Sample records for attributing external influences

  1. Detecting and Attributing External Influences on the Climate System: A Review of Recent Advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, T; Zwiers, F; Hegerl, G; Allen, M; Crowley, T; Gillett, N; Hasselmann, K; Jones, P; Santer, B; Schnur, R; Stott, P; Taylor, K; Tett, S


    We review recent research that assesses evidence for the detection of anthropogenic and natural external influences on the climate. Externally driven climate change has been detected by a number of investigators in independent data covering many parts of the climate system, including surface temperature on global and large regional scales, ocean-heat content, atmospheric circulation, and variables of the free atmosphere, such as atmospheric temperature and tropopause height. The influence of external forcing is also clearly discernible in reconstructions of hemispheric scale temperature of the last millennium. These observed climate changes are very unlikely to be due only to natural internal climate variability, and they are consistent with the responses to anthropogenic and natural external forcing of the climate system that are simulated with climate models. The evidence indicates that natural drivers such as solar variability and volcanic activity are at most partially responsible for the large-scale temperature changes observed over the past century, and that a large fraction of the warming over the last 50 years can be attributed to greenhouse gas increases. Thus the recent research supports and strengthens the IPCC Third Assessment Report conclusion that ''most of the global warming over the past 50 years is likely due to the anthropogenic increase in greenhouse gases''.

  2. The Influence of Teacher Attributions on Tendencies of Causal Attribution and Anxiety in Pupils. (United States)

    Supersaxo, A.; And Others

    This study examined whether pupils' causal attribution tendencies could be influenced by teachers' attributions of their performance. In addition, the relationship between pupils' causal attributions and their school anxiety was studied. Based on Weiner's (1979) taxonomy of attributions that distinguishes between external versus internal and…

  3. Enhanced external and culturally sensitive attributions after extended intercultural contact. (United States)

    Vollhardt, Johanna Ray


    This study examined the effect of close and extended intercultural contact on attributions for behaviour of out-group members. Specifically, it was hypothesized that extended intercultural contact would enhance the ability to make external and culturally sensitive attributions for ambiguous behaviour of out-group members, while decreasing the common tendency to overestimate internal factors. A content analysis of open-ended attributions supported these hypotheses, revealing that majority group members in Germany who had hosted an exchange student from another continent used significantly less internal and more external as well as culturally sensitive attributions to explain the behaviour described in critical intercultural incidents, compared to future hosts. The effect remained significant when controlling for perspective taking and prior intercultural experience. Moreover, the hypothesis was supported for scenarios describing different cultural groups (regardless of the exchange students' country of origin), suggesting a generalized effect. Problems of selection bias are discussed, and the importance of studying a range of positive outcomes of intercultural contact is emphasized.

  4. Personal attributes influencing school burnout among graduating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study predicted that personal attributes and demographics will significantly influence school burnout. The hypothesis was confirmed as predicted as result showed significant joint influence of academic self-efficacy, perception of teacher support, sex and age on school burnout. Academic self-efficacy had significant ...

  5. Relative Importance of External Quality Attributes of Shell Eggs: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An inferential comparison of the attributes however, showed that size and cleanliness were rated higher (P0.05) sub-class differences. Respondents expected large eggs to have more edible material; clean shells to signify freshness and safety, while dark ...

  6. Evolutionary Influences on Attribution and Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Brown


    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory was applied to Reeder and Brewer's schematic theory and Trafimow's affect theory to extend this area of research with five new predictions involving affect and ability attributions, comparing morality and ability attributions, gender differences, and reaction times for affect and attribution ratings. The design included a 2 (Trait Dimension Type: HR, PR × 2 (Behavior Type: morality, ability × 2 (Valence: positive, negative × 2 (Replication: original, replication × 2 (Sex: female or male actor × 2 (Gender: female or male participant × 2 (Order: attribution portion first, affect portion first mixed design. All factors were within participants except the order and participant gender. Participants were presented with 32 different scenarios in which an actor engaged in a concrete behavior after which they made attributions and rated their affect in response to the behavior. Reaction times were measured during attribution and affect ratings. In general, the findings from the experiment supported the new predictions. Affect was related to attributions for both morality and ability related behaviors. Morality related behaviors received more extreme attribution and affect ratings than ability related behaviors. Female actors received stronger attribution and affect ratings for diagnostic morality behaviors compared to male actors. Male and female actors received similar attribution and affect ratings for diagnostic ability behaviors. Diagnostic behaviors were associated with lower reaction times than non-diagnostic behaviors. These findings demonstrate the utility of evolutionary theory in creating new hypotheses and empirical findings in the domain of attribution.

  7. Conflicting internal and external eating cues: Impact on food intake and attributions. (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Spanos, Samantha; Herman, C Peter; Polivy, Janet


    Social factors have a powerful influence on people's food intake but people typically fail to acknowledge the influence of such external cues, instead explaining their food intake in terms of factors such as how hungry they are. We examined whether the tendency to explain one's food intake in terms of internal cues (i.e., hunger) rather than external cues (i.e., other people's behavior) would be apparent when those cues are in conflict with one another. Female participants (n = 104) took part in a pizza taste test after having been food deprived for 18-hr or after consuming a meal-replacement preload. Half of the participants were also exposed to a social norm that conflicted with their deprivation condition: deprived participants were exposed to a low-intake norm, whereas preloaded participants were exposed to a high-intake norm. After completing the taste test, participants indicated the extent to which their food intake was influence by how hungry they were and how much other people ate. Deprived participants ate less when exposed to a low-intake norm than when no norm was present, but reported that the behaviors of others had no impact on their food intake. In contrast, preloaded participants did not eat significantly more when exposed to a high-intake norm, but reported that the behavior of others made them eat more. Participants are generally inaccurate in the attributions they make for their food intake, and we suggest that these inaccuracies may be because of motivated misreporting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The Influence of Attributional Style on Substance Abuse and Risky Sexual Behavior among College Students (United States)

    Burnett, Audrey J.; Sabato, Todd M.; Walter, Katherine Ott; Kerr, Dianne L.; Wagner, Laurie; Smith, Amy


    HIV, AIDS, STIs, and unwanted pregnancy continue to impact young adults in the U.S. at a disproportionate rate, particularly during the college years. Attributional style (i.e., locus of control) influences one's HIV risk. Internal locus of control indicates a lower risk of HIV infection, whereas an external locus of control signals an increased…

  9. The Influence of Attributional Style on Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior among College Students (United States)

    Burnett, Audrey J.; Sabato, Todd M.; Wagner, Laurie; Smith, Amy


    HIV, AIDS, STIs, and unwanted pregnancy continue to impact young adults in the U. S. at a disproportionate rate, particularly during the college years. Attributional style (i.e., locus of control) influences one's HIV risk. Internal locus of control indicates a lower risk of HIV infection, whereas external locus of control signals an…

  10. Mothers' depressive symptoms and children's externalizing behavior: Children's negative emotionality in the development of hostile attributions. (United States)

    Wang, Yiji; Dix, Theodore


    This study examined processes that might account for why negatively emotional children are at high risk for externalizing behavior problems when raised by mothers with depressive symptoms. Because negative emotionality regulates adaptation to stress, we predicted that it would undermine children's adjustment to mothers' depressive symptoms by increasing child emotions likely to elicit reciprocal negativity from depressed mothers, bias negatively children's attributions about others, and activate difficult-to-control oppositional responses. In a large sample (N = 1,082) evaluated from 6 months to second grade, results showed that, when mothers had depressive symptoms early in the child's development, children who were high in negative emotionality-but not those who were low-displayed increased risk for externalizing problems in second grade. This risk reflected tendencies for negatively emotional children, when raised by mothers with depressive symptoms, to develop hostile attributions about others and poor self-regulation of the negativity these attributions promote. The findings suggest that, when mothers with depressive symptoms raise negatively emotional children, children's risk for externalizing behavior problems may reflect tendencies for high negative emotion in children and reciprocal negativity in the dyad to undermine the development of attributional and self-regulatory processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Identifying external influences on global precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvel, K.; Bonfils, C.


    Changes in global (ocean and land) precipitation are among the most important and least well-understood consequences of climate change. Increasing greenhouse gas concentrations are thought to affect the zonal-mean distribution of precipitation through two basic mechanisms. First, increasing temperatures will lead to an intensification of the hydrological cycle (“thermodynamic” changes). Second, changes in atmospheric circulation patterns will lead to poleward displacement of the storm tracks and subtropical dry zones and to a widening of the tropical belt (“dynamic” changes). We demonstrate that both these changes are occurring simultaneously in global precipitation, that this behavior cannot be explained by internal variability alone, and that external influences are responsible for the observed precipitation changes. Whereas existing model experiments are not of sufficient length to differentiate between natural and anthropogenic forcing terms at the 95% confidence level, we present evidence that the observed trends result from human activities.

  12. Role of gastronomic, externality and feasibility attributes in consumer demand for organic and local foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Mørkbak, Morten Raun


    -related values and product perception were analyzed using principal component analysis, in order to identify overall dimensions (factors) in these variables. Although statements about gastronomic attributes (e.g. taste, appearance, quality) were quite strongly represented in three of these factors, externality......Local food systems providing high-value products are seen as a tool to sustain economic activity on family farms in rural areas. The objective of this study is to investigate the role of gastronomic, externality and feasibility characteristics in consumers’ demand for local and for organic foods....... An internet questionnaire survey was conducted in 2010 among Danish consumers. 3.211 respondents completed the questionnaire, which included questions about respondents' food-related values and their specific perception of organic and local varieties of honey and apples. Variables related to consumers' food...

  13. Praise or blame? Affective influences on attributions for achievement. (United States)

    Forgas, J P; Bower, G H; Moylan, S J


    Three experiments showed that mood influences achievement attributions and that cognitive processes underlie these effects. In Experiment 1, happy Ss made more internal and stable attributions for success than failure in typical 'life dilemmas'. In Experiment 2, attributions for real-life exam performance were more internal and stable in a happy than in a sad mood. Dysphoric moods resulted in self-critical rather than self-enhancing attributions, contrary to motivational theories, but consistent with cognitive models and the clinical literature on depression. In Experiment 3 this pattern was repeated with direct self vs. other comparisons, and for self-efficacy judgements. The results are interpreted as supporting cognitive rather than motivational theories of attribution biases. The implications of the results for clinical research, and contemporary affect-cognition theories are considered.

  14. Relationship between sensory attributes, hidden attributes and price in influencing consumer perception of organic foods


    Charles S. Brennan; Kuri, Victor


    This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. Consumer attitudes to foods are mainly influenced by quality attributes. Ethical factors are important in some cases, but they may be overstated. The relationships between consumers' awareness of organic food, price and perceived quality of food were investigated by tests involving series of consumer panels and sensory evaluation. Sensory responses were also matched to instrumental analysis data. Results indicated that...

  15. Technology Attributes Influencing Farmers\\' Use Of Nrcri/Iita ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    therefore seeks to evaluate influences of attributes of the gari frying equipment on the use of the technology among farmers in Southeastern Nigeria. Structured interview schedule was used to elicit data from 320 farmers in the study area. Data analysis ran with the probit model statistics indicated R2 value of 0.0964 which ...

  16. The Influence of Personality Attributes and Social Factors on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study set to investigate the influence of personality and social attributes on fraudulent practices among bank employees. It was a cross sectional survey research, which adopted Ex- post facto design. A total number of 83 bank employees took part in the study as participants. The participants were made up of 48 (57.8%) ...

  17. Black holes under external influence £

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    of the flux of external fields across charged and rotating black holes which are approaching extremal states. Recently this effect has been shown to occur for black hole solutions in string theory. We also discuss black holes surrounded by rings and disks and rotating black holes accelerated by strings. Keywords. Black holes ...

  18. External Dynamics Influencing Tattooing among College Students: A Qualitative Analysis (United States)

    Firmin, Michael; Tse, Luke; Foster, Janna; Angelini, Tammy


    The study utilized qualitative research methodology to assess external dynamics and their influences on tattooing practices among college students. Twenty-four undergraduates supplied in-depth interviews regarding the external variables related to college students' decisions to tattoo. The present research follows (Tse, Firmin, Angelini, &…

  19. External factors influencing the environmental performance of South African firms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peart, R


    Full Text Available This article reviews the external factors that influence environmental performance of companies in South Africa, drawing on international and local literature. After considering factors within the natural, social, economic and institutional...

  20. Parental knowledge is an environmental influence on adolescent externalizing. (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Narusyte, Jurgita; Lichtenstein, Paul; Ganiban, Jody M; Spotts, Erica L; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M


    There is evidence both that parental monitoring is an environmental influence serving to diminish adolescent externalizing problems and that this association may be driven by adolescents' characteristics via genetic and/or environmental mechanisms, such that adolescents with fewer problems tell their parents more, and therefore appear to be better monitored. Without information on how parents' and children's genes and environments influence correlated parent and child behaviors, it is impossible to clarify the mechanisms underlying this association. The present study used the Extended Children of Twins model to distinguish types of gene-environment correlation and direct environmental effects underlying associations between parental knowledge and adolescent (age 11-22 years) externalizing behavior with a Swedish sample of 909 twin parents and their adolescent offspring and a US-based sample of 405 White adolescent siblings and their parents. Results suggest that more parental knowledge is associated with less adolescent externalizing via a direct environmental influence independent of any genetic influences. There was no evidence of a child-driven explanation of the association between parental knowledge and adolescent externalizing problems. In this sample of adolescents, parental knowledge exerted an environmental influence on adolescent externalizing after accounting for genetic influences of parents and adolescents. Because the association between parenting and child development originates in the parent, treatment for adolescent externalizing must not only include parents but should also focus on altering their parental style. Thus, findings suggest that teaching parents better knowledge-related monitoring strategies is likely to help reduce externalizing problems in adolescents. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  1. Space Transportation System Availability Requirements and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships (United States)

    Rhodes, Russell E.; Adams, Timothy C.; McCleskey, Carey M.


    It is important that engineering and management accept the need for an availability requirement that is derived with its influencing attributes. It is the intent of this paper to provide the visibility of relationships of these major attribute drivers (variables) to each other and the resultant system inherent availability. Also important to provide bounds of the variables providing engineering the insight required to control the system's engineering solution, e.g., these influencing attributes become design requirements also. These variables will drive the need to provide integration of similar discipline functions or technology selection to allow control of the total parts count. The relationship of selecting a reliability requirement will place a constraint on parts count to achieve a given availability requirement or if allowed to increase the parts count will drive the system reliability requirement higher. They also provide the understanding for the relationship of mean repair time (or mean down time) to maintainability, e.g., accessibility for repair, and both the mean time between failure, e.g., reliability of hardware and availability. The concerns and importance of achieving a strong availability requirement is driven by the need for affordability, the choice of using the two launch solution for the single space application, or the need to control the spare parts count needed to support the long stay in either orbit or on the surface of the moon. Understanding the requirements before starting the architectural design concept will avoid considerable time and money required to iterate the design to meet the redesign and assessment process required to achieve the results required of the customer's space transportation system. In fact the impact to the schedule to being able to deliver the system that meets the customer's needs, goals, and objectives may cause the customer to compromise his desired operational goal and objectives resulting in considerable

  2. Space Transportation System Availability Requirement and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Adams, Timothy C.; McCleskey, Carey M.


    It is important that engineering and management accept the need for an availability requirement that is derived with its influencing attributes. It is the intent of this paper to provide the visibility of relationships of these major attribute drivers (variables) to each other and the resultant system inherent availability. Also important to provide bounds of the variables providing engineering the insight required to control the system's engineering solution, e.g., these influencing attributes become design requirements also. These variables will drive the need to provide integration of similar discipline functions or technology selection to allow control of the total parts count. The relationship of selecting a reliability requirement will place a constraint on parts count to achieve a given availability requirement or if allowed to increase the parts count will drive the system reliability requirement higher. They also provide the understanding for the relationship of mean repair time (or mean down time) to maintainability, e.g., accessibility for repair, and both the mean time between failure, e.g., reliability of hardware and availability. The concerns and importance of achieving a strong availability requirement is driven by the need for affordability, the choice of using the two launch solution for the single space application, or the need to control the spare parts count needed to support the long stay in either orbit or on the surface of the moon. Understanding the requirements before starting the architectural design concept will avoid considerable time and money required to iterate the design to meet the redesign and assessment process required to achieve the results required of the customer's space transportation system. In fact the impact to the schedule to being able to deliver the system that meets the customer's needs, goals, and objectives may cause the customer to compromise his desired operational goal and objectives resulting in considerable

  3. Innovation types at smes and external influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Walicka


    Full Text Available Stimulating innovation is one of the pressing policy challenges facing many countries in the world today. The paper analyses the external factors that Polish entrepreneurs find most detrimental to their innovative activity. A sample of 199 small and medium size enterprises (SMEs in Poland were subjected to a survey. The data collected revealed the innovation types of SMEs in Poland and external financial factors influencing innovation the most. The results show external factors such as legal regulations, access to external financing, bureaucracy of institutions, financial government support, the tax system, time necessary to comply with regulations, and crisis and instability are very important for SMEs. According to the results, process and marketing innovations are applied more frequently than product and organisational innovations. Finally, the results indicate that entrepreneurs indicate that lack of government support and weakness of tax incentives is an important barrier to the innovation process.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Mikhailov


    Full Text Available The calculation and experimental investigations of an external fuel tank influence on longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics of the light transport cryoplan model has been executed. Tank influence on drag coefficient and lift-drag ratio of the model is presented. It's revealed the essential decreasing the model directional stability due to tank installation. Technical solutions intended for increasing cryoplan's directional stability are developed and preliminarily investigated.

  5. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes (United States)

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans


    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  6. The Influence of Visual Cues on Sound Externalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvajal, Juan Camilo Gil; Santurette, Sébastien; Cubick, Jens

    this is due to incongruent auditory cues between the recording and playback room during sound reproduction or to an expectation effect from the visual impression of the room. This study investigated the influence of a priori acoustic and visual knowledge of the playback room on sound externalization...... between recording and playback room was found to be detrimental to virtual sound externalization. The auditory modality governed externalization in terms of perceived distance when cues from the recording and playback room were incongruent, whereby the auditory impression of the room was more critical...... the more reverberant the listening environment was. While the visual impression of the playback room did not affect perceived distance, visual cues helped resolve localization ambiguities and improved compactness perception....

  7. Obesity, externality, and susceptibility to social influence: an integrated analysis. (United States)

    Herman, C P; Olmsted, M P; Polivy, J


    A pilot study indicated that overweight subjects are more likely to order a particular dessert in a restaurant when the waitress provides an appetizing description of that dessert and encourages the diner to order it; subjects who were not overweight were much less affected by the waitress's behavior. This effect may be interpreted in terms of the greater "externality' of overweight persons (i.e., their greater reactivity to salient food cues); alternatively, it may be seen as evidence for greater compliance by deviant (overweight) individuals. The present study examined these alternatives by separating the perceptual-cues component of the waitress's behavior from the social-influence component in a replication of the pilot study. The results indicated that both the externality and compliance interpretations were tenable. The authors suggest that these two mechanisms may be seen as facets of a more general concern on the part of overweight people to secure behavioral guidance from the external environment, physical or social.

  8. External and internal factors influencing happiness in elite collegiate athletes. (United States)

    Denny, Katherine G; Steiner, Hans


    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford student-athletes (N=140) were studied with a standardized questionnaire which examined internal factors ((1) locus of control, (2) mindfulness, (3) self-restraint, and (4) self-esteem) to see whether they better account for happiness than external factors (playing time, scholarship). As predicted, internal factors were more powerful correlates of happiness when holding constant demographics. Regression models differed for different aspects of happiness, but the main postulated result of internal versus external was maintained throughout. These findings have implications for how well athletes cope with adversity which, in turn, could shed light on the development of traits that may provide a buffer against adversity and build resilience.

  9. An Experimental Investigation of Peer Influences on Adolescent Hostile Attributions (United States)

    Freeman, Kim; Hadwin, Julie A.; Halligan, Sarah L.


    Aggression in young people has been associated with a bias toward attributing hostile intent to others. However, little is known about the origin of biased social information processing. The current study explored the potential role of peer contagion in the emergence of hostile attribution in adolescents. One hundred thirty-four adolescents (M age…

  10. Influence of Internal and External Noise on Spontaneous Visuomotor Synchronization. (United States)

    Varlet, Manuel; Schmidt, R C; Richardson, Michael J


    Historically, movement noise or variability is considered to be an undesirable property of biological motor systems. In particular, noise is typically assumed to degrade the emergence and stability of rhythmic motor synchronization. Recently, however, it has been suggested that small levels of noise might actually improve the functioning of motor systems and facilitate their adaptation to environmental events. Here, the authors investigated whether noise can facilitate spontaneous rhythmic visuomotor synchronization. They examined the influence of internal noise in the rhythmic limb movements of participants and external noise in the movement of an oscillating visual stimulus on the occurrence of spontaneous synchronization. By indexing the natural frequency variability of participants and manipulating the frequency variability of the visual stimulus, the authors demonstrated that both internal and external noise degrade synchronization when the participants' and stimulus movement frequencies are similar, but can actually facilitate synchronization when the frequencies are different. Furthermore, the two kinds of noise interact with each other. Internal noise facilitates synchronization only when external noise is minimal and vice versa. Too much internal and external noise together degrades synchronization. These findings open new perspectives for better understanding the role of noise in human rhythmic coordination.

  11. Influence of environmental variations on physiological attributes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four sunflower hybrids, Alisson-RM, Parasio-24, MG-2 and S-278 were planted in randomized complete block design with 4 replications. The data on physiological attributes like photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate at 10 days interval after complete emergence to 60 days after emergence (DAE) ...

  12. The role of shyness and self-focused attention for attribution of reactions in social situations to internal and external causes. (United States)

    Alm, Charlotte


    The hypothesis that shyness would be associated with attribution of emotional reactions to stable internal causes rather than to less stable internal and external causes was tested in Study 1 (N = 60). In Study 2 (N= 112) the hypothesis that the explanatory power of shyness would decrease once the effect of self-focused attention on attribution to stable internal causes had been controlled for was tested. The results confirmed both hypotheses. Shyness correlated positively with attribution to stable internal causes, but non-significant with attribution to less stable internal and external causes. Shyness explained a lesser portion of the variance in attribution to both of the internal causes when controlling for self-focus. Even though the findings indicate that self-focus is central to the social cognitive processes of shy individuals, they also suggest that self-focus cannot fully explain attribution to internal causes in general and shy individuals' attributional pattern in particular.

  13. A longitudinal investigation of maternal influences on the development of child hostile attributions and aggression. (United States)

    Healy, Sarah J; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter J; Hughes, Claire; Halligan, Sarah L


    Aggression in children is associated with an enhanced tendency to attribute hostile intentions to others. However, limited information is available regarding the factors that contribute to the development of such hostile attribution tendencies. We examined factors that contribute to individual differences in child hostile attributions and aggression, focusing on potential pathways from maternal hostile attributions via negative parenting behavior. We conducted a longitudinal study of 98 mothers and children (47 male, 51 female), recruited from groups experiencing high and low levels of psychosocial adversity. Maternal hostile attributions, observed parenting, and child behaviour were assessed at 18 months and 5 years child age, and child hostile attributions were also examined at 5 years. Independent assessments of maternal and child processes were utilized where possible. Analyses provided support for a direct influence of maternal hostile attributions on the development of child hostile attributions and aggressive behaviour. Maternal hostile attributions were also associated with negative parenting behaviour, which in turn influenced child adjustment. Even taking account of possible parenting influences and preexisting child difficulties, hostile attributions in the mother showed a direct link with child aggression at 5 years. Maternal hostile attributions were themselves related to psychosocial adversity. We conclude that maternal hostile attributions are prevalent in high-risk samples and are related to less optimal parenting behaviour, child hostile attributions, and child aggression. Targeting hostile maternal cognitions may be a useful adjunct to parenting programs.

  14. Leading multiple teams: average and relative external leadership influences on team empowerment and effectiveness. (United States)

    Luciano, Margaret M; Mathieu, John E; Ruddy, Thomas M


    External leaders continue to be an important source of influence even when teams are empowered, but it is not always clear how they do so. Extending research on structurally empowered teams, we recognize that teams' external leaders are often responsible for multiple teams. We adopt a multilevel approach to model external leader influences at both the team level and the external leader level of analysis. In doing so, we distinguish the influence of general external leader behaviors (i.e., average external leadership) from those that are directed differently toward the teams that they lead (i.e., relative external leadership). Analysis of data collected from 451 individuals, in 101 teams, reporting to 25 external leaders, revealed that both relative and average external leadership related positively to team empowerment. In turn, team empowerment related positively to team performance and member job satisfaction. However, while the indirect effects were all positive, we found that relative external leadership was not directly related to team performance, and average external leadership evidenced a significant negative direct influence. Additionally, relative external leadership exhibited a significant direct positive influence on member job satisfaction as anticipated, whereas average external leadership did not. These findings attest to the value in distinguishing external leaders' behaviors that are exhibited consistently versus differentially across empowered teams. Implications and future directions for the study and management of external leaders overseeing multiple teams are discussed.

  15. Influence patterns and determinant attributes in nursing home choice situations. (United States)

    Jarboe, G R; McDaniel, C D


    Factor analysis revealed that nursing home characteristics fall roughly into two categories: those relating to the care directly provided by the facility and those which are generally unrelated to the quality of care. Not all influences (doctors, discharge planners, retirement home administrators and responsible parties) respond alike to these characteristics. Therefore, a marketing mix directed uniformly to all segments may be suboptimal.

  16. Diffusion of Brownian particles in a tilted periodic potential under the influence of an external Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise (United States)

    Bai, Zhan-Wu; Zhang, Wei


    The diffusion behaviors of Brownian particles in a tilted periodic potential under the influence of an internal white noise and an external Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise are investigated through numerical simulation. In contrast to the case when the bias force is smaller or absent, the diffusion coefficient exhibits a nonmonotonic dependence on the correlation time of the external noise when bias force is large. A mechanism different from locked-to-running transition theory is presented for the diffusion enhancement by a bias force in intermediate to large damping. In the underdamped regime and the presence of external noise, the diffusion coefficient is a monotonically decreasing function of low temperature rather than a nonmonotonic function when external noise is absent. The diffusive process undergoes four regimes when bias force approaches but is less than its critical value and noises intensities are small. These behaviors can be attributed to the locked-to-running transition of particles.

  17. External influences on local institutions: spatial dependence and openness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, G.; Gerritsen, M.J.

    There are both empirical and theoretical arguments for the thesis that external factors have an impact on domestic institutional quality. Consequently, external factors may have large effects on domestic income via local institutions. This paper investigates the role of external factors by

  18. Perceived Attributes of Factors Influencing Consumers’ Engagement with Electronic Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Adewale Muritala


    Full Text Available This study intends to critically analyze the relationship between perceived attributes as factors and consumers’ engagement with electronic banking technology. A survey method was used to gather data from 200 secondary school teachers from five selected local government in South-Western part of Nigeria namely; Ibadan North, Egbeda, Ido, Ibadan North-East and Ibadan North-West Local government. Data was collected with a structured questionnaire and analyzed with several descriptive statistics to identify consumers’ engagement in electronic banking technology in Nigeria. The results of the study therefore reveals that the most common influential factors hindering consumers’ adoption of electronic banking in Nigeria are relative advantage of economic gains and non-economic gains, social character, communication behavior, trialability as well as observability. Hence, it therefore recommends that the banks should create channels through which customers’ awareness will be enhanced and employ IT trained personnel to monitor and report any fraudulent transaction in order to secure customers’ trust on safety risk/security.

  19. 26 CFR 1.162-20 - Expenditures attributable to lobbying, political campaigns, attempts to influence legislation... (United States)


    ... campaigns, attempts to influence legislation, etc., and certain advertising. 1.162-20 Section 1.162-20... attributable to lobbying, political campaigns, attempts to influence legislation, etc., and certain advertising..., expenditures for the purpose of attempting to— (i) Influence members of a legislative body directly, or...

  20. The influence of lean manufacturing practices in cellular manufacturing qualifying attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Almeida Marodin


    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate how of lean production (LP influences to a manufacturing cell (MC performance, based on the theoretical study about the attributes that characterize a MC. It was necessary to develop the concept of MC in a socio-technical system perspective, incorporating a technical attribute, a social attribute and the elements of time, space and information to define a "real cell". The results show that most of LM practices aim to increase time and information. The rapid problem solving process and the use of minimal amount of inventory between the activities of the cell seeks to simultaneously reduces the processing time and increase the degree of information. Although influenced to a lesser degree, the organizational attribute and space element are also positively influenced by the practical application of PE.

  1. Influence of static habitat attributes on local and regional Rocky intertidal community structure (United States)

    Konar, B.; Iken, K.; Coletti, H.; Monson, Daniel H.; Weitzman, Ben P.


    Rocky intertidal communities are structured by local environmental drivers, which can be dynamic, fluctuating on various temporal scales, or static and not greatly varying across years. We examined the role of six static drivers (distance to freshwater, tidewater glacial presence, wave exposure, fetch, beach slope, and substrate composition) on intertidal community structure across the northern Gulf of Alaska. We hypothesized that community structure is less similar at the local scale compared with the regional scale, coinciding with static drivers being less similar on smaller than larger scales. We also hypothesized that static attributes mainly drive local biological community structure. For this, we surveyed five to six sites in each of the six regions in the mid and low intertidal strata. Across regions, static attributes were not consistently different and only small clusters of sites had similar attributes. Additionally, intertidal communities were less similar on the site compared with the region level. These results suggest that these biological communities are not strongly influenced by the local static attributes measured in this study. An alternative explanation is that static attributes among our regions are not different enough to influence the biological communities. This lack of evidence for a strong static driver may be a result of our site selection, which targeted rocky sheltered communities. This suggests that this habitat may be ideal to examine the influence of dynamic drivers. We recommend that future analyses of dynamic attributes may best be performed after analyses have demonstrated that sites do not differ in static attributes.

  2. Contextual Attributes of Indirect Bullying Situations that Influence Teachers' Decisions to Intervene (United States)

    Blain-Arcaro, Christine; Smith, J. David; Cunningham, Charles E.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Rimas, Heather


    Indirect bullying occurs frequently yet receives little attention by teachers. Using conjoint analysis, we examined the influence of situational attributes on teachers' decisions to intervene in indirect bullying. Results revealed that teachers (N = 235) were most influenced by victimized children's distress. Additional analyses identified two…

  3. The effect of leader outcomes on influence, attributions, and perceptions of charisma. (United States)

    Yorges, S L; Weiss, H M; Strickland, O J


    This study addressed how various outcomes to a leader might influence not only how that leader is perceived but also the degree of influence that leader might subsequently obtain. On the basis of recent charismatic leadership theories, it was expected that leaders who appeared willing to endure hardship for the expression of their beliefs would be perceived differently than leaders who appeared to benefit in some way. The relationship between outcomes and subsequent leader influence was confirmed. Sacrificing resulted in greater influence, whereas benefiting reduced it. This relationship was mediated by attributions made about leader motives. The relationship between outcomes and influence was also mediated by perceptions of charisma.

  4. Internal and External Influences on Vocabulary Development in Preschool Children (United States)

    Ebert, Susanne; Lockl, Kathrin; Weinert, Sabine; Anders, Yvonne; Kluczniok, Katharina; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther


    Competency in society's lingua franca plays a major role in the emergence of social disparities within education. Therefore, the present longitudinal study investigates vocabulary development and its predictors in preschool years. We focus on whether internal (phonological working memory) and external variables (preschool and home learning…

  5. The importance of considering external influences during presuppression wildfire planning (United States)

    Marc R. Wiitala; Andrew E. Wilson


    Few administrative units involved in wildland fire protection are islands unto themselves when it comes to wildfire activity and suppression. If not directly affected by the wildfire workload of their neighbors, they are affected by the availability of nationally shared resources impacted by wildfire activity at the regional and national scale. These external...

  6. Ability performance of older workers - Internal and external influencing factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittmann-Kohli, F.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der


    Internal and external factors affecting ability and performance of older employees are being analyzed in a short literature review. Internal factors like physical capacity, sensory capacity, cognitive abilities and general health are reduced with ageing; their effect on performance, however, depends

  7. The influence of external stimulation in missing knowledge retrieval. (United States)

    Radel, Rémi; Fournier, Marion


    We investigated the effects of sensory reduction on the retrieval of information during tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) experiences. As conscious access results from severe competition in which external stimuli often have priority, we hypothesised that reducing external stimulation would allow individuals greater access to weakly activated inner knowledge. In Study 1, when participants experienced a TOT while answering a general knowledge question, they were given additional time to find the solution in a restricted (eyes closed + silence) or a non-restricted (eyes open + ambient noise) external stimulation environment. Results indicated that knowledge was more often retrieved when external stimulation was restricted than when not restricted. This result was replicated in a second study. Using an independent manipulation of the level of auditory and visual stimulation, Study 2 also indicated that the presence of visual stimulation was more disruptive for TOT resolution than the presence of auditory stimulation. Overall, the findings suggest that sensory restriction (especially of visual stimuli) facilitates the retrieval of weakly accessible knowledge through a greater processing of inner stimuli.

  8. How abusive supervisors influence employees' voice and silence: the effects of interactional justice and organizational attribution. (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Jiang, Jiang


    In this research we investigated the influence of abusive supervision on employees' prosocial voice and silence, as well as clarified the roles of interactional justice (as a mediator) and organizational attribution (as a moderator). Moreover, we examined a mediated moderating model stipulating that interactional justice mediated the moderating effect of organizational attribution on the focal relationship. A scenario experiment was employed in Study 1, and after analyzing data from 196 employees, we found that abusive supervision influenced employees' prosocial voice and silence via interactional justice. In Study 2, data were collected from 379 employees in two waves separated by 1 week. The results not only replicated the findings of Study 1 but also indicated that organizational attribution buffered the abusive supervision-voice and silence relationship, and that interactional justice mediated this moderating effect.

  9. Influence of Store Attributes Towards Consumer Perception at Indomaret in Manado City


    Tielung, Maria; Pangemanan, Reynaldo


    Minimarket has become popular in Manado todays society, such as selling goods directly to consumers for private use which the buyer intends to consume the product sold. This study took place in Manado city, North Sulawesi. The objectives of this research are to analyze the influence of store attributes towards consumer perception to indomaret minimarket in Manado both simultaneously and partially .This research is the causal type of research where it will investigate the influence of elements...

  10. Predictors of Cheating and Cheating Attributions: Does Classroom Context Influence Cheating and Blame for Cheating? (United States)

    Murdock, Tamera B.; Beauchamp, Anne S.; Hinton, Amber M.


    The frequency of cheating in today's classrooms undermines educators' efforts and threatens students' learning. Data from 444 high school students in 48 math and science classrooms at two time points were analyzed to examine the classroom and individual influences on students' attributions of blame for cheating and to examine the relationship…

  11. The influence of mood on attribution (Retraction of vol 36, pg 1360, 2010)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avramova, Y. R.; Stapel, D. A.; Lerouge, D.


    Avramova, Y.R., Stapel, D.A. & Lerouge, D. (2010). The influence of mood on attribution. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 1360-1371. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0146167210381083) Noordewier, M.K., & Stapel, D.A. (2010). Affects of the unexpected: When inconsistency feels good (or bad).

  12. Influence of external actions on the Bragg-Laue diffraction of X-Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Gasparyan, L G; Grigoryan, A G


    The Bragg-Laue diffraction in finite size crystals under the influence of external actions (ultrasound, temperature gradient) is investigated experimentally. It is established that external actions ''charge for the worse'' the crystal quality, which leads to the broadening of the rocking curves and to the sharp decrease of intensity in the center of the reflection angular range.

  13. Observed externalizing behavior: a developmental comparison of genetic and environmental influences across three samples. (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Humbad, Mikhila N; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M


    Estimates of genetic and environmental influences on externalizing behavior are markedly inconsistent. In an attempt to refine and extend our knowledge of externalizing behavior, the current study examined the etiology of externalizing behavior using observational data in middle childhood and adolescence from three twin and sibling samples. Observational ratings offer a unique perspective on externalizing behavior rarely examined within behavioral genetic designs. Shared environmental influences were significant and moderate to large in magnitude across all three samples (i.e., 44, 77, and 38%), while genetic influences (31%) were significant only for the adolescent sample. All three samples showed greater shared environmental influences and less genetic influence than is typically found when examining self-, parent-, and teacher-reports of externalizing behavior. These findings are consistent with other reports that have found evidence for shared environmental influences on measures of child externalizing behavior-in direct contrast to a commonly held perception that shared environmental factors do not have significant influences on behavior beyond early childhood.

  14. Parental attributions as predictors of involvement and influences on child achievement. (United States)

    Georgiou, S N


    This study, which was conducted in Cyprus, combines the theoretical framework of attribution research with that of parent involvement literature. Its aim was to investigate the role of parental attributions as predictors of parental involvement in their child's educational process and to examine the influence of both of these factors on the child's actual school achievement. The parents of 473 sixth grade students in 22 public elementary schools participated in the study. Data were also collected from students and their teachers. Participating parents completed questionnaires regarding their attributions of their child's achievement and their own degree of involvement in his/her life. It was found that parents who believed that their own role was important for their child's achievement tended to be more controlling and to be keener in developing the child's interests. Also, the parental attribution of the child's achievement to the child's own effort was positively related to the child's actual achievement results. Finally, it was found that the child's actual school achievement was directly related to the parental interest-developing behaviour, but it was not significantly related to the parental controlling behaviour. Through a structural equation model and a path analysis procedure, it was shown that a line of influence exists between parental attribution style, the type and degree of parental involvement and the child's actual academic achievement.

  15. The Influence of External Forces on Wrist Proprioception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Marini


    Full Text Available Proprioception combines information from cutaneous, joint, tendon, and muscle receptors for maintaining a reliable internal body image. However, it is still a matter of debate, in both neurophysiology and psychology, to what extent such body image is modified or distorted by a changing haptic environment. In particular, what is worth investigating is the contribution of external forces on our perception of body and joint configuration. The proprioceptive acuity of fifteen young participants was tested with a Joint Position Matching (JPM task, performed with the dominant wrist under five different external forces, in order to understand to what extent they affect proprioceptive acuity. Results show that accuracy and precision in target matching do not change in a significant manner as a function of the loading condition, suggesting that the multi-sensory integration process is indeed capable of discriminating different sub-modalities of proprioception, namely the joint position sense and the sense of force. Furthermore, results indicate a preference for target undershooting when movements are performed in a viscous or high resistive force field, rather than passive or null fields in which subjects did not show any predominance for under/over estimation of their position.

  16. New drugs in general practice: prescribing patterns and external influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florentinus, S.R.


    In this thesis several studies are presented with the objective to detect and elucidate the patterns by which new drugs are prescribed by general practitioners (GPs). Furthermore, we studied the influences of medical specialists and community pharmacists as important factors on the GP's decision to


    Oreskovic, Nicolas M; Charles, Pablina Roth Suzanne Lanyi; Shepherd, Dido Tsigaridi Kathrine; Nelson, Kerrie P; Bar, Moshe


    A recent focus of design and building regulations, including form-based codes and the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for Neighborhood Development rating system, has been on promoting pedestrian activity. This study assessed perceptions of walkability for residential and commercial streetscapes with different design attributes in order to inform form-based regulations and codes that aim to impact walkability. We scored 424 images on four design attributes purported to influence walkability: variation in building height, variation in building plane, presence of ground-floor windows, and presence of a street focal point. We then presented the images to 45 adults, who were asked to rate the images for walkability. The results showed that perceived walkability varied according to the degree to which a particular design attribute was present, with the presence of ground-floor windows and a street focal point most consistently associated with a space's perceived walkability. Understanding if and which design attributes are most related to walkability could allow planners and developers to focus on the most salient built-environment features influencing physical activity, as well as provide empirical scientific evidence for form-based regulations and zoning codes aimed at impacting walkabilit.

  18. Analysis of External Influences on Agricultural Performance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahanga Verter


    Full Text Available The persistent slump in crude oil prices on the world market has drastically reduced government revenues, weakened currencies, and threatened growth and development of countries such as Nigeria that are heavily dependent on petroleum as a source of government earnings. Therefore, it has become imperative for the government to look beyond oil, notably agriculture to survive the present shocks. Given that agriculture is the largest non-oil export in Nigeria, this paper assesses the general performance of agriculture in the country. The article also verifies the relationship between trade, external financial flows and agricultural performance in the country, using Granger causality, IRF and VDA as well as descriptive approaches. The Granger test results reveal a unidirectional causality running from imports, openness, world prices of primary agrarian products, agricultural ODA to agricultural performance in Nigeria. The VDA results also show that a shock to agricultural exports, imports and openness can contribute to the fluctuation in the variance of agricultural performance in the country. The response of agricultural import to production records negative in almost all the periods investigated. This suggests that a substantial import in Nigeria might have hurt agricultural production in the country. The government of Nigeria should as a matter of urgency, invest heavily in agricultural production and encourage producers for domestic value added for local consumption and export. Also, more FDI and ODA should be channelled to agricultural related activities in the country. Domestic producers and exporters should be protected against foreign competitors in some commodities that can be produced cheaply at home.

  19. The relationship between the genetic and environmental influences on common externalizing psychopathology and mental wellbeing. (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Myers, John M; Keyes, Corey L M


    To determine the relationship between the genetic and environmental risk factors for externalizing psychopathology and mental wellbeing, we examined detailed measures of emotional, social and psychological wellbeing, and a history of alcohol-related problems and smoking behavior in the last year in 1,386 individual twins from same-sex pairs from the MIDUS national US sample assessed in 1995. Cholesky decomposition analyses were performed withthe Mx program. The best fit model contained one highly heritable common externalizing psychopathology factor for both substance use/abuse measures, and one strongly heritable common factor for the three wellbeing measures. Genetic and environmental risk factors for externalizing psychopathology were both negatively associated with levels of mental wellbeing and accounted for, respectively, 7% and 21% of its genetic and environmental influences. Adding internalizing psychopathology assessed in the last year to the model, genetic risk factors unique for externalizing psychopathology were now positively related to levels of mental wellbeing, although accounting for only 5% of the genetic variance. Environmental risk factors unique to externalizing psychopathology continued to be negatively associated with mental wellbeing, accounting for 26% of the environmental variance. When both internalizing psychopathology and externalizing psychopathology are associated with mental wellbeing, the strongest risk factors for low mental wellbeing are genetic factors that impact on both internalizing psychopathology and externalizing psychopathology, and environmental factors unique to externalizing psychopathology. In this model, genetic risk factors for externalizing psychopathology predict, albeit weakly, higher levels of mental wellbeing.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Gusak


    Full Text Available Purpose. The engineering industry is characterized by deep specialization and high co-operation, which suggests a high degree of interaction with other industries and the economy, highly sensitive to external factors. Effective regulation of the engineering industry’s organizational-resource support will ensure coherence of all the subsystems of the market economy, the competitive environment, a full course of the investment process and the success of the industry. Therefore there is a need for detailed estimation and analysis of the external factors’ influence on the formation and implementation indexes of the engineering industry’s organizational-resource support. Methodology. To establish the close connection between the set of external factors of formation and implementation indexes of the engineering industry organizational-resource support the correlation analysis was used, to calculate the amount of the formation and implementation indexes of the engineering industry organizational-resource support’s change under the influence of the external factors with malleability coefficient were applied. Findings. The external influence factors on the engineering industry organizational-resource support by the source of origin: industrial, economical, political, informational, and social were separated and grouped. The classification of the external factors influence on the engineering industry organizational-resource support, depending on their influence’s direction on the formation and implementation indexes of the engineering industry’s organizational-resource support was made. The connection closeness and the amount of the formation and implementation indexes of the engineering industry organizational-resource support change (the machinery index of and the sales volume machinery index under the influence of the external factors with malleability coefficient were determined. Originality. The estimation of the external factors


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Isayeva


    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is one of the most dangerous infections. First of all it strikes socially unprotected part of the population. The migrants which number grows in St. Petersburg, represent stress expressive category of the people reducing protective forces of immunity. Incidence of tuberculosis among migrants usually significantly exceeds incidence of permanent residents of the city. There are the difficulties connected with problems of adaptation, shortcomings of lows, finance. Thus, the influencing on ecological system of the city more than one million arrived migrants undoubtedly. It is necessary to prevent development of tuberculosis epidemic among migrants by providing with preventive inspection and complete treatment of all new cases of tuberculosis irrespective of their legal and social status. 

  2. Influence of attitudes, impulsivity, and parental styles in adolescents' externalizing behavior. (United States)

    Jiménez-Barbero, José A; Ruiz-Hernández, José A; Llor-Esteban, Bartolomé; Waschgler, Kathrin


    Diverse works have associated externalizing problem behavior with impulsivity, parental styles, and attitudes toward violence. The aim of this study is to analyze the association between these variables and externalizing behavior. A cross-sectional correlational design was used with a sample of 252 adolescents, aged between 12 and 15 years, from the general population. The results obtained indicate a significant association of externalization with high impulsivity, ingrained attitudes toward violence, and inconsistent parental styles, as well as gender and age differences. These results are discussed in relation with the influence of gender stereotypes and their implications in the development of attitudes toward violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Habitat selection by postbreeding female diving ducks: Influence of habitat attributes and conspecifics (United States)

    Austin, Jane E.; O'Neil, Shawn T.; Warren, Jeffrey M.


    Habitat selection studies of postbreeding waterfowl have rarely focused on within-wetland attributes such as water depth, escape cover, and food availability. Flightless waterfowl must balance habitat selection between avoiding predation risks and feeding. Reproductively successful female ducks face the greatest challenges because they begin the definitive prebasic molt at or near the end of brood rearing, when their body condition is at a low point. We assessed the relative importance of habitat attributes and group effects in habitat selection by postbreeding female lesser scaup Aythya affinis on a 2332-ha montane wetland complex during the peak flightless period (August) over seven years. Hypothesis-based habitat attributes included percent open water, open water:emergent edge density, water depth, percent flooded bare substrate, fetch (distance wind can travel unobstructed), group size, and several interactions representing functional responses to interannual variation in water levels. Surveys of uniquely marked females were conducted within randomly ordered survey blocks. We fitted two-part generalized linear mixed-effects models to counts of marked females within survey blocks, which allowed us to relate habitat attributes to relative probability of occurrence and, given the presence of a marked female, abundance of marked individuals. Postbreeding female scaup selected areas with water depths > 40 cm, large open areas, and intermediate edge densities but showed no relation to flooded bare substrate, suggesting their habitat preferences were more influenced by avoiding predation risks and disturbances than in meeting foraging needs. Grouping behavior by postbreeding scaup suggests habitat selection is influenced in part by behavioral components and/or social information, conferring energetic and survival benefits (predation and disturbance risks) but potentially also contributing to competition for food resources. This study demonstrates the importance of

  4. Pubertal timing and Mexican-origin girls' internalizing and externalizing symptoms: the influence of harsh parenting. (United States)

    Deardorff, Julianna; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A; White, Rebecca M B; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Wong, Jessie J; Roosa, Mark W


    Early-maturing girls are at risk for internalizing and externalizing problems. Research concerning pubertal timing and mental health among Mexican Americans or the influence of parenting behaviors on these relations has been scarce. This study addressed these gaps. This was a prospective examination of 362 Mexican-origin girls and their mothers in 3 waves of data. Measures included girls' self-report of pubertal development and girls' and mothers' report of maternal harsh parenting and daughters' mental health. Using structural equation modeling, we examined whether pubertal timing in 5th grade predicted girls' internalizing and externalizing outcomes in 10th grade. We also examined the mediating and moderating effects of harsh parenting on the relations between pubertal timing and internalizing and externalizing behaviors, as well as the influence of mothers' and daughters' nativity on these relations. Results differed depending on reporter and maternal nativity. Using daughters' report, we found that Mexican American mothers' harsh parenting acted as a moderator. At high levels of harsh parenting, early pubertal timing predicted higher externalizing scores, while at low levels of harsh parenting, early timing predicted lower externalizing scores. For Mexican immigrant mothers, harsh parenting mediated the effects of pubertal timing on girls' internalizing and externalizing problems. There were no significant pubertal effects for mothers' report. Findings suggest that maternal harsh parenting plays a key role in the relations between early pubertal timing and behavioral and emotional outcomes among Mexican-origin girls. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Priming Prejudice: How Stereotypes and Counter-Stereotypes Influence Attribution of Responsibility and Credibility among Ingroups and Outgroups. (United States)

    Power, J. Gerard; And Others


    Examines the effect of priming negative stereotypic and positive counter-stereotypic portrayals of African Americans and women on interpretations of actual media events. Shows that a counter-stereotypic portrayal of an African American male led participants to make more external or situational attributions of responsibility to other African…

  6. External mean flow influence on sound transmission through finite clamped double-wall sandwich panels (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Catalan, Jean-Cédric


    This paper studies the influence of an external mean flow on the sound transmission through finite clamped double-wall sandwich panels lined with poroelastic materials. Biot's theory is employed to describe wave propagation in poroelastic materials and various configurations of coupling the poroelastic layer to the facing plates are considered. The clamped boundary of finite panels are dealt with by the modal superposition theory and the weighted residual (Garlekin) method, leading to a matrix equation solution for the sound transmission loss (STL) through the structure. The theoretical model is validated against existing theories of infinite sandwich panels with and without an external flow. The numerical results of a single incident wave show that the external mean flow has significant effects on the STL which are coupled with the clamped boundary effect dominating in the low-frequency range. The external mean flow also influences considerably the limiting incidence angle of the panel system and the effect of the incidence angle on the STL. However, the influences of the azimuthal angle and the external flow orientation are negligible.

  7. Extrinsic attributes that influence parents' purchase of chocolate milk for their children. (United States)

    Li, Xiaomeng E; Lopetcharat, Kannapon; Drake, MaryAnne


    The consumption of milk is essential for children's heath; and flavored milk, especially chocolate milk, is often purchased to increase children's milk consumption. However, the sugar content of chocolate milk has raised health concerns. As such, it is important to understand chocolate milk extrinsic attributes that influence parents' purchase decisions when they are purchasing chocolate milk for their children. The objective of this study was to determine the key extrinsic attributes for parents when they purchase chocolate milk for their children. An online survey with a conjoint analysis design, emotions questions, and Kano questionnaire that focused on chocolate milk was conducted targeting parents. Three hundred and twelve parents participated in the survey. Parents reported positive emotions including good, good natured, happy, loving, and satisfied when purchasing chocolate milk for their kids. Three segments of parents were identified with subtle but distinct differences in their key preferences for chocolate milk attributes for their children. Type of sweetener was the primary driver of choice for purchasing chocolate milk for children followed by fat content. Among sweetener types, natural noncaloric/nonnutritive sweeteners or sucrose were preferred over artificial sweeteners, and reduced fat was preferred over full fat or skim milk. Kano results revealed that reduced fat and sugar with an all natural label and added vitamins, minerals, and protein were attractive to the majority of parents when purchasing chocolate milk for their kids. Understanding the driving extrinsic attributes for parents when they purchase chocolate milk for their children will assist manufacturers to target extrinsic attributes that are attractive to parents for chocolate milk. This study established that sweetener type and fat content are the primary extrinsic attributes affecting parents purchase decisions when choosing chocolate milk for their children. Different segments of

  8. Genetic variation in GABRA2 moderates peer influence on externalizing behavior in adolescents. (United States)

    Villafuerte, Sandra; Trucco, Elisa M; Heitzeg, Mary M; Burmeister, Margit; Zucker, Robert A


    Genetic predisposition and environmental influences are both important factors in the development of problematic behavior leading to substance use in adolescence. Involvement with delinquent peers also strongly predicts adolescent externalizing behavior. Several lines of evidence support a role of GABRA2 on externalizing behavior related to disinhibition. However, whether this genetic association is influenced by the environment such as peer behavior remains unknown. We examined the moderating role of GABRA2 genetic variation on the socialization model of delinquent peer affiliation (at ages 12-14 years) on externalizing behavior (at ages 15-17 years) in the Michigan Longitudinal Study (MLS) adolescent sample. The sample consisted of 244 adolescents (75 females and 152 with at least one parent with a DSM-IV lifetime alcohol dependence/abuse diagnosis). Peer delinquent activity reported by the participant and teacher-reported adolescent externalizing behavior (Teacher Report Form (TRF) were assessed. No main effect of the GABRA2 SNP rs279826, which tags a large haplotype, on externalizing behavior was observed. However, there was a statistically reliable GABRA2 × peer delinquency interaction. The effect of peer delinquent involvement on externalizing scores and the rule breaking subscale is significantly stronger for those with the GG genotype compared to A-carriers, whereas there was no effect of genotype on externalizing in the absence of peer delinquent involvement. No interaction was observed for the aggression subscale. Our results suggest that the genetic effect of GABRA2 on externalizing behavior, more specifically on rule breaking is, at least in part, due to its effect on susceptibility to environmental exposure (i.e., peer delinquency).

  9. The Influence of External Load on Quadriceps Muscle and Tendon Dynamics during Jumping. (United States)

    Earp, Jacob E; Newton, Robert U; Cormie, Prue; Blazevich, Anthony J


    Tendons possess both viscous (rate-dependent) and elastic (rate-independent) properties that determine tendon function. During high-speed movements external loading increases both the magnitude (FT) and rate (RFDT) of tendon loading. The influence of external loading on muscle and tendon dynamics during maximal vertical jumping was explored. Ten resistance-trained men performed parallel-depth, countermovement vertical jumps with and without additional load (0%, 30%, 60%, and 90% of maximum squat lift strength), while joint kinetics and kinematics, quadriceps tendon length (LT) and patellar tendon FT and RFDT were estimated using integrated ultrasound, motion analysis and force platform data and muscle tendon modelling. Estimated FT and RFDT, but not peak LT, increased with external loading. Temporal comparisons between 0% and 90% loads revealed that FT was greater with 90% loading throughout the majority of the movement (11%-81% and 87%-95% movement duration). However, RFDT was greater with 90% load only during the early movement initiation phase (8%-15% movement duration) but was greater in the 0% load condition later in the eccentric phase (27%-38% movement duration). LT was longer during the early movement (12%-23% movement duration) but shorter in the late eccentric and early concentric phases (48%-55% movement duration) with 90% load. External loading positively influenced peak FT and RFDT but tendon strain appeared unaffected, suggesting no additive effect of external loading on patellar tendon lengthening during human jumping. Temporal analysis revealed that external loading resulted in a large initial RFDT that may have caused dynamic stiffening of the tendon and attenuated tendon strain throughout the movement. These results suggest that external loading influences tendon lengthening in both a load- and movement-dependent manner.



    Rimal, Arbindra; Fletcher, Stanley M.


    A nationwide household survey was used to examine U.S. consumers' attitude and purchase behavior toward in-shell peanuts. Fishbein's multiattribute model was the basis for evaluating the effects of perceived product attributes on attitudes toward in-shell peanuts. Consumer purchase behavior was analyzed using a count data model. The results suggest that attitudes toward in-shell peanuts were influenced by attributes such as fat, taste, and healthiness, and that taste was the only attribute in...

  11. How leadership attributes influence employee loyalty in the aerospace industry: An exploratory qualitative inquiry (United States)

    Harrison, Marriel

    The influence leaders have on employee loyalty in the aerospace industry was examined through exploratory, qualitative inquiry. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted to ascertain the influence of six leadership attributes on loyalty. These specific leadership attributes were addressed based on key themes from the scholarly leadership research and included communication, trust, accountability, understanding, compassion, and recognition. Data were analyzed to identify common themes and patterns among the 21 study participants. Based on the study findings, the majority of participants expressed that they want leaders to communicate--and to do so often and concisely. Participants also voiced that communication was a central component in resolving many of the problems associated with loyalty, such as clarity of direction or sense of inclusion in the organization. The central themes derived from the research include the following: (a) employee loyalty no longer exists when organizational leadership fails to challenge or empower employees or create an opportunity for growth, (b) effective leaders inspire employees by sharing the vision of an organization and including employees in the decision-making process, and (c) organizational culture, values, and effective leadership play an integral role in employee loyalty and long-term commitment to the organization.

  12. Influences of external factors on the energy conversion and productivity of Scenedesmus sp. in mass culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselius, J.C.


    Experiments about the influence of external factors on the energy conversion in mass cultures of Scenedesmus are described in this thesis. Several types of culture vessels were used in the laboratory as well as in the open. Demonstration models of Miele washing

  13. Genetic and environmental influences underlying externalizing behaviors, cigarette smoking and illicit drug use across adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korhonen, T.; Latvala, A.; Dick, D.M.; Pulkkinen, L.; Rose, R.J.; Kaprio, J; Huizink, A.C.


    We investigated genetic and environmental influences common to adolescent externalizing behavior (at age 12), smoking (at age 14) and initiation of drug use (at age 17) using the FinnTwin12 cohort data. Multivariate Cholesky models were fit to data from 737 monozygotic and 722 dizygotic twin pairs.

  14. Satisfaction with Online Commercial Group Chat: The Influence of Perceived Technology Attributes, Chat Group Characteristics, and Advisor Communication Style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dolen, W.M.; Dabholkar, P.A.; de Ruyter, J.C.


    This study examines online commercial group chat from a structuration theory perspective. The findings support the influence of perceived technology attributes (control, enjoyment, reliability, speed, and ease of use) and chat group characteristics (group involvement, similarity, and receptivity) on

  15. Visualising detection and attribution (United States)

    Levy, A.; Aina, T.; Ingram, W.; Allen, M. R.


    One of the key challenges in detection and attribution is communicating results -- specifically, allowing non-specialists to visualise the strength of the evidence for external influences on climate, rather than simply presenting the outcomes of opaque statistical tests. At the heart of the problem is the fact that climate is subject to multiple competing influences, with responses that are often mutually correlated. Attribution is therefore an intrinsically multi-dimensional problem. We demonstrate how the attribution problem can be visualised as an animated, interactive, 3D graphic. Here, we present the attribution of global mean temperature change over the past century to anthropogenic and natural factors (as simulated by the CMIP5 ensemble) as an example. We show how this simple example can be used to address a number of key challenges in the communication of attribution results, including that: 1) Models appear, on average, to over-respond to volcanic forcing while still being consistent with observed anthropogenic change 2) The combination of anthropogenic and natural changes simulated by the CMIP5 ensemble provides an account of changes in global mean temperature over the past 150 years consistent with observations; 3) The much-discussed discrepancy between the CMIP5 ensemble and observed changes over the past decade can be attributed to the models' over-response to volcanoes and that once this is corrected, observed temperatures are consistent with the multi-model mean and expected internal variability over this period 4) There is no evidence for missing multi-decadal variability in global mean temperatures once the responses to external forcing have been accounted for. A key novel element in this presentation of attribution results is a smart-phone application to allow members of the public to download, visualise and interact with attribution results: we will demonstrate this concept and invite feedback from the audience.

  16. The study of the dynamics of erythrocytes under the influence of an external electric field (United States)

    Mamaeva, Sargylana N.; Maksimov, Georgy V.; Antonov, Stepan R.


    A mathematical model is considered for the determination of the surface charge of an erythrocyte with its shape approximated by a surface of revolution of the second order, and the investigation of the dynamics of erythrocytes under the influence of an external electric field. In the first part of this work, the electrical surface charge of the erythrocyte of the patient was calculated with the assumption that the change in the shape and size of the red blood cells leads to stabilization of the electric field, providing a normal electrostatic repulsion. In the second part of the work, the research results of dynamics of changes in the morphology of erythrocytes under the influence of an external electric field depending on the values of their surface charge and resistance of blood plasma is presented. In the course of the work, the dependence of the surface charge of red blood cells from their shape and size is presented. The determination of the relationship between the value of the charge field and the surface of erythrocytes in norm and in pathology is shown. The dependence of the velocity of the erythrocytes on the characteristics of the external electric field, surface charge of the erythrocyte and properties of the medium is obtained. The results of this study can be applied indirectly to diagnose diseases and to develop recommendations for experimental studies of hemodynamics under the influence of various external physical factors.

  17. Influence of Pacific trade winds on recent changes in SST and ocean heat content: external forcing and internal variability (United States)

    Friedman, A. R.; Gastineau, G.; Khodri, M.; Vialard, J.


    The tropical Pacific SST warmed at a slower rate in the first decade of the 21st century than previous decades. It has been proposed that increased trade winds associated with a strengthened Walker Circulation may explain such relative SST cooling, via increased upwelling near the surface and heat uptake in the subsurface. We designed an ensemble of partial coupling experiments using IPSL-CM5A-LR to quantify the influence of the trade winds on ocean heat content and SST, and to compare these impacts to those of external forcing for the recent decades. In the first ensemble, we prescribe the daily surface wind over the tropical Pacific to observed values. In the second ensemble, we apply daily climatological observed surface winds. Both simulations use historical external forcings, and are compared to the fully-coupled historical runs. Both ensembles are also compared with the signature of the internally-generated Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation in the IPSL-CM5A-LR. We examine the SST responses to the prescribed trade winds, as well the responses of the vertical ocean temperature structure. Furthermore, the heat budgets of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans will be studied to follow the heat perturbations due to greenhouse gases emissions. We will compare them to the changes due to observed trade winds, in order to attribute the recent changes observed in the heat content and sea level height.

  18. Are Negative Peer Influences Domain Specific? Examining the Influence of Peers and Parents on Externalizing and Drug Use Behaviors. (United States)

    Cox, Ronald B; Criss, Michael M; Harrist, Amanda W; Zapata-Roblyer, Martha


    Most studies tend to characterize peer influences as either positive or negative. In a sample of 1815 youth from 14 different schools in Caracas, Venezuela, we explored how two types of peer affiliations (i.e., deviant and drug-using peers) differentially mediated the paths from positive parenting to youth's externalizing behavior and licit and illicit drug use. We used Zero Inflated Poisson models to test the probability of use and the extent of use during the past 12 months. Results suggested that peer influences are domain specific among Venezuelan youth. That is, deviant peer affiliations mediated the path from positive parenting to youth externalizing behaviors, and peer drug-using affiliations mediated the paths to the drug use outcomes. Mediation effects were partial, suggesting that parenting explained unique variance in the outcomes after accounting for both peer variables, gender, and age. We discuss implications for the development of screening tools and for prevention interventions targeting adolescents from different cultures.

  19. Can empathy, other personality attributes, and level of positive social influence in medical school identify potential leaders in medicine? (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Michalec, Barret; Veloski, J Jon; Tykocinski, Mark L


    To test the hypotheses that medical students recognized by peers as the most positive social influencers would score (1) high on measures of engaging personality attributes that are conducive to relationship building (empathy, sociability, activity, self-esteem), and (2) low on disengaging personality attributes that are detrimental to interpersonal relationships (loneliness, neuroticism, aggression-hostility, impulsive sensation seeking). The study included 666 Jefferson Medical College students who graduated in 2011-2013. Students used a peer nomination instrument to identify classmates who had a positive influence on their professional and personal development. At matriculation, these students had completed a survey that included the Jefferson Scale of Empathy and Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire short form and abridged versions of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and UCLA Loneliness Scale. In multivariate analyses of variance, the method of contrasted groups was used to compare the personality attributes of students nominated most frequently by their peers as positive influencers (top influencers [top 25% in their class distribution], n = 176) with those of students nominated least frequently (bottom influencers [bottom 25%], n = 171). The top influencers scored significantly higher on empathy, sociability, and activity and significantly lower on loneliness compared with the bottom influencers. However, the effect size estimates of the differences were moderate at best. The research hypotheses were partially confirmed. Positive social influencers appear to possess personality attributes conducive to relationship building, which is an important feature of effective leadership. The findings have implications for identifying and training potential leaders in medicine.

  20. How events determine spreading patterns: information transmission via internal and external influences on social networks (United States)

    Liu, Chuang; Zhan, Xiu-Xiu; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Sun, Gui-Quan; Hui, Pak Ming


    Recently, information transmission models motivated by the classical epidemic propagation, have been applied to a wide-range of social systems, generally assume that information mainly transmits among individuals via peer-to-peer interactions on social networks. In this paper, we consider one more approach for users to get information: the out-of-social-network influence. Empirical analyzes of eight typical events’ diffusion on a very large micro-blogging system, Sina Weibo, show that the external influence has significant impact on information spreading along with social activities. In addition, we propose a theoretical model to interpret the spreading process via both internal and external channels, considering three essential properties: (i) memory effect; (ii) role of spreaders; and (iii) non-redundancy of contacts. Experimental and mathematical results indicate that the information indeed spreads much quicker and broader with mutual effects of the internal and external influences. More importantly, the present model reveals that the event characteristic would highly determine the essential spreading patterns once the network structure is established. The results may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the underlying dynamics of information transmission on real social networks.

  1. Apples or candy? Internal and external influences on children's food choices. (United States)

    Bruce, Amanda S; Lim, Seung-Lark; Smith, Timothy Ryan; Cherry, J Bradley C; Black, William R; Davis, Ann M; Bruce, Jared M


    The goal of this concise narrative review is to examine the current literature regarding endogenous and exogenous influences on youth food choices. Specifically, we discuss internal factors such as interoception (self-awareness) of pain and hunger, and neural mechanisms (neurofunctional aspects) of food motivation. We also explore external factors such as early life feeding experiences (including parenting), social influences (peers), and food marketing (advertising). We conclude with a discussion of the overlap of these realms and future directions for the field of pediatric food decision science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of the external component on the damage of the bipolar transistor induced by the electromagnetic pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi Xiaowen; Chai Changchun; Ren Xingrong; Yang Yintang; Ma Zhenyang; Wang Jing, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)


    A study on the influence of the external resistor and the external voltage source during the injection of the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) into the bipolar transistor (BJT) is carried out. Research shows that the increase of the external resistor R{sub b} at base makes the burnout time of the device decrease slightly, the increase of the external voltage source V{sub be} at base can aid the damage of the device when the magnitude of the injecting voltage is relatively low and has little influence when the magnitude is sufficiently high causing the device appearing the PIN structure damage, and the increase of the external resistor R{sub e} can remarkably reduce the voltage drops added to the device and improve the durability of the device. In the final analysis, the effect of the external circuit component on the BJT damage is the influence on the condition which makes the device appear current-mode second breakdown.

  3. Influence of the external component on the damage of the bipolar transistor induced by the electromagnetic pulse (United States)

    Xiaowen, Xi; Changchun, Chai; Xingrong, Ren; Yintang, Yang; Zhenyang, Ma; Jing, Wang


    A study on the influence of the external resistor and the external voltage source during the injection of the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) into the bipolar transistor (BJT) is carried out. Research shows that the increase of the external resistor Rb at base makes the burnout time of the device decrease slightly, the increase of the external voltage source Vbe at base can aid the damage of the device when the magnitude of the injecting voltage is relatively low and has little influence when the magnitude is sufficiently high causing the device appearing the PIN structure damage, and the increase of the external resistor Re can remarkably reduce the voltage drops added to the device and improve the durability of the device. In the final analysis, the effect of the external circuit component on the BJT damage is the influence on the condition which makes the device appear current-mode second breakdown.

  4. Influence of brand personality-marker attributes on purchasing intention: the role of emotionality. (United States)

    Guido, Gianluigi; Peluso, Alessandro M; Provenzano, Mariarosaria


    Marketing researchers employ the Five-Factor Model to describe branded products using attributes of human personality. "Marker attributes" used to elicit these brand personality attributes may be related to consumers' intention to purchase. Two connected studies, carried out on two samples of 91 and 557 participants, respectively, indicated that brand personality-marker attributes predict intention to purchase, but only to the extent that such attributes are "vivid" and, in particular, when they elicit emotional responses (i.e., when they are emotionally interesting). These findings have several implications for people involved in developing strategies for advertising.

  5. Shoulder kinematics is not influenced by external load during elevation in the scapular plane. (United States)

    de Castro, Marcelo P; Ribeiro, Daniel Cury; Forte, Felipe de C; de Toledo, Joelly M; Aldabe, Daniela; Loss, Jefferson F


    The current study aimed to compare the shoulder kinematics (3D scapular orientation, scapular angular displacement and scapulohumeral rhythm) of asymptomatic participants under unloaded and loaded conditions during unilateral shoulder elevation in the scapular plane. We used a repeated-measures design with a convenience sample. Eleven male participants with an age range of 21-28 years with no recent history of shoulder injury participated in the study. The participants performed isometric shoulder elevation from a neutral position to approximately 150 degrees of elevation in the scapular plane in intervals of approximately 30 degrees during unloaded and loaded conditions. Shoulder kinematic data were obtained with videogrammetry. During shoulder elevation, the scapula rotated upwardly and externally, and tilted posteriorly. The addition of an external load did not affect 3D scapular orientation, scapular angular displacement, or scapulohumeral rhythm throughout shoulder elevation (P > .05). In clinical practice, clinicians should expect to observe upward and external rotation and posterior tilt of the scapula during their assessments of shoulder elevation. Such behavior was not influenced by an external load normalized to 5% of body weight when performed in an asymptomatic population.

  6. Influence of periodic external fields in multiagent models with language dynamics (United States)

    Palombi, Filippo; Ferriani, Stefano; Toti, Simona


    We investigate large-scale effects induced by external fields, phenomenologically interpreted as mass media, in multiagent models evolving with the microscopic dynamics of the binary naming game. In particular, we show that a single external field, broadcasting information at regular time intervals, can reverse the majority opinion of the population, provided the frequency and the effectiveness of the sent messages lie above well-defined thresholds. We study the phase structure of the model in the mean field approximation and in numerical simulations with several network topologies. We also investigate the influence on the agent dynamics of two competing external fields, periodically broadcasting different messages. In finite regions of the parameter space we observe periodic equilibrium states in which the average opinion densities are reversed with respect to naive expectations. Such equilibria occur in two cases: (i) when the frequencies of the competing messages are different but close to each other; (ii) when the frequencies are equal and the relative time shift of the messages does not exceed half a period. We interpret the observed phenomena as a result of the interplay between the external fields and the internal dynamics of the agents and conclude that, depending on the model parameters, the naming game is consistent with scenarios of first- or second-mover advantage (to borrow an expression from the jargon of business strategy).

  7. Meaning attribution in the West African green monkey: influence of call type and context. (United States)

    Price, Tabitha; Fischer, Julia


    The search for the evolutionary roots of human language has fuelled much research into the cognitive mechanisms underlying communication in nonhuman animals. One core issue has been whether the context-specific calls of nonhuman animals are meaningful, with call meaning inferred from recipients' responses in the absence of supporting contextual cues. This direct inference may well offer an oversimplified view of how vocalisations are perceived, however, as responses under natural conditions are likely guided by contextual cues as well as by the signal. In this study, we investigate how the anti-predator responses of green monkeys, Chlorocebus sabaeus, are affected by alarm call structure and by context. We first simulated the presence of leopards and snakes to elicit alarm vocalisations and to identify predator-typical response behaviours. In both contexts, the monkeys produced chirp calls that revealed only graded variation in relation to predator type. We then carried out playback experiments to explore whether green monkeys would respond with predator-typical behaviour to leopard and snake chirps, and whether contextual cues, in the form of pre-exposure to a leopard or snake model, would modify these responses. Irrespective of context, subjects were more likely to respond to leopard chirps with a leopard-typical response. Predator priming did not have a significant effect on the type of response, but, together with call type, did affect response duration. This suggests that the immediate attribution of meaning was influenced by acoustic cues, whilst receiver's prior knowledge was incorporated to guide subsequent behaviour.

  8. Entrepreneurial Team: How Human and Social Capital Influence Entrepreneurial Opportunity Identification and Mobilization of External Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlem Omri


    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial teams play an extremely important role in the development of any country, especially in developing countries. To understand entrepreneurial teams that operate in a low-technology industry, we rely on the network and human perspective on entrepreneurship. In this paper, we investigate how the social and human capital of entrepreneurial team members influences their ability to identify entrepreneurial opportunities and mobilize external resources. We extend prior research in two ways. First, by using the ordered probit method to measure the identified entrepreneurial opportunities number at the level of entrepreneurial teams. Second, to our knowledge, there is a very small number of studies that have theoretically and empirically investigated the mobilization of external resources, especially at the level of entrepreneurial teams.

  9. Surface reactions with participation of oxides of molybdenum and tungsten: the influence of external factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Guseva


    Full Text Available This work is a continuation of the article "Surface reactions with participation of oxides of molybdenum and tungsten", published in the previous issue of the journal. The influence of the electric field and the pressure of oxygen in the gas phase on the rate of surface reactions for the synthesis of molybdates of manganese and copper were investigated. It’s found that for the synthesis reaction of molybdate of copper the nature of the dependency of the rate of synthesis and rate of surface reactions from the external parameters are the same, indicating the crucial contribution of surface diffusion to the reactive mass transfer. For the synthesis reaction of molybdate of manganese the dependences of the rate of synthesis and of rate of surface reactions by external parameters differ, indicating that for this reaction, surface diffusion isn’t the main mechanism of mass transfer.

  10. Combined influences of genes, prenatal environment, cortisol, and parenting on the development of children’s internalizing vs. externalizing problems (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S.; Natsuaki, Misaki; Fisher, Philip A.; Leve, Leslie D.


    Research suggests that genetic, prenatal, endocrine, and parenting influences across development individually contribute to internalizing and externalizing problems in children. The present study tests the combined contributions of genetic risk for psychopathology, prenatal environments (maternal drug use and internalizing symptoms), child cortisol at age 4.5 years, and overreactive parenting influences across childhood on 6-year-old children’s internalizing and externalizing problems. We used data from an adoption design that included 361 domestically adopted children and their biological and adopted parents prospectively followed from birth. Only parenting influences contributed (independently) to externalizing problems. However, genetic influences were indirectly associated with internalizing problems (through increased prenatal risk and subsequent morning cortisol), and parenting factors were both directly and indirectly associated with internalizing problems (through morning cortisol). Results suggest that prenatal maternal drug use/symptoms and children’s morning cortisol levels are mechanisms of genetic and environmental influences on internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems, in childhood. PMID:25355319

  11. Medical student radiology externs: increasing exposure to radiology, improving education, and influencing career choices. (United States)

    Dobre, Mircea C; Maley, Joan


    The radiology externship program at the authors' institution introduces medical students to radiology using a hands-on approach and is tailored to interested third-year medical students. There are currently limited data available on whether the program increases exposure to radiology in a positive fashion and how it influences medical students' education and career choices. In September 2010, current and former externs between 2007 and 2010 were surveyed using an anonymous, Web-based survey. The response rates were 100% (11 of 11) for current externs and 52% (15 of 29) for former externs, for an overall response rate of 65% (26 of 40). The respondents included 20 men and 5 women. The average age of respondents was 27.3 ± 2.5 years. Forty-six percent of former externs (6 of 13) had matched to radiology residencies, whereas the remainder had matched to various surgical and nonsurgical subspecialties. Eighty-four percent (21 of 25) had overall positive ratings of the program. Ninety-two percent (23 of 25) felt they had a better understanding of which test was most appropriate to order for common indications, and 88% (22 of 25) felt that they had a better understanding of imaging contraindications. Sixty-eight percent (17 of 25) felt that they had a better understanding of risk-benefit analysis involving imaging using ionizing radiation, and 56% (14 of 25) felt more confident in discussing these matters with their patients. This radiology externship program increases exposure to radiology in a positive fashion, increases understanding of the appropriate use of imaging modalities and their associated clinical benefits and risks, and influences medical students' career choices. These results add to the evidence that this type of program is mutually beneficial to medical students, residents, and clinical colleagues and suggest that more medical schools and radiology departments should evaluate the feasibility of starting radiology externship programs. Published by

  12. Quantification of the influence of external vibrations on the measurement error of a coriolis mass-flow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ridder, Bert; Hakvoort, Wouter; van Dijk, Johannes; Lötters, Joost Conrad; de Boer, Andries


    In this paper the influence of external vibrations on the measurement value of a Coriolis mass-flow meter (CMFM) for low flows is investigated and quantified. Model results are compared with experimental results to improve the knowledge on how external vibrations affect the mass-flow measurement

  13. The concept of attributes and preventions of the variables that influence the pipeline risk in the Muhlbauer Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, Alexandro G. [Universidade Federal do Pampa (UNIPAMPA), Bage, RS (Brazil)


    There are several methods for the risk assessment and risk management applied to pipelines, among them the Muhlbauer's Method. Muhlbauer is an internationally recognized authority on pipeline risk management. The purpose of this model is to evaluate the public exposure to the risk and identify ways for management that risk in fact. The assessment is made by the attribution of quantitative values to the several items that influences in the pipeline risk. Because the ultimate goal of the risk assessment is to provide a means of risk management, it is sometimes useful to make a distinction between two types of risk variables. The risk evaluator can categorize each index risk variable as either an attribute or a prevention. This paper approaches the subject of the definition of attributes and preventions in the Muhlbauer basic model of risk assessment and also presents a classification of the variables that influence the risk in agreement with those two categories. (author)

  14. Internal and external influences on pro-environmental behavior: participation in a green electricity program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.F.; Moore, M.R. [XENERGY, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Kotchen, M.J. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Economics; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Natural Resources and Environment


    This paper integrates themes from psychology and economics to analyze pro-environmental behavior. Increasingly, both disciplines share an interest in understanding internal and external influences on behavior. In this study, we analyze data from a mail survey of participants and non-participants in a premium-priced, green electricity program. Internal variables consist of a newly developed scale for altruistic attitudes based on the Schwartz norm-activation model, and a modified version of the New Ecological Paradigm scale to measure environmental attitudes. External variables consist of household income and standard socio-demographic characteristics. The two internal variables and two external variables are significant in a logit model of the decision to participate in the program. We then focus on participants in the program and analyze their specific motives for participating. These include motives relating to several concerns: ecosystem health, personal health, environmental quality for residents in southeastern Michigan, global warming, and warm-glow (or intrinsic) satisfaction. In a statistical ranking of the importance of each motive, a biocentric motive ranks first, an altruistic motive ranks second, and an egoistic motive ranks third. (author)

  15. Differences in Beginning Special Education Teachers: The Influence of Personal Attributes, Preparation, and School Environment on Classroom Reading Practices (United States)

    Bishop, Anne G.; Brownell, Mary T.; Klingner, Janette K.; Leko, Melinda M.; Galman, Sally A. C.


    Little research exists to help us understand why some beginning special education teachers of reading engage in more effective classroom practices than others. Factors that may influence these differences include personal attributes, preparation, and school environment. This mixed-methods study examined beginning special education teachers (N =…

  16. The Influence of Gender Ideology, Victim Resistance, and Spiking a Drink on Acquaintance Rape Attributions. (United States)

    Angelone, D J; Mitchell, Damon; Smith, Danielle


    The current study examined observer's attributions about the victim and perpetrator of an alleged acquaintance rape. Participants included 504 college students from a public university in the northeastern United States who read a brief crime report and completed a series of questionnaires for course credit. While men tended to attribute more blame to the victim than women, gender ideology emerged as a stronger predictor of rape attributions, and some types of sexist beliefs were associated with greater victim blaming and others with less victim blaming. Endorsement of hostile sexism, rape myths, and heterosexual intimacy was generally associated with the attribution of greater victim culpability, as well as less perpetrator culpability, perpetrator criminality, and victim credibility. However, complementary gender differentiation was associated with greater perpetrator culpability and criminality, while protective paternalism was associated with greater victim credibility. Observers attributed lower victim culpability and greater perpetrator criminality when the victim's drink was spiked, and attributed greater perpetrator culpability when the victim verbally resisted the perpetrator's advances. Given the implications that observer attitudes can have on professional and personal support for survivors, as well as juror decision making, the ongoing examination of the complex interplay between the person and situational factors affecting attributions of rape is essential. Sexual assault prevention programs may also benefit from a psychoeducational component that targets reducing traditional gender ideology. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. The influence of causal attribution of parents on developing the child enuresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerković Ivan


    Full Text Available Causal attributions are affirmed as a cognitive element able to explain emotional and motivational aspects of behaviour of some categories of adult psychiatric patients, primarily depressive ones. Theoretical and practical success of cognitive ideas in explaining the origination of depressive disorders, and in the monitoring of depressive patient treatment has led to further development of theory, but also to the attempt to apply the learning about causal attributions to various problems. Characteristic attempts are those that the problems of child abuse, children’s depression, upbringing problems, school failure, hyperactivity, enuresis, and long-term effects of different child treatment, too, are analysed from the point of view of causal attributions. By assessing parent causal attributions regarding child night urination, we wanted to establish to what extent specific attributions for child behaviour differentiate the parents of children having this problem from those parents whose children have established control. Parents were assessed in terms of four dimensions of causal attributions for child’s problem. Those are the dimensions of globality, counter-lability, internality, and the stability of the cause of child’s problem. The analysis of parent causal attributions show that mothers and fathers in both assessed groups similarly experience the cause of enuretic problems of their children. Enuresis is seen as caused by specific, internal, and instable causes. Such a system of dimensions could correspond to the belief that the main etiological factor of the enuresis is maturing. For more reliable verification of this attitude, longitudinal strategy in research is necessary, especially to comprehend whether parental attributions have been developed as an effect of persistent enuresis, or whether the enuresis is developed as an effect of parental attributions.

  18. Does Maximal External Tibial Component Rotation Influence Tibiofemoral Load Distribution in the Primary Knee Arthroplasty Setting: A Comparison of Neutral vs Maximal Anatomical External Rotatory States. (United States)

    Manning, William A; Ghosh, Kanishka M; Blain, Alasdair P; Longstaff, Lee M; Rushton, Steven P; Deehan, David J


    Tibial component rotation at time of knee arthroplasty can influence conformity, load transmission across the polyethylene surface, and perhaps ultimately determined survivorship. Optimal tibial component rotation on the cut surface is reliant on standard per operative manual stressing. This subjective assessment aims to balance constraint and stability of the articulation through a full arc of movement. Using a cadaveric model, computer navigation and under defined, previously validated loaded conditions mimicking the in vivo setting, the influence of maximal tibial component external rotation compared with the neutral state was examined for changes in laxity and tibiofemoral continuous load using 3D displacement measurement and an orthosensor continuous load sensor implanted within the polyethylene spacer in a simulated single radius total knee arthroplasty. No significant difference was found throughout arc of motion (0-115 degrees of flexion) for maximal varus and/or valgus or rotatory laxity between the 2 states. The neutral state achieved equivalence for mediolateral load distribution at each point of flexion. We have found that external rotation of the tibial component increased medial compartment load in comparison with the neutral position. Compared with the neutral state, external rotation consistently effected a marginal, but not significant reduction in lateral load under similar loading conditions. The effects were most pronounced in midflexion. On the basis of these findings, we would advocate for the midtibial tubercle point to determine tibial component rotation and caution against component external rotation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Concert hall acoustics: Repertoire, listening position, and individual taste of the listeners influence the qualitative attributes and preferences. (United States)

    Lokki, Tapio; Pätynen, Jukka; Kuusinen, Antti; Tervo, Sakari


    Some studies of concert hall acoustics consider the acoustics in a hall as a single entity. Here, it is shown that the acoustics vary between different seats, and the choice of music also influences the perceived acoustics. The presented study compared the acoustics of six unoccupied concert halls with extensive listening tests, applying two different music excerpts on three different seats. Twenty eight assessors rated the halls according to the subjective preference of the assesors and individual attributes with a paired comparison method. Results show that assessors can be classified into two preference groups, which prioritize different perceptual factors. In addition, the individual attributes elicited by assessors were clustered into three latent classes.

  20. Success/failure condition influences attribution of control, negative affect, and shame among patients with depression in Singapore. (United States)

    Yeo, Si-Ning; Zainal, Hani; Tang, Catherine S; Tong, Eddie M; Ho, Cyrus S; Ho, Roger C


    There remains a paucity of research on control attribution and depression within Asian populations. This study examines: (1) Success/Failure condition as a moderator between depression and negative affect or shame, and (2) differences in control attribution between patients with depression and healthy controls in Singapore. Seventy one patients with depression and 71 healthy controls went through a digit-span memory task where they were randomized into either the Success or Failure condition. Participants in the Success condition had to memorize and recall 5-digit strings, while participants in the Failure condition did the same for 12-digit strings. They then completed self-report measures of negative affect, shame, and attribution of control. One-way ANCOVA was performed to examine task condition as a moderator of association between mental health status and post-task negative affect or shame. Test of simple effects was carried out on significant interactions. Sign test and Mann-Whitney U test were employed to investigate differences in attribution of control. Mental health status and Success/Failure condition had significant effects on reported negative affect and shame. Healthy controls reported less post-task negative affect and shame in the Success than in the Failure condition while patients with depression reported similar levels of post-task negative affect and shame in both conditions. However, these differences were not significant in the test of simple effects. In addition, healthy controls felt a stronger sense of personal control in success than in failure and were more likely to blame external factors in failure than in success. Conversely, patients with depression were more inclined to credit external factors in success than in failure and ascribed greater personal control in failure than in success. The results suggest that successful conditions may not necessitate the reduction of negative affect in Asians with depression, indicating possible

  1. Influence of raw material properties upon critical quality attributes of continuously produced granules and tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonteyne, Margot; Wickström, Henrika; Peeters, Elisabeth


    quality attributes of granules and tablets, produced by a continuous from-powder-to-tablet wet granulation line. The granulation process parameters were kept constant to examine the differences in the end product quality caused by the variability of the raw materials properties only. Theophylline......-Lactose-PVP (30-67.5-2.5%) was used as model formulation. Seven different grades of theophylline were granulated. Afterward, the obtained granules were tableted. Both the characteristics of granules and tablets were determined. The results show that differences in raw material properties both affect...... their processability and several critical quality attributes of the resulting granules and tablets....

  2. Monitoring noise-resonant effects in cancer growth influenced by external fluctuations and periodic treatment (United States)

    Fiasconaro, A.; Ochab-Marcinek, A.; Spagnolo, B.; Gudowska-Nowak, E.


    We investigate a mathematical model describing the growth of tumor in the presence of immune response of a host organism. The dynamics of tumor and immune cells populations is based on the generic Michaelis-Menten kinetics depicting interaction and competition between the tumor and the immune system. The appropriate phenomenological equation modeling cell-mediated immune surveillance against cancer is of the predator-prey form and exhibits bistability within a given choice of the immune response-related parameters. Under the influence of weak external fluctuations, the model may be analyzed in terms of a stochastic differential equation bearing the form of an overdamped Langevin-like dynamics in the external quasi-potential represented by a double well. We analyze properties of the system within the range of parameters for which the potential wells are of the same depth and when the additional perturbation, modeling a periodic treatment, is insufficient to overcome the barrier height and to cause cancer extinction. In this case the presence of a small amount of noise can positively enhance the treatment, driving the system to a state of tumor extinction. On the other hand, however, the same noise can give rise to return effects up to a stochastic resonance behavior. This observation provides a quantitative analysis of mechanisms responsible for optimization of periodic tumor therapy in the presence of spontaneous external noise. Studying the behavior of the extinction time as a function of the treatment frequency, we have also found the typical resonant activation effect: For a certain frequency of the treatment, there exists a minimum extinction time.

  3. Quantifying the effect of interannual ocean variability on the attribution of extreme climate events to human influence (United States)

    Risser, Mark D.; Stone, Dáithí A.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Wehner, Michael F.; Angélil, Oliver


    In recent years, the climate change research community has become highly interested in describing the anthropogenic influence on extreme weather events, commonly termed "event attribution." Limitations in the observational record and in computational resources motivate the use of uncoupled, atmosphere/land-only climate models with prescribed ocean conditions run over a short period, leading up to and including an event of interest. In this approach, large ensembles of high-resolution simulations can be generated under factual observed conditions and counterfactual conditions that might have been observed in the absence of human interference; these can be used to estimate the change in probability of the given event due to anthropogenic influence. However, using a prescribed ocean state ignores the possibility that estimates of attributable risk might be a function of the ocean state. Thus, the uncertainty in attributable risk is likely underestimated, implying an over-confidence in anthropogenic influence. In this work, we estimate the year-to-year variability in calculations of the anthropogenic contribution to extreme weather based on large ensembles of atmospheric model simulations. Our results both quantify the magnitude of year-to-year variability and categorize the degree to which conclusions of attributable risk are qualitatively affected. The methodology is illustrated by exploring extreme temperature and precipitation events for the northwest coast of South America and northern-central Siberia; we also provides results for regions around the globe. While it remains preferable to perform a full multi-year analysis, the results presented here can serve as an indication of where and when attribution researchers should be concerned about the use of atmosphere-only simulations.

  4. Stimulus factors which influence the perceived externalization of sound presented through headphones. (United States)

    Levy, E T; Butler, R A


    Several experimental conditions were arranged to study the influence of binaural difference cues on the externalization of sound. Broadband, high- and low-pass noise bursts were generated in a sound-treated but not echo-free room and tape recorded from electret microphones placed at the entrance to the ear canals in a live model. The tapes were processed in special ways in an attempt to dissociate the binaural differences in time, intensity, and spectrum which normally appear together and congruently when listening to a sound 90 degrees off midline. These variously processed tapes of trains of noise bursts were played back via headphones to 12 normal-hearing Ss; they were asked to estimate the apparent distance of the acoustic image. No significant differences in distance judgments were found among listening conditions which consisted of: (1) interaural differences in time, intensity, and spectrum (i.e., simulating free-field listening); (2) interaural differences in time and spectrum only; and (3) interaural differences in time only. With respect to interaural time differences, it was found in a second experiment with 16 normal-hearing Ss that differences in time of stimulus arrival promoted externalization of sound, since when these were eliminated (leaving only interaural differences in the ongoing aspects of the fine structure of the stimuli) all sounds appeared significantly nearer the head. A consistent finding was that high-pass noise bursts appeared nearer the head than low-pass noise bursts irrespective of the conditions of stimulus presentation.

  5. Ejaculate evolution in external fertilizers: Influenced by sperm competition or sperm limitation? (United States)

    Liao, Wen Bo; Huang, Yan; Zeng, Yu; Zhong, Mao Jun; Luo, Yi; Lüpold, Stefan


    The evolution of sperm quality and quantity is shaped by various selective processes, with sperm competition generally considered the primary selective agent. Particularly in external fertilizers, however, sperm limitation through gamete dispersal can also influence gamete investments, but empirical data examining this effect are limited. Here, we studied the relative importance of sperm competition and the spawning conditions in explaining the macroevolutionary patterns of sperm size and number within two taxa with external fertilization but differences in their reproductive biology. In frogs, sperm swim slowly but for up to hours as they penetrate the gelatinous egg coating, whereas fish sperm typically swim fast, are very short-lived (seconds to minutes), and often face a relatively higher risk of being moved away from the ova by currents. Our phylogenetic models and path analyses revealed different trajectories of ejaculate evolution in these two taxa. Sperm size and number responded primarily to variation in sperm competition in the anurans, but more strongly to egg number and water turbulence in the fishes. Whereas the results across anurans align with the general expectation that sexual selection is the main driver of ejaculate evolution, our findings across the fishes suggest that sperm limitation has been underappreciated. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Quantitative estimation of the influence of external vibrations on the measurement error of a coriolis mass-flow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ridder, Bert; Hakvoort, Wouter; van Dijk, Johannes; Lötters, Joost Conrad; de Boer, Andries; Dimitrovova, Z.; de Almeida, J.R.


    In this paper the quantitative influence of external vibrations on the measurement value of a Coriolis Mass-Flow Meter for low flows is investigated, with the eventual goal to reduce the influence of vibrations. Model results are compared with experimental results to improve the knowledge on how

  7. Recreational preferences of urban teenagers: the influence of cultural and environmental attributes (United States)

    George L. Peterson


    The study tests the hypothesis that the recreational preferences of urban teenagers differ with age, sex, ethnicity, and measurable attributes of activity and environment. Photos of activities are used to measure preferences, and the photos are scaled for content by a detailed appraisal. The results show that sex and ethnicity modify the preference process, and that...

  8. Is Agency Skin Deep? Surface Attributes Influence Infants' Sensitivity to Goal-Directed Action (United States)

    Guajardo, Jose J.; Woodward, Amanda L.


    Three studies investigated the role of surface attributes in infants' identification of agents, using a habituation paradigm designed to tap infants' interpretation of grasping as goal directed (Woodward, 1998). When they viewed a bare human hand grasping objects, 7- and 12-month-old infants focused on the relation between the hand and its goal.…

  9. Seeing red: How perceptions of social status and worth influence hostile attributions and endorsement of aggression. (United States)

    Davis, James R; Reyna, Christine


    Within social hierarchies, low social status is associated with increased vigilance, hostile expectations, and reactive aggression. We propose that societal devaluation is common across many low social status groups and produces a sense of threatened social worth. Threatened social worth may lead those of low status to be more vigilant towards social threats, thereby increasing the likelihood of hostile attributions and endorsement of aggression. Integrating theory on belongingness, social rejection, and stigma compensation, two studies test a sequential process model demonstrating that threatened social worth mediates the relationship between status, hostile attributions, and endorsement of aggression. Employing a relative status manipulation, Study 2 reveals a causal effect of status and highlights the importance of perceptions of low social status on threatened social worth. These data demonstrate the role of social worth in explaining the link between status and hostility and have implications for research in the social, health, and developmental domains. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Influences of Product Temperature on Emotional Responses to, and Sensory Attributes of, Coffee and Green Tea Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragita C. Pramudya


    Full Text Available Coffee and green tea are popular beverages consumed at both hot and cold temperatures. When people consume hot beverages concurrently with other activities, they may experience at different temperatures over the period of consumption. However, there has been limited research investigating the effects of product temperatures on emotional responses and sensory attributes of beverages. This study aimed to determine whether emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, brewed coffee and green tea vary as a function of sample temperature. Using a check-all-that-apply (CATA method, 157 participants (79 for coffee and 78 for green tea were asked to evaluate either coffee or green tea samples served at cold (5°C, ambient (25°C, and hot (65°C temperatures with respect to emotional responses and sensory attributes. The results showed that sample temperature could have significant influences on emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, coffee and green tea samples. More specifically, 6 and 18 sensory attributes of coffee and green tea samples, respectively, significantly differed with sample temperature. Beverage samples evaluated at 65°C were characterized, regardless of activation/arousal level, by positive emotional responses terms and favorable sensory attributes. While beverages evaluated at 25°C were associated more with negative emotional responses with low activation/arousal, those evaluated at 5°C were more frequently characterized as having negative emotional responses with high activation/arousal. Sensory and emotional drivers of liking for both coffee and green tea differed both with sample temperature and gender. While both emotional responses and sensory attributes were identified as drivers of liking among females, only emotional responses were identified as drivers of liking among males. In conclusion, this study provides empirical evidence that both emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, coffee and green tea

  11. Influence of raw material properties upon critical quality attributes of continuously produced granules and tablets. (United States)

    Fonteyne, Margot; Wickström, Henrika; Peeters, Elisabeth; Vercruysse, Jurgen; Ehlers, Henrik; Peters, Björn-Hendrik; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Sandler, Niklas; Rantanen, Jukka; Naelapää, Kaisa; De Beer, Thomas


    Continuous manufacturing gains more and more interest within the pharmaceutical industry. The International Conference of Harmonisation (ICH) states in its Q8 'Pharmaceutical Development' guideline that the manufacturer of pharmaceuticals should have an enhanced knowledge of the product performance over a range of raw material attributes, manufacturing process options and process parameters. This fits further into the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Quality by Design (QbD) framework. The present study evaluates the effect of variation in critical raw material properties on the critical quality attributes of granules and tablets, produced by a continuous from-powder-to-tablet wet granulation line. The granulation process parameters were kept constant to examine the differences in the end product quality caused by the variability of the raw materials properties only. Theophylline-Lactose-PVP (30-67.5-2.5%) was used as model formulation. Seven different grades of theophylline were granulated. Afterward, the obtained granules were tableted. Both the characteristics of granules and tablets were determined. The results show that differences in raw material properties both affect their processability and several critical quality attributes of the resulting granules and tablets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Friendship selection and friends' influence : Dynamics of networks and actor attributes in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knecht, Andrea Beate


    Adolescent friends are often found to be similar. Similarity can be caused by selection and influence processes. This book examines selection and influence processes for delinquency, school attitudes, and alcohol use in early adolescence. For selection processes, we hypothesize that adolescents

  13. Friendship selection and friends' influence. Dynamics of networks and actor attributes in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knecht, A.B.


    Adolescent friends are often found to be similar. Similarity can be caused by selection and influence processes. This book examines selection and influence processes for delinquency, school attitudes, and alcohol use in early adolescence. For selection processes, we hypothesize that adolescents

  14. Predicting higher selection in elite junior Australian Rules football: The influence of physical performance and anthropometric attributes. (United States)

    Robertson, Sam; Woods, Carl; Gastin, Paul


    To develop a physiological performance and anthropometric attribute model to predict Australian Football League draft selection. Cross-sectional observational. Data was obtained (n=4902) from three Under-18 Australian football competitions between 2010 and 2013. Players were allocated into one of the three groups, based on their highest level of selection in their final year of junior football (Australian Football League Drafted, n=292; National Championship, n=293; State-level club, n=4317). Physiological performance (vertical jumps, agility, speed and running endurance) and anthropometric (body mass and height) data were obtained. Hedge's effect sizes were calculated to assess the influence of selection-level and competition on these physical attributes, with logistic regression models constructed to discriminate Australian Football League Drafted and National Championship players. Rule induction analysis was undertaken to determine a set of rules for discriminating selection-level. Effect size comparisons revealed a range of small to moderate differences between State-level club players and both other groups for all attributes, with trivial to small differences between Australian Football League Drafted and National Championship players noted. Logistic regression models showed multistage fitness test, height and 20 m sprint time as the most important attributes in predicting Draft success. Rule induction analysis showed that players displaying multistage fitness test scores of >14.01 and/or 20 m sprint times of football players being recruited to the highest level of the sport. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influences of attribution and stigma on working relationships with providers practicing Western psychiatry in the Taiwanese context. (United States)

    Chen, Fang-Pei; Wu, Hui-Ching; Huang, Chun-Jen


    This study examined influences of causal attributions of schizophrenia and perceived and internalized mental illness stigma on perceived working alliance with, and informational support received from doctors practicing Western psychiatry in the Taiwanese social-cultural context. This cross-sectional quantitative study used a non-probability, purposive sampling technique to recruit 212 Taiwanese diagnosed with schizophrenia from Taiwanese Alliance of the Mentally Ill, 4 community mental health rehabilitation centres and 2 psychiatric hospitals between July 2012 and March 2013. Linear regression models were used for analysis. The results showed that environmental attributions were positively associated with both perceived working alliance and perceived informational support, while supernatural attributions were negatively associated with perceived working alliance and perceived informational support. Perceived stigma had a negative association with perceived working alliance. The discrimination domain of internalized stigma specifically had a positive association with perceived working alliance, while the withdraw domain had a negative association with perceived informational support. Findings inform the importance of culturally sensitive practices in developing an effective working relationship. Western psychiatric care providers need to explore consumers' casual attributions of mental illness and understand the impact of stigma so that providers may successfully engage consumers in care and provide tailored illness education and information.

  16. Body ownership causes illusory self-attribution of speaking and influences subsequent real speaking. (United States)

    Banakou, Domna; Slater, Mel


    When we carry out an act, we typically attribute the action to ourselves, the sense of agency. Explanations for agency include conscious prior intention to act, followed by observation of the sensory consequences; brain activity that involves the feed-forward prediction of the consequences combined with rapid inverse motor prediction to fine-tune the action in real time; priming where there is, e.g., a prior command to perform the act; a cause (the intention to act) preceding the effect (the results of the action); and common-sense rules of attribution of physical causality satisfied. We describe an experiment where participants falsely attributed an act to themselves under conditions that apparently cannot be explained by these theories. A life-sized virtual body (VB) seen from the first-person perspective in 3D stereo, as if substituting the real body, was used to induce the illusion of ownership over the VB. Half of the 44 experimental participants experienced VB movements that were synchronous with their own movements (sync), and the other half asynchronous (async). The VB, seen in a mirror, spoke with corresponding lip movements, and for half of the participants this was accompanied by synchronous vibrotactile stimulation on the thyroid cartilage (Von) but this was not so for the other half. Participants experiencing sync misattributed the speaking to themselves and also shifted the fundamental frequency of their later utterances toward the stimulus voice. Von also contributed to these results. We show that these findings can be explained by current theories of agency, provided that the critical role of ownership over the VB is taken into account.

  17. Influence of Lumbar Muscle Fatigue on Trunk Adaptations during Sudden External Perturbations (United States)

    Abboud, Jacques; Nougarou, François; Lardon, Arnaud; Dugas, Claude; Descarreaux, Martin


    Introduction: When the spine is subjected to perturbations, neuromuscular responses such as reflex muscle contractions contribute to the overall balance control and spinal stabilization mechanisms. These responses are influenced by muscle fatigue, which has been shown to trigger changes in muscle recruitment patterns. Neuromuscular adaptations, e.g., attenuation of reflex activation and/or postural oscillations following repeated unexpected external perturbations, have also been described. However, the characterization of these adaptations still remains unclear. Using high-density electromyography (EMG) may help understand how the nervous system chooses to deal with an unknown perturbation in different physiological and/or mechanical perturbation environments. Aim: To characterize trunk neuromuscular adaptations following repeated sudden external perturbations after a back muscle fatigue task using high-density EMG. Methods: Twenty-five healthy participants experienced a series of 15 sudden external perturbations before and after back muscle fatigue. Erector spinae muscle activity was recorded using high-density EMG. Trunk kinematics during perturbation trials were collected using a 3-D motion analysis system. A two-way repeated measure ANOVA was conducted to assess: (1) the adaptation effect across trials; (2) the fatigue effect; and (3) the interaction effect (fatigue × adaptation) for the baseline activity, the reflex latency, the reflex peak and trunk kinematic variables (flexion angle, velocity and time to peak velocity). Muscle activity spatial distribution before and following the fatigue task was also compared using t-tests for dependent samples. Results: An attenuation of muscle reflex peak was observed across perturbation trials before the fatigue task, but not after. The spatial distribution of muscle activity was significantly higher before the fatigue task compared to post-fatigue trials. Baseline activity showed a trend to higher values after muscle

  18. The influence of a fentanyl and dexmedetomidine combination on external respiratory functions in acute hemorrhage model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay G. Vengerovich


    Full Text Available Background. The synthetic opioid analgesic fentanyl is widely used for prophylaxis and therapy of traumatic shock associated with massive bleeding. Its side effects – skeletal muscle rigidity and respiratory center depression – are especially pronounced with repeated administration. It is rational to apply fentanyl in diminished doses in combination with non-opioid analgesics in order to reduce respiratory disturbances risk.Aim. The aim of the work is to justify the influence of opioid analgesic fentanyl and α2 -adrenomimetic dexmedetomidine combination on external respiratory functions in acute hemorrhage model.Materials and methods. Acute loss of 35–40% of circulating blood volume was modeled in experiments on 75 white mongrel male rats. The external respiratory functions (respiratory rate, respiratory volume, breath volume per minute were estimated in animals of 5 groups: 1 – rats without analgesic help (controls; 2–3 – rats receiving a single fentanyl intramuscular injection (ED99 98,96 mcg/kg or fentanyl together with dexme detomidine (ED99 of combination 67,94 mcg/kg 15 min after acute blood loss; 4–5 – rats receiving the same drugs 15 min, 30, 45 and 60 min later.Results. In experimental acute loss of 35–40% of circulating blood volume, 15 min later a secondary acute respiratory failure developed with a drop of respiratory rate, respiratory volume and volume of breath per minute by 30%, 21 and 47% (p < 0,05. The external respiratory functions recoverеd after 4 h mainly due to the increase of respiratory volume. A single intramuscular injection of fentanyl caused respiratory depression 15 min after experimental blood loss which resulted in the decrease of breath volume per minute to 30–61% (p < 0,05 for 90 min. Four intramuscular injections of fentanyl 15 min, 30, 45 and 60 min after hemorrhage caused a severe respiratory dysfunction, accompanied by apnea periods and Biot’s respiration. Respiratory rate was reduced

  19. Packaging Attributes of Antioxidant-Rich Instant Coffee and Their Influence on the Purchase Intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinês P. Corso


    Full Text Available The present study aimed to identify the most important packaging attributes for purchasing a product not currently on the Brazilian market: antioxidant-rich instant coffee, a blend of roasted coffee and green coffee. Five package types of the same brand of instant antioxidant-rich coffee marketed in different countries were evaluated through a focus group. The attributes’ glass shape, glass lid color and label, information and brand were selected for the quantitative study. The purchase intent for the packaging images was evaluated with conjoint analysis. In general, an increased purchase intent was verified for more modern packages and browner labels that indicated roasted coffee. The consumers preferred the image of green and roasted coffee beans next to the cup of coffee and valued information about the product’s differentiation (the origin, type, quantity and functions of antioxidants that was presented in the form of explanatory charts on the back of the packaging.

  20. Influence of harvesting technique and maceration process on aroma and phenolic attributes of Sauvignon blanc wine. (United States)

    Olejar, Kenneth J; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Kilmartin, Paul A


    Sauvignon blanc wines are characterised by their varietal aromas and low phenolic content. Mechanical harvesting has been shown to increase several varietal aromas. Likewise, maceration techniques have produced increases in phenolic content and antioxidant activity, but these can also alter tactile attributes and sensory profiles. Mechanical harvesting and cryogenic maceration were used in combination to produce a Sauvignon blanc wine with increased phenolic content and antioxidant activity, while showing a similar sensory profile to control wines. Phenolic profiles of the wines showed differences between the harvesting and maceration techniques. Mechanical harvesting contributed to decreases in phenolics through reaction with oxidative radicals. Cryogenic maceration increased phenolics and antioxidant activity. Cryogenic maceration also increased the levels of several varietal aromas, for Sauvignon blanc wines made from both hand-picked and from machine-harvested fruit. Furthermore, cryogenic treatment of hand-picked fruit increased varietal thiols to levels similar to machine-harvested control wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Quality attributes of sweet potato flour as influenced by variety, pretreatment and drying method. (United States)

    Olatunde, Ganiyat O; Henshaw, Folake O; Idowu, Michael A; Tomlins, Keith


    The effect of pretreatment methods (soaking in water, potassium metabisulphite solution, and blanching) and drying methods (sun and oven) on some quality attributes of flour from ten varieties of sweet potato roots were investigated. The quality attributes determined were chemical composition and functional properties. Data obtained were subjected to descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis of variance, and Pearson's correlation. The range of values for properties of sweet potato flour were: moisture (8.06-12.86 ± 1.13%), starch (55.76-83.65 ± 6.82%), amylose (10.06-21.26 ± 3.92%), total sugar (22.39-125.46 ± 24.68 μg/mg), water absorption capacity (140-280 ± 26), water solubility (6.89-26.18 ± 3.80), swelling power (1.66-5.00 ± 0.50), peak viscosity (24.50-260.92 ± 52.61 RVU), trough (7.08-145.83 ± 34.48 RVU), breakdown viscosity (11.00-125.33 RVU), final viscosity (10.21-225.50 ± 60.55 RVU), setback viscosity (3.04-92.21 RVU), peak time (6.07-9.06 min) and pasting temperature (69.8-81.3°C). Variety had a significant (P sweet potato flour. Pretreatment did not significantly (P > 0.05) affect moisture, fat and lightness (L*). Drying method did not significantly (P > 0.05) affect fiber and L*. The interactive effect of variety, pretreatment and drying method had a significant (P sweet potato flour and so should be targeted at specific end uses.

  2. Caring attributes, professional self concept and technological influences in a sample of Registered Nurses in eleven countries. (United States)

    Arthur, D; Pang, S; Wong, T; Alexander, M F; Drury, J; Eastwood; Johansson, I; Jooste, K; Naude, M; Noh, C H; O'Brien, A; Sohng, K Y; Stevenson, G R; Sy-Sinda, M T; Thorne, S; van der Wal, D; Xiao, S


    Caring, the theoretical foundation of nursing, is identified as one of the core values by Hospital Authorities world-wide to be actualised in clinical practice. Exactly how caring attributes relate to nurses' professional self image and quality nursing service in the context of a contemporary technological environment have yet to be operationalised. In total, 1957 Registered Nurses from 11 different countries were involved in the study which aimed to: develop an understanding of and compare the responses to items relating to caring, professional self concept and technological influences. To collect data an instrument containing 104 Likert items was administered to RNs working in general hospitals. The instrument contained sections which examined professional self concept, technological influences and caring attributes. Descriptive and inferential statistics revealed that many of the Asian nurses in the sample were younger, had less experience yet were more qualified than their 'western' colleagues. The mean scores for the caring attributes for nurses from the Philippines, Sweden and South Africa were significantly higher than those from China (Beijing), Korea, China (Hong Kong) and Scotland. The Korean sample demonstrated the lowest mean score for professional self concept while the New Zealand sample the highest. The Australian, Canadian, NZ, Scotland and Swedish samples were strongly of the opinion that the increase in technology has not brought about the any more spare time in nursing and generally had a more negative opinion about the influence of technology when compared to those from China (Beijing), Philippines, China (Hong Kong) and Singapore. The results are discussed in the light of the cultural differences in the sample and recommendations for future research are considered.

  3. Genetic and environmental influences on externalizing behavior and alcohol problems in adolescence: a female twin study. (United States)

    Knopik, Valerie S; Heath, Andrew C; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Madden, Pamela A F; Waldron, Mary


    Genetic and environmental contributions to the observed correlations among DSM-IV ADHD problems [inattentive (INATT) and hyperactive/impulsive (HYP/IMP) behaviors], conduct problems (CDP) and alcohol problems (AlcProb) were examined by fitting multivariate structural equation models to data from the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study [N=2892 twins (831 monozygotic pairs, 615 dizygotic pairs)]. Based on results of preliminary regression models, we modified the structural model to jointly estimate (i) the regression of each phenotype on significant familial/prenatal predictors, and (ii) genetic and environmental contributions to the residual variance and covariance. Results suggested that (i) parental risk factors, such as parental alcohol dependence and regular smoking, increase risk for externalizing behavior; (ii) prenatal exposures predicted increased symptomatology for HYP/IMP (smoking during pregnancy), INATT and CDP (prenatal alcohol exposure); (iii) after adjusting for measured familial/prenatal risk factors, genetic influences were significant for HYP/IMP, INATT, and CDP; however, similar to earlier reports, genetic effects on alcohol dependence symptoms were negligible; and (iv) in adolescence, correlated liabilities for conduct and alcohol problems are found in environmental factors common to both phenotypes, while covariation among impulsivity, inattention, and conduct problems is primarily due to genetic influences common to these three behaviors. Thus, while a variety of adolescent problem behaviors are significantly correlated, the structure of that association may differ as a function of phenotype (e.g., comorbid HYP/IMP and CDP vs. comorbid CDP and AlcProb), a finding that could inform different approaches to treatment and prevention.

  4. Research of factors influencing centrifugal pump external characteristics based on orthogonal test (United States)

    Huang, X. B.; Liu, Z. Q.


    In order to investigate the impact on external characteristics of single-stage and single-suction centrifugal pump, four parameters: cutwater gap(δ), blade number(z), impeller outlet width(b) and blade outlet angle(β) were taken into account. Orthogonal test method is a method which can make a comprehensive comparison among factors we are interested in. Thereby, it can't be more appropriate to adopt this approach to study the influence of the four factors referred above. Based on the prototype pump's geometric parameters, each of these factors took four levels. According to the principle of selecting orthogonal array, the L16(45) array was selected and 16 models were designed. After that, commercial CFD software CFX was used to calculate the head and efficiency under different conditions to determine the optimal operating condition Qr. The 16 models' rated flow rates were basically smaller than the prototype's. Considering this difference, in order to analyze the influence on the head under similar condition, the flow rate was made dimensionless and 3 conditions are chosen(Qr/Q=1, 1.25 and 1.375). Through the analysis of averaged respond head and efficiency, the laws of head and efficiency changing with the variation of the factors were obtained. Commonly, if a dependent's change cause by a independent variable is smaller than 5%, we can neglect the independent variable's effect. Thus the paper presents a research showing the factors' changing limitations considering the head changing by a percentage smaller than 5%. The conclusion of this article has important reference value for design of centrifugal pumps.

  5. Influence of external cooling on the femtosecond laser ablation of dentin. (United States)

    Le, Q T; Vilar, R; Bertrand, C


    In the present work, the influence of external cooling on the temperature rise in the tooth pulpal chamber during femtosecond laser ablation was investigated. The influence of the cooling method on the morphology and constitution of the laser-treated surfaces was studied as well. The ablation experiments were performed on dentin specimens using an Yb:KYW chirped-pulse-regenerative amplification laser system (560 fs, 1030 nm). Cavities were created by scanning the specimens at a velocity of 5 mm/s while pulsing the stationary laser beam at 1 kHz and with fluences in the range of 2-14 J/cm(2). The experiments were performed in air and with surface cooling by a lateral air jet and by a combination of an air jet and water irrigation. The temperature in the pulpal chamber of the tooth was measured during the laser experiments. The ablation surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The temperature rise reached 17.5 °C for the treatments performed with 14 J/cm(2) and without cooling, which was reduced to 10.8 ± 1.0 and 6.6 ± 2.3 °C with forced air cooling and water cooling, respectively, without significant reduction of the ablation rate. The ablation surfaces were covered by ablation debris and resolidified droplets containing mainly amorphous calcium phosphate, but the amount of redeposited debris was much lower for the water-cooled specimens. The redeposited debris could be removed by ultrasonication, revealing that the structure and constitution of the tissue remained essentially unaltered. The present results show that water cooling is mandatory for the femtosecond laser treatment of dentin, in particular, when high fluences and high pulse repetition rates are used to achieve high material removal rates.

  6. Influence of pellet seating on the external ballistic parameters of spring-piston air guns. (United States)

    Werner, Ronald; Schultz, Benno; Frank, Matthias


    In firearm examiners' and forensic specialists' casework as well as in air gun proof testing, reliable measurement of the weapon's muzzle velocity is indispensable. While there are standardized and generally accepted procedures for testing the performance of air guns, the method of seating the diabolo pellets deeper into the breech of break barrel spring-piston air guns has not found its way into standardized test procedures. The influence of pellet seating on the external ballistic parameters was investigated using ten different break barrel spring-piston air guns. Test shots were performed with the diabolo pellets seated 2 mm deeper into the breech using a pellet seater. The results were then compared to reference shots with conventionally loaded diabolo pellets. Projectile velocity was measured with a high-precision redundant ballistic speed measurement system. In eight out of ten weapons, the muzzle energy increased significantly when the pellet seater was used. The average increase in kinetic energy was 31 % (range 9-96 %). To conclude, seating the pellet even slightly deeper into the breech of spring-piston air guns might significantly alter the muzzle energy. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that this effect is taken into account when accurate and reliable measurements of air gun muzzle velocity are necessary.

  7. Do External or Internal Technology Spillovers Have a Stronger Influence on Innovation Efficiency in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xionghe Qin


    Full Text Available In this study, we bridge an important gap in the literature by comparing the extent to which external technology spillovers, as indicated by foreign direct investment (FDI, and internal technology spillovers, as indicated by university-institute-industry cooperation (UIC, influence innovation efficiency in China. We divide the innovation process into two sequential stages, namely the knowledge creation and technology commercialization stages, and employ a network data envelopment analysis approach to measure innovation efficiency at each stage. The spatial analysis of the distribution of knowledge creation efficiency and technology commercialization efficiency reveals the heterogeneity of innovation efficiency at the provincial level. Then, a panel data regression is used to analyze the effect of FDI and UIC on innovation efficiency at each stage, using data from 2009 to 2015 for 30 provinces in China. By comparing FDI with UIC, we find that FDI has a higher coefficient and stronger significance level at the knowledge creation stage, while only industry-institute linkages exhibit a stronger association with innovation efficiency at the technology commercialization stage.

  8. Bran characteristics influencing quality attributes of whole wheat Chinese steamed bread (United States)

    This study investigated the variations in the characteristics of brans obtained from a pilot-scale milling of 17 soft red winter wheat varieties and their influences on the quality of whole wheat northern-style Chinese steamed bread (CSB) prepared from blends of a base flour and brans of different w...

  9. The influence of patient gender on medical and psychology students' illness attributions: experiences with a narrative technique. (United States)

    Csörsz, Ilona; Kakuk, Péter; Mills, Eszter M; Molnár, Péter; Máth, János; Csabai, Márta


    We attempted to identify whether and how the gender of the patient influences interpretations of an illness narrative. We investigated how medical and psychology undergraduates' (n = 313) views change according to the patient's gender, students' gender, and field of study. A short story about a female patient was chosen as stimulus material, and a gender-modified version with a male protagonist was created for comparison. Responses were content analyzed by qualitative and quantitative methods. The female patient elicited more detailed descriptions and somatizing attributions. The gender of students had a stronger impact on responses than their field of study.

  10. Procedural Influence on Internal and External Assessment Scores of Undergraduate Vocational and Technical Education Research Projects in Nigerian Universities (United States)

    A. C., John; Manabete, S. S.


    This study sought to determine the procedural influence on internal and external assessment scores of undergraduate research projects in vocational and technical education programmes in the university under study. A survey research design was used for the conduct of this study. The population consisted of 130 lecturers and 1,847 students in the…

  11. Attributes and stressors influencing the occurrence of sports injuries in college athletes


    伊藤, 詩織; 中島, 宣行; 佐々木, 万丈


    We investigated differences in the frequency of sports injuries between individual and team competition players and between males and females, and we also examined the influence of subjective evaluation of stressors on sports injury frequency. College athletes (N=133) were asked to complete a scale of daily and competitive stressors and to answer a questionnaire on the frequency of sports-related injuries. Chi-square analyses revealed that there were no differences in injury frequency between...

  12. Attribution of intentional causation influences the perception of observed movements: Behavioural evidence and neural correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Moore


    Full Text Available Recent research on human agency suggests that intentional causation is associated with a subjective compression in the temporal interval between actions and their effects. That is, intentional movements and their causal effects are perceived as closer together in time than equivalent unintentional movements and their causal effects. This so-called intentional binding effect is consistently found for one’s own self-generated actions. It has also been suggested that intentional binding occurs when observing intentional movements of others. However, this evidence is undermined by limitations of the paradigm used. In the current study we aimed to overcome these limitations using a more rigorous design in combination with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI to explore the neural underpinnings of intentional binding of observed movements. In particular, we aimed to identify brain areas sensitive to the interaction between intentionality and causality attributed to the observed action. Our behavioural results confirmed the occurrence of intentional binding for observed movements using this more rigorous paradigm. Our fMRI results highlighted a collection of brain regions whose activity was sensitive to the interaction between intentionality and causation. Intriguingly, these brain regions have previously been implicated in the sense of agency over one’s own movements. We discuss the implications of these results for intentional binding specifically, and the sense of agency more generally.

  13. The Influence of Package Attributes on Consumer Perception at the Market With Healthy Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Ježovičová


    Full Text Available The paper provides findings about how packaging of healthy foods is perceived by consumers. The primary data were collected by eye-tracking using the SMI RED 250. This investigation analyzed 12 healthy products and it was completed by 50 respondents. This method was supplemented with in-depth interviews with the same respondents who participated in the eye-tracking research. A questionnaire survey (n = 261 was also a part of the research. Based on these two methods, real and declared consumer behavior can be recognized and the differences between these behaviors can be identified. The main interest was to determine which package attributes of healthy foods are the most interesting according to consumers. The research shows that the most attention in terms of information is devoted to nutritional value, food composition and also country of origin. Furthermore, the attention was focused on the most suitable packaging materials for various kinds of products as well as colors used on the packaging of these foods. The results provide valuable information to create an attractive and effective packaging of healthy products.

  14. Functional attributes: Compacting vs decompacting earthworms and influence on soil structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnauth Martinez GUÉI, Yannick BAIDAI, Jérôme Ebagnerin TONDOH,Jeroen HUISING


    Full Text Available A short term field mesocosm experiment was performed in semi-deciduous forest areas of Ivory Coast to assess the impact of a decompacting (Hyperiodrilus africanus, Eudrilidae and two compacting (Millsonia omodeoi and Dichogaster terraenigrae, Acanthodrilidae earthworm species on soil properties. These species have been selected for their predominance in the region and their contrasting impact on soil structure. The experimental design consisted of a treatment without worms (control, and treatments with one, two or three species of earthworms. Both compacting and decompacting earthworms increased water infiltration rate in all treatments, with marked impact in H. africanus and M. omodeoi+D. terraenigrae treatments. Interactions between compacting and decompacting species resulted in more large aggregates in comparison to when the compacting species D. terraenigrae was alone. This may be accounted for by their compacting attribute as compacting earthworms are responsible for producing the highest number of large aggregates. The low values of mean weight diameter in treatments combining decompacting and compacting earthworms compared with compacting "M. omodeoi" one also confirmed the trend of decline in soil compaction in the presence of the decompacting species. These results showed positive impact of species richness on soil structure regulation, which is crucial in ecosystem productivity and support consequently the insurance hypothesis. In fact, this study showed that the preservation of earthworm species belonging to these two contrasting functional groups is essential for the maintenance of stable soil structure regulation in agro-tropical ecosystems [Current Zoology 58 (4: 556–565, 2012].

  15. Influence of the shape on the consumers perception of the packaging attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojko Vladić


    Full Text Available Packaging for fast moving consumer goods (FMCG demands constant attention in order to stay competitive in modern dynamic markets. FMCG consumers do not think about the purchasing product until they enter the place of purchase. This emphasizes importance of the communication in a place of purchase. Alongside promotional banners, displays and counters, packaging can be used for this purpose. While in-store promotional banners, displays and counters represent additional cost, the packaging as the integral part of the product can be used as an important marketing tool that does not add to product cost. Thus packaging becomes an important marketing tool that does not add to product cost. Marketers, distributors and researchers as well must take into consideration the complexity of consumer behaviour to achieve desired results. Alongside graphic design, material, colour, etc. packaging shape is considered as an important tool for product differentiation and promotion. Having this in mind, it is unclear why the influence of the packaging shape on the consumer remains the least examined of all packaging characteristics. The aim of this research is to understand the influence of packaging shape design on the consumer’s perception. The survey study conducted among the consumers of the fast moving consumer goods gave clear insight into the influence of packaging shape on the perception of packaging characteristics. The results can help to improve packaging shape design in order to achieve better market impact.

  16. Negative Affect Shares Genetic and Environmental Influences with Symptoms of Childhood Internalizing and Externalizing Disorders (United States)

    Mikolajewski, Amy J.; Allan, Nicholas P.; Hart, Sara A.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Taylor, Jeanette


    The co-occurrence of internalizing and externalizing disorders suggests that they may have common underlying vulnerability factors. Research has shown that negative affect is moderately positively correlated with both internalizing and externalizing disorders in children. The present study is the first to provide an examination of negative affect…

  17. Productive Places : The influence of technological change and relatedness on agglomeration externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neffke, F.M.H.


    This thesis addresses the topic of agglomeration externalities. Agglomeration externalities can roughly be defined as advantages and disadvantages local firms experience when locating close to other firms. An old debate exists over the question whether firms benefit more from being close to firms in

  18. Fundamental(ist) attribution error: Protestants are dispositionally focused. (United States)

    Li, Yexin Jessica; Johnson, Kathryn A; Cohen, Adam B; Williams, Melissa J; Knowles, Eric D; Chen, Zhansheng


    Attribution theory has long enjoyed a prominent role in social psychological research, yet religious influences on attribution have not been well studied. We theorized and tested the hypothesis that Protestants would endorse internal attributions to a greater extent than would Catholics, because Protestantism focuses on the inward condition of the soul. In Study 1, Protestants made more internal, but not external, attributions than did Catholics. This effect survived controlling for Protestant work ethic, need for structure, and intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity. Study 2 showed that the Protestant-Catholic difference in internal attributions was significantly mediated by Protestants' greater belief in a soul. In Study 3, priming religion increased belief in a soul for Protestants but not for Catholics. Finally, Study 4 found that experimentally strengthening belief in a soul increased dispositional attributions among Protestants but did not change situational attributions. These studies expand the understanding of cultural differences in attributions by demonstrating a distinct effect of religion on dispositional attributions.

  19. Adolescents’ stigma attitudes toward internalizing and externalizing disorders: Cultural influences and implications for distress manifestations (United States)

    Lau, Anna S.; Guo, Sisi; Tsai, William; Nguyen, D. Julie; Nguyen, Hannah T.; Ngo, Victoria; Weiss, Bahr


    Objective This study examined predictors of stigma attitudes toward common youth emotional behavioral problems to test the hypothesis that interdependent cultural values would be associated with differential stigma towards externalizing versus internalizing disorders. Furthermore, we examined whether problem-specific stigma attitudes would predict adolescent’s own self-reported manifestations of distress. Method 1224 Vietnamese American and European American adolescents completed measures of social distance stigma attitudes in response to vignettes depicting youth with internalizing (depression, social anxiety, somatization) and externalizing (alcohol use, aggressive behaviors, delinquency) disorders. A subset of 676 youth also provided self-reports on their own adjustment prospectively over six months. Results Measurement models revealed clear separation of negatively correlated factors assessing stigma toward externalizing versus internalizing problems. Values related to family interdependence were significantly associated with greater tolerance of internalizing disorders and lower tolerance of externalizing disorders. Stigma towards internalizing disorders was associated with lower concurrent self-reported internalizing symptoms, whereas stigma towards externalizing symptoms was associated with lower concurrent externalizing symptoms and greater decreases in externalizing symptoms over time. Conclusions The results of the study suggest that stigma attitudes are differentiated by problem type and may represent one cultural factor shaping distress manifestations. PMID:28090404

  20. Adolescents' stigma attitudes toward internalizing and externalizing disorders: Cultural influences and implications for distress manifestations. (United States)

    Lau, Anna S; Guo, Sisi; Tsai, William; Nguyen, D Julie; Nguyen, Hannah T; Ngo, Victoria; Weiss, Bahr


    This study examined predictors of stigma attitudes toward common youth emotional behavioral problems to test the hypothesis that interdependent cultural values would be associated with differential stigma towards externalizing versus internalizing disorders. Furthermore, we examined whether problem-specific stigma attitudes would predict adolescent's own self-reported manifestations of distress. 1224 Vietnamese American and European American adolescents completed measures of social distance stigma attitudes in response to vignettes depicting youth with internalizing (depression, social anxiety, somatization) and externalizing (alcohol use, aggressive behaviors, delinquency) disorders. A subset of 676 youth also provided self-reports on their own adjustment prospectively over six months. Measurement models revealed clear separation of negatively correlated factors assessing stigma toward externalizing versus internalizing problems. Values related to family interdependence were significantly associated with greater tolerance of internalizing disorders and lower tolerance of externalizing disorders. Stigma towards internalizing disorders was associated with lower concurrent self-reported internalizing symptoms, whereas stigma towards externalizing symptoms was associated with lower concurrent externalizing symptoms and greater decreases in externalizing symptoms over time. The results of the study suggest that stigma attitudes are differentiated by problem type and may represent one cultural factor shaping distress manifestations.

  1. Markov model of the loan portfolio dynamics considering influence of management and external economic factors (United States)

    Bozhalkina, Yana; Timofeeva, Galina


    Mathematical model of loan portfolio in the form of a controlled Markov chain with discrete time is considered. It is assumed that coefficients of migration matrix depend on corrective actions and external factors. Corrective actions include process of receiving applications, interaction with existing solvent and insolvent clients. External factors are macroeconomic indicators, such as inflation and unemployment rates, exchange rates, consumer price indices, etc. Changes in corrective actions adjust the intensity of transitions in the migration matrix. The mathematical model for forecasting the credit portfolio structure taking into account a cumulative impact of internal and external changes is obtained.

  2. Population density and phenotypic attributes influence the level of nematode parasitism in roe deer. (United States)

    Body, Guillaume; Ferté, Hubert; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Delorme, Daniel; Klein, François; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle


    The impact of parasites on population dynamics is well documented, but less is known on how host population density affects parasite spread. This relationship is difficult to assess because of confounding effects of social structure, population density, and environmental conditions that lead to biased among-population comparisons. Here, we analyzed the infestation by two groups of nematodes (gastro-intestinal (GI) strongyles and Trichuris) in the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) population of Trois Fontaines (France) between 1997 and 2007. During this period, we experimentally manipulated population density through changes in removals. Using measures collected on 297 individuals, we quantified the impact of density on parasite spread after taking into account possible influences of date, age, sex, body mass, and weather conditions. The prevalence and abundance of eggs of both parasites in females were positively related to roe deer density, except Trichuris in adult females. We also found a negative relationship between parasitism and body mass, and strong age and sex-dependent patterns of parasitism. Prime-age adults were less often parasitized and had lower fecal egg counts than fawns or old individuals, and males were more heavily and more often infected than females. Trichuris parasites were not affected by weather, whereas GI strongyles were less present after dry and hot summers. In the range of observed densities, the observed effect of density likely involves a variation of the exposure rate, as opposed to variation in host susceptibility.

  3. Variability in social reasoning: The influence of attachment security on the attribution of goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen A Dunfield


    Full Text Available Over the last half decade there has been a growing move to apply the methods and theory of cognitive development to questions regarding infants’ social understanding. Though this combination has afforded exciting opportunities to better understand our species’ unique social cognitive abilities, the resulting findings do not always lead to the same conclusions. For example, a growing body of research has found support for both universal similarity and individual differences in infants’ social reasoning about others’ responses to incomplete goals. The present research examines this apparent contradiction by assessing the influence of attachment security on the ability of university undergraduates to represent instrumental needs versus social-emotional distress. When the two varieties of goals were clearly differentiated, we observed a universally similar pattern of results (Expt. 1a/b. However, when the goals were combined, and both instrumental need and social-emotional distress were presented together, individual differences emerged (Expt. 2, 3. Taken together, these results demonstrate that by integrating the two perspectives of shared universals and individual differences, important points of contact can be revealed supporting a deeper, more nuanced understanding of the nature of human social reasoning.

  4. An inquiry on dimensions of external technology search and their influence on technological innovations: evidence from Chinese firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason; Wang, Yuandi; Salomo, Søren


    A central part of technological innovation for industrial firms involves search for new external knowledge. A well‐established stream of literature on firms' external knowledge search has demonstrated that firms investing in broader search may have a great ability to innovate. In this paper, we...... explore the influences of technology search on firms' technological innovation performance along three distinctive dimensions: technical, geographic, and temporal dimensions, using a unique panel data set containing information on Chinese firms that were active in technology in‐licensing and patenting...... during the period 2000–2009. Our findings reveal that Chinese firms' technological innovation performances are related to external technology search in quite different ways from the ones suggested in the extant literature using evidence from developed countries. We find that Chinese firms searching...

  5. Collaborative entrepreneurship: On the Influence of Internal and External Collaboration on Corporate Entrepreneurial Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Timenes Laugen, Bjørge; Middel, Rick


    The present paper empirically tests the effect which internal/external collaboration has on innovation height and identifies characteristics of collaboration patterns leading to entrepreneurial innovation in particular. Doing so adds to the understanding of how corporate entrepreneurship best...... unfolds as interfirm activity, which here is termed collaborative entrepreneurship, and provides details on the particular patterns of Open Innovation. The empirical analysis is based on a data set with responses from 512 Danish engineers. The analysis finds that external collaboration has significantly...

  6. Peer influences on internalizing and externalizing problems among adolescents: a longitudinal social network analysis. (United States)

    Fortuin, Janna; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul


    Adolescents who like each other may become more similar to each other with regard to internalizing and externalizing problems, though it is not yet clear which social mechanisms explain these similarities. In this longitudinal study, we analyzed four mechanisms that may explain similarity in adolescent peer networks with regard to externalizing and internalizing problems: selection, socialization, avoidance and withdrawal. At three moments during one school-year, we asked 542 adolescents (8th grade, M-age = 13.3 years, 51 % female) to report who they liked in their classroom, and their own internalizing and externalizing problems. Adolescents tend to prefer peers who have similar externalizing problem scores, but no significant selection effect was found for internalizing problems. Adolescents who share the same group of friends socialize each other and then become more similar with respect to externalizing problems, but not with respect to internalizing problems. We found no significant effects for avoidance or withdrawal. Adolescents may choose to belong to a peer group that is similar to them in terms of externalizing problem behaviors, and through peer group socialization (e.g., enticing, modelling, mimicking, and peer pressure) become more similar to that group over time.

  7. The chaos and order in human ECG under the influence of the external perturbations (United States)

    Ragulskaya, Maria; Valeriy, Pipin

    model reconstruction of the individual cardiac beat. It is found that the positions of the stationary points of the typical ECG attractor are in vicinities of Q and T waves. Additionally, we find that the stiffness of the beat is important for the general stability of ECG. The given results agues for the increase the relative disorder of the human cardiac system under external perturbations due to changes in the space weather and climatic factors. Also, the results of monitoring show that cardiac system can be stabilized by "internal" (physical) stress. The given difference in the cardiac sys-tem behavior under the different types of stress is obtained in the earth labaratory conditions. However, it should be considered as important factors influencing on the health of cosmonauts during the space missions, as well.

  8. The influence of additives and drying methods on quality attributes of fish protein powder made from saithe (Pollachius virens). (United States)

    Shaviklo, Gholam Reza; Thorkelsson, Gudjon; Arason, Sigurjon; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Sveinsdottir, Kolbrun


    Fish protein powder (FPP) is used in the food industry for developing formulated food products. This study investigates the feasibility of increasing the value of saithe (Pollachius virens) by producing a functional FPP. Quality attributes of spray and freeze-dried saithe surimi containing lyoprotectants were studied. A freeze-dried saithe surimi without lyoprotectants was also prepared as a control sample. The amount of protein, moisture, fat and carbohydrate in the FPPs were 745-928, 39-58, 21-32 and 10-151 g kg(-1). Quality attributes of FPPs were influenced by the two drying methods and lyoprotectants. The highest level of lipid oxidation was found in the control and the second highest in the spray-dried FPP. The spray-dried fish protein had the lowest viscosity among all FPPs. Gel-forming ability of samples with lyoprotectants was higher than that of the control. Water-binding capacity, emulsion properties and solubility of the freeze-dried fish protein containing lyoprotectants were significantly higher than spray-dried and control samples. However, functional properties of spray-dried FPP were higher than the control sample. It is feasible to develop value-added FPP from saithe surimi using spray- and freeze-drying processes, but freeze-dried FPP containing lyoprotectant had superior functional properties and stability compared with spray-dried sample. Both products might be used as functional protein ingredients in various food systems. Copyright 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Rotational stiffness of football shoes influences talus motion during external rotation of the foot. (United States)

    Wei, Feng; Meyer, Eric G; Braman, Jerrod E; Powell, John W; Haut, Roger C


    Shoe-surface interface characteristics have been implicated in the high incidence of ankle injuries suffered by athletes. Yet, the differences in rotational stiffness among shoes may also influence injury risk. It was hypothesized that shoes with different rotational stiffness will generate different patterns of ankle ligament strain. Four football shoe designs were tested and compared in terms of rotational stiffness. Twelve (six pairs) male cadaveric lower extremity limbs were externally rotated 30 deg using two selected football shoe designs, i.e., a flexible shoe and a rigid shoe. Motion capture was performed to track the movement of the talus with a reflective marker array screwed into the bone. A computational ankle model was utilized to input talus motions for the estimation of ankle ligament strains. At 30 deg of rotation, the rigid shoe generated higher ankle joint torque at 46.2 ± 9.3 Nm than the flexible shoe at 35.4 ± 5.7 Nm. While talus rotation was greater in the rigid shoe (15.9 ± 1.6 deg versus 12.1 ± 1.0 deg), the flexible shoe generated more talus eversion (5.6 ± 1.5 deg versus 1.2± 0.8 deg). While these talus motions resulted in the same level of anterior deltoid ligament strain (approxiamtely 5%) between shoes, there was a significant increase of anterior tibiofibular ligament strain (4.5± 0.4% versus 2.3 ± 0.3%) for the flexible versus more rigid shoe design. The flexible shoe may provide less restraint to the subtalar and transverse tarsal joints, resulting in more eversion but less axial rotation of the talus during foot∕shoe rotation. The increase of strain in the anterior tibiofibular ligament may have been largely due to the increased level of talus eversion documented for the flexible shoe. There may be a direct correlation of ankle joint torque with axial talus rotation, and an inverse relationship between torque and talus eversion. The study may provide some insight into relationships between shoe

  10. Efficient Institutions and External Trade Policy Management Can Increase the Influence of a Small Country on the International Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Koleša


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on a country’s external trade policy management in relation to the processes within its sub national entities. Its main goal is to identify an optimal approach to realizing the national interests of a small EU member state at the international/sub national level. We argue that influence on certain decisions does not necessarily solely depend on the power (i. e., size of a country, but also depends on other factors, such as the country’s goals and ability to form alliances. We confirm that institutions are of key importance for efficient external trade policy management – small countries in particular can increase their influence at the international level substantially if they are capable of efficient process management and forming alliances with sub national actors. After analysing the systems in selected eu member states, we make proposals for enhancing the trade policy management process in Slovenia.

  11. Influence of head tracking on the externalization of speech stimuli for non-individualized binaural synthesis. (United States)

    Hendrickx, Etienne; Stitt, Peter; Messonnier, Jean-Christophe; Lyzwa, Jean-Marc; Katz, Brian Fg; de Boishéraud, Catherine


    Binaural reproduction aims at recreating a realistic audio scene at the ears of the listener using headphones. In the real acoustic world, sound sources tend to be externalized (that is, perceived to be emanating from a source out in the world) rather than internalized (that is, perceived to be emanating from inside the head). Unfortunately, several studies report a collapse of externalization, especially with frontal and rear virtual sources, when listening to binaural content using non-individualized Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs). The present study examines whether or not head movements coupled with a head tracking device can compensate for this collapse. For each presentation, a speech stimulus was presented over headphones at different azimuths, using several intermixed sets of non-individualized HRTFs for the binaural rendering. The head tracker could either be active or inactive, and the subjects could either be asked to rotate their heads or to keep them as stationary as possible. After each presentation, subjects reported to what extent the stimulus had been externalized. In contrast to several previous studies, results showed that head movements can substantially enhance externalization, especially for frontal and rear sources, and that externalization can persist once the subject has stopped moving his/her head.

  12. External influences and local responses. Changes in Polish higher education 1990-2005 (CPP RPS 27/2011)


    Antonowicz, Dominik


    During the last two decades, higher education in Poland has undergone substantial changes. This study focuses specifically on the timeframe 1990-2005, as this was a period in which the higher education system in Poland was heavily impacted by external influences. This timeframe is marked by two major events - approval of the Laws on Higher Education by the Polish Parliament, first in 1990 and last in 2005. The years between 1990 and 2005 saw the Polish higher education system experiencing a s...

  13. PREFACE: Quantum Field Theory Under the Influence of External Conditions (QFEXT07) (United States)

    Bordag, M.; Mostepanenko, V. M.


    This special issue contains papers reflecting talks presented at the 8th Workshop on Quantum Field Theory Under the Influence of External Conditions (QFEXT07), held on 17 21 September 2007, at Leipzig University. This workshop gathered 108 physicists and mathematicians working on problems which are focused on the following topics: •Casimir and van der Waals forces—progress in theory and new experiments, applications at micro- and nano-scale •Casimir effect—exact results, approximate methods and mathematical problems •Vacuum quantum effects in classical background fields—renormalization issues, singular backgrounds, applications to particle and high energy physics •Vacuum energy and gravity, vacuum energy in supersymmetric and noncommutative theories. This workshop is part of a series started in 1989 and 1992 in Leipzig by Dieter Robaschik, and continued in 1995, 1998 and 2001 in Leipzig by Michael Bordag. In 2003 this Workshop was organized by Kimball A Milton in Oklahoma, in 2005 by Emilio Elizalde in Barcelona and in 2007 it returned to Leipzig. The field of physics after which this series of workshops is named is remarkably broad. It stretches from experimental work on the measurement of dispersion forces between macroscopic bodies to quantum corrections in the presence of classical background fields. The underlying physical idea is that even in its ground state (vacuum) a quantum system responds to changes in its environment. The universality of this idea makes the field of its application so very broad. The most prominent manifestation of vacuum energy is the Casimir effect. This is, in its original formulation, the attraction between conducting planes due to the vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. In a sense, this is the long-range tail of the more general dispersion forces acting between macroscopic bodies. With the progress in nanotechnology, dispersion forces become of direct practical significance. On a more theoretical side

  14. Influence of external disturbances and compressibility on free turbulent mixing. [in free shear layers (United States)

    Oh, Y. H.; Bushnell, D. M.


    It is shown that disturbances in external flow can significantly affect, by as much as an order of magnitude, the turbulent mixing rate in free shear layers and that the length scale of the external flow disturbances is as important as the amplitude. The difference between the effect of wide-band and narrow-band disturbances is stressed. The model for pressure fluctuation term in the kinetic energy equation is included in a two-equation model. The reduced spreading rate in high Mach number, high Reynolds number, adiabatic, free turbulent shear layers is predicted.

  15. Influence of student attributes on readiness for interprofessional learning across multiple healthcare disciplines: Identifying factors to inform educational development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Judge


    Full Text Available This investigation evaluated if individual student attributes have a predictive impact on readiness for interprofessional education (IPE. An exploratory analysis was conducted with 311 students from dental medicine, dietetics, medicine, nursing, pharmacy and physical therapy. Discipline, gender, age, academic standing, amount of clinical exposure in academic program and number of years worked in a patient care setting were evaluated as predictors of readiness for IPE using the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS. Medical students had significantly lower RIPLS scores compared to pharmacy (p = 0.010 and dietetics students (p = 0.022. Male gender (p = 0.005 was a single independent predictor of IPE readiness. A higher number of years of practice had a significant interaction predictive of readiness for IPE (p = 0.028. Identification of factors influencing readiness for IPE are key to developing teaching and learning strategies targeted to improve teamwork, quality of care and patient outcomes. In this investigation, men with more years of practice was highly predictive of a lower RIPLS score. Based upon our findings, educational planning targeting male medical students with a higher number of years of practice would be a reasonable evidence-based step toward improving the value of IPE programs and curricula. Further work is necessary in developing focus groups, simulation and case-based exercises to influence attitudes and readiness for IPE.

  16. Rural livelihoods and agricultural commercialization in colonial Uganda: conjunctures of external influences and local realities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de Michiel A.


    The economic history of Sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by geographically and temporally dispersed booms and busts. The export-led ‘cash-crop revolution’ in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa during the colonial era is a key example of an economic boom. This thesis examines how external

  17. Photosynthesis in tropical cover crop legumes influenced by irradiance, external carbon dioxide concentration and temperature (United States)

    In plantation crops perennial tropical legumes are grown as understory plants, receive limited irradiance, and are subjected to elevated levels of CO2 and temperature. Independent short-term effects of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), external carbon dioxide concentration [CO2] and temper...

  18. Influence of the external solution in the electroosmotic flux induced by realkalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellote, M.


    Full Text Available Electrochemical repair methods are based on the application of an impressed direct current between the reinforcement and an auxiliary electrode placed at the concrete surface. In the case of realkalisation, the aim of the treatment consists in restoring the alkalinity of the concrete around the rebar to repassivate it. The realkalisation seems to be primarily provided by the generation of OH- at the rebar which is acting as cathode, through the reaction of water hydrolysis. It had been claimed that also carbonate ions penetrate towards the rebar by the electroosmosis; however it was not until very recently that the authors were able to demonstrate and quantify it through hardened carbonated concrete. In the present paper, laboratory trials are reported showing the influence of the external solution in the electroosmotic flux. The experiments have been carried out on normalised carbonated OPC mortars and 4 different solutions have been tested, ranging from 0.1 to 2M in Na2CO3. As a result, it has been proved that the electroosmotic flux is not constant during the experiment. The pH in the anolyte is the determining parameter on the zeta potential and consequently in the electroosmotic flux, reaching its maximum, for the experiments of this research, at the pH of the buffer carbonate/'bicarbonate.

    Los métodos electroquímicos de reparación de estructuras dañadas por corrosión de armaduras se basan en la aplicación de corriente continua entre la armadura y un electrodo auxiliar colocado sobre la superficie del hormigón. En el caso de la realcalinización, el objetivo del tratamiento consiste en restaurar la alcalinidad del hormigón alrededor de la armadura, con lo que se consigue la repasivación de la misma. Esta alcalinización se alcanza por la generación de OH- en la hidrólisis del agua que tiene lugar en el acero que actúa como cátodo, aunque también se postula la penetración de

  19. Task Irrelevant External Cues Can Influence Language Selection in Voluntary Object Naming: Evidence from Hindi-English Bilinguals. (United States)

    Bhatia, Divya; Prasad, Seema Gorur; Sake, Kaushik; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar


    We examined if external cues such as other agents' actions can influence the choice of language during voluntary and cued object naming in bilinguals in three experiments. Hindi-English bilinguals first saw a cartoon waving at a color patch. They were then asked to either name a picture in the language of their choice (voluntary block) or to name in the instructed language (cued block). The colors waved at by the cartoon were also the colors used as language cues (Hindi or English). We compared the influence of the cartoon's choice of color on naming when speakers had to indicate their choice explicitly before naming (Experiment 1) as opposed to when they named directly on seeing the pictures (Experiment 2 and 3). Results showed that participants chose the language indicated by the cartoon greater number of times (Experiment 1 and 3). Speakers also switched significantly to the language primed by the cartoon greater number of times (Experiment 1 and 2). These results suggest that choices leading to voluntary action, as in the case of object naming can be influenced significantly by external non-linguistic cues. Importantly, these symbolic influences can work even when other agents are merely indicating their choices and are not interlocutors in bilingual communication.

  20. External and internal factors influencing self-directed online learning of physiotherapy undergraduate students in Sweden: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Hammarlund, Catharina Sjödahl; Nilsson, Maria H; Gummesson, Christina


    Online courses have become common in health sciences education. This learning environment can be designed using different approaches to support student learning. To further develop online environment, it is important to understand how students perceive working and learning online. The aim of this study is to identify aspects influencing students' learning processes and their adaptation to self-directed learning online. Thirty-four physiotherapy students with a mean age of 25 years (range, 21 to 34 years) participated. Qualitative content analysis and triangulation was used when investigating the students' self-reflections, written during a five week self-directed, problem-oriented online course. Two categories emerged: 'the influence of the structured framework' and 'communication and interaction with teachers and peers.' The learning processes were influenced by external factors, e.g., a clear structure including a transparent alignment of assignments and assessment. Important challenges to over-come were primarily internal factors, e.g., low self-efficacy, difficulties to plan the work effectively and adapting to a new environment. The analyses reflected important perspectives targeting areas which enable further course development. The influences of external and internal factors on learning strategies and self-efficacy are important aspects to consider when designing online courses. Factors such as pedagogical design, clarity of purpose, goals, and guidelines were important as well as continuous opportunities for communication and collaboration. Further studies are needed to understand and scaffold the motivational factors among students with low self-efficacy.

  1. Task Irrelevant External Cues Can Influence Language Selection in Voluntary Object Naming: Evidence from Hindi-English Bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Bhatia

    Full Text Available We examined if external cues such as other agents' actions can influence the choice of language during voluntary and cued object naming in bilinguals in three experiments. Hindi-English bilinguals first saw a cartoon waving at a color patch. They were then asked to either name a picture in the language of their choice (voluntary block or to name in the instructed language (cued block. The colors waved at by the cartoon were also the colors used as language cues (Hindi or English. We compared the influence of the cartoon's choice of color on naming when speakers had to indicate their choice explicitly before naming (Experiment 1 as opposed to when they named directly on seeing the pictures (Experiment 2 and 3. Results showed that participants chose the language indicated by the cartoon greater number of times (Experiment 1 and 3. Speakers also switched significantly to the language primed by the cartoon greater number of times (Experiment 1 and 2. These results suggest that choices leading to voluntary action, as in the case of object naming can be influenced significantly by external non-linguistic cues. Importantly, these symbolic influences can work even when other agents are merely indicating their choices and are not interlocutors in bilingual communication.

  2. Study of external quantum efficiency of plasmonic coupled bilayer active device: influence of layer thickness and nanoparticle filling factor (United States)

    Pathak, Nilesh Kumar; Pathak, Hardik; Pandey, Gyanendra Krishna; Ji, Alok; Sharma, R. P.


    To improve the efficiency of organic-inorganic photovoltaic devices, the inclusion of metal nanoparticles such as silver has been used to enhance photon absorption. Incorporation of silver nanoparticle into the active layer with various filling factor increases the exciton generation rate of active material. The exciton-plasmon coupling mechanism are analysed in terms of effective absorption coefficient via Maxwell Garnett theory including size effect. To obtain the exciton population of organic-inorganic heterojunction device with nanoparticle embedded into inorganic layer, we have solved one-dimensional steady-state exciton diffusion equation. On the basis of this, we have calculated the expression of photocurrent and external quantum efficiency with and without plasmonic effects under the influences of standard AM 1.5 solar spectrums. After embedding the silver nanoparticle (with filling factor 0.55) into inorganic active layer, optimum enhancement in the external quantum efficiency by 4.90% has been found as compared to reference device.

  3. Determination of the external mass transfer coefficient and influence of mixing intensity in moving bed biofilm reactors for wastewater treatment. (United States)

    Nogueira, Bruno L; Pérez, Julio; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Secchi, Argimiro R; Dezotti, Márcia; Biscaia, Evaristo C


    In moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR), the removal of pollutants from wastewater is due to the substrate consumption by bacteria attached on suspended carriers. As a biofilm process, the substrates are transported from the bulk phase to the biofilm passing through a mass transfer resistance layer. This study proposes a methodology to determine the external mass transfer coefficient and identify the influence of the mixing intensity on the conversion process in-situ in MBBR systems. The method allows the determination of the external mass transfer coefficient in the reactor, which is a major advantage when compared to the previous methods that require mimicking hydrodynamics of the reactor in a flow chamber or in a separate vessel. The proposed methodology was evaluated in an aerobic lab-scale system operating with COD removal and nitrification. The impact of the mixing intensity on the conversion rates for ammonium and COD was tested individually. When comparing the effect of mixing intensity on the removal rates of COD and ammonium, a higher apparent external mass transfer resistance was found for ammonium. For the used aeration intensities, the external mass transfer coefficient for ammonium oxidation was ranging from 0.68 to 13.50 m d(-1) and for COD removal 2.9 to 22.4 m d(-1). The lower coefficient range for ammonium oxidation is likely related to the location of nitrifiers deeper in the biofilm. The measurement of external mass transfer rates in MBBR will help in better design and evaluation of MBBR system-based technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding Teaching, Motivation and External Influences in Student Engagement: How Can Complexity Thinking Help? (United States)

    Zepke, Nick


    Teachers and quality teaching influence how well students engage in learning in post-compulsory education. This is the finding from research into factors contributing to student engagement. Indeed, a recent funded study investigating how learning environments influence student engagement in diverse tertiary settings in Aotearoa New Zealand found…

  5. Influence of maternal body mass index on accuracy and reliability of external fetal monitoring techniques. (United States)

    Cohen, Wayne R; Hayes-Gill, Barrie


    To evaluate the performance of external electronic fetal heart rate and uterine contraction monitoring according to maternal body mass index. Secondary analysis of prospective equivalence study. Three US urban teaching hospitals. Seventy-four parturients with a normal term pregnancy. The parent study assessed performance of two methods of external fetal heart rate monitoring (abdominal fetal electrocardiogram and Doppler ultrasound) and of uterine contraction monitoring (electrohystero-graphy and tocodynamometry) compared with internal monitoring with fetal scalp electrode and intrauterine pressure transducer. Reliability of external techniques was assessed by the success rate and positive percent agreement with internal methods. Bland-Altman analysis determined accuracy. We analyzed data from that study according to maternal body mass index. We assessed the relationship between body mass index and monitor performance with linear regression, using body mass index as the independent variable and measures of reliability and accuracy as dependent variables. There was no significant association between maternal body mass index and any measure of reliability or accuracy for abdominal fetal electrocardiogram. By contrast, the overall positive percent agreement for Doppler ultrasound declined (p = 0.042), and the root mean square error from the Bland-Altman analysis increased in the first stage (p = 0.029) with increasing body mass index. Uterine contraction recordings from electrohysterography and tocodynamometry showed no significant deterioration related to maternal body mass index. Accuracy and reliability of fetal heart rate monitoring using abdominal fetal electrocardiogram was unaffected by maternal obesity, whereas performance of ultrasound degraded directly with maternal size. Both electrohysterography and tocodynamometry were unperturbed by obesity. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. External urethral sphincter electromyography in asymptomatic women and the influence of the menstrual cycle. (United States)

    Tawadros, Cecile; Burnett, Katherine; Derbyshire, Laura F; Tawadros, Thomas; Clarke, Noel W; Betts, Christopher D


    To investigate by electromyography (EMG), the presence of complex repetitive discharges (CRDs) and decelerating bursts (DBs) in the striated external urethral sphincter during the menstrual cycle in female volunteers with no urinary symptoms and complete bladder emptying. Healthy female volunteers aged 20-40 years, with regular menstrual cycles and no urinary symptoms were recruited. Volunteers completed a menstruation chart, urinary symptom questionnaires, pregnancy test, urine dipstick, urinary free flow and post-void ultrasound bladder scan. Exclusion criteria included current pregnancy, use of hormonal medication or contraception, body mass index of >35 kg/m(2) , incomplete voiding and a history of pelvic surgery. Eligible participants underwent an external urethral sphincter EMG, using a needle electrode in the early follicular phase and the mid-luteal phase of their menstrual cycles. Serum oestradiol and progesterone were measured at each EMG test. In all, 119 women enquired about the research and following screening, 18 were eligible to enter the study phase. Complete results were obtained in 15 women. In all, 30 EMG tests were undertaken in the 15 asymptomatic women. Sphincter EMG was positive for CRDs and DBs at one or both phases of the menstrual cycle in eight (53%) of the women. Three had CRDs and DBs in both early follicular and mid-luteal phases. Five had normal EMG activity in the early follicular phase and CRDs and DBs in the mid-luteal phase. No woman had abnormal EMG activity in the early follicular phase and normal activity in the luteal phase. There was no relationship between EMG activity and age, parity or serum levels of oestradiol and progesterone. CRDs and DB activity in the external striated urethral sphincter is present in a high proportion of asymptomatic young women. This abnormal EMG activity has been shown for the first time to change during the menstrual cycle in individual women. CRDs and DBs are more commonly found in the luteal

  7. The influence of the external ankle support on the dynamic balance in volleyball athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Azevedo Correia de Lima


    Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of this study was to assess the effect of ankle external supports on proprioception and dynamic balance in volleyball players. Seventeen female volleyball players (18.94±2.49 years; 65.45±9.49 kg; 1.71±0.05 m; BMI=22.0±2.67 kg/m² took part in this study. The dynamic balance was assessed through the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT. Comparisons between stabilization (no stabilizer/NS, orthosis/ORT and functional bandaging/FB modes and the SEBT grid lines and inter-limb were carried out. The SEBT assessment showed a significant difference between the groups NS x ORT and NS x FB (p < .01, and between the lines (p< .01. Significant line/limb interaction in DL and NDL (p< .01 was detected. The external supports tested herein showed similar effects on balance, restricting lower limb's reach in the SEBT execution in some of tested directions.

  8. Conditioning stimulus can influence an external urethral sphincter contraction evoked by a magnetic stimulation. (United States)

    Wefer, Bjoern; Reitz, André; Knapp, Peter A; Bannowsky, Andreas; Juenemann, Klaus-Peter; Schurch, Brigitte


    To study the effect of a conditioning stimulus on an external urethral sphincter (EUS)contraction evoked by a magnetic stimulation at different time intervals. Seven healthy male volunteers underwent EUS pressure measurement. At baseline, magnetic stimulation of the lumbosacral spinal cord above the motor threshold was performed and evoked EUS pressure responses were recorded. The lumbosacral magnetic stimulation was repeated with same intensity, while a selective electrical dorsal penile nerve stimulation below the bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) threshold was preceding at five different intervals (10, 20, 30, 50, 100 msec). The protocol was performed with empty and full bladder (BLA), and baseline responses were statistically compared to those with combined stimulation. When the dorsal penile nerve electrical stimulation preceded the lumbosacral magnetic stimulation by 20 msec (P=0.0048), 50 msec (P=0.0039), or 100 msec (P=0.0002), the amplitudes of the EUS pressure response with empty BLA were significantly reduced compared to lumbosacral magnetic stimulation alone. With a filled BLA, the amplitudes of the EUS were significantly reduced only at an interval of 50 msec (Pstimulation seems to have the capacity to inhibit the external urethral sphincter contraction induced by a magnetic stimulation. The inhibitory effect seems to depend on the latency between the peripheral and lumbosacral stimulation as well as on the degree of BLA filling. It remains to be proved if the neuromodulative effect of the conditional stimulus occurs at a spinal or supraspinal level. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Comparison of Management Styles in Organic and Conventional Farming with Respect to Disruptive External Influences. The Case of Organic Dairy Farming and Conventional Horticulture in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, M.; Gremmen, H.G.J.


    Conventional Dutch farming systems are constantly improving their technology to withstand disruptive external influences, while organic farming tends to focus on methods that stress conservation of natural and nonrenewable resources. We hypothesize that management styles to withstand disruptive

  10. Factors Influencing Students' Perceptions of Graduate Attribute Acquisition in a Multidisciplinary Honours Track in a Dutch University (United States)

    Jansen, E. P. W. A.; Suhre, C. J. M.


    This article studies the relationship between students' perceptions of teaching and learning in a multidisciplinary honours programme and their impact on graduate attributes acquisition. The study, conducted among 73 honours students in a Dutch research university, evaluates perceived improvement in graduate attributes through annually collected…

  11. The influence of culture on the assessment of the importance of decision attributes; Germany versus the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerkens, Johannes M.G.; Koster, Christoph; Ulijn, Jan


    We investigate whether cultural differences between Dutch and German individual actors lead to different ways of assessing the importance of decision attributes (which may or may not lead to different attribute weights). During think-aloud sessions, German and Dutch students performed an importance

  12. Influence of rugby practice on shoulder internal and external rotators strength. (United States)

    Edouard, P; Frize, N; Calmels, P; Samozino, P; Garet, M; Degache, F


    Shoulder injuries are frequent in rugby, and muscular deficiency and/or imbalance of the internal (IR) and external (ER) shoulder rotators are considered as probable mechanisms of shoulder injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the rotators strength imbalances occur in rugby players by comparing IR and ER strength and ER/IR ratios between rugby players (RP) and nonathletic subjects. Fourteen RP and 19 healthy nonathletic subjects were evaluated in this cross-sectional controlled study with a Con-Trex ((R)) dynamometer. IR and ER isokinetic strength were performed at 60 degrees . s (-1) and 240 degrees . s (-1) in concentric, and 60 degrees . s (-1) in eccentric, for both sides. Strength values were higher for RP than nonathletic ones ( Prugby and/or laterality on the ER/IR ratio. In conclusions, our results reported no rotators muscles imbalance in RP as a possible risk factor of glenohumeral injury.

  13. Influence of upper-body external loading on anaerobic exercise performance. (United States)

    Inacio, Mario; Dipietro, Loretta; Visek, Amanda J; Miller, Todd A


    The purpose of this study was to assess the threshold where simulated adipose tissue weight gain significantly affects performance in common anaerobic tasks and determine whether differences exist between men and women. Forty-six subjects (men = 21; women = 25) were tested for vertical jump, 20- and 40-yd dash, and 20-yd shuttle tests under 6 different loading conditions (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10% of added body weight). Results were compared to each subject's baseline values (0% loading condition). Results demonstrate significant decrements in performance, starting at the 2% loading condition, for both genders, in every performance test (p anaerobic performance tests performed, increases in external loading as low as 2% of body weight results in significant decreases in performance. Moreover, for these specific tests, men and women tend to express the same threshold in performance decrements.

  14. External and internal environment of higher school: influence on the quality of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beketova Olga


    Full Text Available Education, especially higher education, no doubt, is one of the most important values in the modern world. To imagine the prospects of the nearest and medium-term development of the country, its share in the intellectual world `coin box`, you need to appreciate the state of functioning within it higher education system properly, to assess the impact of external and internal environment on its quality. The existent global changes make it necessary to construct a new model of the learning process, the creation of a qualitatively new education management system, the formation of a new university model that exists in an open information society. Reforming of higher school - is a priority in terms of national interests of Russia, without which it is impossible to create a competitive innovative economy based on knowledge in our country.

  15. What is the source of cultural differences? -- Examining the influence of thinking style on the attribution process. (United States)

    Jen, Chun-Hui; Lien, Yunn-Wen


    The present research is intended to find out whether individuals with analytic or holistic thought have different attribution processes. Cross-cultural research has suggested that East Asians, who tend to have a holistic thought pattern, differ in cognitive process from Westerners, who tend to engage in analytic thought. However, studies that found cultural difference in attribution process may have non-equivalence problems that make it hard to interpret the causal relationship between thinking style and attribution process. The present research extends this by measuring participants' thinking style within a single culture in order to ensure equivalence on potentially confounding variables such as prior knowledge and cognitive capacity. Two experiments demonstrate that both types of thinkers have identical attribution processes and suggest different thinking styles might relate to different tendencies toward situational information, but not to the attribution process itself. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. External and internal factors influencing self-directed online learning of physiotherapy undergraduate students in Sweden: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Sjödahl Hammarlund


    Full Text Available Purpose: Online courses have become common in health sciences education. This learning environment can be designed using different approaches to support student learning. To further develop online environment, it is important to understand how students perceive working and learning online. The aim of this study is to identify aspects influencing students’ learning processes and their adaptation to self-directed learning online. Methods: Thirty-four physiotherapy students with a mean age of 25 years (range, 21 to 34 years participated. Qualitative content analysis and triangulation was used when investigating the students’ self-reflections, written during a five week self-directed, problem-oriented online course. Results: Two categories emerged: ‘the influence of the structured framework’ and ‘communication and interaction with teachers and peers.’ The learning processes were influenced by external factors, e.g., a clear structure including a transparent alignment of assignments and assessment. Important challenges to over-come were primarily internal factors, e.g., low self-efficacy, difficulties to plan the work effectively and adapting to a new environment. Conclusion: The analyses reflected important perspectives targeting areas which enable further course development. The influences of external and internal factors on learning strategies and self-efficacy are important aspects to consider when designing online courses. Factors such as pedagogical design, clarity of purpose, goals, and guidelines were important as well as continuous opportunities for communication and collaboration. Further studies are needed to understand and scaffold the motivational factors among students with low self-efficacy.

  17. An innovation diffusion model of a local electricity network that is influenced by internal and external factors (United States)

    Hattam, Laura; Greetham, Danica Vukadinović


    Haynes et al. (1977) derived a nonlinear differential equation to determine the spread of innovations within a social network across space and time. This model depends upon the imitators and the innovators within the social system, where the imitators respond to internal influences, whilst the innovators react to external factors. Here, this differential equation is applied to simulate the uptake of a low-carbon technology (LCT) within a real local electricity network that is situated in the UK. This network comprises of many households that are assigned to certain feeders. Firstly, travelling wave solutions of Haynes' model are used to predict adoption times as a function of the imitation and innovation influences. Then, the grid that represents the electricity network is created so that the finite element method (FEM) can be implemented. Next, innovation diffusion is modelled with Haynes' equation and the FEM, where varying magnitudes of the internal and external pressures are imposed. Consequently, the impact of these model parameters is investigated. Moreover, LCT adoption trajectories at fixed feeder locations are calculated, which give a macroscopic understanding of the uptake behaviour at specific network sites. Lastly, the adoption of LCTs at a household level is examined, where microscopic and macroscopic approaches are combined.

  18. The Influence of External User Interdependence of Financial Statements, Possibility of Clients Facing Financial Difficulties, and Auditor Evaluation of Management Integrity To Acceptable Audit Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andini Sih Afsari Utami


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze. Analyses the influence of external users reliance on financial statements, likelihood of financial difficulties and management integrity toward acceptable audit risk were performed with 10 public accountant office who had listed from Direktorat IAPI 2013. The sample used the “Gay” theory. The analyzed method in this research uses multiple linear. The result shown that performing external users reliance on financial statements significantly influences toward acceptable audit risk, likelihood of financial difficulties significantly influences toward acceptable audit risk, and management integrity significantly influences toward acceptable audit risk.

  19. Mothers' Self- Evaluation, Attribution in Parenting and Coping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of mother's self- evaluation, attribution in parenting and coping strategies on children's (age 2-6 years) externalizing behaviour. Two hundred (200) nursing mothers with a mean age of 30.25, (SD 10.67) years were randomly selected for the study. Data was collected using ...

  20. Influence of the external conditions on salt retention and pressure-induced electrical potential measured across a composite membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benavente, Juana; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil


    Transport on single electrolyte solutions (NaCl and MgCl2) due to pressure gradients across a commercial reverse osmosis membrane was studied by measuring volume flux (J(v)), salt rejection (S) and pressure induced electrical potential (Delta E) in a crossflow cell. The influence on these paramet......Transport on single electrolyte solutions (NaCl and MgCl2) due to pressure gradients across a commercial reverse osmosis membrane was studied by measuring volume flux (J(v)), salt rejection (S) and pressure induced electrical potential (Delta E) in a crossflow cell. The influence...... with respect to the value determined with single electrolytes at the same concentration was obtained, which is attributed to a strong coupling among the fluxes of individual ions and their distribution in the membrane when transport of mixed salt is studied. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  1. The influence of external factors on the growth and development of spinach cultivars (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parlevliet, J.E.


    Influences of genotype (cultivar), temperature, light intensity, gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) and daylength on stem elongation and flowering of spinach were investigated. Most cultivars reacted quantitatively to long days (LD) both for stem and flower formation. Daylength requirements varied

  2. Internal and External Influences on Program-Level Curriculum Development in Higher Education Fashion Merchandising Programs (United States)

    King, Janice E.


    In an ever changing global economy, higher education experiences accountability issues in educating the workforce. Graduates require the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed in the global workplace. For graduates to have the opportunity to attain this understanding and expertise, it is critical to identify what influences curriculum…

  3. South Korean Male Adolescents' Internal and External Influences in Academic Achievement (United States)

    Geesa, Rachel Louise


    South Korean adolescents' motivation for high academic achievement is strongly influenced by extraordinary parental support, pressures to achieve, and the practice of utilizing both public and private learning environments in South Korea. To remain competitive, educational leaders may benefit from observations of other countries' academic…

  4. The relationship between genetic and environmental influences on resilience and on common internalizing and externalizing psychiatric disorders. (United States)

    Amstadter, Ananda B; Maes, Hermine H; Sheerin, Christina M; Myers, John M; Kendler, Kenneth S


    Resilience to stressful life events (SLEs), which increase risk of psychopathology, is influenced by genetic factors. The purpose of this paper was to map the overlap of etiologic risk factors for resilience onto the broad psychopathological map. Resilience was defined as the difference between the twins' total score on a broad measure of internalizing symptoms and their predicted score based on their cumulative exposure to SLEs. Cholesky decompositions were performed with OpenMx to quantify the overlap in genetic and environmental risk factors between resilience and four phenotypes [major depression (MD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), alcohol abuse or dependence (AAD), and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD)]. The genetic factors that influence resilience account for 42 and 61 % of the heritability of MD and GAD, respectively, and 20 and 18 % for AAD and ASPD, respectively. The latent genetic contribution to MD was shared 47 % with resilience, and for AAD, this estimate was lower (23 %). The shared environmental covariance was nominal. Genetic influences on resilience contribute to internalizing phenotypes to a higher degree than to externalizing phenotypes. Environmental influences can also have an enduring effect on resilience. However, virtually all of the covariance between resilience and the phenotypes was genetic.

  5. Influence of External Environmental Factors on the Success of Public Housing Projects in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mukhtar Musa


    Full Text Available External environmental factors, which include political environment, economic environment and social environment, affect the success of public housing projects in developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to establish the effect of these factors on public housing project success using structural equation modelling (SEM techniques.  The study was conducted in Nigeria by means of interviews, a pilot study and a main survey. Five hundred and fifty (550 questionnaires were administered to construction professionals who work as developers, consultants or contractors and those working in public housing agencies. Two hundred and seventy-six (276 questionnaires were returned completed.  The data collected were analysed by means of SEM. The results reveal that (i the economics factor significantly affects public housing project success, (ii the social factor significantly affects public housing project success, and (iii the political factor significantly affects public housing project success. The study developed a comprehensive model that can assist housing policy makers, consultants, developers, contractors and other stakeholders in the planning and development of public housing programmes.


    Daniel, Jon C.; Kosher, Robert A.; Hamos, James E.; Lash, James W.


    The effect of a high external potassium concentration on the synthesis and deposition of matrix components by chondrocytes in cell culture was determined. There is a twofold increase in the amount of chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfate accumulated by chondrocytes grown in medium containing a high potassium concentration. There is also a comparable increase in the production of other sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG) including heparan sulfate and uncharacterized glycoprotein components. The twofold greater accumulation of GAG in the high potassium medium is primarily the result of a decrease in their rate of degradation. In spite of this increased accumulation of GAG, the cells in high potassium fail to elaborate appreciable quantities of visible matrix, although they do retain the typical chondrocytic polygonal morphology. Although most of the products are secreted into the culture medium in the high potassium environment, the cell layer retains the same amount of glycosaminoglycan as the control cultures. The inability of chondrocytes grown in high potassium to elaborate the typical hyaline cartilage matrix is not a consequence of an impairment in collagen synthesis, since there is no difference in the total amount of collagen synthesized by high potassium or control cultures. There is, however, a slight increase in the proportion of collagen that is secreted into the medium by chondrocytes in high potassium. Synthesis of the predominant cartilage matrix molecules is not sufficient in itself to ensure that these molecules will be assembled into a hyaline matrix. PMID:4279924

  7. [The influence of external factors on the auditory function in the students residing in a megapolis]. (United States)

    Levina, Iu V; Kudeeva, Ia Iu; Ibragimov, Sh I


    The objective of the present study was to estimate the auditory function in the students aged from 20 to 30 years and the noise load associated with the use of mobile phones, listening to music through headphones, attending concerts and youth clubs. The secondary objective was to assess the influence of these factors on the auditory function depending on their type, intensity, and duration. It is shown that the auditory threshold in the frequency range between 125 and 8000 Hz in 97% of the examined students do not exceed 25 dB varying from 5 to 15 dB The main factor influencing the auditory function is the use of players and headphones followed by mobile phones and deafening music in youth clubs.

  8. Influence of external subglottic air flow on dysphagic tracheotomized patients with severe brain injury- preliminary findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Bjerrum, Katje; Nielsen, Lars Hedemann


    through the standard cuffed suction aid tracheotomy tube which primarily is used to suction residual secretion volume from the subglottic area. Sessions were 150 min and ESAF was provided at 60-65, 90-95 and 120-125 min at 3L/min. Outcome measures included swallowing frequency (swallows/5min) at 0-5 (pre...... and reduction in residual secretion volume may indicate that ESAF influences swallowing parameters in patients with tracheotomy tubes....

  9. The influence of neutron contamination on dosimetry in external photon beam radiotherapy. (United States)

    Horst, Felix; Czarnecki, Damian; Zink, Klemens


    Photon fields with energies above ∼7 MeV are contaminated by neutrons due to photonuclear reactions. Their influence on dosimetry-although considered to be very low-is widely unexplored. In this work, Monte Carlo based investigations into this issue performed with fluka and egsnrc are presented. A typical Linac head in 18 MV-X mode was modeled equivalently within both codes. egsnrc was used for the photon and fluka for the neutron production and transport simulation. Water depth dose profiles and the response of different detectors (Farmer chamber, TLD-100, TLD-600H, and TLD-700H chip) in five representative depths were simulated and the neutrons' impact (neutron absorbed dose relative to photon absorbed dose) was calculated. To take account of the neutrons' influence, a theoretically required correction factor was defined and calculated for five representative water depths. The neutrons' impact on the absorbed dose to water was found to be below 0.1% for all depths and their impact on the response of the Farmer chamber and the TLD-700H chip was found to be even less. For the TLD-100 and the TLD-600H chip it was found to be up to 0.3% and 0.7%, respectively. The theoretical correction factors to be applied to absorbed dose to water values measured with these four detectors in a depth different from the reference/calibration depth were calculated and found to be below 0.05% for the Farmer chamber and the TLD-700H chip, but up to 0.15% and 0.35% for the TLD-100 and TLD-600H chips, respectively. In thermoluminescence dosimetry the neutrons' influence (and therefore the additional inaccuracy in measurement) was found to be higher for TLD materials whose 6Li fraction is high, such as TLD-100 and TLD-600H, resulting from the thermal neutron capture reaction on 6Li. The impact of photoneutrons on the absorbed dose to water and on the response of a typical ionization chamber as well as three different types of TLD chips was quantified and was as expected found to be very

  10. Influence of external magnetic field on laser breakdown plasma in aqueous Au nanoparticles colloidal solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Serkov, A A; Simakin, A V; Kuzmin, P G; Mikhailova, G N; Antonova, L Kh; Troitskii, A V; Kuzmin, G P; Shafeev, G A


    Influence of permanent magnetic field up to 7.5 T on plasma emission and laser-assisted Au nanoparticles fragmentation in water is experimentally studied. It is found that presence of magnetic field causes the breakdown plasma emission to start earlier regarding to laser pulse. Field presence also accelerates the fragmentation of nanoparticles down to a few nanometers. Dependence of Au NPs fragmentation rate in water on magnetic field intensity is investigated. The results are discussed on the basis of laser-induced plasma interaction with magnetic field.

  11. Attribution bias and social anxiety in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie M. Achim


    Full Text Available Studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia have produced mixed results, whereas such biases have been more consistently reported in people with anxiety disorders. Anxiety comorbidities are frequent in schizophrenia, in particular social anxiety disorder, which could influence their patterns of attribution biases. The objective of the present study was thus to determine if individuals with schizophrenia and a comorbid social anxiety disorder (SZ+ show distinct attribution biases as compared with individuals with schizophrenia without social anxiety (SZ− and healthy controls. Attribution biases were assessed with the Internal, Personal, and Situational Attributions Questionnaire in 41 individual with schizophrenia and 41 healthy controls. Results revealed the lack of the normal externalizing bias in SZ+, whereas SZ− did not significantly differ from healthy controls on this dimension. The personalizing bias was not influenced by social anxiety but was in contrast linked with delusions, with a greater personalizing bias in individuals with current delusions. Future studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia should carefully document symptom presentation, including social anxiety.

  12. Integrating sensory evaluation in adaptive conjoint analysis to elaborate the conflicting influence of intrinsic and extrinsic attributes on food choice. (United States)

    Hoppert, Karin; Mai, Robert; Zahn, Susann; Hoffmann, Stefan; Rohm, Harald


    Sensory properties and packaging information are factors which considerably contribute to food choice. We present a new methodology in which sensory preference testing was integrated in adaptive conjoint analysis. By simultaneous variation of intrinsic and extrinsic attributes on identical levels, this procedure allows assessing the importance of attribute/level combinations on product selection. In a set-up with nine pair-wise comparisons and four subsequent calibration assessments, 101 young consumers evaluated vanilla yoghurt which was varied in fat content (four levels), sugar content (two levels) and flavour intensity (two levels); the same attribute/level combinations were also presented as extrinsic information. The results indicate that the evaluation of a particular attribute may largely diverge in intrinsic and in extrinsic processing. We noticed from our utility values that, for example, the acceptance of yoghurt increases with an increasing level of the actual fat content, whereas acceptance diminishes when a high fat content is labelled on the product. This article further implicates that neglecting these diverging relationships may lead to an over- or underestimation of the importance of an attribute for food choice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A statistical modelling study of the abrupt millennial-scale climate changes focusing on the influence of external forcings

    CERN Document Server

    Mitsui, Takahito


    Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events are abrupt millennial-scale climate changes mainly detected in the North Atlantic region during the last glacial cycle. The frequency of the DO events varied in time, supposedly because of changes in background climate conditions. Here, we investigate the influences of external forcings on DO events with statistical modelling. We assume two types of generic stochastic dynamical systems models (double-well potential-type and oscillator-type), forced by the northern hemisphere summer insolation change and/or the global ice volume change. The models are calibrated by maximizing their likelihood and compared using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). Among the models, the stochastic oscillator model forced by both insolation and ice volume changes is favored by the NGRIP calcium ion data. The BIC scores provide positive evidence for the ice volume forcing in the presence of the insolation forcing but weak evidence for the insolation forcing in the presence of the ice volume for...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Balasaniantc


    Full Text Available Tuberculosis epidemic process is characterized by decreasing in the basic epidemiological indexes which is possible the favorable tendency. Inside the process gradual and steady changing from drug sensitive on drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis population has taken place that has the consequence various organizational and medical complexities of therapy of the patients. Simultaneously population of tuberculosis patients is also change with increasing the proportion of patients with a combination of tuberculosis and HIV-infection. Lacks of HIV early detection, growth of HIV patients with prolonged stages of HIV and wide spreading of tuberculosis contamination among population become the reason of fast transformation latent tuberculous infection to disease. Antiviral therapy actively appointed to HIV patients does not render influence on this process yet.  

  15. The influence of phytochemical composition and resulting sensory attributes on preference for salad rocket (Eruca sativa) accessions by consumers of varying TAS2R38 diplotype. (United States)

    Bell, Luke; Methven, Lisa; Wagstaff, Carol


    Seven accessions of Eruca sativa ("salad rocket") were subjected to a randomised consumer assessment. Liking of appearance and taste attributes were analysed, as well as perceptions of bitterness, hotness, pepperiness and sweetness. Consumers were genotyped for TAS2R38 status to determine if liking is influenced by perception of bitter compounds such as glucosinolates (GSLs) and isothiocyanates (ITCs). Responses were combined with previously published data relating to phytochemical content and sensory data in Principal Component Analysis to determine compounds influencing liking/perceptions. Hotness, not bitterness, is the main attribute on which consumers base their liking of rocket. Some consumers rejected rocket based on GSL/ITC concentrations, whereas some preferred hotness. Bitter perception did not significantly influence liking of accessions, despite PAV/PAV 'supertasters' scoring higher for this attribute. High sugar-GSL/ITC ratios significantly reduce perceptions of hotness and bitterness for some consumers. Importantly the GSL glucoraphanin does not impart significant influence on liking or perception traits. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of helical external driven current on nonlinear resistive tearing mode evolution and saturation in tokamaks (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Wang, S.; Ma, Z. W.


    The influences of helical driven currents on nonlinear resistive tearing mode evolution and saturation are studied by using a three-dimensional toroidal resistive magnetohydrodynamic code (CLT). We carried out three types of helical driven currents: stationary, time-dependent amplitude, and thickness. It is found that the helical driven current is much more efficient than the Gaussian driven current used in our previous study [S. Wang et al., Phys. Plasmas 23(5), 052503 (2016)]. The stationary helical driven current cannot persistently control tearing mode instabilities. For the time-dependent helical driven current with f c d = 0.01 and δ c d < 0.04 , the island size can be reduced to its saturated level that is about one third of the initial island size. However, if the total driven current increases to about 7% of the total plasma current, tearing mode instabilities will rebound again due to the excitation of the triple tearing mode. For the helical driven current with time dependent strength and thickness, the reduction speed of the radial perturbation component of the magnetic field increases with an increase in the driven current and then saturates at a quite low level. The tearing mode is always controlled even for a large driven current.

  17. [The application of external knee stabilizers - Influence on mechanical stabilization and physical performance]. (United States)

    Reer, R; Nagel, V; Paul, B; Edelmann, H; Braumann, K M


    The aim of the study was, to assess the influence of a knee brace on the development of anterior instability after anterior cruciate ligament rupture and to test aptitude for physical strain. 46 subjects with arthroscopically proven anterior cruciate ligament rupture were divided equally in a randomised order into two groups. Both groups carried out a standardized physical therapy program, while one group (0) received additional stabilization by means of a functional knee brace (SofTec, Bauerfeind). In addition, important features of the brace (stabilization capacity, safety perception and physical performance) were tested and compared to the non-braced contralateral leg among 23 healthy physical education students by means of a standardized scaled questionnaire (observational study). 0 showed lower (p < 0.05) development of the anterior instability by 46 % and lower (p < 0.05) reduction in circumference of the femur muscles by 25 %. Increasing the time interval between accident and beginning of the brace treatment, increased the difference of the therapeutical effect of the brace. In the observational study, the brace received a better evaluation regarding all test parameters. The reduction of developing anterior instability by means of a brace should facilitate - apart from an individual operation-time-arrangement - especially a conservative approach within the framework of anterior instability and physical activity. Aside from the improvement of the mechanical stabilization, indications for suitability in strain situations could be detected for the tested brace.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Майрамгуль Зайнабидиновна Ташиева


    Full Text Available This article deals with the foreign policy of the Kyrgyz Republic and the influence of geopolitical factors on the political processes in the country. The paper presents a periodization of foreign policy in modern Kyrgyzstan concerning the United States. The author reviewed the draft F. Starr's "Greater Central Asia" and analyzed the "theory of controlled chaos". Big attention is paid to the relationships of Kyrgyzstan and Russia , the USA and China, on the one hand, and with the nearest neighbors in the region, on the other. The paper analyzes the project for the construction of the railway "China - Kyrgyzstan - Uzbekistan". Russia takes one of the central points in the paper. Much attention is paid to the economic sphere, namely the construction of hydroelectric power. Due to the growing number of labor migrants from Kyrgyzstan to Russia , the article discusses the legislative framework in this area. The author lists the key factors that cause social and political problems between Kyrgyzstan and neighboring countries. This paper discusses in detail issues related to the enclaves and the disputed territories.DOI:

  19. How do health information and sensory attributes influence consumer choice for dairy products? Evidence from a field experiment in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekele, A.D.; Beuving, J.J.; Ruben, R.


    Purpose: The research aims to examine the effect of health information and sensory attributes on consumer’s propensity to upgrade and their willingness to pay for pasteurized milk in Ethiopia. Design/methodology/approach: We used a framed market experiment with 160 participants in 14 central

  20. How do health information and sensory attributes influence consumer choice for dairy products? Evidence from a field experiment in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekele, Alemayehu Dekeba; Beuving, Joost; Ruben, Ruerd


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of health information and sensory attributes on consumer’s propensity to upgrade and their willingness to pay (WTP) for pasteurized milk in Ethiopia. Design/methodology/approach: The authors used a framed market experiment with 160

  1. Survival or Mortality : Does Risk Attribute Framing Influence Decision-Making Behavior in a Discrete Choice Experiment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldwijk, Jorien; Essers, Brigitte A B; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Dirksen, Carmen D; Smit, Henriette A; de Wit, G Ardine


    OBJECTIVE: To test how attribute framing in a discrete choice experiment (DCE) affects respondents' decision-making behavior and their preferences. METHODS: Two versions of a DCE questionnaire containing nine choice tasks were distributed among a representative sample of the Dutch population aged 55

  2. External trade development in 2010


    Český statistický úřad


    Analysis of the external trade development of the CR in total (turnover, export, import, trade balance). Main factors, which influence the external trade development. Territorial structure (by main blocks and selected countries) and commodity structure (by SITC, rev. 4) of the external trade. Comparisons of the CR external trade development with the external trade development of the other member states of the EU.

  3. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.


    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  4. BNNTs under the influence of external electric field as potential new drug delivery vehicle of Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmanzadeh, Davood, E-mail:; Ghazanfary, Samereh


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Solvation energies show that the BNNTs/amino acids complex stabilizes in presence of solvent. • The adsorption process is sensitive to the external electric field. • The electric field is a suitable method for adsorption and storage of amino acids on BNNTs. - Abstract: The interaction of Glu (Glutamic acid), Lys (Lysine), Gly (Glycine) and Ser (Serine) amino acids with different polarities and (9, 0) zigzag single-wall boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) with various lengths in the presence and absence of external electric field (EF) in gas and solvent phases, are studied using density functional theory. It is found that interaction of Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids with BNNTs in both phases is energetically favorable. From solvation energy calculations, it can be seen that the BNNTs/amino acid complex dissolution in water is spontaneous. The adsorption energies and quantum molecular descriptors changed in the presence of external EF. Therefore, the study of BNNTs/amino acid complex under influence of external electric field is very important in proposing or designing new drug delivery systems in the presence of external EF. Results indicate that Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids can be adsorbed considerably on the BNNTs in the existence of external electric field. Our results showed that the BNNTs can act as a suitable drug delivery vehicle of Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids within biological systems and strength of adsorption and rate of drug release can be controlled by the external EF.

  5. Introducing Emotioncy as an Invisible Force Controlling Causal Decisions: A Case of Attribution Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pishghadam Reza


    Full Text Available Given the prominence of studies aimed at determining the factors influencing causal judgments, this study attempts to introduce the newly-developed concept of emotioncy as one of the guiding factors pushing attribution judgments toward a certain spectrum. To this end, two scales of attribution and emotioncy were designed using ten hypothetical situations. A total number of 309 participants filled out the scales. The construct validity of the scales was substantiated through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Afterwards, structural equation modeling (SEM was utilized to examine the possible relationships among the sub-constructs of attribution and emotioncy scales. The results indicated that as the participants’ emotioncy level increases, it becomes more likely for them to attribute probable causes to external factors. Moreover, it was revealed that while the involved individuals attribute causes to external factors, the exvolved ones attribute them to internal factors. In the end, implications of the findings were discussed in the realm of judgment and decision making.

  6. Influence of an external axial magnetic field on betatron radiation from the interaction of a circularly polarized laser with plasma (United States)

    Du, Bao; Wang, Xiao-Fang


    In this paper, theoretical analyses and numerical calculations are carried out to investigate the influence of an externally applied axial constant magnetic field on electrons' betatron radiation when an ultra-short, circularly polarized laser pulse of a peak intensity I0 = 5 × 1019 W/cm2 propagates in plasma of an electron density n0 = 1020/cm3. Ring-like x-ray radiation is emitted from the electrons' betatron oscillations. The applied magnetic field can modulate the resonance process between an electron's betatron oscillation and the laser electric field, and the electron energy gain from the direct laser acceleration is thus changed. When a magnetic field of strength B0=3 × 103 T is applied, which is in anti-parallel to the self-generated axial magnetic field, both the trapping efficiency of electrons by the wakefield and the maximum accelerated energy are increased. The maximum electron energy, the peak of angular radiation, and the total radiation energy are increased by 11.0%, 45.6%, and 41.1%, respectively, and the radiation spectra are blue-shifted significantly.

  7. Volatility Properties of Internally- and Externally-Mixed Ambient Aerosols at an Anthropogenically-influenced Forest Site in Southeastern USA (United States)

    Khlystov, A.; Subramanian, R.


    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from biogenic sources has a significant contribution to ambient aerosol loadings in Southeastern USA and thus contributes to adverse health effects of air pollution and influences regional and global climate. Volatility properties of biogenic SOA determine its concentration, reactivity, and lifetime, but are still largely unknown. As part of a larger study to assess the effect of biogenic SOA on aerosol optical properties, a set of instruments, including scanning mobility sizers (SMPS), single particle soot photometer (SP2), and a thermodenuder, was deployed during June 2015 at a Duke Forest site near Chapel Hill, NC. The site is characterized by a significant contribution of both biogenic and urban (mostly traffic) sources. Measurements of changes in aerosol volume and optical size upon heating in the thermodenuder at different temperatures are used to derive volatility properties of the ambient aerosol. A limited set of experiments was carried out using the tandem differential mobility analysis (TDMA) approach to investigate whether the ambient aerosol at the Duke Forest site is internally mixed with respect to its volatility properties. In this presentation we will discuss equilibrium and kinetic aspects of aerosol volatility observed during this study and implications of external vs. internal mixing for derivation of bulk volatility properties of ambient aerosol.

  8. Influence of apixaban on commonly used coagulation assays: results from the Belgian national External Quality Assessment Scheme. (United States)

    Van Blerk, M; Bailleul, E; Chatelain, B; Demulder, A; Devreese, K; Douxfils, J; Jacquemin, M; Jochmans, K; Mullier, F; Wijns, W; China, B; Vernelen, K; Soumali, M R


    The Belgian national External Quality Assessment Scheme performed a survey to assess the effect of the direct oral anticoagulant apixaban on the coagulation assays prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen and antithrombin as performed with a large number of reagent/instrument combinations. Four lyophilized plasma samples spiked with apixaban (0, 41, 94 and 225 ng/mL) were sent to the 195 Belgian and Luxembourg clinical laboratories performing coagulation testing. PT and aPTT were barely influenced at the concentrations tested. At 225 ng/mL apixaban, PT and aPTT clotting times were only 1.15 times longer than at 0 ng/mL. Among PT reagents, RecombiPlasTin 2G® showed a slightly higher sensitivity with 225 ng/mL apixaban prolonging the PT clotting time 1.3-fold. Among aPTT reagents, there was no appreciable difference in sensitivity. Fibrinogen results were unaffected by the presence of apixaban, but antithrombin activity was considerably overestimated when measured with a FXa-based assay. At 225 ng/mL apixaban, the median percentage increase in antithrombin level was 31% when measured with the Liquid Antithrombin® reagent and 44% with the Innovance Antithrombin® reagent. Our data provide clinical laboratories with useful information on the impact of apixaban on their routine coagulation assays. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Family child care providers' self-perceived role in obesity prevention: working with children, parents, and external influences. (United States)

    Rosenthal, Marjorie S; Crowley, Angela A; Curry, Leslie


    To describe the perspective and strategies of family child care providers (FCCPs) to reduce children's suboptimal weight trajectories. In-person, in-depth interviews with FCCPs. Family child care homes. Seventeen FCCPs caring for children 6 weeks to 9 years old; 94% caring for children paying with a state subsidy. Strategies of FCCP to reduce children's suboptimal weight trajectories. Constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis. Family child care providers described 3 core strategies: (1) improving children's behavior, (2) engaging and educating parents, and (3) leveraging influences external to their relationship with parents to effect positive change and to avoid parental conflict. These strategies were framed within their knowledge of child development, parental communication, and community services. The findings suggest that FCCPs' role in obesity prevention may be framed within knowledge that may be commonly expected of a child care provider. Partnerships between public health policy makers and FCCP may reduce obesigenic environments by employing training and resources that link obesity prevention and child care provider expertise. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. What's in Your Box? Promoting Self-Reflection and Analysis of External Influences on Gender Expression and Sexual Orientation Attitudes (United States)

    Priest, Hannah M.


    This lesson plan is designed to stimulate awareness and reflection on personal attitudes toward gender expression and sexual orientation. Participants are guided to identify and analyze how external influences from various socialization agents shape gender and sexual orientation norms and, consequently, personal attitudes about gender expression…

  11. The Interactional Effects of the Internal and External University Environment, and the Influence of Personal Values, on Satisfaction among International Postgraduate Students (United States)

    Arambewela, Rodney; Hall, John


    The article investigates the interactional effects of internal and external university learning environments, and the influence of personal values, in the satisfaction formation process of international postgraduate students from Asia. Past research on student satisfaction has been narrowly focused on certain aspects of the university internal…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Giuroiu


    Full Text Available The present study aimed at assesssing – by clinical, histological and radiological investigations – the influence of some external factors on the pulp-dentin complex, and at providing a causal interpretation of the structural changes observed. Materials and methods. Clinical and radiological exams were performed on 65 old patients with ages between 60-75, and also on 40 young patients with ages between 20-35, presenting different dental-periodontal pathologies. The pulp-dentin complex was submitted to a morphopathological examination, to highlight the structural changes observed at microscopic level. Fragments of dental pulp were imersed in a 4% formaldehyde solution with phosphate buffer 0.1 M., pH 7.2, for 12 -14 hours, at a temperature of 4ºC, and 3-5 µm thick slices were prepared. The slices were coloured with hematoxylin-eosine (HE, by the trichromic technique – Masson. Photographies were taken with a Zeiss microscope, with Kodak 200 ASA. Results. Significant differences were observed, between the two groups of patients, as to the external factors that produce structural changes on pulp-dentin organ. In the group of young patients dental caries and coronal fillings prevailed, while the group of old patients was mostly associated with atrition and chronic marginal periodontitis. Out of the 40 young patients, 30 presented chronic dental caries (75%, while, among the 65 old patients, only 24 presented dental caries (36.9%. The percentages of coronary fillings between the two study groups were close, which could be considered as one of the causes producing changes in the pulp-dentin organ, following aggresive preparation of cavities, the action of materials used for the protection of pulp-dentin complex or of the materials used for coronry fillings. Conclusions. Dental pulp has a remarkable ability to counteract the action of harmful factors, producing a mineral barrier and stimulating the reparatory processes. Changes in the endodontic

  13. Technical attributes, health attribute, consumer attributes and their roles in adoption intention of healthcare wearable technology. (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Luo, Meifen; Nie, Rui; Zhang, Yan


    This paper aims to explore factors influencing the healthcare wearable technology adoption intention from perspectives of technical attributes (perceived convenience, perceived irreplaceability, perceived credibility and perceived usefulness), health attribute (health belief) and consumer attributes (consumer innovativeness, conspicuous consumption, informational reference group influence and gender difference). By integrating technology acceptance model, health belief model, snob effect and conformity and reference group theory, hypotheses and research model are proposed. The empirical investigation (N=436) collects research data through questionnaire. Results show that the adoption intention of healthcare wearable technology is influenced by technical attributes, health attribute and consumer attributes simultaneously. For technical attributes, perceived convenience and perceived credibility both positively affect perceived usefulness, and perceived usefulness influences adoption intention. The relation between perceived irreplaceability and perceived usefulness is only supported by males. For health attribute, health belief affects perceived usefulness for females. For consumer attributes, conspicuous consumption and informational reference group influence can significantly moderate the relation between perceived usefulness and adoption intention and the relation between consumer innovativeness and adoption intention respectively. What's more, consumer innovativeness significantly affects adoption intention for males. This paper aims to discuss technical attributes, health attribute and consumer attributes and their roles in the adoption intention of healthcare wearable technology. Findings may provide enlightenment to differentiate product developing and marketing strategies and provide some implications for clinical medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: How Teachers' Attributions, Expectations, and Stereotypes Influence the Learning Opportunities Afforded Aboriginal Students (United States)

    Riley, Tasha; Ungerleider, Charles


    Educational decisions made about students often have consequences for their subsequent employment and financial well-being, therefore it is imperative to determine whether teacher decisions are discriminatory. This study examines how factors such as race, class, and gender influence the decisions teachers make regarding Aboriginal students. The…

  15. Survival or Mortality: Does Risk Attribute Framing Influence Decision-Making Behavior in a Discrete Choice Experiment?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veldwijk, Jorien; Essers, Brigitte A.B; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Dirksen, Carmen D; Smit, Henriette A; de Wit, G. Ardine


    ..., which would limit the validity of the study outcomes. The framing that is used to present risk information is one of the many aspects of communicating risk information which influences how respondents interpret, perceive, and value risks [1,6,7] . From the early experiments of Tversky and Kahneman [6,7] and others [8–12] , it is known tha...

  16. A qualitative systematic review of internal and external influences on shared decision-making in all health care settings. (United States)

    Truglio-Londrigan, Marie; Slyer, Jason T; Singleton, Joanne K; Worral, Priscilla


    The objective of this review is to identify and synthesize the best available evidence related to the meaningfulness of internal and external influences on shared-decision making for adult patients and health care providers in all health care settings.The specific questions to be answered are: BACKGROUND: Patient-centered care is emphasized in today's healthcare arena. This emphasis is seen in the works of the International Alliance of Patients' Organizations (IAOP) who describe patient-centered healthcare as care that is aimed at addressing the needs and preferences of patients. The IAOP presents five principles which are foundational to the achievement of patient-centered healthcare: respect, choice, policy, access and support, as well as information. These five principles are further described as:Within the description of these five principles the idea of shared decision-making is clearly evident.The concept of shared decision-making began to appear in the literature in the 1990s. It is defined as a "process jointly shared by patients and their health care provider. It aims at helping patients play an active role in decisions concerning their health, which is the ultimate goal of patient-centered care." The details of the shared decision-making process are complex and consist of a series of steps including:Three overall representative decision-making models are noted in contemporary literature. These three models include: paternalistic, informed decision-making, and shared decision-making. The paternalistic model is an autocratic style of decision-making where the healthcare provider carries out the care from the perspective of knowing what is best for the patient and therefore makes all decisions. The informed decision-making model takes place as the information needed to make decisions is conveyed to the patient and the patient makes the decisions without the healthcare provider involvement. Finally, the shared decision-making model is representative of a

  17. Analysis of the influence of external factors on efficiency of use of resource potential and economic growth of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Vasiliev


    Full Text Available In the article are described and analyzed the influence of factors of external and internal environments on maintaining the planned economic growth, efficient use of the resource potential of the regional economic complex. Are provided methods of analysis and comprehensive measures to maintain the planned pace of economic growth of the region, expansion of competitive advantages. Enlargement and generalization determine the impact of economic environmental factors, in accordance with the duration of optimization and changes in the business cycle, provide a high level of confidence in the estimates of the impact of the macro environment on the process of achieving economic success, efficient use of the resource potential of the regional economic complex. Analysis of the internal conditions of region is carried out by management on the basis of establishing the optimal values of the distribution of the resource potential for high-priority, economically viable, and socially important areas of efficient use of logistical, labor, information, and natural resources, analysis of the current or having a tendency to the formation of informal communities in the sectoral components of economic activities, industrial complexes and social services. The possibilities of the availability and abilities of the region to influence the structural components in achieving the economic and financial goals of the activity are considered, including ensuring sustainable dynamics in increasing the efficiency of regional production, providing competitive advantages in the use of consumed resources. The factors proposed for consideration, different management of the regional economy, contribute to the creation of both formal and informal organizational and economic communities, taking into account the interests of all its participants. In addition, mechanisms and tools are proposed that facilitate the creation of favorable conditions for participants in informal clusters

  18. 'Manage and mitigate punitive regulatory measures, enhance the corporate image, influence public policy': industry efforts to shape understanding of tobacco-attributable deforestation. (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Carrillo Botero, Natalia; Novotny, Thomas


    Deforestation due to tobacco farming began to raise concerns in the mid 1970s. Over the next 40 years, tobacco growing increased significantly and shifted markedly to low- and middle-income countries. The percentage of deforestation caused by tobacco farming reached 4 % globally by the early 2000s, although substantially higher in countries such as China (18 %), Zimbabwe (20 %), Malawi (26 %) and Bangladesh (>30 %). Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have argued that tobacco-attributable deforestation is not a serious problem, and that the industry has addressed the issue through corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. After reviewing the existing scholarly literature on tobacco and deforestation, we analysed industry sources of public information to understand how the industry framed deforestation, its key causes, and policy responses. To analyse industry strategies between the 1970s and early 2000s to shape understanding of deforestation caused by tobacco farming and curing, the Truth Tobacco Documents Library was systematically searched. The above sources were compiled and triangulated, thematically and chronologically, to derive a narrative of how the industry has framed the problem of, and solutions to, tobacco-attributable deforestation. The industry sought to undermine responses to tobacco-attributable deforestation by emphasising the economic benefits of production in LMICs, blaming alternative causes, and claiming successful forestation efforts. To support these tactics, the industry lobbied at the national and international levels, commissioned research, and colluded through front groups. There was a lack of effective action to address tobacco-attributable deforestation, and indeed an escalation of the problem, during this period. The findings suggest the need for independent data on the varied environmental impacts of the tobacco industry, awareness of how the industry seeks to work with environmental researchers and groups to

  19. The use of 3d scanner for testing changes in shape of human limbs under the influence of external mechanical load (United States)

    Kasperska, Kamila; Wieczorowski, Michał; Krolczyk, Jolanta B.


    Three-dimensional scanning is used in many fields: medicine, architecture, industry, reverse engineering. The aim of the article was to analyze the changes in the shape of the limbs under the influence of a mechanical external load using the method of three-dimensional scanner uses white light technology. The paper presents a system of human movement, passive part - skeleton and active part - the muscles, and principles of their interaction, which results in a change of the position of the body. Furthermore, by using the 3D scan, the differences in appearance of the arm and leg depending on the size of the external load in different positions have been presented. The paper shows that with increasing load, which muscles must prevent, increases the volume of certain parts of the legs, while another parts of them will be reduced. Results of the research using three-dimensional scanner allow determining what impact on changing the legs shape has an external mechanical load.

  20. Peer Preference and Friendship Quantity in Children with Externalizing Behavior: Distinct Influences on Bully Status and Victim Status. (United States)

    Jia, Mary; Mikami, Amori Yee


    This study investigated the predictive relations between externalizing behavior, peer preference and friendship quantity, and bully status and victim status among children becoming acquainted with one another for the first time. Children ages 6.8-9.8 years (24 with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; 113 typically developing; 72 girls) attended a 2-week summer day camp grouped into same-age, same-sex classrooms with previously unacquainted peers. Externalizing behavior (via parent and teacher ratings) was measured before the start of camp; peer preference and friendship quantity (via peer nominations) were measured in the middle of camp, and bully status and victim status (via peer nominations) were measured at the end of camp. Low peer preference mediated the positive association between externalizing behavior and bully status. Both peer preference and friendship quantity moderated the relation between externalizing behavior and bully status as well as between externalizing behavior and victim status; whereas high peer preference protected against both bully status and victim status, friendship quantity protected against victim status but exacerbated bully status. Some gender differences were found within these pathways. Peer preference, compared to friendship quantity, appears to have a more consistently protective role in the relation between externalizing behavior and bully status as well as victim status.

  1. Influence of Japanese consumer gender and age on sensory attributes and preference (a case study on deep-fried peanuts). (United States)

    Miyagi, Atsushi


    Detailed exploration of sensory perception as well as preference across gender and age for a certain food is very useful for developing a vendible food commodity related to physiological and psychological motivation for food preference. Sensory tests including color, sweetness, bitterness, fried peanut aroma, textural preference and overall liking of deep-fried peanuts with varying frying time (2, 4, 6, 9, 12 and 15 min) at 150 °C were carried out using 417 healthy Japanese consumers. To determine the influence of gender and age on sensory evaluation, systematic statistical analysis including one-way analysis of variance, polynomial regression analysis and multiple regression analysis was conducted using the collected data. The results indicated that females were more sensitive to bitterness than males. This may affect sensory preference; female subjects favored peanuts prepared with a shorter frying time more than male subjects did. With advancing age, textural preference played a more important role in overall preference. Older subjects liked deeper-fried peanuts, which are more brittle, more than younger subjects did. In the present study, systematic statistical analysis based on collected sensory evaluation data using deep-fried peanuts was conducted and the tendency of sensory perception and preference across gender and age was clarified. These results may be useful for engineering optimal strategies to target specific segments to gain greater acceptance in the market. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Influence of external magnetic field, finite-size effects and chemical potential on the phase transition of a complex scalar field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcanti, E.; Castro, E.; Malbouisson, A.P.C. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas/MCTI, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Linhares, C.A. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    A scalar model is built, as a quantum field theory defined on a toroidal topology, to describe a phase transition in films subjected to periodic boundary conditions and influenced by an external and constant magnetic field. Criticality is studied and the relations between the critical temperature, the film thickness, the magnetic field strength and the chemical potential are investigated. Since the model describes a second-order phase transition a comparison with the Ginzburg-Landau theory is made. (orig.)

  3. Religiosity and Adolescent Substance Use in Central Mexico: Exploring the Influence of Internal and External Religiosity on Cigarette and Alcohol Use


    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Hoffman, Steven


    This study explores the multidimensional nature of religiosity on substance use among adolescents living in central Mexico. From a social capital perspective, this article investigates how external church attendance and internal religious importance interact to create differential pathways for adolescents, and how these pathways exert both risk and protective influences on Mexican youth. The data come from 506 self-identified Roman Catholic youth (ages 14–17) living in a semi-rural area in th...

  4. Natural landscape and stream segment attributes influencing the distribution and relative abundance of riverine smallmouth bass in Missouri (United States)

    Brewer, S.K.; Rabeni, C.F.; Sowa, S.P.; Annis, G.


    Protecting and restoring fish populations on a regional basis are most effective if the multiscale factors responsible for the relative quality of a fishery are known. We spatially linked Missouri's statewide historical fish collections to environmental features in a geographic information system, which was used as a basis for modeling the importance of landscape and stream segment features in supporting a population of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu. Decision tree analyses were used to develop probability-based models to predict statewide occurrence and within-range relative abundances. We were able to identify the range of smallmouth bass throughout Missouri and the probability of occurrence within that range by using a few broad landscape variables: the percentage of coarse-textured soils in the watershed, watershed relief, and the percentage of soils with low permeability in the watershed. The within-range relative abundance model included both landscape and stream segment variables. As with the statewide probability of occurrence model, soil permeability was particularly significant. The predicted relative abundance of smallmouth bass in stream segments containing low percentages of permeable soils was further influenced by channel gradient, stream size, spring-flow volume, and local slope. Assessment of model accuracy with an independent data set showed good concordance. A conceptual framework involving naturally occurring factors that affect smallmouth bass potential is presented as a comparative model for assessing transferability to other geographic areas and for studying potential land use and biotic effects. We also identify the benefits, caveats, and data requirements necessary to improve predictions and promote ecological understanding. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  5. Masticatory sensory-motor changes after an experimental chewing test influenced by pain catastrophizing and neck-pain-related disability in patients with headache attributed to temporomandibular disorders. (United States)

    La Touche, Roy; Paris-Alemany, Alba; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; Pardo-Montero, Joaquín; Angulo-Díaz-Parreño, Santiago; Fernández-Carnero, Josué


    Recent research has shown a relationship of craniomandibular disability with neck-pain-related disability has been shown. However, there is still insufficient information demonstrating the influence of neck pain and disability in the sensory-motor activity in patients with headache attributed to temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of neck-pain-related disability on masticatory sensory-motor variables. An experimental case-control study investigated 83 patients with headache attributed to TMD and 39 healthy controls. Patients were grouped according to their scores on the neck disability index (NDI) (mild and moderate neck disability). Initial assessment included the pain catastrophizing scale and the Headache Impact Test-6. The protocol consisted of baseline measurements of pressure pain thresholds (PPT) and pain-free maximum mouth opening (MMO). Individuals were asked to perform the provocation chewing test, and measurements were taken immediately after and 24 hours later. During the test, patients were assessed for subjective feelings of fatigue (VAFS) and pain intensity. VAFS was higher at 6 minutes (mean 51.7; 95% CI: 50.15-53.26) and 24 hours after (21.08; 95% CI: 18.6-23.5) for the group showing moderate neck disability compared with the mild neck disability group (6 minutes, 44.16; 95% CI 42.65-45.67/ 24 hours after, 14.3; 95% CI: 11.9-16.7) and the control group. The analysis shows a decrease in the pain-free MMO only in the group of moderate disability 24 hours after the test. PPTs of the trigeminal region decreased immediately in all groups, whereas at 24 hours, a decrease was observed in only the groups of patients. PPTs of the cervical region decreased in only the group with moderate neck disability 24 hours after the test. The strongest negative correlation was found between pain-free MMO immediately after the test and NDI in both the mild (r = -0.49) and moderate (r = -0.54) neck disability

  6. Influence of nonuniform external magnetic fields and anode--cathode shaping on magnetic insulation in coaxial transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostrom, M.A.


    Coaxial transmission lines, used to transfer the high voltage pulse into the diode region of a relativistic electron beam generator, have been studied using the two-dimensional time-dependent fully relativistic and electromagnetic particle simulation code CCUBE. A simple theory of magnetic insulation that agrees well with simulation results for a straight cylindrical coax in a uniform external magnetic field is used to interpret the effects of anode--cathode shaping and nonuniform external magnetic fields. Loss of magnetic insulation appears to be minimized by satisfying two conditions: (1) the cathode surface should follow a flux surface of the external magnetic field; (2) the anode should then be shaped to insure that the magnetic insulation impedance, including transients, is always greater than the effective load impedance wherever there is an electron flow in the anode--cathode gap.

  7. Influence of Pterodon emarginatus Vogel on physical and chemical attributes of the ground and nutritional value of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf in silvipastoral system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Lempp


    Full Text Available Sustainable cattle beef production has been associated with woody trees species in grassland area. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of Sucupira Branca trees (Pterodon emarginatus in physical and chemical properties of soil and on the quality of forage in Silvipastoral Systems. The study was carried out in Nioaque-MS, Brazil. In areas occupied with grassland of Brachiaria decumbens, predominantly shaded by trees of Sucupira – Branca, five adult trees had been chosen, in the surroundings of which were drawn six transects leased to angles of 60° between each other. At intervals of five meters along these transects were centralized sampling plots 30 m away, collecting samples from around litter, grass and soil. Forage was analyzed for crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD. For the soil the studied attributes were: bulk density, macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity, penetration resistance, levels of exchangeable magnesium and potassium. The data were analyzed by simple regressions and correlation. It was concluded that: the organic material in the litter affects positively the physical attributes of soil, improving structural quality; and the presence of trees affects the nutritional value of grass, allowing increased levels of CP and NDF and reducing IVDMD.

  8. The influence of external subsidies on diet, growth and Hg concentrations of freshwater sport fish: implications for management and fish consumption advisories (United States)

    Lepak, J.M.; Hooten, M.B.; Johnson, B.M.


    Mercury (Hg) contamination in sport fish is a global problem. In freshwater systems, food web structure, sport fish sex, size, diet and growth rates influence Hg bioaccumulation. Fish stocking is a common management practice worldwide that can introduce external energy and contaminants into freshwater systems. Thus, stocking can alter many of the factors that influence Hg concentrations in sport fish. Here we evaluated the influence of external subsidies, in the form of hatchery-raised rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss on walleye Sander vitreus diet, growth and Hg concentrations in two freshwater systems. Stocking differentially influenced male and female walleye diets and growth, producing a counterintuitive size-contamination relationship. Modeling indicated that walleye growth rate and diet were important explanatory variables when predicting Hg concentrations. Thus, hatchery contributions to freshwater systems in the form of energy and contaminants can influence diet, growth and Hg concentrations in sport fish. Given the extensive scale of fish stocking, and the known health risks associated with Hg contamination, this represents a significant issue for managers monitoring and manipulating freshwater food web structures, and policy makers attempting to develop fish consumption advisories to protect human health in stocked systems.

  9. Challenges in probabilistic event attribution in African climates (Invited) (United States)

    Otto, F. E.; Allen, M. R.; Massey, N.


    Global climate change is almost certainly affecting the magnitude and frequency of extreme weather and hydrological events around the world. However, whether and to what extent the occurrence of an extreme weather event or the impacts of such an event on, agriculture, infrastructure, and livelihoods can be attributed to climate change remains a challenging question. With the introduction of the work programme on loss and damage associated with the impacts of climate change in developing countries on the UNFCCC agenda finding answers to this question has become even more important. Probabilistic event attribution (PEA) provides a method of evaluating the extent to which human-induced climate change is affecting localised weather events and impacts of such events that relies on good observations as well as climate modelling. The overall approach is to simulate, with as realistic a model as possible and accounting as far as possible for modelling uncertainties, both the statistics of observed weather and the statistics of the weather that would have occurred had specific external drivers of climate change been absent. The majority of studies applying PEA have focused on quantifying attributable risk, with changes in risk depending on an assumption of 'all other things being equal', including natural drivers of climate change and vulnerability. The fraction of attributable risk (FAR) to human-induced climate change is defined as the change in the probability of an event occurring due to human influence on the climate compared to the corresponding probability in a world not influenced by humans. We will present first results of a recently started project on 'Attributing the impacts of external climate drivers on extreme weather in Africa' applying PEA, which will provide an important step towards quantifying the link between climate change and extreme weather in Africa. However, especially in an African context, with the strong influence of global sea surface

  10. The Interactive Influences of Friend Deviance and Reward Dominance on the Development of Externalizing Behavior during Middle Adolescence (United States)

    Goodnight, Jackson A.; Bates, John E.; Newman, Joseph P.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.


    This study investigated the interactive effects of friend deviance and reward dominance on the development of externalizing behavior of adolescents in the Child Development Project. Reward dominance was assessed at age 16 by performance on a computer-presented card-playing game in which participants had the choice of either continuing or…

  11. Internal, external and location factors influencing cofiring of biomass with coal in the U.S. northern region (United States)

    Francisco X. Aguilar; Michael E. Goerndt; Nianfu Song; Stephen R. Shifley


    The use of biomass as a source of energy has been identified as a viable option to diminish reliance on fossil fuels. We parameterized the effect of selected internal (e.g. coal-fire presence), external (e.g. price and renewable energy mandates) and location (e.g. biomass availability, infrastructure) variables on the likelihood of using biomass in cofiring with coal...

  12. Attributes affecting the medical school primary care experience. (United States)

    Jerant, Anthony; Srinivasan, Malathi; Bertakis, Klea D; Azari, Rahman; Pan, Richard J; Kravitz, Richard L


    Favorable primary care (PC) experiences might encourage more medical students to pursue generalist careers, yet academicians know little about which attributes influence the medical school PC experience. The authors sought to identify such attributes and weight their importance. Semistructured interviews with 16 academic generalist leaders of family medicine, general internal medicine, and general pediatrics led to the development of a Web-based survey, administered to a national sample of 126 generalist faculty. Survey respondents rated (on a nine-point Likert-like scale) the importance of each interview-generated PC medical school attribute and indicated (yes/no) whether outside experts' assessment of the attributes would be valid. The authors assessed interrater agreement. Interview thematic analysis generated 58 institutional attributes in four categories: informal curriculum (23), institutional infrastructure (6), educational/curricular infrastructure (6), and specific educational experiences (23). Of these 58, 31 (53%) had median importance ratings of >7 (highly important). For 14 of these (45%), more than two-thirds of respondents indicated external expert surveys would provide a valid assessment. Of the 23 informal curriculum attributes, 20 (87%) received highly important ratings; however, more than two-thirds of respondents believed that external expert survey ratings would be valid for only 4 (20%) of them. Strong agreement occurred among respondents across the generalist fields. Academic generalist educators identified several attributes as highly important in shaping the quality of the medical school PC experience. Informal curriculum attributes appeared particularly influential, but these attributes may not be validly assessed via expert surveys, suggesting the need for other measures.

  13. Qualitative assessment to determine internal and external factors influencing the origin of styrene oligomers pollution by polystyrene plastic in coastal marine environments. (United States)

    Kwon, Bum Gun; Chung, Seon-Yong; Park, Seung-Shik; Saido, Katsuhiko


    The objective of this study is to investigate the qualitative contribution of internal and external factors of the area contaminated by polystyrene (PS) in coastal marine environments. This study is based on the extensive results of monitoring the styrene oligomers (SOs) present in sand and seawater samples along various coastlines of the Pacific Ocean. Here, anthropogenic SOs is derived from PS during manufacture and use, and can provide clues about the origin of SOs by PS pollution. The monitoring results showed that, if the concentration of SOs in water is higher than those concentrations in beach sand, this area could be affected by PS plastic caused by an external factor. On the other hand, if the concentration of SOs is higher in the beach sand, the region can be mainly influenced by PS plastic derived from its own area. Unlike the case of an external factor, in this case (internal influence), it is possible to take policy measures of the area itself for the PS plastic problem. Thus, this study is motivated by the need of policy measures to establish a specific alternative to the problems of PS plastic pollution in ocean environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The influence of direct compression powder blend transfer method from the container to the tablet press on product critical quality attributes: a case study. (United States)

    Teżyk, Michał; Jakubowska, Emilia; Milczewska, Kasylda; Milanowski, Bartłomiej; Voelkel, Adam; Lulek, Janina


    The aim of this article is to compare the gravitational powder blend loading method to the tablet press and manual loading in terms of their influence on tablets' critical quality attributes (CQA). The results of the study can be of practical relevance to the pharmaceutical industry in the area of direct compression of low-dose formulations, which could be prone to content uniformity (CU) issues. In the preliminary study, particle size distribution (PSD) and surface energy of raw materials were determined using laser diffraction method and inverse gas chromatography, respectively. For trials purpose, a formulation containing two pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) was used. Tablet samples were collected during the compression progress to analyze their CQAs, namely assay and CU. Results obtained during trials indicate that tested direct compression powder blend is sensitive to applied powder handling method. Mild increase in both APIs content was observed during manual scooping. Gravitational approach (based on discharge into the drum) resulted in a decrease in CU, which is connected to a more pronounced assay increase at the end of tableting than in the case of manual loading. The correct design of blend transfer over single unit processes is an important issue and should be investigated during the development phase since it may influence the final product CQAs. The manual scooping method, although simplistic, can be a temporary solution to improve the results of API's content and uniformity when compared to industrial gravitational transfer.

  15. Copolymerization of Ethylene and Propylene Using 4th Generation Ziegler- Natta Catalyst: Influence of Cocatalyst, External Electron Donor and Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mehtarani


    Full Text Available Copolymerization of ethylene and propylene was investigated using a 4th generation phthalate Ziegler-Natta catalyst in normal hexane in a Buchi reactor. The effects of different mole fractions of [Al]/[Ti], [Si]/[Al] and various amounts of hydrogen on productivity and weight percent of ethylene on the product, were studied. In the copolymerization reactions, tri-isobutyl aluminum (TiBAl was used as cocatalyst instead of triethyl aluminum (TEAl because TiBAl produced a more amorphous copolymer. In molar ratio [TiBAl]/[Ti] = 480 the catalyst activity was at maximum and ethylene content in this ratio was at minimum. Cyclohexyl-methyldimethoxy silane was used as external donor. In molar ratio [Si]/[TiBAl] = 0.05, the copolymer showed more amorphous behavior. In this molar ratio, the external donor decreased the productivity of the catalyst and a further increase of external donor concentration increased the productivity. Hydrogen increased the productivity of the catalyst and decreased the ethylene content of the copolymer in low concentration. In high concentration, however, hydrogen decreased the productivity and increased the ethylene content of the copolymer. Hydrogen as a chain transfer agent decreased the viscosity average molecular weight.

  16. Influence of an external magnetic field on damage by self-ion irradiation in Fe90Cr10 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Sánchez


    Full Text Available The effect of an external magnetic field (B=0.5 T on Fe90Cr10 specimens during Fe ion irradiation, has been investigated by means of Conversion Electron Mössbauer Spectroscopy (CEMS. The analysis has revealed significant differences in the average hyperfine magnetic field (=0.3 T between non-irradiated and irradiated samples as well as between irradiations made with B (w/ B and without B (w/o B. It is considered that these variations can be due to changes in the local environment around the probe nuclei (57Fe; where vacancies and Cr distribution play a role. The results indicate that the Cr distribution in the neighbourhood of the iron atoms could be changed by the application of an external field. This would imply that an external magnetic field may be an important parameter to take into account in predictive models for Cr behaviour in Fe–Cr alloys, and especially in fusion conditions where intense magnetic fields are required for plasma confinement.

  17. Agency attribution: event-related potentials and outcome monitoring. (United States)

    Bednark, Jeffery G; Franz, Elizabeth A


    Knowledge about the effects of our actions is an underlying feature of voluntary behavior. Given the importance of identifying the outcomes of our actions, it has been proposed that the sensory outcomes of self-made actions are inherently different from those of externally caused outcomes. Thus, the outcomes of self-made actions are likely to be more motivationally significant for an agent. We used event-related potentials to investigate the relationship between the perceived motivational significance of an outcome and the attribution of agency in the presence of others. In our experiment, we assessed agency attribution in the presence of another agent by varying the degree of contiguity between participants' self-made actions and the sensory outcome. Specifically, we assessed the feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP) and the novelty P3 measures of an outcome's motivational significance and unexpectedness, respectively. Results revealed that both the fCRP and participants' agency attributions were significantly influenced by action-outcome contiguity. However, when action-outcome contiguity was ambiguous, novelty P3 amplitude was a reliable indicator of agency attribution. Prior agency attributions were also found to influence attribution in trials with ambiguous and low action-outcome contiguity. Participants' use of multiple cues to determine agency is consistent with the cue integration theory of agency. In addition to these novel findings, this study supports growing evidence suggesting that reinforcement processes play a significant role in the sense of agency.

  18. Perception of risk and the attribution of responsibility for accidents. (United States)

    Rickard, Laura N


    Accidents, one often hears, "happen"; we accept, and even expect, that they will be part of daily life. But in situations in which injury or death result, judgments of responsibility become critical. How might our perceptions of risk influence the ways in which we allocate responsibility for an accident? Drawing from attribution and risk perception theory, this study investigates how perceived controllability and desirability of risk, in addition to perceived danger and recreational risk-taking, relate to attributions of responsibility for the cause of unintentional injury in a unique setting: U.S. national parks. Three parks, Mount Rainier, Olympic, and Delaware Water Gap, provide the setting for this survey-based study, which considers how park visitors (N = 447) attribute responsibility for the cause of a hypothetical visitor accident. Results suggest that respondents tended to make more internal (i.e., related to characteristics of the victim), rather than external (i.e., related to characteristics of the park, or park management) attributions. As respondents viewed park-related risk as controllable, they were more likely to attribute the cause of the accident to the victim. Moreover, among other significant variables, having experienced a similar accident predicted lower internal causal attribution. Opportunities for future research linking risk perception and attribution variables, as well as practical implications for the management of public outdoor settings, are presented. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Attribution and reciprocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander Christopher


    , in turn, influence behavior. Dufwenberg and Kirchsteiger [Dufwenberg, M., Kirchsteiger, G., 2004. A theory of sequential reciprocity. Games Econ. Behav. 47 (2), 268-298] formalize this empirical finding in their ‘theory of sequential reciprocity'. This paper extends their analysis by moves of chance. More...... precisely, an extended framework is presented which allows for the analysis of strategic interactions of reciprocal agents in situations in which material outcomes also depend on chance. Moves of chance influence the attribution of responsibilities, people's perceptions about the (un)kindness of others and...

  20. Influence of external 3D magnetic fields on helical equilibrium and plasma flow in RFX-mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piovesan, P; Bonfiglio, D; Bonomo, F; Cappello, S; Carraro, L; Cavazzana, R; Gobbin, M; Marrelli, L; Martin, P; Martines, E; Momo, B; Piron, L; Puiatti, M E; Soppelsa, A; Valisa, M; Zanca, P; Zaniol, B [Consorzio RFX, EURATOM-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)


    A spontaneous transition to a helical equilibrium with an electron internal transport barrier is observed in RFX-mod as the plasma current is raised above 1 MA (Lorenzini R et al 2009 Nature Phys. 5 570). The helical magnetic equilibrium can be controlled with external three-dimensional (3D) magnetic fields applied by 192 active coils, providing proper helical boundary conditions either rotating or static. The persistence of the helical equilibrium is strongly increased in this way. A slight reduction in the energy confinement time of about 15% is observed, likely due to the increased plasma-wall interaction associated with the finite radial magnetic field imposed at the edge. A global helical flow develops in these states and is expected to play a role in the helical self-organization. In particular, its shear may contribute to the ITB formation and is observed to increase with the externally applied radial field. The possible origins of this flow, from nonlinear visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and/or ambipolar electric fields, will be discussed.

  1. Attributional Thoughts about Consumer Behavior.


    Weiner, Bernard


    Two fundamental principles from attribution theory were examined for the role they might play in the psychology of the consumer. They are: (1) perceptions of causality along a stability dimension influence the anticipated likelihood of product satisfaction, and (2) perceptions of causality along a controllability dimension influence judgments of responsibility and retributive actions. Comments about the longevity of an attributional framework, methodological recommendations, and the heuristic...

  2. Friends’ Knowledge of Youth Internalizing and Externalizing Adjustment: Accuracy, Bias, and the Influences of Gender, Grade, Positive Friendship Quality, and Self-Disclosure (United States)

    Rose, Amanda J.


    Some evidence suggests that close friends may be knowledgeable of youth’s psychological adjustment. However, friends are understudied as reporters of adjustment. The current study examines associations between self- and friend-reports of internalizing and externalizing adjustment in a community sample of fifth-, eighth-, and eleventh-grade youth. The study extends prior work by considering the degree to which friends’ reports of youth adjustment are accurate (i.e., predicted by youths’ actual adjustment) versus biased (i.e., predicted by the friend reporters’ own adjustment). Findings indicated stronger bias effects than accuracy effects, but the accuracy effects were significant for both internalizing and externalizing adjustment. Additionally, friends who perceived their relationships as high in positive quality, friends in relationships high in disclosure, and girls perceived youths’ internalizing symptoms most accurately. Knowledge of externalizing adjustment was not influenced by gender, grade, relationship quality, or self-disclosure. Findings suggest that friends could play an important role in prevention efforts. PMID:19377867

  3. Differentiating weak ties and strong ties among external sources of influences for enterprise resource planning (ERP) adoption (United States)

    Aubert, Benoit; Léger, Pierre-Majorique; Larocque, Denis


    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems represent a major IT adoption decision. ERP adoption decisions, in the chemicals and allied products sectors, were examined between 1994 and 2005. Networks of strong ties and weak ties partners are investigated. Results show that neighbouring companies linked with strong ties can have an influence on organisations making such adoption decision. Past decisions made by major trading partners have a significant influence on the decision to adopt an ERP system for a given organisation. This reflects the complex nature of the knowledge required for such adoption.

  4. It's not my fault: understanding nursing students' causal attributions in Pathophysiology. (United States)

    Dunn, Karee E; Osborne, Cara; Rakes, Glenda C


    Pathophysiology is a difficult subject matter for many nursing students. This course is also critical for safe clinical practice. However, little research has explored what variables may influence nursing students' success in this course. This study is the first in a forthcoming series that seeks to better understand how to facilitate student success in Pathophysiology. In this study, students' causal attributions for successes and failures were explored as these attributions greatly influence future academic motivation and behavior. Students were asked to respond to two open-ended questions in order to better understand what causal attributions students were making for their successes and failures in Pathophysiology. Seventy-five Bachelor of Science in Nursing students who were enrolled in Pathophysiology returned their responses (92.6% response rate). Content analysis was utilized to determine whether students were making internal or external causal attributions for their successes and failures. Additionally, responses were evaluated in order to identify common themes shared by respondents. The majority of respondents (84%) attributed their academic successes in Pathophysiology in part to internal causes, and the majority of respondents (68%) attributed their academic failures, in part, to external causes. In this study the majority of students attributed their successes to controllable, unstable causes-primarily effort. Research indicates that attributing success to effort may reflect that students' confidence in their abilities is suffering, and that attributing failures to external causes, such as task difficulty, are also detrimental to performance and learning (Siegle et al., 2009). The results of this study are further presented and discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Transient dynamics of a one-dimensional Holstein polaron under the influence of an external electric field (United States)

    Huang, Zhongkai; Chen, Lipeng; Zhou, Nengji; Zhao, Yang


    Following the Dirac-Frenkel time-dependent variational principle, transient dynamics of a one-dimensional Holstein polaron with diagonal and off-diagonal exciton-phonon coupling in an external electric field is studied by employing the multi-D$_2$ {\\it Ansatz}, also known as a superposition of the usual Davydov D$_2$ trial states. Resultant polaron dynamics has significantly enhanced accuracy, and is in perfect agreement with that derived from the hierarchy equations of motion method. Starting from an initial broad wave packet, the exciton undergoes typical Bloch oscillations. Adding weak exciton-phonon coupling leads to a broadened exciton wave packet and a reduced current amplitude. Using a narrow wave packet as the initial state, the bare exciton oscillates in a symmetric breathing mode, but the symmetry is easily broken by weak coupling to phonons, resulting in a non-zero exciton current. For both scenarios, temporal periodicity is unchanged by exciton-phonon coupling. In particular, at variance with the case of an infinite linear chain, no steady state is found in a finite-sized ring within the anti-adiabatic regime. For strong diagonal coupling, the multi-$\\rm D_2$ {\\it Anstaz} is found to be highly accurate, and the phonon confinement gives rise to exciton localization and decay of the Bloch oscillations.

  6. The influence of external environment factors on the activity of higher educational establishments in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Leonidovna Guzakova


    Full Text Available The instability of market economy development causes continuous changes in the activity of higher educational establishments. The article deals with the processes, taking place in the system of higher professional education in the Russian Federation in recent decades. On the basis of the analysis of statistical data and normative acts of the Government and Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, the key global and national trends in higher education are identified: increasing demand for higher education, resulted in its considerable offer (the growth of quantitative indicators is not always accompanied by improvement of higher education quality; reduction in the total number of students due to the demographic situation worsening; transition to a multi-level system of higher education under the Bologna process; change in specialties patterns and directions of training specialists with higher professional education due to the economy structural reforms and labor market needs; aggravation of competition. The tendencies lead to the emergence of demographic, political and economic risks. To reduce negative impact of the external risks to the universities’ activity it is necessary to develop corresponding state educational policy in the sphere of higher education and risk management in universities

  7. Competition between internal and external sources of information during exercise: influence on RPE and the impact of the exercise load. (United States)

    Nethery, V M


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the exercise setting on perceived exertion during sustained low and high intensity cycling exercise. Thirteen untrained males completed 4 15-min cycling sessions at 50% VO(2peak) and at 80% VO(2peak) under each of the following conditions: control, sensory deprived, video, and music. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) from Borg's 6-20 scale and heart rate (HR) were recorded at 5 min intervals during all sessions. RPE increased with exercise duration at both intensities and, as expected, was substantially higher at the harder workload. Exercising to music resulted in significantly lower RPE when compared to all other conditions at both the low and high workloads, while RPE was higher in the sensory deprived condition when compared to the other 3 conditions. However, RPE was similar for the control and video conditions at both workloads. A significant ordinal interaction existed between conditions and exercise duration during the low but not the high workload. While HR was higher for the harder workload and increased during each workload as a function of exercise duration, it was not different among the 4 conditions at either workload. Varying the type of sensory information available to the exercising individual did influence perceptual responses to the exercise with the degree of influence dependent on the intensity and duration of the exercise. These results are consistent with information processing models that suggest a limited capacity to attend to the information available. The type of information available, the work intensity, and the work duration were important elements influencing perceptual responses to exercise.

  8. Influence of Yo-Yo IR2 Scores on Internal and External Workloads and Fatigue Responses of Tag Football Players during Tournament Competition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke W Hogarth

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to: a identify changes in jump height and perceived well-being as indirect markers of fatigue, b determine the internal and external workloads performed by players, and c examine the influence of Yo-Yo IR2 on changes in jump height, perceived well-being and internal and external workloads during a tag football tournament. Microtechnology devices combined with heart rate (HR chest straps provided external and internal measures of match work-rate and workload for twelve male tag football players during the 2014 Australian National Championships. Jump height and perceived well-being were assessed prior to and during the tournament as indirect measures of fatigue. Changes in work-rate, workload and fatigue measures between high- and low-fitness groups were examined based on players' Yo-Yo IR2 score using a median split technique. The low- and high-fitness groups reported similar mean HR, PlayerloadTM/min, and distance/min for matches, however the low-fitness group reported higher perceived match-intensities (ES = 0.90-1.35 for several matches. Further, the high-fitness group reported higher measures of tournament workload, including distance (ES = 0.71, PlayerloadTM (ES = 0.85 and Edwards' training impulse (TRIMP (ES = 1.23 than the low-fitness group. High- and low-fitness groups both showed large decreases (ES = 1.46-1.49 in perceived well-being during the tournament, although jump height did not decrease below pre-tournament values. Increased Yo-Yo IR2 appears to offer a protective effect against player fatigue despite increased workloads during a tag football tournament. It is vital that training programs adequately prepare tag football players for tournament competition to maximise performance and minimise player fatigue.

  9. Disturbance and recovery of trunk mechanical and neuromuscular behaviours following prolonged trunk flexion: influences of duration and external load on creep-induced effects. (United States)

    Bazrgari, Babak; Hendershot, Brad; Muslim, Khoirul; Toosizadeh, Nima; Nussbaum, Maury A; Madigan, Michael L


    Trunk flexion results in adverse mechanical effects on the spine and is associated with a higher incidence of low back pain. To examine the effects of creep deformation on trunk behaviours, participants were exposed to full trunk flexion in several combinations of exposure duration and external load. Trunk mechanical and neuromuscular behaviours were obtained pre- and post-exposure and during recovery using sudden perturbations. Intrinsic trunk stiffness decreased with increasing flexion duration and in the presence of the external load. Recovery of intrinsic stiffness required more time than the exposure duration and was influenced by exposure duration. Reflexive trunk responses increased immediately following exposure but recovered quickly (∼2.5 min). Alterations in reflexive trunk behaviour following creep deformation exposures may not provide adequate compensation to allow for complete recovery of concurrent reductions in intrinsic stiffness, which may increase the risk of injury due to spinal instability. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: An increased risk of low back injury may result from flexion-induced disturbances to trunk behaviours. Such effects, however, appear to depend on the type of flexion exposure, and have implications for the design of work involving trunk flexion.

  10. Religiosity and adolescent substance use in central Mexico: exploring the influence of internal and external religiosity on cigarette and alcohol use. (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Ayers, Stephanie L; Hoffman, Steven


    This study explores the multidimensional nature of religiosity on substance use among adolescents living in central Mexico. From a social capital perspective, this article investigates how external church attendance and internal religious importance interact to create differential pathways for adolescents, and how these pathways exert both risk and protective influences on Mexican youth. The data come from 506 self-identified Roman Catholic youth (ages 14-17) living in a semi-rural area in the central state of Guanajuato, Mexico, and attending alternative secondary schools. Findings indicate that adolescents who have higher church attendance coupled with higher religious importance have lower odds of using alcohol, while cigarette use is lower among adolescents who have lower church attendance and lower religious importance. Adolescents are most at risk using alcohol and cigarettes when church attendance is higher but religious importance is lower. In conclusion, incongruence between internal religious beliefs and external church attendance places Mexican youth at greater risk of alcohol and cigarette use. This study not only contributes to understandings of the impact of religiosity on substance use in Mexico, but highlights the importance of understanding religiosity as a multidimensional phenomenon which can lead to differential substance use patterns.

  11. Causal attributions in paranoia and depression: internal, personal, and situational attributions for negative events. (United States)

    Kinderman, P; Bentall, R P


    Causal attributions for positive and negative hypothetical social events made by paranoid patients, depressed patients, and nonpatient participants were examined via a novel measure of causal locus, the Internal, Personal and Situational Attributions Questionnaire. Depressed patients tended to attribute negative social events to internal (self-blaming) causes. Nonpatient participants and patients with delusions of persecution tended to avoid such self-blame. However, whereas nonpatient participants tended to choose situational or circumstantial external attributions, paranoid patients tended to choose external attributions that located blame in other individuals. These findings support R. P. Bentall, P. Kinderman, and S. Kaney's (1994) defensive attributional model of persecutory delusions, suggest some modifications to that model, and have implications for the understanding of the relationship between causal attributions and social and self-perception.

  12. Influence of external factors on the accumulation of heat in stacks of cut peat during the process of their production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkov, L.M.; Grebennikov, V.Y.


    For decreasing heat build-up in stacks during the period of their production, the following is recommended: in a projection of the peat industries, one must consider the influence of the orientation of the stacks on admission of solar radiation: in 24-hour periods when air temperature is higher than 24 degrees C, and peat temperature is higher than 45 degrees C, the more peat added during stacking and harvesting (MTF-62), the les heat accumulates: building up storage units of peat with uniform sides decreases the inflow of solar radiation and moisture accumulation; during a selection of technological sites and the destination sequence of peat delivery to the consumer, heterogeneity of the composition of the bed must be considered as well as the unequal heat accumulation and the heat evolution in the stored mass.

  13. Factors Influencing BI Data Collection Strategies: An Empirical Investigation (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Thiagarajan


    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the external factors that influence an organizations' business intelligence (BI) data collection strategy when mediated by BI attributes. In this dissertation, data warehousing strategies are used as the basis on which to frame the exploration of BI data collection strategies. The attributes include…

  14. Influence of the external torques in the angle between the spin axis and the Sun direction for spin stabilized satellite (United States)

    Motta, G. B.; Zanardi, M. C.


    The goal of this paper is the study of the influence of the environmental torques in the angle between the spin axis and the Sun direction (solar aspect angle) for spin stabilized satellite. The theory uses a cylindrical satellite in an illumined orbit, considering the gravity gradient, aerodynamic, solar radiation, residual magnetic and eddy current torques. The mathematic model for each torque is shown. The dynamic equations are represented in a reference system fixed in the satellite and described by spin velocity and the right ascension and declination angles of the spin axis. An analytical solution for the spin velocity and the attitude angles is used to study the behavior of the solar aspect angle. The theory is applied for the real data of the Brazilian Satellite of Data Collection - SCD1 and SCD2. Two approaches are presented. The results agree with the real satellite behavior for specific time simulation. Then the theory has consistency and can be applied to predict the behavior of the solar aspect angle.

  15. Influence of External Gaseous Environments on the Electrical Properties of ZnO Nanostructures Obtained by a Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Procek


    Full Text Available This paper deals with experimental investigations of ZnO nanostructures, consisting of a mixture of nanoparticles and nanowires, obtained by the chemical (hydrothermal method. The influences of both oxidizing (NO2 and reducing gases (H2, NH3, as well as relative humidity (RH on the physical and chemical properties of ZnO nanostructures were tested. Carrier gas effect on the structure interaction with gases was also tested; experiments were conducted in air and nitrogen (N2 atmospheres. The effect of investigated gases on the resistance of the ZnO nanostructures was tested over a wide range of concentrations at room temperature (RT and at 200 °C. The impact of near- ultraviolet (UV excitation (λ = 390 nm at RT was also studied. These investigations indicated a high response of ZnO nanostructures to small concentrations of NO2. The structure responses to 1 ppm of NO2 amounted to about: 600% in N2/230% in air at 200 °C (in dark conditions and 430% in N2/340% in air at RT (with UV excitation. The response of the structure to the effect of NO2 at 200 °C is more than 105 times greater than the response to NH3, and more than 106 times greater than that to H2 in the relation of 1 ppm. Thus the selectivity of the structure for NO2 is very good. What is more, the selectivity to NO2 at RT with UV excitation increases in comparison at elevated temperature. This paper presents a great potential for practical applications of ZnO nanostructures (including nanoparticles in resistive NO2 sensors.

  16. The influence of various resistance loads on the ratio of activity of the external rotator muscles of the shoulder and the anterior gliding of the humeral head during external rotation exercise


    Jo, Marg-Eun; Lee, Seung-Min; Jang, Jun-Hyeok; Lee, Sang-Yeol


    [Purpose] To quantify the ratio of activation of the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles and the anterior gliding motion of the humeral head during external rotation (ER) motions of the shoulder performed in prone position against different external resistance loads. [Subjects] Twenty healthy women between the ages of 20 and 30?years. [Methods] Activity ratio was quantified as the difference in the root mean square of the smoothed electromyography signal (EMG) of the posterior deltoid...

  17. Treatment of low-strength wastewater using immobilized biomass in a sequencing batch external loop reactor: influence of the medium superficial velocity on the stability and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camargo E.F.M.


    Full Text Available An anaerobic sequencing batch bioreactor with external circulation of the liquid phase wherein the biomass was immobilized on a polyurethane foam matrix was analyzed, focussing on the influence of the liquid superficial velocity on the reactor's stability and efficiency. Eight-hour cycles were carried out at 30ºC treating glucose-based synthetic wastewater around 500 mgDQO/L. The performance of the reactor was assessed without circulation and with circulating liquid superficial velocity between 0.034 and 0.188 cm/s. The reactor attained operating stability and a high organic matter removal was achieved when liquid was circulated. A first order model was used to evaluate the influence of the liquid superficial velocity (vS, resulting in an increase in the apparent first order parameter when vS increased from 0.034 to 0.094 cm/s. The parameter value remained unchangeable when 0.188 cm/s was applied, indicating that beyond this value no improvement on liquid mass transfer was observed. Moreover, the necessary time to reach the final removal efficiency decreased when liquid circulation was applied, indicating that a 3-hour cycle could be enough.

  18. Body-related state shame and guilt in women: do causal attributions mediate the influence of physical self-concept and shame and guilt proneness. (United States)

    Crocker, Peter R E; Brune, Sara M; Kowalski, Kent C; Mack, Diane E; Wilson, Philip M; Sabiston, Catherine M


    Guided by the process model of self-conscious emotions, this study examined whether physical self-concept (PSC) and shame and guilt proneness were associated with body-related self-conscious emotions of state shame and guilt and if these relationships were mediated by attributions of stability, globality, and controllability. Female participants (N=284; Mean age=20.6±1.9 years) completed measures of PSC and shame and guilt proneness before reading a hypothetical scenario. Participants completed measures of attributions and state shame and guilt in response to the scenario. Significant relationships were noted between state shame and attributions of globality and controllability, and shame proneness, guilt proneness, and PSC. Similar relationships, with the additional predictor of stability, were found for state guilt. Mediation analysis partially supported the process model hypotheses for shame. Results indicate PSC and shame proneness are important in predicting body-related emotions, but the role of specific attributions are still unclear. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [External otitis]. (United States)

    Olina, Massimo; Cametti, Massimiliano; Guglielmetti, Chiara; Gattoni, Massimo; Leigheb, Giorgio; Pia, Francesco


    Otitis externa is one of the most common diseases in ORL practice, during summer; the treatment of otitis externa may be simple and easy or protracted and frustrating, also with fatal outcome. Many local factors may interfere with the normal defences against infections in the external auditory canal. Removing or dissolving the cerumen by water or other instruments eliminates an important barrier to infections: its acids inhibit the growth of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungi (Aspergillus). Also skin abrasions or irritation, allergic diseases and many systemic condition like anaemia, vitamin deficiency, endocrine disorders (diabetes) and various forms of dermatitis cause a lower resistance to infections in external auditory canal. Even if the prognosis remains benign in the majority of cases, important complications could appear like: malignant otitis externa, facial nerve paralysis, tympanic bone osteomyelitis, pericondrytis. Successful treatment depends on a proper diagnosis and therapy: the most important factor in the treatment is repeated debridement of the external auditory canal by the physician. The use of Castellani' Tintura rubra, hydroalcoholic solution of phenic fuchsin, can be very effective for bacteria and mycotic eradication. Culturing of ear canal infection could be performed on the second or third visit if the otitis externa is not responding to therapy. Complication are not frequent, but malignant otitis externa can be mortal. Dermatological consultation is often necessary for correct diagnosis.

  20. Investigating the Victim Pseudomaturity Effect: How a Victim's Chronological Age and Dress Style Influences Attributions in a Depicted Case of Child Sexual Assault. (United States)

    Rogers, Paul; Lowe, Michelle; Reddington, Katie


    Three-hundred and seven members of the UK public read a hypothetical child sexual abuse case in which the victim's chronological age (12 versus 15 years old) and dress style (sexualized versus nonsexualized) were experimentally manipulated before completing 22 assault severity and blame attribution items. It was predicted that the 15-year-old and the sexually dressed victim would be blamed more for her own abuse. In addition, males were expected to be more blaming generally, but especially of the older and/or sexually dressed victim. Results were generally in line with predictions, highlighting the role seemingly controllable victim characteristics play in blaming child sexual abuse victims. Findings are discussed in relation to defensive attributions, gender stereotyping and the newly suggested victim pseudomaturity effect. Criminal justice, victim welfare, and rape myth implications together with methodological issues and ideas for future research work are also considered.

  1. Adolescent Development and External Influences


    Rudan, V.


    There are two different approaches to the definition of »normal« in adolescence: psychoanalytic interpretation and empirical research. They are not necessarily at odds but can complement each other if normalcy is viewed as a dependent variable. Its definition depends also on cultural rules, social values and expectancies, professional orientations, personality traits and political climate, which all determine the tolerance level for aberrance. The adolescent development includi...

  2. Attributional analysis of chronic illness outcomes. (United States)

    Lowery, B J; Jacobsen, B S


    The Weiner et al. attribution model has generated a great deal of research on attributions for success and failure in academic achievement situations. Studies of success and failure attributions in real-life situations of high personal concern are limited. If the attribution model is to lead to a general theory of motivation, such tests in real-life situations are critical. In this study, causal attributions for success and failure outcomes of chronically ill patients were examined. Results indicated at least partial support for the model. Patients tended to attribute success internally and failure externally, but stability and expectations were not linked in this sample. Moreover, a tendency to respond with no cause to an open-ended measure and to hold little commitment to any causes on a closed-ended measure was characteristic of failure subjects.

  3. Comparative lifecycle assessment of alternatives for waste management in Rio de Janeiro - Investigating the influence of an attributional or consequential approach. (United States)

    Bernstad Saraiva, A; Souza, R G; Valle, R A B


    The environmental impacts from three management alternatives for organic fraction of municipal solid waste were compared using lifecycle assessment methodology. The alternatives (sanitary landfill, selective collection of organic waste for anaerobic digestion and anaerobic digestion after post-separation of organic waste) were modelled applying an attributional as well as consequential approach, in parallel with the aim of identifying if and how these approaches can affect results and conclusions. The marginal processes identified in the consequential modelling were in general associated with higher environmental impacts than average processes modelled with an attributional approach. As all investigated waste management alternatives result in net-substitution of energy and in some cases also materials, the consequential modelling resulted in lower absolute environmental impacts in five of the seven environmental impact categories assessed in the study. In three of these, the chosen modelling approach can alter the hierarchy between compared waste management alternatives. This indicates a risk of underestimating potential benefits from efficient energy recovery from waste when applying attributional modelling in contexts in which electricity provision historically has been dominated by technologies presenting rather low environmental impacts, but where projections point at increasing impacts from electricity provision in coming years. Thus, in the present case study, the chosen approach affects both absolute and relative results from the comparison. However, results were largely related to the processes identified as affected by investigated changes, and not merely the chosen modelling approach. The processes actually affected by future choices between different waste management alternatives are intrinsically uncertain. The study demonstrates the benefits of applying different assumptions regarding the processes affected by investigated choices - both for provision

  4. An Agent-Based Intervention to Assist Drivers Under Stereotype Threat: Effects of In-Vehicle Agents' Attributional Error Feedback. (United States)

    Joo, Yeon Kyoung; Lee-Won, Roselyn J


    For members of a group negatively stereotyped in a domain, making mistakes can aggravate the influence of stereotype threat because negative stereotypes often blame target individuals and attribute the outcome to their lack of ability. Virtual agents offering real-time error feedback may influence performance under stereotype threat by shaping the performers' attributional perception of errors they commit. We explored this possibility with female drivers, considering the prevalence of the "women-are-bad-drivers" stereotype. Specifically, we investigated how in-vehicle voice agents offering error feedback based on responsibility attribution (internal vs. external) and outcome attribution (ability vs. effort) influence female drivers' performance under stereotype threat. In addressing this question, we conducted an experiment in a virtual driving simulation environment that provided moment-to-moment error feedback messages. Participants performed a challenging driving task and made mistakes preprogrammed to occur. Results showed that the agent's error feedback with outcome attribution moderated the stereotype threat effect on driving performance. Participants under stereotype threat had a smaller number of collisions when the errors were attributed to effort than to ability. In addition, outcome attribution feedback moderated the effect of responsibility attribution on driving performance. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Exploration of Scholars’ Attributions of Instructional Barriers in the Context of Pedagogical-Epistemological Belief Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz SOYSAL


    Full Text Available In this study, two academics’ who have been employed in a private university teaching barriers and accompanied attributional reasoning were examined in the context of their belief systems with regards to learning, teaching and knowledge. This study was conducted with a basic qualitative perspective. By means of qualitative data gathering and analysis, it was aimed at estimating how the relation between teaching barriers and attributional reasoning was influenced by pedagogical-epistemological belief systems of scholars. Qualitative data was collected through two different semi-structured interview protocols and gathered data was analyzed with an inductive and interpretivist manner. The scholars’ beliefs systems’ divergences (teacher-centered vs. learner-centered allowed to explore the presumable relation of barrier-attribution in the context of pedagogical-epistemological belief systems. It was found out that the scholar who has adopted the more learner-centered modes of teaching favors more internally-oriented, controllable and non-stable attributional styles in illustrating her barrier-attribution relation. In contrast, it was also detected that the scholar who has held more teacher-centered teaching beliefs is liable to make attributions to overly external, non-controllable and stable factors in illuminating her barrier-attribution relation. Major outcomes of the study are evaluated by means of psychological (i.e., attribution theory and instructional (pedagogical-epistemological beliefs lenses and suggestions are offered in the context of higher education.

  6. Extending Attribution Theory: Considering Students' Perceived Control of the Attribution Process (United States)

    Fishman, Evan J.; Husman, Jenefer


    Research in attribution theory has shown that students' causal thinking profoundly affects their learning and motivational outcomes. Very few studies, however, have explored how students' attribution-related beliefs influence the causal thought process. The present study used the perceived control of the attribution process (PCAP) model to examine…

  7. Influence of Tumor Thrombus Location on the Outcome of External-beam Radiation Therapy in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma With Macrovascular Invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou Jiazhou [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zeng Zhaochong, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhang Jianying [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Fan Jia; Zhou Jian [Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zeng Mengsu [Department of Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)


    Purpose: The present study evaluates the influence of portal vein (PV) vs. inferior vena cava (IVC) tumor thrombosis sites on the effectiveness of external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with macrovascular invasion. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 181 HCC patients with PV and/or IVC tumor thrombi who were referred for EBRT at our institution between 2000 and 2009. EBRT was designed to focus on the tumor thrombi with or without primary intrahepatic tumors to deliver a median total conventional dose of 50 Gy (range, 30-60 Gy). Predictors of survival were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: The median survival was 10.2, 7.4, 17.4, and 8.5 months for patients with PV branch, PV trunk, IVC, and PV plus IVC tumor thrombosis, respectively. Unfavorable pretreatment predictors were associated by multivariate analysis with lower albumin and higher {alpha}-fetoprotein levels, poorer Child-Pugh liver function classification, multiple intrahepatic foci, lymph node metastases, thrombus location, less chance to receive post-EBRT transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and the two-dimensional EBRT technique. In comparison to patients with PV tumor thrombosis, patients with IVC thrombi had a higher occurrence of solitary intrahepatic lesions (p = 0.027), well-controlled intrahepatic tumors (p < 0.001), and a better response to EBRT (p < 0.001), and they were more likely to receive post-EBRT TACE (p = 0.033). Conclusions: In HCC, patients with IVC thrombus treated with EBRT had a better response rate and longer survival than those with PV thrombus.

  8. The influence of external dynamic loads on the lifetime of rolling element bearings: Experimental analysis of the lubricant film and surface wear (United States)

    Jacobs, William; Van Hooreweder, Brecht; Boonen, Rene; Sas, Paul; Moens, David


    Precise prediction of the lifetime of rolling element bearings is a crucial step towards a reliable design of many rotating machines. For bearings subjected to highly varying loads, recent research emphasises a strong reduction of the actual bearing lifetime w.r.t. the classically calculated bearing lifetime. This paper experimentally analyses the influence of external dynamic loads on the lifetime of rolling element bearings. A novel bearing test rig is introduced. The test rig is able to apply a fully controlled multi-axial static and dynamic load on a single test bearing. Also, different types and sizes of bearings can be tested. Two separate investigations are conducted. First, the behaviour of the lubricant film between the rolling elements and raceways is analysed. Increased metallic contact or breakdown of the film during dynamic excitation is investigated based on the measured electrical resistance through the bearing. The study shows that the lubricant film thickness follows the imposed variations of the load. Variations of the lubricant film thickness are similar to the variations when the magnitude of the static bearing load is changed. Second, wear of the raceway surfaces is analysed. Surface wear is investigated after a series of accelerated lifetime tests under high dynamic load. Due to sliding motion between asperities of the contacting surfaces in the bearing, polishing of the raceway honing structure occurs. This polishing is clearly observed on SEM images of the inner raceway after a test duration of only 0.5% of the calculated L10 life. Polishing wear of the surfaces, such as surface induced cracks and material delamination, is expected when the bearing is further exposed to the high dynamic load.

  9. How landscape scale changes affect ecological processes in conservation areas: external factors influence land use by zebra (Equus burchelli) in the Okavango Delta. (United States)

    Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L A; Bonyongo, Mpaphi C; Harris, Stephen


    Most large-bodied wildlife populations in sub-Saharan Africa only survive in conservation areas, but are continuing to decline because external changes influence ecological processes within reserves, leading to a lack of functionality. However, failure to understand how landscape scale changes influence ecological processes limits our ability to manage protected areas. We used GPS movement data to calculate dry season home ranges for 14 zebra mares in the Okavango Delta and investigated the effects of a range of landscape characteristics (number of habitat patches, mean patch shape, mean index of juxtaposition, and interspersion) on home range size. Resource utilization functions (RUF) were calculated to investigate how specific landscape characteristics affected space use. Space use by all zebra was clustered. In the wetter (Central) parts of the Delta home range size was negatively correlated with the density of habitat patches, more complex patch shapes, low juxtaposition of habitats and an increased availability of floodplain and grassland habitats. In the drier (Peripheral) parts of the Delta, higher use by zebra was also associated with a greater availability of floodplain and grassland habitats, but a lower density of patches and simpler patch shapes. The most important landscape characteristic was not consistent between zebra within the same area of the Delta, suggesting that no single foraging strategy is substantially superior to others, and so animals using different foraging strategies may all thrive. The distribution and complexity of habitat patches are crucial in determining space use by zebra. The extent and duration of seasonal flooding is the principal process affecting habitat patch characteristics in the Okavango Delta, particularly the availability of floodplains, which are the habitat at greatest risk from climate change and anthropogenic disturbance to the Okavango's catchment basin. Understanding how the factors that determine habitat

  10. Attribution, Affect, and College Exam Performance. (United States)

    Arkin, Robert M.; Maruyama, Geoffrey M.


    College students attributed their own performance and the performance of the average student to ability, test difficulty, preparation, and luck. Successful students perceived internal factors and unsuccessful students perceived external factors as more important causes of their own performance. Students' anxiety and their ratings of the course and…

  11. Lightning Strikes and Attribution of Climatic Change

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, Anthony J


    Using lightning strikes as an example, two possible schemes are discussed for the attribution of changes in event frequency to climate change, and estimating the cost associated with them. The schemes determine the fraction of events that should be attributed to climatic change, and the fraction that should be attributed to natural chance. They both allow for the expected increase in claims and the fluctuations about this expected value. Importantly, the attribution fraction proposed in the second of these schemes is necessarily different to that found in epidemiological studies. This ensures that the statistically expected fraction of attributed claims is correctly equal to the expected increase in claims. The analysis of lightning data highlights two particular difficulties with data-driven, as opposed to modeled, attribution studies. The first is the possibility of unknown "confounding" variables that can influence the strike frequency. This is partly accounted for here by considering the influence of temp...

  12. Attributional biases, paranoia, and depression in early psychosis. (United States)

    Langdon, Robyn; Still, Megan; Connors, Michael H; Ward, Philip B; Catts, Stanley V


    Attributional biases to externalize blame for negative events (externalizing bias) and to target other people for blame (personalizing bias) may constitute a vulnerability to psychosis. However, most research to date has only examined attributional biases in chronic patients. We examined attributional style, paranoia, and depression in early psychosis patients to assess the primacy of attributional biases in psychosis. A quasi-experimental design was adopted to compare the attributional style of patients and controls. Correlates of attributional style were also examined. Early psychosis patients and age- and gender-matched healthy controls completed the 'Internal, Personal and Situational Attributions Questionnaire'. Paranoid tendencies, suspiciousness, and depression were also assessed in both groups, while severity of current symptoms was assessed in patients. A high proportion of patients had persecutory delusions. These patients, however, did not differ from controls in externalizing or personalizing bias. Whereas suspiciousness and persecutory delusions in patients associated with externalizing bias, no bias measures associated with paranoid tendencies in either patients or controls. Counter to the pattern seen for endogenous depression, depression in patients was associated with an increased tendency to attribute events to self and a decreased tendency to attribute events to circumstances. These preliminary findings raise doubts about the primacy of attributional biases in psychosis. The novel findings with regard to depression warrant further investigation and suggest that young people, who develop depression after the onset of psychosis, may experience a need to re-establish a sense of personal control over life events that appear unpredictable. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  13. The influence of various resistance loads on the ratio of activity of the external rotator muscles of the shoulder and the anterior gliding of the humeral head during external rotation exercise. (United States)

    Jo, Marg-Eun; Lee, Seung-Min; Jang, Jun-Hyeok; Lee, Sang-Yeol


    [Purpose] To quantify the ratio of activation of the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles and the anterior gliding motion of the humeral head during external rotation (ER) motions of the shoulder performed in prone position against different external resistance loads. [Subjects] Twenty healthy women between the ages of 20 and 30 years. [Methods] Activity ratio was quantified as the difference in the root mean square of the smoothed electromyography signal (EMG) of the posterior deltoid to the infraspinatus muscle, and anterior gliding pressure of the humeral head using a pressure biofeedback unit (PBU), for three resistance loads: 0, 1 and 2 kg. [Results] There was a significant correlation among all three variables (load, ratio, and pressure). Anterior gliding pressure correlated with the activity ratio, with activity of the posterior deltoid increasing with the magnitude of the resistance load. [Conclusion] There was a positive association between the magnitude of resistance load, activity of the posterior deltoid and anterior gliding pressure of the humeral head. The PBU could be used to facilitate the recruitment of the infraspinatus muscle at higher loads to improve glenohumeral joint stability during ER exercise against higher resistance.

  14. Matching Games with Additive Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal


    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas...

  15. Influence of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and diet quality in childhood on the incidence of internalizing and externalizing disorders during adolescence: a population-based cohort study. (United States)

    Wu, XiuYun; Bastian, Kerry; Ohinmaa, Arto; Veugelers, Paul


    Studies among youth suggest that physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors, and poor diet quality are associated with poor mental health. Few population-based studies have investigated these relationships longitudinally. We examined the association between physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and diet quality in childhood and the incidence of internalizing and externalizing disorders throughout adolescence. We linked health behavior survey data from 2003 among 10- to 11-year-old children across Nova Scotia, Canada, with administrative health care data from 2003 to 2011. Students' diet quality was assessed using the Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were self-reported, and internalizing and externalizing disorders were diagnosed by a physician. We applied Cox regression to examine the associations of the health behaviors with the incidence of internalizing and externalizing disorders between 2003 and 2011. Of the 4861 participating students, 23.7% and 9.4% had a diagnosis of internalizing and externalizing disorders, respectively. The incidences of internalizing and externalizing disorders were higher among students who were less physically active and spent more time using computers and video games. These findings suggest that promoting an active lifestyle in childhood may contribute to the prevention of both internalizing and externalizing disorders during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of Diet and Postmortem Ageing on Oxidative Stability of Lipids, Myoglobin and Myofibrillar Proteins and Quality Attributes of Gluteus Medius Muscle in Goats. (United States)

    Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Shittu, Rafiat Morolayo; Sabow, Azad Behnan; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Sazili, Awis Qurni


    This study appraised the effects of dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil and postmortem ageing on oxidative stability, fatty acids and quality attributes of gluteus medius (GM) muscle in goats. Twenty-four Boer bucks were randomly allotted to diet supplemented with 0, 4 and 8% oil blend, fed for 100 days and slaughtered, and the GM muscle was subjected to a 7 d chill storage (4±1°C). Diet had no effect (P> 0.05) on the colour, drip loss, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value, free thiol, carbonyl, myoglobin and metmyoglobin contents, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA), antioxidant enzyme activities and abundance of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and actin in the GM muscle in goats. The meat from goats fed 4 and 8% oil blend had higher (Pgoats. The GM muscle from the oil-supplemented goats had lower (Pgoats. Nonetheless, diet did not affect (Pgoats. Regardless of the diet, the free thiol and myoglobin contents, concentration of tocopherol and total carotenoids, MHC and MRA in the GM muscle decreased (P< 0.05) while carbonyl content, TBARS, drip loss and metmyoglobin content increased over storage. Dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil beneficially altered tissue lipids without hampering the oxidative stability of chevon.

  17. Venturing into the uncanny valley of mind-The influence of mind attribution on the acceptance of human-like characters in a virtual reality setting. (United States)

    Stein, Jan-Philipp; Ohler, Peter


    For more than 40years, the uncanny valley model has captivated researchers from various fields of expertise. Still, explanations as to why slightly imperfect human-like characters can evoke feelings of eeriness remain the subject of controversy. Many experiments exploring the phenomenon have emphasized specific visual factors in connection to evolutionary psychological theories or an underlying categorization conflict. More recently, studies have also shifted away focus from the appearance of human-like entities, instead exploring their mental capabilities as basis for observers' discomfort. In order to advance this perspective, we introduced 92 participants to a virtual reality (VR) chat program and presented them with two digital characters engaged in an emotional and empathic dialogue. Using the same pre-recorded 3D scene, we manipulated the perceived control type of the depicted characters (human-controlled avatars vs. computer-controlled agents), as well as their alleged level of autonomy (scripted vs. self-directed actions). Statistical analyses revealed that participants experienced significantly stronger eeriness if they perceived the empathic characters to be autonomous artificial intelligences. As human likeness and attractiveness ratings did not result in significant group differences, we present our results as evidence for an "uncanny valley of mind" that relies on the attribution of emotions and social cognition to non-human entities. A possible relationship to the philosophy of anthropocentrism and its "threat to human distinctiveness" concept is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Valuation, Categories and Attributes


    Galperin, Inna; Sorenson, Olav


    Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic" label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the la...

  19. Spontaneously emerging cortical representations of visual attributes (United States)

    Kenet, Tal; Bibitchkov, Dmitri; Tsodyks, Misha; Grinvald, Amiram; Arieli, Amos


    Spontaneous cortical activity-ongoing activity in the absence of intentional sensory input-has been studied extensively, using methods ranging from EEG (electroencephalography), through voltage sensitive dye imaging, down to recordings from single neurons. Ongoing cortical activity has been shown to play a critical role in development, and must also be essential for processing sensory perception, because it modulates stimulus-evoked activity, and is correlated with behaviour. Yet its role in the processing of external information and its relationship to internal representations of sensory attributes remains unknown. Using voltage sensitive dye imaging, we previously established a close link between ongoing activity in the visual cortex of anaesthetized cats and the spontaneous firing of a single neuron. Here we report that such activity encompasses a set of dynamically switching cortical states, many of which correspond closely to orientation maps. When such an orientation state emerged spontaneously, it spanned several hypercolumns and was often followed by a state corresponding to a proximal orientation. We suggest that dynamically switching cortical states could represent the brain's internal context, and therefore reflect or influence memory, perception and behaviour.

  20. Seed cotton yield, ionic and quality attributes of two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. varieties as influenced by various rates of K and Na under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sohail


    Full Text Available Cotton is more sensitive to low K availability than most other major field crops, and often shows symptoms of K deficiency in soils not considered K deficient. Field investigation was conducted at Sahiwal to study the effect of different rates of K and Na application on seed cotton yield, ionic ratio and quality characteristics of two cotton varieties. Ten soil K: Na ratios were developed after considering indigenous K, Na status in soil. The treatments of K+Na in kg ha-1 to give K:Na ratios were as: 210+ 60 (3.5:1 i.e. control, 225 + 60 (3.75:1, 240 + 60 (4:1, 255 + 60 (4.25:1, 270 + 60 (4.5:1, 210 + 75 (2.8:1, 225 + 75 (3:1, 240 + 75 (3.2:1, 255 + 75 (3.4:1 and 270 + 75 (3.6:1. Control treatment represented indigenous K, Na status of soil. The experiment continued until maturity. Maximum seed cotton yield of NIBGE-2 was observed at K: Na ratio of 3.6:1. Variety NIBGE-2 manifested greater seed cotton yield than MNH-786. Leaf K: Na ratio of two cotton varieties differed significantly (p < 0.01 due to varieties, rates of K and Na and their interaction. Variety NIBGE-2 maintained higher K: Na ratio than MNH-786 and manifested good fiber quality. There was significant relationship (R2 = 0.55, n = 10 between K: Na ratio and fiber length and significant relationship (R2 = 0.65, n = 10 between K concentration and fiber length for NIBGE-2. There was also significant relationship (R2 = 0.91, 0.78, n = 10 between boll number and seed cotton yield for both varieties. The increase in yield was attributed to increased boll weight.

  1. Influence of Diet and Postmortem Ageing on Oxidative Stability of Lipids, Myoglobin and Myofibrillar Proteins and Quality Attributes of Gluteus Medius Muscle in Goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazeem Dauda Adeyemi

    Full Text Available This study appraised the effects of dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil and postmortem ageing on oxidative stability, fatty acids and quality attributes of gluteus medius (GM muscle in goats. Twenty-four Boer bucks were randomly allotted to diet supplemented with 0, 4 and 8% oil blend, fed for 100 days and slaughtered, and the GM muscle was subjected to a 7 d chill storage (4±1°C. Diet had no effect (P> 0.05 on the colour, drip loss, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS value, free thiol, carbonyl, myoglobin and metmyoglobin contents, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA, antioxidant enzyme activities and abundance of myosin heavy chain (MHC and actin in the GM muscle in goats. The meat from goats fed 4 and 8% oil blend had higher (P< 0.05 concentration of α and γ-tocopherol and abundance of troponin T compared with that from the control goats. The GM muscle from the oil-supplemented goats had lower (P< 0.05 concentration of C16:0 and greater (P< 0.05 concentration of C18:1n-9, C18:3n-3 and C20:5n-3 compared with that from the control goats. Nonetheless, diet did not affect (P< 0.05 the total fatty acid in the GM muscle in goats. Regardless of the diet, the free thiol and myoglobin contents, concentration of tocopherol and total carotenoids, MHC and MRA in the GM muscle decreased (P< 0.05 while carbonyl content, TBARS, drip loss and metmyoglobin content increased over storage. Dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil beneficially altered tissue lipids without hampering the oxidative stability of chevon.

  2. Influence of polysaccharide-based edible coatings as carriers of prebiotic fibers on quality attributes of ready-to-eat fresh blueberries. (United States)

    Alvarez, María V; Ponce, Alejandra G; Moreira, María R


    Little information is available regarding the effect of dietary fibers added into edible coatings on quality attributes of ready-to-eat fruits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium alginate (AL) and chitosan (CH) edible coatings enriched with four different dietary fibers (apple fiber, orange fiber, inulin and oligofructose) on microbiological, nutritional, physico-chemical and sensorial properties of ready-to-eat fresh blueberries stored for 18 days at 5 °C. The most encouraging results were found for CH coatings (with and without fibers) which significantly inhibited the growth of mesophilic bacteria and yeasts/molds (reductions up to 1.9 log CFU g-1 ), reduced decay rate by more than 50%, enhanced antioxidant properties, retained fruit firmness, delayed off-odor development and improved overall visual quality of blueberries. Oligofructose and orange fiber added to CH coatings enhanced antioxidant properties of fruits and allowed higher reductions in yeast/mold counts compared to the use of CH alone. CH-based coatings enriched with inulin, oligofructose and apple fiber extended sensory shelf life of blueberries by 6 days. AL coatings (with and without fiber) allowed delaying fungal decay and also retaining antioxidant properties but did not improve the microbiological and sensory quality of fruits. The results proved that fiber-enriched CH treatments allowed the maintenance of freshness and the improvement of the quality of ready-to-eat blueberries. It might be an interesting option to offer consumers a healthy product with prebiotic potential and an extended shelf life. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Influência de diversos fatores externos sobre a qualidade da semente de soja Influence of several external factors on the quality of soybean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocely A. Maeda


    Full Text Available Cinco lotes de sementes de soja foram caracterizados de acordo com as especificações de exportação do CONCEX - Resolução n.° 82, que classifica as sementes em avariadas, rachadas e manchadas. Unica vez que o lote que apresentou o maior índice total de necrose foi o do cultivar viçoja da safra de 1976, dedicou-se a este uma análise detalhada de laboratório. Assim, conforme os tipos de danificações encontradas, elaborou-se um sistema de nove classes, determinando a seguir a porcentagem de cada classe e a porcentagem em relação ao total. A classe de danificação de maior ocorrência foi a mecânica, vindo a seguir a climática. As que proporcionaram maior índice de plântulas normais foram a mancha-café e a mancha-púrpura, ambas não diferindo da classe de sementes boas. A danificação mecânica foi a que proporcionou o menor índice de germinação. Do mesmo modo, foi elevado o índice de necrose nos cotilédones, nas classes de sementes avariadas por percevejos, com depressões e rachaduras devido a danificações mecânicas. Tanto os testes de germinação como os de vigor demonstraram que entre as classes estudadas, aquela cujas sementes eram aparentemente livres de danificações foi superior às demais, enquanto a de sementes atacadas por percevejo foi a que apresentou valores mais baixos.The influence of weathering, mechanical damage and other classes of external depreciations on soybean seeds was studied. Incidence of necrosis of the cotyledons, low germination and vigor are closely related to different forms of depreciations on the surface of the seed. Mechanical damage which was the most common type of depreciation caused the seed to decrease in germination. Necrosis in the cotyledons was found to be very closely related to stink bug attack, depressions and cracked seed. Apparently sound seed and those showing seed coat mottling or purple stain were those that gave the best results in the germination tests.

  4. Retraction notice to: Influence of external disturbances to dynamic balance of the semi-anthropomimetic robot [Serb. Jour. of elect. Eng., Vol. 11, no. 1, feb. 2014, pp. 145-158

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Due to technical errors the article entitled „Influence of External Disturbances to Dynamic Balance of the Semi-Anthropomimetic Robot“, by authors Vladimir M. Petrović, Kosta Jovanović, Veljko Potkonjak, published in Serbian journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 11, No. 1, February 2014, pp. 145-158, has been retracted from the Journal. Link to the retracted article 10.2298/SJEE131014013P

  5. The influence of external and internal factors on the quality of semen collection and qualitative indicators of semen in the dog (Canis familiaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Vágenknechtová


    Full Text Available The influence of external and internal factors on the course of semen collection and quality of ejaculate has been evaluated in this work. This observation included 30 dogs of various breeds, each of which we collected 3 ejaculates from within one week (first, third and fifth day. The internal factors included the weight of the dog, order of semen collection and the age of the dog. The external factors included type of housing, utilization of the dog, point of the collection and type of nutrition. Average length of preparation of a dog for a collection and onset of sexual reflex was 95.7 sec. The observations showed that none of the evaluated internal factors had any influence on the length of preparation for the semen collection. The largest volume of ejaculate was collected from the first collection (10.5cm3, at the second collection it was 8.9 cm3 and the third one the volume was the smallest – with only 6.6 cm3. The average volume of 8.7 cm3 was found in the whole set of observed dogs. No statistically conclusive difference was found among groups. The average activity of sperm in the observed set was 68.8%. Activity declined from the first to the third collection from 73% to 65.5%. The difference in sperm activity was not statistically conclusive in any indicator. Sperm concentration in whole set of dogs was 143.6−3 and was not significantly affected by any monitored internal factors.The longest preparation for the collection was found in dogs housed in pens (134.4 sec, dogs living in households (84.7 sec and the shortest preparation was needed in dogs with freedom of movement. The longest onset of sexual reflexes was found in Police forces dogs, then family dogs and sport dogs (130.0 sec, 97.8 sec and 68.3 sec. In dogs collected in laboratory, the emergence of sexual reflex was longer (110.7 sec than in dogs collected in their own natural environment (80.7 sec. The average length of the whole ejaculation was 396.0 sec in

  6. Representative Source Terms and the Influence of Reactor Attributes on Functional Containment in Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, D. A.; Hobbins, R. R.; Lowry, P.; Gougar, H.


    Modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGRs) offer a high degree of passive safety. The low power density of the reactor and the high heat capacity of the graphite core result in slow transients that do not challenge the integrity of the robust TRISO fuel. Another benefit of this fuel form and the surrounding graphite is their superior ability to retain fission products under all anticipated normal and off-normal conditions, which limits reactor accident source terms to very low values. In this paper, we develop estimates of the source term for a generic MHTGR to illustrate the performance of the radionuclide barriers that comprise the MHTGR functional containment. We also examine the influence of initial fuel quality, fuel performance/failure, reactor outlet temperature, and retention outside of the reactor core on the resultant source term to the environment.

  7. Learning multimodal latent attributes. (United States)

    Fu, Yanwei; Hospedales, Timothy M; Xiang, Tao; Gong, Shaogang


    The rapid development of social media sharing has created a huge demand for automatic media classification and annotation techniques. Attribute learning has emerged as a promising paradigm for bridging the semantic gap and addressing data sparsity via transferring attribute knowledge in object recognition and relatively simple action classification. In this paper, we address the task of attribute learning for understanding multimedia data with sparse and incomplete labels. In particular, we focus on videos of social group activities, which are particularly challenging and topical examples of this task because of their multimodal content and complex and unstructured nature relative to the density of annotations. To solve this problem, we 1) introduce a concept of semilatent attribute space, expressing user-defined and latent attributes in a unified framework, and 2) propose a novel scalable probabilistic topic model for learning multimodal semilatent attributes, which dramatically reduces requirements for an exhaustive accurate attribute ontology and expensive annotation effort. We show that our framework is able to exploit latent attributes to outperform contemporary approaches for addressing a variety of realistic multimedia sparse data learning tasks including: multitask learning, learning with label noise, N-shot transfer learning, and importantly zero-shot learning.

  8. Phenomenology and Meaning Attribution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenomenology and Meaning Attribution. John Paley. (2017). Phenomenology as Qualitative Research: A Critical Analysis of Meaning Attribution. London & .... theory) does. Husserl says,. Rather phenomenology wants to establish itself, not as a science of matters of fact, but as a science of essences (as an “eidetic” ...

  9. Administrative Attribution Theory. (United States)

    Frasher, James M.; Frasher, Ramona S.


    Hypothesizes that the growing body of empirical data concerning attribution theory offers insight into the administrative process. To stimulate research to test this hypothesis, presents previous relevant research and a theory entitled Administrative Attribution Theory. Research questions applying the theory to educational administration are…

  10. Communication: Influence of external static and alternating electric fields on water from long-time non-equilibrium ab initio molecular dynamics (United States)

    Futera, Zdenek; English, Niall J.


    The response of water to externally applied electric fields is of central relevance in the modern world, where many extraneous electric fields are ubiquitous. Historically, the application of external fields in non-equilibrium molecular dynamics has been restricted, by and large, to relatively inexpensive, more or less sophisticated, empirical models. Here, we report long-time non-equilibrium ab initio molecular dynamics in both static and oscillating (time-dependent) external electric fields, therefore opening up a new vista in rigorous studies of electric-field effects on dynamical systems with the full arsenal of electronic-structure methods. In so doing, we apply this to liquid water with state-of-the-art non-local treatment of dispersion, and we compute a range of field effects on structural and dynamical properties, such as diffusivities and hydrogen-bond kinetics.

  11. Valuation, categories and attributes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Galperin

    Full Text Available Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic" label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the label. We also found that the value accorded to the organic label increased with the number of attributes that an individual associated with the category. Category membership nevertheless still had greater value than even that of the sum of the attributes associated with it.

  12. Valuation, categories and attributes. (United States)

    Galperin, Inna; Sorenson, Olav


    Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic" label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the label. We also found that the value accorded to the organic label increased with the number of attributes that an individual associated with the category. Category membership nevertheless still had greater value than even that of the sum of the attributes associated with it.

  13. Attributing illness to food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batz, M. B.; Doyle, M. P.; Morris, J. G.


    the Food Attribution Data Workshop in October 2003 to discuss the virtues and limitations of these approaches and to identify future options for collecting food attribution data in the United States. We summarize workshop discussions and identify challenges that affect progress in this critical component......Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other...... source responsible for illness. A wide variety of food attribution approaches and data are used around the world including the analysis of outbreak data, case-control studies, microbial subtyping and source tracking methods, and expert judgment, among others. The Food Safety Research Consortium sponsored...

  14. Violating equality in social dilemmas: emotional and retributive reactions as a function of trust, attribution, and honesty. (United States)

    Stouten, Jeroen; De Cremer, David; van Dijk, Eric


    In social dilemmas, equality is an important coordination rule. When equality is violated, people seek explanations. In Experiment 1, the authors assessed dispositional trust and found that especially high trusters were affected by the given explanation. High trusters reacted less negatively to external than internal explanations. Experiment 2, using a manipulation of trust in others, revealed a similar pattern across a wider range of negative emotions. In Experiment 3, the authors only induced high trust and showed that when the external explanation turned out to be a lie, emotional and retributive reactions became more negative. Moreover, attribution information did not influence reactions when participants realized that the information was dishonest.

  15. Influence of carvacrol and thymol on the physiological attributes, enterotoxin production and surface characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.L. Souza


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of the phenolic compounds carvacrol (CAR and thymol (THY on some physiological characteristics and on the modulation of the secretion of some staphylococcal virulence factors, that is, coagulase and enterotoxin. This study also investigated possible mechanisms for the establishment of the anti-staphylococcal activity of these compounds. Sublethal concentrations (0.3 and 0.15 µL/mL of CAR and THY inhibited the activity of the enzymes coagulase and lipase and led to a decrease in salt tolerance. At the tested sublethal concentrations, both CAR and THY led to a total suppression of enterotoxin production. The loss of a 260-nm-absorbing material and an efflux of potassium ions occurred immediately after the addition of CAR and THY at 0.6 and 1.2 µL/mL and increased up to 120 min of exposure. Electron microscopy of cells exposed to CAR and THY (0.6 µL/mL revealed that individual cells appeared to be deformed, with projections of cellular material. The observations of leakage of cellular material and an altered cell surface suggest that gross damage to a cell's cytoplasmic membrane, which results in a disruption in protein secretion, could be responsible for the anti-staphylococcal properties of CAR and THY.

  16. Personal attributes that influence the adequate management of hypertension and dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Results from the DIAB-CORE Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rückert Ina-Maria


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertension and dyslipidemia are often insufficiently controlled in persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D in Germany. In the current study we evaluated individual characteristics that are assumed to influence the adequate treatment and control of hypertension and dyslipidemia and aimed to identify the patient group with the most urgent need for improved health care. Methods The analysis was based on the DIAB-CORE project in which cross-sectional data from five regional population-based studies and one nationwide German study, conducted between 1997 and 2006, were pooled. We compared the frequencies of socio-economic and lifestyle factors along with comorbidities in hypertensive participants with or without the blood pressure target of  Results We included 1287 participants with T2D of whom n = 1048 had hypertension and n = 636 had dyslipidemia. Uncontrolled blood pressure was associated with male sex, low body mass index (BMI, no history of myocardial infarction (MI and study site. Uncontrolled blood lipid levels were associated with male sex, no history of MI and study site. The odds of receiving no pharmacotherapy for hypertension were significantly greater in men, younger participants, those with BMI  Conclusion In the DIAB-CORE study, the patient group with the greatest odds of uncontrolled co-morbidities and no pharmacotherapy was more likely comprised of younger men with low BMI and no history of cardiovascular disease.

  17. Personal attributes that influence the adequate management of hypertension and dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Results from the DIAB-CORE Cooperation (United States)


    Background Hypertension and dyslipidemia are often insufficiently controlled in persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Germany. In the current study we evaluated individual characteristics that are assumed to influence the adequate treatment and control of hypertension and dyslipidemia and aimed to identify the patient group with the most urgent need for improved health care. Methods The analysis was based on the DIAB-CORE project in which cross-sectional data from five regional population-based studies and one nationwide German study, conducted between 1997 and 2006, were pooled. We compared the frequencies of socio-economic and lifestyle factors along with comorbidities in hypertensive participants with or without the blood pressure target of myocardial infarction (MI) and study site. Uncontrolled blood lipid levels were associated with male sex, no history of MI and study site. The odds of receiving no pharmacotherapy for hypertension were significantly greater in men, younger participants, those with BMI < 30 kg/m2 and those without previous MI or stroke. Participants with dyslipidemia received lipid lowering medication less frequently if they were male and had not previously had an MI. The more recent studies HNR and CARLA had the greatest numbers of well controlled and treated participants. Conclusion In the DIAB-CORE study, the patient group with the greatest odds of uncontrolled co-morbidities and no pharmacotherapy was more likely comprised of younger men with low BMI and no history of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23035799

  18. Attributional and relational processing in pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis eGarlick


    Full Text Available Six pigeons were trained using a matching-to-sample procedure where sample and rewarded comparisons matched on both attributional (color and relational (horizontal or vertical orientation dimensions. Probes then evaluated the pigeons’ preference to comparisons that varied in these dimensions. A strong preference was found for the attribute of color. The discrimination was not found to transfer to novel colors, however, suggesting that a general color rule had not been learned. Further, when color could not be used to guide responding, some influence of other attributional cues such as shape, but not relational cues, was found. We conclude that pigeons based their performance on attributional properties of but not on relational properties between elements in our matching-to-sample procedure.. Future studies should look at examining other attributes to compare attributional versus relational processing.

  19. Understanding the Covariation among Childhood Externalizing Symptoms: Genetic and Environmental Influences on Conduct Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms. (United States)

    Dick, Danielle M.; Viken, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J.


    Conduct disorder (CD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are common childhood externalizing disorders that frequently co-occur. However, the causes of their comorbidity are not well understood. To address that question, we analyzed data from >600 Finnish twin pairs, who completed standardized…

  20. Attributions and Emotions Related to Future Goal Attainment. (United States)

    Zaleski, Zbigniew


    Causal ascriptions for anticipated goal attainment and the emotional consequences of such ascriptions were studied in 731 college students answering questionnaires. Internal and external attributions were made for past outcomes. Subjects felt that internal factors accounted more for success, and external, for failure. (SLD)

  1. University students' attributions towards academic success or failure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study showed that the students consistently attributed success to internal factors and failure to external causes. Gender and age differences in attribution were not statistically significant. The study recommends further research with a larger sample to produce more generalisable results and the need for more interaction ...

  2. Race, Sex, Causal Attribution, and Help-Seeking Behavior. (United States)

    Cheatham, Harold E.; And Others


    Examined the help-seeking behaviors of college students needing assistance with personal problems. Using attribution theory and the learned helplessness paradigm, found that race and sex differences but not causal attribution (seeing problems as caused by internal or external factors) were related to seeking out assistance. Discusses the recurrent…

  3. Mathematicians, Attributional Complexity, and Gender (United States)

    Stalder, Daniel R.

    Given indirect indications in sex role and soda! psychology research that mathematical-deductive reasoning may negatively relate to social acuity, Study 1 investigated whether mathematicians were less attributionally complex than nonmathematicians. Study 1 administered the Attributional Complexity Scale, a measure of social acuity, to female and male faculty members and graduate students in four Midwestern schools. Atlrihutional complexity (AC) is the ability and motivation to give complex explanations for behavior. Study 1 found a significant interaction between field and gender. Only among women did mathematicians score lower on AC. In addition, an established gender difference in AC (that women score higher than men) was present only among nonmathematicians. Studies 2 and 3 offered some preliminary support for the possibility that it is generally female students who score tow on AC who aspire to he mathematicians and for the underlying view that female students' perceived similarity to mathematicians can influence their vocational choices.

  4. Goodness: Attributive and predicative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael-John Turp


    Full Text Available There is little consensus concerning the truth or reference conditions for evaluative terms such as “good” and “bad.” In his paper “Good and Evil,” Geach (1956 proposed that we distinguish between attributive and predicative uses of “good.” Foot (2001, Thomson (2008, Kraut (2011, and others have put this distinction to use when discussing basic questions of value theory. In §§1-2, I outline Geach’s proposal and argue that attributive evaluation depends on a prior grasp of the kind of thing that is evaluated, which is another way of saying a prior grasp of a thing’s nature. In §§3-4, I discuss the evaluation of artifacts, which provide the clearest examples of attributive evaluation. This allows me to address a series of problems apparently facing the idea of attributive goodness. In §5, I consider the neo-Aristotelian idea that we can extend attributive accounts of goodness to human lives, and I pay attention to Foot’s account of natural goodness. This leads me to consider the goodness of human life as a whole in §6. At this point. I depart from Geach’s approach and argue that questions of attributive goodness finally give rise to questions of predicative or absolute goodness.

  5. Attributions for Success and Failure of Japanese-American and Anglo-American University Students. (United States)

    Powers, Stephen; And Others


    Examined attribution patterns of 132 Japanese-American and 63 Anglo-American university students who completed Mathematics Attribution Scale, achievement motivation, anxiety, and self-esteem measures. Compared to Anglo-Americans, Japanese-Americans attributed their success in algebra more to external causes and attributed their failure in algebra…

  6. The influence of external ultrasound on the histologic architecture of the organic capsule around smooth silicone implants: experimental study in rats. (United States)

    Mendes, F H; Viterbo, F; DeLucca, L


    Capsular contracture is the main complication related to breast silicone implants, and its prevention remains a medical challenge. The authors present experimental research examining the effect of external ultrasound on the formation and contracture of peri-implant capsules. In this study, 42 male Wistar rats had a 2-mm smooth surface implant placed in a dorsal submuscular pocket. They then were separated into "ultrasound" and "control" groups that received repeated external applications either with or without the ultrasound power on. Ultrasound applications were given three times a week for a period of 90 days. After that, both groups were housed under the same conditions with no application scheduled. Five animals of each group, killed at 30, 60, 90, and 180 days, had their implants removed along with the capsule, which received a special histologic preparation via annular sectioning that provided wide circumferential observation of the capsular tissue. Sections were stained with hematoxylin/eosin stain, Masson's trichrome stain, and Pricrosirius Red stain for regular microscopic evaluation under normal and polarized light. Histologic data showed that capsules from the ultrasound and control groups had statistically significant differences. Ultrasound application developed a capsular architecture similar to that shown within textured silicone implants, and its effect had an early definition with subsequent stabilization. The authors conclude that early and repeated external ultrasound application enhances the thickness, cellular count, and vascularity of smooth silicone capsular tissue, whereas it diminishes the pattern of parallel orientation of collagen fibers.

  7. Attribute Reduction and Information Granularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-hong Wang


    Full Text Available In the view of granularity, this paper analyzes the influence of three attribute reducts on an information system, finding that the possible reduct and m - decision reduct will make the granule view coarser, while discernible reduct will not change the granule view. In addition, we investigate the combination of reducts from two partial information systems in parallel or in incremental data mining and urge that the union of partial possible reducts can be regarded as a possible reduct for union of partial information systems.

  8. Road Damage Externalities and Road User Charges.


    Newbery, David M


    Vehicles damage roads and, thus, increase road repair costs and create a road damage externality by raising the operating costs of subsequent vehicles. The main result is that if periodic road maintenance is condition responsive and if all road damage is attributable to traffic, then, in steady state with zero traffic growth, the average road damage externality is zero a nd the appropriate road damage charge is the average maintenance cost. Where weather accounts for some road damage, the roa...

  9. Influência dos atributos do solo sobre a qualidade da madeira de Pinus taeda para produção de celulose Kraft Influence of soil attributes on quality of Pinus taeda wood for cellulose Kraft production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Aparecida Rigatto


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram analisados os efeitos dos atributos do solo sobre a qualidade da madeira de Pinus taeda para produção de celulose Kraft, em áreas da Klabin, em Telêmaco Borba-PR. Foram estudados oito sítios com árvores de 12 anos de idade, selecionados pelo tipo de solo, textura e vegetação primária. Para caracterização dos sítios foram realizadas coletas de amostras em três horizontes, tendo sido coletadas amostras indeformadas e compostas, analisando-se as seguintes variáveis no solo: densidade global, porosidade total, macroporosidade, disponibilidade de água, fertilidade e granulometria. Selecionaram-se cinco árvores médias por sítio, nas quais foram medidos as alturas total e comercial e o DAP e retirados discos, sendo este material ensaiado quanto a densidade básica, composição química, características morfológicas dos traqueídeos e produção de celulose Kraft. Com relação às propriedades da madeira, os atributos físicos do solo demonstraram ter maior influência. De modo geral, as madeiras provenientes de sítios com texturas mais argilosas apresentaram menores valores de densidade básica; maiores teores de extrativos e lignina; menores teores de holocelulose e celulose; traqueídeos mais curtos, mais largos, com paredes mais finas e com diâmetros do lúmen maiores; e menor rendimento em celulose. A partir destes resultados, concluiu-se ser possível a previsão de propriedades da polpa através da análise das características da madeira associada às condições edáficas reinantes.To meet the increasing demand for forest products, much of the future timber supply will come from trees grown in managed plantations. This work was carried out to analyze the effects of soil attributes on Pinus taeda wood quality to produce Kraft cellulose at Klabin Parana Cellulose Co., in Telêmaco Borba, PR, Brazil. The study focused on the influence of soil attributes on the anatomical, physical and chemical wood

  10. Controlling attribute effect in linear regression

    KAUST Repository

    Calders, Toon


    In data mining we often have to learn from biased data, because, for instance, data comes from different batches or there was a gender or racial bias in the collection of social data. In some applications it may be necessary to explicitly control this bias in the models we learn from the data. This paper is the first to study learning linear regression models under constraints that control the biasing effect of a given attribute such as gender or batch number. We show how propensity modeling can be used for factoring out the part of the bias that can be justified by externally provided explanatory attributes. Then we analytically derive linear models that minimize squared error while controlling the bias by imposing constraints on the mean outcome or residuals of the models. Experiments with discrimination-aware crime prediction and batch effect normalization tasks show that the proposed techniques are successful in controlling attribute effects in linear regression models. © 2013 IEEE.

  11. The Influence of Personal Well-Being on Learning Achievement in University Students Over Time: Mediating or Moderating Effects of Internal and External University Engagement. (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Shek, Daniel T L; Zhu, Xiaoqin


    The current study examined the relationship between students' personal well-being and their learning achievement during university study, and whether such relationship would be mediated or moderated by university engagement. A total of 434 university students from one public university in Hong Kong participated in the study. The participants completed an online survey consisting of personal well-being (cognitive behavioral competence and general positive youth development), university engagement, and learning achievement measures (personal growth, and accumulated GPA as academic achievement) at four time points with a 1-year interval. Results showed that personal well-being measured at the beginning of university study positively predicted students' personal growth and academic achievement after 3 years' study. While the internal dimensions of university engagement (academic challenge and learning with peers) showed longitudinal significant mediational effect, the external dimensions (experience with faculty and campus environment) did not have significant longitudinal moderating effect. Nevertheless, external dimensions of student engagement also showed direct effect on personal growth and academic achievement. The long-standing positive effects of personal well-being on university engagement and subsequently, learning achievement during university years call for more attention to the promotion of holistic development among university students in Hong Kong.

  12. The Influence of Personal Well-Being on Learning Achievement in University Students Over Time: Mediating or Moderating Effects of Internal and External University Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yu


    Full Text Available The current study examined the relationship between students' personal well-being and their learning achievement during university study, and whether such relationship would be mediated or moderated by university engagement. A total of 434 university students from one public university in Hong Kong participated in the study. The participants completed an online survey consisting of personal well-being (cognitive behavioral competence and general positive youth development, university engagement, and learning achievement measures (personal growth, and accumulated GPA as academic achievement at four time points with a 1-year interval. Results showed that personal well-being measured at the beginning of university study positively predicted students' personal growth and academic achievement after 3 years' study. While the internal dimensions of university engagement (academic challenge and learning with peers showed longitudinal significant mediational effect, the external dimensions (experience with faculty and campus environment did not have significant longitudinal moderating effect. Nevertheless, external dimensions of student engagement also showed direct effect on personal growth and academic achievement. The long-standing positive effects of personal well-being on university engagement and subsequently, learning achievement during university years call for more attention to the promotion of holistic development among university students in Hong Kong.

  13. Soybean Nitrogen Fixing Attributes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reproductive unit and nitrogen fixing attributes (Carruthers er. al., 2000). In combination with various lupin and forages, these authors showed that soybean grain yield was decreased by most treatments. In order to limit over population and pollution risks, low nitrogen fertilizer agricultural systems are likely to be advocated.

  14. Family businesses as emotional arenas.The influence of family CEO’s empathy and external monitoring on the importance of family goals


    VAN DEN HEUVEL, Jeroen; Gal, S.; VAN GILS, Anita; VOORDECKERS, Wim


    Extant research has recognized the important role that emotions play in organizational processes and behaviour. We assert that family businesses would appear to be especially rich contexts in which emotions influence processes and behaviour, which could provide deeper insights into the workings of a family business firm. In this paper, we take a modest step by studying the influence of family firm CEOs` empathic concern – an affective emotion – on the importance that is placed on family-orien...

  15. Association of Arabica coffee quality attributes with selected soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) bean quality attributes differ based on the origin of the produce. Several agro-ecological conditions influence coffee bean quality attributes. Soil chemical properties may be some of the factors affecting the quality attributes. However, no study has so far been conducted to elucidate the association ...

  16. The behaviour of Ni-Ti shape memory alloys under thermomechanical load, influenced by different training conditions and external forces; Einfluss der Trainingsbehandlung auf die Ermuedung von Ni-Ti-Formgedaechtnislegierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhr, G.; Kneissl, A.C. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria). Inst. fuer Metallkunde und Werkstoffpruefung


    The objective of this work was to study the behavior of Ni-Ti shape memory alloys under thermomechanical load, influenced by different training conditions and external forces. A new testing unit was designed to investigate the fatigue behaviour of wire specimens during thermomechanical cycling. Further it was investigated, how the heating rate influences the strain during training procedure. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, das Verhalten von Ni-Ti-Formgedaechtnislegierungen bei thermomechanischer Ermuedung zu untersuchen. Hierbei wurden sowohl der Einfluss von unterschiedlichen Trainingsbehandlungen als auch jener verschiedener aeusserer Kraefte beruecksichtigt. Zur Durchfuehrung der Ermuedungsversuche wurde eine Pruefeinrichtung entwickelt, mit der thermomechanische Zyklen an drahtfoermigen Proben ausgefuehrt werden koennen. Weiters wurden prinzipielle Versuche zur Veraenderung der Dehnungswerte beim Trainieren in Abhaengigkeit von der Aufheizgeschwindigkeit vorgenommen. (orig./MM)

  17. What Makes Institutional Long-Term Care the Most Appropriate Setting for People With Dementia? Exploring the Influence of Client Characteristics, Decision-Maker Attributes, and Country in 8 European Nations. (United States)

    Tucker, Sue; Brand, Christian; Sutcliffe, Caroline; Challis, David; Saks, Kai; Verbeek, Hilde; Cabrera, Esther; Karlsson, Staffan; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Stephan, Astrid; Soto, Maria E


    To explore the extent to which client characteristics, decision-maker attributes, and country influence judgments of institutional long-term care (ILTC) appropriateness for people with dementia. A total of 161 experts in dementia care from 8 European countries reviewed a series of 14 vignettes representing people with dementia on the cusp of ILTC admission and indicated the most appropriate setting in which to support each case in a simple discrete choice exercise: own home, very sheltered housing, residential home, or nursing home. At least 16 experts participated in each country (Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom). Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the experts and their placement preferences. Logistic regression modeling was used to explore the extent to which the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of people with dementia, and the profession, workplace, and country of decision-makers were associated with ILTC recommendation. Client characteristics, decision-maker attributes, and country all seemed to play a part in influencing professionals' perceptions of the appropriateness of ILTC for people with dementia. Expert decision-makers were more likely to recommend ILTC for individuals who required help with mobility or had multiple care needs, and appeared to give more weight to carers' than clients' wishes. Community-based social workers were less likely than other professional groups to favor ILTC placement. Experts in Finland, Germany, and the United Kingdom were less likely to recommend ILTC than experts in France, the Netherlands, and Estonia; experts in Sweden and Spain took an intermediate position. This study provides new understanding of the factors that shape professionals' perceptions of ILTC appropriateness and highlights the need to construct multifaceted models of institutionalization when planning services for people with dementia. It also has several important clinical

  18. Relative Importance of Different Attributes of Graphic Health Warnings on Tobacco Packages in Viet Nam. (United States)

    Giang, Kim Bao; Chung, Le Hong; Minh, Hoang Van; Kien, Vu Duy; Giap, Vu Van; Hinh, Nguyen Duc; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Manh, Pham Duc; Duc, Ha Anh; Yang, Jui-Chen


    Graphic health warnings (GHW) on tobacco packages have proven to be effective in increasing quit attempts among smokers and reducing initial smoking among adolescents. This research aimed to examine the relative importance of different attributes of graphic health warnings on tobacco packages in Viet Nam. A discrete choice experimental (DCE) design was applied with a conditional logit model. In addition, a ranking method was used to list from the least to the most dreadful GHW labels. With the results from DCE model, graphic type was shown to be the most important attribute, followed by cost and coverage area of GHW. The least important attribute was position of the GHW. Among 5 graphic types (internal lung cancer image, external damaged teeth, abstract image, human suffering image and text), the image of lung cancer was found to have the strongest influence on both smokers and non-smokers. With ranking method, the image of throat cancer and heart diseases were considered the most dreadful images. GHWs should be designed with these attributes in mind, to maximise influence on purchase among both smokers and non-smokers.

  19. Regulating multiple externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max


    Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory instrume......Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory...

  20. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)


    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  1. Multi-model attribution of upper-ocean temperature changes using an isothermal approach (United States)

    Weller, Evan; Min, Seung-Ki; Palmer, Matthew D.; Lee, Donghyun; Yim, Bo Young; Yeh, Sang-Wook


    Both air-sea heat exchanges and changes in ocean advection have contributed to observed upper-ocean warming most evident in the late-twentieth century. However, it is predominantly via changes in air-sea heat fluxes that human-induced climate forcings, such as increasing greenhouse gases, and other natural factors such as volcanic aerosols, have influenced global ocean heat content. The present study builds on previous work using two different indicators of upper-ocean temperature changes for the detection of both anthropogenic and natural external climate forcings. Using simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, we compare mean temperatures above a fixed isotherm with the more widely adopted approach of using a fixed depth. We present the first multi-model ensemble detection and attribution analysis using the fixed isotherm approach to robustly detect both anthropogenic and natural external influences on upper-ocean temperatures. Although contributions from multidecadal natural variability cannot be fully removed, both the large multi-model ensemble size and properties of the isotherm analysis reduce internal variability of the ocean, resulting in better observation-model comparison of temperature changes since the 1950s. We further show that the high temporal resolution afforded by the isotherm analysis is required to detect natural external influences such as volcanic cooling events in the upper-ocean because the radiative effect of volcanic forcings is short-lived.

  2. Shaped by asymmetrical interdependence: a qualitative case study of the external influences on international non-governmental organizations' implementation of equity principles in HIV/AIDS work. (United States)

    Dyke, Elizabeth; Edwards, Nancy; McDowell, Ian; Muga, Richard; Brown, Stephen


    Addressing inequities is a key role for international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) working in health and development. Yet, putting equity principles into practice can prove challenging. In-depth empirical research examining what influences INGOs' implementation of equity principles is limited. This study examined the influences on one INGO's implementation of equity principles in its HIV/AIDS programs. This research employed a case study with nested components (an INGO operating in Kenya, with offices in North America). We used multiple data collection methods, including document reviews, interviews (with staff, partners and clients of the INGO in Kenya), and participant observation (with Kenyan INGO staff). Participant observation was conducted with 10 people over three months. Forty-one interviews were completed, and 127 documents analyzed. Data analysis followed Auerbach and Silverstein's analytic process (2003), with qualitative coding conducted in multiple stages, using descriptive matrices, visual displays and networks (Miles and Huberman, 1994). There was a gap between the INGO's intent to implement equity principles and actual practice due to multiple influences from various players, including donors and country governments. The INGO was reliant on donor funding and needed permission from the Kenyan government to work in-country. Major influences included donor agendas and funding, donor country policies, and Southern country government priorities and legislation. The INGO privileged particular vulnerable populations (based on its reputation, its history, and the priorities of the Kenyan government and the donors). To balance its equity commitment with the influences from other players, the INGO aligned with the system as well as pushed back incrementally on the donors and the Kenyan government to influence these organizations' equity agendas. By moving its equity agenda forward incrementally and using its reputational advantage, the INGO avoided

  3. Ultrasound evaluation of muscle thickness changes in the external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles considering the influence of posture and muscle contraction. (United States)

    Sugaya, Tomoaki; Abe, Yota; Sakamoto, Masaaki


    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate muscle thickness changes in the external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transversus abdominis (TrA) muscles between the neutral position and trunk rotation, under a state of rest without voluntary contractions, and isometric contractions to both sides with resistance of 50% of the maximum trunk rotation strength. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 21 healthy young men. [Methods] Muscle thickness changes in the EO, IO, and TrA in each position and state were evaluated by ultrasound. The range of motion at maximum trunk rotation and the maximum strength of trunk rotation were measured using a hand-held dynamometer. [Results] In the neutral position and at 50% trunk rotation to the right side, the thicknesses of the IO and TrA significantly increased with resistance. In both states, the thicknesses of the IO and TrA significantly increased at 50% trunk rotation to the right side. [Conclusion] The muscular contractions of the IO and TrA were stronger during ipsilateral rotation than in the neutral position and with resistance than at rest. Moreover, the muscular contraction was strongest in the resistive state during ipsilateral rotation.

  4. Extreme Weather Events and Climate Change Attribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Katherine [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)


    A report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine concludes it is now possible to estimate the influence of climate change on some types of extreme events. The science of extreme event attribution has advanced rapidly in recent years, giving new insight to the ways that human-caused climate change can influence the magnitude or frequency of some extreme weather events. This report examines the current state of science of extreme weather attribution, and identifies ways to move the science forward to improve attribution capabilities. Confidence is strongest in attributing types of extreme events that are influenced by climate change through a well-understood physical mechanism, such as, the more frequent heat waves that are closely connected to human-caused global temperature increases, the report finds. Confidence is lower for other types of events, such as hurricanes, whose relationship to climate change is more complex and less understood at present. For any extreme event, the results of attribution studies hinge on how questions about the event's causes are posed, and on the data, modeling approaches, and statistical tools chosen for the analysis.

  5. Multi-Attribute Sequential Search (United States)

    Bearden, J. Neil; Connolly, Terry


    This article describes empirical and theoretical results from two multi-attribute sequential search tasks. In both tasks, the DM sequentially encounters options described by two attributes and must pay to learn the values of the attributes. In the "continuous" version of the task the DM learns the precise numerical value of an attribute when she…

  6. Space-restricted attribute grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Erik Meineche


    Restricting the size of attribute values, relative to the length of the string under consideration, leads to a model of attribute grammars in which grammars with both inherited and synthesized attributes can be significantly more economical than grammars with synthesized attributes only....

  7. Exploring Attribution Theory and Bias (United States)

    Robinson, Jessica A.


    Courses: This activity can be used in a wide range of classes, including interpersonal communication, introduction to communication, and small group communication. Objectives: After completing this activity, students should be able to: (1) define attribution theory, personality attribution, situational attribution, and attribution bias; (2)…

  8. Effects of information on intentionality attributions and judgments: Punishing negligence and praising the caring for information


    Haupt, Andreas; Uske, Tobias


    Understanding how observers attribute intentionality to people in the focus of their atten- tion helps in shedding light on punishment behavior. In this paper we approach impartial observers' attributions of intentionality and the attachment of praise and blame to perpe- trators of external effects. In line with ndings of Joshua Knobe (Knobe, 2003, 2006) , we argue that intentionality attributions to these perpetrators are more likely, if observers consider the externality as ...

  9. Diffusion of hydrogen interstitials in the near-surface region of Pd(111) under the influence of surface coverage and external static electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco-Rey, M. [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Químicas UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Tremblay, J. C. [Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustrasse 3, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)


    Past scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments of H manipulation on Pd(111), at low temperature, have shown that it is possible to induce diffusion of surface species as well as of those deeply buried under the surface. Several questions remain open regarding the role of subsurface site occupancies. In the present work, the interaction potential of H atoms with Pd(111) under various H coverage conditions is determined by means of density functional theory calculations in order to provide an answer to two of these questions: (i) whether subsurface sites are the final locations for the H impurities that attempt to emerge from bulk regions, and (ii) whether penetration of the surface is a competing route of on-surface diffusion during depletion of surface H on densely covered Pd(111). We find that a high H coverage has the effect of blocking resurfacing of H atoms travelling from below, which would otherwise reach the surface fcc sites, but it hardly alters deeper diffusion energy barriers. Penetration is unlikely and restricted to high occupancies of hcp hollows. In agreement with experiments, the Pd lattice expands vertically as a consequence of H atoms being blocked at subsurface sites, and surface H enhances this expansion. STM tip effects are included in the calculations self-consistently as an external static electric field. The main contribution to the induced surface electric dipoles originates from the Pd substrate polarisability. We find that the electric field has a non-negligible effect on the H-Pd potential in the vicinity of the topmost Pd atomic layer, yet typical STM intensities of 1-2 VÅ{sup −1} are insufficient to invert the stabilities of the surface and subsurface equilibrium sites.

  10. In vitro T lymphocyte adherence capabilities under the influence of lower induction values (0.1 - 0.01 mT) of 50 Hz external magnetic fields (United States)

    Čoček, A.; Jandová, A.; Hahn, A.; Mártonová, J.; Ambruš, M.; Dohnalová, A.; Nedbalová, M.; Pokorný, J.


    Our research thus far has concerned the impact of external magnetic fields (50 Hz) and low (0.01-10 mT) induction on adherence capabilities of T lymphocytes obtained from the blood of patients with head and neck tumors. We know that the in vitro adherence capability of T lymphocytes towards surfaces in cancer patients is less than that of control. Previously, we have found that exposure to magnetic fields (50 Hz / 0.01-10 mT) increases the capability of T lymphocytes, in larynx/pharynx cancer patients, to adhere in vitro to surfaces, achieving almost physiological values, in not only pre-treatment patients but also those receiving treatment in the course of follow-up. The capability of T lymphocytes in controls (voluntary blood donors) to adhere to surfaces was also increased (50 Hz / 0.01-0.5 mT). The present study concentrates on the significance of the level of magnetic field induction in order to determine whether low induction values can restore T lymphocytes adherence capabilities. Testing a set of 20 patients showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the in vitro adherence capacity of T lymphocytes between both 0.01 and 0.05, and 0.1 mT induction levels. In the control group (patients diagnosed with chronic sensorineural hearing loss) there was even a statistically significant difference between induction values of 0.05 and 0.01 mT. Therefore, we concluded that lower induction values resulted in a more biologically significant response.

  11. Attribution as Effect: An Outsider Principal's Succession. (United States)

    Hart, Ann Weaver


    Administrator succession can have varied effects on organizational performance. Although most studies have focused on performance outcomes, this paper reports the personal sense making of a successor to the principalship. The successor found that leadership validation and attribution influenced her transformation from an interloper to an effective…

  12. Causal Attributions for Success in Hiring Decisions. (United States)

    Speth, Carol A.; And Others

    Attribution theory suggests four major explanations for behavioral outcomes: ability, effort, luck, and task-ease. The theory suggests that explanations given for an applicant's success-potential may influence evaluations of that applicant. The research indicates male and female applicants may be affected differently by gender-stereotyped…

  13. Atributos físicos do solo sob diferentes preparos e coberturas influenciados pela distribuição de poros Soil physical attributes under different tillage systems and cover crops, as influenced by pore distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurâimi de Q. Cunha


    Full Text Available Com este trabalho se propõe avaliar a influência da distribuição de poros sobre alguns atributos físicos do solo sob semeadura direta (SD e preparo convencional (PC, cultivado com diferentes culturas de cobertura, no sistema de produção orgânica de feijão e milho. O trabalho foi conduzido em Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Em novembro de 2003 foram instalados quatro experimentos, dois em SD e dois em PC, um em cada manejo com feijão e o outro com milho. Foram comparados em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, crotalária, guandu, mucuna-preta, sorgo e pousio. Amostragens de solo das parcelas e de uma mata próxima foram realizadas nas profundidades de 0-0,10 e 0,10-0,20 m, em novembro de 2007, para determinação do teor de matéria orgânica (M.O. e de atributos físicos do solo. O uso do solo sob vegetação de cerrado para a produção agrícola, independentemente do sistema de cultivo, resultou em redução na porosidade total (Pt, macroporosidade (Mp e capacidade de aeração do solo (CAS. Os atributos físicos do solo foram afetados favoravelmente pela M.O. As variações em Pt, Mp, CAS e capacidade de água disponível do solo podem ser explicadas pela variação na distribuição do tamanho de poros do solo, principalmente daqueles com ∅ > 0,075 mm.This study aimed to evaluate the influence of pore distribution on some physical attributes of soil under no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT systems, cultivated with different cover crops, in organic production of common bean and corn. The work was carried out in Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, on an Oxisol. In November 2003 four experiments were installed, two of them under NT and the other two under CT. In each soil tillage system, an experiment was conducted with corn and another with common bean. Sunn hemp, pigeon pea, velvet bean, sorghum, and fallow were compared in a randomized block design, with four replications. Samples were

  14. Influência de formas do relevo em atributos físicos de um latossolo sob cultivo de cana-de-açúcar Influence of the relief forms on physical attributes of an oxisol cropped with sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziane de Figueiredo Brito


    Full Text Available Os atributos físicos do solo variam em função das formas do relevo e sofrem influência da mineralogia da fração argila e do manejo da cultura de cana-de-açúcar, podendo interferir no processo de compactação do solo. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o estado dos atributos físicos em diferentes formas do relevo em um Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico argiloso sob cultivo de cana-de-açúcar. A área apresenta duas formas de relevo: uma côncava, que ocorre nas posições mais elevadas, e uma linear, constituída pelos segmentos ombro, escarpa, meia encosta e encosta inferior. As amostras de solo foram coletadas durante o ciclo da cultura, nas camadas de 0,00-0,15m, 0,15-0,30m e 0,30-0,45m, para determinação do teor de matéria orgânica e dos seguintes atributos físicos: densidade do solo, porosidade total, macroporosidade, microporosidade, resistência do solo à penetração e teor de água no solo. A mineralogia mais gibbsítica e o maior teor de matéria orgânica, encontrada na forma de relevo côncava e de segmento ombro, proporciona menores valores de densidade do solo, de resistência do solo à penetração e de microporosidade e maiores valores de macroporosidade e de porosidade total do que a mineralogia mais caulinítica, encontrada nos demais segmentos da forma linear.The physical attributes of the soil vary according to the relief forms and suffer from the mineralogy of the clay fraction and the management of the sugarcane culture, being able to influence the soil compaction process. This research was developed in Jaboticabal-SP, aiming at evaluating the behavior of physical attributes in different relief forms in an oxisol cropped with sugarcane. The area presents two relief forms (concave and linear, the concave one, that occurs at the highest positions, and the linear one, consisting of shoulder, scarp, stocking lean and inferior lean segments. The samples soil were collected during the sugarcane

  15. Children's Perceptions of Their Peer Experiences: Attributions, Loneliness, Social Anxiety, and Social Avoidance. (United States)

    Crick, Nicki R.; Ladd, Gary W.


    Assessed third and fifth graders' feelings of loneliness, social anxiety, and social avoidance and their attributions for social outcomes. Compared with peers, rejected children reported more loneliness and were more likely to attribute relationship failures to external causes. Among socially distressed children, attribution patterns varied with…

  16. Retention and Separation Changes of Ternary and Quaternary Alkaloids fromChelidonium majusL. by TLC Under the Influence of External Magnetic Field. (United States)

    Malinowska, Irena; Studziński, Marek; Malinowski, Henryk; Gadzikowska, Maria


    Thin layer techniques proved their usefulness in the analysis of plant extract material. Thanks to their low operation costs, high sample throughput and possibility to gather chromatographic data for the whole sample in a single act, they allowed to find, and in some cases identify, active ingredients often hidden in sophisticated plant extract matrices. It was also proved that the presence of a magnetic field changes the retention of some substances, and moreover changes the separation efficiency of chromatographic systems. In the presented experiment, retention, efficiency and separation abilities of TLC chromatographic systems for mixtures of alkaloids under the influence of magnetic field depending on inductivity of the magnetic field, the saturation of chromatographic chamber and quantity of chromatographed substances were investigated. The results obtained were tested on real plant extracts that revealed the ability of chromatography in a magnetic field for separation of ternary and quaternary alkaloids from Chelidonium majus L. Our experiments proved that the presence of magnetic field induction lines perpendicular to the chromatographic plate plane can influence the width and retention of chromatographed substances, and can be considered as a tool for separation adjustment of plant extracts containing ternary and quaternary alkaloids.

  17. Numerical study on the influence of entrapped air bubbles on the time-dependent pore pressure distribution in soils due to external changes in water level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausweger Georg M.


    Full Text Available In practical geotechnical engineering soils below the groundwater table are usually regarded as a two-phase medium, consisting of solids and water. The pore water is assumed to be incompressible. However, under certain conditions soils below the groundwater table may exhibit a liquid phase consisting of water and air. The air occurs in form of entrapped air bubbles and dissolved air. Such conditions are named quasi-saturated and the assumption of incompressibility is no longer justified. In addition the entrapped air bubbles influence the hydraulic conductivity of soils. These effects are usually neglected in standard problems of geotechnical engineering. However, sometimes it is required to include the pore fluid compressibility when modelling the hydraulic behaviour of soils in order to be able to explain certain phenomena observed in the field. This is for example true for fast fluctuating water levels in reservoirs. In order to study these phenomena, numerical investigations on the influence of the pore fluid compressibility on the pore water pressure changes in a soil layer beneath a reservoir with fast fluctuating water levels were performed. Preliminary results of this study are presented and it could be shown that numerical analysis and field data are in good agreement.

  18. Matchings with Externalities and Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal


    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real-life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas ...... where agents take different attitudes when reasoning about the actions of others. In particular, we study optimistic, neutral and pessimistic attitudes and provide both computational hardness results and polynomial-time algorithms for computing stable outcomes....

  19. Influence of “Glow Discharge Plasma” as an External Stimulus on the Self-Assembly, Morphology and Binding Affinity of Gold Nanoparticle-Streptavidin Conjugates (United States)

    Mamdouh, Wael; Li, Yingzhi; Shawky, Sherif M.; Azzazy, Hassan M. E.; Liu, Chang-Jun


    In this study, we investigate the influence of glow discharge plasma (GDP) on the self-assembly, morphology and binding affinity of streptavidin coated gold nanoparticles (Au-NP-SV) and biotinylated antibody (bAb) adsorbed on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrate. Atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to image the pre- and post-GDP treated samples. The analysis of the AFM images showed a considerable change in the aggregation and morphology of Au-NP-conjugates after treatment with GDP. To our knowledge, this is the first report on using GDP to enhance and speed-up the aggregation (sintering) of adsorbed NP biomolecular conjugates. These results show a promising route that could be generalized for other NPs and their conjugates. It can also be considered as an alternative and cheap aggregation method for controlling the binding affinity of biomolecular species on different surfaces with interesting applications. PMID:22837648

  20. Influence of “Glow Discharge Plasma” as an External Stimulus on the Self-Assembly, Morphology and Binding Affinity of Gold Nanoparticle-Streptavidin Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Jun Liu


    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the influence of glow discharge plasma (GDP on the self-assembly, morphology and binding affinity of streptavidin coated gold nanoparticles (Au-NP-SV and biotinylated antibody (bAb adsorbed on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG substrate. Atomic force microscope (AFM was used to image the pre- and post-GDP treated samples. The analysis of the AFM images showed a considerable change in the aggregation and morphology of Au-NP-conjugates after treatment with GDP. To our knowledge, this is the first report on using GDP to enhance and speed-up the aggregation (sintering of adsorbed NP biomolecular conjugates. These results show a promising route that could be generalized for other NPs and their conjugates. It can also be considered as an alternative and cheap aggregation method for controlling the binding affinity of biomolecular species on different surfaces with interesting applications.

  1. Influence of adrenocorticotrophin hormone challenge and external factors (age, sex, and body region) on hair cortisol concentration in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis). (United States)

    Terwissen, C V; Mastromonaco, G F; Murray, D L


    Land use changes are a significant factor influencing the decline of felid populations. However, additional research is needed to better understand how these factors influence populations in the wild. Hormone analysis can provide valuable information on the basic physiology and overall health of an animal, and enzyme immunoassays (EIA) are generally used for hair hormone analysis but must first be validated for the substrate of choice and species of interest. To date, hormone assays from hair have not been validated for Felidae, despite that the method holds considerable promise for non-invasive sampling of free-ranging animals. We sought to: (1) evaluate whether increased adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) during the period of hair growth results in elevated hair cortisol; (2) validate the enzyme immunoassay used; and (3) identify any variations in hair cortisol between age, sex and body regions, using Canada lynx. We quantified hair cortisol concentrations in captive animals through an ACTH challenge and collected samples from legally harvested lynx to compare variability between body regions. An EIA was validated for the analysis of hair cortisol. Lynx (n=3) had a qualitative increase in hair cortisol concentration following an ACTH challenge in captive animals (20 IU/kg of body weight weekly for 5 weeks), thereby supporting the use of an EIA to quantify cortisol values in hair. Based on our analysis of sampled lynx pelts, we found that hair cortisol did not vary between age and sex, but varied within the foot/leg region to a greater extent than between individuals. We recommend that future studies identify a standardized location for hair cortisol sampling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. HIV-1 disease-influencing effects associated with ZNRD1, HCP5 and HLA-C alleles are attributable mainly to either HLA-A10 or HLA-B*57 alleles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Catano

    specifically demonstrate that the influence of ZNRD1 alleles on disease progression rates are attributable to HLA-A10, help clarify the relationship between the HCP5, HLA-C and HLA-B*57 alleles, and reaffirm a critical role of HLA-B*57 alleles in HIV disease. Furthermore, as the protective B*57-containing genotypes convey striking salutary effects independent of their strong impact on viral control, it is conceivable that T cell-based therapeutic vaccine strategies aimed at reducing viral loads may be inadequate for limiting AIDS progression, raising the potential need for complementary strategies that target viral load-independent determinants of pathogenesis.

  3. General causality orientations and defensive attributions of failure on academic exam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodroža Bojana


    Full Text Available Defensive behaviour after failure, such as denial of the responsibility for own achievement, reduces person’s openness for further learning and development and, thus, is undesirable in pedagogical practice. General causality orientations success-fully predict defensive behaviours after failure. Autonomous causality orientation implies behaviours motivated by personal growth and development, while controlling orientation purports ego-involved behaviours aimed at proving one's own self-worth. The research was conducted with the aim of testing two hypotheses (additive and synergistic about the influence of general causality orientations and their combinations on defensive attribution of failure on the exam. After their faculty exam, N=158 psychology students answered questions about the expected grade and they filled out two questionnaires: Attribution of Success on the Test and General Causality Orientation Scale. The results showed that internal attribution of success is related to greater expected grade and higher autonomous causality orientation. External attribution was characteristic for individuals with high controlling causal orientation. It was confirmed that general causality orientations can predict the way a person perceives academic success. Thus, we give recommendations on how to support and encourage autonomous and discourage controlling behaviours of students.

  4. Generating Attributed Networks with Communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Largeron, Christine; Mougel, Pierre-Nicolas; Rabbany, Reihaneh; Zaïane, Osmar R


    .... When nodes are described with a set of attributes we have an attributed network. Nodes and their relationships tend to naturally form into communities or clusters, and discovering these communities is paramount to many applications...

  5. External Costs of Transport




    This study is an update of a former UIC study on external effects (IFRAS / IWW 2000). It aims at improving the empirical basis of external costs of transport based on the actual state of the art of cost estimation methodologies reflecting also recent studies on external costs of transport on a European level (especially UNITE).The following dimensions are considered:- cost categories- contries- base year- differentiation by means of transport 

  6. External radiation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.


    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  7. An Attributional Perspective on Labeling. (United States)

    Palmer, Douglas J.


    Drawing from the attributional investigations of Bernard Weiner and colleagues in the area of achievement motivation, this review addresses attribution theory and its implications for labeling of handicapped children. It is concluded that attributions, not the presence or absence of formal labels, may be the critical variable of concern.…

  8. Source attribution of tropospheric ozone (United States)

    Butler, T. M.


    Tropospheric ozone is a harmful pollutant with adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. As well as these effects, tropospheric ozone is also a powerful greenhouse gas, with an anthropogenic radiative forcing one quarter of that of CO2. Along with methane and atmospheric aerosol, tropospheric ozone belongs to the so-called Short Lived Climate forcing Pollutants, or SLCP. Recent work has shown that efforts to reduce concentrations of SLCP in the atmosphere have the potential to slow the rate of near-term climate change, while simultaneously improving public health and reducing crop losses. Unlike many other SLCP, tropospehric ozone is not directly emitted, but is instead influenced by two distinct sources: transport of air from the ozone-rich stratosphere; and photochemical production in the troposphere from the emitted precursors NOx (oxides of nitrogen), CO (Carbon Monoxide), and VOC (volatile organic compounds, including methane). Better understanding of the relationship between ozone production and the emissions of its precursors is essential for the development of targeted emission reduction strategies. Several modeling methods have been employed to relate the production of tropospheric ozone to emissions of its precursors; emissions perturbation, tagging, and adjoint sensitivity methods all deliver complementary information about modelled ozone production. Most studies using tagging methods have focused on attribution of tropospheric ozone production to emissions of NOx, even though perturbation methods have suggested that tropospheric ozone is also sensitive to VOC, particularly methane. In this study we describe the implementation into a global chemistry-climate model of a scheme for tagging emissions of NOx and VOC with an arbitrary number of labels, which are followed through the chemical reactions of tropospheric ozone production in order to perform attribution of tropospehric ozone to its emitted precursors. Attribution is performed to both

  9. Instantaneous Frequency Attribute Comparison (United States)

    Yedlin, M. J.; Margrave, G. F.; Ben Horin, Y.


    The instantaneous seismic data attribute provides a different means of seismic interpretation, for all types of seismic data. It first came to the fore in exploration seismology in the classic paper of Taner et al (1979), entitled " Complex seismic trace analysis". Subsequently a vast literature has been accumulated on the subject, which has been given an excellent review by Barnes (1992). In this research we will compare two different methods of computation of the instantaneous frequency. The first method is based on the original idea of Taner et al (1979) and utilizes the derivative of the instantaneous phase of the analytic signal. The second method is based on the computation of the power centroid of the time-frequency spectrum, obtained using either the Gabor Transform as computed by Margrave et al (2011) or the Stockwell Transform as described by Stockwell et al (1996). We will apply both methods to exploration seismic data and the DPRK events recorded in 2006 and 2013. In applying the classical analytic signal technique, which is known to be unstable, due to the division of the square of the envelope, we will incorporate the stabilization and smoothing method proposed in the two paper of Fomel (2007). This method employs linear inverse theory regularization coupled with the application of an appropriate data smoother. The centroid method application is straightforward and is based on the very complete theoretical analysis provided in elegant fashion by Cohen (1995). While the results of the two methods are very similar, noticeable differences are seen at the data edges. This is most likely due to the edge effects of the smoothing operator in the Fomel method, which is more computationally intensive, when an optimal search of the regularization parameter is done. An advantage of the centroid method is the intrinsic smoothing of the data, which is inherent in the sliding window application used in all Short-Time Fourier Transform methods. The Fomel technique

  10. Causal attributions of job loss among people with psychiatric disabilities. (United States)

    Lanctôt, Nathalie; Bergeron-Brossard, Prunelle; Sanquirgo, Nathalie; Corbière, Marc


    Guided by Weiner's attribution theory (1985), the aim of this study is to describe the reasons given by people with psychiatric disabilities to explain job loss. Using a sample of 126 people with psychiatric disabilities participating in a prospective study design, the authors evaluated the causal attributions pattern to explain job loss. During a 9-month follow-up phone interview, clients of supported employment programs were asked to explain the reasons why they had lost their jobs. The reasons provided were categorized according to type of job loss (voluntarily vs. involuntarily), locus of control (external vs. internal) and controllability (controllable vs. uncontrollable). The results show that 73% of participants had voluntarily ended their jobs. For the majority of participants, the reasons given to explain job loss were related to external and uncontrollable factors. Moreover, men used more external (34.1% vs. 23%) and uncontrollable (68.2% vs. 40%) reasons than women. Severity of symptoms and level of education also affected the attributional pattern. However, self-esteem, psychiatric diagnosis and work centrality did not correlate significantly to the attributional pattern. The results demonstrated that reasons given to explain job loss among people with psychiatric disabilities are mostly external. A more systematic evaluation of environmental factors should be put in place to favor longer job tenure for people with psychiatric disabilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Attribution and Motivation: A Cultural Study among Indonesian University Students (United States)

    Sutantoputri, Novita W.; Watt, Helen M. G.


    Relationships between cultural factors (ethnicity and religiosity) and dimensions of students' attributions for their success and failure (locus of control, stability, personal control and external control), along with motivational goals (learning, performance approach, performance avoidance, and work avoidance), self-efficacy, intelligence…

  12. Checklists for external validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Kidholm, Kristian; Gerke, Oke


    RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The quality of the current literature on external validity varies considerably. An improved checklist with validated items on external validity would aid decision-makers in judging similarities among circumstances when transferring evidence from a study setting to ...

  13. Social Agglomeration Externalities


    Borck, Rainald


    This paper examines social agglomeration externalities. Using survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, I examine the link between city size and different measures of consumption, social interaction and social capital. Further, using responses to satisfaction questions, I analyse whether individuals are compensated for diseconomies of agglomeration by positive agglomeration externalities in other areas. This equilibrium hypothesis cannot be rejected.

  14. External approach to rhinoplasty. (United States)

    Goodman, Wilfred S; Charbonneau, Paul A


    The technique of external rhinoplasty is outlined. Having reviewed 74 cases, its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Reluctance to use this external approach seems to be based on emotional rather than radical grounds, for its seems to be the procedure of choice for many problems.

  15. The External Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The External Mind: an Introduction by Riccardo Fusaroli, Claudio Paolucci pp. 3-31 The sign of the Hand: Symbolic Practices and the Extended Mind by Massimiliano Cappuccio, Michael Wheeler pp. 33-55 The Overextended Mind by Shaun Gallagher pp. 57-68 The "External Mind": Semiotics, Pragmatism...

  16. Homogeneity of Prototypical Attributes in Soccer Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Zepp


    Full Text Available Research indicates that the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes influences several intragroup processes. The aim of the present study was to describe the homogeneous perception of the prototype and to identify specific prototypical subcategories, which are perceived as homogeneous within sport teams. The sample consists of N = 20 soccer teams with a total of N = 278 athletes (age M = 23.5 years, SD = 5.0 years. The results reveal that subcategories describing the cohesiveness of the team and motivational attributes are mentioned homogeneously within sport teams. In addition, gender, identification, team size, and the championship ranking significantly correlate with the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes. The results are discussed on the basis of theoretical and practical implications.

  17. Causal attribution among women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina W. B. Peuker


    Full Text Available Abstract Causal attribution among women with breast cancer was studied. The study included 157 women outpatients with breast cancer. A form for sociodemographic and clinical data and the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R were used. The results showed that women attributed breast cancer primarily to psychological causes, which does not correspond to known multifactorial causes validated by the scientific community. Providing high quality, patient-centered care requires sensitivity to breast cancer women’s beliefs about the causes of their cancer and awareness of how it can influence patient’s health behaviors after diagnosis. If women with breast cancer attribute the illness to modifiable factors then they can keep a healthy lifestyle, improving their recovery and decrease the probability of cancer recurrence after diagnosis.

  18. Firm Search for External Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph


    The innovation performance of modern firms is increasingly determined by their ability to search and absorb external knowledge. However, after a certain threshold firms "oversearch" their environment and innovation performance declines. In this paper, we argue that prior literature has largely...... ignored the institutional context that provides or denies access to external knowledge at the country level. Combining institutional and knowledge search theory, we suggest that the market orientation of the institutional environment and the magnitude of institutional change influence when firms begin...... to experience the negative performance effects of oversearch. Based on a comprehensive sample of almost 8,000 firms from ten European countries, we find that institutions matter considerably for firms' search activity. Higher market orientation of institutions increases the effectiveness of firms' search...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta ISAI


    Full Text Available The delivery conditions of the merchandise at export, established by the rules INCOTERMS2000, influence the external price structure. There are some conditions in which the external priceincludes only the value of the merchandise and other conditions in which, besides the value of themerchandise, the price includes also the external transport and insurance. In the case of the exportson commercial credit, when it appears the notion of external interest, this one may be included in theprice or may be invoiced separately, thus defining gross external prices and net external prices.

  20. Aggregate savings and external imbalances in China


    Yang, Dennis Tao


    Over the last decade, the internal and external macroeconomic imbalances in China have risen to unprecedented levels. In 2008, China's national savings rate soared to over 53 percent of its GDP, whereas its current account surplus exceeded 9 percent of GDP. This paper presents a unified framework for understanding the structural causes of these imbalances. I argue that the imbalances are attributable to a set of policies and institutions embedded in the economy. I propose a unified framework ...

  1. Multiple organizational identification levels and the impact of perceived external prestige and communication climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, J.; Pruyn, A.T.H.; Jong, de M.D.T.; Joustra, I.


    Earlier studies have shown that perceived external prestige and communication climate influence organizational identification. In this paper we present the results of a study of the influence of communication climate and perceived external prestige on organizational identification at various

  2. Farmers' preferences for maize attributes in eastern and Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to identify and economically evaluate non-yield productive and consumptive attributes that are important to farmers and their influence on the price farmers are willing to pay for seed of varieties that embody those attributes. A survey of 325 randomly selected farmers was conducted in Iganga and ...

  3. Online Game Addiction among Chinese College Students Measurement and Attribution. (United States)

    Zhou, Yuqiong; Li, Zhitian


    This study made an initial attempt to measure and attribute online game addiction among Chinese college students. We generated three factors of online game addiction: Control Disorder, Conflict, and Injury, as well as proposed a comprehensive model that attributed online game addiction to three groups of driving forces: environmental influences (most significant), characteristics of online games, and personal reasons.

  4. The role of seed attributes in eastern gray squirrel foraging


    Sundaram, Mekala


    Seed attributes are important predictors of rodent foraging behaviors. I examined the role of seed attributes in eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) foraging behavior from an evolutionary, economic, ecological and biochemical perspective. From an evolutionary perspective (chapter 2), I found that squirrel foraging behaviors are influenced by a combination of phylogenetically conserved and evolutionarily labile seed traits, which supports a diffuse coevolutionary relationship between ...

  5. Perceived Insider Status and Feedback Reactions: A Dual Path of Feedback Motivation Attribution. (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Liao, JianQiao; Wu, Weijiong; Zhang, Wei


    Many studies have evaluated how the characteristics of feedback receiver, feedback deliverer and feedback information influence psychological feedback reactions of the feedback receiver while largely neglecting that feedback intervention is a kind of social interaction process. To address this issue, this study proposes that employees' perceived insider status (PIS), as a kind of employee-organization relationship, could also influence employees' reactions to supervisory feedback. In particular, this study investigates the influence of PIS focusing on affective and cognitive feedback reactions, namely feedback satisfaction and feedback utility. Surveys were conducted in a machinery manufacturing company in the Guangdong province of China. Samples were collected from 192 employees. Data analysis demonstrated that PIS and feedback utility possessed a U-shaped relationship, whereas PIS and feedback satisfaction exhibited positively linear relationships. The analysis identified two kinds of mediating mechanisms related to feedback satisfaction and feedback utility. Internal feedback motivation attribution partially mediated the relationship between PIS and feedback satisfaction but failed to do the same with respect to the relationship between PIS and feedback utility. In contrast, external feedback motivation attribution partially mediated the relationship between PIS and feedback utility while failing to mediate the relationship between PIS and feedback satisfaction. Theoretical contributions and practical implications of the findings are discussed at the end of the paper.

  6. Perceived Insider Status and Feedback Reactions: A Dual Path of Feedback Motivation Attribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijiong Wu


    Full Text Available Many studies have evaluated how the characteristics of feedback receiver, feedback deliverer and feedback information influence psychological feedback reactions of the feedback receiver while largely neglecting that feedback intervention is a kind of social interaction process. To address this issue, this study proposes that employees’ perceived insider status (PIS, as a kind of employee-organization relationship, could also influence employees’ reactions to supervisory feedback. In particular, this study investigates the influence of PIS focusing on affective and cognitive feedback reactions, namely feedback satisfaction and feedback utility. Surveys were conducted in a machinery manufacturing company in the Guangdong province of China. Samples were collected from 192 employees. Data analysis demonstrated that PIS and feedback utility possessed a U-shaped relationship, whereas PIS and feedback satisfaction exhibited positively linear relationships. The analysis identified two kinds of mediating mechanisms related to feedback satisfaction and feedback utility. Internal feedback motivation attribution partially mediated the relationship between PIS and feedback satisfaction but failed to do the same with respect to the relationship between PIS and feedback utility. In contrast, external feedback motivation attribution partially mediated the relationship between PIS and feedback utility while failing to mediate the relationship between PIS and feedback satisfaction. Theoretical contributions and practical implications of the findings are discussed at the end of the paper.

  7. Perceived Insider Status and Feedback Reactions: A Dual Path of Feedback Motivation Attribution (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Liao, JianQiao; Wu, Weijiong; Zhang, Wei


    Many studies have evaluated how the characteristics of feedback receiver, feedback deliverer and feedback information influence psychological feedback reactions of the feedback receiver while largely neglecting that feedback intervention is a kind of social interaction process. To address this issue, this study proposes that employees’ perceived insider status (PIS), as a kind of employee-organization relationship, could also influence employees’ reactions to supervisory feedback. In particular, this study investigates the influence of PIS focusing on affective and cognitive feedback reactions, namely feedback satisfaction and feedback utility. Surveys were conducted in a machinery manufacturing company in the Guangdong province of China. Samples were collected from 192 employees. Data analysis demonstrated that PIS and feedback utility possessed a U-shaped relationship, whereas PIS and feedback satisfaction exhibited positively linear relationships. The analysis identified two kinds of mediating mechanisms related to feedback satisfaction and feedback utility. Internal feedback motivation attribution partially mediated the relationship between PIS and feedback satisfaction but failed to do the same with respect to the relationship between PIS and feedback utility. In contrast, external feedback motivation attribution partially mediated the relationship between PIS and feedback utility while failing to mediate the relationship between PIS and feedback satisfaction. Theoretical contributions and practical implications of the findings are discussed at the end of the paper. PMID:28507527

  8. Attribute-Value Functions as Global Interpretations of Attribute Importance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittersum, van K.; Pennings, J.M.E.


    In order to better understand decision maker’s perceptions of the importance of attributes, Goldstein (1990) differentiates between global and local interpretations of attribute importance. While the appreciation for the distinction is growing, research on the relationship between measures of global

  9. Attribution theory and attributional therapy: some theoretical observations and suggestions. (United States)

    Weiner, B


    Two shortcomings of attributional therapy and therapy-related research are pointed out. First, crucial comparisons between attributional inductions are not being made, so that the variables mediating change remain uncertain and, secondly, the full theory is not being used, thereby greatly limiting the possible change programmes.

  10. External incontinence devices (United States)

    ... enable JavaScript. External incontinence devices are products (or appliances). These are worn on the outside of the ... us Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National ...

  11. Externally Verifiable Oblivious RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gancher Joshua


    Full Text Available We present the idea of externally verifiable oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our goal is to allow a client and server carrying out an ORAM protocol to have disputes adjudicated by a third party, allowing for the enforcement of penalties against an unreliable or malicious server. We give a security definition that guarantees protection not only against a malicious server but also against a client making false accusations. We then give modifications of the Path ORAM [15] and Ring ORAM [9] protocols that meet this security definition. These protocols both have the same asymptotic runtimes as the semi-honest original versions and require the external verifier to be involved only when the client or server deviates from the protocol. Finally, we implement externally verified ORAM, along with an automated cryptocurrency contract to use as the external verifier.

  12. Individuals' insight into intrapersonal externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Stillwell


    Full Text Available An intrapersonal externality exists when an individual's decisions affect the outcomes of her future decisions. It can result in decreasing or increasing average returns to the rate of consumption, as occurs in addiction or exercise. Experimentation using the Harvard Game, which models intrapersonal externalities, has found differences in decision making between drug users and control subjects, leading to the argument that these externalities influence the course of illicit drug use. Nevertheless, it is unclear how participants who behave optimally conceptualise the problem. We report two experiments using a simplified Harvard Game, which tested the differences in contingency knowledge between participants who chose optimally and participants who did not. Those who demonstrated optimal performance exhibited both a pattern of correct responses and systematic errors to questions about the payoff schedules. The pattern suggested that they learned explicit knowledge of the change in reinforcement on a trail-by-trial basis. They did not have, or need, a full knowledge of the historical interaction leading to each payoff. We also found no evidence of choice differences between participants who were given a guaranteed payment and participants who were paid contingent on their performance, but those given a guaranteed payment were able to report more contingency knowledge as the experiment progressed, suggesting that they explored more rather than settling into a routine. Experiment 2 showed that using a fixed inter-trial interval did not change the results.

  13. Attribution of extreme weather and climate events overestimated by unreliable climate simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bellprat, Omar; Doblas‐Reyes, Francisco


    Event attribution aims to estimate the role of an external driver after the occurrence of an extreme weather and climate event by comparing the probability that the event occurs in two counterfactual worlds...

  14. Role of attribution in affective responses to a partnered sexual situation among sexually dysfunctional men. (United States)

    Rowland, David L; Myers, Amy L; Adamski, Beth A; Burnett, Arthur L


    Study Type - Therapy (qualitative) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Sexually dysfunctional men report higher negative affect and lower positive affect than sexually functional men. Furthermore, men with sexual problems tend to make internal, self-blaming, attributions for negative sexual events, which can result in a diminished sense of self-efficacy and cause men to expect similar negative outcomes across future sexual situations. This pattern may sustain and actually intensify the sexual problem. This study shows that causal attributions for dysfunctional response influence emotional response to a partnered sexual situation. Specifically, sexually dysfunctional men who attribute their problem to a medical condition do better emotionally than those who attribute the problem to unknown or psychological factors - and this attribution process is a more powerful and reliable predictor of emotional response than the man's actual diagnosed somatic risk for a sexual problem. Furthermore, the study strongly suggests that those men who attribute their problem to a physical/medical issue are able to 'externalize' it - needing to assume less responsibility for and/or control over it, thereby reducing their psychological burden. These findings indicate not only that communication between physician and patient regarding the aetiology of a sexual problem may be critically important but also that, at least for some patients, pharmacological treatment should be combined with strategies that promote the development of internal positive self-serving attributions surrounding sexual activity. To investigate factors that influence sexually dysfunctional men's emotional response within a partnered sexual situation, and, most specifically, whether they attribute their dysfunctional response to a specific biomedical cause vs a psychological or unknown cause. Based on a sample of 59 sexually dysfunctional men visiting a urology clinic, linear

  15. Retraction of "The influence of mood on attribution," "Affects of the unexpected: When inconsistency feels good (or bad)," "Why people stereotype affects how they stereotype: The differential influence of comprehension goals and self-enhancement goals on stereotyping," "Silence and table manners: When environments activate norms," and "Event accessibility and context effects in causal inference: Judgment of a different order". (United States)


    The following five articles have been retracted from Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, and the Editor and the publisher of the journal: Avramova, Y.R., Stapel, D.A. & Lerouge, D. (2010). The influence of mood on attribution. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 1360-1371. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0146167210381083) Noordewier, M.K., & Stapel, D.A. (2010). Affects of the unexpected: When inconsistency feels good (or bad). Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 642-654. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0146167209357746 ) Van den Bos, A., & Stapel, D.A. (2009). Why people stereotype affects how they stereotype: The differential influence of comprehension goals and self-enhancement goals on stereotyping. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35(1), 101-113 (Original DOI: 10.1177/0146167208325773) Joly, J.F., Stapel, D.A., & Lindenberg, S.M. (2008). Silence and table manners: When environments activate norms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(8), 1047-1056 (Original DOI: 10.1177/0146167208318401) Stapel, D. A., & Spears, R. (1996). Event accessibility and context effects in causal inference: Judgment of a different order. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 979-992. (Original DOI: 10.1177/01461672962210001).

  16. [The influence of timing of surgery on mortality and early complications in femoral neck fractures, by surgical procedure: an analysis of 22,566 cases from the German External Quality Assurance Program]. (United States)

    Kostuj, T; Smektala, R; Schulze-Raestrup, U; Müller-Mai, C


    The current S2 guideline recommends treatment of a femoral neck fracture within the first 24 h; this becomes evident by the significant rise in general and early surgical complications, when the surgical treatment was delayed for more than 48 h. The influence of different surgical procedures was investigated. PATIENTS UND METHODS: A total of 22,566 records from the external Quality Assurance Program in North Rhine-Westphalia for treatment of femoral neck fractures in 2004/2005 (BQS specification 7.0 and 8.0) were risk-adjusted and evaluated. Surgery was performed within 48 h in 83.9% of the patients. A significant rise in general and early surgical complications was registered when the surgical treatment was delayed for more than 48 h. Mortality and general complications were significantly lower for percutaneous screw fixation. All kinds of joint replacement show significantly higher general and surgical complications. The analyzed data support the rating of femoral neck fracture as requiring the intervention of urgent early surgery, as stated in the guideline. Percutaneous screw fixation can be considered for immobile and multimorbid patients with undislocated fractures. Advantages of total hip replacement compared to hemiarthroplasty cannot be supported by the QS-NRW data.

  17. ADE Guide for External Reviewers. (United States)

    ADE Bulletin, 2002


    Helps external reviewers of academic departments draw on the experience of those who have learned by trial and error. Outlines the steps taken by an external reviewer. Considers the particular task for an external reviewer and presents some notes on self-preservation for the external reviewer. Discusses the external reviewer's responsibility of…

  18. Mothers' and Fathers' Negative Responsibility Attributions and Perceptions of Children's Problem Behavior


    Nelson, Jackie A.; O'Brien,Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.


    Parents' negative responsibility attributions about their child's misbehavior are related to a perception that the child has more behavior problems. The current study used a dyadic framework to explore how mothers' and fathers' attributions relate to their own perceptions and to their partner's perceptions of the child's externalizing problems. Participants included 102 couples interviewed when children were 7 years old. Results confirmed that mothers reported more externalizing behavior prob...

  19. Authorship Attribution of Source Code (United States)

    Tennyson, Matthew F.


    Authorship attribution of source code is the task of deciding who wrote a program, given its source code. Applications include software forensics, plagiarism detection, and determining software ownership. A number of methods for the authorship attribution of source code have been presented in the past. A review of those existing methods is…

  20. Strictness Analysis for Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads


    Attribute grammars may be seen as a (rather specialised) lazy or demand-driven programming language. The ``programs'' in this language take text or parse trees as input and return values of the synthesised attributes to the root as output. From this observation we establish a framework for abstract...

  1. Attribution Theory and Mathematics Education. (United States)

    Kloosterman, Peter

    Causal attribution theory, including the concept of learned helplessness, has been used to explain student motivation and achievement in school. In this paper, a model is developed which explains how attribution theory could explain student effort and achievement in mathematics. According to the model, student perceptions of success or failure in…

  2. Appearance, flavor, and texture attributes of pig dry-cured hams have a complex polygenic genomic architecture. (United States)

    Pena, R N; Gallardo, D; Guàrdia, M D; Reixach, J; Arnau, J; Amills, M; Quintanilla, R


    The influence that the genetics of species used as food sources has on the human perception of sensory attributes has been rarely addressed in previous studies. Dry-cured hams are high-quality highly appreciated pork products obtained by salting, curing, drying, and aging processes. We performed a QTL scan for 17 sensory attributes (including appearance, taste, flavor, and texture) and the overall liking evaluated by a panel of trained tasters in both semimembranosus (SM) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles of dry-cured hams from pigs raised in identical nutrition and management conditions. The QTL scan yielded a large array of chromosome- and genomewide QTL, reflecting the complex polygenic architecture of these traits. Among them, 6 QTL affecting SM flavor attributes (aged, matured, sweetness, and umami), 7 QTL associated to SM texture defects (adhesiveness and pastiness), and a single QTL for appearance (BF color intensity) reached the genomewide significant threshold. Discrepancies were observed between the BF and SM QTL maps, probably due to the differential drying and ripening rates determined by the external (SM) vs. internal (BF) location of each muscle. Within muscle, a certain degree of pleiotropy is supported by QTL co-localization for flavor (aged, matured, and sweet) or texture (such as pastiness and adhesiveness defects caused by excessive proteolysis) attributes. On the whole, QTL for overall sensory liking tended to co-localize with aged and matured QTL. Several functional candidate genes involved in the biochemical processes that shape flavor and texture attributes, such as ANPEP, LIPE, LIPA, MEP1B, and MMP28, co-localized with QTL hotspots. These results demonstrate that genetic factors of the pig influence the perception of the sensory attributes generated during dry-cured ham processing and represent a first contribution to elucidate which genetic factors may modulate the sensory properties of dry-cured hams.

  3. Attributes of a good nurse. (United States)

    Aydin Er, Rahime; Sehiralti, Mine; Akpinar, Aslihan


    The opinions of students regarding the attributes of a good nurse can make a major contribution to the planning and the conducting of professional education. There are few studies which aim at identifying the qualifications of a good nurse from the perspectives of nursing students. To determine the opinions of first- and fourth-year nursing students concerning the 'attributes of a good nurse', and whether and how their views change depending on their year of study. Descriptive research. Participants and research context: This study was conducted in the nursing department of a vocational school of health in the 2010/2011 academic year. The study participants consisted of first-year and intern students. A survey form was used to identify characteristics of participants, and students were asked the following open-ended question about their opinions related to the attributes of a good nurse. Ethical considerations: The permission was taken from the school administration. Informed consent was obtained, and anonymity was ensured for participating students. A total of 120 students participated in this study. Most frequently expressed attributes were 'professional competence' in first-year and 'responsibility' in fourth-year students. While first-year students placed a greater emphasis on the attributes of 'geniality', 'patience', 'calmness', 'love of nursing', 'loyalty to nursing' and 'not attaching importance to material values', fourth-year students emphasized the attributes of 'empathy', 'honesty', 'responsibility' and 'scientific curiosity' significantly more. Fourth-year students placed a greater emphasis on the attributes which the students are expected to acquire through a nursing program and clinical experience. However, they mentioned the attributes related to a good nurse-patient relationship and communication significantly less. Appropriate ethical training methods and good role models can help students acquire attributes that are important for the nursing

  4. Direct Visual Editing of Node Attributes in Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Eichner


    Full Text Available There are many expressive visualization techniques for analyzing graphs. Yet, there is only little research on how existing visual representations can be employed to support data editing. An increasingly relevant task when working with graphs is the editing of node attributes. We propose an integrated visualize-and-edit approach to editing attribute values via direct interaction with the visual representation. The visualize part is based on node-link diagrams paired with attribute-dependent layouts. The edit part is as easy as moving nodes via drag-and-drop gestures. We present dedicated interaction techniques for editing quantitative as well as qualitative attribute data values. The benefit of our novel integrated approach is that one can directly edit the data while the visualization constantly provides feedback on the implications of the data modifications. Preliminary user feedback indicates that our integrated approach can be a useful complement to standard non-visual editing via external tools.

  5. Performance Feedback Processing Is Positively Biased As Predicted by Attribution Theory. (United States)

    Korn, Christoph W; Rosenblau, Gabriela; Rodriguez Buritica, Julia M; Heekeren, Hauke R


    A considerable literature on attribution theory has shown that healthy individuals exhibit a positivity bias when inferring the causes of evaluative feedback on their performance. They tend to attribute positive feedback internally (e.g., to their own abilities) but negative feedback externally (e.g., to environmental factors). However, all empirical demonstrations of this bias suffer from at least one of the three following drawbacks: First, participants directly judge explicit causes for their performance. Second, participants have to imagine events instead of experiencing them. Third, participants assess their performance only after receiving feedback and thus differences in baseline assessments cannot be excluded. It is therefore unclear whether the classically reported positivity bias generalizes to setups without these drawbacks. Here, we aimed at establishing the relevance of attributions for decision-making by showing an attribution-related positivity bias in a decision-making task. We developed a novel task, which allowed us to test how participants changed their evaluations in response to positive and negative feedback about performance. Specifically, we used videos of actors expressing different facial emotional expressions. Participants were first asked to evaluate the actors' credibility in expressing a particular emotion. After this initial rating, participants performed an emotion recognition task and did--or did not--receive feedback on their veridical performance. Finally, participants re-rated the actors' credibility, which provided a measure of how they changed their evaluations after feedback. Attribution theory predicts that participants change their evaluations of the actors' credibility toward the positive after receiving positive performance feedback and toward the negative after negative performance feedback. Our results were in line with this prediction. A control condition without feedback showed that correct or incorrect performance

  6. Self-disclosure: an attributional perspective. (United States)

    Wortman, C B; Adesman, P; Herman, E; Greenberg, R


    This experiment examined the effect of timing of an intimate disclosure and assignment of responsibility for the event disclosed on interpersonal attraction. Subjects were induced to interact with a confederate who in all cases revealed something quite personal about himself. The disclosure occurred either early or near the end of a 10-minute conversation. The confederate accepted responsibility for the event disclosed, did not mention responsibility, or assigned responsibility to external factors. Negative traits were assigned to the early disclosure, and he was liked significantly less than the late discloser. The results are explained in terms of differential attributions made to early and late disclosures. The results for the assignment of responsibility variable were surprising: The confederate who accepted responsibility for the event disclosed elicited more negative reactions than the confederate who blamed other factors or who did not mention responsibility. Some possible reasons for this unexpected finding are discussed.

  7. Detection, attribution, and sensitivity of trends toward earlier streamflow in the Sierra Nevada (United States)

    Maurer, E.P.; Stewart, I.T.; Bonfils, Celine; Duffy, P.B.; Cayan, D.


    Observed changes in the timing of snowmelt dominated streamflow in the western United States are often linked to anthropogenic or other external causes. We assess whether observed streamflow timing changes can be statistically attributed to external forcing, or whether they still lie within the bounds of natural (internal) variability for four large Sierra Nevada (CA) basins, at inflow points to major reservoirs. Streamflow timing is measured by "center timing" (CT), the day when half the annual flow has passed a given point. We use a physically based hydrology model driven by meteorological input from a global climate model to quantify the natural variability in CT trends. Estimated 50-year trends in CT due to natural climate variability often exceed estimated actual CT trends from 1950 to 1999. Thus, although observed trends in CT to date may be statistically significant, they cannot yet be statistically attributed to external influences on climate. We estimate that projected CT changes at the four major reservoir inflows will, with 90% confidence, exceed those from natural variability within 1-4 decades or 4-8 decades, depending on rates of future greenhouse gas emissions. To identify areas most likely to exhibit CT changes in response to rising temperatures, we calculate changes in CT under temperature increases from 1 to 5??. We find that areas with average winter temperatures between -2??C and -4??C are most likely to respond with significant CT shifts. Correspondingly, elevations from 2000 to 2800 in are most sensitive to temperature increases, with CT changes exceeding 45 days (earlier) relative to 1961-1990. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Causal Attributions of Success and Failure and Mood States in Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczepaniak Joanna


    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to determine the causal attributions of success and failure in a football match in a group of football players, as well as to investigate the association of the players’ attributions with their level of achievement and the relationships between their causal attributions and affective states. Material and methods. The study involved 75 football players, including 44 players from the first league and 31 players from the third league. The research was carried out using the Profile of Mood States (POMS by D.M. McNair, M. Lorr, and L.F. Droppleman and a specially designed questionnaire concerning the causal attributions of success and failure. Results. It was found that the football players who participated in the study tended to attribute success to internal causes and failure to external causes. More frequent use of external attributions most likely had an adverse impact on the mood state of the players. Conclusion. Information concerning the attributions that a given player makes can be useful for coaches, as it can help them develop the athlete’s mental abilities more effectively. Beliefs related to attributions can be modified. It is worth considering the benefits of encouraging internal attributions in the case of success and external attributions in situations of failure.

  9. Locus of Control and Causal Attribution for Positive and Negative Outcomes on University Examinations. (United States)

    Gilmor, Timothy; Reid, David W.


    Internal locus of control and positive outcome subjects attributed responsibility for their test results to internal factors, while external and negative outcome subjects tended toward external causations. Ability and luck components were rated in accord with the Weiner model classification, but the effort and task components were not. (Author/SJL)

  10. Methods and Model Dependency of Extreme Event Attribution: The 2015 European Drought

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hauser, Mathias; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Orth, René; Jézéquel, Aglaé; Haustein, Karsten; Vautard, Robert; van Oldenborgh, Geert J; Wilcox, Laura; Seneviratne, Sonia I


    Multi‐method event attribution of the 2015 European drought Contradicting evidence on the role of anthropogenic influence on the event Uncertainty in event attribution may be larger than previously thought...

  11. Productivity Change and Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravtsova, Victoria


    on Hungary. While the country leads the group of post-socialist countries in the amount of attracted foreign direct investments (FDI) the effect of this policy on the economy remains unclear. The research finds that different externalities play a different role in productivity, technological and efficiency...... firms and the economy as a whole. The approach used in the current research accounts for different internal as well as external factors that individual firms face and evaluates the effect on changes in productivity, technology as well as the efficiency of domestic firms. The empirical analysis focuses...

  12. An Application of Attribution Theory to Developing Self-Esteem in Learning Disabled Adolescents. (United States)

    Tollefson, Nona; And Others

    The effect of an attribution retraining program intended to teach 35 learning disabled (LD) junior high school students to attribute achievement outcomes to the internal factor of effort was examined in the study. The research was concerned with LD adolescents' perceptions of personal (internal) and environmental (external) causality as…

  13. The attributes of effective clinical nurse leaders. (United States)

    Cook, M J

    To identify the attributes of effective clinical nurse leaders. A grounded theory research approach was adopted, using two research techniques: observation and interview. The literature review revealed that the role of the clinical nurse leader was ill-defined and addressed only in sparse, opinion-based literature. Novel outcomes of the research included: Identifying five attributes of effective clinical nurse leaders--highlighting, respecting, influencing, creativity and supporting. Distinguishing five typologies of effective clinical nurse leaders--discoverer, valuer, enabler, shaper and modifier. Elucidating factors that constrain and facilitate the development of effective clinical nurse leadership. The results imply that to enhance clinical nursing, leadership factors that enable and constrain clinical nursing leadership have to be identified and acted upon by individuals and those who they report to professionally.

  14. Spanning Tree Based Attribute Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Jorge, Cordero Hernandez


    inconsistent edges from a maximum spanning tree by starting appropriate initial modes, therefore generating stable clusters. It discovers sound clusters through simple graph operations and achieves significant computational savings. We compare the Star Discovery algorithm against earlier attribute clustering...

  15. Value Attribution in Encounter Groups (United States)

    Shawver, Lois; Pines, Ayala


    This study examines value-attribution found in encounter groups. Group members tend to refer to themselves in neutralizing negative valuations. Group leaders were negative in describing group members. Published group transcripts are more positive than unpublished, private transcripts. (MFD)

  16. Corporate attributes and corporate accruals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Md Shamimul Hasan; Normah Omar; Rashidah Abdul Rahman; Syed Zabid Hossain


    ... (discretionary accruals) in Bangladesh. The behaviour of corporate accruals is explained by corporate attributes such as asset size, turnover, earnings per share, number of shareholders, year of listing, international link of audit firm...

  17. Causal attributions in delusional thinking: an investigation using qualitative methods. (United States)

    Beese, A G; Stratton, P


    To investigate the attributions offered spontaneously during interview by patients who have delusional beliefs. Specifically, to assess whether people with delusional beliefs reason in a way that is analysable. If so, to extend the findings from previous research to provide a detailed picture of the patients' accounts that could inform cognitive therapies for psychosis. A group of 31 patients with delusional beliefs were interviewed using a semi-structured open-ended interview. Their causal attributions were identified and analysed in terms of standard definitions of attributional theory using the Leeds Attributional Coding System. Patients made an average of 96 attributions each. These showed a high degree of recognizable coherence in reasoning, including when directly discussing delusional beliefs. The patterns of attributing were partly consistent with previous research findings, with external attributions being offered for negative events. Several other aspects emerged, indicating a pervasive negativity, with non-delusional aspects of the illness being a major concern. When delusions were described as a cause of events, the dominant pattern of attributing was stable, internal, personal and uncontrollable, with negative outcomes. When delusions were reported as an outcome, the patient was more in control. The reasoning processes of patients with delusional beliefs are in many aspects normal and include patterns not identified by the ASQ. Attributing in relation to delusions differs from talk about other subjects. The qualitative attributional approach provided a detailed and rich picture of the world of these patients. Interpretable tendencies are described that should provide information useful to those practising and evaluating cognitive therapies. Copyright 2004 The British Psychological Society

  18. Proprioception is Robust under External Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuling, I.A.; Brenner, E.; Smeets, J.B.J.


    Information from cutaneous, muscle and joint receptors is combined with efferent information to create a reliable percept of the configuration of our body (proprioception). We exposed the hand to several horizontal force fields to examine whether external forces influence this percept. In an

  19. Influence of storage conditions and extraction methods on the quantity and quality of circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA): the SPIDIA-DNAplas External Quality Assessment experience. (United States)

    Malentacchi, Francesca; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Verderio, Paolo; Pazzagli, Mario; Orlando, Claudio; Ciniselli, Chiara Maura; Günther, Kalle; Gelmini, Stefania


    Circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) has been confirmed as a useful biomarker in cancer and pre-natal clinical practice. One of the main critical points in using ccfDNA is a lack of standardisation for sample processing methods, storage conditions, procedures for extraction, and quantification that can affect ccfDNA quality and quantity. We report the results obtained from the SPIDIA-DNAplas, one of the EU SPIDIA (Standardisation and improvement of generic pre-analytical tools and procedures for in vitro diagnostics) subprojects based on the implementation of an External Quality Assessment scheme for the evaluation of the influence of the pre-analytical phase on ccfDNA. This is the first reported quality control scheme targeting ccfDNA for pre-analytical phase studies. Fifty-six laboratories throughout Europe were recruited. The participating laboratories received the same plasma sample and extracted ccfDNA by using their own procedures, at defined plasma storage conditions, and sent the isolated ccfDNA to the SPIDIA facility for analyses. Laboratory performance was evaluated by using specific quality parameters such as ccfDNA integrity (by multiplex PCR) and yield (by qPCR). The analysis of the ccfDNA extracted by the laboratories showed that most of them (53 of 56) were able to recover ccfDNA but only 12.5% recovered non-fragmented ccfDNA. Extraction methods specifically designed for ccfDNA preserved the integrity profile. The evidence-based results of the SPIDIA-DNAplas EQA have been proposed as a basis for the development of a Technical Specification by the European Committee for standardisation (CEN).

  20. Abstract Interpretation Using Attribute Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads


    This paper deals with the correctness proofs of attribute grammars using methods from abstract interpretation. The technique will be described by defining a live-variable analysis for a small flow-chart language and proving it correct with respect to a continuation style semantics. The proof...... technique is based on fixpoint induction and introduces an extended class of attribute grammars as to express a standard semantics....

  1. Transition constraints for temporal attributes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ongoma, EAN


    Full Text Available the statuses. Status models the normal behaviour of the life cycle in the real world, items are first scheduled, then become active, can be suspended and reactivated again and finally may become disabled, when they reached their expiry. These are the four... of the four status attributes, while scheduled, suspended and disabled classes can only have their corresponding attributes, i.e. scheduled, suspended or disabled only. Transition records migration of elements from source to target element, be they objects...

  2. Role Attribute 1.0


    Pemberton, Steven; Adida, Ben; Birbeck, Mark; Raman, T.V.; Schwerdtfeger, R.


    htmlabstractThe Role Attribute defined in this specification allows the author to annotate markup languages with machine-extractable semantic information about the purpose of an element. Use cases include accessibility, device adaptation, server-side processing, and complex data description. This attribute can be integrated into any markup language. In particular, schema implementations are provided to facilitate with languages based upon XHTML Modularization [XHTML-MODULARIZATION11-2e]. The ...

  3. Quality attributes for mobile applications


    Fernandes, João M.; Ferreira, André Leite


    A mobile application is a type of software application developed to run on a mobile device. The chapter discusses the main characteristics of mobile devices, since they have a great impact on mobile applications. It also presents the classification of mobile applications according to two main types: native and web-based applications. Finally, this chapter identifies the most relevant types of quality attributes for mobile applications. It shows that the relevant quality attributes for mobile ...

  4. Belief attribution despite verbal interference. (United States)

    Forgeot d'Arc, Baudouin; Ramus, Franck


    False-belief (FB) tasks have been widely used to study the ability of individuals to represent the content of their conspecifics' mental states (theory of mind). However, the cognitive processes involved are still poorly understood, and it remains particularly debated whether language and inner speech are necessary for the attribution of beliefs to other agents. We present a completely nonverbal paradigm consisting of silent animated cartoons in five closely related conditions, systematically teasing apart different aspects of scene analysis and allowing the assessment of the attribution of beliefs, goals, and physical causation. In order to test the role of language in belief attribution, we used verbal shadowing as a dual task to inhibit inner speech. Data on 58 healthy adults indicate that verbal interference decreases overall performance, but has no specific effect on belief attribution. Participants remained able to attribute beliefs despite heavy concurrent demands on their verbal abilities. Our results are most consistent with the hypothesis that belief attribution is independent from inner speech.

  5. Network cities and externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Boix Domènech


    Full Text Available The concept of «agglomeration economies» explains the existence of advantages derived from the concentration of population and activity. However, it does not explain the existence of spatially dynamic external economies. Network economies generated in networks of cities correspond to this last type, since they are generated from the interaction between urban units, linked by a network relationship. The objective of this research is to advance in the study of the relationship between the networks of cities and the generation of external economies. The research is divided in four parts: first we expose the link between networks of cities and external economies. The second part outlines a model for the combined measuring of the concentration and network economies. The third part explains the results of applying the model to a case of study: the network of cities of Catalonia. The results suggest that there is a causal relationship between the organization of the urban units forming networks of cities and the generation of external economies that affect growth and economic development. Finally, conclusions and policy implications are drawn up.

  6. Stochastic Control - External Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    This note is devoted to control of stochastic systems described in discrete time. We are concerned with external descriptions or transfer function model, where we have a dynamic model for the input output relation only (i.e.. no direct internal information). The methods are based on LTI systems...... a section on that topic can be found in appendix....

  7. On parabolic external maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomonaco, Luna; Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Shen, Weixiao


    We prove that any C1+BV degree d ≥ 2 circle covering h having all periodic orbits weakly expanding, is conjugate by a C1+BV diffeomorphism to a metrically expanding map. We use this to connect the space of parabolic external maps (coming from the theory of parabolic-like maps) to metrically...

  8. Building Protection Against External Ionizing Fallout Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homann, Steven G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    A nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill tens to hundreds of thousands of people through exposure to fallout (external gamma) radiation. Existing buildings can protect their occupants (reducing external radiation exposures) by placing material and distance between fallout particles and indoor individuals. This protection is not well captured in current fallout risk assessment models and so the US Department of Defense is implementing the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology to improve the ability of the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) model to account for building protection. This report supports the HPAC improvement effort by identifying a set of building attributes (next page) that, when collectively specified, are sufficient to calculate reasonably accurate, i.e., within a factor of 2, fallout shelter quality estimates for many individual buildings. The set of building attributes were determined by first identifying the key physics controlling building protection from fallout radiation and then assessing which building attributes are relevant to the identified physics. This approach was evaluated by developing a screening model (PFscreen) based on the identified physics and comparing the screening model results against the set of existing independent experimental, theoretical, and modeled building protection estimates. In the interests of transparency, we have developed a benchmark dataset containing (a) most of the relevant primary experimental data published by prior generations of fallout protection scientists as well as (b) the screening model results.

  9. Valence and agency influence striatal response to feedback in patients with major depressive disorder. (United States)

    Späti, Jakub; Chumbley, Justin; Doerig, Nadja; Brakowski, Janis; Grosse Holtforth, Martin; Seifritz, Erich; Spinelli, Simona


    Reduced sensitivity to positive feedback is common in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, findings regarding negative feedback are ambiguous, with both exaggerated and blunted responses being reported. The ventral striatum (VS) plays a major role in processing valenced feedback, and previous imaging studies have shown that the locus of controls (self agency v. external agency) over the outcome influences VS response to feedback. We investigated whether attributing the outcome to one's own action or to an external agent influences feedback processing in patients with MDD. We hypothesized that depressed participants would be less sensitive to the feedback attribution reflected by an altered VS response to self-attributed gains and losses. Using functional MRI and a motion prediction task, we investigated the neural responses to self-attributed (SA) and externally attributed (EA) monetary gains and losses in unmedicated patients with MDD and healthy controls. We included 21 patients and 25 controls in our study. Consistent with our prediction, healthy controls showed a VS response influenced by feedback valence and attribution, whereas in depressed patients striatal activity was modulated by valence but was insensitive to attribution. This attribution insensitivity led to an altered ventral putamen response for SA - EA losses in patients with MDD compared with healthy controls. Depressed patients with comorbid anxiety disorder were included. These results suggest an altered assignment of motivational salience to SA losses in patients with MDD. Altered striatal response to SA negative events may reinforce the belief of not being in control of negative outcomes contributing to a cycle of learned helplessness.

  10. Small relief shape variations influence spatial variability of soil chemical attributes Pequenas variações das formas de relevo influenciam a variabilidade espacial de atributos químicos do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zigomar Menezes de Souza


    Full Text Available Soils with small variations in relief and under the same management system present differentiated spatial variabilities of their attributes. This variability is a function of soil position in the landscape, even if the relief has little expression. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of relief shape and depth on spatial variability of soil chemical attributes in a Typic Hapludox cultivated with sugar cane at two landscape compartments. Soil samples were collected in the intercrossing points of a grid, in the traffic line, at 0-0.2 m and 0.6-0.8 m depths, comprising a set of 100 georeferenced points. The spatial variabilities of pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, cation exchange capacity and base saturation were quantified. Small relief shape variations lead to differentiated variability in soil chemical attributes as indicated by the dependence on pedoform found for chemical attributes at both 0-0.2 m and 0.6-0.8 m depths. Because of the higher variability, it is advisable to collect large number of samples in areas with concave and convex shapes. Combining relief shapes and geostatistics allows the determination of areas with different spatial variability for soil chemical attributes.Solos submetidos ao mesmo sistema de manejo em locais com pequena variação de relevo, manifestam variabilidade espacial diferenciada de seus atributos. Esta variabilidade é condicionada pela posição dos solos na paisagem ou no declive, mesmo que o relevo seja de pequena expressão. O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da forma do relevo na variabilidade espacial de atributos químicos em um latossolo cultivado com cana-de-açúcar em dois compartimentos da paisagem. Os solos foram amostrados nos pontos de cruzamento de uma malha, com intervalos regulares de 10 m, perfazendo um total de 100 pontos, nas profundidades de 0-0,2 m e 0,6-0,8 m. Foi avaliado a variabilidade espacial do pH, fósforo (P, potássio (K, cálcio (Ca, magnésio (Mg, acidez

  11. Who Is to Blame? Framing HPV to Influence Vaccination Intentions among College Students. (United States)

    Vorpahl, McKenzie M; Yang, Janet Z


    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection (STI) among college students. Although previous research has studied HPV-related health communication strategies using various framing techniques, the goal of this study is to test how two unique message frames-whether mentioning HPV as an STI and whether to attribute the cause of infection as external or internal-would influence young adults' intentions to receive the recommended HPV vaccine. Results indicate that gender and causal attribution framing influenced participants' intentions to receive the HPV vaccine.

  12. Spatial correlations in attribute communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cerina

    Full Text Available Community detection is an important tool for exploring and classifying the properties of large complex networks and should be of great help for spatial networks. Indeed, in addition to their location, nodes in spatial networks can have attributes such as the language for individuals, or any other socio-economical feature that we would like to identify in communities. We discuss in this paper a crucial aspect which was not considered in previous studies which is the possible existence of correlations between space and attributes. Introducing a simple toy model in which both space and node attributes are considered, we discuss the effect of space-attribute correlations on the results of various community detection methods proposed for spatial networks in this paper and in previous studies. When space is irrelevant, our model is equivalent to the stochastic block model which has been shown to display a detectability-non detectability transition. In the regime where space dominates the link formation process, most methods can fail to recover the communities, an effect which is particularly marked when space-attributes correlations are strong. In this latter case, community detection methods which remove the spatial component of the network can miss a large part of the community structure and can lead to incorrect results.

  13. Abstract Interpretation and Attribute Gramars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non-standard ...... is presented in the thesis. Methods from abstract interpretation can also be used in correctness proofs of attribute grammars. This proof technique introduces a new class of attribute grammars based on domain theory. This method is illustrated with examples.......The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non......-standard semantics where the ``meaning'' contains information about the runtime behaviour of programs. In an abstract interpretation the analysis is proved correct by relating it to the usual semantics for the language. Attribute grammars provide a method and notation to specify code generation and program analysis...

  14. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summarised...

  15. [Wearable Automatic External Defibrillators]. (United States)

    Luo, Huajie; Luo, Zhangyuan; Jin, Xun; Zhang, Leilei; Wang, Changjin; Zhang, Wenzan; Tu, Quan


    Defibrillation is the most effective method of treating ventricular fibrillation(VF), this paper introduces wearable automatic external defibrillators based on embedded system which includes EGG measurements, bioelectrical impedance measurement, discharge defibrillation module, which can automatic identify VF signal, biphasic exponential waveform defibrillation discharge. After verified by animal tests, the device can realize EGG acquisition and automatic identification. After identifying the ventricular fibrillation signal, it can automatic defibrillate to abort ventricular fibrillation and to realize the cardiac electrical cardioversion.

  16. Externally triggered microcapsules (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)


    Disclosed are microcapsules comprising a polymer shell enclosing one or more immiscible liquid phases in which a drug or drug precursor are contained in a liquid phase. The microparticles also contain magnetic particles that can be heated by application of an external magnetic field and thus heated to a predetermined Curie temperature. Heating of the particles melts the polymer shell and releases the drug without causing heating of surrounding tissues.

  17. Agglomeration Externalities in Germany


    Bode, Eckhardt


    Several recent econometric investigations found externalities related to the density of economic activity to account for one fifth to one half of total regional variations in average labor productivity in the U.S. and big European countries, including Germany. The present paper shows for German NUTS 3 regions, first, that this result is not robust against a more extensive control for private returns that may be correlated with economic density. The paper presents, second, evidence of various ...

  18. A Chance for Attributable Agency. (United States)

    Briegel, Hans J; Müller, Thomas

    Can we sensibly attribute some of the happenings in our world to the agency of some of the things around us? We do this all the time, but there are conceptual challenges purporting to show that attributable agency, and specifically one of its most important subspecies, human free agency, is incoherent. We address these challenges in a novel way: rather than merely rebutting specific arguments, we discuss a concrete model that we claim positively illustrates attributable agency in an indeterministic setting. The model, recently introduced by one of the authors in the context of artificial intelligence, shows that an agent with a sufficiently complex memory organization can employ indeterministic happenings in a meaningful way. We claim that these considerations successfully counter arguments against the coherence of libertarian (indeterminism-based) free will.

  19. Temporal context for authorship attribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Dalum; Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger


    A study of temporal aspects of authorship attribution - a task which aims to distinguish automatically between texts written by different authors by measuring textual features. This task is important in a number of areas, including plagiarism detection in secondary education, which we study...... in this work. As the academic abilities of students evolve during their studies, so does their writing style. These changes in writing style form a type of temporal context, which we study for the authorship attribution process by focussing on the students’ more recent writing samples. Experiments with real...

  20. k-visit attribute grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Hanne; Skyum, Sven


    It is shown that any well-defined attribute grammar isk-visit for somek. Furthermore it is shown that given a well-defined grammarG and an integerk, it is decidable whetherG isk-visit. Finally we show that thek-visit grammars specify a proper hierarchy with respect to translations.......It is shown that any well-defined attribute grammar isk-visit for somek. Furthermore it is shown that given a well-defined grammarG and an integerk, it is decidable whetherG isk-visit. Finally we show that thek-visit grammars specify a proper hierarchy with respect to translations....

  1. Capability Based Decision Model of Attribution: Empirical Development in Iran


    Khan, T.; Ghalamchi, P


    This study aims to improve the reliability of existing attribution processes by developing a decision model that is inspired by Sen's (1999) Capability Approach (CA) and Weiner’s (1995) Attribution Theory. The model is intended to provide a more complete representation of the decision maker’s state of self-determination, than currently is possible, as it influences their decisions. This paper presents the theoretical model and discusses the empirical development of the model from a process of...

  2. The role of contraceptive attributes in women's contraceptive decision making. (United States)

    Madden, Tessa; Secura, Gina M; Nease, Robert F; Politi, Mary C; Peipert, Jeffrey F


    Contraceptive methods have differing attributes. Women's preferences for these attributes may influence contraceptive decision making. Our objective was to identify women's contraceptive preferences among women initiating a new contraceptive method. We conducted a cross-sectional, self-administered survey of women's contraceptive preferences at the time of enrollment into the Contraceptive CHOICE Project. Participants were asked to rank the importance of 15 contraceptive attributes on a 3-point scale (1 = not at all important, 2 = somewhat important, and 3 = very important) and then to rank the 3 attributes that were the most important when choosing a contraceptive method. The survey also contained questions about prior contraceptive experience and barriers to contraceptive use. Information about demographic and reproductive characteristics was collected through the CHOICE Project baseline survey. There were 2590 women who completed the survey. Our sample was racially and socioeconomically diverse. Method attributes with the highest importance score (mean score [SD]) were effectiveness (2.97 [0.18]), safety (2.96 [0.22]), affordability (2.61 [0.61]), whether the method is long lasting (2.58 [0.61]), and whether the method is "forgettable" (2.54 [0.66]). The attributes most likely to be ranked by respondents among the top 3 attributes included effectiveness (84.2%), safety (67.8%), and side effects of the method (44.6%). Multiple contraceptive attributes influence decision making and no single attribute drives most women's decisions. Tailoring communication and helping women make complex tradeoffs between attributes can better support their contraceptive decisions and may assist them in making value-consistent choices. This process could improve continuation and satisfaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. External Barriers Experienced by Gifted and Talented Girls and Women. (United States)

    Reis, Sally M.


    This article discusses current statistics about women and work and external barriers to achievement. Barriers include parental influences, media stereotypes, stereotyping in school, sexism in colleges and universities, and the burden of responsibilities females shoulder at home. Recommendations to help gifted girls address external barriers are…

  4. The external field dependence of the BCS critical temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Rupert L.; Hainzl, Christian; Seiringer, Robert


    We consider the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer free energy functional for particles interacting via a two-body potential on a microscopic scale and in the presence of weak external fields varying on a macroscopic scale. We study the influence of the external fields on the critical temperature. We show...

  5. External Auditors and Corporate Corruption: Implications for External Audit Regulators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kassem, Rasha; Higson, Andrew W


      The purpose of the current study is to examine the responsibility of external auditors in relation to corporate corruption and to highlight the implications of this for external audit regulators...

  6. Role Attribute 1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Pemberton (Steven); B. Adida (Ben); M. Birbeck (Mark); T.V. Raman; R. Schwerdtfeger


    htmlabstractThe Role Attribute defined in this specification allows the author to annotate markup languages with machine-extractable semantic information about the purpose of an element. Use cases include accessibility, device adaptation, server-side processing, and complex data description. This

  7. k-visit Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Skyum, S.


    It is shown that any well-defined attribute grammar is k-visit for some k. Furthermore, it is shown that given a well-defined grammar G and an integer k, it is decidable whether G is k-visit. Finally it is shown that the k-visit grammars specify a proper hierarchy with respect to translations...

  8. Study of 23 advanced-practice nurses suggest that their ability to facilitate evidence-based practice among frontline nurses is influenced by their personal attributes, relationships with stakeholders, responsibility and workload and organisational context. (United States)

    van Soeren, Mary


    Implications for practice and research: Role development of advance practice nurses (APNs) and organisational culture are important contributing factors for the adoption of evidence-based practice (EBP) by nurses. Nursing and APN workload were factors limiting adoption of EBPs. Education on EBP, leadership and facilitation should be part of all APN education. Further research across a range of settings is needed to determine additional factors that may influence adoption of EBP.

  9. Liquid crystal phase behaviour of colloidal platelets in external fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, David van der


    In this thesis, the liquid crystal phase behaviour of colloidal platelets in external fields is studied. We have specifically investigated the influence of morphological, gravitational, magnetic and centrifugal fields. Part I of this thesis involves sterically stabilised colloidal gibbsite

  10. Regularization by External Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossolini, Elena; Edwards, R.; Glendinning, P. A.


    Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind of regula...... of regularization, by external variables that shadow either the state or the switch of the original system. The shadow systems are derived from and inspired by various applications in electronic control, predator-prey preference, time delay, and genetic regulation....

  11. Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia. (United States)

    Lee, Andrew G; Brazis, Paul W


    Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) is a descriptive term for a heterogenous group of disorders characterized by chronic, progressive, bilateral, and usually symmetric ocular motility deficit and ptosis. Significant pain, proptosis, or pupil involvement are not features of CPEO and should prompt evaluation for alternative etiologies. Mitochondrial DNA mutations are increasingly being recognized as the etiology for CPEO syndromes. Clinicians should recognize the specific syndromes associated with CPEO, characterized by variable systemic, neurologic, or other findings. Treatment is limited, but newer therapies are being investigated.

  12. Organizational Attributes, Market Growth, and Product Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Michael; Chen, Yan


    Extensive research has shown that organizational attributes affect product innovation. Extending this literature, this article delimits two general categories of organizational attributes and relates them to product innovation. Organizational attributes can be either control oriented or flexibility

  13. Attribution style, theory and empirical findings


    Krohn, Charlotte


    Master i læring i komplekse systemer Attribution theory is a long-standing and widely discussed theory that addresses individuals’ explanation of causes of events. People attribute events of success and failure individually. Previous studies indicate that performance in sporting events may be improved by changing individuals’ attribution style. Article one describes attribution and attribution theory as state of the art. The article addresses the most important findings within attribution ...

  14. Disease proportions attributable to environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineis Paolo


    Full Text Available Abstract Population disease proportions attributable to various causal agents are popular as they present a simplified view of the contribution of each agent to the disease load. However they are only summary figures that may be easily misinterpreted or over-interpreted even when the causal link between an exposure and an effect is well established. This commentary discusses several issues surrounding the estimation of attributable proportions, particularly with reference to environmental causes of cancers, and critically examines two recently published papers. These issues encompass potential biases as well as the very definition of environment and of environmental agent. The latter aspect is not just a semantic question but carries implications for the focus of preventive actions, whether centred on the material and social environment or on single individuals.

  15. Disease proportions attributable to environment. (United States)

    Saracci, Rodolfo; Vineis, Paolo


    Population disease proportions attributable to various causal agents are popular as they present a simplified view of the contribution of each agent to the disease load. However they are only summary figures that may be easily misinterpreted or over-interpreted even when the causal link between an exposure and an effect is well established. This commentary discusses several issues surrounding the estimation of attributable proportions, particularly with reference to environmental causes of cancers, and critically examines two recently published papers. These issues encompass potential biases as well as the very definition of environment and of environmental agent. The latter aspect is not just a semantic question but carries implications for the focus of preventive actions, whether centred on the material and social environment or on single individuals.

  16. Attempting Measurement of Psychological Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSalzberger


    Full Text Available Measures of psychological attributes abound in the social sciences as much as measures of physical properties do in the physical sciences. However, there are crucial differences between the scientific underpinning of measurement. While measurement in the physical sciences is supported by empirical evidence that demonstrates the quantitative nature of the property assessed, measurement in the social sciences is, in large part, made possible only by a vague, discretionary definition of measurement that places hardly any restrictions on empirical data. Traditional psychometric analyses fail to address the requirements of measurement as defined more rigorously in the physical sciences. The construct definitions do not allow for testable predications; and content validity becomes a matter of judgment. In order to improve measurement of psychological attributes, it is suggested to, first, readopt the definition of measurement in the physical sciences; second, to devise an elaborate theory of the construct to be measured that includes the hypothesis of a quantitative attribute; and third, to test the data for the structure implied by the hypothesis of quantity as well as predictions derived from the theory of the construct.

  17. Morphosemantic Attributes of Meetei Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourembam Surjit Singh


    Full Text Available This study proposes to investigate the functions of morphosemantic in Meetei proverbs, particularly the attribution of different meanings of the lexical items in Meetei Proverbial verbs. Meetei society has been using proverbs in the all ages, stages of development, social changes, and cultural diversifications to mark their wisdom of social expertise. Meetei used proverbs as an important aspect of verbal discourses within the socio-cultural and ethno-civilization contexts in which skills, knowledge, ideas, emotion, and experiences are communicating. The language used in proverbs reflects the Meetei’s status of life, food habits, belief systems, philosophy, cultural and social orientations. At the same time, various meanings attribute in Meetei proverbs in the forms of figurative, witty, pithy, didactic etc. The construction of these forms are grammatically insightful thereby creating spaces for a whole range of possibilities for investigating the features, functions and structure of verbal inflectional markers occurred in Meetei proverbial sentences. Keywords: Proverbs, morphosemantics, features of lexical items, attributes of meanings and language

  18. Relationship between Sociometric Type and Self-Attributions for Academic Failure in a Spanish Sample from Secondary Education (United States)

    Inglés, Cándido J.; Aparisi, D.; Delgado, B.; Granados, L.; García-Fernández, José M.


    Introduction: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between sociometric types, behavioral categories and self-attributions for academic failure ("Ability", "Effort" or "External Causes") in "Reading", "Mathematics" and "General". Method: The total sample was composed of…

  19. An exploration of pre-service teachers’ attributions in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz Cevdet


    Full Text Available With the developments in cognitive psychology, language learners’ beliefs have received considerable attention in the domain of language teaching and learning. One area that merits investigation as to what the learner brings to this educational process is learner attributions which are commonly defined as ‘perceived causes of success and failure’. This paper investigated pre-service teachers’ perceptions of student attributions and their performance in English. Attributions are categorized as either internal (for instance ability or external (for instance task difficulty. Motivated by these theoretical concerns, the study investigated the attributions of 122 pre-service teachers majoring in English and the connections between attribution and proficiency and gender. The study concludes with a set of far-reaching pedagogical implications and suggestions for learner training and teacher action in the EFL classroom. The results underscore the need for pre-service students to become aware of their own perceptions with regard to students' success and failure in English.

  20. Development and Validation of the Masculine Attributes Questionnaire. (United States)

    Cho, Junhan; Kogan, Steven M


    The present study describes the development and validation of the Masculine Attributes Questionnaire (MAQ). The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretically and empirically grounded measure of masculine attributes for sexual health research with African American young men. Consistent with Whitehead's theory, the MAQ items were hypothesized to comprise two components representing reputation-based and respect-based attributes. The sample included 505 African American men aged 19 to 22 years ( M = 20.29, SD = 1.10) living in resource-poor communities in the rural South. Convergent and discriminant validity of the MAQ were assessed by examining the associations of masculinity attributes with psychosocial factors. Criterion validity was assessed by examining the extent to which the MAQ subscales predicted sexual risk behavior outcomes. Consistent with study hypotheses, the MAQ was composed of (a) reputation-based attributes oriented toward sexual prowess, toughness, and authority-defying behavior and (b) respect-based attributes oriented toward economic independence, socially approved levels of hard work and education, and committed romantic relationships. Reputation-based attributes were associated positively with street code and negatively related to academic orientation, vocational engagement, and self-regulation, whereas respect-based attributes were associated positively with academic and vocational orientations and self-regulation. Finally, reputation-based attributes predicted sexual risk behaviors including concurrent sexual partnerships, multiple sexual partners, marijuana use, and incarceration, net of the influence of respect-based attributes. The development of the MAQ provides a new measure that permits systematic quantitative investigation of the associations between African American men's masculinity ideology and sexual risk behavior.

  1. From Attribute Grammars to Constraint Handling Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano Mena, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41124115X; Hage, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/229637221


    Attribute grammars provide a framework to de ne compu- tations over trees, by decorating those trees with attributes. Attribute grammars have been successfully applied in many areas, including compiler construction and natural language processing. In this paper we present a translation of attribute

  2. Causal attribution and emotion in the days following competition. (United States)

    Allen, Mark S; Jones, Marc V; Sheffield, David


    We examined the extent to which attributions are consistent in the days following competition and how attributions made immediately after competition may influence the temporal patterning of emotions experienced in response to competition. A sample of 60 adult female golfers completed measures of performance satisfaction, causal attribution, and emotion immediately after competition, 5 h after competition, and 2 days after competition. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of covariance indicated that attributions did not change over this period. Emotions showed a significant decrease in intensity over the 5-h post-competition period. Regression analyses indicated that changes in anger and dejection were more likely in the case of less successful performances. For anger, attributions moderated this level of change. Golfers experienced anger for a longer period when they identified the cause of poor performance as stable rather than unstable. Thus, in the present sample although attributions did not change over 2 days, the longevity of anger depended on the attributions made immediately after competition.

  3. Parents' and pupils' causal attributions for difficult classroom behaviour. (United States)

    Miller, Andy; Ferguson, Eamonn; Moore, Eleanor


    Studies of causal attributions for difficult pupil behaviour in schools have tended to focus on the perspectives of teachers. The present study examines the causal attributions made by parents for difficult behaviour in classrooms. It reveals the structure of these attributions and serves as a direct comparison to a previous study of pupils' attributions (Miller, Ferguson, & Byrne, 2000) and, more indirectly, with the teacher studies. The participants were 144 parents (106 mothers and 38 fathers) whose children all attended the same inner city school. A questionnaire was constructed following three initial small group interviews with parents to identify the wide range of factors they viewed as potential causes of difficult classroom behaviour. This was then administered to all the parents of children attending the same inner-city primary school. Factor analysis indicated that parents' attributions for misbehaviour were best represented by three factors: (1) 'fairness of teachers' actions', (2) 'pupil vulnerability to peer influences and adverse family circumstances', and (3) 'differentiation of classroom demands and expectations'. While there were no differences between parents in terms of gender or ethnicity, they did see the first two factors as more significant contributors to pupil misbehaviour than the third. There is both agreement and conflict between parents' attributions and those made by pupils and by teachers. The implementation of policy initiatives, such as home-school agreements and Pastoral Support Programmes, risk exacerbating tensions and difficulties if these differences in attributions are not acknowledged and acted upon.

  4. Detection and attribution of climate extremes in the observed record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Easterling


    Full Text Available We present an overview of practices and challenges related to the detection and attribution of observed changes in climate extremes. Detection is the identification of a statistically significant change in the extreme values of a climate variable over some period of time. Issues in detection discussed include data quality, coverage, and completeness. Attribution takes that detection of a change and uses climate model simulations to evaluate whether a cause can be assigned to that change. Additionally, we discuss a newer field of attribution, event attribution, where individual extreme events are analyzed for the express purpose of assigning some measure of whether that event was directly influenced by anthropogenic forcing of the climate system.

  5. Mortality of American alligators attributed to cannibalism (United States)

    Delany, Michael F.; Woodward, Allan R.; Kiltie, Richard A.; Moore, Clinton T.


    Mortality of juvenile (Alligator mississippiensis) attributed to cannibalism on Orange Lake, Florida was examined. Alligator web tags used in mark–recapture studies were found in 12% of 267 stomachs sampled from alligators ≥168 cm TL. Captive alligators retained 76% of force-fed tags during a 588-d tag-retention trial. Models relating the probability of tag recovery to the annual probabilities of juvenile survival, cannibalism, tag retention, adult survival, and adult harvest suggested that cannibalism may on average remove 6–7% of the juvenile alligator population annually. Vulnerability continued to 140 cm TL (age 6–8 yr). Cannibalism of juveniles may serve to regulate the alligator population on Orange Lake. Alligator cannibalism may vary widely among populations, depending on demography and environmental conditions. The role and importance of cannibalism in alligator population dynamics should be more fully assessed and environmental and population factors that influence cannibalism identified to better evaluate management programs.

  6. [The effect of the external chest compression appliance (AutoPulse) on cardiac arrest in the emergency department and influence on blood gas and N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide]. (United States)

    Liu, Qing-yu; Li, Chun-sheng


    To investigate the value of AutoPulse in the patients with cardiac arrest (CA) in emergency department. Patients with CA seen in the Emergency Department of Chaoyang Hospital, Affiliated to Capital Medical University from September 2008 to August 2009 were divided into standard manual external chest compression group (n=42) and mechanical chest compression group with AutoPulse (n=43), based on the method of the external chest compression . Tracheal intubation was performed and mechanical ventilation instituted in all the patients. Other rescue measures, such as intravenous infusion of fluids, electrocardiogram, electric shock for defibrillation were performed following the cardiopulmonary guideline of 2005. The patients with restoration of spontaneous circulation in 20 minutes were excluded. Among patients with resuscitation over 20 minutes, there were 29 cases in AutoPulse group and 28 cases in standard manual external chest compression group. The blood gas and N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) from the blood samples obtained from the femoral artery 20 minutes after resuscitation were determined, and the survival rate at 2 hours and 24 hours in both groups was recorded. Twenty minutes after cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the pH value and the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO(2)) of the AutoPulse group (n=29) were significantly higher than those of the standard manual external chest compression group [n=28, pH value: 7.142±0.134 vs. 7.010±0.136, PaO(2) ( mm Hg, 1 mm Hg= 0.133 kPa): 71.92±9.59 vs. 65.61±7.66, both P0.05]. The device of AutoPulse can improve the tissue perfusion in patients with CA. Though this device may give rise some benefit in resuscitation for a short time, there is no decisive improvement in term of outcome of the patient.

  7. The effect of extrinsic attributes on liking of cottage cheese. (United States)

    Hubbard, E M; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A


    Preference mapping studies with cottage cheese have demonstrated that cottage cheese liking is influenced by flavor, texture, curd size, and dressing content. However, extrinsic factors such as package, label claims, and brand name may also influence liking and have not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of package attributes and brand on the liking of cottage cheese. A conjoint survey with Kano analysis (n=460) was conducted to explore the effect of extrinsic attributes (brand, label claim, milkfat content, and price) on liking. Following the survey, 150 consumers evaluated intrinsic attributes of 7 cottage cheeses with and without brand information in a 2-d crossover design. Results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Milkfat content and price had the highest influence on liking by conjoint analysis. Cottage cheese with 2% milkfat and a low price was preferred. Specific label claims such as "excellent source of calcium (>10%)" were more attractive to consumers than "low sodium" or "extra creamy." Branding influenced overall liking and purchase intent for cottage cheeses to differing degrees. For national brands, acceptance scores were enhanced in the presence of the brand. An all-natural claim was more appealing than organic by conjoint analysis and this result was also confirmed with consumer acceptance testing. Findings from this study can help manufacturers, as well as food marketers, better target their products and brands with attributes that drive consumer choice. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An Experimental Investigation of Accounts and Attributions Following Sexual Infidelity. (United States)

    Mongeau, Paul A.; And Others


    Found that revenge had a strong impact on attributions and accounts following sexual infidelity, whereas intent only inversely influenced the production of guilt. Found that concessions were perceived as being the most mitigating while refusals and silence were evaluated as most aggravating. Consistent with traditional and modern sexual double…

  9. Attributions for Abstinence from Illicit Drugs by University Students (United States)

    Rosenberg, Harold; Baylen, Chelsea; Murray, Shanna; Phillips, Kristina; Tisak, Marie S.; Versland, Amelia; Pristas, Erica


    Aim: To assess college students' attributions for abstinence from alcohol and illicit drugs. Method: We recruited 125 undergraduates to rate the degree to which each of 41 listed reasons influenced their abstention from six specific substances (alcohol, MDMA/ecstasy, inhalants, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens). Findings: Internal consistency…

  10. Effect of Presentation Flaw Attribution on Website Quality, Trust, and Abandonment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Everard


    Full Text Available Using scenario-based experiments we examine how users’ perceptions of online store quality and trustworthiness are affected by their attribution of website flaws. The attribution of online store website flaws can be internal (i.e., an action taken by the online store's site developer or external (i.e., an action taken on the part of the site’s service provider to the website. Perceived quality of the online store was found to be lower for users who attributed the flaws to internal factors. Findings also showed that the presence of a flaw, regardless of whether it was attributed to an internal or external condition, negatively affected the users’ level of trust in the website

  11. Marketing Cooperatives' Re-engineering: Influences among Organizational Attributes, Strategic Attributes & Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benos, T.; Kalogeras, N.; Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Pennings, J.M.E.


    ABSTRACT In this paper we expand the agribusiness co-op literature by studying the re-engineering process of marketing cooperatives (co-ops). More specifically we discuss and empirically examine organizational innovations adopted by marketing co-ops in Greece. We hypothesize three types of

  12. Influência social, atribuição de causalidade e julgamentos de responsabilidade e justiça Social influence, attribution of causality, and judgments of responsibility and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroldo Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Estudos anteriores demonstraram que comportamento antinormativo, causado por influência social derivada dos poderes de recompensa, informação e referência, é percebido como mais interno e mais controlável, e seu autor visto como mais responsável, do que quando ele deriva dos poderes de conhecimento, legitimidade ou coerção. Esta pesquisa constitui uma réplica desses estudos, acrescida de refinamento metodológico para a equalização da força das bases de poder, e de investigação do efeito da influência decorrente dessas bases nos julgamentos de justiça da punição ao autor. Participaram 84 universitários, metade na condição de desfecho positivo e metade na de desfecho negativo. Os resultados replicaram achados anteriores e revelaram que punição severa é considerada mais justa quando a transgressão resulta das bases de poder que eliciam comportamentos percebidos como mais internos e controláveis. Discutem-se os resultados em termos de sua relevância para melhor entendimento de fenômenos como obediência, dissonância cognitiva, comportamento criminoso e justiça retributiva.Previous studies have convincingly demonstrated that transgressional behavior caused by social influence based on reward, informational and referent power is perceived as more internal and more controllable, and the perpetrator seen as more responsible, than similar behavior caused by the use of expert, legitimate or coercive power. This research replicates these studies, adds a methodological refinement by equalizing the strength of power bases, and investigates the effect of power bases on judgments of justice of the punishment applied to the transgression. Eighty four College students served as participants, randomly assigned to two experimental conditions (Good Outcome and Bad Outcome Conditions. The results replicated those found in previous studies and showed that severe punishment is considered more fair when the transgression results from

  13. Consumption externalities and preference complementarities


    Cleary, Rebecca; Carlson, Andrea


    Social interactions can lead to a variety of phenomena including consumption externalities and complementarities. Consumption externalities arise when the choices of others have an effect on the total value of a household's purchases; complementarities arise when the choices of others have an effect on the marginal value of a household's purchases. This paper develops a conceptual model that separately identifies consumption externalities and complementarities and illustrates their significan...

  14. Household External Finance and Consumption


    Besley, Timothy J.; Meads, Neil; Surico, Paolo


    This paper uses mortgage data to construct a measure of terms on which households access to external finance, and relates it to consumption at both the aggregate and cohort levels. The Household External Finance (HEF) index is based on the spread paid by risky borrowers in the mortgage market. There is evidence that the terms of access to external finance matter more for the consumption of young cohorts in U.K. data. Results are robust to a wide variety of specifications.

  15. Incumbent's Incentive under Network Externalities


    Kim, Jaehong


    This paper shows that an incumbent monopolist's incentive confronting a new entrant depends on the degree of product differentiation and the strength of network externality. If products are homogeneous, the incumbent never wants to invite entry regardless of the degree of network externality. On the other hand, if products are differentiated, duopoly profit is higher than the monopoly profit when products are more differentiated and/or the network externality is weak. Conversely, the incumben...

  16. Perfectionism, achievement motives, and attribution of success and failure in female soccer players. (United States)

    Stoeber, Joachim; Becker, Claudia


    While some researchers have identified adaptive perfectionism as a key characteristic to achieving elite performance in sport, others see perfectionism as a maladaptive characteristic that undermines, rather than helps, athletic performance. Arguing that perfectionism in sport contains both adaptive and maladaptive facets, the present article presents a study of N = 74 female soccer players investigating how two facets of perfectionism-perfectionistic strivings and negative reactions to imperfection (Stoeber, Otto, Pescheck, Becker, & Stoll, 2007 )-are related to achievement motives and attributions of success and failure. Results show that striving for perfection was related to hope of success and self-serving attributions (internal attribution of success). Moreover, once overlap between the two facets of perfectionism was controlled for, striving for perfection was inversely related to fear of failure and self-depreciating attributions (internal attribution of failure). In contrast, negative reactions to imperfection were positively related to fear of failure and self-depreciating attributions (external attribution of success) and inversely related to self-serving attributions (internal attribution of success and external attribution of failure). It is concluded that striving for perfection in sport is associated with an adaptive pattern of positive motivational orientations and self-serving attributions of success and failure, which may help athletic performance. In contrast, negative reactions to imperfection are associated with a maladaptive pattern of negative motivational orientations and self-depreciating attributions, which is likely to undermine athletic performance. Consequently, perfectionism in sport may be adaptive in those athletes who strive for perfection, but can control their negative reactions when performance is less than perfect.

  17. Personality dimensions as common and broadband-specific features for internalizing and externalizing disorders. (United States)

    Hink, Laura K; Rhee, Soo H; Corley, Robin P; Cosgrove, Victoria E; Hewitt, John K; Schulz-Heik, Robert J; Lahey, Benjamin B; Waldman, Irwin D


    Several researchers have suggested that the nature of the covariation between internalizing and externalizing disorders may be understood better by examining the associations between temperament or personality and these disorders. The present study examined neuroticism as a potential common feature underlying both internalizing and externalizing disorders and novelty seeking as a potential broad-band specific feature influencing externalizing disorders alone. Participants were 12- to 18-year-old twin pairs (635 monozygotic twin pairs and 691 dizygotic twin pairs; 48 % male and 52 % female) recruited from the Colorado Center for Antisocial Drug Dependence. Genetic and nonshared environmental influences shared in common with neuroticism influenced the covariation among distinct internalizing disorders, the covariation among distinct externalizing disorders, and the covariation between internalizing and externalizing disorders. Genetic influences shared in common with novelty seeking influenced the covariation among externalizing disorders and the covariation between major depressive disorder and externalizing disorders, but not the covariation among internalizing disorders or between anxiety disorders and externalizing disorders. Also, after accounting for genetic and environmental influences shared in common with neuroticism and novelty seeking, there were no significant common genetic or environmental influences among the disorders examined, suggesting that the covariance among the disorders is sufficiently explained by neuroticism and novelty seeking. We conclude that neuroticism is a heritable common feature of both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders, and that novelty seeking is a heritable broad-band specific factor that distinguishes anxiety disorders from externalizing disorders.

  18. The Impact of Peer Victimization on Later Maladjustment: Mediating and Moderating Effects of Hostile and Self-Blaming Attributions (United States)

    Perren, Sonja; Ettekal, Idean; Ladd, Gary


    Background: Evidence indicates that being a victim of bullying or peer aggression has negative short- and long-term consequences. In this study, we investigated the mediating and moderating role of two types of attributional mechanisms (hostile and self-blaming attributions) on children's maladjustment (externalizing and internalizing problems).…

  19. Partners’ Attributions for Service Members’ Symptoms of Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (United States)

    Renshaw, Keith D.; Allen, Elizabeth S.; Carter, Sarah P.; Markman, Howard J.; Stanley, Scott M.


    The association of service members’ combat-related PTSD with partners’ distress is weaker when spouses/partners believe that service members experienced more traumatic events during deployment. Also, when simultaneously examining partners’ perceptions of all PTSD symptoms, perceptions of re-experiencing symptoms (the symptoms most obviously connected to traumatic events) are significantly, negatively related to distress in partners. These findings are consistent with the notion that partners may be less distressed if they make external, rather than internal, attributions for service members’ symptoms. The present study explicitly tests this possibility. Civilian wives of active duty service members completed measures regarding their own marital satisfaction, their perceptions of service members’ combat exposure during deployments, their perceptions of service members’ symptoms of PTSD, and their attributions for those symptoms. External attributions were significantly, positively associated with perceptions of combat exposure (rp = .31) and re-experiencing symptoms (β = .33) and significantly, negatively associated with perceptions of numbing/withdrawal symptoms (rp = −.22). In contrast, internal attributions were significantly, negatively associated with perceptions of re-experiencing symptoms (β = −.18) and significantly, positively associated with perceptions of numbing/withdrawal symptoms (β = .46). Internal attributions significantly moderated the negative association of PTSD symptoms with marital satisfaction, such that the association strengthened as internal attributions increased. These findings are the first explicit support for an attributional understanding of distress in partners of combat veterans. Interventions that alter partners’ attributions may improve marital functioning. PMID:24491194

  20. Attributable Human-Induced Changes in the Likelihood and Magnitude of the Observed Extreme Precipitation during Hurricane Harvey (United States)

    Risser, Mark D.; Wehner, Michael F.


    Record rainfall amounts were recorded during Hurricane Harvey in the Houston, Texas, area, leading to widespread flooding. We analyze observed precipitation from the Global Historical Climatology Network with a covariate-based extreme value statistical analysis, accounting for both the external influence of global warming and the internal influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation. We find that human-induced climate change likely increased the chances of the observed precipitation accumulations during Hurricane Harvey in the most affected areas of Houston by a factor of at least 3.5. Further, precipitation accumulations in these areas were likely increased by at least 18.8% (best estimate of 37.7%), which is larger than the 6-7% associated with an attributable warming of 1°C in the Gulf of Mexico and Clausius-Clapeyron scaling. In a Granger causality sense, these statements provide lower bounds on the impact of climate change and motivate further attribution studies using dynamical climate models.

  1. Markets, Herding and Response to External Information. (United States)

    Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi


    We focus on the influence of external sources of information upon financial markets. In particular, we develop a stochastic agent-based market model characterized by a certain herding behavior as well as allowing traders to be influenced by an external dynamic signal of information. This signal can be interpreted as a time-varying advertising, public perception or rumor, in favor or against one of two possible trading behaviors, thus breaking the symmetry of the system and acting as a continuously varying exogenous shock. As an illustration, we use a well-known German Indicator of Economic Sentiment as information input and compare our results with Germany's leading stock market index, the DAX, in order to calibrate some of the model parameters. We study the conditions for the ensemble of agents to more accurately follow the information input signal. The response of the system to the external information is maximal for an intermediate range of values of a market parameter, suggesting the existence of three different market regimes: amplification, precise assimilation and undervaluation of incoming information.

  2. Scientists' views about attribution of global warming. (United States)

    Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo


    Results are presented from a survey held among 1868 scientists studying various aspects of climate change, including physical climate, climate impacts, and mitigation. The survey was unique in its size, broadness and level of detail. Consistent with other research, we found that, as the level of expertise in climate science grew, so too did the level of agreement on anthropogenic causation. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), explicitly agreed with anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) being the dominant driver of recent global warming. The respondents' quantitative estimate of the GHG contribution appeared to strongly depend on their judgment or knowledge of the cooling effect of aerosols. The phrasing of the IPCC attribution statement in its fourth assessment report (AR4)-providing a lower limit for the isolated GHG contribution-may have led to an underestimation of the GHG influence on recent warming. The phrasing was improved in AR5. We also report on the respondents' views on other factors contributing to global warming; of these Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) was considered the most important. Respondents who characterized human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having had the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change.

  3. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution (DK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment (Denmark); Willumsen, E.; Kristensen, N.B. [COWI (Denmark)


    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AiGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Inititally, a brief description of the ExternE Transport methodology is given and it is summarised how the methodology has been applied so far in a previous Danish study. Finally, results of a case study are reported. Exposure factors have been calculated for various urban categories in the Greater Copenhagen Area. (au)

  4. Employability attributes and personality preferences of postgraduate business management students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Potgieter


    Full Text Available Orientation: The demand for sustained employability and a proactive career agency has led to a renewed interest in the dispositional and psychological attributes of students and employees – like their employability attributes and personality preferences – because these relate to the proactive management of their career development in a changing employment world.Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between employees’ employability attributes (as the Employability Attributes Scale measures them and their personality preferences (as the Myers-Briggs Type indicator, Form M, measures them. Motivation for the study: There seems to be a paucity of information about how employees’ personality preferences relate to their employability attributes in South Africa’s multicultural organisational context.Research design, approach and method: The authors conducted a quantitative survey. It involved a non-probability sample of 304 early career adults enrolled for an Honour’s degree in business management in an open distance learning higher education institution. They used correlational statistics and multiple regression analyses to analyse the data.Main findings: The authors observed a number of significant relationships between the participants’ personality preferences and their employability attributes.Practical/managerial implications: Career counsellors and human resource practitioners need to recognise how employees’ personality preferences influence their employability attributes in the management of their career development and employability.Contribution/value add: The findings add to the existing career literature on the career metacompetencies that influence employees’ employability. They also provide valuable information that organisations can use for career development support and counselling practices in the contemporary world of work.

  5. Attribution of extreme weather and climate-related events. (United States)

    Stott, Peter A; Christidis, Nikolaos; Otto, Friederike E L; Sun, Ying; Vanderlinden, Jean-Paul; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Vautard, Robert; von Storch, Hans; Walton, Peter; Yiou, Pascal; Zwiers, Francis W


    Extreme weather and climate-related events occur in a particular place, by definition, infrequently. It is therefore challenging to detect systematic changes in their occurrence given the relative shortness of observational records. However, there is a clear interest from outside the climate science community in the extent to which recent damaging extreme events can be linked to human-induced climate change or natural climate variability. Event attribution studies seek to determine to what extent anthropogenic climate change has altered the probability or magnitude of particular events. They have shown clear evidence for human influence having increased the probability of many extremely warm seasonal temperatures and reduced the probability of extremely cold seasonal temperatures in many parts of the world. The evidence for human influence on the probability of extreme precipitation events, droughts, and storms is more mixed. Although the science of event attribution has developed rapidly in recent years, geographical coverage of events remains patchy and based on the interests and capabilities of individual research groups. The development of operational event attribution would allow a more timely and methodical production of attribution assessments than currently obtained on an ad hoc basis. For event attribution assessments to be most useful, remaining scientific uncertainties need to be robustly assessed and the results clearly communicated. This requires the continuing development of methodologies to assess the reliability of event attribution results and further work to understand the potential utility of event attribution for stakeholder groups and decision makers. WIREs Clim Change 2016, 7:23-41. doi: 10.1002/wcc.380 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  6. Choice attributes in restaurant services: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derli Luís Angnes


    Full Text Available There are about one million of bars and restaurants that generate around six millions of jobs in Brazil. Among the most important reasons to choose a restaurant are the service attributes. Attributes are judgments the client makes about the performance and quality of the service provided. The identification of restaurant choice attributes is important in order to propose a higher value to services and to make marketing strategies. This article aims to identify the choice attributes of service quality in restaurants. The methodology employed was a qualitative exploratory study based on interviews made using the critical incident technique. It was used a sample of 72 restaurant customers. The content analysis technique was used to treat and analyze the critical incidents obtained in the interviews. The result obtained was a relation of 615 critical incidents, which after being analyzed generated a list of 27 attributes that influence customer’s choice and customer’s evaluation of service quality provided in restaurants. The identified attributes can subsidize and contribute to improvement of future research and studies in the academic environment, besides contributing for the management of restaurants business.

  7. Invertebrates associated to Eichhornea azurea Kunth in a lagoon of the Upper Paraná River: composition, community attributes and influence of abiotic factors Invertebrados associados à Eichhornea azurea Kunth em uma lagoa do alto rio Paraná: composição, atributos da comunidade e influência de fatores abióticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Flávia Batista-Silva


    Full Text Available AIM: We evaluated the composition and community attributes of invertebrates associated to Eichhornia azurea at Cascalho Lagoon, Upper Paraná River, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, over a hydrological cycle, as well the possible influence of abiotic factors upon these attributes. METHODS: The samplings were conducted during 2010 in the rainy and dry periods at stands of E. azurea. The attributes evaluated were abundance, richness, diversity, evenness and dominance. The abiotic factors, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and turbidity were summarized by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. In order to verify possible differences between the mean values of the community attributes and the scores of the PCA axis in different periods, we employed null models analysis of variance. The influence of abiotic factors on each attribute was evaluated through Pearson correlations. RESULTS: We captured 3,052 individuals, distributed into 32 taxa, belonging to the phyllum Mollusca, Annelida, Nematoda and Arthropoda. Among the assessed attributes, only abundance and richness varied significantly between periods, with higher values during the rainy period. Chironomidade was dominant in both periods, whereas Notonectidae and Cyclopoida were rare in the rainy, and Bivalve, Decapoda, Haliplidae, Trichoptera and Pyralidae, in the dry period. A temporal distinction was evident only for the PCA axis 1, which represented gradients in temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH. Among the community attributes, only abundance was significant and negatively correlated with this axis. CONCLUSION: We attested that: i the rainy period should add favorable conditions for invertebrates' higher richness and abundance in this macrophyte; ii only the later attribute was influenced by limnological gradients.OBJETIVO: Nós avaliamos a composição e atributos da comunidade de invertebrados associados à Eichhornia azurea na lagoa do Cascalho, alto rio Paraná, MS, Brasil, durante um

  8. Retrofitting Systems for External Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen


    In this report, 9 different external and internal retrofitting systems are analyzed using numerical calculations. The analysis focuses on the thermal bridge effects in the different systems, and on this basis it is discussed whether internal or external retrofitting has the most advantages....... The different systems are evaluated using 5 different types of existing walls....

  9. External Examining: Fit for Purpose? (United States)

    Bloxham, Sue; Price, Margaret


    In a context of international concern about academic standards, the practice of external examining is widely admired for its role in defending standards. Yet a contradiction exists between this faith in examining and continuing concerns about standards. This article argues that external examining rests on assumptions about standards which are…

  10. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob


    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  11. The external microenvironment of healing skin wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Carla R; Nuutila, Kristo; Lee, Cameron Cy


    The skin wound microenvironment can be divided into two main components that influence healing: the external wound microenvironment, which is outside the wound surface; and the internal wound microenvironment, underneath the surface, to which the cells within the wound are exposed. Treatment...... and carbon dioxide), pH, and anti-microbial treatment on the wound. These factors are well described in the literature and can be modified with treatment methods available in the clinic. Understanding the roles of these factors in wound pathophysiology is of central importance in wound treatment...... methods that directly alter the features of the external wound microenvironment indirectly affect the internal wound microenvironment due to the exchange between the two compartments. In this review, we focus on the effects of temperature, pressure (positive and negative), hydration, gases (oxygen...

  12. External doses from radioactive fallout. Dosimetry and levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woehni, T.


    The design, manufacture and calibration of a TL-based dosemeter for measurement of low level external photon radiation are presented. The dosemeter is based on CaF{sub 2} with 2 mm brass filter for energy compensation. It is able to resolve a 8% dose increase relative to natural background radiation. With this dosemeter external dose measurements were made in 6 villages in a heavily contaminated region in Russia (Chernobyl fallout), in order to assess external doses to the population. The results were analyzed in the light of additional existing information on radioactive deposition, social habits, decontamination measures and other influencing technical and physical factors. The observed dose values were lower than theoretical estimates of external doses based on published values for external dose levels relative to the level of contamination. 84 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Intergenerational Transmission of Externalizing Behavior. (United States)

    Brook, Judith S; Balka, Elinor B; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W


    This prospective longitudinal investigation examined the predictors of generation 2 (G2) parental substance use as related to their generation 3 (G3) offspring's externalizing behavior. The sample comprised 281 mother- or father- child (G2/G3) pairs. The results indicated that the G1/G2 (generations 1 and 2) parent-child relationship during G2's adolescence predicted externalizing behavior in the G2 young adults which correlated with G2 parental substance use. G2 parental substance use was related to subsequent G2 substance use disorders (SUDS), and to the G2/G3 parent-child relationship. The G2/G3 parent-child relationship and G2's SUDS each predicted G3 externalizing behavior. The results highlight the significance of breaking the chain of transmission of externalizing behavior across generations. Implications for policy and programs addressing the etiology of externalizing behavior in the offspring are discussed within a developmental framework.

  14. Culturally Responsive: Exploring the Attributes of Islamic Health Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohd Khairie


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the attributes (basis and values of faith-based communication strategy on health communication. Eight series of focus group studies on Muslim community were conducted to gather the data. The finding makes abundantly clear that the tawhidic (the belief in Oneness of God conception significantly determine the effectiveness of Islamic communication message. In addition, there were another six themes that contributes to Islamic health communication attributes which may influence the receiver’s attitudes and behaviours. The insights of this paper may contribute to the further development of health promotion strategies for Muslims community.

  15. Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP) (United States)


    class I; 35% are in class II; 25%, class III; and 5%, class IV. Surveys (8) suggest that from 5% to 15% of patients with HF have persistent severe symptoms, and that the remainder of patients with HF is evenly divided between those with mild and moderately severe symptoms. To date, the diagnosis and management of chronic HF has concentrated on patients with the clinical syndrome of HF accompanied by severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Major changes in treatment have resulted from a better understanding of the pathophysiology of HF and the results of large clinical trials. Treatment for chronic HF includes lifestyle management, drugs, cardiac surgery, or implantable pacemakers and defibrillators. Despite pharmacologic advances, which include diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, spironolactone, and digoxin, many patients remain symptomatic on maximally tolerated doses. (6) The Technology Patients are typically treated by a trained technician in a medically supervised environment for 1 hour daily for a total of 35 hours over 7 weeks. The procedure involves sequential inflation and deflation of compressible cuffs wrapped around the patient’s calves, lower thighs and upper thighs. In addition to 3 sets of cuffs, the patient has finger plethysmogram and electrocardiogram (ECG) attachments that are connected to a control and display console. External counterpulsation was used in the United States to treat cardiogenic shock after acute myocardial infarction. (9;10) More recently, an enhanced version namely “enhanced external counterpulsation” (EECP) was introduced as a noninvasive procedure for outpatient treatment of patients with severe, uncontrollable cardiac ischemia. EECP is said to increase coronary perfusion pressure and reduce the myocardial oxygen demand. Currently, EECP is not applicable for all patients with refractory angina pectoris. For example, many patients are considered ineligible for therapy due to co

  16. Personal Attributes and Computer Writing Quality. (United States)

    Barker, Randolph T.; Pearce, C. Glenn


    Analyzed 17 personal attributes of 160 undergraduate students who wrote reports on a computer or by hand, and compared differences in the quality of computer and handwritten reports with each student's personal attributes. Concludes that some attributes do relate to computer writing quality. (JMV)

  17. Attribution Theory in Sport: Problems and Solutions. (United States)

    Fullin, Christine; Mills, Brett D.

    This paper reviews the development of attribution theory as it relates to sport from Fritz Heider's original model of attribution theory in 1958 to the present. The original model explains that individuals use four attribution factors to interpret and predict the outcome of an event--ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck. Bernard Weiner built…

  18. Automatic ability attribution after failure: a dual process view of achievement attribution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sakaki, Michiko; Murayama, Kou


    Causal attribution has been one of the most influential frameworks in the literature of achievement motivation, but previous studies considered achievement attribution as relatively deliberate and effortful processes...

  19. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P.


    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results; to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the results of the national implementation for Denmark. Three different fuel cycles have been chosen as case studies. These are fuel cycles for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant based on biogas. The report covers all the details of the application of the methodology to these fuel cycles aggregation to a national level. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 59 tabs., 25 ills., 61 refs.

  20. Detecting and attributing an anthropogenic influence on climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santer, B.D.; Taylor, K.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore (United States); Jones, P.D. [East Anglia Univ. (United States). Climatic Research Unit; Wigley, T.M.L. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder (United States); Penner, J.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore (United States). Global Climate Research Div.; Cubasch, U. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum, Hamburg (Germany)


    A pattern correlation statistic is used, R(t), to compare the observed pattern temperature change with that predicted by the equilibrium model results with carbon dioxide and sulphate aerosols forcing. The results indicate that in JJA and SON the pattern of changes is showing similarities with the observations. The significance of the trends in R(t) is assessed, using the century-long control integrations of two coupled ocean atmosphere GCMs. Although results are robust to both model integrations there are doubts whether such models adequately represent the full range of natural variability on the century timescale when compared with paleoclimatic data. (author)

  1. Project manager attributes influencing project success in the South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    combined knowledge and skills of the organisation's workforce”. Project leadership and supervision featured as key factors in the research conducted by Odusami (2003: 525) on Nigerian construction projects. This study tested the effect of a team leader's professional qualifications, profession, leadership style and project ...

  2. Influence of environmental variations on physiological attributes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 4, 2009 ... phenology but also cause many physiological changes. Field experiments, one each in spring and ... adapted to warmer temperatures and longer growing season (Johnston et al., 2002). Sunflower hybrids ..... thetic responses of (Olive europaea L.) leaves to water deficit. Plant. Cell Environ. 25: 395-405.

  3. Project manager attributes influencing project success in the South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each category contains six factors. A questionnaire was compiled and distributed via an online survey tool. The data was analysed using statistical methods including concordance and correlation. The results indicated that 'interpersonal factors' was considered the most important category, followed by 'application of theory'.

  4. Attribution and Motivation: Gender, Ethnicity, and Religion Differences among Indonesian University Students (United States)

    Sutantoputri, Novita W.; Watt, Helen M. G.


    The study explores the possibilities of gender, ethnicity, and religion differences on attributions (locus of control, stability, personal and external control), motivational goals (learning, performance approach, performance avoidance, and work avoidance), self-efficacy, intelligence beliefs, religiosity, racial/ethnic identity, and academic…

  5. Effects of Androgyny, Attribution, and Success or Failure on Women's Cognitive Performance. (United States)

    Welch, Renate L.

    Using Seligman's "learned helplessness" paradigm, androgynous and feminine women (as defined by the Bem Sex Role Inventory) either succeeded (contingent feedback) or failed (non-contingent feedback) at a concept formation task and were provided with internal (ability, effort), external (task difficulty, luck), or no causal attributions for their…

  6. Sex differences in perceived attributes of computer-mediated communication. (United States)

    Harper, Vernon B


    Researchers have pointed to the influence of sex with respect to the attributes of the computer medium. The author elaborates upon possible sex differences in reference to perceived attributes of the computer medium, i.e., Richness, Accessibility, Velocity, Interactivity, Plasticity, and Immediacy. Data from both a pilot and main study are reported and interpreted. The pilot study included 78 participants, while the main study involved 211. The independent samples were composed of Communication Studies students enrolled at two Mid-Atlantic universities. Nine items with anchors of 1: strongly disagree and 7: strongly agree were taken from the 2000 Computer Mediated Communication Competence Scale of Spitzberg to assess the attributes of computer-mediated interaction. The results indicate that women scored higher than men on perceptions of Accessibility, Velocity, Interactivity, and Immediacy.

  7. Are retailers' preferences for seafood attributes predictive for consumers wants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Polancoa, José; Mueller Loose, Simone; Luna, Ladislao


    and claims are able to successfully influence Spanish consumers’ perceived value of seafood and to which degree consumers and retailers in a traditional fish market differ in their choice reaction to these attributes. A heteroscedastic logit model was used to assess the impact of seafood claims on consumer......Aquaculture production has grown considerably in the southern countries of Europe during the last two decades. This increase in supply has not been matched by an equivalent rise in consumer demand, resulting in price decay. For farmed seabream (Sparus aurata) this paper examines which attributes...... choice and to test for differences in attribute preferences between retailers and consumers. Results indicate that both consumers and retailers agree in their marginal willingness to pay for wild over farmed seabream. However, they differ in the extent to which the disutility from farmed production can...

  8. Multiple organizational identification levels and the impact of perceived external prestige and communication climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, J.; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Joustra, Inge


    sEarlier studies have shown that perceived external prestige and communication climate influence organizational identification. In this paper we present the results of a study of the influence of communication climate and perceived external prestige on organizational identification at various


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokiah Ishak


    Full Text Available Following a CEO turnover, a company may select an internal or external successor. The objective of this study is to determine if firm performance, board attributes, ownership structure and incumbent power influence the decision of whether to elect an internal or external candidate. Results from logistic regression analysis on 145 succession events over a four-year period (2002 to 2005 indicate that firms which are controlled by blockholders tend to select an outsider as the successor. Further, firms that are controlled by family members and position their former CEOs within the firms are more likely to select insiders as successors. However, firm performance, board composition, CEO duality and turnover type do not affect the selection choice. This study implies that poor firm performance does not necessarily lead to outside CEO selection choice. Further, boards of Malaysian PLCs are not effective in choosing outsiders as successors as both board composition and CEO duality do not necessarily select outsiders to become new CEOs. Another implication of this study is that former CEOs who continue their directorship in the same companies do have some power in naming new CEOs as the former tend to select insiders as successors.

  10. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P. [eds.


    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results, to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the detailed information concerning the ExternE methodology. Importance is attached to the computer system used in the project and the assessment of air pollution effects on health, materials and ecological effects. Also the assessment of global warming damages are described. Finally the report covers the detailed information concerning the national implementation for Denmark for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant base on biogas. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 79 tabs., 11 ills., 201 refs.

  11. Labeled experimental choice design for estimating attribute and availability cross effects with N attributes and specific brand attribute levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien


    , orthogonal design is not available for every situation. Instead, efficient design based on computerized design algorithm is always available. This paper presents the method of efficient design for estimating brand models having attribute and availability cross effects. The paper gives a framework...... for implementing designs that is efficient enough to estimate model with N brands, each brand have K attributes, and brand attribute has specific levels. The paper also illustrates an example in food consumption study....

  12. Research on equipment maintenance support based on fuzzy multiple attribute decision making (United States)

    JIAO, Jing-yi


    Aiming at the problem of equipment maintaining behaviours in equipment supporting action, with the help of fuzzy theory and multiple attribute decision-making, the paper analyzes influence factor and constraint condition. On this basis, the theory that equipment maintaining behaviours based on fuzzy multiple attribute decision making is presented. We can build model method of equipment maintaining behaviours choice, analyzing example. The conclusion proves correctness and feasibility of fuzzy multiple attribute decision making.

  13. Attributions of causality for drinking behavior made by alcoholics and by normal drinkers. (United States)

    Vuchinich, R E; Tucker, J A; Bordini, E; Sullwold, A F


    Alcoholic individuals often are assumed to deny personal responsibility for their alcholism and to assign causation to external situational factors. To evaluate this assumption, 20 alchololics and 14 nonalcoholics made causal attributions for a recent personal drinking episode and for the drinking behavior of three target individuals (an abstinent alcoholic, a nonabstinent alcololic, and a nonalcoholic). Results showed that both alcoholic and non-alcoholic subjects tended to make external attributions for their own drinking behavior. Subjects' attributons for the target individuals depended on bot the targest' and subjects' drinking histories. The results are discussed in terms of their relevance to models of alcoholism and to actor-observer differences in casual attribution processes.

  14. A Longitudinal Examination of African American Adolescents’ Attributions about Achievement Outcomes (United States)

    Swinton, Akilah D.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Okeke-Adeyanju, Ndidi


    Developmental, gender, and academic domain differences in causal attributions and the influence of attributions on classroom engagement were explored longitudinally in 115 African American adolescents. In Grades 8 and 11, adolescents reported attributions for success and failure in math, English and writing, and science. In Grade 11, English and mathematics teachers rated students’ classroom engagement. Boys were more likely than girls to attribute math successes to high ability and to attribute English failures to low ability. Both genders’ ability attributions for math became more negative from eighth to eleventh grade. Grade 8 attributions of math failure to lack of ability were negatively related to Grade 11 math classroom engagement. Results illustrate the gendered nature of motivational beliefs among Black youth. PMID:21793818

  15. A longitudinal examination of African American adolescents' attributions about achievement outcomes. (United States)

    Swinton, Akilah D; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J; Okeke-Adeyanju, Ndidi


    Developmental, gender, and academic domain differences in causal attributions and the influence of attributions on classroom engagement were explored longitudinally in 115 African American adolescents. In Grades 8 and 11, adolescents reported attributions for success and failure in math, English and writing, and science. In Grade 11, English and mathematics teachers rated students' classroom engagement. Boys were more likely than girls to attribute math successes to high ability and to attribute English failures to low ability. Both genders' ability attributions for math became more negative from eighth to eleventh grades. Grade 8 attributions of math failure to lack of ability were negatively related to Grade 11 math classroom engagement. Results illustrate the gendered nature of motivational beliefs among Black youth. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. A Seven Nations Study of Leadership Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mączyński Jerzy


    Full Text Available The overall purpose of this paper was to compare a representative sample of Polish middle managers with a representative sample of chief executive officers (CEOs from six chosen countries, in regard to selected leadership traits and behaviors. We present a small portion of data collected under the GLOBE project, Phase 3, and longitudinal research findings concerning subordinates′ assessments of Polish middle managers in relation to their attributes from 2008 to 2012. The GLOBE, Phase 3 research is the first study to investigate several thousands of CEOs and senior management teams in 24 countries, to empirically and directly assess the relationship between culture and leadership traits and behaviors. We provide research evidence that the investigated CEOs from the United States, Austria, Germany, China, and Taiwan (with the exception of Russian CEOs and Polish middle managers were generally positively evaluated by their direct staff in regard to: inspirational, visionary, integrity, and performance-oriented leadership behaviors (constituents of charismatic leadership, team-oriented behavior, and participative leadership style. Empirical findings under the GLOBE project, Phase 3 revealed that the charismatic leadership behavior of CEOs has a huge influence on top management teams′ (TMTs dedication to organizational goals, and is the most predictive of all leadership behaviors for TMT commitment to organizations. The analyzed research findings indicate that CEOs in Russia and Polish middle managers display strong similarities. They tend to behave in less charismatic, team-oriented, and participative ways than CEOs in the remaining countries.

  17. Influencia de las imperfecciones geométricas en estructuras de paredes delgadas sometidas a presión externa // Influences of the geometric imperfections in thin wall structures with external pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. González Fernández


    Full Text Available Este trabajo está relacionado con el estudio del comportamiento de estructuras de paredes delgadas sometidas a presiónexterna, cuando aparecen imperfecciones geométricas, inherentes a los procesos de fabricación, que afectan los valores delas cargas críticas. En el mismo se describen comportamientos pos críticos típicos y su importancia en el estudio de losefectos de estas imperfecciones, así como formulaciones aproximadas, tomando en consideración la necesidad delconocimiento de las posibles trayectorias de equilibrio por parte del ingeniero en el análisis y toma de decisiones acerca deuna estructura.Palabras claves: Estructura, bóveda, estabilidad, fallas estructurales, trayectorias de equilibrio.________________________________________________________________________________AbstractThis work deals with the study of the behavior of thin walled structures external pressure, when in the same appear geometricimperfections that are inherent to the process of manufacturing and affect the values of critical loads. In the same, post criticaltypical behaviors and its importance in the study of the effects of the geometric imperfections are described, as well asapproximate formulations taking in consideration the possible trajectories of equilibrium in the structure analysis re.Key words: structures, shells, stability, structural failures, trajectories of equilibrium.

  18. The influence of physique on dose conversion coefficients for idealised external photon exposures: a comparison of doses for Chinese male phantoms with 10th, 50th and 90th percentile anthropometric parameters. (United States)

    Lv, Wei; He, Hengda; Liu, Qian


    For evaluating radiation risk, the construction of anthropomorphic computational phantoms with a variety of physiques can help reduce the uncertainty that is due to anatomical variation. In our previous work, three deformable Chinese reference male phantoms with 10th, 50th and 90th percentile body mass indexes and body circumference physiques (DCRM-10, DCRM-50 and DCRM-90) were constructed to represent underweight, normal weight and overweight Chinese adult males, respectively. In the present study, the phantoms were updated by correcting the fat percentage to improve the precision of radiological dosimetry evaluations. The organ dose conversion coefficients for each phantom were calculated and compared for four idealized external photon exposures from 15 keV to 10 MeV, using the Monte Carlo method. The dosimetric results for the three deformable Chinese reference male phantom (DCRM) phantoms indicated that variations in physique can cause as much as a 20% difference in the organ dose conversion coefficients. When the photon energy was physiques. Hence, it is difficult to predict the conversion coefficients of the phantoms from the anthropometric parameters alone. Nevertheless, the complex organ conversion coefficients presented in this report will be helpful for evaluating the radiation risk for large groups of people with various physiques. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  19. Perceived effects of setting attributes on visitor experiences in wilderness: Variation with situational context and visitor characteristics (United States)

    David N. Cole; Troy E. Hall


    Understanding how setting attributes influence the nature of the visitor experience is crucial to effective recreation management. Highly influential attributes are useful indicators to monitor within a planning framework, such as Limits of Acceptable Change. This study sought to identify the setting attributes perceived to have the most profound effect on the ability...

  20. Attributions to Success and Failure in English Language Learning: The Effects of Gender, Age and Perceived Success (United States)

    Genç, Gülten


    The main purpose of this study is to analyze Turkish tertiary level EFL learners' attributions to success and failure and the effects of gender, age, and perceived success on their attributions. The results indicated that EFL learners respectively attributed interest, ability, task difficulty, effort, luck and the influence of teacher and school…