; OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.7 to 4.3 for black children). Children from Asian and black ethnic groups are more likely to have obesogenic lifestyles than their white peers. These differences are not explained by deprivation. Culturally specific lifestyle interventions may be required to reduce obesity-related health inequalities.

  9. Bone mineral density-associated polymorphisms are associated with obesity-related traits in Korean adults in a sex-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongwon Cha

    Full Text Available Obesity and osteoporosis share common physiological factors, including the presence of atherosclerosis, a risk factor for cardiometabolic disease, as well as a common progenitor that differentiates into both adipocytes and osteoblasts. Among the 23 polymorphisms associated with bone mineral density (BMD in recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs, an Osterix polymorphism has been identified and associated with childhood obesity in girls. Therefore, we focused on elucidating polymorphisms associated with adulthood obesity in a sex-dependent manner among the previously published BMD-associated polymorphisms from GWASs. We performed 2 screenings of 18 BMD-associated polymorphisms for obesity-related traits in 2,362 adults aged >20 years. We excluded 13 polymorphisms showing deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium or no association with obesity-related traits (body mass index, waist circumference (WC, and waist-to-hip ratio. Among 5 selected polymorphisms (rs9594738 of RANKL, rs17066364 of NUFIP1, rs7227401 of OSBPL1A, and rs1856057 and rs2982573 of ESR1 analyzed, 2 polymorphisms (rs9594738 and rs17066364 were associated with obesity-related traits. We found sex-dependent associations such that the 4 polymorphisms (excluding rs9594738 of RANKL were associated with abdominal traits such as WC and waist-to-hip ratio only in men. In addition, when the combined genetic risk score (GRS for WC increase was calculated with 4 SNPs (rs9594738, rs17066364, rs7227401, and rs1856057 exhibiting similar trends for both sexes, the magnitude of the GRS effect for the WC increase was larger in men than in women (effect size = 0.856 cm, P = 0.0000452 for men; effect size = 0.598 cm, P = 0.00228 for women. In summary, we found 4 polymorphisms, previously related to osteoporosis, to be associated to obesity-related traits in a sex-dependent manner in Korean adults, particularly in men.

  10. Studying Rhetorical Audiences – a Call for Qualitative Reception Studies in Argumentation and Rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Elmelund Kjeldsen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In rhetoric and argumentation research studies of empirical audiences are rare. Most studies are speaker- or text focussed. However, new media and new forms of communication make it harder to distinguish between speaker and audience. The active involvement of users and audiences is more important than ever before. Therefore, this paper argues that rhetorical research should reconsider the understanding, conceptualization and examination of the rhetorical audience. From mostly understanding audiences as theoretical constructions that are examined textually and speculatively, we should give more attention to empirical explorations of actual audiences and users.

  11. Curriculum Development in Outdoor Education: Tasmanian Teachers' Perspectives on the New Pre-Tertiary Outdoor Leadership Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, Janet; Morse, Marcus; Shaw, Simon; Smith, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines how outdoor education teachers in Tasmania, Australia have implemented and perceive a new pre-tertiary Outdoor Leadership curriculum document. It draws on an analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews with 11 outdoor education teachers. The results revealed that teachers were generally welcoming of the new higher-order…

  12. Association Study of Three Gene Polymorphisms Recently Identified by a Genome-Wide Association Study with Obesity-Related Phenotypes in Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qi-Ying; Song, Jie-Yun; Wang, Yang; Wang, Shuo; Yang, Yi-De; Meng, Xiang-Rui; Ma, Jun; Wang, Hai-Jun; Wang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine associations of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with obesity-related phenotypes in Chinese children. These SNPs were identified by a recent genome-wide association (GWA) study among European children. Given that varied genetic backgrounds across different ethnicity may result in different association, it is necessary to study these associations in a different ethnic population. A total of 3,922 children, including 2,191 normal-weight, 873 overweight and 858 obese children, from three independent studies were included in the study. Logistic and linear regressions were performed, and meta-analyses were conducted to assess the associations between the SNPs and obesity-related phenotypes. The pooled odds ratios of the A-allele of rs564343 in PACS1 for obesity and severe obesity were 1.180 (p = 0.03) and 1.312 (p = 0.004), respectively. We also found that rs564343 was nominally associated with BMI, BMI standard deviation score (BMI-SDS), waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio (p obesity in a non-European population. This SNP was also found to be associated with common obesity and various obesity-related phenotypes in Chinese children, which had not been reported in the original study. The results demonstrated the value of conducting genetic researches in populations with different ethnicity. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  13. Collaboration potentials in micro and macro politics of audience creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brites, Maria José; Chimirri, Niklas Alexander; Amaral, Inês

    2017-01-01

    In our stakeholder consultation following up on trends concerning the micro and macropolitics of audience action, we explore the potential impact of audiences’ micro-participation and connection to macro-actions. We address this issue taking into consideration intrinsic continuities and discontin...... and discontinuities between academia and the stakeholders’ perspectives. Our findings continue to emphasise the • (dis)connections between micro and macro actions • a technological appeal for action • collaboration potentials between academia and other stakeholders.......In our stakeholder consultation following up on trends concerning the micro and macropolitics of audience action, we explore the potential impact of audiences’ micro-participation and connection to macro-actions. We address this issue taking into consideration intrinsic continuities...

  14. The Audiences in View of the Changes in Cyber Journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. José Ignacio Armentia Vizuete

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Newspaper in Internet have suffered in the last years a series of changes, in the way towards the acquisition of some own characteristics differentiated with regard to the printed dailys. This evolution also has had his reflex in the audiences. Today Internet isn’t an elitist product and is available for the majority of the population. Nevertheless, the way of measuring the above mentioned audiences constitutes one of the hanging questions for the cybermedia, unlike what it happens in other three big informative supports: press, radio and television, where measurements of reference for each one of the supports exist. As it is exposed in this article, we have a great disparity between the data and methods of measurement of organisms and companies like EGM, OJD, Alexa and others, on the Internet. This text is based on a research about the evolution of the cyberjournalism in Spain financed by the University of the Basque Country.

  15. Using Social Media Sentiment Analysis to Understand Audiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGuire, Mark; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    approach for contextually understanding social media posts. The human interaction step in ad-hoc corpus analysis is central to this methodology as it provides a means to ask critical questions of the content curated through the ad-hoc corpus directly. Results of ad-hoc corpus analysis from this critical......Social media communication is changing the opportunities for technical communicators to really understand audiences when these audiences are active about issues on social media platforms. Through applying ad-hoc corpus building processes to create word lists relevant to specific organizational...... projects, technical communicators can listen to their external users and identify areas of importance with greater accuracy. While other methods of sentiment analysis look for a solution that leads to artificial intelligence in the program, this paper identifies the present needs of a human interaction...

  16. The Affective Audience in Professional E-sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gommesen, Niels Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This master’s thesis investigates the members of the audience in professional e-sport. Through a wide range of examples it shows that players, spectators and various nonhuman actors are nested together in assemblages. It states that human-nonhuman actors in ‘co-creation’ constitute the game play...... and consumers of the game play. My ethnographic studies draw from a multifaceted approach counting visual ethnography, participant observations and interviews of 35 dedicated spectators and fans, situated at two professional e-sports competitions, the largest digital festival in the world, Dreamhack in Sweden......, and the Intel Extreme Masters - The World Championships in Germany. I conclude that people in the audience, are sharing their experiences not only with one another, but also with the players, as they actively embody themselves in the game playing event. Throughout this work I exemplify that spectators are often...

  17. Active audiencies and journalism: Involved citizens or motivated consumers?

    OpenAIRE

    Masip, Pere; Guallar, Javier; Peralta, Miquel; Ruiz-Caballero, Carlos; Suau, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    Audience participation, in any of its forms and names (public journalism, citizen journalism, participatory journalism, UGC), appears to revitalise democracy, thanks to the opportunities for public debate opened up by information and communications technology. On the other hand, however, there are many authors who question whether interactive technologies really encourage democracy or the market, empower the citizen or strengthen the consumer. In this context, we still have little information...

  18. Active audiences and journalism: Involved citizens or motivated consumers?

    OpenAIRE

    Masip, Pere; Guallar, Javier; Peralta, Miquel; Ruiz, Carles; Suau, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    Audience participation, in any of its forms and names (public journalism, citizen journalism, participatory journalism, UGC), appears to revitalise democracy, thanks to the opportunities for public debate opened up by information and communications technology. On the other hand, however, there are many authors who question whether interactive technologies really encourage democracy or the market, empower the citizen or strengthen the consumer. In this context, we still have little information...

  19. Food in film : a study on audience reception

    OpenAIRE

    Civelek, Ece Simin

    2012-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Communication and Design, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2012. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2012. Includes bibliographical references leaves 140-149. This study intends to analyze audience reception of foodstuff and related practices in films. In the study foodstuff and related practices are taken into consideration as a powerful semiotic system and in that respect are evaluated as an important property of filmic narration. Study e...

  20. UNDERSTANDING OUR AUDIENCE: MESSAGES FROM CONCEPT TO COMPLETION

    OpenAIRE

    Tharwat EL-Sakran

    2018-01-01

    The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a business hub for a great number of multinational and international companies that conduct daily communication activities in English, which has made efficient and audience sensitive written communication an essential requirement in today’s workplace. With computer-mediated communication (CMC) taking over face-to-face communication, this has created an essential need for students to learn efficient and appropriate communication styles pertinent to communicati...

  1. Audience Perception of Effective Communication in Nigerian Paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Adelani Abodunrin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Artists in Nigeria perceived effective communication differently irrespective of the socio-economic status.Communication effectiveness depends largely on the understanding of the message being passed between a sender and a receiver. Painting has been used over time to express emotion and feeling to the perceiving audience. The study is audience’s perception of communication in Nigeria painting and how it varies with the socio-economic characteristics such as age, education, gender, and being professional artist or art lovers. Questionnaires were distributed and administered to examine how the status of the art audience makes or mars effective communication in painting. The inferential statistics that were employed include “chi-square test” to test the relationship between different variables. The data were taken in ordinal form using Likert’s scale, and transformed into interval data. This was done by attaching statistical weights to the responses in the order of importance which were summed up for the parametric testing. Findings show that gender factor has nothing to do with the understanding of paintings. Also, the level of education obtained by the audience does not have much to do with understanding of contemporary Nigerian painting but a better exposure to the issue concerning the stylistic development of Nigerian painting. Art practitioners must adequately be guided on stylistic trend in painting, art education should be more intensified in educational curriculum in Nigeria. The paper concludes that audience requires a better exposure to the issues concerning the stylistic development of Nigerian painting for effective communication to take place.

  2. Three Italian practitioners seeking a more popular audience for Shakespeare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Rose

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available My contribution, "Seeking a More Popular Audience for Shakespeare in Italy", starts by pinpointing the differences between Italy and the UK in the history of the staging of Shakespeare's plays and goes on to provide a brief account of the evolution of Shakespeare productions in Italy from the 1950s until the present. In the aftermath of World War Two, the so-called critical direction (regia critica introduced a very different approach to the staging of Shakespeare. Directors, such a Giorgio Strehler and Luigi Squarzina, by commissioning new Italian translations that were philologically close to the originals, put the complete plays onstage, often for the first time. In a long career at Milan's Piccolo Teatro, spanning from the late 1940s until his death in 1997, Strehler succeeded in attracting a more mixed audience for Shakespeare than ever before. In the new millennium, his aims have been taken further by more recent practitioners. The final part of the contribution focuses on three contemporary Italian directors, Marco Ghelardi, Riccardo Mallus and Massimo Navone, who seek to bring Shakespeare to more popular audiences. In a bid to energise the Bard's work, they deploy strategies, such as reducing and rewriting the play, interactive staging techniques and tend to choose site specific venues rather than regular theatres.

  3. Prescribing Outdoor Physical Activity to Children: Health Care Providers’ Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiana, Richard W.; James, J. Joy; Battista, Rebecca A.

    2017-01-01

    Little evidence exists on health care provider (HCP) prescriptions for children’s outdoor physical activity (PA). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 children’s HCPs to explore perspectives on outdoor PA prescription programs for children and barriers to implementation. Thematic analytic techniques were used to analyze the data. Most participants reported an awareness of health benefits to children being in the outdoors. Ten themes emerged from the data related to 3 thematic categories: (1) current strategies that HCPs are using to promote PA among children, (2) barriers that HCPs see to prescribing outdoor PA, and (3) potential strategies for promoting outdoor PA among children. Assessment of the local outdoor PA environment and resource development must be done prior to a prescription program. HCPs should be skilled in conducting conversations and setting goals related to outdoor PA tailored to the patient. Developing a system for follow-up with patients on established goals should also be included. PMID:29152542

  4. Prescribing Outdoor Physical Activity to Children: Health Care Providers' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiana, Richard W; James, J Joy; Battista, Rebecca A

    2017-01-01

    Little evidence exists on health care provider (HCP) prescriptions for children's outdoor physical activity (PA). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 children's HCPs to explore perspectives on outdoor PA prescription programs for children and barriers to implementation. Thematic analytic techniques were used to analyze the data. Most participants reported an awareness of health benefits to children being in the outdoors. Ten themes emerged from the data related to 3 thematic categories: (1) current strategies that HCPs are using to promote PA among children, (2) barriers that HCPs see to prescribing outdoor PA, and (3) potential strategies for promoting outdoor PA among children. Assessment of the local outdoor PA environment and resource development must be done prior to a prescription program. HCPs should be skilled in conducting conversations and setting goals related to outdoor PA tailored to the patient. Developing a system for follow-up with patients on established goals should also be included.

  5. Multimedia Astronomy Communication: Effectively Communicate Astronomy to the Desired Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star Cartier, Kimberly Michelle; Wright, Jason

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental aspect of our jobs as scientists is communicating our work to others. In this, the field of astronomy holds the double-edged sword of ubiquitous fascination: the topic has been of interest to nearly the entire global population at some point in their lives, yet the learning curve is steep within any subfield and rife with difficult-to-synthesize details. Compounding this issue is the ever-expanding array of methods to reach people in today's Communications Era. Each communication medium has its own strengths and weaknesses, is appropriate in different situations, and requires its own specific skillset in order to maximize its functionality. Despite this, little attention is given to training astronomers in effective communication techniques, often relying on newcomers to simply pick up the ability by mimicking others and assuming that a firm grasp on the subject matter will make up for deficiencies in communication theory. This can restrict astronomers to a narrow set of communication methods, harming both the communicators and the audience who may struggle to access the information through those media.Whether writing a research paper to academic peers or giving an astronomy talk to a pubic audience, successfully communicating a scientific message requires more than just an expert grasp on the topic. A communicator must understand the makeup and prior knowledge of the desired audience, be able to break down the salient points of the topic into pieces that audience can digest, select and maximize upon a medium to deliver the message, and frame the message in a way that hooks the audience and compels further interest. In this work we synthesize the requirements of effective astronomy communication into a few key questions that every communicator needs to answer. We then discuss some of the most common media currently used to communicate astronomy, give both effective and poor examples of utilizing these media to communicate astronomy, and provide key

  6. Nearby outdoor environments and seniors physical activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available More than 60% of older Americans have sedentary lifestyles1 1 According to DHHS (1996. and are recommended more physical activities for health benefit. Nearby outdoor environments on residential sites may impact older inhabitants׳ physical activities there (defined as walking, gardening, yard work, and other outdoor physical activities on residential sites. This study surveyed 110 assisted-living residents in Houston, Texas, regarding their previous residential sites before moving to a retirement community and physical activities there. Twelve environmental features were studied under four categories (typology, motivators, function, and safety. Based on data availability, a subset of 57 sample sites was analyzed in Geographic Information Systems. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to estimate physical activities as a function of the environments. Higher levels of physical activity were found to be positively related with four environmental features (transitional-areas, connecting-paths, walk-ability, and less paving.

  7. Metrology for fire experiments in outdoor conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Silvani, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Natural fires can be considered as scale-dependant, non-linear processes of mass, momentum and heat transport, resulting from a turbulent reactive and radiative fluid medium flowing over a complex medium, the vegetal fuel. In natural outdoor conditions, the experimental study of natural fires at real scale needs the development of an original metrology, one able to capture the large range of time and length scales involved in its dynamic nature and also able to resist the thermal, mechanical and chemical aggression of flames on devices. Robust, accurate and poorly intrusive tools must be carefully set-up and used for gaining very fluctuating data over long periods. These signals also need the development of original post-processing tools that take into account the non-steady nature of their stochastic components. Metrology for Fire Experiments in Outdoor Conditions closely analyzes these features, and also describes measurements techniques, the thermal insulation of fragile electronic systems, data acquisitio...

  8. Obstacole in implementarea activitatilor de tip outdoor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Søren Witzel

    2013-01-01

    It is never easy to implement new ways of teaching, and during this process the changing agent will often face a number of different barriers. Which kind of barriers depends of course what kind of changes we are talking about. There are a number of countries where teachers have tried to implement...... outdoor learning, and some of these experiences will be described in this article....

  9. Marketingová komunikace Outdoor Training Clubu

    OpenAIRE

    Soukeníková, Karla

    2017-01-01

    Title: Outdoor Training Club's Marketing Communication Goals: The aim of the thesis is to evaluate current club's marketing communication and come up with the suggestions of how to improve marketing communication, which would be benefit for the club and it helps acquire new potential customers. Methods: Electronic and written questionnaire, informal semi-structured interviews, document analysis. Results: Based on research and interview with the owner, I found that the current marketing commun...

  10. Slam estimation in dynamic outdoor environments

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zheyuan; Hu, Zhencheng; Uchimura, Keiichi; コ, シンテイ; ウチムラ, ケイイチ; 胡, 振程; 内村, 圭一

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes and compares three different approaches to estimate simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) in dynamic outdoor environments. SLAM has been intensively researched in recent years in the field of robotics and intelligent vehicles, many approaches have been proposed including occupancy grid mapping method (Bayesian, Dempster-Shafer and Fuzzy Logic), Localization estimation method (edge or point features based direct scan matching techniques, probabilistic likelihood, EK...

  11. LAIX-score : a design framework for live audience interaction management systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kuikkaniemi, Kai

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on computer-supported live audience interaction. In conventional lectures audience interacts explicitly with the performer for example by waving hand and asking question directly or clapping hands. For decades, non digital audience response systems have enabled simple multiple option audience interaction patterns. Modern mobile personal computing devices, digital projectors, wireless networks and real time software platforms enable creation of new kinds of interaction patte...

  12. Injury and illness in college outdoor education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudio, Flavio G; Greenwald, Peter W; Holton, Mark

    2010-12-01

    Many colleges offer outdoor education courses such as rock climbing, kayaking, and mountain biking. Since these sports may be perceived as dangerous, we describe the prevalence of injuries and illnesses in a large, university-based outdoor education program. We also compare composite incident rates from this outdoor program to those of traditional college sports. Cohort of college students participating in either Cornell Outdoor Education (COE) or National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) sports and comparison of incident rates. COE data were prospectively collected in the field; and NCAA data were prospectively collected through the Association's Injury Surveillance System. By definition, a COE injury or illness required follow-up care, prescription medication, or limited course participation. Similarly, a NCAA injury limited further practice or play. Incident rates were calculated as injuries and illnesses per 1000 participant-days (COE) or injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (NCAA). Included COE courses during 2002-2007 totaled 74 005 participant-days. There were 111 injuries and illnesses, rate = 1.50/1000 participant-days (95% CI 1.24-1.81). The NCAA reported 32 646 899 athlete-exposures during 1988-2004 and 181 476 injuries, rate = 5.56/1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI 5.53-5.58). Compared to COE, the relative risk of injury in NCAA sports was 3.7 (95% CI 3.1-4.5) overall and 3.3 (95% CI 2.8-4.0) after excluding the high-contact sports of football, ice hockey, and wrestling. For COE, mountain biking had the highest incident rate (7.5/1000), which was significantly lower than game injury rates in NCAA football and soccer. The most common injuries for both NCAA and COE were soft-tissue injuries such as sprains and strains. Outdoor education at this university-sponsored program was at least as safe as traditional college sports. Overall, college students were less likely to be injured while participating in COE courses than while participating in NCAA sports

  13. The entry to Kolarac foundation: Cultural activity and music audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadžibulić Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Foundation of Ilija Milosavljević Kolarac (also known as Kolarac Foundation; in Serbian: Kolarčeva zadužbina was established simultaneously with the development of the most important modern cultural institutions in Serbia in the 19th century. The quality and diversity of the program, the ability to recognize important topics in the current time, as well as preservation of the old and encouragement of new ideas in almost all domains of art and science have contributed to its unquestionable reputation throughout the region. However, there have been no significant academic attempts to approach its work analytically and, in particular, its audience. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the work of Kolarac Foundation by presenting the origin and history of the institution, followed by an analysis of the program of all its activities in the first ten seasons of the new millennium. The central part of the paper is an analysis of its cultural activity in the given period. Finally, by using empirical data, the music audence of Great Hall (Velika Dvorana of Kolarac Foundation is profiled through its basic socio-demographic characteristics and music practices. The music audience mainly consisted of women, highly educated professionals with a high material standard. The share of the oldest and those from 21 to 30 years old is the highest and, at the same time, equal. This audience is authentically fond of music, with no exceptions at all. Its members listen to music on everyday basis, and they were attending concerts in the year before the investigation. They find music to be an inevitable part of their lives, and cannot imagine emotional expression or making friendships without it. Finally, they sincerely like coming to Kolarac Foundation since they find it to be a place that has all the positive treats of a good cultural institution.

  14. Public speaking in virtual reality: Audience design and speaker experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, N.

    2016-01-01

    Whether we are talking about our research at a conference, making a speech at a friend’s wedding, or presenting a proposal in a businessmeeting,we have to speak in public from time to time. How well we deliver a presentation affects the way people think about us and our message. To deliver a well-received speech, preparation is necessary. Among various speech preparation activities, practicing with an audience is regarded as an effective way for enhancing speech performance. However, it is of...

  15. Applying the principles of adult learning to the teaching of psychopharmacology: audience response systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Stephen M; Davis, Richard L

    2009-08-01

    Medical presentations can be enhanced by systematically collecting audience feedback. This is readily accomplished with polling systems, called audience response systems. Several systems are now available that are small, inexpensive, and can be readily integrated into standard powerpoint presentations without the need for a technician. Use of audience response systems has several advantages. These include improving attentiveness, increasing learning, polling anonymously, tracking individual and group responses, gauging audience understanding, adding interactivity and fun, and evaluating both participant learning and instructor teaching. Tips for how to write questions for audience response systems are also included.

  16. Gender-Related Differential Effects of Obesity on Health-Related Quality of Life via Obesity-Related Comorbidities: A Mediation Analysis of a French Nationwide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audureau, Etienne; Pouchot, Jacques; Coste, Joël

    2016-05-01

    Negative effects of obesity on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) have been reported, especially in women, but the relative contribution of cardiometabolic and other obesity-related comorbidities to such effects remains unclear. Our objective was to model the association by sex between body mass index and HRQoL and to precisely quantify the indirect effects mediated by obesity-related comorbidities. Data were drawn from the latest French Decennial Health Survey, a nationwide cross-sectional study conducted in 2003 (21 239 adults aged 25-64 years analyzed). HRQoL was measured by the 36-item short-form health survey questionnaire. A mediation analysis based on the counterfactual framework was performed to quantify the proportion of obesity effects on HRQoL mediated by related comorbidities, including cardiometabolic risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia) and diseases (ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular disease), musculoskeletal disorders, and asthma. After multiple linear regression, inverse associations were found between increasing body mass index category and physically oriented and most mentally oriented 36-item short-form health survey dimensions, with evidence of greater effects in women. Mediation analysis revealed that obesity effects were significantly mediated by several comorbidities, more apparently in men (eg, proportion of obesity class II total effect mediated via cardiometabolic factors: general health 27.0% [men] versus 13.6% [women]; proportion of obesity class II total effect mediated via total count of comorbidities: physical functioning 17.8% [men] versus 7.7% [women] and general health 37.1% [men] versus 20.3% [women]). Women have a greater overall impact of obesity on HRQoL, but with proportionally lower effects mediated by cardiometabolic and other obesity-related conditions, suggesting the possible role of other specific psychosocial processes. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Pengaruh Outdoor Learning Terhadap Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis Matematis Siswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Cristi Crismono

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh Outdoor Learning terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa. Hipotesis pada penelitian ini adalah Outdoor Learning berpengaruh dalam meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa. Mengacu pada teori perkembangan kognitifnya penggunaan Outdoor Learning dengan memanfaatkan lingkungan sekitar pada media pembelajaran dan semua aktifitas belajar yang dilakukan oleh siswa di bawah pengawasan dan bimbingan guru. Penggunaan sumber belajar yang bersifat kontektual mampu mengembangkan kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa. Data penelitian dapat diperoleh dengan menggunakan tes yang terdiri dari seperangkat soal uraian untuk mengukur dan mengetahui  kemampuan  awal  matematika  berupa  kemampuan  berpikir  kritis siswa. Hasil analisis pengaruh penerapan metode Outdoor Learning terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa yang telah dilakukan diketahui bahwa terdapat pengaruh positif penerapan metode Outdoor Learning terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa. Kesimpulan dari peneitian ini adalah metode Outdoor learning berpengaruh terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa.

  18. Effective Engagement of Hostile Audiences on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, A.

    2011-12-01

    In 2010 and 2011, I gave invited presentations of mainstream climate science to large conferences dismissive of climate change organized by the HEartland Institute. In this presentation I review some of the common objections raised by such audiences and outline effective strategies to rebut them in public venues or the media. Respectful engagement on a human level is much more effective than appeals from authority, scientific consensus, or numerical models. Starting from a base of agreement on basic facts helps establish a basis of trust, which is then nurtured through personal anecdotes and humor. The basic science of climate change is presented in a non-confrontational way with frequent use of examples from everyday life to explain physical principles. Although a hard core of hostile individuals may not be swayed by such an approach, my experience was that this type of engagement can be very effective with ordinary people. I strongly encourage more climate scientists to work with public audiences and the media.

  19. Media Text and Audiences: Discursive Constructions of Fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Popović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research findings obtained from a research project investigating media audiences and their reception of a cult-television (Cult TV text, namely Da Ali G Show. The audience research comprises 18 semi-structured interviews conducted in London (the United Kingdom and in Zagreb (Croatia aimed at establishing how fandom is discursively constructed. The analysis of the interpretive community in two distinct socio-cultural contexts showed that there were more similarities than differences overall. The practices engaged in by the interviewees mostly involved making a conscious effort to regularly watch the primary text as well as to show an interest in the future work of the author. The research showed that interviewees typically engaged in a type of ‘moderate’ fandom, whilst strong emotional attachments were seen as negative, as was intrusiveness into people’s privacy. This indicates a split between the signifier and the signified: the term ‘fan’ was readily adopted by interviewees in describing their relationship to the text; however, the meaning was negotiated and carefully constructed so as to disassociate oneself from the extreme, passionate, irrational connotation that the etymology of the term carries.

  20. Social facilitation of cognition in rhesus monkeys: audience vs. coaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie J. Reynaud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social psychology has long established that the mere presence of a conspecific, be it an active co-performer (coaction effect, or a passive spectator (audience effect changes behavior in humans. Yet, the process mediating this fundamental social influence has so far eluded us. Brain research and its nonhuman primate animal model, the rhesus macaque, could shed new light on this long debated issue. For this approach to be fruitful, however, we need to improve our patchy knowledge about social presence influence in rhesus macaques. Here, seven adults (two dyads and one triad performed a simple cognitive task consisting in touching images to obtain food treats, alone versus in presence of a co-performer or a spectator. As in humans, audience sufficed to enhance performance to the same magnitude as coaction. Effect sizes were however 4 times larger than those typically reported in humans in similar tasks. Both findings are an encouragement to pursue brain and behavior research in the rhesus macaque to help solve the riddle of social facilitation mechanisms.

  1. Captivating Broad Audiences with an Internet-connected Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, K.; Elliott, L.; Gervais, F.; Juniper, K.; Owens, D.; Pirenne, B.

    2012-12-01

    NEPTUNE Canada, a network of Ocean Networks Canada and the first deep water cabled ocean observatory, began operations in December 2009. Located offshore Canada's west coast, the network streams data from passive, active, and interactive sensors positioned at five nodes along its 800 km long looped cable to the Internet. This technically advanced system includes a sophisticated data management and archiving system, which enables the collection of real-time physical, chemical, geological, and biological oceanographic data, including video, at resolutions relevant for furthering our understanding of the dynamics of the earth-ocean system. Scientists in Canada and around the world comprise the primary audience for these data, but NEPTUNE Canada is also serving these data to broader audiences including K-16 students and teachers, informal educators, citizen scientists, the press, and the public. Here we present our engagement tools, approaches, and experiences including electronic books, personal phone apps, Internet-served video, social media, mini-observatory systems, print media, live broadcasting from sea, and a citizen scientist portal.NEPTUNE Canada's ibook available on Apple's iBook store.

  2. Interface of Linguistic and Visual Information During Audience Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, Kumiko

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that speakers can take account of the addressee's needs when referring. However, what representations drive the speaker's audience design has been less clear. This study aims to go beyond previous studies by investigating the interplay between the visual and linguistic context during audience design. Speakers repeated subordinate descriptions (e.g., firefighter) given in the prior linguistic context less and used basic-level descriptions (e.g., man) more when the addressee did not hear the linguistic context than when s/he did. But crucially, this effect happened only when the referent lacked the visual attributes associated with the expressions (e.g., the referent was in plain clothes rather than in a firefighter uniform), so there was no other contextual cue available for the identification of the referent. This suggests that speakers flexibly use different contextual cues to help their addressee map the referring expression onto the intended referent. In addition, speakers used fewer pronouns when the addressee did not hear the linguistic antecedent than when s/he did. This suggests that although speakers may be egocentric during anaphoric reference (Fukumura & Van Gompel, 2012), they can cooperatively avoid pronouns when the linguistic antecedents were not shared with their addressee during initial reference. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. Making Sense of Shakespeare: a Cultural Icon for Contemporary Audiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Olsson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The works of William Shakespeare are more popular in the 21st century than ever before, Why are theatre and audiences around the globe still drawn to his work? How do they make sense of these texts in ways that resonate with their cosmopolitan, contemporary audiences? This article uses the findings of a study interviewing 35 theatre professionals in Canada, Finland and the United Kingdom to explore these issues. Theoretically and methodologically, it is a bricollage, drawing on a range of approaches including Foucault’s discourse analysis, Hobsbawm’s invented traditions and Dervin’s Sense-Making to understand participants sense-making as an affective, embodied social practice. It argues that attempting to understand the significance of a major cultural icon such as Shakespeare in contemporary cosmopolitan civil society needs to recognise the many meanings, roles and significances that surround him and that this complexity makes it unlikely that any one theoretical lens will prove adequate on its own. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5130/ccs.v5i3.3640

  4. Engaging the audience: developing presentation skills in science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Ann E

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a graduate class in presentation skills ("PClass") as a model for how a class with similar objectives, expectations and culture might be mounted for undergraduates. The required class is given for students in neuroscience and physiology programs at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; I describe the class in the years I led it, from 2003-2012. The class structure centered on peer rehearsal, critiquing of PowerPoint, and chalk talks by the students; video-recording of student talks for later review by the student with the instructor; and presentation of polished talks in a formal setting. A different faculty visitor to the class each week gave the students a variety of perspectives. The students also gained insight into their own evolving skills by discussing the strengths and weaknesses of seminars given by visitors to the campus. A unique feature of the class was collaboration with a professional actor from the University's Department of Dramatic Arts, who helped the students develop techniques for keeping the attention of an audience, for speaking with confidence, and for controlling nervousness. The undergraduate campus would be expected to lend itself to this sort of interdisciplinary faculty cooperation. In addition, students worked on becoming adept at designing and presenting posters, introducing speakers graciously and taking charge of the speaker's question session, and speaking to a lay audience.

  5. Science and Faith: Discussing Astronomy Research with Religious Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.

    2006-12-01

    An important component of our outreach as research astronomers involves interaction with the religious community. From my personal perspective, being an active research astronomer who is also a practicing Christian, I am sometimes invited to present the latest astronomical research to church audiences and other religious groups; belonging to both communities thereby provides a valuable means of contributing to the dialogue between science and religion. These opportunities can be used to explain that science and religion are not necessarily in conflict but can be considered to be quite complementary. For instance, an important aspect of religion deals with the purpose of our existence, while science is more focussed on providing physical explanations for what we observe in the world, using a well-defined scientific process. Hence, religious believers need not necessarily abandon their faith in order to accept mainstream scientific research; these address very different and complementary aspects of our existence. Recent ideas such as Intelligent Design attempt to address the scientific method, but do not address the ultimate religious question of purpose and do not contribute towards reconciling science and religion in this sense. Ultimately, every individual arrives at their own understanding of this rather complex interplay; I will present some personal reflections on general approaches for discussing mainstream astronomical research with religious audiences, aimed at helping to advance the dialogue between religion and science in general.

  6. Small Influence of Performing from Memory on Audience Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Kopiez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of an actual music stand on the evaluation of a videotaped audio-visual solo instrumental performance. Previous research has provided evidence that the presence of a score or music stand (obstructing the audience's view of the performer might negatively influence the evaluation of the performance. However, due to methodological ambiguities, results in previous studies cannot be regarded as definitive. Thus, we conducted a replication study of Williamon (1999 with better control over confounding variables (e.g., varying levels of technical proficiency in different conditions. A violoncello player performed two pieces for solo instrument: once with a music stand on stage (pretending to play from score and once without. The level of technical proficiency was kept constant in both performance presentations by the use of a pre-recorded, well-rehearsed performance from memory. Audio tracks were synchronized with the performance movements in a playback paradigm. Based on the performance evaluations from a web-based experiment (N = 471 participants, we found a significant but small effect size for the main effect of performance presentation (with vs. without music stand (d = 0.23. We conclude that the audience's appreciation of a particular performance from memory might be based on factors other than the objective performance quality.

  7. Outdoor Education Course - The New Product of a Company Offer

    OpenAIRE

    Beránek, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    and Key Words Title: Outdoor Education Course- The New Product of a Company Offer Aim: Analysis and evaluation of needs and attitudes of the present company clients of Firma na zážitky, s.r.o. company in the outdoor education field to frame a pilot project of an outdoor course programme. Method: Method of questionnare was used to analyse and evaluate needs and attitudes ofthe company clients. Results: A project of outdoor course programme was created according to results of realized research....

  8. Outdoor Irrigation Measurement and Verification Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stoughton, Kate M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Figueroa, Jorge [Western Resource Advocates, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    This measurement and verification (M&V) protocol provides procedures for energy service companies (ESCOs) and water efficiency service companies (WESCOs) to determine water savings resulting from water conservation measures (WCMs) in energy performance contracts associated with outdoor irrigation efficiency projects. The water savings are determined by comparing the baseline water use to the water use after the WCM has been implemented. This protocol outlines the basic structure of the M&V plan, and details the procedures to use to determine water savings.

  9. Renovation of the CERN outdoor lighting

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Due to the renovation of the CERN outdoor lighting, traffic will be limited to one way along “Route Gregory” from the E entrance (France) up to “Route Fermi” just before the water tower between 12th and 23rd July 2010. Disruption can also be expected in the car parks “Les Erables” and “Les Tilleuls” close to building 30 and also the car park in front of building 377, between 19th and 30th July 2010. Thanks for your understanding. SEM Group

  10. The Outdoor Classroom: School Camping as Education in NSW 1890-1960s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Steve; Light, Richard

    2010-01-01

    At all levels of education in New South Wales outdoor experiences and outdoor education are a prominent part of the curriculum. This emphasis on the outdoors begins early. Outdoor activities are an important part of most primary schools whether they are public or private. Likewise at secondary level and at university outdoor education is still an…

  11. A Guide to Outdoor Education Resources and Programs for the Handicapped. Outdoor Education for the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky Univ., Lexington.

    The resource guide is designed to assist educators, park resource persons, and parents of disabled children in locating and identifying sources of information for developing, implementing, and evaluating outdoor education programs for all disabled children and youth. The guide has two main parts. The first part contains an annotated bibliography…

  12. Pokémon-Go: Why Augmented Reality Games Offer Insights for Enhancing Public Health Interventions on Obesity-Related Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ming Chao; Turner, Paul; MacIntyre, Kate; Yee, Kwang Chien

    2017-01-01

    Stimulating widespread interests of the population to participate in behavioural changes through information and technology has been an aim of much health informatics research. The recent widespread participation of the augmented reality game Pokémon Go which encourages exercises, provides significant insights into the potential of information technology to improve healthcare intervention on obesity-related disease. Does Pokémon Go point to another way of achieving health benefits using mobile devices? This paper analyses the features of Pokémon Go in relation to potential health benefits. This paper suggests from the perspective of a user on changes to the game that potentially could help with obesity, mental health cardiovascular health and vitamin D deficiencies. While the impact of augmented reality games on improving exercises might be substantial, the question of sustainability and likely long-term health outcomes remain debatable. The rapid uptake of Pokémon Go by the population around the world, however, should serve as a useful lesson for information and technological design to improve outcomes obesity-related diseases in the future.

  13. Dietary abscisic acid ameliorates glucose tolerance and obesity-related inflammation in db/db mice fed high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, Amir J; Hontecillas, Raquel; Si, Hongwei; Liu, Dongmin; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2007-02-01

    Despite their efficacy in improving insulin sensitivity, thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are associated with a number of side effects (i.e. weight gain, hepatotoxicity, congestive heart failure) that have limited their use by millions of diabetic patients. We have investigated whether abscisic acid (ABA), a naturally occurring phytochemical with structural similarities to TZDs, could be used as an alternative to TZDs to improve glucose homeostasis. We first examined whether ABA, similar to TZDs, activates PPARgamma in vitro. We next determined the lowest effective dose of dietary ABA (100 mg/kg) and assessed its effect on glucose tolerance, obesity-related inflammation, and mRNA expression of PPARgamma and its responsive genes in white adipose tissue (WAT) of db/db mice fed high-fat diets. We found that ABA induced transactivation of PPARgamma in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes in vitro. Dietary ABA-supplementation for 36 days decreased fasting blood glucose concentrations, ameliorated glucose tolerance, and increased mRNA expression of PPARgamma and its responsive genes (i.e., adiponectin, aP2, and CD36) in WAT. We also found that adipocyte hypertrophy, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression, and macrophage infiltration in WAT were significantly attenuated in ABA-fed mice. These findings suggest that ABA could be used as a nutritional intervention against type II diabetes and obesity-related inflammation.

  14. Genetic causal beliefs about obesity, self-efficacy for weight control, and obesity-related behaviours in a middle-aged female cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knerr, Sarah; Bowen, Deborah J; Beresford, Shirley A A; Wang, Catharine

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a heritable condition with well-established risk-reducing behaviours. Studies have shown that beliefs about the causes of obesity are associated with diet and exercise behaviour. Identifying mechanisms linking causal beliefs and behaviours is important for obesity prevention and control. Cross-sectional multi-level regression analyses of self-efficacy for weight control as a possible mediator of obesity attributions (diet, physical activity, genetic) and preventive behaviours in 487 non-Hispanic White women from South King County, Washington. Self-reported daily fruit and vegetable intake and weekly leisure-time physical activity. Diet causal beliefs were positively associated with fruit and vegetable intake, with self-efficacy for weight control partially accounting for this association. Self-efficacy for weight control also indirectly linked physical activity attributions and physical activity behaviour. Relationships between genetic causal beliefs, self-efficacy for weight control, and obesity-related behaviours differed by obesity status. Self-efficacy for weight control contributed to negative associations between genetic causal attributions and obesity-related behaviours in non-obese, but not obese, women. Self-efficacy is an important construct to include in studies of genetic causal beliefs and behavioural self-regulation. Theoretical and longitudinal work is needed to clarify the causal nature of these relationships and other mediating and moderating factors.

  15. A targeted genotyping approach enhances identification of variants in taste receptor and appetite/reward genes of potential functional importance for obesity-related porcine traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirera, S; Clop, A; Jacobsen, M J; Guerin, M; Lesnik, P; Jørgensen, C B; Fredholm, M; Karlskov-Mortensen, P

    2018-04-01

    Taste receptors (TASRs) and appetite and reward (AR) mechanisms influence eating behaviour, which in turn affects food intake and risk of obesity. In a previous study, we used next generation sequencing to identify potentially functional mutations in TASR and AR genes and found indications for genetic associations between identified variants and growth and fat deposition in a subgroup of animals (n = 38) from the UNIK resource pig population. This population was created for studying obesity and obesity-related diseases. In the present study we validated results from our previous study by investigating genetic associations between 24 selected single nucleotide variants in TASR and AR gene variants and 35 phenotypes describing obesity and metabolism in the entire UNIK population (n = 564). Fifteen variants showed significant association with specific obesity-related phenotypes after Bonferroni correction. Six of the 15 genes, namely SIM1, FOS, TAS2R4, TAS2R9, MCHR2 and LEPR, showed good correlation between known biological function and associated phenotype. We verified a genetic association between potentially functional variants in TASR/AR genes and growth/obesity and conclude that the combination of identification of potentially functional variants by next generation sequencing followed by targeted genotyping and association studies is a powerful and cost-effective approach for increasing the power of genetic association studies. © 2018 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  16. The use of measures of obesity in childhood for predicting obesity and the development of obesity-related diseases in adulthood: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Mark; Burch, Jane; Llewellyn, Alexis; Griffiths, Claire; Yang, Huiqin; Owen, Christopher; Duffy, Steven; Woolacott, Nerys

    2015-06-01

    It is uncertain which simple measures of childhood obesity are best for predicting future obesity-related health problems and the persistence of obesity into adolescence and adulthood. To investigate the ability of simple measures, such as body mass index (BMI), to predict the persistence of obesity from childhood into adulthood and to predict obesity-related adult morbidities. To investigate how accurately simple measures diagnose obesity in children, and how acceptable these measures are to children, carers and health professionals. Multiple sources including MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library were searched from 2008 to 2013. Systematic reviews and a meta-analysis were carried out of large cohort studies on the association between childhood obesity and adult obesity; the association between childhood obesity and obesity-related morbidities in adulthood; and the diagnostic accuracy of simple childhood obesity measures. Study quality was assessed using Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) and a modified version of the Quality in Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) tool. A systematic review and an elicitation exercise were conducted on the acceptability of the simple measures. Thirty-seven studies (22 cohorts) were included in the review of prediction of adult morbidities. Twenty-three studies (16 cohorts) were included in the tracking review. All studies included BMI. There were very few studies of other measures. There was a strong positive association between high childhood BMI and adult obesity [odds ratio 5.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.50 to 6.02]. A positive association was found between high childhood BMI and adult coronary heart disease, diabetes and a range of cancers, but not stroke or breast cancer. The predictive accuracy of childhood BMI to predict any adult morbidity was very low, with most morbidities occurring in adults who were of healthy weight in childhood. Predictive accuracy of childhood obesity was moderate for

  17. LightSavers : accelerating advanced outdoor lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcell, B.; Pickering, M.

    2010-01-15

    This paper provided an update to the Toronto Atmospheric Fund (TAF) LightSavers program. The program was designed to accelerate market transformation for light emitting diode (LED) and advanced lighting management systems in outdoor lighting applications. It is expected that the program will result in significant electricity savings and emissions reductions within the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and other Ontario municipalities. The first phase of the program established advanced outdoor lighting pilot programs in parking lots, garages, and pathway lighting applications that were guided by a common monitoring protocol to ensure useful and reliable assessment of the pilot programs. The TAF has since developed a strategy to strengthen public understanding and support for the use of advanced lighting, and continues to address policy issues that may impact the future of LED lighting programs. The TAF has also activated an electronic newsletter, delivered public workshops, and has been represented at several conferences. A working partnership has been established with Toronto Hydro Energy Services. Five pilot sites have been installed and have begun to provide monitoring data. Details of the pilot programs were provided. 16 figs.

  18. Indoor versus outdoor time in preschoolers at child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Pooja S; Saelens, Brian E; Zhou, Chuan; Kerr, Jacqueline; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2013-01-01

    Being outdoors may have health benefits including being more physically active. Understanding the relationship between outdoor time and health is hampered by the difficulty of measuring outdoor time. To examine the accuracy and validity of light-sensor and GPS methods for quantifying outdoor time among those aged 3-5 years at child care. A total of 45 children (mean age 4.5 years, 64% boys) from five child care centers wore portable accelerometers with built-in light sensors and a separate GPS device around their waists during child care, providing 80,648 episodes (15 seconds each) for analysis. Direct observation (gold standard) of children being outdoors versus indoors was conducted for 2 days at each center. GPS signal-to-noise ratios, processed through the Personal Activity and Location Measurement System were used to define indoor versus outdoor locations. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used to determine thresholds for defining being indoors versus outdoors. Data were collected in Fall 2011, analyzed in 2012. Mean observed outdoor time was 63 [±44; range: 18-152] minutes/day. Mean light-sensor levels were significantly higher outdoors. The area under the ROC curve for location based on light sensor for all weather conditions was 0.82 (range: 0.70 on partly cloudy days to 0.97 on sunny days); for GPS, it was 0.89. The light sensor had a sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 86%. GPS had a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 88%. A light sensor and a GPS device both distinguish indoor from outdoor time for preschoolers with moderate to high levels of accuracy. These devices can increase the feasibility and lower the cost of measuring outdoor time in studies of preschool children. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Education in and for the Outdoors. Report of the National Conference on Outdoor Education (Kellogg Gull Lake Biological Station, Hickory Corners, Michigan, May 2-4, 1962).

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    The two board aspects of outdoor education considered in this document are education in the outdoors, using the natural environment as a laboratory for learning, and education for the outdoors, with a focus on teaching skills and appreciations for outdoor recreation. Conference procedures, keynote addresses, current practices, contributions to…

  20. Assessment of Microbiology Students’ Progress With an Audience Response System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmad Chaudhry

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of new approaches to teaching of large lecture courses is needed. Today’s classroom has a wide range of students including high-achieving motivated learners, students struggling to understand basic concepts, and learning-challenged students. Many of these students can be lost in large classes under the shadow of the high-achieving extroverted students who dominate classroom question-and-answer sessions. Measuring a student’s understanding and achievement of content standards becomes difficult until an assessment has been done. To close this gap, an audience response system was introduced in an introductory Principles of Microbiology course. This technology specifically addressed the goal of individualizing instruction to the needs of the students. The evaluation of this project indicated an overall positive impact on student learning.

  1. Receptive Audiences for Climate Change Education: Understanding Attitudes and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, L. D.; Luebke, J. F.; Clayton, S.; Saunders, C. D.; Matiasek, J.; Grajal, A.

    2012-12-01

    Much effort has been devoted to finding ways to explain climate change to uninterested audiences and encourage mitigation behaviors among dismissive audiences. Most approaches have focused on conveying information about climate change processes or threats. Here we report the results of a national survey designed to characterize the readiness of zoo and aquarium visitors to engage with the issue of climate change. Two survey forms, one focused primarily on attitudes (N=3,594) and another on behaviors (N=3,588), were administered concurrently in summer 2011 at 15 Association of Zoos and Aquariums accredited institutions. The attitudes survey used Global Warming's Six Americas segmentation protocols (climatechangecommunication.org) to compare climate change attitudes of zoo and aquarium visitors with the American public (Leiserowitz et al., 2011). Our results reveal that visitors are receptive audiences for climate change education and want to do more to address climate change. Even these favorable audiences, however, perceive barriers to engaging in the issue, signifying the importance of meeting the learning needs of those who acknowledge anthropogenic climate change, and not only of climate change 'deniers.' While 39% of the general public is 'concerned' or 'alarmed' about global warming, 64% of zoo and aquarium visitors fall into these two "Six Americas" segments. Visitors also differ from the national sample in key attitudinal characteristics related to global warming. For example, nearly two-thirds believe human actions are related to global warming, versus less than one-half of the general public; and approximately 60% think global warming will harm them personally, moderately or a great deal, versus less than 30% of the general public. Moreover, 69% of visitors would like to do more to address climate change. Despite zoo and aquarium visitors' awareness of climate change and motivation to address it, survey results indicate they experience barriers to

  2. Assessment of microbiology students' progress with an audience response system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, M Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    The development of new approaches to teaching of large lecture courses is needed. Today's classroom has a wide range of students including high-achieving motivated learners, students struggling to understand basic concepts, and learning-challenged students. Many of these students can be lost in large classes under the shadow of the high-achieving extroverted students who dominate classroom question-and-answer sessions. Measuring a student's understanding and achievement of content standards becomes difficult until an assessment has been done. To close this gap, an audience response system was introduced in an introductory Principles of Microbiology course. This technology specifically addressed the goal of individualizing instruction to the needs of the students. The evaluation of this project indicated an overall positive impact on student learning.

  3. Audience, consequence, and journal selection in toxic-exposure epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rier, David A

    2004-10-01

    Even preliminary toxic-exposure epidemiology papers can spark "media scares" and questionable reactions amongst the public. Concerns for the social consequences of publication can lead epidemiologists--despite the advantages of visible publication--to choose a more obscure outlet for potentially sensitive studies. Interviews with 61 US toxic-exposure epidemiologists indicate that investigators generally sought visible journals to transmit their work to the widest relevant audience. Yet up to 36-46% of this sample sometimes have sought or would seek to keep their research from a public who, they feared, might misuse their results. Implications for the boundaries between science and society (including evidence of hidden scientific activism and "inert" public activism) are discussed, and six hypotheses for further research are proposed.

  4. Active audiences and journalism: Involved citizens or motivated consumers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Masip

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience participation, in any of its forms and names (public journalism, citizen journalism, participatory journalism, UGC, appears to revitalise democracy, thanks to the opportunities for public debate opened up by information and communications technology. On the other hand, however, there are many authors who question whether interactive technologies really encourage democracy or the market, empower the citizen or strengthen the consumer. In this context, we still have little information on the motivations that drive citizens to actively participate through the mechanisms that the media make available to them on their own websites or through social networks. There is a similar lack of information on the role that users attribute to their involvement in the functioning of the media and whether it contributes to improving their democratic function. This article aims to shed some light on this subject.

  5. Audience response techniques for 21st century radiology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Michael L

    2014-07-01

    Audience response system (ARS) provides an excellent tool for improving interactive learning in radiology residents. However, it is not the technology but the pedagogy that matters the most. It is long past time to upgrade our ARS teaching techniques to match our ARS technology. In this article, several problems with current usage of ARS are discussed and several prescriptions for improving this are presented. Simplifying the ease of use of ARS will get this useful technology into more hands. Using ARS in a bidirectional manner will give us an even better idea of how and what our students are learning. Asking questions on the fly will obviate the usual tedium of multiple-choice questions and allow us to quiz our students in a much more natural manner. It is time to move on to more innovative ARS techniques that are well adapted to radiology and its different styles of learning. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Audience Wheel as a Technic to Create Transformative Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helth, Poula

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this chapter is to document how a new learning technic may create transformative learning in leadership in an organisational practice. Design/methodology/approach: The learning methods developed in the learning in practice (LIP) project include aesthetic performances...... combined with reflections. The intention has been to explore how leadership may be transformed, when leaders work as a collective of leaders. The learning methods developed and tested in the LIP project are art-informed learning methods, concepts of liminality and reflection processes carried out...... in the leaders’ organisational practice. Findings: One of the most important findings in the LIP project in relation to transformative learning is a new learning technique based on guided processes rooted in aesthetic performance combined with reflections and separation of roles as performer and audience...

  7. UNDERSTANDING OUR AUDIENCE: MESSAGES FROM CONCEPT TO COMPLETION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharwat EL-Sakran

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The United Arab Emirates (UAE is a business hub for a great number of multinational and international companies that conduct daily communication activities in English, which has made efficient and audience sensitive written communication an essential requirement in today’s workplace. With computer-mediated communication (CMC taking over face-to-face communication, this has created an essential need for students to learn efficient and appropriate communication styles pertinent to communication via emails. This study presents a pragmatic approach for teaching the how of writing appropriate and effective professional email messages. Comparisons of pre-and post-teaching email messages point to significant improvements in the quality of post teaching email messages.

  8. Traditions of the Sun, One Model for Expanding Audience Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, I.; Paglierani, R.

    2006-12-01

    The Internet is a powerful tool with which to expand audience access, bringing students, teachers and the public to places and resources they might not otherwise visit or make use of. We will present Traditions of the Sun, an experiential Web site that invites exploration of the world's ancient observatories with special emphasis on Chaco Culture National Historic Park in the Four Corners region of the US and several sites in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. Traditions of the Sun includes resources in English and Spanish along with a unique trilingual on-line book, "Traditions of the Sun, A Photographic Journal," containing explanatory text in Yucatec Maya as well. Traditions of the Sun offers rich opportunities for virtual visits to ancient sites used for solar observing while learning about current NASA research on the Sun and indigenous solar practices within a larger historical and cultural context. The site contains hundreds of photographs, historic images and rich multimedia to help tell the story of the Sun-Earth Connection. Visitors to the site can zoom in on the great Mayan cities of Chichen Itza, Uxmal, Dzibilchaltun, and Mayapan to learn about Mayan astronomy, history, culture, and science. They can also visit Chaco Canyon to watch sunrise over Pueblo Bonito on the summer solstice, take a virtual reality tour of the great kiva at Casa Rinconada or see panoramic vistas from Fajada Butte, an area which, for preservation purposes, is restricted to the public. Traditions of the Sun provides one model of how exploration and discovery can come to life for both formal and informal audiences via the Internet. Traditions of the Sun is a collaborative project between NASA's Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum, the National Park Service, Instituto National de Antropologia e Historia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, and Ideum.

  9. RPA Assessment of Outdoor Recreation: Past, Current, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Bergstrom; H. Ken Cordell

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the outdoor recreation sections of the Renewable Resource Planning Act (RPA) Assessments conducted to date are reviewed. Current policy and mangement applications of the outsdoor recreation results published in 1989 Assessment are discussed also. The paper concludes with suggestions for the assemssment of outdoor recreation in future RPA Assessements...

  10. Characteristics of wilderness users in outdoor recreation assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan E. Watson; H. Ken Cordell; Lawrence A. Hartmann

    1989-01-01

    Wilderness use is often subsumed under outdoor recreation participation in large-scale assessments. Participation monitoring has indicated, however, that wilderness use has been increasing faster than outdoor recreation use in general. In a sample of Forest Service wilderness and nonwildemess users during the summer of 1985, detailed expenditure, activity, and travel...

  11. Breeding for Welfare in outdoor pig production : simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gourdine, J.L.; Greef, de K.H.; Rydhmer, L.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the societal and market attention, to our knowledge, there is no breeding program for outdoor pig production in which improvement in animal welfare is emphasized. In this study, a dam-line selected for an outdoor production system was simulated. The purpose was to investigate the

  12. Perspectives of Elementary School Teachers on Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palavan, Ozcan; Cicek, Volkan; Atabay, Merve

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor education stands out as one of the methods to deliver the desired educational outcomes taking the needs of the students, teachers and the curricular objectives into consideration. Outdoor education focuses on experimental, hands-on learning in real-life environments through senses, e.g., through visual, auditory, and tactile means,…

  13. Developing Approaches to Outdoor Education that Promote Sustainability Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Social, economic, and environmental issues facing 21st century societies compel a transformative shift towards sustainability in all spheres of life, including education. The challenges this holds for outdoor education programs and practices is significant. If outdoor education theory and practice is to make a greater contribution to…

  14. Tenuous Affair: Environmental and Outdoor Education in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, David; Straker, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between outdoor education and environmental education in Aotearoa New Zealand has undergone many changes since formal education began in early colonial times. Discussion draws from qualitative doctoral research undertaken by the authors that investigated education for sustainability in outdoor education and how meaning is ascribed…

  15. Rain and Romanticism: The Environment in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor education provides an opportunity to engage with natural environments in ways that are distinct from other physical education teacher education (PETE) courses. This research examines how pre-service teachers (PSTs) within a PETE degree experienced "environment" on an outdoor education camp. Using self-study methodology and…

  16. Overcoming Fear: Helping Decision Makers Understand Risk in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haras, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The long history of outdoor education does little to alleviate the fears of many parents, teachers, principals and superintendents who believe that outdoor education is too risky. These decision makers often lack both the knowledge to make informed decisions and the time and resources to investigate their assumptions. Pair these circumstances with…

  17. Is Outdoor Education a Discipline? Provocations and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, Janet E.; Potter, Tom G.

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor education is often undervalued. As such, we believe there is merit in critiquing the field and focusing more attention on its value and importance. This paper seeks to offer a critical exploration of "if" and "how" outdoor education is a discipline. The paper begins with a brief overview of the literature that seeks to…

  18. Outdoor Education Academic Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Brent J.; Seaman, Jayson; Trauntvein, Nate

    2017-01-01

    The growth of outdoor adventure programs developed, in part, from the Outward Bound movement in the 1970s (MacArthur, 1979; Outward Bound, 1968), which created a demand for specialized collegiate training. Since the inaugural conference on outdoor pursuits in higher education at Appalachian State University in 1974 (Smathers, 1974), approximately…

  19. Outdoor skaber særlig professionel identitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lis Reinholdt; Lybæk-Hansen, Esper

    2015-01-01

    På pædagoguddannelsen i Horsens tilbydes årligt en toning af pædagoguddannelsen i Outdoor - en beskrivelse......På pædagoguddannelsen i Horsens tilbydes årligt en toning af pædagoguddannelsen i Outdoor - en beskrivelse...

  20. The Power of Outdoor Play and Play in Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemple, Kristen M.; Oh, JiHyun; Kenney, Elizabeth; Smith-Bonahue, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Young children's outdoor play serves important and diverse purposes, including physical exercise and opportunities for growth in all developmental areas. Unfortunately, the amount of time that children spend engaged in unstructured, child-directed outdoor play has diminished significantly in the past generation. In this article, the authors…

  1. Evaluating cyclic fatigue of sealants during outdoor testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams; Steven Lacher; Corey Halpin; Christopher White

    2009-01-01

    A computer-controlled test apparatus (CCTA) and other instrumentation for subjecting sealant specimens to cyclic fatigue during outdoor exposure was developed. The CCTA enables us to use weather-induced conditions to cyclic fatigue specimens and to conduct controlled tests in-situ during the outdoor exposure. Thermally induced dimensional changes of an aluminum bar...

  2. Playing with Nature: Supporting Preschoolers' Creativity in Natural Outdoor Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewra, Christine; Veselack, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Conducted at two separate natural outdoor classrooms with preschool-aged children from three to five years old, this qualitative research study investigated how outdoor environments supported children's creativity and imagination. Although many studies have explored the development of creative arts in the young children, few have focused on…

  3. Health Benefits of Outdoor Recreation: Implications for Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenstein, Donna; Ewert, Alan

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews literature related to the positive effects of outdoor education. The following dimensions of health, and the benefits associated with each, are discussed: emotional, social, physical, intellectual, and spiritual. A model of health benefits derived from outdoor recreation is presented, and implications for health education are…

  4. Automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using track before detect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Birkemark, Christian M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper concerns automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using a single camera. The first step in automatic interpretation of the video stream is activity detection based on background subtraction. Usually, this process will generate a large number of false alarms in outdoor scenes due...

  5. Motivations, attitudes, preferences, and satisfactions among outdoor recreationists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Tarrant; Alan D. Bright; Erin Smith; H. Ken Cordell

    1999-01-01

    This chapter is presented in two sections. The first by Bright and Tarrant describes visitor preferences and examines users' perceptions of encountering other visitors in outdoor recreation settings. The second by Tarrant and others reviews visitor preferences for, and satisfactions with, outdoor recreation experiences.

  6. Getting the Most Out of Journaling: Strategies for Outdoor Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, Janet E.; O'Connell, Timothy S.

    2003-01-01

    Outdoor educators often ask students to write journals without training them in journal writing. A workshop in journal writing for university students in outdoor education courses covers how to write entries related to specific content areas; an understanding of Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Thinking and how it applies to journal writing; and…

  7. Affordances of outdoor settings for children in preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerstrup, Inger Elisabeth; van den Bosch, Cecil Konijnendijk

    2017-01-01

    were observed during times for ‘free play’ in their usual outdoor settings: traditional playground and forest (12 visits, respectively). Modified classes of outdoor features are suggested along with new practical class names: open ground, sloping terrain, shielded places, rigid fixtures, moving...

  8. Neighborhood Poverty and Maternal Fears of Children's Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Schachter, Ariela

    2011-01-01

    Investigating children's outdoor play unites scholarship on neighborhoods, parental perceptions of safety, and children's health. Utilizing the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study (N = 3,448), we examine mothers' fear of their 5-year-old children playing outdoors, testing associations with neighborhood social characteristics, city-level…

  9. Outdoor Recreation and Adventure Tourism: Unique but Allied Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Andrew W.; Kang, H. K.; Lewis, T. Grant

    2017-01-01

    Outdoor recreation and adventure tourism are overlapping industries serving similar clientele. While descriptive marketing research exists for both industries (George Washington University School of Business [GW], Adventure Travel Trade Association [ATTA], & Xola Consulting [XC], 2010; Outdoor Foundation [OF], 2014), there is no clear…

  10. Infusing Outdoor Field Experiences into the Secondary Biology Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Ginny

    1984-01-01

    To offer students biological field experiences, teachers should use their own basic skills, be enthusiastic motivators, participate in community programs/courses/workshops to acquire additional skills/knowledge for outdoor biological education, plan outdoor excursions with safety considerations in mind, and use available resources for classroom…

  11. The ODELIA Study on Noise Limits for Outdoor Machinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.; Carletti, E.; Spellerberg, G.

    2016-01-01

    In the ODELIA study for the European Commission an assessment of the outdoor equipment noise directive 2000/14/EC and its amendment 2005/88/EC has been performed. The directive requires noise marking for 57 types of equipment used outdoors, and sets noise limits for 22 of these. Since the limits

  12. Outdoor Education Is More than Meets the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortill, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Any activity that involves learning, whether it is for therapeutic purposes, traditional education, or outdoor education, is experiential education. In particular, outdoor educators allow participants to experiment with their behaviour in the form of play, for the most part out-of-doors. Many in the industry refer to play as adventure. Those who…

  13. An Educational Tool for Outdoor Education and Environmental Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandell, Klas; Ohman, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest an outdoor education model that respects the need to critically discuss the general belief in a causal relationship between experiences of nature, environmentally-friendly attitudes and behavioural change, but that at the same time respects the legitimate claims on the part of outdoor education practice for…

  14. Provisions for Outdoor Play and Learning in Slovene Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Marjanca; Jerman, Janez

    2013-01-01

    This study examined play and learning in the natural environment and on the playgrounds of Slovene preschools. It included 140 preschool teachers and 264 parents of children who attended preschools in 21 Slovene towns. Data were collected through questionnaires with questions referring to time spent outdoors, children's outdoor activities,…

  15. The Implementation of Mobile Learning in Outdoor Education: Application of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Wen-Shiane; Fan, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an m-learning method that incorporates Integrated Quick Response (QR) codes. This learning method not only achieves the objectives of outdoor education, but it also increases applications of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) (Mayer, 2001) in m-learning for practical use in a diverse range of outdoor locations. When…

  16. Audience in the Service of Learning: How Kids Negotiate Attention in an Online Community of Interactive Media Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Audience can serve as powerful motivation in learning--and network technologies have the potential to greatly broaden audience for the processes and products of learning. But these new opportunities for audience are accompanied by new challenges. In this paper, we examine and problematize the notion and role of audience in learning by presenting a…

  17. How Less Alienation Creates More Exploitation? Audience Labour on Social Network Sites.

    OpenAIRE

    Eran Fisher

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The notion of audience labour has been an important contribution to Marxist political economy of the media. It revised the traditional political economy analysis, which focused on media ownership, by suggesting that media was also a site of production, constituting particular relations of production. Such analysis highlighted the active role of audience in the creation of media value as both commodities and workers, thus pointing to audience exploitation. Recently, in light of parad...

  18. Stepping into others’ shoes: a cognitive perspective on target audience orientation in written translation

    OpenAIRE

    Apfelthaler, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    This paper suggests what might allow translators to orient themselves towards their target audience in the translation process. To shed light on translators’ ability to put themselves into their target audience’s shoes, I adopt a cognitive perspective by drawing on current findings from psychology, cognitive science and neuroscience. I depart from the notion of target audience as applied to written translation. Aspects to this concept and the terminology of audience in translation studies are...

  19. Children's drawings of significant figures for a peer or an adult audience

    OpenAIRE

    Burkitt, Esther; Watling, Dawn; Murray, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    The present study assessed if children would present different information in their drawings of emotion eliciting stimuli when they believed that an adult or a child audience would view their drawings. Seventy-five 6-year-olds (44 boys and 31 girls) were allocated to three groups: the reference group, the child audience group and the adult audience group. All children completed a drawing session where they first drew a neutral uncharacterised figure, followed by drawings of a sad and a happy ...

  20. Release of silver nanoparticles from outdoor facades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaegi, Ralf; Sinnet, Brian; Zuleeg, Steffen; Hagendorfer, Harald; Mueller, Elisabeth; Vonbank, Roger; Boller, Markus; Burkhardt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigate the release of metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) from paints used for outdoor applications. A facade panel mounted on a model house was exposed to ambient weather conditions over a period of one year. The runoff volume of individual rain events was determined and the silver and titanium concentrations of 36 out of 65 runoff events were measured. Selected samples were prepared for electron microscopic analysis. A strong leaching of the Ag-NP was observed during the initial runoff events with a maximum concentration of 145 μ Ag/l. After a period of one year, more than 30% of the Ag-NP were released to the environment. Particles were mostly 2 S. - We provide direct evidence for the release of silver nanoparticles from exterior paints to the aquatic environment.

  1. Particle Swarm Optimization for Outdoor Lighting Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Castillo-Martinez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor lighting is an essential service for modern life. However, the high influence of this type of facility on energy consumption makes it necessary to take extra care in the design phase. Therefore, this manuscript describes an algorithm to help light designers to get, in an easy way, the best configuration parameters and to improve energy efficiency, while ensuring a minimum level of overall uniformity. To make this possible, we used a particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. These algorithms are well established, and are simple and effective to solve optimization problems. To take into account the most influential parameters on lighting and energy efficiency, 500 simulations were performed using DIALux software (4.10.0.2, DIAL, Ludenscheid, Germany. Next, the relation between these parameters was studied using to data mining software. Subsequently, we conducted two experiments for setting parameters that enabled the best configuration algorithm in order to improve efficiency in the proposed process optimization.

  2. Outdoor air pollution and sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Rafael; García-Blàquez, Núria; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Checa, Miguel Angel

    2016-09-15

    Exposure to air pollution has been clearly associated with a range of adverse health effects, including reproductive toxicity, but its effects on male semen quality are still unclear. We performed a systematic review (up to June 2016) to assess the impact of air pollutants on sperm quality. We included 17 semi-ecological, panel, and cohort studies, assessing outdoor air pollutants, such as PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SO2, and O3, and their effects on DNA fragmentation, sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology. Thirteen studies assessed air pollution exposure measured environmentally, and six used biomarkers of air pollution exposure (two did both). We rated the studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and assessed with the exposure method. Taking into account these factors and the number of studies finding significant results (positive or negative), the evidence supporting an effect of air pollution on DNA fragmentation is weak but suggestive, on sperm motility is limited and probably inexistent, on lower sperm count is inconclusive, and on sperm morphology is very suggestive. Because of the diversity of air pollutants and sperm parameters, and the studies' designs, we were unable to perform a meta-analysis. In summary, most studies concluded that outdoor air pollution affects at least one of the four semen quality parameters included in the review. However, results lack consistency, and furthermore, studies were not comparable. Studies using standardized air pollution and semen measures are required to obtain more reliable conclusions. CRD42015007175. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Let's Walk Outdoors! Self-Paced Walking Outdoors Improves Future Intention to Exercise in Women With Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinski, Kleverton; Machado, Daniel G S; Lirani, Luciana S; DaSilva, Sergio G; Costa, Eduardo C; Hardcastle, Sarah J; Elsangedy, Hassan M

    2017-04-01

    In order to examine whether environmental settings influence psychological and physiological responses of women with obesity during self-paced walking, 38 women performed two exercise sessions (treadmill and outdoors) for 30 min, where oxygen uptake, heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, affect, attentional focus, enjoyment, and future intentions to walk were analyzed. Physiological responses were similar during both sessions. However, during outdoor exercise, participants displayed higher externally focused attention, positive affect, and lower ratings of perceived exertion, followed by greater enjoyment and future intention to participate in outdoor walking. The more externally focused attention predicted greater future intentions to participate in walking. Therefore, women with obesity self-selected an appropriate exercise intensity to improve fitness and health in both environmental settings. Also, self-paced outdoor walking presented improved psychological responses. Health care professionals should consider promoting outdoor forms of exercise to maximize psychological benefits and promote long-term adherence to a physically active lifestyle.

  4. Astronomy Outreach for Large, Unique, and Unusual Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald

    2015-08-01

    My successful outreach program venues include: outdoor concerts and festivals; the US National Mall; churches, synagogues, seminaries, or clergy conferences; the Ronald McDonald Houses of Long Island and Chicago; the Winthrop U. Hospital Children’s Medical Center the Fresh Air Fund summer camps (low-income and special needs); a Halloween star party (costumed kids look through telescopes); a Super Bowl Star Party (targeting women); Science Festivals (World, NYC; Princeton U.; the USA Science and Engineering Festival); and the NYC Columbus Day Parade. Information was also provided about local science museums, citizen science projects, astronomy educational sites, and astronomy clubs to encourage lifelong learning. In 2010 I created Astronomy Festival on the National Mall (co-sponsored by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy) with the participation of astronomy clubs, scientific institutions and with Tyco Brahe, Johannes Kepler, and Caroline Herschel making guest appearances. My programs include solar, optical, and radio telescope observations, hands-on activities, a live image projection system; large outdoor posters and banners; videos; hands-on activities, and edible astronomy demonstrations.My NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program (60 events 2009 - 2013) reached 50,000 music lovers at local parks and the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood Music Festivals with classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts assisted by astronomy clubs. Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Tony Orlando, and Wilco performed at these events. MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large crowds. Young kids participated in this family learning experience - often the first time they looked through a telescope. While < 50% of the participants took part in a science activity in the past year, they

  5. Outdoor Lighting: Physics, Vision and Perception

    CERN Document Server

    Schreuder, Duco

    2008-01-01

    This book covers theoretical aspects that are at the basis of lighting installations. It focuses on insight, backgrounds and coherence. There are many fundamental aspects that are essential for understanding why different ways to install and use lighting give different results. A purely pragmatic approach to solving practical lighting problems will lead to pitfalls. But as this book shows, on the basis of fundamental considerations on optics, light sources and vision, causes and effects that tend to be overlooked by lighting engineers and designers can be identified. The selection of subjects in this book is based on more than 50 years of experience in studying the fundamental and practical applications of lighting and vision. The author has given classes on these topics, in master courses at post-graduate and post-doctoral levels. Audience: graduate students, researchers, designers, engineers and consultants engaged in lighting, public lighting, lighting equipment and installations.

  6. An F2 pig resource population as a model for genetic studies of obesity and obesity-related diseases in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogelman, Lisette; Kadarmideen, Haja; Mark, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a rising worldwide public health problem. Difficulties to precisely measure various obesity traits and the genetic heterogeneity in human have been major impediments to completely disentangle genetic factors causing obesity. The pig is a relevant model for studying human obesity...... and obesity-related (OOR) traits. Using founder breeds divergent with respect to obesity traits we have created an F2 pig resource population (454 pigs), which has been intensively phenotyped for 36 OOR traits. The main rationale for our study is to characterize the genetic architecture of OOR traits in the F...... and genetic variation in the F2 population, respectively. This fulfills the purpose of creating a resource population divergent for OOR traits. Strong genetic correlations were found between weight and lean mass at dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning (0.56 – 0.97). Weight and conformation also...

  7. Obesity-related health status is a better predictor of pregnancy with fertility treatment than body mass index: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, N; Sharma, A M; Maxwell, C; Greenblatt, E M

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed whether an obesity-related health status instrument (Edmonton obesity scoring system - EOSS) or body mass index (BMI) better predicted pregnancy rates in overweight women undergoing fertility treatments. A prospective cohort study was conducted on patients with a BMI ≥ 25 kg m(-2) undergoing a fertility treatment cycle (ovulation induction, superovulation, or in vitro fertilization). Obesity-related health status including blood pressure, blood work, health history, and functional assessment were assessed. A total of 101 patients were included in the study with an average age of 36.3 ± 4.2 years and a mean BMI of 31.8 ± 5.2 kg m(-2) . EOSS was found to be statistically predictive of pregnancy rate/cycle (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.27-0.94; P = 0.03), whereas BMI was not (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.86-1.05). A similar trend was seen for clinical pregnancy rate/cycle started. However, the association between clinical pregnancy rates and EOSS or BMI did not reach statistical significance (OR 0.53, P = 0.06 and OR 0.98, P = 0.62 respectively). Our results demonstrated that EOSS better predicted pregnancy rates after fertility treatments than BMI. In fact, for every EOSS stage increased by one unit, the odds of pregnancy were approximately halved. A multi-centre study powered for live birth is warranted to establish effective pre-fertility management of overweight women. © 2016 World Obesity.

  8. The lactase -13910C>T polymorphism (rs4988235) is associated with overweight/obesity and obesity-related variables in a population sample of Portuguese young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manco, L; Dias, H; Muc, M; Padez, C

    2017-01-01

    Several studies reported associations of the lactase gene (LCT) polymorphism -13910C>T (rs4988235) with obesity-related variables and obesity in adults. This study aimed to replicate previously reported associations in a population sample of Portuguese young adults. We genotyped 447 subjects from central and northern regions of Portugal (mean age 20.81±4.24 years) for the lactase variant -13910C>T (rs4988235), using TaqMan probes. Anthropometric variables (weight, height and body fat) were measured using standardized procedures and body mass index (BMI) (kg/m 2 ) was calculated. Frequency of genotypes was 35.8% CC (lactase nonpersistent, LNP), 48.1% CT and 16.1% TT, consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P=1). The frequency for the minor -13910 T allele was 0.402. Assuming a dominance model for the lactase persistence (LP) minor T-allele, linear regression models showed statistically significant associations between the LP genotype CT/TT and BMI, fat mass and weight (β=1.114, P=0.003; β=1.309, P=0.007 and β=2.67, P=0.021, respectively) after adjustment for age and sex. In concordance, logistic regression showed significant association between LP genotype CT/TT and overweight/obesity (OR=1.77; CI 1.08-2.92; P=0.023), as well as with high fat percentage ranges (OR=1.58; CI 1.01-2.46; P=0.041), when adjusting for age and sex. No significant interaction was obtained between the LCT polymorphism and physical activity for BMI (P int =0.454) or FAT % (P int =0.421). In the Portuguese sample of young adults, the lactase -13910C>T polymorphism revealed significant associations with the obesity-related anthropometric variables BMI, fat mass and weight, and previously observed associations with the obesity risk were also confirmed.

  9. Investigation of Mountaineering and Outdoor Sports Clubs with Activity Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak GÜRER

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current study aims to identify activity areas of mountaineering and outdoor sports clubs in Turkey that organize activities regularly. Universe of the study was composed of mountaineering and outdoor sports clubs that were active between the dates of 11 March 2012 and 5 January 2013. This study and the sample included 49 active outdoor sports clubs that could be reached in the region. Data were collected via surveys. Obtained data were analyzed and interpreted with the help of statistical package program (SPSS 16.0. Frequencies and percentage distributions were provided. Criteria for the provision of outdoor sports activities in clubs include requests from members and geographical conditions of the area. It is observed that those clubs provide outdoor walks approximately for 21-40 members. There are clubs without trainers. Clubs provide mountaineering and rock climbing activities the most. Aegean and Marmara Regions are more active compared to other regions. In general, most of the clubs are active in areas such as mountaineering, rock climbing and outdoor walks. It is suggested that local administrations and federations support outdoor sports clubs

  10. Exit Noise Summer Fest: Explaining the audience in ethnographic discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić-Krstanović Miroslava M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In Ethnology, studying festivals is a relevant activity since it could enlighten a number of complex cultural and social processes. The festivals represent public events, public ceremonies, cluster of rituals and produce many symbols, and as such, they are in fact a creative reflection of a society. In this paper, we analyze the Exit Noise Summer Fest, the biggest music festival in SE Europe. The aim of the analysis is to gain understanding of the cultural event of this kind and its protagonists, namely, the audience. Shedding a light to a music spectacle, from a standpoint of social and symbolic communication, directs to a different perspective in reading of rituals, communities zones, and semantic constructions of noise and body in the center of ritual behaviors. The research shows that the music experience and atmosphere of the celebration, though having somewhat unclear ritual borderline and zone, are compatible with the daily culture and social processes, in which the event is created and further reflects itself through various mediums.

  11. Engaging Strangeness in the Art Museum: an audience development strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Deeth

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available What is the public art museum’s role in enhancing hesitant viewers’ engagement with contemporary art, especially its more challenging and conceptual aspects? In considering this question, the notion that contemporary art is too difficult for general audiences to engage with directly is refuted. It is suggested that the capacity for viewers to make sense of contemporary art, understood as the discursive practices that have come to the fore since the 1960s, is hindered not by the art but by the art theory that hesitant viewers employ. As representational and formalist aesthetic codes remain the dominant modes of responding to art, for the art museum to become more inclusive, there needs a greater emphasis on discursive approaches to experiencing art. From an examination of claims made across disciplines that advocate discursive practice, including George Hein’s constructivist museum, Helen Illeris’s performative museum and Jacques Lacan’s psychoanalytic conversation, a strategy for the enhancement of the experience of contemporary art for the hesitant or disconnected viewer is proposed that involves reorienting the role of the public art museum from expert speaker to expert listener.

  12. The Filipino male as a target audience in family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitug, W

    1986-01-01

    Since the official launching of the Philippine Population Program in 1970, family planning campaigns have substantially addressed themselves to women. The suggestion to devote equal, if not more, attention to men as family planning targets had been raised by Dr. Mercado as early as 1971. It was not until 1978, that the deliberate inclusion of males as a target audience in family planning became a matter of policy. The Population Center Foundation (PCF), from 1979 to 1982, carried out research projects to determine the most suitable approaches and strategies to reach Filipino men. The objectives of the PCF's Male Specific Program are: 1) to test alternative schemes in promoting male family planning methods through pilot-testing of family planning clinics for men, 2) to develop teaching materials geared toward specific segments of the male population, 3) to undertake skills training in male-specific motivational approaches for program professionals, and 4) to assess the extent of the husband's role in family planning. An important finding of 1 study was that most outreach workers were female stood in the way of the motivation process, thus hampering the campaign. While the consultative motivational skills training improved knowledge, attitudes, and skills of outreach workers with regard to vasectomy and the motivation process, there were certain predispositions that were hindering the fieldworkers' effectiveness in motivating target clients. Overall, in-depth, 1-to-1 motivation in dealing with men is needed to strengthen internalization of family planning values.

  13. Timing of malaria messages for target audience on radio airwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batwala, Vincent; Magnussen, Pascal; Mirembe, Justine; Mulogo, Edgar; Nuwaha, Fred

    2012-08-20

    Due to the limitations of face-to-face communication to teach families how to manage, control and prevent malaria, national and local malaria programmes try to reach people through the radio. However, information regarding the timing of radio messages for the target audiences is lacking. Within a large-scale trial (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00565071), data regarding the time at which people listen to the radio was collected from 1,628 consenting outpatients (and caregivers for minors) attending six rural government primary level health care centres in Bushenyi and Iganga districts of Uganda from February to July 2011. The majority of households, 1,099 (67.5%) owned a radio. The majority, 1,221 (86.3%), participants had heard about malaria from the radio. Some participants started listening to the radio at about 06.00 East African local time (EAT). The peak hours at which people listen to the radio are 12.00-14.00 and 18.00-23.00 local time. The median time of listening to the radio by men is 20.00 (inter-quartile range (IQR): 18.30-21.00) and women 19.30 (IQR: 13.00-20.30). Planners of malaria radio interventions need to broadcast their messages within the two peak EAT of 12.00-14.00 and 18.00-23.00.

  14. Outdoor Workers and Sun Protection: Knowledge and Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Cioffi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor workers are at high risk of developing skin cancer. Primary prevention can potentiallyreduce the incidence of skin cancer in this group. This study aimed to determine theknowledge and sun protective behaviour of outdoor workers towards skin cancer. A shortquestionnaire was used to collect data from workers on construction sites during workinghours. Despite workers having knowledge of the risks of skin cancer their use of sun protectionwas less than satisfactory, particularly considering their cumulative exposure.Workplace health education programs for outdoor workers addressing sun protection areindicated, as is further research to increase understanding of issues workers have withsun protection in the workplace.

  15. Concordance with World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guidelines for cancer prevention and obesity-related cancer risk in the Framingham Offspring cohort (1991-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarem, Nour; Lin, Yong; Bandera, Elisa V; Jacques, Paul F; Parekh, Niyati

    2015-02-01

    This prospective cohort study evaluates associations between healthful behaviors consistent with WCRF/AICR cancer prevention guidelines and obesity-related cancer risk, as a third of cancers are estimated to be preventable. The study sample consisted of adults from the Framingham Offspring cohort (n = 2,983). From 1991 to 2008, 480 incident doctor-diagnosed obesity-related cancers were identified. Data on diet, measured by a food frequency questionnaire, anthropometric measures, and self-reported physical activity, collected in 1991 was used to construct a 7-component score based on recommendations for body fatness, physical activity, foods that promote weight gain, plant foods, animal foods, alcohol, and food preservation, processing, and preparation. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate associations between the computed score, its components, and subcomponents in relation to obesity-related cancer risk. The overall score was not associated with obesity-related cancer risk after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, energy, and preexisting conditions (HR 0.94, 95 % CI 0.86-1.02). When score components were evaluated separately, for every unit increment in the alcohol score, there was 29 % lower risk of obesity-related cancers (HR 0.71, 95 % CI 0.51-0.99) and 49-71 % reduced risk of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. Every unit increment in the subcomponent score for non-starchy plant foods (fruits, vegetables, and legumes) among participants who consume starchy vegetables was associated with 66 % reduced risk of colorectal cancer (HR 0.44, 95 % CI 0.22-0.88). Lower alcohol consumption and a plant-based diet consistent with the cancer prevention guidelines were associated with reduced risk of obesity-related cancers in this population.

  16. The Social Nature of Argumentative Practices: The Philosophy of Argument and Audience Reception

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Olmos

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: This article reviews Christopher W. Tindale’s The Philosophy of Argument and Audience Reception (Cambridge, 2015). Résumé: Cet article est une critique de The Philosophy of Argument and Audience Reception (Cambridge, 2015) de Christopher W. Tindale.

  17. Pervasive Public Figure Status and Local or Topical Fame in Light of Evolving Media Audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Matthew D.; Tobin, Charles D.

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to journalistic legal scholarship and theory by examining the development of "public figure" status in defamation law, with particular attention to public figures who may have achieved notoriety among less than a national audience. Argues that trends in media and audience fragmentation warrant extensions of current doctrine based on…

  18. Three Concentric Circles: Young Chinese English Learners' Perceptions of Purposeful Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jack Jinghui

    2015-01-01

    English learners have more access to communicate with different purposeful audiences across the Three Concentric Circles of English (Kachu, 1985): the Inner Circle, the Outer Circle and the Expanding Circle. However, young language learners' purposeful audience as a focus of communication has not been emphasized as much as other linguistic…

  19. A Taxonomy of Pre/Post Performance Behaviors for Speakers and Audiences in the Basic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Bryant Keith

    Noting that introductory public speaking and performance studies classes are often met with great anxiety and trepidation, this paper describes and categorizes the necessary student and audience behaviors at three levels of involvement: 1) pre-performance, 2) post-performance, and 3) audience participation. Teachers can show students how to apply…

  20. Engaging the d/Deaf Audience in Museums: A Case Study at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Patrícia Roque

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses ways that museums can strengthen programming for d/Deaf audiences. Through the development and study of a tour for a d/Deaf audience conducted through signing and oral translation at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum in Lisbon (Portugal), the author examines issues of language, identity and inclusion. She argues that the use of…

  1. Alcohol and tobacco advertising in black and general audience newspapers: targeting with message cues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Elisia L; Caburnay, Charlene A; Rodgers, Shelly

    2011-07-01

    This study content analyzed 928 tobacco- and alcohol-related advertisements from a 3-year national sample of Black (n = 24) and general audience (n = 11) newspapers from 24 U.S. cities. The authors compared the frequency of tobacco and alcohol product and control advertising in Black versus general audience newspapers, as well as the presence of 5 message cues: model ethnicity, presence of health official, referral to resources, personal behavior mobilization, and localization. Results within health issues show that Black newspapers had more alcohol product advertising than did general audience newspapers. In contrast, Black newspapers had less alcohol and tobacco control advertising than general audience newspapers. Black newspapers' tobacco/alcohol product advertisements had more African American models than did general audience newspapers' tobacco/alcohol advertising, whereas general audience newspapers' tobacco control advertisements were significantly more likely to feature public health officials than ads in Black newspapers. Fewer message cues such as personal behavior mobilization, referral to resources, and localization were present in Black versus general audience newspapers. Results suggest that Black newspapers may have greater dependency than do general audience newspapers on these risk-related advertisements that target African American consumers. Given the current advertising environment, public health initiatives are needed to counter unhealthy alcohol product advertising messages that target vulnerable populations.

  2. Defining Audience Segments for Extension Programming Using Reported Water Conservation Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Paul; Ott, Emily; Wilber, Wendy; Gouldthorpe, Jessica; Racevskis, Laila

    2013-01-01

    A tool from social marketing can help Extension agents understand distinct audience segments among their constituents. Defining targeted audiences for Extension programming is a first step to influencing behavior change among the public. An online survey was conducted using an Extension email list for urban households receiving a monthly lawn and…

  3. Impact of an Extension Social Media Tool Kit on Audience Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Aileen S.; Dev, Dipti; McGinnis, Colin M.; Thomas, Tyler

    2018-01-01

    Extension professionals can improve their use of social media as channels for extending programmatic efforts by maximizing target audience reach and engagement. We describe how implementation of a tool kit highlighting best practices for using social media improved Extension professionals' efforts to engage target audience members via social…

  4. Among the Authentic Audience: Young Adults' Perceptions and Responses to Youth as Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchen, Amie K.

    2017-01-01

    Lifelong science learning is important for making informed decisions on science topics, and there is a need to engage broader and more diverse audiences with science. One opportunity for engagement occurs when students share science topics with a public audience. Research indicates this interaction can have benefits for students, but little is…

  5. Children's Drawings of Significant Figures for a Peer or an Adult Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, Esther; Watling, Dawn; Murray, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    The present study assessed if children would present different information in their drawings of emotion eliciting stimuli when they believed that an adult or a child audience would view their drawings. Seventy-five 6-year-olds (44 boys and 31 girls) were allocated to three groups: the reference group, the child audience group and the adult…

  6. Predictors of Horror Film Attendance and Appeal: An Analysis of the Audience for Frightening Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, Ron; Stiff, James

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the appeal of horror films. Develops a model that finds that important factors in the horror film's appeal are the audience's desire to experience the satisfying resolutions and to see the destruction usually found in these films and the sensation-seeking personality traits of audience members for these films. (NKA)

  7. The influence of an audience response system on knowledge retention: an application to resident education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Archana; Sparano, Dina; Ananth, Cande V

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare delivery methods of lecture material regarding contraceptive options by either traditional or interactive lecture style with the use of an audience response system with obstetrics and gynecology residents. A prospective, randomized controlled trial that included 17 obstetrics and gynecology residents was conducted. Group differences and comparison of pre/posttest scores to evaluate efficacy of lecture styles were performed with the Student t test. Each participant completed an evaluation to assess usefulness of the audience response system. Residents who received audience response system interactive lectures showed a 21% improvement between pretest and posttest scores; residents who received the standard lecture demonstrated a 2% improvement (P = .018). The evaluation survey showed that 82% of residents thought that the audience response system was a helpful learning aid. The results of this randomized controlled trial demonstrate the effectiveness of audience response system for knowledge retention, which suggests that it may be an efficient teaching tool for residency education.

  8. Communicative Informatics: An Active and Creative Audience Framework of Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M. Gallant

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Communicative informatics reflects the interactive complexity of web-based communication and a paradigm shift away from mass communication. Three discursive spheres (database and information systems, human computer interaction, and active audiences work together to control online communication openness and its consequences for post-mass media society’s public common. This has implications for communication freedom, creativity, and constraints in an information-based society. Four propositions shed light on how online audience activity is encouraged by and imperative to corporate interests; how audience creativity can create, accept, or reject messages; how the online audience is monitored; and how online rhetoric can produce or inhibit public commons. Evidence shows that social media’s corporate interests can be at odds with online privacy and citizen communication. This tension is explored with a unique focus on rhetoric, argument, and the communication between audience members and Internet-based corporate media by way of digitized communication feedback loops.

  9. Experiences of faculty and students using an audience response system in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christine M; Monturo, Cheryl; Conroy, Katherine

    2011-07-01

    The advent of innovative technologies, such as the audience response system, provides an opportunity to engage students and enhance learning. Based on their experiences, three nursing faculty evaluated the use of an audience response system in four distinct nursing courses through the use of informal survey results. When using the audience response system, the faculty experienced an increased perception of student attentiveness and engagement, high level of class attendance, and enhanced learning. Faculty feelings were mixed concerning the burden in adapting to increased classroom time and increased preparation time. Students' perception of the value of audience response system use was mostly positive, except when responses were included as part of the grade. The majority of the students indicated that use of the audience response system enhanced learning and was a helpful learning method when used with NCLEX-style questions. Overall, faculty believed that the benefits of student engagement and enhanced learning outweighed the burdens of incorporating this new technology in the classroom.

  10. Untrodden Paths: A Critical Conversation about Wilder Places in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, Jo; Potter, Tom G.; Irwin, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper asks, what is the outdoors, and challenges conceptions of the role the outdoors play in education. It critically examines why a better understanding of the outdoors is important to outdoor education, how wilder places are essential to education, and how learning generated from these places can be translated into sustainable thinking and…

  11. Australian Outdoor (and) Environmental Education Research: Senses of "Place" in Two Constituencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Noel

    2016-01-01

    The Outdoor Council of Australia's renaming of "Australian Journal of Outdoor Education" ("AJOE") as "Journal of Outdoor and Environmental Education" ("JOEE") follows deliberations among Australian and international stakeholders in outdoor education about the future of publishing in the field and raises a…

  12. Achieving Next Generation Science Standards through Agricultural Contexts: A Delphi Study of Outdoor Education Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meals, Anthony; Washburn, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    A Delphi survey was conducted with 30 outdoor education experts in Kansas. Participant responses helped frame a Kansas definition of outdoor education and identified essential educational goals and outcomes, critical components for effective outdoor education programming, and barriers facing outdoor education in Kansas. The study highlights…

  13. Using photographic art to connect researchers with public audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Haren, J. L.; Roberts, E.; Fields, J.; Johnson, B.; Saleska, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    Communication is a process by which information is exchanged between individuals. Before information can be exchanged both or al parties have to be willing to partake in the communication process. Climate change scientists are still struggling to present their message in part because the general public does not want to hear their message and in part of the personality gap between scientists and the general public (Weiler et al. 2011). This demonstrates the need for communication, through a variety of means, with the general public about who climate change researchers are and what they do, besides the message that they have to convey. This ';feeling' type - relying on personal value and impact of decisions on others- of communication, not common in the scientific community that requires facts, has been suggested to be more effective with the general public (Weiler et al. 2011). We created a multimedia exhibition, which aims to put an intimate human face on science with an approach based on the following ideas: 1) Art initiates the connection between researchers and public audiences through visual stimulation, and 2) The one-on-one experience with a researcher through audio-visual means increases public engagement with climate change science. The exhibition implements these ideas by first, building on the core artistic vision of an artist/photographer who has been accompanying us on field courses and expeditions in the Amazon basin, and second, by bringing the personal voice and stories of students and scientists to the images in which they are represented. Our approach expanded on these themes with a unique twist: we use artistic imagery and video to show the personality of researchers and the process of science. After an image has captured the attention of a visitor, they will be engaged by the intimacy of hearing the scientist explaining how they got there, what they were doing at that particular moment, and why it's relevant and important to the visitor's life

  14. Fashion TV and the Motivation of His Audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita I. Pavlushina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the 21st century is characterized not only by important historical events in the world, but also by the changes in value norms and priorities. Television, being the most mass and accessible means of information, reflects these changes directly or indirectly. One of the significant trends of modern media is the development of an entertainment segment, which is present on television in the form of special formats and a specialized content. It is necessary to create special conditions for the permanent demonstration of their events, symbols and samples for the development of fashion, as the reflection of public and cultural content and as the means of search for a person's identity. Television has such natural features that provide fashion industry a unique platform for the development of a global fashionable space and intercivilizational communication. Fashion-TV complements the television picture of the world, influencing the spread of fashion trends and the development of a certain culture of behavior and lifestyle among TV viewers. Fashion-TV, as the combination of specialized Fashion channels and TV projects dedicated to fashion and human beauty on Russian social, political and entertainment channels, is primarily the carrier of information about modern fashion trends in clothing that influences the change of a person social-cultural image. This article the hypothesis of modern fashion TV has a blurred target audience with pronounced gender characteristics and a developed motivation. The article presents the results of the study conducted on the basis of the Kazan Federal University for two years.

  15. An Audience-Centric Approach for Museums Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Di Pietro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to propose a visitor centric perspective that can support museums towards sustainability. The main premise of this study is due to a concept of economic and social sustainability of museums, defined as the possession of sufficient resources to maintain the existence of an organization, and achieve their goals in the future, ensuring a certain flow of visitors. A great number of museums are characterized by a low number of visits; therefore, in order to become sustainable, museums should pay attention to audience and its internal diversity. In this way, a cultural site can plan tailored strategies to increase the number of visits and re-visits and to achieve community support. For this reason it is necessary to understand the cultural needs of visitors, acquiring appropriate monitoring tools, such as qualitative and quantitative ones. Generally, quantitative analyses are more reliable and complete, even if they require a considerable number of observations for the reliability of the results. Moreover, qualitative analysis provides more in depth information, even if their data do not allow us to make generalizations. The qualitative and quantitative methods for the detection of satisfaction are usually used separately, but their integration may bring significant added value in terms of the wealth of information. This study follows the analysis of the potential of the integration of qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques customized with respect to different types of targets. The results of the experimentation performed on ethnographic museums shows a consistency of the results obtained by the two different tools that increase the capacity information of survey instruments.

  16. Health-related media use among youth audiences in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glik, Deborah; Massey, Philip; Gipson, Jessica; Dieng, Thierno; Rideau, Alexandre; Prelip, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are experiencing rapid changes in access to and use of new internet and digital media technologies. The purpose of this study was to better understand how younger audiences are navigating traditional and newer forms of media technologies, with particular emphasis on the skills and competencies needed to obtain, evaluate and apply health-related information, also defined as health and media literacy. Sixteen focus group discussions were conducted throughout Senegal in September 2012 with youth aged 15-25. Using an iterative coding process based on grounded theory, four themes emerged related to media use for health information among Senegalese youth. They include the following: (i) media utilization; (ii) barriers and conflicts regarding media utilization; (iii) uses and gratifications and (iv) health and media literacy. Findings suggest that Senegalese youth use a heterogeneous mix of media platforms (i.e. television, radio, internet) and utilization often occurs with family members or friends. Additionally, the need for entertainment, information and connectedness inform media use, mostly concerning sexual and reproductive health information. Importantly, tensions arise as youth balance innovative and interactive technologies with traditional and conservative values, particularly concerning ethical and privacy concerns. Findings support the use of multipronged intervention approaches that leverage both new media, as well as traditional media strategies, and that also address lack of health and media literacy in this population. Implementing health-related interventions across multiple media platforms provides an opportunity to create an integrated, as opposed to a disparate, user experience. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Outdoor environmental assessment of attention promoting settings for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson, F; Boldemann, C; Söderström, M; Blennow, M; Englund, J-E; Grahn, P

    2009-12-01

    The restorative potential of green outdoor environments for children in preschool settings was investigated by measuring the attention of children playing in settings with different environmental features. Eleven preschools with outdoor environments typical for the Stockholm area were assessed using the outdoor play environment categories (OPEC) and the fraction of visible sky from play structures (sky view factor), and 198 children, aged 4.5-6.5 years, were rated by the staff for inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors with the ECADDES tool. Children playing in large and integrated outdoor areas containing large areas of trees, shrubbery and a hilly terrain showed less often behaviors of inattention (pOPEC can be useful when to locate and develop health-promoting land adjacent to preschools.

  18. Language Learning in Outdoor Environments: Perspectives of preschool staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Norling

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Language environment is highlighted as an important area in the early childhood education sector. The term language environment refers to language-promoting aspects of education, such as preschool staff’s use of verbal language in interacting with the children. There is a lack of research about language learning in outdoor environments; thus children’s language learning is mostly based on the indoor physical environment. The aim of this study is therefore to explore, analyse, and describe how preschool staff perceive language learning in outdoor environments. The data consists of focus-group interviews with 165 preschool staff members, conducted in three cities in Sweden. The study is meaningful, thus results contribute knowledge regarding preschool staffs’ understandings of language learning in outdoor environments and develop insights to help preschool staff stimulate children’s language learning in outdoor environments.

  19. THE GENOTOXICITY OF AMBIENT OUTDOOR AIR, A REVIEW: SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genotoxicity of ambient outdoor air, a review: Salmonella mutagenicityAbstractMutagens in urban air pollution come from anthropogenic sources (especially combustion sources) and are products of airborne chemical reactions. Bacterial mutation tests have been used ...

  20. Smart sensor systems for outdoor intrusion detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    A major improvement in outdoor perimeter security system probability of detection (PD) and reduction in false alarm rate (FAR) and nuisance alarm rate (NAR) may be obtained by analyzing the indications immediately preceding an event which might be interpreted as an intrusion. Existing systems go into alarm after crossing a threshold. Very slow changes, which accumulate until the threshold is reached, may be assessed falsely as an intrusion. A hierarchial program has begun at Stellar to develop a modular, expandable Smart Sensor system which may be interfaced to most types of sensor and alarm reporting systems. A major upgrade to the SSI Test Site is in progress so that intrusions may be simulated in a controlled and repeatable manner. A test platform is being constructed which will operate in conduction with a mobile instrumentation center with CCTVB, lighting control, weather and data monitoring and remote control of the test platform and intrusion simulators. Additional testing was contracted with an independent test facility to assess the effects of severe winter weather conditions