WorldWideScience

Sample records for attributing external influences

  1. Detecting and Attributing External Influences on the Climate System: A Review of Recent Advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, T; Zwiers, F; Hegerl, G; Allen, M; Crowley, T; Gillett, N; Hasselmann, K; Jones, P; Santer, B; Schnur, R; Stott, P; Taylor, K; Tett, S

    2005-01-26

    We review recent research that assesses evidence for the detection of anthropogenic and natural external influences on the climate. Externally driven climate change has been detected by a number of investigators in independent data covering many parts of the climate system, including surface temperature on global and large regional scales, ocean-heat content, atmospheric circulation, and variables of the free atmosphere, such as atmospheric temperature and tropopause height. The influence of external forcing is also clearly discernible in reconstructions of hemispheric scale temperature of the last millennium. These observed climate changes are very unlikely to be due only to natural internal climate variability, and they are consistent with the responses to anthropogenic and natural external forcing of the climate system that are simulated with climate models. The evidence indicates that natural drivers such as solar variability and volcanic activity are at most partially responsible for the large-scale temperature changes observed over the past century, and that a large fraction of the warming over the last 50 years can be attributed to greenhouse gas increases. Thus the recent research supports and strengthens the IPCC Third Assessment Report conclusion that ''most of the global warming over the past 50 years is likely due to the anthropogenic increase in greenhouse gases''.

  2. Attributional biases about the origins of attitudes: externality, emotionality, and rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenworthy, Jared B; Miller, Norman

    2002-05-01

    Pilot work and 3 studies investigated the ways people explain the origins of attitudes. Study I examined the use of 3 dimensions (externality, rationality, emotionality) to explain the origin of people's own, in-group, and out-group attitudes. Attributions for own attitudes were the least externally and emotionally based and the most rationally based. By comparison with the out-group, less externality, less emotionality, and more rationality also were attributed to in-group attitudes. Studies 2 and 3 examined the effects of intergroup threat on attributions for in- and out-group attitude positions. Under high threat, more externality and emotionality but less rationality were attributed to out-group attitudes than under low threat. Intergroup differentiation mediated the difference between out-group attributions under high and low threat.

  3. Key External Influences Affecting Consumers’ Decisions Regarding Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ruiz, María Pilar; Gómez-Cantó, Carmen María

    2016-01-01

    Among the numerous internal and external forces that compete for consumers’ attention in the context in which they buy their food, this paper will seek to provide a review of the most important external influences, such as the variables related to food itself. To this end, in addition to the food attributes traditionally identified in fields such as consumer behavior, it will give special consideration to the classification of food values. Although the influence of these variables on consumer decisions depends on the individual, analyzing them will undoubtedly increase understanding of consumers’ decisions. Additionally, identifying and describing these variables will enable subsequent research on how they influence both consumer behavior and other key outcomes for producers, manufacturers, and retailers in the food industry, such as satisfaction, trust, and loyalty. PMID:27803686

  4. Role of gastronomic, externality and feasibility attributes in consumer demand for organic and local foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Mørkbak, Morten Raun

    2013-01-01

    Local food systems providing high-value products are seen as a tool to sustain economic activity on family farms in rural areas. The objective of this study is to investigate the role of gastronomic, externality and feasibility characteristics in consumers’ demand for local and for organic foods....... An internet questionnaire survey was conducted in 2010 among Danish consumers. 3.211 respondents completed the questionnaire, which included questions about respondents' food-related values and their specific perception of organic and local varieties of honey and apples. Variables related to consumers' food...... that although both organic and local food supply chains are often associated with special attributes such as gastronomic characteristics and relatively beneficial externality attributes, these attributes are perceived differently for the two types of supply chains. Perceived gastronomic quality is the most...

  5. External Data and Attribute Hyperlink Programs for Promis*e(Registered Trademark)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derengowski, Rich; Gruel, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    External Data and Attribute Hyperlink are computer programs that can be added to Promis*e(trademark) which is a commercial software system that automates routine tasks in the design (including drawing schematic diagrams) of electrical control systems. The programs were developed under the Stennis Space Center's (SSC) Dual Use Technology Development Program to provide capabilities for SSC's BMCS configuration management system which uses Promis*e(trademark). The External Data program enables the storage and management of information in an external database linked to a drawing. Changes can be made either in the database or on the drawing. Information that originates outside Promis*e(trademark) can be stored in custom fields that can be added to the database. Although this information is not available in Promis*e(trademark) printed drawings, it can be associated with symbols in the drawings, and can be retrieved through the drawings when the software is running. The Attribute Hyperlink program enables the addition of hyperlink information as attributes of symbols. This program enables the formation of a direct hyperlink between a schematic diagram and an Internet site or a file on a compact disk, on the user's hard drive, or on another computer on a network to which the user's computer is connected. The user can then obtain information directly related to the part (e.g., maintenance, or troubleshooting information) associated with the hyperlink.

  6. Externalized attributional bias in the Ultra High Risk (UHR) for psychosis population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew; Papas, Alicia; Bartholomeusz, Cali; Nelson, Barnaby; Yung, Alison

    2013-04-30

    Specific externalizing attributional biases appear to be common in early psychosis. They may represent trait risk factors for the later development of a psychotic disorder, yet few studies have investigated this in clinical "at risk" populations. We aimed to investigate one particular bias, the Locus of Control of reinforcement (LOC) in a "Ultra High Risk" (UHR) for psychosis group. We recruited UHR individuals from an established at risk clinical service and a community control group. LOC was measured using the Adult Nowicki Strickland Internal External scale (ANSIE). Neuropsychological functioning, social functioning and psychopathology were assessed. We analyzed data from 30 controls and 30 UHR individuals. The UHR sample had a significantly more externalized LOC (control for events perceived to be external to the person) than controls. This difference remained statistically significant after adjusting for covariates (age, gender and IQ). More externalized LOC scores were negatively correlated with social and occupational functioning scores in the control group but not in the UHR group and positively correlated with negative symptoms and paranoid symptoms in the UHR group. These findings have implications for identifying potential psychological vulnerabilities for the development of psychosis and informing treatment approaches within the at risk group.

  7. Identifying external influences on global precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvel, K.; Bonfils, C.

    2013-11-11

    Changes in global (ocean and land) precipitation are among the most important and least well-understood consequences of climate change. Increasing greenhouse gas concentrations are thought to affect the zonal-mean distribution of precipitation through two basic mechanisms. First, increasing temperatures will lead to an intensification of the hydrological cycle (“thermodynamic” changes). Second, changes in atmospheric circulation patterns will lead to poleward displacement of the storm tracks and subtropical dry zones and to a widening of the tropical belt (“dynamic” changes). We demonstrate that both these changes are occurring simultaneously in global precipitation, that this behavior cannot be explained by internal variability alone, and that external influences are responsible for the observed precipitation changes. Whereas existing model experiments are not of sufficient length to differentiate between natural and anthropogenic forcing terms at the 95% confidence level, we present evidence that the observed trends result from human activities.

  8. The influence of passenger demographics on airport attribute evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Carstens

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is imperative for airport operators and airlines to have a clear understanding of the factors which influence the passenger’s decision with regard to which airport/airline combination to use in a multi-airport scenario. Interactions between demographic variables, such as gender and purpose of travel, and the choice attributes in the decision-making process exist. The extent to which specific attributes influence the passenger’s decision could be invaluable to service providers (airport operators and airlines in allocating and employing limited resources. The purpose of this article is to investigate the extent of the interactions between passenger demographics and attribute evaluation by taking into account the ordinal nature of the measurement scale.

  9. An Investigation of Factors Influencing Design Team Attributes in Green Buildings

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    Mohamed S. Elforgani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Buildings contribute significantly global environmental problems. Better design can minimize these impacts. Design Green Building (DGB aims to reduce buildings' impact on the environment. However, the green design performance depends on design team attributes. In addition, the Governance System (GS and Client Quality (CQ as external factors have influence on Design Team Attributes (DTA of green building. Approach: To identify mentioned factors questionnaire survey was conducted to collect dada required. A sample of 277 respondents has been covered under the study, including architects and engineers practicing design and consultancy building sectors. Analysis data includes descriptive and quantitative analysis by using SSPS software version 16 was carried out. A correlation and regression models was established to explore the relationship between identified factors. Results: Architect is most involved one during the design process of green buildings with mean 4.82 followed by mechanical and electrical engineers with mean 4.52 and 4.44 respectively, while structural and civil engineers, interior designers and quantity survivors were 3.71, 3.29 and 2.88 respectively. The most design team attributes were investigated have a significance degree of influence except design team reputation. On the other hand, the other hand, the Governance system and client quality have major influence on these attributes. Conclusion: Involvement and participation of a ll project stakeholders are required. Design team attributes are the key factors to improve green design performance. Governance system and client quality play major role to enhance design team attributes. Therefore, effective regulations and policies may increase performance of the green Effective design team management device should be applied to implement Design team attributes effectively in order to improve green design team performance.

  10. External Dynamics Influencing Tattooing among College Students: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael; Tse, Luke; Foster, Janna; Angelini, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    The study utilized qualitative research methodology to assess external dynamics and their influences on tattooing practices among college students. Twenty-four undergraduates supplied in-depth interviews regarding the external variables related to college students' decisions to tattoo. The present research follows (Tse, Firmin, Angelini, &…

  11. External Dynamics Influencing Tattooing among College Students: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael; Tse, Luke; Foster, Janna; Angelini, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    The study utilized qualitative research methodology to assess external dynamics and their influences on tattooing practices among college students. Twenty-four undergraduates supplied in-depth interviews regarding the external variables related to college students' decisions to tattoo. The present research follows (Tse, Firmin, Angelini, & Foster,…

  12. Externality as a function of obesity in children: pervasive style or eating-specific attribute?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, P R; Woody, E Z

    1979-12-01

    The developmental sources of the link between stylistic externality and food-related externality found in the obese by Schacter and others were explored by testing whether the externality phenomena that have been found to differentiate obese and normal adults are also discriminators of obese and normal children. The results suggest that obese children as young as 7-12 years of age show an external responsiveness to salient food cues but not yet a generally external perceptual style. The implications of these findings for the development of obese externality are examined.

  13. Space Transportation System Availability Requirements and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russell E.; Adams, Timothy C.; McCleskey, Carey M.

    2008-01-01

    It is important that engineering and management accept the need for an availability requirement that is derived with its influencing attributes. It is the intent of this paper to provide the visibility of relationships of these major attribute drivers (variables) to each other and the resultant system inherent availability. Also important to provide bounds of the variables providing engineering the insight required to control the system's engineering solution, e.g., these influencing attributes become design requirements also. These variables will drive the need to provide integration of similar discipline functions or technology selection to allow control of the total parts count. The relationship of selecting a reliability requirement will place a constraint on parts count to achieve a given availability requirement or if allowed to increase the parts count will drive the system reliability requirement higher. They also provide the understanding for the relationship of mean repair time (or mean down time) to maintainability, e.g., accessibility for repair, and both the mean time between failure, e.g., reliability of hardware and availability. The concerns and importance of achieving a strong availability requirement is driven by the need for affordability, the choice of using the two launch solution for the single space application, or the need to control the spare parts count needed to support the long stay in either orbit or on the surface of the moon. Understanding the requirements before starting the architectural design concept will avoid considerable time and money required to iterate the design to meet the redesign and assessment process required to achieve the results required of the customer's space transportation system. In fact the impact to the schedule to being able to deliver the system that meets the customer's needs, goals, and objectives may cause the customer to compromise his desired operational goal and objectives resulting in considerable

  14. Space Transportation System Availability Requirement and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russell E.; Adams, Timothy C.; McCleskey, Carey M.

    2008-01-01

    It is important that engineering and management accept the need for an availability requirement that is derived with its influencing attributes. It is the intent of this paper to provide the visibility of relationships of these major attribute drivers (variables) to each other and the resultant system inherent availability. Also important to provide bounds of the variables providing engineering the insight required to control the system's engineering solution, e.g., these influencing attributes become design requirements also. These variables will drive the need to provide integration of similar discipline functions or technology selection to allow control of the total parts count. The relationship of selecting a reliability requirement will place a constraint on parts count to achieve a given availability requirement or if allowed to increase the parts count will drive the system reliability requirement higher. They also provide the understanding for the relationship of mean repair time (or mean down time) to maintainability, e.g., accessibility for repair, and both the mean time between failure, e.g., reliability of hardware and availability. The concerns and importance of achieving a strong availability requirement is driven by the need for affordability, the choice of using the two launch solution for the single space application, or the need to control the spare parts count needed to support the long stay in either orbit or on the surface of the moon. Understanding the requirements before starting the architectural design concept will avoid considerable time and money required to iterate the design to meet the redesign and assessment process required to achieve the results required of the customer's space transportation system. In fact the impact to the schedule to being able to deliver the system that meets the customer's needs, goals, and objectives may cause the customer to compromise his desired operational goal and objectives resulting in considerable

  15. Innovation types at smes and external influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Walicka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stimulating innovation is one of the pressing policy challenges facing many countries in the world today. The paper analyses the external factors that Polish entrepreneurs find most detrimental to their innovative activity. A sample of 199 small and medium size enterprises (SMEs in Poland were subjected to a survey. The data collected revealed the innovation types of SMEs in Poland and external financial factors influencing innovation the most. The results show external factors such as legal regulations, access to external financing, bureaucracy of institutions, financial government support, the tax system, time necessary to comply with regulations, and crisis and instability are very important for SMEs. According to the results, process and marketing innovations are applied more frequently than product and organisational innovations. Finally, the results indicate that entrepreneurs indicate that lack of government support and weakness of tax incentives is an important barrier to the innovation process.

  16. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  17. Influence of external potentials on heterogeneous diffusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakevičius, Rytis; Ruseckas, Julius

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we consider heterogeneous diffusion processes with the power-law dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the position and investigate the influence of external forces on the resulting anomalous diffusion. The heterogeneous diffusion processes can yield subdiffusion as well as superdiffusion, depending on the behavior of the diffusion coefficient. We assume that not only the diffusion coefficient but also the external force has a power-law dependence on the position. We obtain analytic expressions for the transition probability in two cases: when the power-law exponent in the external force is equal to 2 η -1 , where 2 η is the power-law exponent in the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the position, and when the external force has a linear dependence on the position. We found that the power-law exponent in the dependence of the mean square displacement on time does not depend on the external force; this force changes only the anomalous diffusion coefficient. In addition, the external force having the power-law exponent different from 2 η -1 limits the time interval where the anomalous diffusion occurs. We expect that the results obtained in this paper may be relevant for a more complete understanding of anomalous diffusion processes.

  18. Influence of external source location in the reactivity calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Adilson Costa da; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Martinez, Aquilino Senra, E-mail: asilva@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: Aquilino@lmp.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    We used the neutron diffusion equation with external neutron sources, in cartesian geometry and the two groups of energy, to verify the influence of external neutron source locations in the reactivity calculation. For this, a coarse mesh finite difference method was developed for the adjoint flux calculation and simplifies reactivity calculation in PWR type reactor, which uses the output of the nodal expansion method. The results were obtained for different locations on the two-dimensional plane, as well as for different types of fuel elements in the reactor core. (author)

  19. Space Transportation System Availability Requirements and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Adams, TImothy C.

    2008-01-01

    It is essential that management and engineering understand the need for an availability requirement for the customer's space transportation system as it enables the meeting of his needs, goal, and objectives. There are three types of availability, e.g., operational availability, achieved availability, or inherent availability. The basic definition of availability is equal to the mean uptime divided by the sum of the mean uptime plus the mean downtime. The major difference is the inclusiveness of the functions within the mean downtime and the mean uptime. This paper will address tIe inherent availability which only addresses the mean downtime as that mean time to repair or the time to determine the failed article, remove it, install a replacement article and verify the functionality of the repaired system. The definitions of operational availability include the replacement hardware supply or maintenance delays and other non-design factors in the mean downtime. Also with inherent availability the mean uptime will only consider the mean time between failures (other availability definitions consider this as mean time between maintenance - preventive and corrective maintenance) that requires the repair of the system to be functional. It is also essential that management and engineering understand all influencing attributes relationships to each other and to the resultant inherent availability requirement. This visibility will provide the decision makers with the understanding necessary to place constraints on the design definition for the major drivers that will determine the inherent availability, safety, reliability, maintainability, and the life cycle cost of the fielded system provided the customer. This inherent availability requirement may be driven by the need to use a multiple launch approach to placing humans on the moon or the desire to control the number of spare parts required to support long stays in either orbit or on the surface of the moon or mars. It is

  20. Obesity, externality, and susceptibility to social influence: an integrated analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C P; Olmsted, M P; Polivy, J

    1983-10-01

    A pilot study indicated that overweight subjects are more likely to order a particular dessert in a restaurant when the waitress provides an appetizing description of that dessert and encourages the diner to order it; subjects who were not overweight were much less affected by the waitress's behavior. This effect may be interpreted in terms of the greater "externality' of overweight persons (i.e., their greater reactivity to salient food cues); alternatively, it may be seen as evidence for greater compliance by deviant (overweight) individuals. The present study examined these alternatives by separating the perceptual-cues component of the waitress's behavior from the social-influence component in a replication of the pilot study. The results indicated that both the externality and compliance interpretations were tenable. The authors suggest that these two mechanisms may be seen as facets of a more general concern on the part of overweight people to secure behavioral guidance from the external environment, physical or social.

  1. A longitudinal investigation of maternal influences on the development of child hostile attributions and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Sarah J; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter J; Hughes, Claire; Halligan, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Aggression in children is associated with an enhanced tendency to attribute hostile intentions to others. However, limited information is available regarding the factors that contribute to the development of such hostile attribution tendencies. We examined factors that contribute to individual differences in child hostile attributions and aggression, focusing on potential pathways from maternal hostile attributions via negative parenting behavior. We conducted a longitudinal study of 98 mothers and children (47 male, 51 female), recruited from groups experiencing high and low levels of psychosocial adversity. Maternal hostile attributions, observed parenting, and child behaviour were assessed at 18 months and 5 years child age, and child hostile attributions were also examined at 5 years. Independent assessments of maternal and child processes were utilized where possible. Analyses provided support for a direct influence of maternal hostile attributions on the development of child hostile attributions and aggressive behaviour. Maternal hostile attributions were also associated with negative parenting behaviour, which in turn influenced child adjustment. Even taking account of possible parenting influences and preexisting child difficulties, hostile attributions in the mother showed a direct link with child aggression at 5 years. Maternal hostile attributions were themselves related to psychosocial adversity. We conclude that maternal hostile attributions are prevalent in high-risk samples and are related to less optimal parenting behaviour, child hostile attributions, and child aggression. Targeting hostile maternal cognitions may be a useful adjunct to parenting programs.

  2. Is the P3 amplitude reduction seen in externalizing psychopathology attributable to stimulus sequence effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Casey S; Malone, Stephen M; Iacono, William G

    2012-02-01

    P3 amplitude reduction (P3-AR) is associated with biological vulnerability to a spectrum of externalizing (EXT) disorders, such as conduct disorder, antisocial behavior, and substance use disorders. P3 amplitude, however, can be affected by the context within which it is measured, for example, by the position of the target in the sequence of stimuli during an oddball task. We hypothesized that EXT-related P3-AR may be due to attention or working memory deficits in EXT that would weaken these stimulus sequence effects. Using a community-based sample of adolescent males, we examined the relationship between P3 and EXT as a function of the number of standards preceding the target. Higher EXT was associated with significantly smaller P3 amplitude, regardless of the number of standards preceding the target. These results suggest that P3-AR in EXT does not vary as a function of stimulus sequence, further supporting P3-AR as an endophenotype for EXT disorders.

  3. The Influence of Visual Cues on Sound Externalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvajal, Juan Camilo Gil; Santurette, Sébastien; Cubick, Jens;

    Background: The externalization of virtual sounds reproduced via binaural headphone-based auralization systems has been reported to be less robust when the listening environment differs from the room in which binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs) were recorded. It has been debated whether...... this is due to incongruent auditory cues between the recording and playback room during sound reproduction or to an expectation effect from the visual impression of the room. This study investigated the influence of a priori acoustic and visual knowledge of the playback room on sound externalization...... the more reverberant the listening environment was. While the visual impression of the playback room did not affect perceived distance, visual cues helped resolve localization ambiguities and improved compactness perception....

  4. Influence patterns and determinant attributes in nursing home choice situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarboe, G R; McDaniel, C D

    1985-01-01

    Factor analysis revealed that nursing home characteristics fall roughly into two categories: those relating to the care directly provided by the facility and those which are generally unrelated to the quality of care. Not all influences (doctors, discharge planners, retirement home administrators and responsible parties) respond alike to these characteristics. Therefore, a marketing mix directed uniformly to all segments may be suboptimal.

  5. Modeling peer and external influence in online social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Piškorec, Matija; Miholić, Iva; Šmuc, Tomislav; Šikić, Mile

    2016-01-01

    Opinion polls mediated through a social network can give us, in addition to usual demographics data like age, gender and geographic location, a friendship structure between voters and the temporal dynamics of their activity during the voting process. Using a Facebook application we collected friendship relationships, demographics and votes of over ten thousand users on the referendum on the definition of marriage in Croatia held on 1st of December 2013. We also collected data on online news articles mentioning our application. Publication of these articles align closely with large peaks of voting activity, indicating that these external events have a crucial influence in engaging the voters. Also, existence of strongly connected friendship communities where majority of users vote during short time period, and the fact that majority of users in general tend to friend users that voted the same suggest that peer influence also has its role in engaging the voters. As we are not able to track activity of our users...

  6. Perceived Attributes of Factors Influencing Consumers’ Engagement with Electronic Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Adewale Muritala

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to critically analyze the relationship between perceived attributes as factors and consumers’ engagement with electronic banking technology. A survey method was used to gather data from 200 secondary school teachers from five selected local government in South-Western part of Nigeria namely; Ibadan North, Egbeda, Ido, Ibadan North-East and Ibadan North-West Local government. Data was collected with a structured questionnaire and analyzed with several descriptive statistics to identify consumers’ engagement in electronic banking technology in Nigeria. The results of the study therefore reveals that the most common influential factors hindering consumers’ adoption of electronic banking in Nigeria are relative advantage of economic gains and non-economic gains, social character, communication behavior, trialability as well as observability. Hence, it therefore recommends that the banks should create channels through which customers’ awareness will be enhanced and employ IT trained personnel to monitor and report any fraudulent transaction in order to secure customers’ trust on safety risk/security.

  7. 26 CFR 1.162-20 - Expenditures attributable to lobbying, political campaigns, attempts to influence legislation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expenditures attributable to lobbying, political... attributable to lobbying, political campaigns, attempts to influence legislation, etc., and certain advertising... nondeductibility of expenditures for lobbying purposes, for the promotion or defeat of legislation, for...

  8. EXTERNAL FACTORS INFLUENCE ON INFLATION: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihnatov Iulian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we try to assess the main external determinants of inflation dynamics in Romania. The literature in the field of measuring inflation dynamics is wealthy and various. There are many developing country - level studies that examine inflation dynamics: Blavy (2004 - Guinea, Duma (2008 - Sri Lanka, Gottschalk et al (2008 - Sierra Leone, Moriyama (2008 - Sudan, Mwase (2006 - Tanzania, Williams and Adedeji (2004 - Dominican Republic, Hossain (2005 - Indonesia, Almounsor (2010 - Yemen. The issue of Romanian inflation dynamics is present in many and various studies, like Hammermann (2007, Pelinescu and Dospinescu (2006, Budina et al (2006 etc. There are no other recent studies that analyze the external determinants on Romanian inflation dynamics. In our paper we estimate an OLS single equation model, using a methodology derived from Almounsor (2010. The empirical analysis uses monthly data from August 2005 to January 2011. The start point of the data series is the moment of a major change in the National Bank of Romania (NBR monetary policy: adoption of the inflation targeting regime. The independent variables used in our research are: harmonized consumer price index of EU-25 countries, EUR/RON exchange rate, crude oil price index (for analyzing the external shocks effect and M2 monetary aggregate (intermediate money supply as a control variable. The outcomes suggest that inflation in Romania is driven mainly by international price shocks - harmonized consumer price index of EU-25 countries. The EUR/RON exchange rate depreciation has a small influence on domestic inflation. In the short run, the effect of the international oil price is insignificant. Money supply, used here as a control variable, is shown to have a very small effect on inflation in Romania when using OLS regressions. The results show that 66% of the domestic inflation variance is explained by the independent variables in our model.

  9. Leading multiple teams: average and relative external leadership influences on team empowerment and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Margaret M; Mathieu, John E; Ruddy, Thomas M

    2014-03-01

    External leaders continue to be an important source of influence even when teams are empowered, but it is not always clear how they do so. Extending research on structurally empowered teams, we recognize that teams' external leaders are often responsible for multiple teams. We adopt a multilevel approach to model external leader influences at both the team level and the external leader level of analysis. In doing so, we distinguish the influence of general external leader behaviors (i.e., average external leadership) from those that are directed differently toward the teams that they lead (i.e., relative external leadership). Analysis of data collected from 451 individuals, in 101 teams, reporting to 25 external leaders, revealed that both relative and average external leadership related positively to team empowerment. In turn, team empowerment related positively to team performance and member job satisfaction. However, while the indirect effects were all positive, we found that relative external leadership was not directly related to team performance, and average external leadership evidenced a significant negative direct influence. Additionally, relative external leadership exhibited a significant direct positive influence on member job satisfaction as anticipated, whereas average external leadership did not. These findings attest to the value in distinguishing external leaders' behaviors that are exhibited consistently versus differentially across empowered teams. Implications and future directions for the study and management of external leaders overseeing multiple teams are discussed.

  10. Experimental Study on External Low Frequency Vibration Influence on SPM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jinping; GUO Tong; HU Xiaodong; HU Xiaotang

    2007-01-01

    The influence of external Iow frequency (0-100 Hz) vibration on the tip-sample interaction in SPM is the main concern of this paper. A concept, vibration rejection ratio (VRR) proposed by Thompson et al, was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A concise theoretical background was introduced, a vibration stimulating and measuring system for SPM was built up, and an experimental research of the influence on SPM VRR was carried out with different SPM probes, samples, tip pre-loads and open/close loops of tip-sample interaction. It was proved both in theory and experiment that SPM VRR had correlations with the spring constant, the air damping constant, the effective mass of the cantilever, the contact spring constant and the contact damping constant between tip and sample. SPM's vibration rejecting ability can be improved by longer cantilever probe, softer sample surface, greater tip pre-load, and close-loop control for tip-sample interaction. More attention should be paid to a proper combination of the above parameters.

  11. Centrality measures in networks based on nodes attributes, long-range interactions and group influence

    CERN Document Server

    Aleskerov, F; Shvydun, S

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new method for assessing agents influence in network structures, which takes into consideration nodes attributes, individual and group influences of nodes, and the intensity of interactions. This approach helps us to identify both explicit and hidden central elements which cannot be detected by classical centrality measures or other indices.

  12. The effect of leader outcomes on influence, attributions, and perceptions of charisma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorges, S L; Weiss, H M; Strickland, O J

    1999-06-01

    This study addressed how various outcomes to a leader might influence not only how that leader is perceived but also the degree of influence that leader might subsequently obtain. On the basis of recent charismatic leadership theories, it was expected that leaders who appeared willing to endure hardship for the expression of their beliefs would be perceived differently than leaders who appeared to benefit in some way. The relationship between outcomes and subsequent leader influence was confirmed. Sacrificing resulted in greater influence, whereas benefiting reduced it. This relationship was mediated by attributions made about leader motives. The relationship between outcomes and influence was also mediated by perceptions of charisma.

  13. Sensory attributes of soft drinks and their influence on consumers' preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Noemí; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Marcos, Ascensión

    2014-08-01

    Soft drinks are beverages composed of water and other ingredients that provide specific sensorial attributes. Soft drink consumption patterns have recently been changed partially influenced by an increased availability of different types of beverages during the last few years. Consumers' preferences to choose one drink over another are influenced, not only by genetic, psychological and environmental factors, but also by the beverage's specific attributes. In fact, beverage consumption is driven by the sensations it gives. Because the main component of soft drinks is water, an increase in the intake of soft drinks might improve fluid intake and the levels of water in the body if it is regarded as an "essential nutrient".

  14. How abusive supervisors influence employees' voice and silence: the effects of interactional justice and organizational attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Jiang, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    In this research we investigated the influence of abusive supervision on employees' prosocial voice and silence, as well as clarified the roles of interactional justice (as a mediator) and organizational attribution (as a moderator). Moreover, we examined a mediated moderating model stipulating that interactional justice mediated the moderating effect of organizational attribution on the focal relationship. A scenario experiment was employed in Study 1, and after analyzing data from 196 employees, we found that abusive supervision influenced employees' prosocial voice and silence via interactional justice. In Study 2, data were collected from 379 employees in two waves separated by 1 week. The results not only replicated the findings of Study 1 but also indicated that organizational attribution buffered the abusive supervision-voice and silence relationship, and that interactional justice mediated this moderating effect.

  15. Understanding researchers' openness to external parties influencing academic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olmos-Penuela, Julia; Benneworth, Paul; Castro-Martínez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Ambiguity surrounding the effect of external engagement on academic research has raised questions about what motivates researchers to collaborate with third parties. This paper contributes to this debate by progressing beyond the idea that researchers engage with society simply because of direct ben

  16. Understanding resarchers' openness to external parties influencing academic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olmos Peñuela, Julia; Benneworth, Paul; Castro-Martínez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Ambiguity surrounding the effect of external engagement on academic research has raised questions about what motivates researchers to collaborate with third parties. This paper contributes to this debate by progressing beyond the idea that researchers engage with society simply because of direct ben

  17. Influence of furnishing on indoor airflow near external walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut

    2008-01-01

    Simulations of indoor environments in buildings are usually performed assuming uniform distribution of temperature and humidity of the indoor air, such as it would be in an idealised unfurnished room. The flow patterns near external walls may however be very different from the undisturbed airflow...

  18. External Influences on an Internal Process: Supporting Preservice Teacher Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Ann; Klipfel, Lyndsay Halpin

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to better understand how participating in teacher research as a student teacher compares to conducting it as a practicing teacher, a teacher educator and her former teacher education student engaged in a collaborative dialogue. They focus their reflections in this article on the impact of external forces on the process of teacher…

  19. Influences of packaging attributes on consumer purchase decisions for fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsimanis, Georgios; Getter, Kristin; Behe, Bridget; Harte, Janice; Almenar, Eva

    2012-10-01

    Packaging attributes are considered to have an influence on consumer purchase decisions for food and, as a consequence, also on its consumption. To improve the current minimal understanding of these influences for fresh produce, a survey instrument in the form of an online questionnaire has been developed and launched in the US. The first part of the questionnaire covers consumers' preferences for packaging convenience features, characteristics, materials, disposal method, and others for fresh produces in general, and the second focuses on attributes like price, container size, produce shelf life for a specific fresh produce, sweet cherries, to allow us to supply specific values for these factors to the participants. Cluster and conjoint analyses of responses from 292 participants reveal that specific packaging and produce attributes affect consumer purchase decisions of fresh produce in general and of sweet cherries in particular (P ≤ 0.05) and that some are population segment dependent (P ≤ 0.05). For produce packaging in general, 'extend the "best by" date' was ranked as the top convenience feature, the type of packaging material was considered to affect the food product quality (92.7%) and containers made from bio-based materials were highly appealing (3.52 out of 5.00). The most important attributes that affect the purchasing decisions of consumers regarding a specific fresh produce like sweet cherries are price (25%), shelf life (19%) and container size (17.2%).

  20. Breakup of free liquid jets influenced by external mechanical vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lad, V. N.; Murthy, Z. V. P.

    2017-02-01

    The breakup of liquid jets has been studied with various test liquids using externally imposed mechanical vibrations. Images of the jets were captured by a high speed camera up to the speed of 1000 frames per second, and analyzed to obtain the profile of the jet and breakup length. The dynamics of the jets have also been studied to understand the effects of additives—a surfactant and polymer—incorporating externally imposed mechanical vibrations. Different types of breakup modes have been explored with respect to the Weber number and Ohnesorge number. The introduction of mechanical vibrations have caused jet breakup with separated droplets at a comparatively lower Weber number. The region of jet breakup by neck formation at constant jet velocities also contracted due to mechanical vibrations.

  1. Influence of External Factors on the Taiwan Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Wen Huang

    2014-01-01

    Due to the small market size and the low trading volume, emerging markets are, in general, shallow and easily affected by external factors such as the capital flows from foreign portfolio investment and the stock market fluctuations of their major trading partners. This study attempts to investigate how foreign portfolio investment and the trading partner’s equity market affect the local stock market and whether such impacts are persistent through time. Adopting the GARCH-EVT-Copula approac...

  2. External Factors Influencing Interorganizational Collaboration: The Strategic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Golonka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this paper is to present the phenomenon of interorganizational collaboration from the strategic perspective, as a complex phenomenon, infl uenced by environmental factors, such as institutions � both formal and informal. Additional aims of the paper are: to present a model including all signifi cant elements and identifying important research gaps.Methodology: The paper presents the results of literature analyses as well as the fi ndings of the latest research studies in the fi eld of interorganizational collaboration, taking into account the environment of the organization.Conclusions: The external environment of the organization, in particular socio-cultural factors, has a significant impact on the formation, development, evolution and management of interorganizational collaboration. There are still many research gaps in this fi eld, and some of them have been presented in this paper.Research limitations: This paper is a theoretical and conceptual study. It forms an introduction to further empirical research.Originality: The paper presents the phenomenon of interorganizational collaboration in a broader context, taking into account the external environment as an element infl uencing such collaboration. Most of the works in this fi eld focus on organizations managing or coping with the environment. This paper presents a different approach. It indicates the external factors that infl uence interorganizational collaboration from a strategic perspective, and subsequently presents them in the form of a model.

  3. Macro-Behaviour of Agents' Opinion under Influence of an External Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Yun-Feng; CAI Xu

    2007-01-01

    @@ We propose a model to study the evolution of opinion under the influence of an external field on small world network. The macro-behaviour of agents' opinion and the relative change rate as time elapses are studied. The external field is found to play an important role in making the opinion s(t) balance or increase, and without the influence of the external field, the relative change rate γ(t) shows nonlinear increasing behaviour as time runs.What is more, this nonlinear increasing behaviour is independent of the initial condition, the strength of the external field and the time that we cancel the external field. The results may reflect some phenomena in our society, such as the function of the macro-control in China or the mass media in our society.

  4. Influence of chronic stellectomy on reactivity to serotonin in the dog external carotid bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, M A; Vidrio, H; Burkle, G

    1985-01-01

    The influence of chronic stellectomy on external carotid flow responses to i.a. serotonin (5HT) was determined in dogs in which both stellate ganglia had been removed 1, 2, 4 or 8 weeks previously. The effect of this maneuver on carotid and heart rate responses to i.a. and i.v. norepinephrine (NE), respectively, was also assessed for comparison. Constrictor responses to NE in the carotid were moderately increased at 2 and 4 weeks, while its positive chronotropic effects were markedly augmented throughout the observation period. Dilator responses to 5HT increased at 4 and specially at 8 weeks after stellectomy. Results obtained with NE were considered compatible with supersensitivity induced by decentralization in the carotid and by denervation in the heart. Changes in carotid responses to 5HT were interpreted as being due to a prejunctional mechanism similar to that responsible for supersensitivity to NE. Differences in the time course of development of supersensitivity to both amines were attributed to masking of 5HT dilatation by NE released by the indoleamine at the time of increased sensitivity to constriction by the catecholamine.

  5. Habitat selection by postbreeding female diving ducks: Influence of habitat attributes and conspecifics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jane E.; O'Neil, Shawn T.; Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2017-01-01

    Habitat selection studies of postbreeding waterfowl have rarely focused on within-wetland attributes such as water depth, escape cover, and food availability. Flightless waterfowl must balance habitat selection between avoiding predation risks and feeding. Reproductively successful female ducks face the greatest challenges because they begin the definitive prebasic molt at or near the end of brood rearing, when their body condition is at a low point. We assessed the relative importance of habitat attributes and group effects in habitat selection by postbreeding female lesser scaup Aythya affinis on a 2332-ha montane wetland complex during the peak flightless period (August) over seven years. Hypothesis-based habitat attributes included percent open water, open water:emergent edge density, water depth, percent flooded bare substrate, fetch (distance wind can travel unobstructed), group size, and several interactions representing functional responses to interannual variation in water levels. Surveys of uniquely marked females were conducted within randomly ordered survey blocks. We fitted two-part generalized linear mixed-effects models to counts of marked females within survey blocks, which allowed us to relate habitat attributes to relative probability of occurrence and, given the presence of a marked female, abundance of marked individuals. Postbreeding female scaup selected areas with water depths > 40 cm, large open areas, and intermediate edge densities but showed no relation to flooded bare substrate, suggesting their habitat preferences were more influenced by avoiding predation risks and disturbances than in meeting foraging needs. Grouping behavior by postbreeding scaup suggests habitat selection is influenced in part by behavioral components and/or social information, conferring energetic and survival benefits (predation and disturbance risks) but potentially also contributing to competition for food resources. This study demonstrates the importance of

  6. New drugs in general practice: prescribing patterns and external influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florentinus, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis several studies are presented with the objective to detect and elucidate the patterns by which new drugs are prescribed by general practitioners (GPs). Furthermore, we studied the influences of medical specialists and community pharmacists as important factors on the GP's decision to

  7. Identification of external influences on temperatures in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfils, C; Duffy, P; Santer, B; Wigley, T; Lobell, D; Phillips, T; Doutriaux, C

    2006-06-01

    We use eight different observational datasets to estimate California-average temperature trends over 1950-1999. Observed results are compared to trends from a suite of control simulations of natural internal climate variability. Observed increases in annual-mean surface temperature are distinguishable from climate noise in some but not all observational datasets. The most robust results are large positive trends in mean and maximum daily temperatures in late winter/early spring, as well as increases in minimum daily temperatures from January to September. These trends are inconsistent with model-based estimates of natural internal climate variability, and thus require one or more external forcing agents to be explained. Our results suggest that the warming of Californian winters over the second half of the twentieth century is associated with human-induced changes in large-scale atmospheric circulation. We also hypothesize that the lack of a detectable increase in summertime maximum temperature arises from a cooling associated with large-scale irrigation. This cooling may have, until now, counteracted the warming induced by increasing greenhouse gases and urbanization effects.

  8. 共变信息的程度差异对归因的影响%The Influences of Extents' Differences of Covariation Information on Attributions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马伟军

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the influences of extents' differences of one self-relevant covariation information on attributions with two experiments.The study has four purposes:Firstly,to test the patterns that people attribute one kind of covariation information in causal dimensions;Secondly,to discuss the attributions in causal dimensions when the extent of covariation information is not given or unclear; Thirdly,to examine Self-serving Attributional Bias in 4 causal dimensions;and finally,to clarify the influences of extents' differences of one kind of covariation information on Self-serving Attributional Bias. In Experiment 1,the subjects read and imagined some situations with their own good or bad outcome and one relevant consensus information,of which the extents(high vs.low vs.uncertain vs.none) were manipulated,and made attributions in 4 causal dimensions. The results showed that high/low consensus was attributed to external/internal cause respectively,and in the conditions that consensus information was not given or unclear the attributions located between internal and external cause.Moreover,Self-serving attributional bias showed up in 4 causal dimensions,and the extents' differences of consensus information did not interference with Self-serving attributional bias significantly.Otherwise,Self-serving Attributional Bias disappeared in the controllability dimension when consensus was high. Experiment 2 used the same method as Experiment 1,but distinctiveness information was given.Experiment 2 basically reproduced the results of Experiment 1.The results showed that high/low distinctiveness was attributed not only to external/internal cause respectively, but also to special/general cause respectively.In the conditions that distinctiveness information was lacking or unclear,the attributions ilocated between internal and external cause,and between special and general cause as well.Moreover,Self-serving Attributional bias showed up in 4 causal dimensions

  9. The relationship between the genetic and environmental influences on common externalizing psychopathology and mental wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Myers, John M; Keyes, Corey L M

    2011-12-01

    To determine the relationship between the genetic and environmental risk factors for externalizing psychopathology and mental wellbeing, we examined detailed measures of emotional, social and psychological wellbeing, and a history of alcohol-related problems and smoking behavior in the last year in 1,386 individual twins from same-sex pairs from the MIDUS national US sample assessed in 1995. Cholesky decomposition analyses were performed withthe Mx program. The best fit model contained one highly heritable common externalizing psychopathology factor for both substance use/abuse measures, and one strongly heritable common factor for the three wellbeing measures. Genetic and environmental risk factors for externalizing psychopathology were both negatively associated with levels of mental wellbeing and accounted for, respectively, 7% and 21% of its genetic and environmental influences. Adding internalizing psychopathology assessed in the last year to the model, genetic risk factors unique for externalizing psychopathology were now positively related to levels of mental wellbeing, although accounting for only 5% of the genetic variance. Environmental risk factors unique to externalizing psychopathology continued to be negatively associated with mental wellbeing, accounting for 26% of the environmental variance. When both internalizing psychopathology and externalizing psychopathology are associated with mental wellbeing, the strongest risk factors for low mental wellbeing are genetic factors that impact on both internalizing psychopathology and externalizing psychopathology, and environmental factors unique to externalizing psychopathology. In this model, genetic risk factors for externalizing psychopathology predict, albeit weakly, higher levels of mental wellbeing.

  10. How leadership attributes influence employee loyalty in the aerospace industry: An exploratory qualitative inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Marriel

    The influence leaders have on employee loyalty in the aerospace industry was examined through exploratory, qualitative inquiry. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted to ascertain the influence of six leadership attributes on loyalty. These specific leadership attributes were addressed based on key themes from the scholarly leadership research and included communication, trust, accountability, understanding, compassion, and recognition. Data were analyzed to identify common themes and patterns among the 21 study participants. Based on the study findings, the majority of participants expressed that they want leaders to communicate--and to do so often and concisely. Participants also voiced that communication was a central component in resolving many of the problems associated with loyalty, such as clarity of direction or sense of inclusion in the organization. The central themes derived from the research include the following: (a) employee loyalty no longer exists when organizational leadership fails to challenge or empower employees or create an opportunity for growth, (b) effective leaders inspire employees by sharing the vision of an organization and including employees in the decision-making process, and (c) organizational culture, values, and effective leadership play an integral role in employee loyalty and long-term commitment to the organization.

  11. Detecting an external influence on recent changes in oceanic oxygen using an optimal fingerprinting method

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, O. D.; Bindoff, N. L.; P. R. Halloran; Ilyina, T.; Quéré, C.

    2013-01-01

    Ocean deoxygenation has been observed in all major ocean basins over the past 50 yr. Although this signal is largely consistent with oxygen changes expected from anthropogenic climate change, the contribution of external forcing to recent deoxygenation trends relative to natural internal variability is yet to be established. Here we conduct a formal optimal fingerprinting analysis to investigate if external forcing has had a detectable influence on observed dissolved oxygen ...

  12. Detecting an external influence on recent changes in oceanic oxygen using an optimal fingerprinting method

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, O. D.; Bindoff, N. L.; P. R. Halloran; Ilyina, T.; Le Quéré, C.

    2012-01-01

    Ocean deoxygenation has been observed in all major ocean basins over the past 50 yr. Although this signal is largely consistent with oxygen changes expected from anthropogenic climate change, the contribution of external forcing to recent deoxygenation trends relative to natural internal variability is yet to be established. Here we conduct a formal optimal fingerprinting analysis to investigate if external forcing has had a detectable influence on observed dissolved oxygen concentration ([O&...

  13. Influence of External Magnetic Field on Anomalous Skin Effects in Inductively Coupled Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Ming; WANG You-Nian

    2004-01-01

    @@ Using a one-dimensional slab model, we study the influence of the external static magnetic field on the anomalous skin effects in the inductively coupled plasma. The rf electromagnetic field in the plasma is determined by solving the linearized Boltzmann equation incorporating with the Maxwell equations. The numerical results show that,due to the existence of the external magnetic field, the anomalous skin effects are greatly enhanced and the number of regions with negative absorption is decreased.

  14. Influence of attitudes, impulsivity, and parental styles in adolescents' externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Barbero, José A; Ruiz-Hernández, José A; Llor-Esteban, Bartolomé; Waschgler, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    Diverse works have associated externalizing problem behavior with impulsivity, parental styles, and attitudes toward violence. The aim of this study is to analyze the association between these variables and externalizing behavior. A cross-sectional correlational design was used with a sample of 252 adolescents, aged between 12 and 15 years, from the general population. The results obtained indicate a significant association of externalization with high impulsivity, ingrained attitudes toward violence, and inconsistent parental styles, as well as gender and age differences. These results are discussed in relation with the influence of gender stereotypes and their implications in the development of attitudes toward violence.

  15. Satisfaction with Online Commercial Group Chat: The Influence of Perceived Technology Attributes, Chat Group Characteristics, and Advisor Communication Style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dolen, W.M.; Dabholkar, P.A.; de Ruyter, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines online commercial group chat from a structuration theory perspective. The findings support the influence of perceived technology attributes (control, enjoyment, reliability, speed, and ease of use) and chat group characteristics (group involvement, similarity, and receptivity) on

  16. Genetic and environmental influences underlying externalizing behaviors, cigarette smoking and illicit drug use across adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Tellervo; Latvala, Antti; Dick, Danielle M; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Huizink, Anja C

    2012-07-01

    We investigated genetic and environmental influences common to adolescent externalizing behavior (at age 12), smoking (at age 14) and initiation of drug use (at age 17) using the FinnTwin12 cohort data. Multivariate Cholesky models were fit to data from 737 monozygotic and 722 dizygotic twin pairs. Heritability of externalizing behavior was 56%, that of smoking initiation/amount 20/32%, and initiation of drug use 27%. In the best-fitting model common environmental influences explained most of the covariance between externalizing behavior and smoking initiation (69%) and amount (77%). Covariance between smoking initiation/amount and drug use was due to additive genetic (42/22%) and common environmental (58/78%) influences. Half of the covariance between externalizing behavior and drug use was due to shared genetic and half due to the environments shared by co-twins. Using a longitudinal, prospective design, our results indicate that early observed externalizing behavior provides significant underlying genetic and environmental influences common to later substance use, here manifested as initiation of drug use in late adolescence.

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF THEME AS SLOT MACHINE ATTRIBUTE ON CASINO GAMERS DECISION-MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizma Wannenburg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When entering the casino gaming area, gamers are faced with hundreds of slot machines that vary in terms of themes, colours and sounds. Some gaming situations are characterized by low gamer involvement, but with considerable brand differences. Gamers visiting a casino have the option to play on various types of slot machines. Slot machine games range from single-bar to triple-bar combinations that range in themes and symbols. Some gamers prefer to play on the same slot machine game each time they visit the casino; while other gamers often do slot machine switching. The hypothesis set for this study was to determine if any differences exist between male and female slot machine gamers regarding the way they perceive theme as a slot machine attribute. The sample population identified consists of slot machine gamers busy playing at a specific slot machine in the gaming area of the casino. Cluster sampling was used in the selection of the six South African casinos. A total of six hundred and thirty structured questionnaires were obtained through personal interviews in the gaming areas of the casinos. The raw data collected were statistically analysed on the SPSS program. The main findings of the research indicated that no significant differences exist between male and female slot machine gamers regarding the way they perceive theme as a slot machine attribute. The findings of this study could assist the casino management and slot machine manufacturers in understanding how themes as slot machine attributes influence gamers. By understanding the importance of themes for slot machine gamers can assist casino management and slot machine manufacturers in the development of new slot machines.

  18. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON CERTAIN BIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF A LADYBEETLE COCCINELLA SEPTEMPUNCTA TA LINNAEUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShefaliSrivastava; Dmkar

    2003-01-01

    Influence of temperature on certain biological attributes of an aphidophagous ladybeetle, Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus, feeding on mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), at five different temperatures, viz. 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35℃ was investigated. Its developmental period was shortest (11.7±0.09days) at 35℃ and longest (20.6±0.35 days) at 20℃. Developmental rate increased with increase in temperature. Hatching percent, larval survival, adult emergence and growth index were maximum at 30℃ and minimumat 20℃. Oviposition period and fecundity were highest at 30℃ and lowest at 20℃. A positive linear relationship exists between temperature and developmental rate and negative correlation between the duration of immature life stages and temperature. The proportion of developmental period allocated to each immature stage was found to be similar at each temperature regime. Thus, 30℃ was found as the most suitable for C. septempunctata amongst the five temperatures tested.

  19. Influence of External Magnetic Fields on Tunneling of Spin-1 Bose Condensate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhao-Xian; JIAO Zhi-Yong; SUN Jin-Zuo

    2005-01-01

    In this letter, we have studied the influence of the external magnetic fields on tunneling of the spin-1 Bose condensate. We find that the population transfer between spin-0 and spin-±1 exhibits the step structure under the external cosinusoidal magnetic field and a combination of static and cosinusoidal one, respectively. Compared with the longitudinal component of the external magnetic field, the smaller the transverse component of the magnetic field is, the larger the time scale of exhibiting the step structure does. The tunneling current may exhibit periodically oscillation behavior when the ratio of the transverse component of the magnetic field is smaller than that of the longitudinal component, otherwise it exhibits a damply oscillating behavior. This means that the dynamical spin localization can be adjusted by the external magnetic fields.

  20. Influence of Disassociation Probability on External Quantum Efficiency in Organic Electrophosphorescent Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-hua; OU YANG Jun; LI Xue-yong; LI Hong-jian

    2007-01-01

    An analytical model is presented to calculate the disassociation probability and the external quantum efficiency at high field in doped organic electrophosphorescence(EPH) devices. The charge recombination process and the triplet(T)-triplet(T) annihilation processes are taken into account in this model. The influences of applied voltage and the thickness of the device on the disassociation probability, and of current density and the thickness of the device on the external quantum efficiency are studied thoroughly by including and ignoring the disassociation of excitons. It is found that the dissociation probability of excitons will come close to 1 at high electric field, and the external EPH quantum efficiency is almost the same at low electric field. There is a large discrepancy of the external EPH quantum efficiency at high electric field for including or ignoring the disassociation of excitons.

  1. Relationship of External Influence to Parental Distress in Decision Making Regarding Children with a Life-Threatening Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Victoria A.; Luce, Mary Frances; Nelson, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship of external influence to parental distress when making a decision about research or treatment for a child with a life-threatening illness and to test potential moderators of this relationship. Methods Parents (n = 219) who made a decision about research or treatment for a child completed measures of external influence, distress, decision-making preference, and coping. Results More external influence was associated with more hostility, uncertainty, and con...

  2. Pubertal Timing and Mexican-Origin Girls' Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms: The Influence of Harsh Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, Julianna; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A.; White, Rebecca M. B.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Wong, Jessie J.; Roosa, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Early-maturing girls are at risk for internalizing and externalizing problems. Research concerning pubertal timing and mental health among Mexican Americans or the influence of parenting behaviors on these relations has been scarce. This study addressed these gaps. This was a prospective examination of 362 Mexican-origin girls and their mothers in…

  3. Influences of external factors on the energy conversion and productivity of Scenedesmus sp. in mass culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselius, J.C.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments about the influence of external factors on the energy conversion in mass cultures of Scenedesmus are described in this thesis. Several types of culture vessels were used in the laboratory as well as in the open. Demonstration models of Miele washing machines with a volume of 50 l were us

  4. A longitudinal investigation of maternal influences on the development of child hostile attributions and aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Healy, Sarah J.; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter J; Hughes, Claire; Halligan, Sarah L

    2013-01-01

    Aggression in children is associated with an enhanced tendency to attribute hostile intentions to others. However, limited information is available regarding the factors that contribute to the development of such hostile attribution tendencies. We examined factors that contribute to individual differences in child hostile attributions and aggression, focusing on potential pathways from maternal hostile attributions via negative parenting behavior. We conducted a longitudinal study of 98 mothe...

  5. Quality attributes of sweet potato flour as influenced by variety, pretreatment and drying method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunde, Ganiyat O; Henshaw, Folake O; Idowu, Michael A; Tomlins, Keith

    2016-07-01

    The effect of pretreatment methods (soaking in water, potassium metabisulphite solution, and blanching) and drying methods (sun and oven) on some quality attributes of flour from ten varieties of sweet potato roots were investigated. The quality attributes determined were chemical composition and functional properties. Data obtained were subjected to descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis of variance, and Pearson's correlation. The range of values for properties of sweet potato flour were: moisture (8.06-12.86 ± 1.13%), starch (55.76-83.65 ± 6.82%), amylose (10.06-21.26 ± 3.92%), total sugar (22.39-125.46 ± 24.68 μg/mg), water absorption capacity (140-280 ± 26), water solubility (6.89-26.18 ± 3.80), swelling power (1.66-5.00 ± 0.50), peak viscosity (24.50-260.92 ± 52.61 RVU), trough (7.08-145.83 ± 34.48 RVU), breakdown viscosity (11.00-125.33 RVU), final viscosity (10.21-225.50 ± 60.55 RVU), setback viscosity (3.04-92.21 RVU), peak time (6.07-9.06 min) and pasting temperature (69.8-81.3°C). Variety had a significant (P  0.05) affect moisture, fat and lightness (L*). Drying method did not significantly (P > 0.05) affect fiber and L*. The interactive effect of variety, pretreatment and drying method had a significant (P fiber. Total sugar correlated significantly (P < 0.01) with water solubility (r = 0.88) of the flour samples. Variety was a dominant factor influencing attributes of sweet potato flour and so should be targeted at specific end uses.

  6. Influence of external circulation on sludge characteristics during start-up of internal circulation reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Jian-nan; WANG Dian-zuo

    2005-01-01

    The start-up of external circulation-added internal circulation(IC) reactor was finished in 26 d, 32 d fewer than that of IC reactor. To evaluate the influence of the added external circulation on the development of granular sludge, the characteristics of the granular sludge taken from the two tested laboratory-scale reactors during start-up were studied. The results show that the added external circulation can enhance biomass granulation, accelerate granule development and improve sludge characteristics. At the end of start-up, the granular size of sludge in external circulation-added IC reactor greatly increases with a size distribution much better than that of sludge in IC reactor. The granular sludge originated from external circulation-added IC reactor contains more extracellular polymers and has a greater settling velocity than that from IC reactor. Methanogenic activity of the granular sludge from the external circulation-added IC reactor started 26 d ago reaches 358.23 mL·g-1·d-1, 1.66 and 1.20 times as great as that of the sludge from the IC reactor started 26 d and 58 d ago respectively.

  7. Influence of brand personality-marker attributes on purchasing intention: the role of emotionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Gianluigi; Peluso, Alessandro M; Provenzano, Mariarosaria

    2010-06-01

    Marketing researchers employ the Five-Factor Model to describe branded products using attributes of human personality. "Marker attributes" used to elicit these brand personality attributes may be related to consumers' intention to purchase. Two connected studies, carried out on two samples of 91 and 557 participants, respectively, indicated that brand personality-marker attributes predict intention to purchase, but only to the extent that such attributes are "vivid" and, in particular, when they elicit emotional responses (i.e., when they are emotionally interesting). These findings have several implications for people involved in developing strategies for advertising.

  8. Influence of modified atmosphere and ethylene levels on quality attributes of fresh tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Irene; Lafuente, María T; Hernández-Muñoz, Pilar; Gavara, Rafael

    2016-10-15

    Controlling storage atmosphere is a key factor for delaying postharvest fruit quality loss. The objective of this study is to evaluate its influence on physico-chemical, sensorial and nutritional quality attributes of two tomato fruit cultivars (Delizia and Pitenza) that respectively have a short- and long-storage life. To that end, the effect of two types of bags with different gas permeability, combined or not with an ethylene sorbent, on tomato organoleptic and nutritional properties were compared during fruit storage at 13°C. CO2 and O2 were critical factors for controlling tomato postharvest behaviour. Weight loss, firmness, color and visual quality were only affected by bag permeability just as total sugar content and acidity for Pitenza tomatoes. (trans)-2-Hexenal also appears to be related with CO2 and O2 levels. Lycopene, total phenols (TP) and ascorbic acid (AA) contents were also affected by the packaging form and the storage length. Ethylene removal in combination with MAP led to a higher content in TP and AA in the short-life tomato cultivar.

  9. How events determine spreading patterns: information transmission via internal and external influences on social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuang; Zhan, Xiu-Xiu; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Sun, Gui-Quan; Hui, Pak Ming

    2015-11-01

    Recently, information transmission models motivated by the classical epidemic propagation, have been applied to a wide-range of social systems, generally assume that information mainly transmits among individuals via peer-to-peer interactions on social networks. In this paper, we consider one more approach for users to get information: the out-of-social-network influence. Empirical analyzes of eight typical events’ diffusion on a very large micro-blogging system, Sina Weibo, show that the external influence has significant impact on information spreading along with social activities. In addition, we propose a theoretical model to interpret the spreading process via both internal and external channels, considering three essential properties: (i) memory effect; (ii) role of spreaders; and (iii) non-redundancy of contacts. Experimental and mathematical results indicate that the information indeed spreads much quicker and broader with mutual effects of the internal and external influences. More importantly, the present model reveals that the event characteristic would highly determine the essential spreading patterns once the network structure is established. The results may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the underlying dynamics of information transmission on real social networks.

  10. The concept of attributes and preventions of the variables that influence the pipeline risk in the Muhlbauer Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, Alexandro G. [Universidade Federal do Pampa (UNIPAMPA), Bage, RS (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    There are several methods for the risk assessment and risk management applied to pipelines, among them the Muhlbauer's Method. Muhlbauer is an internationally recognized authority on pipeline risk management. The purpose of this model is to evaluate the public exposure to the risk and identify ways for management that risk in fact. The assessment is made by the attribution of quantitative values to the several items that influences in the pipeline risk. Because the ultimate goal of the risk assessment is to provide a means of risk management, it is sometimes useful to make a distinction between two types of risk variables. The risk evaluator can categorize each index risk variable as either an attribute or a prevention. This paper approaches the subject of the definition of attributes and preventions in the Muhlbauer basic model of risk assessment and also presents a classification of the variables that influence the risk in agreement with those two categories. (author)

  11. Apples or candy? Internal and external influences on children's food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Amanda S; Lim, Seung-Lark; Smith, Timothy Ryan; Cherry, J Bradley C; Black, William R; Davis, Ann M; Bruce, Jared M

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this concise narrative review is to examine the current literature regarding endogenous and exogenous influences on youth food choices. Specifically, we discuss internal factors such as interoception (self-awareness) of pain and hunger, and neural mechanisms (neurofunctional aspects) of food motivation. We also explore external factors such as early life feeding experiences (including parenting), social influences (peers), and food marketing (advertising). We conclude with a discussion of the overlap of these realms and future directions for the field of pediatric food decision science.

  12. Influence of the external component on the damage of the bipolar transistor induced by the electromagnetic pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi Xiaowen; Chai Changchun; Ren Xingrong; Yang Yintang; Ma Zhenyang; Wang Jing, E-mail: xixiaowen523103@163.co [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2010-07-15

    A study on the influence of the external resistor and the external voltage source during the injection of the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) into the bipolar transistor (BJT) is carried out. Research shows that the increase of the external resistor R{sub b} at base makes the burnout time of the device decrease slightly, the increase of the external voltage source V{sub be} at base can aid the damage of the device when the magnitude of the injecting voltage is relatively low and has little influence when the magnitude is sufficiently high causing the device appearing the PIN structure damage, and the increase of the external resistor R{sub e} can remarkably reduce the voltage drops added to the device and improve the durability of the device. In the final analysis, the effect of the external circuit component on the BJT damage is the influence on the condition which makes the device appear current-mode second breakdown.

  13. Influence of the external component on the damage of the bipolar transistor induced by the electromagnetic pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaowen, Xi; Changchun, Chai; Xingrong, Ren; Yintang, Yang; Zhenyang, Ma; Jing, Wang

    2010-07-01

    A study on the influence of the external resistor and the external voltage source during the injection of the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) into the bipolar transistor (BJT) is carried out. Research shows that the increase of the external resistor Rb at base makes the burnout time of the device decrease slightly, the increase of the external voltage source Vbe at base can aid the damage of the device when the magnitude of the injecting voltage is relatively low and has little influence when the magnitude is sufficiently high causing the device appearing the PIN structure damage, and the increase of the external resistor Re can remarkably reduce the voltage drops added to the device and improve the durability of the device. In the final analysis, the effect of the external circuit component on the BJT damage is the influence on the condition which makes the device appear current-mode second breakdown.

  14. The Influence of Gender Ideology, Victim Resistance, and Spiking a Drink on Acquaintance Rape Attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, D J; Mitchell, Damon; Smith, Danielle

    2016-02-24

    The current study examined observer's attributions about the victim and perpetrator of an alleged acquaintance rape. Participants included 504 college students from a public university in the northeastern United States who read a brief crime report and completed a series of questionnaires for course credit. While men tended to attribute more blame to the victim than women, gender ideology emerged as a stronger predictor of rape attributions, and some types of sexist beliefs were associated with greater victim blaming and others with less victim blaming. Endorsement of hostile sexism, rape myths, and heterosexual intimacy was generally associated with the attribution of greater victim culpability, as well as less perpetrator culpability, perpetrator criminality, and victim credibility. However, complementary gender differentiation was associated with greater perpetrator culpability and criminality, while protective paternalism was associated with greater victim credibility. Observers attributed lower victim culpability and greater perpetrator criminality when the victim's drink was spiked, and attributed greater perpetrator culpability when the victim verbally resisted the perpetrator's advances. Given the implications that observer attitudes can have on professional and personal support for survivors, as well as juror decision making, the ongoing examination of the complex interplay between the person and situational factors affecting attributions of rape is essential. Sexual assault prevention programs may also benefit from a psychoeducational component that targets reducing traditional gender ideology.

  15. The influence of causal attribution of parents on developing the child enuresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerković Ivan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Causal attributions are affirmed as a cognitive element able to explain emotional and motivational aspects of behaviour of some categories of adult psychiatric patients, primarily depressive ones. Theoretical and practical success of cognitive ideas in explaining the origination of depressive disorders, and in the monitoring of depressive patient treatment has led to further development of theory, but also to the attempt to apply the learning about causal attributions to various problems. Characteristic attempts are those that the problems of child abuse, children’s depression, upbringing problems, school failure, hyperactivity, enuresis, and long-term effects of different child treatment, too, are analysed from the point of view of causal attributions. By assessing parent causal attributions regarding child night urination, we wanted to establish to what extent specific attributions for child behaviour differentiate the parents of children having this problem from those parents whose children have established control. Parents were assessed in terms of four dimensions of causal attributions for child’s problem. Those are the dimensions of globality, counter-lability, internality, and the stability of the cause of child’s problem. The analysis of parent causal attributions show that mothers and fathers in both assessed groups similarly experience the cause of enuretic problems of their children. Enuresis is seen as caused by specific, internal, and instable causes. Such a system of dimensions could correspond to the belief that the main etiological factor of the enuresis is maturing. For more reliable verification of this attitude, longitudinal strategy in research is necessary, especially to comprehend whether parental attributions have been developed as an effect of persistent enuresis, or whether the enuresis is developed as an effect of parental attributions.

  16. Detecting an external influence on recent changes in oceanic oxygen using an optimal fingerprinting method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Andrews

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocean deoxygenation has been observed in all major ocean basins over the past 50 yr. Although this signal is largely consistent with oxygen changes expected from anthropogenic climate change, the contribution of external forcing to recent deoxygenation trends relative to natural internal variability is yet to be established. Here we conduct a formal optimal fingerprinting analysis to investigate if external forcing has had a detectable influence on observed dissolved oxygen concentration ([O2] changes between ~ 1970 and ~ 1992 using simulations from two Earth System Models (MPI-ESM-LR and HadGEM2-ES. We detect a response to external forcing at a 90% confidence level and find that observed [O2] changes are inconsistent with internal variability as simulated by models. This result is robust in the global ocean for depth-averaged (1-D zonal mean patterns of [O2] change in both models. Further analysis with the MPI-ESM-LR model shows similar positive detection results for depth-resolved (2-D zonal mean [O2] changes globally and for the Pacific Ocean individually. Observed oxygen changes in the Atlantic Ocean are indistinguishable from natural internal variability. Simulations from both models consistently underestimate the amplitude of historical [O2] changes in response to external forcing, suggesting that model projections for future ocean deoxygenation may also be underestimated.

  17. Detecting an external influence on recent changes in oceanic oxygen using an optimal fingerprinting method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Andrews

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean deoxygenation has been observed in all major ocean basins over the past 50 yr. Although this signal is largely consistent with oxygen changes expected from anthropogenic climate change, the contribution of external forcing to recent deoxygenation trends relative to natural internal variability is yet to be established. Here we conduct a formal optimal fingerprinting analysis to investigate if external forcing has had a detectable influence on observed dissolved oxygen concentration ([O2] changes between ∼1970 and ∼1992 using simulations from two Earth System Models (MPI-ESM-LR and HadGEM2-ES. We detect a response to external forcing at a 90% confidence level and find that observed [O2] changes are inconsistent with internal variability as simulated by models. This result is robust in the global ocean for depth-averaged (1-D zonal mean patterns of [O2] change in both models. Further analysis with the MPI-ESM-LR model shows similar positive detection results for depth-resolved (2-D zonal mean [O2] changes globally and for the Pacific Ocean individually. Observed oxygen changes in the Atlantic Ocean are indistinguishable from natural internal variability. Simulations from both models consistently underestimate the amplitude of historical [O2] changes in response to external forcing, suggesting that model projections for future ocean deoxygenation may also be underestimated.

  18. Influence of External Pressure on the Performance of Quantum Dot Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehoon; Jeong, Byeong Guk; Roh, Heebum; Song, Jiyun; Park, Myeongjin; Lee, Doh C; Bae, Wan Ki; Lee, Changhee

    2016-09-14

    We report the influence of post-treatment via the external pressure on the device performance of quantum dot (QD) solar cells. The structural analysis together with optical and electrical characterization on QD solids reveal that the external pressure compacts QD active layers by removing the mesoscopic voids and enhances the charge carrier transport along QD solids, leading to significant increase in JSC of QD solar cells. Increasing the external pressure, by contrast, accompanies reduction in FF and VOC, yielding the trade-off relationship among JSC and FF and VOC in PCE of devices. Optimization at the external pressure in the present study at 1.4-1.6 MPa enables us to achieve over 10% increase in PCE of QD solar cells. The approach and results show that the control over the organization of QDs is the key for the charge transport properties in ensemble and also offer simple yet effective mean to enhance the electrical performance of transistors and solar cells using QDs.

  19. Detecting an external influence on recent changes in oceanic oxygen using an optimal fingerprinting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, O. D.; Bindoff, N. L.; Halloran, P. R.; Ilyina, T.; Le Quéré, C.

    2013-03-01

    Ocean deoxygenation has been observed in all major ocean basins over the past 50 yr. Although this signal is largely consistent with oxygen changes expected from anthropogenic climate change, the contribution of external forcing to recent deoxygenation trends relative to natural internal variability is yet to be established. Here we conduct a formal optimal fingerprinting analysis to investigate if external forcing has had a detectable influence on observed dissolved oxygen concentration ([O2]) changes between ∼1970 and ∼1992 using simulations from two Earth System Models (MPI-ESM-LR and HadGEM2-ES). We detect a response to external forcing at a 90% confidence level and find that observed [O2] changes are inconsistent with internal variability as simulated by models. This result is robust in the global ocean for depth-averaged (1-D) zonal mean patterns of [O2] change in both models. Further analysis with the MPI-ESM-LR model shows similar positive detection results for depth-resolved (2-D) zonal mean [O2] changes globally and for the Pacific Ocean individually. Observed oxygen changes in the Atlantic Ocean are indistinguishable from natural internal variability. Simulations from both models consistently underestimate the amplitude of historical [O2] changes in response to external forcing, suggesting that model projections for future ocean deoxygenation may also be underestimated.

  20. Model for external influences on cellular signal transduction pathways including cytosolic calcium oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichwald, C.; Kaiser, F. [Technical Univ. of Darmstadt (Germany)

    1995-06-01

    Experiments on the effects of extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields on cells of the immune system, T-lymphocytes in particular, suggest that the external field interacts with the cell at the level of intracellular signal transduction pathways. These are directly connected with changes in the calcium-signaling processes of the cell. Based on these findings, a theoretical model for receptor-controlled cytosolic calcium oscillations and for external influences on the signal transduction pathway is presented. The authors discuss the possibility that the external field acts on the kinetics of the signal transduction between the activated receptors at the cell membrane and the G-proteins. It is shown that, depending on the specific combination of cell internal biochemical and external physical parameters, entirely different responses of the cell can occur. The authors compare the effects of a coherent (periodic) modulation and of incoherent perturbations (noise). The model and the calculations are based on the theory of self-sustained, nonlinear oscillators. It is argued that these systems form an ideal basis for information-encoding processes in biological systems.

  1. Just-About-Right and ideal scaling provide similar insights into the influence of sensory attributes on liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bangde; Hayes, John E; Ziegler, Gregory R

    2014-10-01

    Just-about-right (JAR) scaling is criticized for measuring attribute intensity and acceptability simultaneously. Using JAR scaling, an attribute is evaluated for its appropriateness relative to one's hypothetical ideal level that is pre-defined at the middle of a continuum. Alternatively, ideal scaling measures these two constructs separately. Ideal scaling allows participants to rate their ideal freely on the scale (i.e., without assuming the "Too Little" and "Too Much" regions are equal in size). We hypothesized that constraining participants' ideal to the center point, as is done in the JAR scale, may cause a scaling bias and, thereby, influence the magnitude of "Too Little" and "Too Much". Furthermore, we hypothesized that the magnitude of "Too Little" and "Too Much" would influence liking to different extents. Coffee-flavored dairy beverages (n=20) were formulated using a fractional, constrained-mixture design that varied the ratio of water, milk, coffee extract, and sucrose. Participants tasted 4 of 20 prototypes that were served in a monadic sequential order using a balanced incomplete block design. Data reported here are for participants randomly assigned to one of two research conditions: ideal scaling (n=129) or JAR scaling (n=132). For both conditions, participants rated overall liking using a 9-point hedonic scale. Four attributes (sweetness, milk flavor, coffee flavor and thickness) were evaluated. The reliability of an individual participant's ideal rating for an attribute was evaluated using the standard deviation of their ideal ratings (n=4). All data from a participant were eliminated from further analyses when his/her standard deviation of the ideal ratings for any of the four rated attributes was identified as a statistical outlier. This resulted in the elimination of 15 of 129 (12 %) of participants in the ideal scaling group. Multiple linear regression was employed to model liking as a function of "Too Little" or "Too Much" attribute

  2. Combined Influences of Genes, Prenatal Environment, Cortisol, and Parenting on the Development of Children's Internalizing Versus Externalizing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Fisher, Philip A; Leve, Leslie D

    2015-05-01

    Research suggests that genetic, prenatal, endocrine, and parenting influences across development individually contribute to internalizing and externalizing problems in children. The present study tests the combined contributions of genetic risk for psychopathology, prenatal environments (maternal drug use and internalizing symptoms), child cortisol at age 4.5 years, and overreactive parenting influences across childhood on 6-year-old children's internalizing and externalizing problems. We used data from an adoption design that included 361 domestically adopted children and their biological and adopted parents prospectively followed from birth. Only parenting influences contributed (independently) to externalizing problems. However, genetic influences were indirectly associated with internalizing problems (through increased prenatal risk and subsequent morning cortisol), and parenting factors were both directly and indirectly associated with internalizing problems (through morning cortisol). Results suggest that prenatal maternal drug use/symptoms and children's morning cortisol levels are mechanisms of genetic and environmental influences on internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems, in childhood.

  3. Quantification of the influence of external vibrations on the measurement error of a Coriolis mass-flow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, van de L.; Hakvoort, W.B.J.; Dijk, van J.; Lötters, J.C.; Boer, de A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the influence of external vibrations on the measurement value of a Coriolis mass-flow meter (CMFM) for low flows is investigated and quantified. Model results are compared with experimental results to improve the knowledge on how external vibrations affect the mass-flow measurement val

  4. Influence of raw material properties upon critical quality attributes of continuously produced granules and tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonteyne, Margot; Wickström, Henrika; Peeters, Elisabeth;

    2014-01-01

    over a range of raw material attributes, manufacturing process options and process parameters. This fits further into the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Quality by Design (QbD) framework. The present study evaluates the effect of variation in critical raw material properties on the critical...

  5. Is Agency Skin Deep? Surface Attributes Influence Infants' Sensitivity to Goal-Directed Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Jose J.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2004-01-01

    Three studies investigated the role of surface attributes in infants' identification of agents, using a habituation paradigm designed to tap infants' interpretation of grasping as goal directed (Woodward, 1998). When they viewed a bare human hand grasping objects, 7- and 12-month-old infants focused on the relation between the hand and its goal.…

  6. Quantifying the effect of interannual ocean variability on the attribution of extreme climate events to human influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Mark D.; Stone, Dáithí A.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Wehner, Michael F.; Angélil, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the climate change research community has become highly interested in describing the anthropogenic influence on extreme weather events, commonly termed "event attribution." Limitations in the observational record and in computational resources motivate the use of uncoupled, atmosphere/land-only climate models with prescribed ocean conditions run over a short period, leading up to and including an event of interest. In this approach, large ensembles of high-resolution simulations can be generated under factual observed conditions and counterfactual conditions that might have been observed in the absence of human interference; these can be used to estimate the change in probability of the given event due to anthropogenic influence. However, using a prescribed ocean state ignores the possibility that estimates of attributable risk might be a function of the ocean state. Thus, the uncertainty in attributable risk is likely underestimated, implying an over-confidence in anthropogenic influence. In this work, we estimate the year-to-year variability in calculations of the anthropogenic contribution to extreme weather based on large ensembles of atmospheric model simulations. Our results both quantify the magnitude of year-to-year variability and categorize the degree to which conclusions of attributable risk are qualitatively affected. The methodology is illustrated by exploring extreme temperature and precipitation events for the northwest coast of South America and northern-central Siberia; we also provides results for regions around the globe. While it remains preferable to perform a full multi-year analysis, the results presented here can serve as an indication of where and when attribution researchers should be concerned about the use of atmosphere-only simulations.

  7. Influence of external voltage on the reprotonated polyaniline films by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tieli; Xing, Shuangxi; Zhang, Chuanzhou; Wu, Yan; Zhao, Chun

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we reported the electrical fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra measurements on the reprotonated polyaniline (PANI) thin films. Application of external voltage reduced the intensity in FT-IR spectra and resulted in the shift of band situation. The FT-IR spectra as a function of temperature were also conducted in order to investigate the effect of Joule heating. We found that the influence of CC of phenyl units and the CC of quinoid were quite different as a function of external voltage and temperature. The current-voltage (I-V) curves of the PANI film measured in the range of 0-175 V showed that the resistance kept constant at 0-75 V while it increased from 75 to 175 V. The I-V curves confirmed the presence of Joule heating effect during 75-175 V. According to the experiment results, we concluded that external voltage could produce large average hopping energy, which allowed the charge transfer by hopping between the conducting domains during 0-75 V. The deprotonation of PANI was caused by Joule heating effect, resulting in the decreasing conductivity from 75 to 175 V.

  8. Seeing red: How perceptions of social status and worth influence hostile attributions and endorsement of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James R; Reyna, Christine

    2015-12-01

    Within social hierarchies, low social status is associated with increased vigilance, hostile expectations, and reactive aggression. We propose that societal devaluation is common across many low social status groups and produces a sense of threatened social worth. Threatened social worth may lead those of low status to be more vigilant towards social threats, thereby increasing the likelihood of hostile attributions and endorsement of aggression. Integrating theory on belongingness, social rejection, and stigma compensation, two studies test a sequential process model demonstrating that threatened social worth mediates the relationship between status, hostile attributions, and endorsement of aggression. Employing a relative status manipulation, Study 2 reveals a causal effect of status and highlights the importance of perceptions of low social status on threatened social worth. These data demonstrate the role of social worth in explaining the link between status and hostility and have implications for research in the social, health, and developmental domains.

  9. External forces influence the elastic coupling effects during cargo transport by molecular motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Florian; Keller, Corina; Klumpp, Stefan; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2015-02-01

    Cellular transport is achieved by the cooperative action of molecular motors which are elastically linked to a common cargo. When the motors pull on the cargo at the same time, they experience fluctuating elastic strain forces induced by the stepping of the other motors. These elastic coupling forces can influence the motors' stepping and unbinding behavior and thereby the ability to transport cargos. Based on a generic single motor description, we introduce a framework that explains the response of two identical molecular motors to a constant external force. In particular, we relate the single motor parameters, the coupling strength and the external load force to the dynamics of the motor pair. We derive four distinct transport regimes and determine how the crossover lines between the regimes depend on the load force. Our description of the overall cargo dynamics takes into account relaxational displacements of the cargo caused by the unbinding of one motor. For large forces and weak elastic coupling these back-shifts dominate the displacements. To develop an intuitive understanding about motor cooperativity during cargo transport, we introduce a time scale for load sharing. This time scale allows us to predict how the regulation of single motor parameters influences the cooperativity. As an example, we show that up-regulating the single motor processivity enhances load sharing of the motor pair.

  10. The External Periodic Influence Effect on the Kinetics of Metals Fragmentationduring the Severe Plastic Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Khomenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the Landau theory of phase transitions, the solids fragmentation during the process of severe plastic deformation is studied. The density of grain boundaries, dislocations and entropy are introduced for describing the defect structures appearing. This allows us to take into account the two channels of energy dissipation (thermal one and defects formation. The phase diagram that establishes the domains of realization of different limiting structures types is obtained. The interaction of several defect types on the formation of limiting structure in terms of internal energy is studied. The formation conditions for two limiting structures are found. They correspond to the mode, in which there is a mixture of different grain sizes. The kinetics of setting in the steady-state values of the defects density is investigated within the scope of the adiabatic approximation, at which the dislocations density change follows the evolution of the grain boundaries density. The external periodic influence is also analyzed. It is shown that frequency and amplitude of external influence change the system behavior.

  11. Friendship selection and friends' influence. Dynamics of networks and actor attributes in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knecht, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent friends are often found to be similar. Similarity can be caused by selection and influence processes. This book examines selection and influence processes for delinquency, school attitudes, and alcohol use in early adolescence. For selection processes, we hypothesize that adolescents whos

  12. Friendship selection and friends' influence : Dynamics of networks and actor attributes in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knecht, Andrea Beate

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent friends are often found to be similar. Similarity can be caused by selection and influence processes. This book examines selection and influence processes for delinquency, school attitudes, and alcohol use in early adolescence. For selection processes, we hypothesize that adolescents whos

  13. Body ownership causes illusory self-attribution of speaking and influences subsequent real speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banakou, Domna; Slater, Mel

    2014-12-09

    When we carry out an act, we typically attribute the action to ourselves, the sense of agency. Explanations for agency include conscious prior intention to act, followed by observation of the sensory consequences; brain activity that involves the feed-forward prediction of the consequences combined with rapid inverse motor prediction to fine-tune the action in real time; priming where there is, e.g., a prior command to perform the act; a cause (the intention to act) preceding the effect (the results of the action); and common-sense rules of attribution of physical causality satisfied. We describe an experiment where participants falsely attributed an act to themselves under conditions that apparently cannot be explained by these theories. A life-sized virtual body (VB) seen from the first-person perspective in 3D stereo, as if substituting the real body, was used to induce the illusion of ownership over the VB. Half of the 44 experimental participants experienced VB movements that were synchronous with their own movements (sync), and the other half asynchronous (async). The VB, seen in a mirror, spoke with corresponding lip movements, and for half of the participants this was accompanied by synchronous vibrotactile stimulation on the thyroid cartilage (Von) but this was not so for the other half. Participants experiencing sync misattributed the speaking to themselves and also shifted the fundamental frequency of their later utterances toward the stimulus voice. Von also contributed to these results. We show that these findings can be explained by current theories of agency, provided that the critical role of ownership over the VB is taken into account.

  14. Influences of attribution and stigma on working relationships with providers practicing Western psychiatry in the Taiwanese context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang-Pei; Wu, Hui-Ching; Huang, Chun-Jen

    2014-12-01

    This study examined influences of causal attributions of schizophrenia and perceived and internalized mental illness stigma on perceived working alliance with, and informational support received from doctors practicing Western psychiatry in the Taiwanese social-cultural context. This cross-sectional quantitative study used a non-probability, purposive sampling technique to recruit 212 Taiwanese diagnosed with schizophrenia from Taiwanese Alliance of the Mentally Ill, 4 community mental health rehabilitation centres and 2 psychiatric hospitals between July 2012 and March 2013. Linear regression models were used for analysis. The results showed that environmental attributions were positively associated with both perceived working alliance and perceived informational support, while supernatural attributions were negatively associated with perceived working alliance and perceived informational support. Perceived stigma had a negative association with perceived working alliance. The discrimination domain of internalized stigma specifically had a positive association with perceived working alliance, while the withdraw domain had a negative association with perceived informational support. Findings inform the importance of culturally sensitive practices in developing an effective working relationship. Western psychiatric care providers need to explore consumers' casual attributions of mental illness and understand the impact of stigma so that providers may successfully engage consumers in care and provide tailored illness education and information.

  15. External corrosion control of northern pipelines : influence of construction conditions on the performance of coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papavinasam, S.; Doiron, A.

    2008-09-15

    Risk management is a key consideration in the construction of northern pipelines operating in harsh environments with extreme temperature conditions and ground movement. As such, it is important to acquire information on the properties of construction materials, including the steel itself, the girth welds that are made in the field and the coating and cathodic protection (CP) that will protect the pipes from corrosion and degradation. The use of polymeric coatings and CP are standard procedures for controlling external corrosion on buried or submerged metallic piping systems. When both systems fail, the pipeline is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This paper described methodologies to evaluate both external coatings under conditions anticipated during construction of the pipelines and to simulate the influence of freeze-thaw settlements on coating. The performance of an external pipeline coating depends on the events that occur during the 5 stages of the coating lifetime, notably manufacture, application, transportation, installation and operation. This paper reported on laboratory experiments that were conducted for 0, 4, 8 and 12 months to simulate 4 months of Canadian winter conditions in which samples were exposed to temperatures as low as -45 degrees C. Cathodic disbondment, impact resistance, flexibility, peel resistance, shearing and soil adhesion were tested. Field experiments were also carried out at Devon and Norman Wells for 0, 12, 24 and 36 months to investigate impact resistance and the squeeze test. The studies showed that Canadian Standards Association (CSA) standards CSA Z662, CSA Z245.20 and CSA Z245.21 adequately cover evaluation of coatings for northern pipelines. However, the pipelines specimens should be exposed for at least 4 months in order to evaluate the effects of low temperatures. 21 refs., 10 tabs., 25 figs., 4 appendices.

  16. Packaging Attributes of Antioxidant-Rich Instant Coffee and Their Influence on the Purchase Intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinês P. Corso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to identify the most important packaging attributes for purchasing a product not currently on the Brazilian market: antioxidant-rich instant coffee, a blend of roasted coffee and green coffee. Five package types of the same brand of instant antioxidant-rich coffee marketed in different countries were evaluated through a focus group. The attributes’ glass shape, glass lid color and label, information and brand were selected for the quantitative study. The purchase intent for the packaging images was evaluated with conjoint analysis. In general, an increased purchase intent was verified for more modern packages and browner labels that indicated roasted coffee. The consumers preferred the image of green and roasted coffee beans next to the cup of coffee and valued information about the product’s differentiation (the origin, type, quantity and functions of antioxidants that was presented in the form of explanatory charts on the back of the packaging.

  17. Quantitative estimation of the influence of external vibrations on the measurement error of a coriolis mass-flow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, van de L.; Hakvoort, W.B.J.; Dijk, van J.; Lötters, J.C.; Boer, de A.; Dimitrovova, Z.; Almeida, de J.R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the quantitative influence of external vibrations on the measurement value of a Coriolis Mass-Flow Meter for low flows is investigated, with the eventual goal to reduce the influence of vibrations. Model results are compared with experimental results to improve the knowledge on how ext

  18. Influence of an external magnetic field on forced turbulence in a swirling flow of liquid metal

    CERN Document Server

    Gallet, Basile; Mordant, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    We report an experimental investigation on the influence of an external magnetic field on forced 3D turbulence of liquid gallium in a closed vessel. We observe an exponential damping of the turbulent velocity fluctuations as a function of the interaction parameter N (ratio of Lorentz force over inertial terms of the Navier-Stokes equation). The flow structures develop some anisotropy but do not become bidimensional. From a dynamical viewpoint, the damping first occurs homogeneously over the whole spectrum of frequencies. For larger values of N, a very strong additional damping occurs at the highest frequencies. However, the injected mechanical power remains independent of the applied magnetic field. The simultaneous measurement of induced magnetic field and electrical potential differences shows a very weak correlation between magnetic field and velocity fluctuations. The observed reduction of the fluctuations is in agreement with a previously proposed mechanism for the saturation of turbulent dynamos and wit...

  19. Specifics of system of external influences on the life cycle of a construction object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksanin Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a very important issue today which includes the harmonious and effective development of the system ‘man –environment’. Construction is a branch of material production, which has a significant negative impact on the world around us. It is necessary to plan and operate processes of construction at all stages of the life cycle of a building without exception, to prevent of ecological threats. The article describes the concept of ‘life cycle’ as applied to various fields of knowledge, analyzes existing in the scientific literature division of the life cycle of buildings in the periods, proposes own approach to the division of periods of the life cycle on the basis of resource-saving. The article proposes the creation of a unified organizational system for the effective management of all periods with the constituent phases and formulates the main external influences on the building life cycle.

  20. The influence of patient gender on medical and psychology students' illness attributions: experiences with a narrative technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csörsz, Ilona; Kakuk, Péter; Mills, Eszter M; Molnár, Péter; Máth, János; Csabai, Márta

    2014-05-01

    We attempted to identify whether and how the gender of the patient influences interpretations of an illness narrative. We investigated how medical and psychology undergraduates' (n = 313) views change according to the patient's gender, students' gender, and field of study. A short story about a female patient was chosen as stimulus material, and a gender-modified version with a male protagonist was created for comparison. Responses were content analyzed by qualitative and quantitative methods. The female patient elicited more detailed descriptions and somatizing attributions. The gender of students had a stronger impact on responses than their field of study.

  1. Influence of the shape on the consumers perception of the packaging attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojko Vladić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Packaging for fast moving consumer goods (FMCG demands constant attention in order to stay competitive in modern dynamic markets. FMCG consumers do not think about the purchasing product until they enter the place of purchase. This emphasizes importance of the communication in a place of purchase. Alongside promotional banners, displays and counters, packaging can be used for this purpose. While in-store promotional banners, displays and counters represent additional cost, the packaging as the integral part of the product can be used as an important marketing tool that does not add to product cost. Thus packaging becomes an important marketing tool that does not add to product cost. Marketers, distributors and researchers as well must take into consideration the complexity of consumer behaviour to achieve desired results. Alongside graphic design, material, colour, etc. packaging shape is considered as an important tool for product differentiation and promotion. Having this in mind, it is unclear why the influence of the packaging shape on the consumer remains the least examined of all packaging characteristics. The aim of this research is to understand the influence of packaging shape design on the consumer’s perception. The survey study conducted among the consumers of the fast moving consumer goods gave clear insight into the influence of packaging shape on the perception of packaging characteristics. The results can help to improve packaging shape design in order to achieve better market impact.

  2. Attribution of intentional causation influences the perception of observed movements: Behavioural evidence and neural correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Moore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on human agency suggests that intentional causation is associated with a subjective compression in the temporal interval between actions and their effects. That is, intentional movements and their causal effects are perceived as closer together in time than equivalent unintentional movements and their causal effects. This so-called intentional binding effect is consistently found for one’s own self-generated actions. It has also been suggested that intentional binding occurs when observing intentional movements of others. However, this evidence is undermined by limitations of the paradigm used. In the current study we aimed to overcome these limitations using a more rigorous design in combination with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI to explore the neural underpinnings of intentional binding of observed movements. In particular, we aimed to identify brain areas sensitive to the interaction between intentionality and causality attributed to the observed action. Our behavioural results confirmed the occurrence of intentional binding for observed movements using this more rigorous paradigm. Our fMRI results highlighted a collection of brain regions whose activity was sensitive to the interaction between intentionality and causation. Intriguingly, these brain regions have previously been implicated in the sense of agency over one’s own movements. We discuss the implications of these results for intentional binding specifically, and the sense of agency more generally.

  3. Functional attributes: Compacting vs decompacting earthworms and influence on soil structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnauth Martinez GUÉI, Yannick BAIDAI, Jérôme Ebagnerin TONDOH,Jeroen HUISING

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A short term field mesocosm experiment was performed in semi-deciduous forest areas of Ivory Coast to assess the impact of a decompacting (Hyperiodrilus africanus, Eudrilidae and two compacting (Millsonia omodeoi and Dichogaster terraenigrae, Acanthodrilidae earthworm species on soil properties. These species have been selected for their predominance in the region and their contrasting impact on soil structure. The experimental design consisted of a treatment without worms (control, and treatments with one, two or three species of earthworms. Both compacting and decompacting earthworms increased water infiltration rate in all treatments, with marked impact in H. africanus and M. omodeoi+D. terraenigrae treatments. Interactions between compacting and decompacting species resulted in more large aggregates in comparison to when the compacting species D. terraenigrae was alone. This may be accounted for by their compacting attribute as compacting earthworms are responsible for producing the highest number of large aggregates. The low values of mean weight diameter in treatments combining decompacting and compacting earthworms compared with compacting "M. omodeoi" one also confirmed the trend of decline in soil compaction in the presence of the decompacting species. These results showed positive impact of species richness on soil structure regulation, which is crucial in ecosystem productivity and support consequently the insurance hypothesis. In fact, this study showed that the preservation of earthworm species belonging to these two contrasting functional groups is essential for the maintenance of stable soil structure regulation in agro-tropical ecosystems [Current Zoology 58 (4: 556–565, 2012].

  4. Functional attributes: Compacting vs decompacting earthworms and influence on soil structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arnauth Martinez GU(E)I; Yannick BAIDAI; Jér(o)me Ebagnerin TONDOH; Jeroen HUISING

    2012-01-01

    A short term field mesocosm experiment was performed in semi-deciduous forest areas of Ivory Coast to assess the impact of a decompacting (Hyperiodrilus africanus,Eudrilidae) and two compacting (Millsonia omodeoi and Dichogaster terraenigrae,Acanthodfilidae) earthworm species on soil properties.These species have been selected for their predominance in the region and their contrasting impact on soil structure.The experimental design consisted of a treatment without worms (control),and treatments with one,two or three species of earthworms.Both compacting and decompacting earthworms increased water infiltration rate in all treatments,with marked impact in H.africanus and M.omodeoi+D.terraenigrae treatments.Interactions between compacting and decompacting species resulted in more large aggregates in comparison to when the compacting species D.terraenigrae was alone.This may be accounted for by their compacting attribute as compacting earthworms are responsible for producing the highest number of large aggregates.The low values of mean weight diameter in treatments combining decompacting and compacting earthworms compared with compacting “M.omodeoi” one also confirmed the trend of decline in soil compaction in the presence of the decompacting species.These results showed positive impact of species richness on soil structure regulation,which is crucial in ecosystem productivity and support consequently the insurance hypothesis.In fact,this study showed that the preservation of earthworm species belonging to these two contrasting functional groups is essential for the maintenance of stable soil structure regulation in agro-tropical ecosystems.

  5. Environmental Attributes Influencing the Distribution of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Northern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony L Baker

    Full Text Available Factors responsible for the spatial and temporal clustering of Burkholderia pseudomallei in the environment remain to be elucidated. Whilst laboratory based experiments have been performed to analyse survival of the organism in various soil types, such approaches are strongly influenced by alterations to the soil micro ecology during soil sanitisation and translocation. During the monsoonal season in Townsville, Australia, B. pseudomallei is discharged from Castle Hill (an area with a very high soil prevalence of the organism by groundwater seeps and is washed through a nearby area where intensive sampling in the dry season has been unable to detect the organism. We undertook environmental sampling and soil and plant characterisation in both areas to ascertain physiochemical and macro-floral differences between the two sites that may affect the prevalence of B. pseudomallei. In contrast to previous studies, the presence of B. pseudomallei was correlated with a low gravimetric water content and low nutrient availability (nitrogen and sulphur and higher exchangeable potassium in soils favouring recovery. Relatively low levels of copper, iron and zinc favoured survival. The prevalence of the organism was found to be highest under the grasses Aristida sp. and Heteropogon contortus and to a lesser extent under Melinis repens. The findings of this study indicate that a greater variety of factors influence the endemicity of melioidosis than has previously been reported, and suggest that biogeographical boundaries to the organisms' distribution involve complex interactions.

  6. Influence of baking conditions on the quality attributes of sponge cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureta, M Micaela; Olivera, Daniela F; Salvadori, Viviana O

    2017-03-01

    Sponge cake is a sweet bakery product characterized by its aerated and soft crumb and by its thin-coloured crust. The aim of this work is to analyse the influence of baking conditions (natural or forced convection, steam injection, oven temperature from 140 ℃ to 180 ℃) on sponge cake quality. Both crust and crumb regions were characterized by means of colour development, water content, crust/crumb relation, crust thickness and crumb structure (in terms of porosity, crumb density and texture). Colour measurements allowed obtaining an accurate model for browning kinetics. Crumb water content remains almost constant, while considerable dehydration occurs in the crust. In general, no significant differences due to baking conditions were found in the instrumental quality analysis.

  7. Influence of galactooligosaccharides and modified waxy maize starch on some attributes of yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Laxmi N; Sherkat, Frank; Shah, Nagendra P

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and modified waxy maize starch (MWMS) addition on the growth of starter cultures, and syneresis and firmness of low-fat yogurt during storage for 28 d at 4 °C. The control yogurt (CY) was prepared without any prebiotics. Incorporation of 2.0% (w/v) GOS improved the growth of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 resulting in a shorter fermentation time. There was a significant (P syneresis was the lowest (2.14%) in MWMSY as compared with that of GOSY (2.35%) and CY (2.53%). There was no statistically significant (P > 0.05) difference in the firmness among the 3 types of yogurt.

  8. Influence of lumbar muscle fatigue on trunk adaptations during sudden external perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Abboud

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionWhen the spine is subjected to perturbations, neuromuscular responses such as reflex muscle contractions contribute to the overall balance control and spinal stabilization mechanisms. These responses are influenced by muscle fatigue, which has been shown to trigger changes in muscle recruitment patterns. Neuromuscular adaptations, e.g. attenuation of reflex activation and/or postural oscillations following repeated unexpected external perturbations, have also been described. However, the characterization of these adaptations still remains unclear. Using high-density electromyography (EMG may help understand how the nervous system chooses to deal with an unknown perturbation in different physiological and/or mechanical perturbation environments. AimTo characterize trunk neuromuscular adaptations following repeated sudden external perturbations after a back muscle fatigue task using high-density EMG.MethodsTwenty-five healthy participants experienced a series of 15 sudden external perturbations before and after back muscle fatigue. Erector spinae muscle activity was recorded using high-density EMG. Trunk kinematics during perturbation trials were collected using a 3-D motion analysis system. A two-way repeated measure ANOVA was conducted to assess 1 the adaptation effect across trials, 2 the fatigue effect, and 3 the interaction effect (fatigue x adaptation for the baseline activity, the reflex latency, the reflex peak and trunk kinematic variables (flexion angle, velocity and time to peak velocity. Muscle activity spatial distribution before and following the fatigue task was also compared using t-tests for dependent samples. ResultsAn attenuation of muscle reflex peak was observed across perturbation trials before the fatigue task, but not after. The spatial distribution of muscle activity was significantly higher before the fatigue task compared to post-fatigue trials. Baseline activity showed a trend to higher values after muscle

  9. Variability in social reasoning: The influence of attachment security on the attribution of goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen A Dunfield

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last half decade there has been a growing move to apply the methods and theory of cognitive development to questions regarding infants’ social understanding. Though this combination has afforded exciting opportunities to better understand our species’ unique social cognitive abilities, the resulting findings do not always lead to the same conclusions. For example, a growing body of research has found support for both universal similarity and individual differences in infants’ social reasoning about others’ responses to incomplete goals. The present research examines this apparent contradiction by assessing the influence of attachment security on the ability of university undergraduates to represent instrumental needs versus social-emotional distress. When the two varieties of goals were clearly differentiated, we observed a universally similar pattern of results (Expt. 1a/b. However, when the goals were combined, and both instrumental need and social-emotional distress were presented together, individual differences emerged (Expt. 2, 3. Taken together, these results demonstrate that by integrating the two perspectives of shared universals and individual differences, important points of contact can be revealed supporting a deeper, more nuanced understanding of the nature of human social reasoning.

  10. Influence of external inputs and asymmetry of connections on information-geometric measures involving up to ten neuronal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yimin; Fellous, Jean-Marc; Tatsuno, Masami

    2014-10-01

    The investigation of neural interactions is crucial for understanding information processing in the brain. Recently an analysis method based on information geometry (IG) has gained increased attention, and the property of the pairwise IG measure has been studied extensively in relation to the two-neuron interaction. However, little is known about the property of IG measures involving more neuronal interactions. In this study, we systematically investigated the influence of external inputs and the asymmetry of connections on the IG measures in cases ranging from 1-neuron to 10-neuron interactions. First, the analytical relationship between the IG measures and external inputs was derived for a network of 10 neurons with uniform connections. Our results confirmed that the single and pairwise IG measures were good estimators of the mean background input and of the sum of the connection weights, respectively. For the IG measures involving 3 to 10 neuronal interactions, we found that the influence of external inputs was highly nonlinear. Second, by computer simulation, we extended our analytical results to asymmetric connections. For a network of 10 neurons, the simulation showed that the behavior of the IG measures in relation to external inputs was similar to the analytical solution obtained for a uniformly connected network. When the network size was increased to 1000 neurons, the influence of external inputs almost disappeared. This result suggests that all IG measures from 1-neuron to 10-neuron interactions are robust against the influence of external inputs. In addition, we investigated how the strength of asymmetry influenced the IG measures. Computer simulation of a 1000-neuron network showed that all the IG measures were robust against the modulation of the asymmetry of connections. Our results provide further support for an information-geometric approach and will provide useful insights when these IG measures are applied to real experimental spike data.

  11. Influence of AC external magnetic field on guidance force relaxation between HTS bulk and NdFeB guideway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Longcai; Wang, Suyu; Wang, Jiasu; Zheng, Jun

    2007-12-01

    Superconducting maglev vehicle is one of the most promising applications of HTS bulks. In such a system, the HTS bulks are always exposed to time-varying external magnetic field, which is generated by the inhomogeneous surface magnetic field of the NdFeB guideway. So it is required to study whether the guidance force of the bulks is influenced by the inhomogeneity. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of the guidance force relaxation between the HTS bulk and the NdFeB guideway by an experiment in which AC external magnetic field generated by an electromagnet was used to simulate the time-varying external magnetic field caused by the inhomogeneity of the guideway. From the experiment results, it was found that the guidance force was decreased with the application of the AC external magnetic field, and the decay increased with the amplitude and was almost independent of the frequency.

  12. Soteropolitano Consumer Behavior: An Approach to Quantitative Analysis of Groups of Reference and Attributes Influencing the Purchase of Soft Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Ferreira Marques

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In a survey conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE (2010, the Northeast region of Brazil configured as the lowest per capita consumers of soda as compared to other regions in the country; and the state of Bahia was in 6TH place among the northeastern states. Thus, Salvador (Bahia is in the ranking of the capitals that least consumes this kind of drink. In a literature review, Souki, Christino, and Pereira (2005, show that, despite the economic importance of the industry of soft drinks in Brazil, there are rarely scientific incursions on the behavior of consumers of these products, leaving us with little information about this theme. From that, the present study was developed with the objective of understanding and characterizing the behavior of consumer purchasing “soteropolitano” of soft drinks, identifying their consumption habits and decisions that are taken at the time of purchase of the product, the reference groups, and the attributes considered important in their purchase decision. For both, a descriptive survey was carried out, with quantitative variables, totaling 429 personal interviews in different neighborhoods of Salvador, in places with a large flow of people, such as educational institutions and public spaces. It was found that most of the interviewees choose which soft drink to buy based on their experiences. We did observe a mild influence of characteristics of groups on the decision to purchase the product. However, in relation to the attributes of the soft drink, it was found that the flavor, the brand, and price are the attributes considered most decisive by interviewees in their purchase decision.

  13. Influence of bress laminate volume fraction on electromechanical properties of externally laminated coated conductor tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautista, Zhierwinjay M.; Shin, Hyung Seop [Dept. of Mechanical Design Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Hun; Lee, Hun Ju; Moon, Seung Hyun [SuNAM Co Ltd., Anseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The enhancement of mechanical properties of coated conductor (CC) tapes in practical application are usually achieved by reinforcing through lamination or electroplating metal layers on either sides of the CC tape. Mechanical or electromechanical properties of the CC tapes have been largely affected by the lamination structure under various loading modes such as tension, bending or even cyclic. In this study, the influence of brass laminate volume fraction on electromechanical properties of RCE-DR processed Gadolinium-barium-copper-oxide (GdBCO) CC tapes was investigated. The samples used were composed of single-side and both-side laminate of brass layer to the Cu-stabilized CC tape and their Ic behaviors were compared to those of the Cu-stabilized CC tape without external lamination. The stress/strain dependences of Ic in laminated CC tapes under uniaxial tension were analyzed and the irreversible stress/strain limits were determined. As a result, the increase of brass laminate volume fraction initially increased the irreversible strain limit and became gradual. The corresponding irreversible stress limit, however, showed no difference even though the brass laminate volume fraction increased to 3.4. But the irreversible load limit linearly increased with the brass laminate volume fraction.

  14. Influence of pellet seating on the external ballistic parameters of spring-piston air guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Ronald; Schultz, Benno; Frank, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    In firearm examiners' and forensic specialists' casework as well as in air gun proof testing, reliable measurement of the weapon's muzzle velocity is indispensable. While there are standardized and generally accepted procedures for testing the performance of air guns, the method of seating the diabolo pellets deeper into the breech of break barrel spring-piston air guns has not found its way into standardized test procedures. The influence of pellet seating on the external ballistic parameters was investigated using ten different break barrel spring-piston air guns. Test shots were performed with the diabolo pellets seated 2 mm deeper into the breech using a pellet seater. The results were then compared to reference shots with conventionally loaded diabolo pellets. Projectile velocity was measured with a high-precision redundant ballistic speed measurement system. In eight out of ten weapons, the muzzle energy increased significantly when the pellet seater was used. The average increase in kinetic energy was 31 % (range 9-96 %). To conclude, seating the pellet even slightly deeper into the breech of spring-piston air guns might significantly alter the muzzle energy. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that this effect is taken into account when accurate and reliable measurements of air gun muzzle velocity are necessary.

  15. Extensional Flow Properties of Externally Plasticized Cellulose Acetate: Influence of Plasticizer Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joachim Radusch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Elongational flow properties of polymer melts are very important for numerous polymer processing technologies such as blown film extrusion or foam extrusion. Rheotens tests were conducted to investigate the influence of plasticizer content on elongational flow properties of cellulose acetate (CA. Triethyl citrate (TEC was used as plasticizer. Melt strength decreases whereas melt extensibility increases with increasing plasticizer content. Melt strength was further studied as a function of zero shear viscosity. The typical draw resonance of the Rheotens curve shifts to higher drawdown velocity and the amplitude of the draw resonance decreases with increasing TEC content. With respect to foam extrusion, not only are melt strength and melt extensibility important but the elongational behavior at low strain rates and the area under the Rheotens curve are also significant. Therefore, elongational viscosity as well as specific energy input were calculated and investigated with respect to plasticizer content. Preliminary foam extrusion tests of externally plasticized CA using chemical blowing agents confirm the results from rheological characterization.

  16. Combined influences of genes, prenatal environment, cortisol, and parenting on the development of children’s internalizing vs. externalizing problems

    OpenAIRE

    MARCEAU, KRISTINE; Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David; Daniel S Shaw; Natsuaki, Misaki; Fisher, Philip A.; Leve, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that genetic, prenatal, endocrine, and parenting influences across development individually contribute to internalizing and externalizing problems in children. The present study tests the combined contributions of genetic risk for psychopathology, prenatal environments (maternal drug use and internalizing symptoms), child cortisol at age 4.5 years, and overreactive parenting influences across childhood on 6-year-old children’s internalizing and externalizin...

  17. Procedural Influence on Internal and External Assessment Scores of Undergraduate Vocational and Technical Education Research Projects in Nigerian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. C., John; Manabete, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to determine the procedural influence on internal and external assessment scores of undergraduate research projects in vocational and technical education programmes in the university under study. A survey research design was used for the conduct of this study. The population consisted of 130 lecturers and 1,847 students in the…

  18. The role of parental and adolescent attributions in adjustment of adolescents with chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guion, Kimberly; Mrug, Sylvie

    2012-09-01

    Previous literature has demonstrated the separate contributions of parental attributions and adolescent attributions to psychosocial adjustment of adolescents with chronic illness. However, it is unknown whether parental attributions affect adolescents' mental health directly or indirectly by influencing the youths' attributional style. This study evaluated the direct and indirect (through adolescent attributions) effects of parental attributions on internalizing and externalizing problems of adolescents with chronic illness. Adolescents (N = 128; M = 14.7 years) diagnosed with cystic fibrosis or diabetes and their caregivers completed measures of attributional style and adolescent adjustment. Parents' optimistic attributions were associated with fewer adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. These effects were partly mediated by adolescent attributions. These results suggest that targeting both adolescent and parent attributions may be important for improving adolescents' adjustment to a chronic illness.

  19. Productive Places : The influence of technological change and relatedness on agglomeration externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neffke, F.M.H.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis addresses the topic of agglomeration externalities. Agglomeration externalities can roughly be defined as advantages and disadvantages local firms experience when locating close to other firms. An old debate exists over the question whether firms benefit more from being close to firms in

  20. Investigating how the attributes of self-associated drug complexes influence the passive transport of molecules through biological membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inacio, R; Barlow, D; Kong, X; Keeble, J; Jones, S A

    2016-05-01

    Relatively little is known about how drug self-association influences absorption into the human body. This study presented two hydrophobic membranes with a series of solutions containing different types of tetracaine aggregates with the aim of understanding how the attributes of supramolecular aggregate formation influenced passive membrane transport. The data showed that aqueous solutions of the unprotonated form of tetracaine displayed a significantly higher (ptransport compared to solutions with mixtures of the unprotonated and protonated drug microspecies (e.g. transport through the skin was 0.96±0.31μgcm(-2)min(-1) and 1.59±0.26μgcm(-2)min(-1) respectively). However, despite an enhanced rate of drug transport and a better membrane partitioning the unionised molecules showed a significantly longer (ptransport studies showed that larger tetracaine aggregates with smaller surface charge gave rise to the longer lag times. These large aggregates demonstrated more extensive intermolecular bonding and therefore, it was suggest that it was the enhanced propensity of the unionised species to form tightly bound drug aggregates that caused the delay in the membrane penetration.

  1. Influence of external forcings on abrupt millennial-scale climate changes: a statistical modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Takahito; Crucifix, Michel

    2016-07-01

    The last glacial period was punctuated by a series of abrupt climate shifts, the so-called Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events. The frequency of DO events varied in time, supposedly because of changes in background climate conditions. Here, the influence of external forcings on DO events is investigated with statistical modelling. We assume two types of simple stochastic dynamical systems models (double-well potential-type and oscillator-type), forced by the northern hemisphere summer insolation change and/or the global ice volume change. The model parameters are estimated by using the maximum likelihood method with the NGRIP Ca^{2+} record. The stochastic oscillator model with at least the ice volume forcing reproduces well the sample autocorrelation function of the record and the frequency changes of warming transitions in the last glacial period across MISs 2, 3, and 4. The model performance is improved with the additional insolation forcing. The BIC scores also suggest that the ice volume forcing is relatively more important than the insolation forcing, though the strength of evidence depends on the model assumption. Finally, we simulate the average number of warming transitions in the past four glacial periods, assuming the model can be extended beyond the last glacial, and compare the result with an Iberian margin sea-surface temperature (SST) record (Martrat et al. in Science 317(5837): 502-507, 2007). The simulation result supports the previous observation that abrupt millennial-scale climate changes in the penultimate glacial (MIS 6) are less frequent than in the last glacial (MISs 2-4). On the other hand, it suggests that the number of abrupt millennial-scale climate changes in older glacial periods (MISs 6, 8, and 10) might be larger than inferred from the SST record.

  2. Markov model of the loan portfolio dynamics considering influence of management and external economic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhalkina, Yana; Timofeeva, Galina

    2016-12-01

    Mathematical model of loan portfolio in the form of a controlled Markov chain with discrete time is considered. It is assumed that coefficients of migration matrix depend on corrective actions and external factors. Corrective actions include process of receiving applications, interaction with existing solvent and insolvent clients. External factors are macroeconomic indicators, such as inflation and unemployment rates, exchange rates, consumer price indices, etc. Changes in corrective actions adjust the intensity of transitions in the migration matrix. The mathematical model for forecasting the credit portfolio structure taking into account a cumulative impact of internal and external changes is obtained.

  3. An inquiry on dimensions of external technology search and their influence on technological innovations: evidence from Chinese firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason; Wang, Yuandi; Salomo, Søren

    2014-01-01

    A central part of technological innovation for industrial firms involves search for new external knowledge. A well‐established stream of literature on firms' external knowledge search has demonstrated that firms investing in broader search may have a great ability to innovate. In this paper, we...... explore the influences of technology search on firms' technological innovation performance along three distinctive dimensions: technical, geographic, and temporal dimensions, using a unique panel data set containing information on Chinese firms that were active in technology in‐licensing and patenting...... during the period 2000–2009. Our findings reveal that Chinese firms' technological innovation performances are related to external technology search in quite different ways from the ones suggested in the extant literature using evidence from developed countries. We find that Chinese firms searching...

  4. Influence of external disturbances to dynamic balance of the semi-anthropomimetic robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Vladimir M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of building an artificial man extends through the entire history of mankind. In this paper we present a semi-anthropomimetic robot, as a structure that consists of an upper human-like body mounted on a cart (mobile platform. Semi-anthropomimetic robot uses the three-wheeled mobile platform (two driving wheels and one passive wheel. Upper body configuration is represented as an anthropomimetic structure with antagonistically coupled drives. The aim of this paper is analysis of the robot behaviour under disturbances. Two types of disturbances are examined: disturbances following from the cart motion, and external disturbances. External disturbances (external impulse and long term external force emulate interaction of the robot with its environment. Numerous simulations were performed, in order to analyze the balance of the robot. Accordingly, appropriate dimensions of the mobile platform are estimated, relying on the ZMP concept. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-35003 i br. III-44008

  5. The chaos and order in human ECG under the influence of the external perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragulskaya, Maria; Valeriy, Pipin

    model reconstruction of the individual cardiac beat. It is found that the positions of the stationary points of the typical ECG attractor are in vicinities of Q and T waves. Additionally, we find that the stiffness of the beat is important for the general stability of ECG. The given results agues for the increase the relative disorder of the human cardiac system under external perturbations due to changes in the space weather and climatic factors. Also, the results of monitoring show that cardiac system can be stabilized by "internal" (physical) stress. The given difference in the cardiac sys-tem behavior under the different types of stress is obtained in the earth labaratory conditions. However, it should be considered as important factors influencing on the health of cosmonauts during the space missions, as well.

  6. Physical and Mechanical Characterization of Electrodeposited Nickel Nanowires -- Influence of Current Density and External Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samykano, Mahendran

    Magnetic 1-D nanostructures have received great interest due to their various applications including high-density magnetic storage, sensors, drug delivery, and NEMS/MEMS systems. Among different 1-D nanostructures, magnetic nickel (Ni) nanowires with their ferromagnetic properties are of interest in such applications due to their lower cost, and they can be consistently synthesized via electrodeposition. While physical properties are influenced by processing parameters during electrodeposition of Ni nanowires, understanding of their influence on the mechanical properties is still not available. This is primarily due to the following challenges: tediousness involved in experimental techniques for mechanical characterization at nanoscale; sophisticated and careful experimentation required to be performed with advanced microscopy systems (SEM, AFM); robust nanoscale manipulators needed to place a single nanowire within the device; and difficulty in correctly loading and obtaining data for stress-strain within high powered microscopy environments. All of these factors pose significant challenges, limiting the current state of the art in mechanical characterization to its infancy, with wide differences in characterization curves and reported properties in this field. The present research and dissertation focuses on: 1. Experimental synthesis of electrodeposited Ni nanowires at different current densities and external magnetic fields, 2. Physical properties characterization of the synthesized nanowires to understand their morphology, structural and crystallographic properties, 3. Mechanical properties characterization of synthesized Ni nanowires through careful experiments within scanning electron microscope (SEM) based on uni-axial MEMS tensile loading device, 4. Data analysis to understand the process, physical and mechanical property interrelationship and to obtain insights on tensile deformation and failure modes observed in the Ni nanowires studied. Key research

  7. External Communication and Its Influence on Secondary Schools Corporate Image: A Case Study of Kitale Academy Secondary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloys Nyagechi Kiriago

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Communication by schools with their external publics is crucial for both parties. Stakeholders need to know what happens in schools where their children learn. This study sought to examine the influence of external communication on the corporate image of secondary schools.The research design adopted was a case study of Kitale Academy Secondary. The target population was 420 people from which a sample of 47 was selected using random sampling and non random sampling. The sample included school administrators, heads of departments, teachers, support staff and students. Data was collected using questionnaires. Analysis was done using basic descriptive statistics.From the findings of the research it was evident that word of mouth was the channel that was very frequently used by the students, administrators, and heads of departments, teachers and support staff to external target audience. The findings also indicated a strong relationship between feedbacks from external communication on the image of school. Respondents saw their school’s cooperate image as very positive while also perceiving others outside as seeing the schools image as positive. The researcher recommended that secondary schools to put in place a public relations policy so as to interact positively with their external audience.

  8. Efficient Institutions and External Trade Policy Management Can Increase the Influence of a Small Country on the International Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Koleša

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on a country’s external trade policy management in relation to the processes within its sub national entities. Its main goal is to identify an optimal approach to realizing the national interests of a small EU member state at the international/sub national level. We argue that influence on certain decisions does not necessarily solely depend on the power (i. e., size of a country, but also depends on other factors, such as the country’s goals and ability to form alliances. We confirm that institutions are of key importance for efficient external trade policy management – small countries in particular can increase their influence at the international level substantially if they are capable of efficient process management and forming alliances with sub national actors. After analysing the systems in selected eu member states, we make proposals for enhancing the trade policy management process in Slovenia.

  9. Female mate choice across spatial scales: influence of lek and male attributes on mating success of blue-crowned manakins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durães, Renata; Loiselle, Bette A; Parker, Patricia G; Blake, John G

    2009-05-22

    Lekking males compete for females within and among leks, yet female choice is expected to work differently at each of these spatial scales. We used paternity analyses to examine how lek versus male attributes influence mate choice in the blue-crowned manakin Lepidothrix coronata. We tested the hypotheses that females prefer (i) to mate at larger leks where a larger number of potential mates can be assessed, (ii) to mate with unrelated or highly heterozygous males expected to produce high-quality offspring, (iii) to mate with males that display at higher rates, and that (iv) display honestly reflects male genetic quality. Our results show that (i) males at larger leks are not more likely to sire young, although females nesting close to small leks travel further to reach larger leks, (ii) siring males are not less related to females or more heterozygous than expected, (iii) within a lek, high-display males are more likely to sire young, and (iv) both male heterozygosity and display rate increased with lek size, and as a result display does not reliably reflect male genetic quality across leks. We suggest that female mate choice in this species is probably driven by a Fisherian process rather than adaptive genetic benefits.

  10. Influence of externally attached trasmitters on the swimming performance of juvenile white sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, T.D.; Frost, C.N.

    1999-01-01

    We measured the critical swimming speed of juvenile white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus equipped with externally attached dummy ultrasonic transmitters and of untagged control fish in the laboratory. White sturgeons ranging from 31.9 to 37.0 cm fork length were subjected to one of three treatments: Control (handled but not tagged), tag attached below the dorsal fin, and tag attached with the anterior insertion point between the fourth and fifth dorsal scutes. Although transmitters were of recommended weight, we found that the swimming performance of tagged white sturgeons was significantly less than that of untagged control fish. Swimming performance of tagged fish was not differentially affected by tag location. Our results suggest that data from ultrasonic telemetry studies of externally tagged juvenile white sturgeons should be interpreted with caution due to the reduced swimming performance caused by external transmitters.

  11. Influence of externally attached transmitters on the swimming performance of juvenile white sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, T.D.; Frost, C.N.

    1999-01-01

    We measured the critical swimming speed of juvenile white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus equipped with externally attached dummy ultrasonic transmitters and of untagged control fish in the laboratory. White sturgeons ranging from 31.9 to 37.0 cm fork length were subjected to one of three treatments: control (handled but not tagged), tag attached below the dorsal fin, and tag attached with the anterior insertion point between the fourth and fifth dorsal scutes. Although transmitters were of recommended weight, we found that the swimming performance of tagged white sturgeons was significantly less than that of untagged control fish. Swimming performance of tagged fish was not differentially affected by tag location. Our results suggest that data from ultrasonic telemetry studies of externally tagged juvenile white sturgeons should be interpreted with caution due to the reduced swimming performance caused by external transmitters.

  12. Collaborative entrepreneurship: On the Influence of Internal and External Collaboration on Corporate Entrepreneurial Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Timenes Laugen, Bjørge; Middel, Rick

    2008-01-01

    The present paper empirically tests the effect which internal/external collaboration has on innovation height and identifies characteristics of collaboration patterns leading to entrepreneurial innovation in particular. Doing so adds to the understanding of how corporate entrepreneurship best...... unfolds as interfirm activity, which here is termed collaborative entrepreneurship, and provides details on the particular patterns of Open Innovation. The empirical analysis is based on a data set with responses from 512 Danish engineers. The analysis finds that external collaboration has significantly...... different effects on innovation height depending on the type of partners involved, and furthermore suggests that the development of entrepreneurial innovation is not only dependent on high external involvement, but also on involvement and collaboration among internal functional departments and people....

  13. Recovering Faces from Memory: The Distracting Influence of External Facial Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frowd, Charlie D.; Skelton, Faye; Atherton, Chris; Pitchford, Melanie; Hepton, Gemma; Holden, Laura; McIntyre, Alex H.; Hancock, Peter J. B.

    2012-01-01

    Recognition memory for unfamiliar faces is facilitated when contextual cues (e.g., head pose, background environment, hair and clothing) are consistent between study and test. By contrast, inconsistencies in external features, especially hair, promote errors in unfamiliar face-matching tasks. For the construction of facial composites, as carried…

  14. A piecewise-integration method for simulating the influence of external forcing on climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifu Zhang; Chongjian Qiu; Chenghai Wang

    2008-01-01

    Climate drift occurs in most general circulation models (GCMs) as a result of incomplete physical and numerical representation of the complex climate system,which may cause large uncertainty in sensitivity experiments evaluating climate response to changes in external forcing.To solve this problem,we propose a piecewise-integration method to reduce the systematic error in climate sensitivity studies.The observations are firstly assimilated into a numerical model by using the dynamic relaxation technique to relax to the current state of atmosphere,and then the assimilated fields are continuously used to reinitialize the simulation to reduce the error of climate simulation.When the numerical model is integrated with changed external forcing,the results can be split into two parts,background and perturbation fields,and the background is the state before the external forcing is changed.The piecewise-integration method is used to continuously reinitialize the model with the assimilated field,instead of the background.Therefore,the simulation error of the model with the external forcing can be reduced.In this way,the accuracy of climate sensitivity experiments is greatly improved.Tests with a simple low-order spectral model show that this approach can significantly reduce the uncertainty of climate sensitivity experiments.

  15. The influence of patients' attributions of the immediate effects of treatment of depression on long-term effectiveness of behavioural activation and antidepressant medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradveisi, Latif; Huibers, Marcus J H; Arntz, Arnoud

    2015-06-01

    Patients' attributions of effects of treatment are important, as these can affect long-term outcome. Most studies so far focused on the influence of attributions to medication for anxiety and depression disorders. We investigated the effects of patients' attributions made after acute treatment on the long-term outcome of antidepressant medication (ADM) and psychological treatment (behavioural activation, BA). Data are based on a randomized trial testing the effectiveness of BA vs. ADM for major depression (MDD) in Iran. Patients with MDD (N = 100) were randomized to BA (N = 50) or ADM (N = 50). Patients' attributions were assessed at post-test (after completion of the treatments). Scores on an attribution questionnaire were factor analysed, and factor scores were retained as predictors of depressive symptoms at 1-year follow-up. Regression analysis was used to test whether attributions predicted depressive symptoms at 1-yr follow-up, controlling for symptom level, condition, and their interaction at post-test. Belief in coping efficacy was the only attribution factor significantly predicting 1-year HRSD scores, controlling for condition, post-test HRSD and their interaction. It also mediated the condition differences at follow-up. Credit to self was the single attribution factor that predicted BDI follow-up scores, controlling for condition, posttest BDI, and their interaction. It partially mediated the condition differences on the BDI at follow-up. Attribution to increased coping capacities and giving credit to self appear essential. In the long-term (at 1 year follow-up), the difference in outcome between BA and ADM (with BA being superior to ADM) is at least partially mediated by attributions.

  16. Influence of the external solution in the electroosmotic flux induced by realkalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellote, M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical repair methods are based on the application of an impressed direct current between the reinforcement and an auxiliary electrode placed at the concrete surface. In the case of realkalisation, the aim of the treatment consists in restoring the alkalinity of the concrete around the rebar to repassivate it. The realkalisation seems to be primarily provided by the generation of OH- at the rebar which is acting as cathode, through the reaction of water hydrolysis. It had been claimed that also carbonate ions penetrate towards the rebar by the electroosmosis; however it was not until very recently that the authors were able to demonstrate and quantify it through hardened carbonated concrete. In the present paper, laboratory trials are reported showing the influence of the external solution in the electroosmotic flux. The experiments have been carried out on normalised carbonated OPC mortars and 4 different solutions have been tested, ranging from 0.1 to 2M in Na2CO3. As a result, it has been proved that the electroosmotic flux is not constant during the experiment. The pH in the anolyte is the determining parameter on the zeta potential and consequently in the electroosmotic flux, reaching its maximum, for the experiments of this research, at the pH of the buffer carbonate/'bicarbonate.

    Los métodos electroquímicos de reparación de estructuras dañadas por corrosión de armaduras se basan en la aplicación de corriente continua entre la armadura y un electrodo auxiliar colocado sobre la superficie del hormigón. En el caso de la realcalinización, el objetivo del tratamiento consiste en restaurar la alcalinidad del hormigón alrededor de la armadura, con lo que se consigue la repasivación de la misma. Esta alcalinización se alcanza por la generación de OH- en la hidrólisis del agua que tiene lugar en el acero que actúa como cátodo, aunque también se postula la penetración de

  17. Theoretical investigations on the geometric and electronic structures of polyacetylene molecule under the influence of external electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The geometric and electronic structures of all-trans polyacetylene (PA molecule in neutral, cationic, and anionic states have been studied theoretically by density functional theory method at the B3LYP/6-31+G* level. The results show that both the geometric and electronic structures of the PA molecule are sensitive to the external electric field (EF. For neutral PA molecule, with the increase of EF, the carbon-carbon single bonds are shortened while the carbon-carbon double bonds are elongated. The energy gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO-HOMO gap decreases with the EF increasing. For cationic PA molecule, the carbon-carbon single bonds and carbon-carbon double bonds on the high potential side are elongated and shortened, respectively. While, the carboncarbon single bonds and carbon-carbon double bonds on the low potential side are shortened and elongated, respectively. Contrary to the neutral PA case, the LUMO-HOMO gap increases with the EF increasing. Contrast to the case of cationic PA, the evolution of carbon-carbon bond lengths for the anionic PA molecule under the external EF reverses. The LUMO-HOMO gap of the anionic PA molecule decreases with the increase of external EF. In addition, the spatial distributions of the HOMO and LUMO under the influence of external EF are also discussed for the PA molecule in neutral, cationic, and anionic states.

  18. Task Irrelevant External Cues Can Influence Language Selection in Voluntary Object Naming: Evidence from Hindi-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Divya; Prasad, Seema Gorur; Sake, Kaushik; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    We examined if external cues such as other agents' actions can influence the choice of language during voluntary and cued object naming in bilinguals in three experiments. Hindi–English bilinguals first saw a cartoon waving at a color patch. They were then asked to either name a picture in the language of their choice (voluntary block) or to name in the instructed language (cued block). The colors waved at by the cartoon were also the colors used as language cues (Hindi or English). We compared the influence of the cartoon’s choice of color on naming when speakers had to indicate their choice explicitly before naming (Experiment 1) as opposed to when they named directly on seeing the pictures (Experiment 2 and 3). Results showed that participants chose the language indicated by the cartoon greater number of times (Experiment 1 and 3). Speakers also switched significantly to the language primed by the cartoon greater number of times (Experiment 1 and 2). These results suggest that choices leading to voluntary action, as in the case of object naming can be influenced significantly by external non-linguistic cues. Importantly, these symbolic influences can work even when other agents are merely indicating their choices and are not interlocutors in bilingual communication. PMID:28081136

  19. Task Irrelevant External Cues Can Influence Language Selection in Voluntary Object Naming: Evidence from Hindi-English Bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Divya; Prasad, Seema Gorur; Sake, Kaushik; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    We examined if external cues such as other agents' actions can influence the choice of language during voluntary and cued object naming in bilinguals in three experiments. Hindi-English bilinguals first saw a cartoon waving at a color patch. They were then asked to either name a picture in the language of their choice (voluntary block) or to name in the instructed language (cued block). The colors waved at by the cartoon were also the colors used as language cues (Hindi or English). We compared the influence of the cartoon's choice of color on naming when speakers had to indicate their choice explicitly before naming (Experiment 1) as opposed to when they named directly on seeing the pictures (Experiment 2 and 3). Results showed that participants chose the language indicated by the cartoon greater number of times (Experiment 1 and 3). Speakers also switched significantly to the language primed by the cartoon greater number of times (Experiment 1 and 2). These results suggest that choices leading to voluntary action, as in the case of object naming can be influenced significantly by external non-linguistic cues. Importantly, these symbolic influences can work even when other agents are merely indicating their choices and are not interlocutors in bilingual communication.

  20. The Effect of Adult Basic Education on Selected Non-Cognitive Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, V. Milton; And Others

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of participation in adult basic education on changes in selected non-cognitive attributes: anomia, self-concept, and internal-external control of environment. Two subsidiary problems were to examine the differences in levels of anomia, self-concept, and internal-external control of…

  1. Influence of External Environmental Factors on the Success of Public Housing Projects in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    External environmental factors, which include political environment, economic environment and social environment, affect the success of public housing projects in developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to establish the effect of these factors on public housing project success using structural equation modelling (SEM) techniques.  The study was conducted in Nigeria by means of interviews, a pilot study and a main survey. Five hundred and fifty (550) questionnaires were administered...

  2. Influence of external white noise on the formation of Tsallis' velocity distribution function: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri Kadijani, M.; Abbasi, H.

    2016-09-01

    Dynamics of a dust layer suspending in a plasma and interacting through a Yukawa-type potential is considered. In the small affinity limit, the influence of an external white noise on the formation of Tsallis' velocity distribution function is studied through molecular dynamics simulation. The characteristic length of the noise is much smaller than the system size that causes a number of subsystems (islands) to be formed with the size similar to the noise one. The external noise leads to the temperature fluctuation in each island. Therefore, a stochastic formalism based on a Langevin equation for the fluctuating temperature is presented. The approach provides a dynamical reason how a fluctuating temperature takes a system to a unique class of quasi-equilibrium states. In particular, the dependence of the model systems on the noise parameters is explained. The non-extensive parameter is obtained through which the small affinity limit can be defined.

  3. The influence of external factors on the credit risk in leasing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Farsad Amanollahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Credit risk consists of probability of non-return, which may be in the form of bankruptcy or a decrease in financial and credit situation of the lessee. The variables are extracted from the Central Bank. In this study the independent variables are measured with six factors that are called external factors. The external factors are size of leasing, ownership interest rate, foreign exchange, inflation, and Gross Domestic Product (GDP. The present study uses related observations from 31 leasing companies from 2008 to 2013 to find out the determinants of the credit risk. The combined evidences suggest that internal factors such as upfront prepayment, credit insurance contract, security deposits, time and period contract, collateral and guarantees, contract amount, as well as external factors such as interest rate, inflation, foreign exchange, Gross Domestic Product infrastructure, and credit risk are determinants in the policy-making process involving the industrial leasing. Furthermore, the empirical results indicate the size of leasing and ownership are not the significant determinants of credit risk. The results of this dissertation provide several implications for policy-makers in the leasing industry. Policy-makers will be better off employing different procedures for leasing activities in the leasing industry.

  4. Determination of the external mass transfer coefficient and influence of mixing intensity in moving bed biofilm reactors for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Bruno L; Pérez, Julio; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Secchi, Argimiro R; Dezotti, Márcia; Biscaia, Evaristo C

    2015-09-01

    In moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR), the removal of pollutants from wastewater is due to the substrate consumption by bacteria attached on suspended carriers. As a biofilm process, the substrates are transported from the bulk phase to the biofilm passing through a mass transfer resistance layer. This study proposes a methodology to determine the external mass transfer coefficient and identify the influence of the mixing intensity on the conversion process in-situ in MBBR systems. The method allows the determination of the external mass transfer coefficient in the reactor, which is a major advantage when compared to the previous methods that require mimicking hydrodynamics of the reactor in a flow chamber or in a separate vessel. The proposed methodology was evaluated in an aerobic lab-scale system operating with COD removal and nitrification. The impact of the mixing intensity on the conversion rates for ammonium and COD was tested individually. When comparing the effect of mixing intensity on the removal rates of COD and ammonium, a higher apparent external mass transfer resistance was found for ammonium. For the used aeration intensities, the external mass transfer coefficient for ammonium oxidation was ranging from 0.68 to 13.50 m d(-1) and for COD removal 2.9 to 22.4 m d(-1). The lower coefficient range for ammonium oxidation is likely related to the location of nitrifiers deeper in the biofilm. The measurement of external mass transfer rates in MBBR will help in better design and evaluation of MBBR system-based technologies.

  5. Influence of Optical Feedback from Birefringence External Cavity on Intensity Tuning and Polarization of Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI Li-Gang; ZHANG Shu-Lian; WAN Xin-Jun

    2004-01-01

    The characteristics of intensity tuning and polarization of He-Ne laser with optical feedback are studied. When the internal cavity length of the laser with birefringence optical feedback is tuned, not only does output intensity vary with laser frequency, but also the polarization periodically hops between two orthogonal directions. Ff the phase difference of birefringence is π/2, two polarization states alternately oscillate and have equal bandwidths within the longitudinal mode spacing. The times of polarization flipping in the longitudinal mode bandwidth is proportional to the ratio of external cavity length to internal cavity length. The experimental results are explained, and the potential uses are also discussed.

  6. Attribution bias and social anxiety in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie M. Achim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia have produced mixed results, whereas such biases have been more consistently reported in people with anxiety disorders. Anxiety comorbidities are frequent in schizophrenia, in particular social anxiety disorder, which could influence their patterns of attribution biases. The objective of the present study was thus to determine if individuals with schizophrenia and a comorbid social anxiety disorder (SZ+ show distinct attribution biases as compared with individuals with schizophrenia without social anxiety (SZ− and healthy controls. Attribution biases were assessed with the Internal, Personal, and Situational Attributions Questionnaire in 41 individual with schizophrenia and 41 healthy controls. Results revealed the lack of the normal externalizing bias in SZ+, whereas SZ− did not significantly differ from healthy controls on this dimension. The personalizing bias was not influenced by social anxiety but was in contrast linked with delusions, with a greater personalizing bias in individuals with current delusions. Future studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia should carefully document symptom presentation, including social anxiety.

  7. Crossing and anti-crossing effects of polaritons in a magnetic-semiconductor superlattice influenced by an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuz, Vladimir R.; Fesenko, Volodymyr I.; Fedorin, Illia V.; Sun, Hong-Bo; Shulga, Valeriy M.

    2017-03-01

    Crossing and anti-crossing effects in dispersion characteristics of both bulk and surface polaritons in a magnetic-semiconductor superlattice influenced by an external static magnetic field being in the Faraday geometry are discussed. The bulk polaritons are classified as eigenwaves with right-handed and left-handed elliptically polarized states, whereas the surface polaritons are considered as hybrid modes having a predominant effect of either magnetic or semiconductor subsystem, and distinctions in dispersion characteristics of such polaritons are revealed involving the concept of critical points.

  8. Influence of external magnetic and laser radiation fields on Feshbach resonances in collision of atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Gazazyan, E A; Chaltykyan, V O

    2012-01-01

    We study collision of two atoms with formation of Feshbach resonance at combined interaction with the external magnetic field and laser radiation. In cases of one- and two-photon resonances of laser radiation with two discrete vibrational molecular levels, we show that Feshbach resonances appear at interaction of external magnetic field with dressed states formed via Autler-Townes effect. In addition, in case of one-photon resonance the lower vibrational molecular state is coupled by laser radiation with the continuum of the elastic channel and forms laser-induced Feshbach resonance via both Autler-Townes effect and LICS mechanism. We study the combined process of formation of Feshbach resonances; this enables the control of Feshbach resonance by varying the magnetic field and intensity and frequency of laser radiation. We obtain the cross-sections of elastic and inelastic scattering and show that quenching of resonance occurs at the energy equal to that of the systems ground state. Dependence of the cross-se...

  9. Flexible magnetic filaments under the influence of external magnetic fields in the limit of infinite dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Joan J; Sánchez, Pedro A; Lüsebrink, Daniel; Kantorovich, Sofia; Sintes, Tomàs

    2016-05-14

    In the present work we use Langevin dynamics computer simulations to understand how the presence of a constant external magnetic field modifies the conformational phase diagram of magnetic filaments in the limit of infinite dilution. We have considered the filaments immersed in either a good (non-sticky filaments) or a poor (Stockmayer polymers) solvent. It has been found that in the presence of an applied field, filaments turn out to be much more susceptible to parameters such as temperature and solvent conditions. Filaments owe this increased susceptibility to the fact that the external magnetic field tends to level the free energy landscape as compared to the zero-field case. The field induces equalization in the free energy of competing conformational states that were separated by large energy differences in the zero-field limit. In this new scenario multistability arises, and manifests itself in the existence of broad regions in the phase diagram where two or more equilibrium configurations coexist. The existence of multistability greatly enhances the possibility of tuning the properties of the filament.

  10. Integrating sensory evaluation in adaptive conjoint analysis to elaborate the conflicting influence of intrinsic and extrinsic attributes on food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppert, Karin; Mai, Robert; Zahn, Susann; Hoffmann, Stefan; Rohm, Harald

    2012-12-01

    Sensory properties and packaging information are factors which considerably contribute to food choice. We present a new methodology in which sensory preference testing was integrated in adaptive conjoint analysis. By simultaneous variation of intrinsic and extrinsic attributes on identical levels, this procedure allows assessing the importance of attribute/level combinations on product selection. In a set-up with nine pair-wise comparisons and four subsequent calibration assessments, 101 young consumers evaluated vanilla yoghurt which was varied in fat content (four levels), sugar content (two levels) and flavour intensity (two levels); the same attribute/level combinations were also presented as extrinsic information. The results indicate that the evaluation of a particular attribute may largely diverge in intrinsic and in extrinsic processing. We noticed from our utility values that, for example, the acceptance of yoghurt increases with an increasing level of the actual fat content, whereas acceptance diminishes when a high fat content is labelled on the product. This article further implicates that neglecting these diverging relationships may lead to an over- or underestimation of the importance of an attribute for food choice.

  11. Analysis of the Influence of Plot Size and LiDAR Density on Forest Structure Attribute Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Luis A. Ruiz; Txomin Hermosilla; Francisco Mauro; Miguel Godino

    2014-01-01

    Licencia Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Unported (CC BY 3.0) This paper assesses the combined effect of field plot size and LiDAR density on the estimation of four forest structure attributes: volume, total biomass, basal area and canopy cover. A total of 21 different plot sizes were considered, obtained by decreasing the field measured plot radius value from 25 to 5 m with regular intervals of 1 m. LiDAR data densities were simulated by randomly removing LiDAR pulses until ...

  12. The influence of laser pulse on the photoabsorption spectra of Li atom in strong external field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Dehua; LIN; Shenglu

    2006-01-01

    Using the time-dependent perturbation theory and the calculation formula of the single- and double-pulse absorption spectra of the atom in strong external fields, we calculate the single- and double-pulse absorption spectra of Li atom in strong magnetic field for different pulse widths. The results show that a pulse of some width can reduce the contribution of the short period closed orbits and eliminate the contribution of the long period orbits. Compared with the single-pulse absorption spectra, we found that for some phase differences, the double-pulse laser absorption spectra are strengthened; while for others, they are reduced. Therefore, we can use the pulse laser to control the oscillation of the absorption spectra and obtain the optimization object.

  13. [FHF]−—The Strongest Hydrogen Bond under the Influence of External Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir J. Grabowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A search through the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD for crystal structures containing the [FHF]− anion was carried out. Forty five hydrogen bifluoride structures were found mainly with the H-atom moved from the mid-point of the F…F distance. However several [FHF]− systems characterized by D∞h symmetry were found, the same as this anion possesses in the gas phase. The analysis of CSD results as well as the analysis of results of ab initio calculations on the complexes of [FHF]− with Lewis acid moieties show that the movement of the H-atom from the central position depends on the strength of interaction of this anion with external species. The analysis of the electron charge density distribution in complexes of [FHF]− was performed with the use of the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM approach and the Natural Bond Orbitals (NBO method.

  14. Influence of external resonant magnetic perturbation field on edge plasma of small tokamak HYBTOK-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Y., E-mail: hayashi-yuki13@ees.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Suzuki, Y.; Ohno, N. [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Okamoto, M. [Ishikawa National College of Technology, Kitachujo, Tsubata-cho, Kahoku-gun, Ishikawa 929-0392 (Japan); Kikuchi, Y. [University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Sakakibara, S.; Watanabe, K.; Takemura, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Radial profile of externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) field with mode numbers of m = 6 and n = 2 in a small tokamak device HYBTOK-II have been investigated using a magnetic probe array, which is able to measure the radial profile of magnetic field perturbation induced by applying RMP. Results of RMP penetration into the plasma show that the RMP decreased toward the plasma center, while they were amplified around the resonant surface with a safety factor q = 3 due to the formation of magnetic islands. This suggests that RMP fields for controlling edge plasmas may trigger some kind of MHD instabilities. In addition, simulation results, based on a linearized four-field model, which agrees with the experimental ones, indicates that the penetration and amplification process of RMP strongly depend on a Doppler-shifted frequency between the RMP and plasma rotation.

  15. External and internal factors influencing self-directed online learning of physiotherapy undergraduate students in Sweden: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Sjödahl Hammarlund

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Online courses have become common in health sciences education. This learning environment can be designed using different approaches to support student learning. To further develop online environment, it is important to understand how students perceive working and learning online. The aim of this study is to identify aspects influencing students’ learning processes and their adaptation to self-directed learning online. Methods: Thirty-four physiotherapy students with a mean age of 25 years (range, 21 to 34 years participated. Qualitative content analysis and triangulation was used when investigating the students’ self-reflections, written during a five week self-directed, problem-oriented online course. Results: Two categories emerged: ‘the influence of the structured framework’ and ‘communication and interaction with teachers and peers.’ The learning processes were influenced by external factors, e.g., a clear structure including a transparent alignment of assignments and assessment. Important challenges to over-come were primarily internal factors, e.g., low self-efficacy, difficulties to plan the work effectively and adapting to a new environment. Conclusion: The analyses reflected important perspectives targeting areas which enable further course development. The influences of external and internal factors on learning strategies and self-efficacy are important aspects to consider when designing online courses. Factors such as pedagogical design, clarity of purpose, goals, and guidelines were important as well as continuous opportunities for communication and collaboration. Further studies are needed to understand and scaffold the motivational factors among students with low self-efficacy.

  16. Survival or Mortality : Does Risk Attribute Framing Influence Decision-Making Behavior in a Discrete Choice Experiment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldwijk, Jorien; Essers, Brigitte A B; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Dirksen, Carmen D; Smit, Henriette A; de Wit, G Ardine

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test how attribute framing in a discrete choice experiment (DCE) affects respondents' decision-making behavior and their preferences. METHODS: Two versions of a DCE questionnaire containing nine choice tasks were distributed among a representative sample of the Dutch population aged 55

  17. Habitat selection in a rocky landscape: experimentally decoupling the influence of retreat site attributes from that of landscape features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croak, Benjamin M; Pike, David A; Webb, Jonathan K; Shine, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Organisms selecting retreat sites may evaluate not only the quality of the specific shelter, but also the proximity of that site to resources in the surrounding area. Distinguishing between habitat selection at these two spatial scales is complicated by co-variation among microhabitat factors (i.e., the attributes of individual retreat sites often correlate with their proximity to landscape features). Disentangling this co-variation may facilitate the restoration or conservation of threatened systems. To experimentally examine the role of landscape attributes in determining retreat-site quality for saxicolous ectotherms, we deployed 198 identical artificial rocks in open (sun-exposed) sites on sandstone outcrops in southeastern Australia, and recorded faunal usage of those retreat sites over the next 29 months. Several landscape-scale attributes were associated with occupancy of experimental rocks, but different features were important for different species. For example, endangered broad-headed snakes (Hoplocephalus bungaroides) preferred retreat sites close to cliff edges, flat rock spiders (Hemicloea major) preferred small outcrops, and velvet geckos (Oedura lesueurii) preferred rocks close to the cliff edge with higher-than-average sun exposure. Standardized retreat sites can provide robust experimental data on the effects of landscape-scale attributes on retreat site selection, revealing interspecific divergences among sympatric taxa that use similar habitats.

  18. Internal and External Influences on Program-Level Curriculum Development in Higher Education Fashion Merchandising Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Janice E.

    2010-01-01

    In an ever changing global economy, higher education experiences accountability issues in educating the workforce. Graduates require the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed in the global workplace. For graduates to have the opportunity to attain this understanding and expertise, it is critical to identify what influences curriculum…

  19. Children's Sensitivity to External Food Cues: How Distance to Serving Bowl Influences Children's Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Young, Kathleen M.; Laurene, Kimberly; Galliger, Courtney; Hauser, Jessica; Wagner Oehlhof, Marissa

    2010-01-01

    Overweight is increasing in children, leading to negative health consequences. Children also lack appropriate levels of important vitamins and nutrients in their diets. Environmental cues, such as food proximity, have been shown to influence consumption rates in adults. The present study has tested whether proximity to either a nutrient-dense or…

  20. Influence of external magnetic field on laser breakdown plasma in aqueous Au nanoparticles colloidal solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Serkov, A A; Simakin, A V; Kuzmin, P G; Mikhailova, G N; Antonova, L Kh; Troitskii, A V; Kuzmin, G P; Shafeev, G A

    2016-01-01

    Influence of permanent magnetic field up to 7.5 T on plasma emission and laser-assisted Au nanoparticles fragmentation in water is experimentally studied. It is found that presence of magnetic field causes the breakdown plasma emission to start earlier regarding to laser pulse. Field presence also accelerates the fragmentation of nanoparticles down to a few nanometers. Dependence of Au NPs fragmentation rate in water on magnetic field intensity is investigated. The results are discussed on the basis of laser-induced plasma interaction with magnetic field.

  1. A statistical modelling study of the abrupt millennial-scale climate changes focusing on the influence of external forcings

    CERN Document Server

    Mitsui, Takahito

    2015-01-01

    Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events are abrupt millennial-scale climate changes mainly detected in the North Atlantic region during the last glacial cycle. The frequency of the DO events varied in time, supposedly because of changes in background climate conditions. Here, we investigate the influences of external forcings on DO events with statistical modelling. We assume two types of generic stochastic dynamical systems models (double-well potential-type and oscillator-type), forced by the northern hemisphere summer insolation change and/or the global ice volume change. The models are calibrated by maximizing their likelihood and compared using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). Among the models, the stochastic oscillator model forced by both insolation and ice volume changes is favored by the NGRIP calcium ion data. The BIC scores provide positive evidence for the ice volume forcing in the presence of the insolation forcing but weak evidence for the insolation forcing in the presence of the ice volume for...

  2. On the Efficiency of Influence-and-Exploit Strategies for Revenue Maximization under Positive Externalities

    CERN Document Server

    Fotakis, Dimitris

    2011-01-01

    We study the problem of revenue maximization in the marketing model for social networks introduced by (Hartline, Mirrokni, Sundararajan, WWW '08). We restrict our attention to the Uniform Additive Model and mostly focus on Influence-and-Exploit (IE) marketing strategies. We obtain a comprehensive collection of results on the efficiency and the approximability of IE strategies, which also imply a significant improvement on the best known approximation ratios for revenue maximization. Specifically, we show that in the Uniform Additive Model, both computing the optimal marketing strategy and computing the best IE strategy are $\\NP$-hard for undirected social networks. We observe that allowing IE strategies to offer prices smaller than the myopic price in the exploit step leads to a measurable improvement on their performance. Thus, we show that the best IE strategy approximates the maximum revenue within a factor of 0.911 for undirected and of roughly 0.553 for directed networks. Moreover, we present a natural g...

  3. The influence of neutron contamination on dosimetry in external photon beam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horst, Felix, E-mail: felix.ernst.horst@kmub.thm.de; Czarnecki, Damian [Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection (IMPS), University of Applied Sciences Giessen, Giessen D-35390 (Germany); Zink, Klemens [Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection (IMPS), University of Applied Sciences Giessen, Giessen D-35390, Germany and Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University Medical Center Giessen-Marburg, Marburg D-35043 (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Photon fields with energies above ∼7 MeV are contaminated by neutrons due to photonuclear reactions. Their influence on dosimetry—although considered to be very low—is widely unexplored. Methods: In this work, Monte Carlo based investigations into this issue performed with FLUKA and EGSNRC are presented. A typical Linac head in 18 MV-X mode was modeled equivalently within both codes. EGSNRC was used for the photon and FLUKA for the neutron production and transport simulation. Water depth dose profiles and the response of different detectors (Farmer chamber, TLD-100, TLD-600H, and TLD-700H chip) in five representative depths were simulated and the neutrons’ impact (neutron absorbed dose relative to photon absorbed dose) was calculated. To take account of the neutrons’ influence, a theoretically required correction factor was defined and calculated for five representative water depths. Results: The neutrons’ impact on the absorbed dose to water was found to be below 0.1% for all depths and their impact on the response of the Farmer chamber and the TLD-700H chip was found to be even less. For the TLD-100 and the TLD-600H chip it was found to be up to 0.3% and 0.7%, respectively. The theoretical correction factors to be applied to absorbed dose to water values measured with these four detectors in a depth different from the reference/calibration depth were calculated and found to be below 0.05% for the Farmer chamber and the TLD-700H chip, but up to 0.15% and 0.35% for the TLD-100 and TLD-600H chips, respectively. In thermoluminescence dosimetry the neutrons’ influence (and therefore the additional inaccuracy in measurement) was found to be higher for TLD materials whose {sup 6}Li fraction is high, such as TLD-100 and TLD-600H, resulting from the thermal neutron capture reaction on {sup 6}Li. Conclusions: The impact of photoneutrons on the absorbed dose to water and on the response of a typical ionization chamber as well as three different types

  4. Contingency Factors Influence on the Attributes of Management Accounting System: a study of textile companies in the State of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Maria Beuren

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to determine whether contingency factors (environment, technology, strategy, organizational structure and size influence on the attributes of management accounting system of textile companies of Rio Grande do Sul. A questionnaire was sent to the owners of 38 companies registered in the Trade Union of the cities Farroupilha e Sarandi, and were obtained 14 replies. To the data was applied the entropy technique to verify the amount of information of the responses. The results indicated that the environment variable was verifies as the one which influences the most, with an emphasis on the customer tastes and preferences and technology applied to the production process. On the other hand, competition for the purchase of inputs/components and competition attitudes was considered as the variable which influences less the companies. It was concluded that the contingency factors of environment, technology, strategy, organizational structure and size, whether with more or less information weight, influence the attributes of the Management Accounting System.

  5. Influence of modified atmosphere packaging on volatile compounds and physicochemical and antioxidant attributes of fresh-cut pineapple (Ananas comosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Calderón, Marta; Rojas-Graü, María Alejandra; Aguiló-Aguayo, Ingrid; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2010-04-28

    The effects of modified atmosphere packaging on volatile compound content and physicochemical and antioxidant attributes of Gold cultivar fresh-cut pineapples were assessed throughout storage at 5 degrees C. Fresh-cut pineapple pieces were packed under LO (low oxygen, 12% O(2), 1% CO(2)), AIR (20.9% O(2)) and HO (high oxygen, 38% O(2)) headspace atmospheres. Methyl butanoate, methyl 2-methylbutanoate, and methyl hexanoate were the most abundant volatiles regardless of the packaging atmosphere and days of storage; whereas most odor active volatiles were methyl and ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone and ethyl hexanoate. Physicochemical attributes of pineapple did not significantly vary, whereas vitamin C content and total antioxidant capacity were lower for fresh-cut pineapple in HO (488 +/- 38 mg/100 mg(fw) and 54.4 +/- 5.7%, respectively) than for LO and AIR packages. Storage life of fresh-cut pineapple was limited to 14 days by volatile compounds losses and fermentation processes.

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL FACTORS ON THE SOCIO-POLITICAL PROCESSES IN THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Майрамгуль Зайнабидиновна Ташиева

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the foreign policy of the Kyrgyz Republic and the influence of geopolitical factors on the political processes in the country. The paper presents a periodization of foreign policy in modern Kyrgyzstan concerning the United States. The author reviewed the draft F. Starr's "Greater Central Asia" and analyzed the "theory of controlled chaos". Big attention is paid to the relationships of Kyrgyzstan and Russia , the USA and China, on the one hand, and with the nearest neighbors in the region, on the other. The paper analyzes the project for the construction of the railway "China - Kyrgyzstan - Uzbekistan". Russia takes one of the central points in the paper. Much attention is paid to the economic sphere, namely the construction of hydroelectric power. Due to the growing number of labor migrants from Kyrgyzstan to Russia , the article discusses the legislative framework in this area. The author lists the key factors that cause social and political problems between Kyrgyzstan and neighboring countries. This paper discusses in detail issues related to the enclaves and the disputed territories.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-31

  7. 归因训练对英语听力焦虑的影响%The Influence of Attributional Training on English Listening Anxiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芳庆

    2011-01-01

    At present,college English education is being considered more important than ever before, it is very necessary to make a further survey on college students' psychological aspects. Second language research indicates that attribution is one of the important factors influencing second language learning, for it may have positive or negative influence on learners' motivation.This paper is an interference study of attributional training to students' listening attributional styles,English listening anxiety and English listening achievements in college.It tries to discuss whether attributional training can reduce college students' listening anxiety, so as to improve their listening level.%目前,大学英语教育在我国受到了很大的重视,大学生的心理因素值得进一步研究。第二语言研究发现,归因是影响第二语言学习的一个重要因素,它能对学习者的动机产生积极或消极的影响。本文是关于归因训练对大学生英语听力归因风格、英语听力焦虑和英语听力成绩关系的干预研究,探讨能否通过归因训练降低学生在英语听力中产生的焦虑,提高大学生的英语听力水平。

  8. External influences on Europe's air quality: Baseline methane, carbon monoxide and ozone from 1990 to 2030 at Mace Head, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derwent, R. G.; Simmonds, P. G.; O'Doherty, S.; Stevenson, D. S.; Collins, W. J.; Sanderson, M. G.; Johnson, C. E.; Dentener, F.; Cofala, J.; Mechler, R.; Amann, M.

    A global 3-D chemistry-transport model STOCHEM has been employed to study trends in the mole fractions of methane, carbon monoxide and ozone in baseline air masses entering Europe from the Atlantic Ocean over the period from 1990 to 2030. With a range of emission scenarios for man-made ozone precursor emission sources available, a wide range of model trends were predicted for the period up to 2030. In the scenario based on current planned air pollution controls, IIASA CLE, methane shows a strong upward trend, ozone shows a weaker upward trend, and carbon monoxide is approximately flat in baseline air masses. In one of the more pessimistic IPCC SRES scenarios, A2, all three gases show future increases. However, in the scenario based on maximum feasible emission reductions, IIASA MFR all three trace gases decline. By 2030, projected climate change reduces the growth in CH 4, but has insignificant effects on baseline CO and O 3 in these simulations. Global or hemispheric ozone precursor emissions and their controls exert a potentially large external influence on Europe's air quality. This influence is currently not taken into account in future European air quality policy formulation.

  9. The Depth of 60-80 km as the Boundary of External Factor Influence on the Earth's Lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasorova, E. V.; Levin, B. W.

    2007-05-01

    The results of statistical analysis of worldwide seismic catalogs (ISC and NEIC), which was carried out in frame of two projects are presented. In both cases we extracted the evens occurred in the Pacific region from 1964 to 2004 with Mb>=4.0. The aftershocks were canceled from the list. All events were divided into following magnitude levels: 4Htr), where Htr is threshold value of the EQ source depth. In frame of the first project statistical verification of hypothesis about within-year variability existence for the events of various energy levels was carried out for the Pacific region (PO). The whole PO was subdivided into 31 subregions (Japan, Kuril Islands, Kamchatka, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, California, and so on along the perimeter of the Pacific). Then we were checking if the distributions of the events during the year period are uniform or these distributions are non- uniform. We were testing it separately for each region, for every magnitude level and for every depth level (total number of the samples under study was 310). It was disproved the null hypothesis about uniform EQ distributions in the course of year for shallow events (with less than 2% significance level), and it was confirmed the null hypothesis for deep earthquakes. It was shown that the main maximum of the seismic activity take place in November-March (minimum of the Earth-Sun distance) for both Hemispheres and the minimum - in April. It was found by using special software procedure that the Htr boundary between the shallow and the deep events was arranged in deep 60-80 km. Thus the EQ with sources located above this boundary are affected by external (astronomical) factors, which may trigger the process of EQ generation. While the external factors don't influence on the EQ sources located below this boundary. In frame of the second project statistical verification of hypothesis about existence non-random component in time distribution of the EQ's between the northern and southern part of

  10. BNNTs under the influence of external electric field as potential new drug delivery vehicle of Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmanzadeh, Davood, E-mail: d.farmanzad@umz.ac.ir; Ghazanfary, Samereh

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Solvation energies show that the BNNTs/amino acids complex stabilizes in presence of solvent. • The adsorption process is sensitive to the external electric field. • The electric field is a suitable method for adsorption and storage of amino acids on BNNTs. - Abstract: The interaction of Glu (Glutamic acid), Lys (Lysine), Gly (Glycine) and Ser (Serine) amino acids with different polarities and (9, 0) zigzag single-wall boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) with various lengths in the presence and absence of external electric field (EF) in gas and solvent phases, are studied using density functional theory. It is found that interaction of Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids with BNNTs in both phases is energetically favorable. From solvation energy calculations, it can be seen that the BNNTs/amino acid complex dissolution in water is spontaneous. The adsorption energies and quantum molecular descriptors changed in the presence of external EF. Therefore, the study of BNNTs/amino acid complex under influence of external electric field is very important in proposing or designing new drug delivery systems in the presence of external EF. Results indicate that Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids can be adsorbed considerably on the BNNTs in the existence of external electric field. Our results showed that the BNNTs can act as a suitable drug delivery vehicle of Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids within biological systems and strength of adsorption and rate of drug release can be controlled by the external EF.

  11. Influence of external constraint and rolling geometry on deformation banding of copper single crystals with {123} orientation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping Zeng; Jianxin Dong; Maicang Zhang; Xishan Xie; Weimin Mao; Zhensheng Li

    2003-01-01

    In order to further understand the similarity and difference between deformation mechanisms of single crystals and poly-crystalline materials, the influence of external constraint and rolling geometry on the deformation behaviour of copper single crystalswith {123} orientation was investigated by embedding them into metal frames of different strengths. The metal frames weremade of aluminum and mild steel, respectively. The results show that the deformation banding degree of the crystal increases withthe strength of metal frame and shear strain. For the crystals rolled under lower γg (γg is the ratio of the geometrical redundant shearstrain to the normal rolling strain), the deformation is homogeneous. For the crystals rolled under higher γg, the deformation is ex-tremely inhomogeneous. The deformation is more homogeneous in the crystals rolled in steel frames than that rolled in aluminumframes. The S-orientation is more stable in the crystals rolled under lower γg than that rolled under higher γg.

  12. What's in Your Box? Promoting Self-Reflection and Analysis of External Influences on Gender Expression and Sexual Orientation Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Hannah M.

    2014-01-01

    This lesson plan is designed to stimulate awareness and reflection on personal attitudes toward gender expression and sexual orientation. Participants are guided to identify and analyze how external influences from various socialization agents shape gender and sexual orientation norms and, consequently, personal attitudes about gender expression…

  13. The Interactional Effects of the Internal and External University Environment, and the Influence of Personal Values, on Satisfaction among International Postgraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambewela, Rodney; Hall, John

    2013-01-01

    The article investigates the interactional effects of internal and external university learning environments, and the influence of personal values, in the satisfaction formation process of international postgraduate students from Asia. Past research on student satisfaction has been narrowly focused on certain aspects of the university internal…

  14. CLINICAL, HISTOLOGICAL AND RADIOLOGICAL ASPECTS REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF SOME EXTERNAL FACTORS ON THE PULP-DENTIN COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Giuroiu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at assesssing – by clinical, histological and radiological investigations – the influence of some external factors on the pulp-dentin complex, and at providing a causal interpretation of the structural changes observed. Materials and methods. Clinical and radiological exams were performed on 65 old patients with ages between 60-75, and also on 40 young patients with ages between 20-35, presenting different dental-periodontal pathologies. The pulp-dentin complex was submitted to a morphopathological examination, to highlight the structural changes observed at microscopic level. Fragments of dental pulp were imersed in a 4% formaldehyde solution with phosphate buffer 0.1 M., pH 7.2, for 12 -14 hours, at a temperature of 4ºC, and 3-5 µm thick slices were prepared. The slices were coloured with hematoxylin-eosine (HE, by the trichromic technique – Masson. Photographies were taken with a Zeiss microscope, with Kodak 200 ASA. Results. Significant differences were observed, between the two groups of patients, as to the external factors that produce structural changes on pulp-dentin organ. In the group of young patients dental caries and coronal fillings prevailed, while the group of old patients was mostly associated with atrition and chronic marginal periodontitis. Out of the 40 young patients, 30 presented chronic dental caries (75%, while, among the 65 old patients, only 24 presented dental caries (36.9%. The percentages of coronary fillings between the two study groups were close, which could be considered as one of the causes producing changes in the pulp-dentin organ, following aggresive preparation of cavities, the action of materials used for the protection of pulp-dentin complex or of the materials used for coronry fillings. Conclusions. Dental pulp has a remarkable ability to counteract the action of harmful factors, producing a mineral barrier and stimulating the reparatory processes. Changes in the endodontic

  15. BNNTs under the influence of external electric field as potential new drug delivery vehicle of Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanzadeh, Davood; Ghazanfary, Samereh

    2014-11-01

    The interaction of Glu (Glutamic acid), Lys (Lysine), Gly (Glycine) and Ser (Serine) amino acids with different polarities and (9, 0) zigzag single-wall boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) with various lengths in the presence and absence of external electric field (EF) in gas and solvent phases, are studied using density functional theory. It is found that interaction of Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids with BNNTs in both phases is energetically favorable. From solvation energy calculations, it can be seen that the BNNTs/amino acid complex dissolution in water is spontaneous. The adsorption energies and quantum molecular descriptors changed in the presence of external EF. Therefore, the study of BNNTs/amino acid complex under influence of external electric field is very important in proposing or designing new drug delivery systems in the presence of external EF. Results indicate that Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids can be adsorbed considerably on the BNNTs in the existence of external electric field. Our results showed that the BNNTs can act as a suitable drug delivery vehicle of Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids within biological systems and strength of adsorption and rate of drug release can be controlled by the external EF.

  16. 任务类型和性别属性对人际信任的影响%The Influence of Task Types and Gender Attribute on Interpersonal Trust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康廷虎; 白学军

    2012-01-01

    研究应用投资游戏任务及其变式,探讨了任务类型与性别属性对人际交往过程中信任给予和信任维持的影响。24名被试(平均年龄为20.41±1.99)通过轮组,完成了实验一和实验二的投资游戏任务。通过对投资比、返还比及其关系的比较和分析,结果发现:(1)在风险任务中,不同性剐信任者的信任给予存在显著性差异,而且信任对象的性别属性对信任者的信任给予也存在显著性影响。(2)在无风险任务中,性别属性对信任时象的信任维持行为不存在显著影响,而信任者的信任给予对信任对象的行为具有显著的预测作用。这一结果表明,性别属性对人际信任的影响,与任务的风险性有关。%This study adopted investment game task and its variant to investigate the effects of gender attributes and task risk on interpersonal trust. 24 participants aged 20.41±1.99 completed Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 through different rounds. Results showed that: (1) In risk task, there was a significance discrepancy between different gender trustors' trust placing, while their trust levels were different for different gender trustee. (2) In no risk task, trustees' trust keeping were influenced by trustors' trust placing, and the gender attributes of trustees or trustors didn't affected trustees' behavior. So sum up, whether or not gender attribute influenced interpersonal trust that depend on the task risk.

  17. 包装逆向物流的环境影响外部性分析%Analysis of Externality of Environmental Influence of Packaging Reverse Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗娟; 田源

    2012-01-01

    介绍了包装逆向物流以及其环境影响的外部性表现,同时从经济学的角度分析了包装逆向物流的环境外部性对企业进行资源配置的影响,最后将包装逆向物流的环境外部性进行定量化分析.%The paper introduces the externality characteristics of packaging reverse logistics and its environmental influence, analyzes from the angle of economics the impact of such externality upon the configuration of enterprise resources, and finally studies quantitatively the environmental externality of the packaging reverse logistics.

  18. Characterization of uniaxial stiffness of extracellular matrix embedded with magnetic beads via bio-conjugation and under the influence of an external magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Sahan C B; Du, Yue; Wang, Dong-an; Liao, Kin; Wang, Qingguo; Asada, Harry; Chen, Peter C Y

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we study the deformation, and experimentally quantify the change in stiffness, of an extracellular matrix (ECM) embedded with magnetic beads that are bio-conjugated with the collagen fibers and under the influence of an external magnetic field. We develop an analytical model of the viscoelastic behavior of this modified ECM, and design and implement a stretch test to quantify (based on statistically meaningful experiment data) the resulting changes in its stiffness induced by the external magnetic field. The analytical results are in close agreement with that obtained from the experiments. We discuss the implication of these results that point to the possibility of creating desired stiffness gradients in an ECM in vitro to influence cell behavior.

  19. Agency attribution: event-related potentials and outcome monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednark, Jeffery G; Franz, Elizabeth A

    2014-04-01

    Knowledge about the effects of our actions is an underlying feature of voluntary behavior. Given the importance of identifying the outcomes of our actions, it has been proposed that the sensory outcomes of self-made actions are inherently different from those of externally caused outcomes. Thus, the outcomes of self-made actions are likely to be more motivationally significant for an agent. We used event-related potentials to investigate the relationship between the perceived motivational significance of an outcome and the attribution of agency in the presence of others. In our experiment, we assessed agency attribution in the presence of another agent by varying the degree of contiguity between participants' self-made actions and the sensory outcome. Specifically, we assessed the feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP) and the novelty P3 measures of an outcome's motivational significance and unexpectedness, respectively. Results revealed that both the fCRP and participants' agency attributions were significantly influenced by action-outcome contiguity. However, when action-outcome contiguity was ambiguous, novelty P3 amplitude was a reliable indicator of agency attribution. Prior agency attributions were also found to influence attribution in trials with ambiguous and low action-outcome contiguity. Participants' use of multiple cues to determine agency is consistent with the cue integration theory of agency. In addition to these novel findings, this study supports growing evidence suggesting that reinforcement processes play a significant role in the sense of agency.

  20. The influence of external subsidies on diet, growth and Hg concentrations of freshwater sport fish: implications for management and fish consumption advisories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepak, J.M.; Hooten, M.B.; Johnson, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in sport fish is a global problem. In freshwater systems, food web structure, sport fish sex, size, diet and growth rates influence Hg bioaccumulation. Fish stocking is a common management practice worldwide that can introduce external energy and contaminants into freshwater systems. Thus, stocking can alter many of the factors that influence Hg concentrations in sport fish. Here we evaluated the influence of external subsidies, in the form of hatchery-raised rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss on walleye Sander vitreus diet, growth and Hg concentrations in two freshwater systems. Stocking differentially influenced male and female walleye diets and growth, producing a counterintuitive size-contamination relationship. Modeling indicated that walleye growth rate and diet were important explanatory variables when predicting Hg concentrations. Thus, hatchery contributions to freshwater systems in the form of energy and contaminants can influence diet, growth and Hg concentrations in sport fish. Given the extensive scale of fish stocking, and the known health risks associated with Hg contamination, this represents a significant issue for managers monitoring and manipulating freshwater food web structures, and policy makers attempting to develop fish consumption advisories to protect human health in stocked systems.

  1. The Role of External Facilitators in Whole School Reform: Teachers' Perceptions of How Coaches Influence School Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Collaborative Education, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This is the second in a series of reports that examines the role of coaches in facilitating school change. The report explains that as coaching, or external facilitation of school change, becomes a more widespread strategy for helping schools undergo comprehensive restructuring to create more professional collaborative cultures and to increase…

  2. 外部性脑积水对儿童脑电功能的影响%The influence of external Hydrocephalus on V-EEG in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘颖妍; 麦坚凝

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究外部性脑积水对婴幼儿脑电功能的影响.方法 自2007年3月至2008年3月对82例2~3岁外部性脑积水儿童行视频脑电图检查及分析.结果 有18.29%的患儿脑电图中出现癫痫样放电,余均出现脑电软征象.结论 外部性脑积水儿童的脑电图会出现癫痫样放电和脑电软征象,视频脑电图为评估其预后和制订合理的干预方案提供依据和信息.%Objective To investigate the influence of external hydrocephalus on V-EEG in children. Methods 82 children with external hydrocephalus underwent the V-EEG from 2007 to 2008. Results 18.29% children with external hydrocephalus had epileptiform discharges,others had soft signs. Conclusion Epileptiform discharges and electroencephalography soft signs appear in the children with external hydrocephalus.V-EEG provides information for evaluating prognosis and formulating intervention program.

  3. Success and failure attributions in smoking cessation among men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R C; Anderson, K E

    1990-04-01

    1. Smoking behavior is intermingled with a very complicated array of social and psychological processes which suggests the presence of sociocultural factors that directly influence smoking behavior. 2. Social and cultural factors which distinguish former smokers from smokers indicate that behavioral factors may be related to the ability to successfully stop smoking. 3. Evidence suggests that attributional patterns differ according to gender, with women being more external and employing more luck attributions than men. 4. When attribution and self-efficacy expectations were combined with demographic variables, increased understanding of the cessation process increased and predictive power of success in smoking cessation improved.

  4. Influence of external climate forcing on coastal upwelling systems analysed in ensemble of past millennium climate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tim, Nele; Zorita, Eduardo; Hünicke, Birgit; Yi, Xin; Emeis, Kay

    2016-04-01

    Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems are highly productive coastal ocean areas where nutrient rich, cold water upwells by the action of favorable winds. Observations over the 20th century and ocean sediment records, which may be indicative of upwelling, display an intensification due to stronger external climate forcing, such as increasing greenhouse gas concentrations or changes in solar irradiance. This intensification is compatible with the hypothesis put forward by Bakun (1990) that a stronger external radiative forcing should lead to a more intense coastal upwelling. Here, we analyze ensemble of simulations covering the past millennium with the aim of identifying and quantifying the role of external climate forcing on upwelling in the major Eastern Boundary Upwelling System. We analyse the decadal variability and centennial trends of upwelling in ensemble of simulations with the global climate model MPI-ESM covering the past millennium, the last 150 years and the next 100 years. The future simulations were driven by three IPCC scenarios of concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, RCP2.5, RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5. For the past millennium and the last 150 years, coastal upwelling does not show any imprint of external forcing. This result indicates that chaotic internal variability has dominated upwelling intensity in major upwelling regions over the last thousand years and even since industrialisation up to present. For the 21st century, all ensemble members show a consistent and significant intensification of upwelling in the strongest scenario RCP8.5 for the Benguela upwelling region, consistent and significant weakening for Morocco and California, and no significant change for the Peruvian upwelling. Weaker scenarios do not produce consistent long-term trends that are replicated in all ensemble members. The results are confirmed by analysing another ensemble of past millennium simulations with the model CESM-CAM5 (Community Earth System Model

  5. Influence of external flow rates on characteristic equations of absorption chillers; Einfluss variabler Volumenstroeme auf charakteristische Gleichungen fuer Absorptionskaelteanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, Felix; Albers, Jan [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik

    2009-04-15

    The method of characteristic equations can be used to describe the performance of absorption chillers in a wide rage of part load conditions as a linear function of a characteristic temperature difference ({delta}{delta}t). This temperature difference combines the external temperatures of hot, chilled and cooling water into one parameter. Normally the achieved part load characteristic is a linear function of {delta}{delta}t provided that the heat transfer coefficients and thus the external flow rates are constant. Nevertheless, this assumption is often not fullfilled under practical conditions. Therefore the classical method has been improved in order to account for variable temperature and flow conditions. Despite of some simplifications the results are in good accordance with measurements. (orig.)

  6. Influence of an external magnetic field on damage by self-ion irradiation in Fe90Cr10 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Sánchez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an external magnetic field (B=0.5 T on Fe90Cr10 specimens during Fe ion irradiation, has been investigated by means of Conversion Electron Mössbauer Spectroscopy (CEMS. The analysis has revealed significant differences in the average hyperfine magnetic field (=0.3 T between non-irradiated and irradiated samples as well as between irradiations made with B (w/ B and without B (w/o B. It is considered that these variations can be due to changes in the local environment around the probe nuclei (57Fe; where vacancies and Cr distribution play a role. The results indicate that the Cr distribution in the neighbourhood of the iron atoms could be changed by the application of an external field. This would imply that an external magnetic field may be an important parameter to take into account in predictive models for Cr behaviour in Fe–Cr alloys, and especially in fusion conditions where intense magnetic fields are required for plasma confinement.

  7. Attributional style and life-events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, N; Williams, J M

    1983-06-01

    The study addressed the question of the significance of intervening life-events in linking attributional style and depression. Twenty male subjects who had experienced an uncontrollable event, job redundancy, were compared with 20 controls on measures of attributional style, depression and self-esteem. The reformulated helplessness hypothesis implies that attribution and depression should be correlated only after the uncontrollable event. This was found to be the case for internal--external dimension, providing tentative support for the reformulated helplessness model.

  8. On the external influence of fire disasters and analysis of the corresponding countermeasures%火灾外部性研究及其对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高仲亮; 周汝良; 李智; 龙腾腾; 崔飞; 仝艳民

    2012-01-01

    The present paper is dealing with the external influence caused by fire disaster, which refers not only to the direct consequences caused by the fire damage, but also to the consequences it brought about to the social public. If it does not recognize such external influence,it is difficult to make the correct fire-damage decision. Therefore, fire disaster is by nature a social economic problem, a problem that is social-economic value-added. From this point of view, we have to deal with the relation of fire disaster between its social public benefit and the category of its economic damage. And, therefore, we have to gain a scientific understanding of the fire accident, because the effective fire protection investment has to be based on the social and economic characteristics of the accidents. Comparing the ideal state, the actual state and the introduction to the social insurance, we have to understand three aspects of fire accidents, that is, the marginal cost, the marginal private cost of damage, the social welfare influence and the external influence of the fire to social community. A fire disaster would be thought of as ideal, if its marginal cost and marginal private cost were equal, with no external economic , social welfare to be worried. When the actual situation is compared with the ideal state, the marginal private cost would be reduced while the marginal external cost would greatly increase as the social welfare decreases. However, when comparing the actual state of fire insurance with the ideal state, as marginal private cost increases, the marginal external cost would turn to reduce, the social welfare has to increase. And, in this case, fire insurance itself would be a small amount of marginal cost, which is by nature an external cost and external economic cost caused by the influential factor on the condition when the information asymmetry and economic market system is not mature enough. The results show that the unreasonable reduction of the fire

  9. The influence of external source intensity in accelerator/target/blanket system on conversion ratio and fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochurov, Boris P.

    1995-09-01

    The analysis of neutron balance relation for a subcritical system with external source shows that a high ratio of neutron utilization (conversion ratio, breeding ratio) much exceeding similar values for nuclear reactors (both thermal or fast spectrum) is reachable in accelerator/target/blanket system with high external neutron source intensity. An accelerator/target/blanket systems with thermal power in blanket about 1850 Mwt and operating during 30 years have been investigated. Continual feed up by plutonium (fissile material) and Tc-99 (transmuted material) was assumed. Accelerator beam intensity differed 6.3 times (16 mA-Case 1, and 100 mA-Case 2). Conversion ratio (CR) was defined as the ratio of Tc-99 nuclei transmuted to the number of Pu nuclei consumed. The results for two cases are as follows: Case 1Case 2CR 0.77 1.66N(LWR) 8.6 19.1Power MWt(el) 512 225 where N(LWR)-number of LWRs(3000 MWt(th)) from which yearly discharge of Tc-99 is transmuted during 30 years. High value of conversion ratio considerably exceeding 1 (CR=1.66) was obtained in the system with high source intensity as compared with low source system (CR=0.77). Net output of electric power of high source intensity system is about twice lower due to consumption of electric power for accelerator feed up. The loss of energy for Tc-99 transmutation is estimated as 40 Mev(el)/nuclei. Yet high conversion ratio (or breeding ratio) achievable in electronuclear installations with high intensity of external source can effectively be used to close fuel cycle (including incineration of wastes) or to develop growing nuclear power production system.

  10. INFLUENCE OF THE EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ON THE RISK OF THE RAID TAKEOVER OF THE RUSSIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Guman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article raid is considered as a destructive form of enterprise behavior which represents realization of appropriating processes of the property without the consent of the former owner or by compulsion to the consent using illegal or formally lawful actions. On the basis of an expert estimation of factors of the external and internal environment there are noted high ratings of legislatively, organizational and financial factors and also the technique of a quantitative method of assessing the level of victim of the company as predisposition indicator to the raid capture is presented.

  11. Attribution and reciprocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander Christopher

    2010-01-01

    , in turn, influence behavior. Dufwenberg and Kirchsteiger [Dufwenberg, M., Kirchsteiger, G., 2004. A theory of sequential reciprocity. Games Econ. Behav. 47 (2), 268-298] formalize this empirical finding in their ‘theory of sequential reciprocity'. This paper extends their analysis by moves of chance. More...... precisely, an extended framework is presented which allows for the analysis of strategic interactions of reciprocal agents in situations in which material outcomes also depend on chance. Moves of chance influence the attribution of responsibilities, people's perceptions about the (un)kindness of others and......, hence, their reciprocal behavior. Furthermore, with the help of two applications it is demonstrated how this framework can be used to explain experimental findings showing that people react very differently in outcomewise-identical situations depending on the moves of chance involved....

  12. Influence of external 3D magnetic fields on helical equilibrium and plasma flow in RFX-mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piovesan, P; Bonfiglio, D; Bonomo, F; Cappello, S; Carraro, L; Cavazzana, R; Gobbin, M; Marrelli, L; Martin, P; Martines, E; Momo, B; Piron, L; Puiatti, M E; Soppelsa, A; Valisa, M; Zanca, P; Zaniol, B [Consorzio RFX, EURATOM-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    A spontaneous transition to a helical equilibrium with an electron internal transport barrier is observed in RFX-mod as the plasma current is raised above 1 MA (Lorenzini R et al 2009 Nature Phys. 5 570). The helical magnetic equilibrium can be controlled with external three-dimensional (3D) magnetic fields applied by 192 active coils, providing proper helical boundary conditions either rotating or static. The persistence of the helical equilibrium is strongly increased in this way. A slight reduction in the energy confinement time of about 15% is observed, likely due to the increased plasma-wall interaction associated with the finite radial magnetic field imposed at the edge. A global helical flow develops in these states and is expected to play a role in the helical self-organization. In particular, its shear may contribute to the ITB formation and is observed to increase with the externally applied radial field. The possible origins of this flow, from nonlinear visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and/or ambipolar electric fields, will be discussed.

  13. Influence of external calcium and thapsigargin on the uptake of polystyrene beads by the macrophage-like cell lines U937 and MH-S

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Macrophages are equipped with several receptors for the recognition of foreign particles and pathogens. Upon binding to these receptors, particles become internalized. An interaction of particles with macrophage surface receptors is accompanied by an increase in cytosolic calcium concentration. This calcium is provided by intracellular stores and also by an influx of external calcium upon activation of the calcium channels. Nevertheless, the role of calcium in phagocytosis remains controversial. Some researchers postulate the necessity of calcium in Fc-receptor-mediated phagocytosis and a calcium-independent phagocytosis of complement opsonized particles. Others refute the need for calcium in Fc-receptor-mediated phagocytosis by macrophages. Methods In this study, the influence of external calcium concentrations and thapsigargin on the phagocytosis of polystyrene latex beads by the macrophage-like cell lines MH-S (murine) and differentiated U937 (human) was analyzed. The phagocytosis efficiency was determined by flow cytometry and was evaluated statistically by ANOVA test and Dunett’s significance test, or ANOVA and Bonferroni’s Multiple Comparison. Results Acquired data revealed an external calcium-independent way of internalization of non-functionalized polystyrene latex beads at free calcium concentrations ranging from 0 mM to 3 mM. The phagocytosis efficiency of the cells is not significantly decreased by a complete lack of external calcium. Furthermore, the presence of thapsigargin, known to lead to an increase of cytosolic calcium levels, did not have a significant enhancing influence on bead uptake by MH-S cells and only an enhancing effect on bead uptake by macrophage-like U937 cells at an external calcium concentration of 4 mM. Conclusion The calcium-independent phagocytosis process and the decrease of phagocytosis efficiency in the presence of complement receptor inhibitor staurosporine lead to the assumption that besides other calcium

  14. Body-related state shame and guilt in women: do causal attributions mediate the influence of physical self-concept and shame and guilt proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Peter R E; Brune, Sara M; Kowalski, Kent C; Mack, Diane E; Wilson, Philip M; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    Guided by the process model of self-conscious emotions, this study examined whether physical self-concept (PSC) and shame and guilt proneness were associated with body-related self-conscious emotions of state shame and guilt and if these relationships were mediated by attributions of stability, globality, and controllability. Female participants (N=284; Mean age=20.6±1.9 years) completed measures of PSC and shame and guilt proneness before reading a hypothetical scenario. Participants completed measures of attributions and state shame and guilt in response to the scenario. Significant relationships were noted between state shame and attributions of globality and controllability, and shame proneness, guilt proneness, and PSC. Similar relationships, with the additional predictor of stability, were found for state guilt. Mediation analysis partially supported the process model hypotheses for shame. Results indicate PSC and shame proneness are important in predicting body-related emotions, but the role of specific attributions are still unclear.

  15. The possibility of regime changing in chain reactions with degenerate branching under the influence of external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipriyanov, A. A.; Purtov, P. A.

    2011-01-01

    A reaction of hydrocarbons oxidation in the liquid phase is treated theoretically. The reaction system under discussion is a flow reactor, to the inlet of which the hydrocarbon is constantly delivered in the mixture with an inhibitor under oxygen saturation conditions; the reaction mixture constantly flows from the chamber at the same rate. The reaction gives rise to radicals that can subsequently recombine. It is shown that under certain conditions in this reaction system, three steady states may arise, two of which are stable and the third state is unstable. By varying rate constants of radical reactions by means of an external magnetic field, one can disturb the steady state stability and transfer the system to another steady state, which will be accompanied by an abrupt change in the concentration of reacting substances.

  16. Differentiating weak ties and strong ties among external sources of influences for enterprise resource planning (ERP) adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Benoit; Léger, Pierre-Majorique; Larocque, Denis

    2012-05-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems represent a major IT adoption decision. ERP adoption decisions, in the chemicals and allied products sectors, were examined between 1994 and 2005. Networks of strong ties and weak ties partners are investigated. Results show that neighbouring companies linked with strong ties can have an influence on organisations making such adoption decision. Past decisions made by major trading partners have a significant influence on the decision to adopt an ERP system for a given organisation. This reflects the complex nature of the knowledge required for such adoption.

  17. Influence of the external conditions on salt retention and pressure-induced electrical potential measured across a composite membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benavente, Juana; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    1999-01-01

    Transport on single electrolyte solutions (NaCl and MgCl2) due to pressure gradients across a commercial reverse osmosis membrane was studied by measuring volume flux (J(v)), salt rejection (S) and pressure induced electrical potential (Delta E) in a crossflow cell. The influence on these paramet......Transport on single electrolyte solutions (NaCl and MgCl2) due to pressure gradients across a commercial reverse osmosis membrane was studied by measuring volume flux (J(v)), salt rejection (S) and pressure induced electrical potential (Delta E) in a crossflow cell. The influence...

  18. The Influence external signals on perceived quality and purchase intention products of high involvement (case study: Laptop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHSEN NAZARI

    2014-09-01

    Data analysis has been done by use of SMARTPLS software. A questionnaire was collected data. The results showed the price, brand, freinds, ranked brand, previous experience, warranty and ingredients can affect the laptop perceived quality. Also, price, brand, country of origin, friends, previous experience, ranked brand and warranty influence the intention to buy a laptop

  19. The influence of external environment factors on the activity of higher educational establishments in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Leonidovna Guzakova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The instability of market economy development causes continuous changes in the activity of higher educational establishments. The article deals with the processes, taking place in the system of higher professional education in the Russian Federation in recent decades. On the basis of the analysis of statistical data and normative acts of the Government and Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, the key global and national trends in higher education are identified: increasing demand for higher education, resulted in its considerable offer (the growth of quantitative indicators is not always accompanied by improvement of higher education quality; reduction in the total number of students due to the demographic situation worsening; transition to a multi-level system of higher education under the Bologna process; change in specialties patterns and directions of training specialists with higher professional education due to the economy structural reforms and labor market needs; aggravation of competition. The tendencies lead to the emergence of demographic, political and economic risks. To reduce negative impact of the external risks to the universities’ activity it is necessary to develop corresponding state educational policy in the sphere of higher education and risk management in universities

  20. The influence of age, muscle strength and speed of information processing on recovery responses to external perturbations in gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senden, R; Savelberg, H H C M; Adam, J; Grimm, B; Heyligers, I C; Meijer, K

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic imbalance caused by external perturbations to gait can successfully be counteracted by adequate recovery responses. The current study investigated how the recovery response is moderated by age, walking speed, muscle strength and speed of information processing. The gait pattern of 50 young and 45 elderly subjects was repeatedly perturbed at 20% and 80% of the first half of the swing phase using the Timed Rapid impact Perturbation (TRiP) set-up. Recovery responses were identified using 2D cameras. Muscular factors (dynamometer) and speed of information processing parameters (computer-based reaction time task) were determined. The stronger, faster reacting and faster walking young subjects recovered more often by an elevating strategy than elderly subjects. Twenty three per cent of the differences in recovery responses were explained by a combination of walking speed (B=-13.85), reaction time (B=-0.82), maximum extension strength (B=0.01) and rate of extension moment development (B=0.19). The recovery response that subjects employed when gait was perturbed by the TRiP set-up was modified by several factors; the individual contribution of walking speed, muscle strength and speed of information processing was small. Insight into remaining modifying factors is needed to assist and optimise fall prevention programmes.

  1. Influence of an External Magnetic Field on the Growth of Nanocrystalline Silicon Films Grown by MF Magnetron Sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junhua Gao; Lin Zhang; Jinquan Xiao; Jun Gong; Chao Sun; Lishi Wen

    2012-01-01

    The effects of an external magnetic field originating from two solenoid coils on the magnetic field configuration, plasma state of a dual unbalanced magnetron sputter system and the structure of nanocrystalline Si films were examined. Numerical simulations of the magnetic field configuration showed that increasing the coil current significantly changed the magnetic field distribution between the substrate and targets. The saturated ion current density Ji in the substrate position measured by using a circular flat probe increased from 0.18 to 0.55 mA/cm2 with the coil current ranging from 0 to 6 A. X-ray diffraction and Raman results revealed that increasing the ion density near the substrate would benefit crystallization of films and the preferential growth along [lI1] orientation. From analysis of the surface morphology and the microstructure of Si films grown under different plasma conditions, it is found that with increasing the Ji, the surface of the film was smoothed and the alteration in the surface roughness was mainly correlated to the localized surface diffusion of the deposited species and the crystallization behavior of the films.

  2. Influence of the vector interaction and an external magnetic field on the isentropes near the chiral critical end point

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    The location of the critical end point (CEP) and the isentropic trajectories in the QCD phase diagram are investigated. We use the (2+1) Nambu$-$Jona-Lasinio model with the Polyakov loop coupling for different scenarios, namely by imposing zero strange quark density, which is the case in the ultra relativistic heavy-ion collisions, and $\\beta$-equilibrium. The influence of strong magnetic fields and of the vector interaction on the isentropic trajectories around the CEP is discussed. It is shown that the vector interaction and the magnetic field, having opposite effects on the first-order transition, affect the isentropic trajectories differently: as the vector interaction increases, the first-order transition becomes weaker and the isentropes become smoother; when a strong magnetic field is considered, the first-order transition is strengthened and the isentropes are pushed to higher temperatures. No focusing of isentropes in region towards the CEP is seen.

  3. Reduct and Attribute Order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Qing Han; Jue Wang

    2004-01-01

    Based on the principle of discernibility matrix,a kind of reduction algorithm with attribute order has been developed and its solution has been proved to be complete for reduct and unique for a given attribute order.Being called the reduct problem,this algorithm can be regarded as a mapping R = Reduct(S)from the attribute order space θ to the reduct space R for an information system ,where U is the universe and C and D are two sets of condition and decision attributes respectively.This paper focuses on the reverse problem of reduct problem S = Order(R),i.e.,for a given reduct R of an information system,we determine the solution of S = Order(R)in the space θ.First,we need to prove that there is at least one attribute order S such that S = Order(R).Then,some decision rules are proposed,which can be used directly to decide whether the pair of attribute orders has the same reduct.The main method is based on the fact that an attribute order can be transformed into another one by moving the attribute for limited times.Thus,the decision of the pair of attribute orders can be altered to the decision of the sequence of neighboring pairs of attribute orders.Therefore,the basic theorem of neighboring pair of attribute orders is first proved,then,the decision theorem of attribute order is proved accordingly by the second attribute.

  4. Defensive externality and blame projection following failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochreich, D J

    1975-09-01

    This study focuses upon the relationship between internal-external control and defensive blame projection. Trust was used as a moderator variable for making differential predictions concerning the behavior of two subgroups of externals: defensive externals, whose externality is presumed to reflect primarily a verbal technique of defense, and congruent externals, whose externality reflects a more genuine belief that most outcomes are determined by forces beyond their personal control. As predicted, defensive externals showed a stronger tendency than did congruent externals and internals to resort to blame projection following failure at an achievement task. There were no group differences in attribution following task success. Defensive externals were found to be more responsive to negative feedback than were congruent externals.

  5. Treatment of low-strength wastewater using immobilized biomass in a sequencing batch external loop reactor: influence of the medium superficial velocity on the stability and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camargo E.F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An anaerobic sequencing batch bioreactor with external circulation of the liquid phase wherein the biomass was immobilized on a polyurethane foam matrix was analyzed, focussing on the influence of the liquid superficial velocity on the reactor's stability and efficiency. Eight-hour cycles were carried out at 30ºC treating glucose-based synthetic wastewater around 500 mgDQO/L. The performance of the reactor was assessed without circulation and with circulating liquid superficial velocity between 0.034 and 0.188 cm/s. The reactor attained operating stability and a high organic matter removal was achieved when liquid was circulated. A first order model was used to evaluate the influence of the liquid superficial velocity (vS, resulting in an increase in the apparent first order parameter when vS increased from 0.034 to 0.094 cm/s. The parameter value remained unchangeable when 0.188 cm/s was applied, indicating that beyond this value no improvement on liquid mass transfer was observed. Moreover, the necessary time to reach the final removal efficiency decreased when liquid circulation was applied, indicating that a 3-hour cycle could be enough.

  6. Influence of climatic conditions, topography and soil attributes on the spatial distribution of site productivity index of the species rich forests of Jalisco, Mexico

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adel Mohamed; Robin M. Reich; Raj Khosla; C. Aguirre-Bravo; Martin Mendoza Briseño

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an approach based on field data to model the spatial distribution of the site productivity index (SPI) of the diverse forest types in Jalisco, Mexico and the response in SPI to site and cli-matic conditions. A linear regression model was constructed to test the hypothesis that site and climate variables can be used to predict the SPI of the major forest types in Jalisco. SPI varied significantly with topog-raphy (elevation, aspect and slope), soil attributes (pH, sand and silt), climate (temperature and precipitation zones) and forest type. The most important variable in the model was forest type, which accounted for 35% of the variability in SPI. Temperature and precipitation accounted for 8 to 9% of the variability in SPI while the soil attributes accounted for less than 4% of the variability observed in SPI. No significant differences were detected between the observed and predicted SPI for the individual forest types. The linear regression model was used to develop maps of the spatial variability in predicted SPI for the individual forest types in the state. The spatial site productivity models developed in this study provides a basis for understanding the complex relationship that exists between forest productivity and site and climatic conditions in the state. Findings of this study will assist resource managers in making cost-effective decisions about the management of individual forest types in the state of Jalisco, Mexico.

  7. Attribution of blame in incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, T L; Ferguson, W P

    1983-06-01

    This study was designed to identify the empirical structure of attitudes relating to attribution of blame in incest. A second purpose was to determine how variables such as gender, physically abused status, and sexually abused status influence the attribution of blame in incest. A sample of 201 male and 211 female college students was administered the Jackson Incest Blame Scale. Four factors emerged from the factor analysis of the total sample supporting the hypothesis that attribution of blame in incest is a multidimensional construct including victim, offender, situational, and societal factors. A difference in the level of victim blame was found between male and female samples. Results are discussed with regard to their implications for further research and training. Other potential uses of the Jackson Incest Blame Scale are suggested.

  8. Lightning Strikes and Attribution of Climatic Change

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Using lightning strikes as an example, two possible schemes are discussed for the attribution of changes in event frequency to climate change, and estimating the cost associated with them. The schemes determine the fraction of events that should be attributed to climatic change, and the fraction that should be attributed to natural chance. They both allow for the expected increase in claims and the fluctuations about this expected value. Importantly, the attribution fraction proposed in the second of these schemes is necessarily different to that found in epidemiological studies. This ensures that the statistically expected fraction of attributed claims is correctly equal to the expected increase in claims. The analysis of lightning data highlights two particular difficulties with data-driven, as opposed to modeled, attribution studies. The first is the possibility of unknown "confounding" variables that can influence the strike frequency. This is partly accounted for here by considering the influence of temp...

  9. Attribution, Affect, and College Exam Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkin, Robert M.; Maruyama, Geoffrey M.

    1979-01-01

    College students attributed their own performance and the performance of the average student to ability, test difficulty, preparation, and luck. Successful students perceived internal factors and unsuccessful students perceived external factors as more important causes of their own performance. Students' anxiety and their ratings of the course and…

  10. Influence of diets with silage from forage plants adapted to the semi-arid conditions on lamb quality and sensory attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, F S; Carvalho, G G P; Santos, E M; Araújo, G G L; Gois, G C; Rebouças, R A; Leão, A G; Santos, S A; Oliveira, J S; Leite, L C; Araújo, M L G M L; Cirne, L G A; Silva, R R; Carvalho, B M A

    2017-02-01

    Quality and sensory attributes of meat from 32 mixed-breed Santa Inês lambs fed diets composed of four silages with old man saltbush (Atriplex nummularia Lind), buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris), Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium), and Pornunça (Manihot sp.) were evaluated. Meat from lambs fed diet containing old man saltbush silage (P0.05). However, the silages led to differences (P<0.05) in aroma, tenderness, and flavor values. The meat from animals fed the pornunça and Gliricidia silages was tenderer. Flavor scores were higher in meat from lambs that consumed old man saltbush silage and lower in the meat from those fed buffelgrass silage. Diets formulated with buffelgrass silage for sheep reduce meat production. Based on the results for carcass weight and meat quality, old man saltbush and pornunça are better silages for finishing sheep.

  11. 人际关系与角色类型对归因过程及情感变化的影响%The Influence of Interpersonal Relationships and the Types of Roles on Attribution and Emotional Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茹; 石志远; 程乐森

    2014-01-01

    目的:考察人际关系及角色类型对大学生好感度、归因过程、责任推断以及情感变化等的影响。方法根据李晓巍2006年自编的学校处罚情景改编问卷,通过角色扮演,采用likert 7点量表测量120名被试的反应。结果在外部归因维度上的方差分析,人们对朋友倾向于外部归因,对竞争对手倾向于内部归因,陌生人居中(F=7.959,P<0.05)。在内部归因维度上的方差分析,人际关系类型的主效应(F=9.744,P<0.001)及其与角色类型的交互作用均显著(F=3.401,P<0.05)。在情感变化上的方差分析,朋友关系时好感度差值最大,陌生人居中,竞争对手最小。其中朋友与竞争对手之间差异显著( F=4.410, P<0.05)。结论不同人际关系与角色类型在归因部位以及情感变化上作用明显。%Objective To investigate the types of interpersonal relationships( friends,strangers and rivals) as well as the types of roles( own and others) on college students'favorability,attribution processes,judgment of responsibility and emotional response.Methods The data were collected by questionnaires established based on Li Xiaowei's requiring participants role-playing to establish the partic-ipants'relations to the actor in the scenario.120 reaction was measured by scale likert7 points.Results ① On the external attribution dimension,friends tended to make more external attribution,competitors tended to choose internal attribution,strangers was in the center (F=7.959,P<0.05);② On the internal attribution dimension,the types of interpersonal had a significant effect(F=9.744,P<0.001)and the interaction of the types of interpersonal relationships and the types of roles was significant(F=3.401,P<0.05);③On emotional difference,when in the friend scenario the maximum,strangers was middle,whereas the emotional difference of rival scenario was the minimum.And there was a

  12. N-terminal residues of an HIV-1 gp41 membrane-proximal external region antigen influence broadly neutralizing 2F5-like antibodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dezhi Li; Jie Liu; Li Zhang; Tianshu Xu; Junheng Chen; Liping Wang; Qi Zhao

    2015-01-01

    The Human immunodeficiency virus type 1(HIV-1) gp41 membrane proximal external region(MPER) is targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies(e.g. 2F5, 4E10, Z13 e and m66.6), which makes this region a promising target for vaccine design. One strategy to elicit neutralizing antibodies against the MPER epitope is to design peptide immunogens mimicking neutralization structures. To probe 2F5-like neutralizing antibodies, two yeast-displayed antibody libraries from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a HIV-1 patient were screened against the 2F5 epitope peptide SP62. Two 2F5-like antibodies were identified that specifically recognized SP62. However,these antibodies only weakly neutralized HIV-1 primary isolates. The epitopes recognized by these two 2F5-like antibodies include not only the 2F5 epitope(amino acids(aa) 662–667 in the MPER)but also several other residues(aa 652–655) locating at the N-terminus in SP62. Experimental results suggest that residues of SP62 adjacent to the 2F5 epitope influence the response of broadly neutralizing 2F5-like antibodies in vaccination. Our findings may aid the design of vaccine immunogens and development of therapeutics against HIV-1 infection.

  13. N-terminal residues of an HIV-1 gp41 membrane-proximal external region antigen influence broadly neutralizing 2F5-like antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dezhi; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Li; Xu, Tianshu; Chen, Junheng; Wang, Liping; Zhao, Qi

    2015-12-01

    The Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp41 membrane proximal external region (MPER) is targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies (e.g. 2F5, 4E10, Z13e and m66.6), which makes this region a promising target for vaccine design. One strategy to elicit neutralizing antibodies against the MPER epitope is to design peptide immunogens mimicking neutralization structures. To probe 2F5-like neutralizing antibodies, two yeast-displayed antibody libraries from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a HIV-1 patient were screened against the 2F5 epitope peptide SP62. Two 2F5-like antibodies were identified that specifically recognized SP62. However, these antibodies only weakly neutralized HIV-1 primary isolates. The epitopes recognized by these two 2F5-like antibodies include not only the 2F5 epitope (amino acids (aa) 662-667 in the MPER) but also several other residues (aa 652-655) locating at the N-terminus in SP62. Experimental results suggest that residues of SP62 adjacent to the 2F5 epitope influence the response of broadly neutralizing 2F5-like antibodies in vaccination. Our findings may aid the design of vaccine immunogens and development of therapeutics against HIV-1 infection.

  14. Attributing illness to food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batz, M. B.; Doyle, M. P.; Morris, J. G.

    2005-01-01

    Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other...... source responsible for illness. A wide variety of food attribution approaches and data are used around the world including the analysis of outbreak data, case-control studies, microbial subtyping and source tracking methods, and expert judgment, among others. The Food Safety Research Consortium sponsored...... the Food Attribution Data Workshop in October 2003 to discuss the virtues and limitations of these approaches and to identify future options for collecting food attribution data in the United States. We summarize workshop discussions and identify challenges that affect progress in this critical component...

  15. 卷入情景下特征框架效应对购买意愿的影响%Influence of the Attribute Framing Effect on Purchasing Intention under Involvement Scene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琦; 刘凯; 张晓航

    2016-01-01

    特征框架是一种典型的框架效应,在很大程度上影响着消费者的决策。本文细分产品类型和消费者卷入类型,探究卷入情景下特征框架对不同类型产品购买意愿的差异化影响。研究表明产品类型与消费者卷入类型有对应关系,消费者在认知卷入和情感卷入下都产生了特征框架效应,情感卷入下消费者在正负特征框架中的购买决策差异性更大、特征框架效应更明显,消费者的卷入程度对特征框架效应和消费者的购买意愿有调节效应。因此,商家定制化使用不同类型产品描述和展现方法尤为重要,并能够利用特征框架来引导消费者的购买选择。%Framing effect refers to the phenomenon that the change in the framework leads to the individual′s preferences transition to the same problem with alternative solutions, which is a typical case of irrational decisions.Attribute frame is a typical feature of the framing effect greatly affecting consumers′decisions.This paper breaks down the product type and involvement type, and explores deeply how attribute frame affects differently the purchasing intention for different types of product under involvement scene.Studies have shown that the product type is corresponding with involvement type, and the consumers are influenced by attribute framing effect both in cognitive and emotional involvement.There is large differ-ence of the consumers′purchasing intention in emotional involvement between the positive and negative characteristics framework.At the same time, the extent of the consumer involvement will moderate the influence of attribute framing on purchasing intention.So it′s particularly important for businesses to use different customized types of product description and displaying, guiding consumers to make purchasing options with the attribute framework.

  16. An experimental and numerical investigation on the influence of external gas recirculation on the HCCI autoignition process in an engine: Thermal, diluting, and chemical effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machrafi, Hatim; Cavadias, Simeon [UPMC Universite Paris 06, LGPPTS, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11, rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); UPMC Universite Paris 06, FRT, Institut Jean Le Rond D' Alembert, 2, place de la Gare de Ceinture, 78210 St Cyr l' Ecole (France); Guibert, Philippe [UPMC Universite Paris 06, FRT, Institut Jean Le Rond D' Alembert, 2, place de la Gare de Ceinture, 78210 St Cyr l' Ecole (France)

    2008-11-15

    In order to contribute to the solution of controlling the autoignition in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine, parameters linked to external gas recirculation (EGR) seem to be of particular interest. Experiments performed with EGR present some difficulties in interpreting results using only the diluting and thermal aspect of EGR. Lately, the chemical aspect of EGR is taken more into consideration, because this aspect causes a complex interaction with the dilution and thermal aspects of EGR. This paper studies the influence of EGR on the autoignition process and particularly the chemical aspect of EGR. The diluents present in EGR are simulated by N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, with dilution factors going from 0 to 46 vol%. For the chemically active species that could be present in EGR, the species CO, NO, and CH{sub 2}O are used. The initial concentration in the inlet mixture of CO and NO is varied between 0 and 170 ppm, while that of CH{sub 2}O alters between 0 and 1400 ppm. For the investigation of the effect of the chemical species on the autoignition, a fixed dilution factor of 23 vol% and a fixed EGR temperature of 70 C are maintained. The inlet temperature is held at 70 C, the equivalence ratios between 0.29 and 0.41, and the compression ratio at 10.2. The fuels used for the autoignition are n-heptane and PRF40. It appeared that CO, in the investigated domain, did not influence the ignition delays, while NO had two different effects. At concentrations up until 45 ppm, NO advanced the ignition delays for the PRF40 and at higher concentrations, the ignition delayed. The influence of NO on the autoignition of n-heptane seemed to be insignificant, probably due to the higher burn rate of n-heptane. CH{sub 2}O seemed to delay the ignition. The results suggested that especially the formation of OH radicals or their consumption by the chemical additives determines how the reactivity of the autoignition changed. (author)

  17. Influence of Diet and Postmortem Ageing on Oxidative Stability of Lipids, Myoglobin and Myofibrillar Proteins and Quality Attributes of Gluteus Medius Muscle in Goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazeem Dauda Adeyemi

    Full Text Available This study appraised the effects of dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil and postmortem ageing on oxidative stability, fatty acids and quality attributes of gluteus medius (GM muscle in goats. Twenty-four Boer bucks were randomly allotted to diet supplemented with 0, 4 and 8% oil blend, fed for 100 days and slaughtered, and the GM muscle was subjected to a 7 d chill storage (4±1°C. Diet had no effect (P> 0.05 on the colour, drip loss, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS value, free thiol, carbonyl, myoglobin and metmyoglobin contents, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA, antioxidant enzyme activities and abundance of myosin heavy chain (MHC and actin in the GM muscle in goats. The meat from goats fed 4 and 8% oil blend had higher (P< 0.05 concentration of α and γ-tocopherol and abundance of troponin T compared with that from the control goats. The GM muscle from the oil-supplemented goats had lower (P< 0.05 concentration of C16:0 and greater (P< 0.05 concentration of C18:1n-9, C18:3n-3 and C20:5n-3 compared with that from the control goats. Nonetheless, diet did not affect (P< 0.05 the total fatty acid in the GM muscle in goats. Regardless of the diet, the free thiol and myoglobin contents, concentration of tocopherol and total carotenoids, MHC and MRA in the GM muscle decreased (P< 0.05 while carbonyl content, TBARS, drip loss and metmyoglobin content increased over storage. Dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil beneficially altered tissue lipids without hampering the oxidative stability of chevon.

  18. Seed cotton yield, ionic and quality attributes of two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. varieties as influenced by various rates of K and Na under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sohail

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is more sensitive to low K availability than most other major field crops, and often shows symptoms of K deficiency in soils not considered K deficient. Field investigation was conducted at Sahiwal to study the effect of different rates of K and Na application on seed cotton yield, ionic ratio and quality characteristics of two cotton varieties. Ten soil K: Na ratios were developed after considering indigenous K, Na status in soil. The treatments of K+Na in kg ha-1 to give K:Na ratios were as: 210+ 60 (3.5:1 i.e. control, 225 + 60 (3.75:1, 240 + 60 (4:1, 255 + 60 (4.25:1, 270 + 60 (4.5:1, 210 + 75 (2.8:1, 225 + 75 (3:1, 240 + 75 (3.2:1, 255 + 75 (3.4:1 and 270 + 75 (3.6:1. Control treatment represented indigenous K, Na status of soil. The experiment continued until maturity. Maximum seed cotton yield of NIBGE-2 was observed at K: Na ratio of 3.6:1. Variety NIBGE-2 manifested greater seed cotton yield than MNH-786. Leaf K: Na ratio of two cotton varieties differed significantly (p < 0.01 due to varieties, rates of K and Na and their interaction. Variety NIBGE-2 maintained higher K: Na ratio than MNH-786 and manifested good fiber quality. There was significant relationship (R2 = 0.55, n = 10 between K: Na ratio and fiber length and significant relationship (R2 = 0.65, n = 10 between K concentration and fiber length for NIBGE-2. There was also significant relationship (R2 = 0.91, 0.78, n = 10 between boll number and seed cotton yield for both varieties. The increase in yield was attributed to increased boll weight.

  19. 创业团队外部社会网络对创新能力的影响机理研究%Study on the Mechanism of Entrepreneurial Team External Social Network Influence on the Innovation Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄昱方; 柯希正

    2013-01-01

    Based on the perspective of social network theory, the paper dissects the analysis of influence mechanism of en-trepreneurial team external social network to the innovation ability. The research indicates that the team external social net-work ties strength and innovation ability of negative correlation, positive correlation of team external social network structural holes and innovation ability. Team external social network ties strength is negatively related to the innovation ability , team external social network structural holes is positive related to the innovation ability and trust contract plays an intermediary ef-fect on the relationship between team external social network and innovation ability.%基于社会网络理论视角,剖析创业团队外部社会网络对创新能力的影响机制。结果表明:创业团队社会网络的衡量指标、变量联系强度及结构空洞影响企业的创新能力。团队外部社会网络联系强度与创新能力负相关,团队外部社会网络结构空洞与创新能力正相关,信任契约在团队外部社会网络与创新能力的关系中起中介效应作用。

  20. Factors Relating to Staff Attributions of Control over Challenging Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, Jennifer A.; Phillips, Neil; Rose, John

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous research has suggested that severity of intellectual disability (ID) and topography of behaviour may influence staff causal attributions regarding challenging behaviour. Subsequently, these causal attributions may influence helping behaviours. This study investigated the relationship between attributions of control over…

  1. Resistive switching phenomena of extended defects in Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3} under influence of external gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenbuecher, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Redox-based memristive materials have attracted much attention in the last decade owing to their ability to change the resistance upon application of an electric field making them promising candidates for future non-volatile memories. However, a fundamental understanding of the nature of the resistive switching effect, which is indispensable for designing future technological applications,is still lacking. As a prototype material of a memristive oxide, strontium titanate (SrTiO{sub 3}) has been investigated intensively and it was revealed that the valence change of a Ti ''d'' electron plays an important role during resistive switching related to insulator-to-metal transition. Such a transition can be induced by electrical gradients, by chemical gradients, by a combination of these gradients or by donor doping. Hence, SrTiO{sub 3} doped with the donor Nb should have metallic properties and is used commonly as a conducting substrate for the growth of functional oxide thin films. Nevertheless,the resistive switching effect has also be observed in Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3}. This paradoxical situation offers a unique opportunity to gain an insight into the processes during the insulator-to metal transition. In this thesis, a comprehensive study of the influence of external gradients on SrTiO{sub 3}:Nb single crystals is presented. The focus is especially set on the investigation of the crystallographic structure, the chemical composition, the electronic structure, the lattice dynamics and the electronic transport phenomena using surface-sensitive methods on the macro- and nanoscale. On the as-received epi-polished single crystals, the evolution of a surface layer having a slight excess of strontium and - in contrast to the bulk of the material - semiconducting properties are observed. Hence, the key for understanding of the resistive switching effect is the knowledge of the nature of the surface layer. On the basis of systematic studies of the influence

  2. The influence of external dynamic loads on the lifetime of rolling element bearings: Experimental analysis of the lubricant film and surface wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, William; Van Hooreweder, Brecht; Boonen, Rene; Sas, Paul; Moens, David

    2016-06-01

    Precise prediction of the lifetime of rolling element bearings is a crucial step towards a reliable design of many rotating machines. For bearings subjected to highly varying loads, recent research emphasises a strong reduction of the actual bearing lifetime w.r.t. the classically calculated bearing lifetime. This paper experimentally analyses the influence of external dynamic loads on the lifetime of rolling element bearings. A novel bearing test rig is introduced. The test rig is able to apply a fully controlled multi-axial static and dynamic load on a single test bearing. Also, different types and sizes of bearings can be tested. Two separate investigations are conducted. First, the behaviour of the lubricant film between the rolling elements and raceways is analysed. Increased metallic contact or breakdown of the film during dynamic excitation is investigated based on the measured electrical resistance through the bearing. The study shows that the lubricant film thickness follows the imposed variations of the load. Variations of the lubricant film thickness are similar to the variations when the magnitude of the static bearing load is changed. Second, wear of the raceway surfaces is analysed. Surface wear is investigated after a series of accelerated lifetime tests under high dynamic load. Due to sliding motion between asperities of the contacting surfaces in the bearing, polishing of the raceway honing structure occurs. This polishing is clearly observed on SEM images of the inner raceway after a test duration of only 0.5% of the calculated L10 life. Polishing wear of the surfaces, such as surface induced cracks and material delamination, is expected when the bearing is further exposed to the high dynamic load.

  3. Influence of changes in external potassium and chloride ions on membrane potential and intracellular potassium ion activity in rabbit ventricular muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fozzard, H A; Lee, C O

    1976-04-01

    1. The membrane responses of rabbit papillary muscles to rapid changes in [K](o) and [Cl](o) were measured with open-tipped micropipettes and with closed micropipettes made from K-selective glass.2. The muscle cells behaved primarily as a K electrode, and responses to changes in [K](o) with constant [Cl](o) or with constant [K](o) x [Cl](o) were substantially the same.3. When [Cl](o) was changed at a constant [K](o) the membrane potentials changed rapidly and symmetrically by a small value and remained constant for 30 min.4. Measurement of potential with K(+)-selective micro-electrodes in these experiments showed no change in intracellular K activity. In addition to permitting calculation of K permeability, these measurements reassured us that the K(+)-selective electrodes were well insulated and not influenced by electrical shunts at the impalement site.5. Although the membrane response to changes in [Cl](o) was small, it was possible to calculate that the permeability ratio (P(Cl)/P(K)), was 0.11. The Cl and K conductances were about 0.015 mmho/cm(2) and 0.09 mmho/cm(2) respectively, resulting in a conductance ratio (g(Cl)/g(K)) of about 0.17.6. The time course of depolarization by increase in [K](o) was rapid (half-time 5 sec), but repolarization on return to lower [K](o) was much slower (half-time 50 sec). The depolarization time course was easily fitted by the potential change calculated by assuming the need for K diffusion into the extracellular spaces and taking account of the logarithmic relation between membrane potential and [K](o). These calculations did not fit the time course of repolarization, which was slowed in the fashion expected from an inward-rectifying membrane.7. The influence of [K](i) on membrane potential was investigated by changes in tonicity of the external solution. Hypotonic solution produced a change in intracellular K activity close to that produced by ideal water movement. However, in hypertonic solution, intracellular K activity

  4. Influence of local and external processes on the annual nitrogen cycle and primary productivity on Georges Bank: A 3-D biological-physical modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rubao; Davis, Cabell; Chen, Changsheng; Beardsley, Robert

    2008-09-01

    Georges Bank is one of the world's most highly productive marine areas, but the mechanisms of nutrient supply to support such high productivity remain poorly understood. Intrusions of nutrient-poor Labrador Slope Water (LSW) into the Gulf of Maine (NAO-dependent) potentially can reduce nutrient delivery to the bank, but this mechanism has not been quantitatively examined. In this paper, we present the first whole-year continuous model simulation results using a biological-physical model developed for the Gulf of Maine/Georges Bank region. This high-resolution three-dimensional coupled model consists of the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) and a Nitrogen-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus (NPZD) model, and was used to examine the influences of local and external processes on nitrogen and phytoplankton dynamics on Georges Bank. The model captured the general pattern of spatial-temporal distributions of nitrogen and phytoplankton and provided a diagnostic analysis of different processes that control nitrogen fluxes on Georges Bank. Specifically, numerical experiments were conducted to examine seasonal variation in nitrogen transport into the central bank (new nitrogen supply) versus nitrogen regenerated internally in this region. Compared with previous observation-based studies, the model provided a quantitative estimate of nitrogen flux by integrating the transport over a longer time period and a complete spatial domain. The results suggest that, during summer months, internal nitrogen regeneration is the major nitrogen source for primary production on the central bank, while nitrogen supply through physical transport (e.g. tidal pumping) contributes about 1/5 of the total nitrogen demand, with an estimated on-bank nitrogen transport at least 50% less than previous estimates. By comparing the model runs using different nitrogen concentrations in deep Slope Water, the potential influence of NAO-dependent intrusions of LSW was examined. The results suggest

  5. Personal attributes that influence the adequate management of hypertension and dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Results from the DIAB-CORE Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rückert Ina-Maria

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertension and dyslipidemia are often insufficiently controlled in persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D in Germany. In the current study we evaluated individual characteristics that are assumed to influence the adequate treatment and control of hypertension and dyslipidemia and aimed to identify the patient group with the most urgent need for improved health care. Methods The analysis was based on the DIAB-CORE project in which cross-sectional data from five regional population-based studies and one nationwide German study, conducted between 1997 and 2006, were pooled. We compared the frequencies of socio-economic and lifestyle factors along with comorbidities in hypertensive participants with or without the blood pressure target of  Results We included 1287 participants with T2D of whom n = 1048 had hypertension and n = 636 had dyslipidemia. Uncontrolled blood pressure was associated with male sex, low body mass index (BMI, no history of myocardial infarction (MI and study site. Uncontrolled blood lipid levels were associated with male sex, no history of MI and study site. The odds of receiving no pharmacotherapy for hypertension were significantly greater in men, younger participants, those with BMI  Conclusion In the DIAB-CORE study, the patient group with the greatest odds of uncontrolled co-morbidities and no pharmacotherapy was more likely comprised of younger men with low BMI and no history of cardiovascular disease.

  6. Influence of carvacrol and thymol on the physiological attributes, enterotoxin production and surface characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, E.L.; Oliveira, C.E.V.; Stamford, T.L.M.; Conceição, M.L.; Neto, N.J. Gomes

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the phenolic compounds carvacrol (CAR) and thymol (THY) on some physiological characteristics and on the modulation of the secretion of some staphylococcal virulence factors, that is, coagulase and enterotoxin. This study also investigated possible mechanisms for the establishment of the anti-staphylococcal activity of these compounds. Sublethal concentrations (0.3 and 0.15 μL/mL) of CAR and THY inhibited the activity of the enzymes coagulase and lipase and led to a decrease in salt tolerance. At the tested sublethal concentrations, both CAR and THY led to a total suppression of enterotoxin production. The loss of a 260-nm-absorbing material and an efflux of potassium ions occurred immediately after the addition of CAR and THY at 0.6 and 1.2 μL/mL and increased up to 120 min of exposure. Electron microscopy of cells exposed to CAR and THY (0.6 μL/mL) revealed that individual cells appeared to be deformed, with projections of cellular material. The observations of leakage of cellular material and an altered cell surface suggest that gross damage to a cell’s cytoplasmic membrane, which results in a disruption in protein secretion, could be responsible for the anti-staphylococcal properties of CAR and THY. PMID:24159280

  7. Influence of carvacrol and thymol on the physiological attributes, enterotoxin production and surface characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.L. Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of the phenolic compounds carvacrol (CAR and thymol (THY on some physiological characteristics and on the modulation of the secretion of some staphylococcal virulence factors, that is, coagulase and enterotoxin. This study also investigated possible mechanisms for the establishment of the anti-staphylococcal activity of these compounds. Sublethal concentrations (0.3 and 0.15 µL/mL of CAR and THY inhibited the activity of the enzymes coagulase and lipase and led to a decrease in salt tolerance. At the tested sublethal concentrations, both CAR and THY led to a total suppression of enterotoxin production. The loss of a 260-nm-absorbing material and an efflux of potassium ions occurred immediately after the addition of CAR and THY at 0.6 and 1.2 µL/mL and increased up to 120 min of exposure. Electron microscopy of cells exposed to CAR and THY (0.6 µL/mL revealed that individual cells appeared to be deformed, with projections of cellular material. The observations of leakage of cellular material and an altered cell surface suggest that gross damage to a cell's cytoplasmic membrane, which results in a disruption in protein secretion, could be responsible for the anti-staphylococcal properties of CAR and THY.

  8. Matchings with Externalities and Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal;

    2013-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real-life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas ...

  9. Influência dos atributos do solo sobre a qualidade da madeira de Pinus taeda para produção de celulose Kraft Influence of soil attributes on quality of Pinus taeda wood for cellulose Kraft production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Aparecida Rigatto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram analisados os efeitos dos atributos do solo sobre a qualidade da madeira de Pinus taeda para produção de celulose Kraft, em áreas da Klabin, em Telêmaco Borba-PR. Foram estudados oito sítios com árvores de 12 anos de idade, selecionados pelo tipo de solo, textura e vegetação primária. Para caracterização dos sítios foram realizadas coletas de amostras em três horizontes, tendo sido coletadas amostras indeformadas e compostas, analisando-se as seguintes variáveis no solo: densidade global, porosidade total, macroporosidade, disponibilidade de água, fertilidade e granulometria. Selecionaram-se cinco árvores médias por sítio, nas quais foram medidos as alturas total e comercial e o DAP e retirados discos, sendo este material ensaiado quanto a densidade básica, composição química, características morfológicas dos traqueídeos e produção de celulose Kraft. Com relação às propriedades da madeira, os atributos físicos do solo demonstraram ter maior influência. De modo geral, as madeiras provenientes de sítios com texturas mais argilosas apresentaram menores valores de densidade básica; maiores teores de extrativos e lignina; menores teores de holocelulose e celulose; traqueídeos mais curtos, mais largos, com paredes mais finas e com diâmetros do lúmen maiores; e menor rendimento em celulose. A partir destes resultados, concluiu-se ser possível a previsão de propriedades da polpa através da análise das características da madeira associada às condições edáficas reinantes.To meet the increasing demand for forest products, much of the future timber supply will come from trees grown in managed plantations. This work was carried out to analyze the effects of soil attributes on Pinus taeda wood quality to produce Kraft cellulose at Klabin Parana Cellulose Co., in Telêmaco Borba, PR, Brazil. The study focused on the influence of soil attributes on the anatomical, physical and chemical wood

  10. Controlling attribute effect in linear regression

    KAUST Repository

    Calders, Toon

    2013-12-01

    In data mining we often have to learn from biased data, because, for instance, data comes from different batches or there was a gender or racial bias in the collection of social data. In some applications it may be necessary to explicitly control this bias in the models we learn from the data. This paper is the first to study learning linear regression models under constraints that control the biasing effect of a given attribute such as gender or batch number. We show how propensity modeling can be used for factoring out the part of the bias that can be justified by externally provided explanatory attributes. Then we analytically derive linear models that minimize squared error while controlling the bias by imposing constraints on the mean outcome or residuals of the models. Experiments with discrimination-aware crime prediction and batch effect normalization tasks show that the proposed techniques are successful in controlling attribute effects in linear regression models. © 2013 IEEE.

  11. Understanding the Covariation among Childhood Externalizing Symptoms: Genetic and Environmental Influences on Conduct Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Danielle M.; Viken, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are common childhood externalizing disorders that frequently co-occur. However, the causes of their comorbidity are not well understood. To address that question, we analyzed data from >600 Finnish twin pairs, who completed standardized…

  12. Friends' Knowledge of Youth Internalizing and Externalizing Adjustment: Accuracy, Bias, and the Influences of Gender, Grade, Positive Friendship Quality, and Self-Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Lance P.; Rose, Amanda J.

    2009-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that close friends may be knowledgeable of youth's psychological adjustment. However, friends are understudied as reporters of adjustment. The current study examines associations between self- and friend-reports of internalizing and externalizing adjustment in a community sample of fifth-, eighth-, and eleventh-grade youth.…

  13. Academic Processing Speed Mediates the Influence of both Externalizing Behavior and Language Skills on the Academic Skills of Students with Emotional Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Gregory J.; Nelson, J. Ron; Allor, Jill H.; Mooney, Paul; Dai, Tao

    2008-01-01

    The results from previous research suggest that there is a relatively small (albeit statistically significant) relationship between the externalizing behavior and academic skills of students with emotional disturbance (ED). Researchers have also found that the majority of these students have language deficits that hinder their academic…

  14. Novel Topic Authorship Attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    cross-validation, genre shift, vector projection, singular value decomposition, principal component analysis Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified...by eight students. Each student wrote a total of 24 documents in three different genres about three different topics. They found that compensating for...Baayen, H. Halteren, A. Neijt, and F. Tweedie, “Outside the cave of shadows: Using syntactic annotation to enhance authorship attribution,” Literary

  15. 可再分散乳胶粉对外墙外保温及饰面性能影响%Influence of the re-dispersible latex powder on external insulation and ornamental surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘媛

    2009-01-01

    According to the experiment, the author studies the influences of the re-dispersible latex powder on external insulation and ornamen-tal surface system performance, mixes the re-dispersible latex powder with different ratios into the external insulation and ornamental surface system (EIFS), research proves that it can perform bottom layer pedormance of the EIFS effectively, thus promoting protracted nature and durability of the EIFS.%通过试验研究了可再分散乳胶粉对外墙外保温及饰面系统性能的影响,研究表明,在外墙外保温及饰面系统(EIFS)中掺入不同比例的可再分散乳胶粉,可有效改善EIFS底层的性能,从而提高EIFS的长期性和耐久性能.

  16. ANALYSIS OF EXTERNAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Kiseleva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The external factors influencing the process of formation of tariffs of commercial services are considered in the article. External environment is known to be very diverse and changeable. Currently, pricing has become one of the key processes of strategic development of a company. Pricing in the service sector, in turn, is highly susceptible to changes in the external environment. Its components directly or indirectly affect the market of services, changing it adopted economic processes. As a rule, firms providing services can’t influence the changes in external factors. However, the service market is very flexible, which enables businesses to reshape pricing strategy, to adapt it to the new environment.

  17. Matching Games with Additive Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal

    2012-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas......, optimistic, and pessimistic behaviour, and provide both computational hardness results and polynomial-time algorithms for computing stable outcomes....

  18. Extreme Weather Events and Climate Change Attribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Katherine [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-31

    A report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine concludes it is now possible to estimate the influence of climate change on some types of extreme events. The science of extreme event attribution has advanced rapidly in recent years, giving new insight to the ways that human-caused climate change can influence the magnitude or frequency of some extreme weather events. This report examines the current state of science of extreme weather attribution, and identifies ways to move the science forward to improve attribution capabilities. Confidence is strongest in attributing types of extreme events that are influenced by climate change through a well-understood physical mechanism, such as, the more frequent heat waves that are closely connected to human-caused global temperature increases, the report finds. Confidence is lower for other types of events, such as hurricanes, whose relationship to climate change is more complex and less understood at present. For any extreme event, the results of attribution studies hinge on how questions about the event's causes are posed, and on the data, modeling approaches, and statistical tools chosen for the analysis.

  19. 基于归因论的大学英语自主学习影响因素研究%A Survey of factors that influence college English autonomous learning based on attribution theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋彤彤; 丛丽

    2015-01-01

    采用问卷调查和访谈的方式,从归因论的视角探讨影响大学英语自主学习的三个主要因素:学习动机、学习观念和学习环境。结果表明,大多数学习者的外在动机高于内在动机;学习者有一定的自主学习意识,但是对自己在自主学习中的角色不够明确;自主学习的环境监控较弱,评估机制也有待改进。针对这些发现,提出相应的教学建议。%By means of questionnaires and interviews,it presents the three major factors that influence college English autonomous learning from the perspective of attribution theory.The results show that autonomous learners’extrinsic motivation is higher than their intrinsic motivation;most learners have the autonomous learning awareness,but they don’t show a favorable understanding of their role in the autonomous learning process.Moreover,the supervision and evaluation system still need improving.This paper also puts forward some suggestions on how to improve the effects of web-based autonomous learning.

  20. Influences of driver’s attributions on signalized intersection traffic%驾驶员属性对信号灯路口交通流的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅超群

    2014-01-01

    A cellular automaton model is proposed to study the traffic at signalized intersection. The driving behaviors induced by driver’s attribution (gender, driving experience, character, etc. ) are numerically analyzed. Simulation results show that the rusty driving skills or tension driving, impatient driving and so on can lead to the transition from free flow to congestion more easily, and these behaviors are the important cause for low travel efficiency at the intersection; the signal cycle is the main factor influencing traffic flux and travel time fairness.%采用元胞自动机模型研究信号灯路口的交通流特性,系统地分析了与性别、驾驶经验、性格等驾驶员属性相关的驾驶行为对交通流的影响。数值模拟发现,技术生疏或紧张驾驶、急躁行驶等驾驶行为更易引发自由流到阻塞流的相变,是路口通行低效率及事故隐患的重要原因,信号周期是影响流量与个人通行时间公平的主要因素。

  1. Multi-model attribution of upper-ocean temperature changes using an isothermal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Evan; Min, Seung-Ki; Palmer, Matthew D; Lee, Donghyun; Yim, Bo Young; Yeh, Sang-Wook

    2016-06-01

    Both air-sea heat exchanges and changes in ocean advection have contributed to observed upper-ocean warming most evident in the late-twentieth century. However, it is predominantly via changes in air-sea heat fluxes that human-induced climate forcings, such as increasing greenhouse gases, and other natural factors such as volcanic aerosols, have influenced global ocean heat content. The present study builds on previous work using two different indicators of upper-ocean temperature changes for the detection of both anthropogenic and natural external climate forcings. Using simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, we compare mean temperatures above a fixed isotherm with the more widely adopted approach of using a fixed depth. We present the first multi-model ensemble detection and attribution analysis using the fixed isotherm approach to robustly detect both anthropogenic and natural external influences on upper-ocean temperatures. Although contributions from multidecadal natural variability cannot be fully removed, both the large multi-model ensemble size and properties of the isotherm analysis reduce internal variability of the ocean, resulting in better observation-model comparison of temperature changes since the 1950s. We further show that the high temporal resolution afforded by the isotherm analysis is required to detect natural external influences such as volcanic cooling events in the upper-ocean because the radiative effect of volcanic forcings is short-lived.

  2. Multi-model attribution of upper-ocean temperature changes using an isothermal approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Evan; Min, Seung-Ki; Palmer, Matthew D.; Lee, Donghyun; Yim, Bo Young; Yeh, Sang-Wook

    2016-06-01

    Both air-sea heat exchanges and changes in ocean advection have contributed to observed upper-ocean warming most evident in the late-twentieth century. However, it is predominantly via changes in air-sea heat fluxes that human-induced climate forcings, such as increasing greenhouse gases, and other natural factors such as volcanic aerosols, have influenced global ocean heat content. The present study builds on previous work using two different indicators of upper-ocean temperature changes for the detection of both anthropogenic and natural external climate forcings. Using simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, we compare mean temperatures above a fixed isotherm with the more widely adopted approach of using a fixed depth. We present the first multi-model ensemble detection and attribution analysis using the fixed isotherm approach to robustly detect both anthropogenic and natural external influences on upper-ocean temperatures. Although contributions from multidecadal natural variability cannot be fully removed, both the large multi-model ensemble size and properties of the isotherm analysis reduce internal variability of the ocean, resulting in better observation-model comparison of temperature changes since the 1950s. We further show that the high temporal resolution afforded by the isotherm analysis is required to detect natural external influences such as volcanic cooling events in the upper-ocean because the radiative effect of volcanic forcings is short-lived.

  3. The External Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  4. Attribution of precipitation changes in African rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, F. E. L.; Allen, M. R.; Bowery, A.; Imbers, J.; Jones, R.; Massey, N.; Miller, J.; Rosier, S.; Rye, C.; Thurston, M.; Wilson, S.; Yamazaki, H.

    2012-04-01

    Global climate change is almost certainly affecting the magnitude and frequency of extreme weather and hydrological events. However, whether and to what extend the occurrence of such an event can be attributed to climate change remains a challenge that relies on good observations as well as climate modelling. A number of recent studies have attempted to quantify the role of human influence on climate in observed weather events as e.g. the 2010 Russian heat wave (Dole et al, 2011; Rahmstorf and Coumou, 2011; Otto et al, 2012). The overall approach is to simulate, with as realistic a model as possible and accounting as far as possible for modelling uncertainties, both the statistics of observed weather and the statistics of the weather that would have obtained had specific external drivers of climate change been absent. This approach requires a large ensemble size to provide results from which the statistical significance and the shape of the distribution of key variables can be assessed. Also, a sufficiently long period of time must be simulated to evaluate model bias and whether the model captures the observed distribution. The weatherathome.net within the climateprediction.net projects provides such an ensemble with many hundred ensemble members per year via volunteer distributed computing. Most previous attribution studies have been about European extreme weather events but the most vulnerable regions to climate change are in Asia and Africa. One of the most complex hydrological systems is the tropical rainforest, which is expected to react highly sensible to a changing climate. Analysing the weatherathome.net results we find that conditions which are too dry for rainforests to sustain without damages occurred more frequently and more severe in recent years. Furthermore the changes in precipitation in that region can be linked to El Nino/ La Nina events. Linking extreme weather events to large-scale teleconnections helps to understand the occurrence of this

  5. First principles study of the electronic and optical properties of GaAs nanoparticles under the influence of external uniform electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezi Javan, Masoud, E-mail: javan.masood@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Golestan University, Gorgan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-01

    We present electronic and optical properties of the hydrogen terminated gallium arsenide nanoparticles using time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The electronic and optical properties of the GaAs nanoparticles were calculated at presence of the uniform external electric field in the range from 0 to 0.51 V/Å. The induced electric filed can decrease the HOMO–LUMO gap of the nanoparticles and the mount of these reductions increases with gain of the electric field strength. -- Highlights: ► HOMO–LUMO gap of the nanoparticles is significantly more than GaAs bulk band gap. ► HOMO–LUMO gap of the nanoparticles decreases with increase of the nanoparticles size. ► External electric filed decrease the HOMO–LUMO gap of the nanoparticles. ► Dipole moment of nanoparticles increases with gain of the electric field strength. ► Absorption peaks of GaAs nanoparticles shows red shift with applying electric field.

  6. Stabilizing control of continuous DTB crystallizer. Influence of undissolved fine crystals in external heater; DTB gata renzoku shosekiki no anteika seigyo. Gaibu kanetsuki ni okeru bisho kessho tokenokori no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, Kiyoshi; Sotowa, Ken' ichi; Kano, Manabu; Hasebe, Shinji; Hashimoto, Iori [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-01-10

    In the study of modeling and control of continuous DTB crystallizers, it has been common practice to assume complete dissolution of fine crystals in an external heater (fines dissolver). However, complete dissolution of fine crystals is not always guaranteed because the dissolution rate is finite. In this work, a model of an external heater is developed by taking account of the finite dissolution rate of the crystals. The model is used to study the influence of incomplete dissolution of fine crystals on the stabilizing control of the crystal size distribution (CSD). It is found to be difficult to suppress the sustained oscillation of CSD by using the conventional SISO controllers, which regulate the amount of fines crystals by manipulating the fines flow rate. This is because when the fines flow rate is very large, an increase in the fines flow rate can reduce the amount of crystal dissolution in the external heater. It is demonstrated that instability can be avoided by imposing an upper limit on the fines flow rate. Furthermore, it is shown that the upper limit can be predicted by using the results of open-loop simulation. (author)

  7. Atributos físicos do solo sob diferentes preparos e coberturas influenciados pela distribuição de poros Soil physical attributes under different tillage systems and cover crops, as influenced by pore distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurâimi de Q. Cunha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho se propõe avaliar a influência da distribuição de poros sobre alguns atributos físicos do solo sob semeadura direta (SD e preparo convencional (PC, cultivado com diferentes culturas de cobertura, no sistema de produção orgânica de feijão e milho. O trabalho foi conduzido em Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Em novembro de 2003 foram instalados quatro experimentos, dois em SD e dois em PC, um em cada manejo com feijão e o outro com milho. Foram comparados em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, crotalária, guandu, mucuna-preta, sorgo e pousio. Amostragens de solo das parcelas e de uma mata próxima foram realizadas nas profundidades de 0-0,10 e 0,10-0,20 m, em novembro de 2007, para determinação do teor de matéria orgânica (M.O. e de atributos físicos do solo. O uso do solo sob vegetação de cerrado para a produção agrícola, independentemente do sistema de cultivo, resultou em redução na porosidade total (Pt, macroporosidade (Mp e capacidade de aeração do solo (CAS. Os atributos físicos do solo foram afetados favoravelmente pela M.O. As variações em Pt, Mp, CAS e capacidade de água disponível do solo podem ser explicadas pela variação na distribuição do tamanho de poros do solo, principalmente daqueles com ∅ > 0,075 mm.This study aimed to evaluate the influence of pore distribution on some physical attributes of soil under no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT systems, cultivated with different cover crops, in organic production of common bean and corn. The work was carried out in Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, on an Oxisol. In November 2003 four experiments were installed, two of them under NT and the other two under CT. In each soil tillage system, an experiment was conducted with corn and another with common bean. Sunn hemp, pigeon pea, velvet bean, sorghum, and fallow were compared in a randomized block design, with four replications. Samples were

  8. Influência de formas do relevo em atributos físicos de um latossolo sob cultivo de cana-de-açúcar Influence of the relief forms on physical attributes of an oxisol cropped with sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziane de Figueiredo Brito

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Os atributos físicos do solo variam em função das formas do relevo e sofrem influência da mineralogia da fração argila e do manejo da cultura de cana-de-açúcar, podendo interferir no processo de compactação do solo. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o estado dos atributos físicos em diferentes formas do relevo em um Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico argiloso sob cultivo de cana-de-açúcar. A área apresenta duas formas de relevo: uma côncava, que ocorre nas posições mais elevadas, e uma linear, constituída pelos segmentos ombro, escarpa, meia encosta e encosta inferior. As amostras de solo foram coletadas durante o ciclo da cultura, nas camadas de 0,00-0,15m, 0,15-0,30m e 0,30-0,45m, para determinação do teor de matéria orgânica e dos seguintes atributos físicos: densidade do solo, porosidade total, macroporosidade, microporosidade, resistência do solo à penetração e teor de água no solo. A mineralogia mais gibbsítica e o maior teor de matéria orgânica, encontrada na forma de relevo côncava e de segmento ombro, proporciona menores valores de densidade do solo, de resistência do solo à penetração e de microporosidade e maiores valores de macroporosidade e de porosidade total do que a mineralogia mais caulinítica, encontrada nos demais segmentos da forma linear.The physical attributes of the soil vary according to the relief forms and suffer from the mineralogy of the clay fraction and the management of the sugarcane culture, being able to influence the soil compaction process. This research was developed in Jaboticabal-SP, aiming at evaluating the behavior of physical attributes in different relief forms in an oxisol cropped with sugarcane. The area presents two relief forms (concave and linear, the concave one, that occurs at the highest positions, and the linear one, consisting of shoulder, scarp, stocking lean and inferior lean segments. The samples soil were collected during the sugarcane

  9. Paranormal belief and attributional style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, R T; Whisnand, E A

    2000-06-01

    52 college students completed Tobacyk's 1988 Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and Peterson, Semmel, von Baeyer, Abramson, Metalsky, and Seligman's 1982 Attributional Style Questionnaire. Analysis showed significantly higher depressive attributional styles among high scorers on paranormal phenomena than low scorers.

  10. Use of seismic attributes for sediment classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Radomille Santana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A study to understand the relationships between seismic attributes extracted from 2D high-resolution seismic data and the seafloor's sediments of the surveyed area. As seismic attributes are features highly influenced by the medium through which the seismic waves are propagated, the authors can assume that it would be possible to characterise the geological nature of the seafloor by using these attributes. Herein, a survey was performed on the continental margin of the South Shetland Islands in Antarctica, where both 2D high-resolution seismic data and sediment gravity cores samples were simultaneously acquired. A computational script was written to extract the seismic attributes from the data, which have been statistically analysed with clustering analyses, such as principal components analysis, dendrograms and k-means classification. The extracted seismic attributes are the amplitude, the instantaneous phase, the instantaneous frequency, the envelope, the time derivative of the envelope, the second derivative of the envelope and the acceleration of phase. Statistical evaluation showed that geological classification of the seafloor's sediments is possible by associating these attributes according to their coherence. The methodologies here developed seem to be appropriate for glacio-marine environment and coarse-to-medium silt sediment found in the study area and may be applied to other regions in the same geological conditions.

  11. Regulating multiple externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max

    2016-01-01

    Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory instrume......Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory...

  12. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  13. Study on Non-Intelligence Factors Influence on Second Language Acquisition from the Perspective of Attribution Theory%归因理论视域下影响二语习得的非智力因素探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹凤静

    2014-01-01

    The result of second language acquisition is always paid attention to by foreign language educa-tional circles .The teaching methods and learning strategies have been improved according to the character-istics of foreign language learning .The process of second language acquisition is complex and it is full of many influencing factors .The inner potential factors of the learners themselves should be paid attention to and utilized .Attribution theory provides a reference to the study on influencing factors of second language acquisition that unstable factors can enhance the hope of success for loser .T hrough the investigation and a-nalysis ,success or failure of second language acquisition depends on non-intelligence factors such as the a-bility of self judgment ,cognitive factors of motivation and factors of emotion and will regulation ,which are the key factors of success for second language acquisition .By controlling these non-intelligence factors , the learners are expected to succeed in second language acquisition .%外语学界一直关注二语习得的效果问题,并针对外语学习特点注重改进教学方法和学习策略积极加以应对。二语习得的过程是一个非常复杂的过程,影响因素颇多。在二语习得过程中,更应关注学习主体本身潜在因素的挖掘,重视其内在潜能的激发和利用。归因理论提出的不稳定因素更会增强失败者成功的希望的主张对研究二语习得的影响因素提供了借鉴。通过调查分析,二语习得成败与非智力因素关系紧密,学习主体自我效能判断、动机认知因素、情感因素、意志调节因素等不稳定的非智力因素都是二语习得取得成功的关键因素。只有加强对这些非智力因素的控制,才能取得二语习得的最佳效果。

  14. Instantaneous Frequency Attribute Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedlin, M. J.; Margrave, G. F.; Ben Horin, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The instantaneous seismic data attribute provides a different means of seismic interpretation, for all types of seismic data. It first came to the fore in exploration seismology in the classic paper of Taner et al (1979), entitled " Complex seismic trace analysis". Subsequently a vast literature has been accumulated on the subject, which has been given an excellent review by Barnes (1992). In this research we will compare two different methods of computation of the instantaneous frequency. The first method is based on the original idea of Taner et al (1979) and utilizes the derivative of the instantaneous phase of the analytic signal. The second method is based on the computation of the power centroid of the time-frequency spectrum, obtained using either the Gabor Transform as computed by Margrave et al (2011) or the Stockwell Transform as described by Stockwell et al (1996). We will apply both methods to exploration seismic data and the DPRK events recorded in 2006 and 2013. In applying the classical analytic signal technique, which is known to be unstable, due to the division of the square of the envelope, we will incorporate the stabilization and smoothing method proposed in the two paper of Fomel (2007). This method employs linear inverse theory regularization coupled with the application of an appropriate data smoother. The centroid method application is straightforward and is based on the very complete theoretical analysis provided in elegant fashion by Cohen (1995). While the results of the two methods are very similar, noticeable differences are seen at the data edges. This is most likely due to the edge effects of the smoothing operator in the Fomel method, which is more computationally intensive, when an optimal search of the regularization parameter is done. An advantage of the centroid method is the intrinsic smoothing of the data, which is inherent in the sliding window application used in all Short-Time Fourier Transform methods. The Fomel technique

  15. Physiological attributes of triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriano, R; Bishop, D

    2010-05-01

    Triathlons of all distances can be considered endurance events and consist of the individual disciplines of swimming, cycling and running which are generally completed in this sequential order. While it is expected that elite triathletes would possess high values for submaximal and maximal measures of aerobic fitness, little is known about how these values compare with those of single-sport endurance athletes. Earlier reviews, conducted in the 1980s, concluded that triathletes possessed lower V(O2(max)) values than other endurance athletes. An update of comparisons is of interest to determine if the physiological capacities of elite triathletes now reflect those of single-sport athletes or whether these physiological capacities are compromised by the requirement to cross-train for three different disciplines. It was found that although differences in the physiological attributes during swimming, cycling and running are evident among triathletes, those who compete at an international level possess V(O2(max)) values that are indicative of success in endurance-based individual sports. Furthermore, various physiological parameters at submaximal workloads have been used to describe the capacities of these athletes. Only a few studies have reported the lactate threshold among triathletes with the majority of studies reporting the ventilatory threshold. Although observed differences among triathletes for both these submaximal measures are complicated by the various methods used to determine them, the reported values for triathletes are similar to those for trained cyclists and runners. Thus, from the limited data available, it appears that triathletes are able to obtain similar physiological values as single-sport athletes despite dividing their training time among three disciplines.

  16. Attribution of changes in precipitation patterns in African rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, F. E.; Jones, R. G.; Halladay, K.; Allen, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    The effects of projected future global and regional climate change on the water cycle and thus on global water security are amongst the most economically and politically important challenges that society faces in the 21st century. The provision of secure access to water resources and the protection of communities from water-related risks have emerged as top priorities amongst policymakers within the public and private sectors alike. Investment decisions on water infrastructure rely heavily on quantitative assessments of risks and uncertainties associated with future changes in water-related threats. Especially with the introduction of loss and damages on the agenda of the UNFCCC additionally the attribution of such changes to anthropogenic climate change and other external climate drivers is crucial. Probabilistic event attribution (PEA) provides a method of evaluating the extent to which human-induced climate change is affecting localised weather events and impacts of such events that relies on good observations as well as climate modelling. The overall approach is to simulate both, the statistics of observed weather, and the statistics of the weather that would have occurred had specific external drivers of climate change been absent. The majority of studies applying PEA have focused on quantifying attributable risk, with changes in risk depending on an assumption of 'all other things being equal', including natural drivers of climate change and vulnerability. Most previous attribution studies have focused on European extreme weather events, but the most vulnerable regions to climate change are in Asia and Africa. One of the most complex hydrological systems is the tropical rainforest, with the rainforests in tropical Africa being some of the most under-researched regions in the world. Research in the Amazonian rainforest suggests potential vulnerability to climate change. We will present results from using the large ensemble of atmosphere-only general

  17. Study on the Influencing Mechanism of External Knowledge Search on Innovation Performance%外部知识搜寻对创新绩效的作用机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峰; 刘侠

    2014-01-01

    Under the background of open innovation , external knowledge search has been the focus in the field of innovation . Considering the fact that few studies explore the influencing mechanism of external knowledge search and the lack of empirical tests for Chinese firms , this study investigates the boundary condition and the influencing mechanism of external knowledge search ( breadth and depth ) from external market environment and internal innovation strategy .In a questionnaire survey of 294 Chinese firms, this study employs confirmatory factor analysis to test the reliability and validity of the measurements , and adopts hierarchical moderated regression to examine the hypotheses .Results show that: ①both types of search channel ( search breadth) and the strength of search on the specific channel (search depth) exert significant linear effects on innovation perform-ance, which means there is no significant overly search problem;②the match of external knowledge search and market environ-ments ( competition intensity and market dynamism ) significantly affect innovation performance .In the market with fierce compe-titions, breadth search is more effective;in the more dynamic market that exists high varies of consumer demands and product technologies , depth search is more effective;and ③the match of external knowledge search and innovation strategy significantly influences innovation performance , and depth search and exploitative innovation interactively affect innovation performance .%开放式创新背景下,外部知识搜寻成为创新领域的热点问题。针对已有研究对外部知识搜寻作用机理研究的不足和中国企业实证检验的缺失,从外部市场环境和内部创新策略两个层面探讨外部知识搜寻(宽度和深度)的作用边界和作用机理。采用问卷调研方法获取294家中国企业的数据,利用验证性因子分析方法检验测量量表信度和效度,采用层级调节回归分析方

  18. Cost-Effective Abatement of Multiple Production Externalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Jeffery D.; Perry, Gregory M.; Adams, Richard M.

    1995-07-01

    This article explores the issue of multiple externalities through a case study of irrigated agricultural production in eastern Oregon. A mathematical programming model is used to demonstrate the manner in which a policy directed at one externality (soil erosion) may influence the incidence of another externality (groundwater pollution). A key determinant of multiple externality outcomes is interdependence in the processes producing agricultural commodities and externalities. Potential benefits from coordinating a policy to address multiple environmental objectives are discussed.

  19. ASH External Web Portal (External Portal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...

  20. General causality orientations and defensive attributions of failure on academic exam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodroža Bojana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Defensive behaviour after failure, such as denial of the responsibility for own achievement, reduces person’s openness for further learning and development and, thus, is undesirable in pedagogical practice. General causality orientations success-fully predict defensive behaviours after failure. Autonomous causality orientation implies behaviours motivated by personal growth and development, while controlling orientation purports ego-involved behaviours aimed at proving one's own self-worth. The research was conducted with the aim of testing two hypotheses (additive and synergistic about the influence of general causality orientations and their combinations on defensive attribution of failure on the exam. After their faculty exam, N=158 psychology students answered questions about the expected grade and they filled out two questionnaires: Attribution of Success on the Test and General Causality Orientation Scale. The results showed that internal attribution of success is related to greater expected grade and higher autonomous causality orientation. External attribution was characteristic for individuals with high controlling causal orientation. It was confirmed that general causality orientations can predict the way a person perceives academic success. Thus, we give recommendations on how to support and encourage autonomous and discourage controlling behaviours of students.

  1. Aspects of the competition between atom-field and field-environment couplings under the influence of an external source in dispersive Jaynes-Cummings model

    CERN Document Server

    De Faria, J G P

    2002-01-01

    We give a fully description of the dynamics of an atom dispersively coupled to a field mode in a dissipative environment fed by an external source. The competition between the unitary atom-field (which leads to entanglement) and the dissipative field-environment couplings are investigated in detail. We find the time evolution of the global atom-field system for any initial state and we show that atom-field steady state is at most classically correlated. For an initial state chosen, we evaluate the purity loss of the global system and of atomic and field subsystems as a function of time. We find that the source will tend to compensate for the dissipation of the field intensity and to accelerate decoherence of the global and atomic states. Moreover, we show that the degree of entanglement of the atom-field state, for the particular initial state chosen, can be completely quantified by concurrence. Analytical expression for time evolution of the concurrence is given.

  2. Ultrasound evaluation of muscle thickness changes in the external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles considering the influence of posture and muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Tomoaki; Abe, Yota; Sakamoto, Masaaki

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate muscle thickness changes in the external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transversus abdominis (TrA) muscles between the neutral position and trunk rotation, under a state of rest without voluntary contractions, and isometric contractions to both sides with resistance of 50% of the maximum trunk rotation strength. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 21 healthy young men. [Methods] Muscle thickness changes in the EO, IO, and TrA in each position and state were evaluated by ultrasound. The range of motion at maximum trunk rotation and the maximum strength of trunk rotation were measured using a hand-held dynamometer. [Results] In the neutral position and at 50% trunk rotation to the right side, the thicknesses of the IO and TrA significantly increased with resistance. In both states, the thicknesses of the IO and TrA significantly increased at 50% trunk rotation to the right side. [Conclusion] The muscular contractions of the IO and TrA were stronger during ipsilateral rotation than in the neutral position and with resistance than at rest. Moreover, the muscular contraction was strongest in the resistive state during ipsilateral rotation.

  3. Homogeneity of Prototypical Attributes in Soccer Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Zepp

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes influences several intragroup processes. The aim of the present study was to describe the homogeneous perception of the prototype and to identify specific prototypical subcategories, which are perceived as homogeneous within sport teams. The sample consists of N = 20 soccer teams with a total of N = 278 athletes (age M = 23.5 years, SD = 5.0 years. The results reveal that subcategories describing the cohesiveness of the team and motivational attributes are mentioned homogeneously within sport teams. In addition, gender, identification, team size, and the championship ranking significantly correlate with the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes. The results are discussed on the basis of theoretical and practical implications.

  4. Dipolar fluids under external perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapp, Sabine H L [Stranski-Laboratorium fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie Sekretariat TC7, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 124, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2005-04-20

    We discuss recent developments and present new findings on the structural and phase properties of dipolar model fluids influenced by various external perturbations. We concentrate on systems of spherical particles with permanent (point) dipole moments. Starting from what is known about the three-dimensional systems, particular emphasis is given to dipolar fluids in different confining situations involving both simple and complex (disordered) pore geometries. Further topics concern the effect of quenched positional disorder, the influence of external (electric or magnetic) fields, and the fluid-fluid phase behaviour of various dipolar mixtures. It is demonstrated that due to the translational-orientational coupling and due to the long range of dipolar interactions even simple perturbations such as hard walls can have a profound impact on the systems. (topical review)

  5. Atributos biológicos do solo sob influência da cobertura vegetal e do sistema de manejo Soil biological attributes influenced by cover crops and management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozaniel Batista da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Valente bean cultivar, under irrigation, was cultivated. Sowing was performed on June 16, 2005 and the harvest on September 19, 2005. Soil samples were collected to a depth of 0-10 cm, in November 2004 (before cover crops planting, June 2005 (before dry bean planting and July 2005 (at dry bean flowering. Evaluations of basal respiration, carbon and nitrogen of microbial biomass, microbial/organic carbon ratio, microbial/total nitrogen ratio and metabolic quotient were performed. Soil biological attributes were influenced by cover crops, soil management and sampling time.

  6. Produtividade do cafeeiro e atributos de fertilidade de latossolo sob influência de adensamento da lavoura e manejo da calagem Coffee yield and fertility attributes of a latosol under influence of population density and liming management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Silva

    2004-10-01

    20 cm soil layer, and surface liming. As an additional treatment, liming (0 to 20 cm plus phosphogypsum were applied in an area with 10.000 pl ha-1. Soil samples were collected at soil depths of 0 to10, 10 to 20 and 20 to 40 cm, in four sampling times. The samples were analyzed for: pH, Ca and Mg exchangeable, P (Mehlich-1 solution, sulfate, nitrate e ammonium, and the saturation for bases. The liming management practices reduced the acidity until the soil depth of 0 to 10 cm. Transport of lime applied at soil surface was verified only at the forth sampling. The soil fertility attributes analyzed were not influenced by coffee population density. In average, the coffee yield in the higher plant density was 14 and 33 bags ha-1 higher than in the lower plant density, respectively in the first and second harvest seasons.

  7. Diffusion of hydrogen interstitials in the near-surface region of Pd(111) under the influence of surface coverage and external static electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco-Rey, M. [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Químicas UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Tremblay, J. C. [Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustrasse 3, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-04-21

    Past scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments of H manipulation on Pd(111), at low temperature, have shown that it is possible to induce diffusion of surface species as well as of those deeply buried under the surface. Several questions remain open regarding the role of subsurface site occupancies. In the present work, the interaction potential of H atoms with Pd(111) under various H coverage conditions is determined by means of density functional theory calculations in order to provide an answer to two of these questions: (i) whether subsurface sites are the final locations for the H impurities that attempt to emerge from bulk regions, and (ii) whether penetration of the surface is a competing route of on-surface diffusion during depletion of surface H on densely covered Pd(111). We find that a high H coverage has the effect of blocking resurfacing of H atoms travelling from below, which would otherwise reach the surface fcc sites, but it hardly alters deeper diffusion energy barriers. Penetration is unlikely and restricted to high occupancies of hcp hollows. In agreement with experiments, the Pd lattice expands vertically as a consequence of H atoms being blocked at subsurface sites, and surface H enhances this expansion. STM tip effects are included in the calculations self-consistently as an external static electric field. The main contribution to the induced surface electric dipoles originates from the Pd substrate polarisability. We find that the electric field has a non-negligible effect on the H-Pd potential in the vicinity of the topmost Pd atomic layer, yet typical STM intensities of 1-2 VÅ{sup −1} are insufficient to invert the stabilities of the surface and subsurface equilibrium sites.

  8. 温度对七星瓢虫一些生物学特性的影响%INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON CERTAIN BIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF A LADYBEETLE COCCINELLA SEPTEMPUNCTATA LINNAEUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shefali; Srivastava; Omkar

    2003-01-01

    Influence of temperature on certain biological attributes of an aphidophagous ladybeetle, Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus, feeding on mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi ( Kaltenbach), at five different temperatures, viz. 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35 ℃ was investigated. Its developmental period was shortest ( 11.7 + 0.09days) at 35℃ and longest (20.6 ± 0.35 days) at 20℃. Developmental rate increased with increase in temperature. Hatching percent, larval survival, adult emergence and growth index were maximum at 30℃ and minimumat 20℃. Oviposition period and fecundity were highest at 30℃ and lowest at 20℃. A positive linear relationship exists between temperature and developmental rate and negative correlation between the duration of immature lifestages and temperature. The proportion of developmental period allocated to each immature stage was found to besimilar at each temperature regime. Thus, 30℃ was found as the most suitable for C. septempunctata amongstthe five temperatures tested.%对七星瓢虫Coccinell septempunctata Linnaeus在20,25,27,30及35℃不同温度下取食萝卜蚜Lipaphis erysimi(Kaltenbach)时的生物学特性进行了研究.七星瓢虫的发育历期最短为35℃下(11.7±0.09)天,而最长为20℃下(20.6±30.35)天.发育率随着温度的增加而增加.孵化比例、幼虫存活、成充羽化和生长指数均在30℃时达到最大,而在20℃最小.产卵期和繁殖力在30℃达到最大值,而在20℃时最低.温度与发育速率间关系为正相关而与未成熟阶段历期为负相关.发育历期在每个未成熟阶段的比例与在每个温度条件下是相似的.因此,可以认为在所测定的5个温度中,30℃是七星瓢虫最适温度.

  9. The influence of the elastic vibration of the carrier to the aerodynamics of the external store in air-launch-to-orbit process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Ye, Zheng-Yin; Wu, Jie

    2016-11-01

    The separation between the carrier and store is one of the most important and difficult phases in Air-launch-to-orbit technology. Based on the previous researches, the interference aerodynamic forces of the store caused by the carrier are obvious in the earlier time during the separation. And the interference aerodynamics will be more complex when considering the elastic deformation of the carrier. Focusing on the conditions that in the earlier time during the separation, the steady and unsteady interference aerodynamic forces of the store are calculated at different angle of attacks and relative distances between the carrier and store. During the calculation, the elastic vibrations of the carrier are considered. According to the cause of formations of the interference aerodynamics, the interference aerodynamic forces of the store are divided into several components. The relative magnitude, change rule, sphere of influence and mechanism of interference aerodynamic forces components of the store are analyzed quantitatively. When the relative distance between the carrier and store is small, the interference aerodynamic forces caused by the elastic vibration of the carrier is about half of the total aerodynamic forces of the store. And as the relative distance increases, the value of interference aerodynamic forces decrease. When the relative distance is larger than twice the mean aerodynamic chord of the carrier, the values of interference aerodynamic forces of the store can be ignored. Besides, under the influence of the steady interference aerodynamic forces, the lift characteristics of the store are worse and the static stability margin is poorer.

  10. Attribute-Value Functions as Global Interpretations of Attribute Importance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittersum, van K.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand decision maker’s perceptions of the importance of attributes, Goldstein (1990) differentiates between global and local interpretations of attribute importance. While the appreciation for the distinction is growing, research on the relationship between measures of global

  11. Les facteurs d’influence de l’indépendance de l’auditeur externe: une étude exploratoire auprès des préparateurs de l’information financière tunisiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omri Mohamed Ali Brahim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude vise à déterminer les facteurs d’influence de l’indépendance perçue de l’auditeur externe. Afin d’atteindre notre objectif nous avons menée une analyse fondée sur une première phase qualitative et une deuxième quantitative. Cette dernière repose sur un questionnaire adressé à 87 préparateurs d’information financière tunisiens. Notre étude a révélé que les préparateurs de l’information financière construisent leurs perception en privilégiant essentiellement la réputation de l’auditeur externe, suivi par la taille du cabinet, le contrôle de la profession et la responsabilité juridique, les liens personnels, les incompatibilités, les honoraires, la dépendance financière et la rotation des auditeurs.

  12. Influence of “Glow Discharge Plasma” as an External Stimulus on the Self-Assembly, Morphology and Binding Affinity of Gold Nanoparticle-Streptavidin Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Jun Liu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the influence of glow discharge plasma (GDP on the self-assembly, morphology and binding affinity of streptavidin coated gold nanoparticles (Au-NP-SV and biotinylated antibody (bAb adsorbed on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG substrate. Atomic force microscope (AFM was used to image the pre- and post-GDP treated samples. The analysis of the AFM images showed a considerable change in the aggregation and morphology of Au-NP-conjugates after treatment with GDP. To our knowledge, this is the first report on using GDP to enhance and speed-up the aggregation (sintering of adsorbed NP biomolecular conjugates. These results show a promising route that could be generalized for other NPs and their conjugates. It can also be considered as an alternative and cheap aggregation method for controlling the binding affinity of biomolecular species on different surfaces with interesting applications.

  13. The sustainability of Serbia's external position: The impact of fiscal adjustment and external shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zildžović Emir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact of fiscal policy and external shocks on the sustainability of Serbia’s external position. The key determinants of Serbia's current account balance are identified using model averaging techniques and are compared with estimates obtained for other small open economies (Poland, Georgia, Morocco, Ukraine, and Estonia. The paper uses estimated influences of macrovariables on the current account balance to generate a rich set of possible outcomes for the external position of the country. The results suggest the importance of fiscal policy for the reduction of external imbalances in all countries in our sample. In particular, credible and sustained fiscal adjustment can reduce current account deficit and stabilize Serbia’s external position close to its current level over the medium term. The analysis also warns that lack of success in fiscal consolidation coupled with external shocks may easily push the external position onto an unsustainable path.

  14. Influence of heterogeneity in perceived quality on the evolution of market structure with network externalities%感知质量差异对网络外部性市场结构演化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵良杰; 武邦涛; 陈忠; 段文奇

    2011-01-01

    运用演化经济理论研究消费者感知质量差异对网络外部性市场结构演化的影响.研究结果表明:不同消费者对新产品感知质量的差异是驱动网络外部性市场演化的重要因素,在一定程度上决定了市场演化结果呈现为赢家通吃或新旧产品共存.当感知质量差异明显时,市场演化的均衡结果通常是新旧产品共存,且新产品占据市场主流;当感知质量差异不明显时,市场演化结果总是赢家通吃.在技术创新速度很快且产品质量与产品网络效应强度相关程度很高的条件下,市场出现锁定,旧产品继续占据整个市场,反之则新产品完全替代旧产品.这些结论有助于网络外部性市场中企业制定有效的新产品策略.%Under the framework of Evolutionary Economics analysis, this paper studies the influence of customera' perceived quality on the evolution of market structure with network externalities. The simulation results show that heterogeneity in perceived quality of new produa is one of important factors which drive the evolution of market with network externalities. Under certain conditions, this factor leads the evolution of market with network externalities into multiple equilibria. When heterogeneity in perceived quality of new product is high, the evolution of market leads to coexistence of both old and new products. The new product with higher quality has a dominant market share. However, when heterogeneity in perceived quality of new product is low, the phenomenon of winner-take-all always happens. When the speed of technology innovation is fast and the correlation between product quality and network strength of product is high, lock-in occurs, which means the old product still enjoy8 monopoly power. On the contrary,the new product will replace the old one completely. Those conclusions have important implications for firms developing effective strategies of new products in the markets with network

  15. Sensitivity degradation of an anger camera operated in SPECT-like mode under the influence of a strong external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiano, Eduardo, E-mail: egalianoriveros@laurentian.ca; Aldarwish, Huda

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to experimentally determine the degradation in sensitivity of an Anger camera rotated in SPECT-like orbits around the transverse and sagittal planes of the magnetic field produced by a conventional, dual coil, 1 T electromagnet. A 74 photomultiplier Siemens Basicam Anger camera with a 29 cm radius crystal and an Isotrak 35 cm diameter, 46 MBq (1.25 mCi), Co-57 disk source attached to a low energy general purpose collimator, were used for all measurements. A custom made, air-cooled, dual coil, 1 T electromagnet was used to produce the external magnetic field. A map of the magnetic field was obtained by taking intensity measurements around the sagittal and transverse planes of the magnet. Camera sensitivity – defined as the measured count rate for a given activity of a radionuclide in a defined geometry – was first measured around the transverse plane at angles of 0°, 90°, and 270°, with, and without, the magnetic field present. At each angle, three 30 min measurements were made and the average count rate was calculated. A similar protocol was used for measurements upon rotation in the sagittal plane: counts per 30 min interval were measured for 20 angles, with a 15° increment between measurements. Camera sensitivity as a function of field strength was also determined by collecting counts over 30 min intervals at a fixed angle (90°) with magnet currents of 0.00 A, 2.65 A, and 5.30 A. In the transverse plane, at 0° under a field intensity of 21 mT, the loss in sensitivity was 18.14%, at 90° (B=37 mT) the loss was 30.5%, and at 270° (B=38 mT) the loss was 34.9%. Thus for rotation in the transverse plane, the sensitivity is monotonically reduced with an increase in field intensity. On rotation in the sagittal plane, sensitivity degradation ranged between 50.3% at a 22° angle, and 59.1% at 315°. Broad sensitivity peaks were observed at 105° and 195°, with minima at 60°, 135°, and 260°, consistent with our theoretical

  16. Sensitivity degradation of an anger camera operated in SPECT-like mode under the influence of a strong external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiano, Eduardo; Aldarwish, Huda

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to experimentally determine the degradation in sensitivity of an Anger camera rotated in SPECT-like orbits around the transverse and sagittal planes of the magnetic field produced by a conventional, dual coil, 1 T electromagnet. A 74 photomultiplier Siemens Basicam Anger camera with a 29 cm radius crystal and an Isotrak 35 cm diameter, 46 MBq (1.25 mCi), Co-57 disk source attached to a low energy general purpose collimator, were used for all measurements. A custom made, air-cooled, dual coil, 1 T electromagnet was used to produce the external magnetic field. A map of the magnetic field was obtained by taking intensity measurements around the sagittal and transverse planes of the magnet. Camera sensitivity - defined as the measured count rate for a given activity of a radionuclide in a defined geometry - was first measured around the transverse plane at angles of 0°, 90°, and 270°, with, and without, the magnetic field present. At each angle, three 30 min measurements were made and the average count rate was calculated. A similar protocol was used for measurements upon rotation in the sagittal plane: counts per 30 min interval were measured for 20 angles, with a 15° increment between measurements. Camera sensitivity as a function of field strength was also determined by collecting counts over 30 min intervals at a fixed angle (90°) with magnet currents of 0.00 A, 2.65 A, and 5.30 A. In the transverse plane, at 0° under a field intensity of 21 mT, the loss in sensitivity was 18.14%, at 90° (B=37 mT) the loss was 30.5%, and at 270° (B=38 mT) the loss was 34.9%. Thus for rotation in the transverse plane, the sensitivity is monotonically reduced with an increase in field intensity. On rotation in the sagittal plane, sensitivity degradation ranged between 50.3% at a 22° angle, and 59.1% at 315°. Broad sensitivity peaks were observed at 105° and 195°, with minima at 60°, 135°, and 260°, consistent with our theoretical

  17. Strictness Analysis for Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1992-01-01

    Attribute grammars may be seen as a (rather specialised) lazy or demand-driven programming language. The ``programs'' in this language take text or parse trees as input and return values of the synthesised attributes to the root as output. From this observation we establish a framework for abstra...

  18. Authorship Attribution of Source Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Authorship attribution of source code is the task of deciding who wrote a program, given its source code. Applications include software forensics, plagiarism detection, and determining software ownership. A number of methods for the authorship attribution of source code have been presented in the past. A review of those existing methods is…

  19. External radiation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  20. Research on the Internal and External Factors that Influence Individual's Healthy Growth%个体不健康影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万瓅媛

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development and major changes of society has brought people a lot of rich material conditions and special opportunity as well as new challenges, pressure and maladjustment. The reasons are various including genetic quality, environment, education (especially school education) and personal subjective ability. From these four aspects, this paper analyzes the influence of subjective will and objective environment in the process of personal growth.%社会的急速发展和重大变化给人们带来了很多富足的物质条件和特殊机遇,同时也带来了各种新的挑战、压力与不适应。究其原因是多方面的,是遗传素质、环境、教育(特指学校教育)、个人主观能力性综合作用的结果。本文从这四个方面,就个人成长过程中主观意志与客观环境的影响作用进行深入分析。

  1. 顶岗实习学生工作压力与归因风格的关系研究%The Relationship of Occupational Stress and Attribution Style among Post Practice Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王霞

    2011-01-01

    本研究采用问卷调查的方法对120名高职顶岗实习学生的职业紧张状况和归因风格的关系进行了研究。结果表明:顶岗实习学生比一般职业人承受更多的压力感;归因风格影响职业紧张:外部归因、不可控归因对职业紧张有显著的正向影响,而内部归因、可控归因能缓解工作压力。岗前就业辅导、归因风格训练等有助于提高学生顶岗实习的速度和质量。%To study the relationship of occupational stress and attribution style among post practice students, we investigated 120 vocational undergraduates. The results show: 1 Post practice students' take more occupational stress than ordinary employees; 2 Students' attribution style influence their occupational stress: external attribution style and uncontrollable attribution have positive influence on occupational stress, while internal attribution style and controllable attribution have negative influence on occupational stress. Career consultation and attribution style training by vocational school help to advance students' pace and quality during post practice.

  2. An Examination of Date Rape, Victim Dress, and Perceiver Variables within the Context of Attribution Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Jane E.; Freeburg, Elizabeth W.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the influence of victim dress, perceiver gender, situational relevance, and personal relevance on attributions of responsibility for date rape by 632 college students. Attributions of responsibility were significantly influenced by perceiver gender and victim dress. Discusses implications for attribution theory and practical implications,…

  3. Attribute-based analysis of hunters' lease preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Anwar; Munn, Ian A; Hudson, Darren; West, Ben

    2010-12-01

    Understanding of hunter preferences for hunting lease attributes is important to landowners because such knowledge provides key information for managing and marketing fee-hunting in order to maximize revenues. Premised on this insight, we used attribute based modeling to investigate how hunter preferences for potential leases were influenced by lease and hunter-specific attributes. A mail survey of Mississippi licensed hunters provided the necessary data. Estimation results based on McFadden conditional logit regression suggested that lease attributes including game diversity, lease location relative to hunter residence, lease size, lease duration and lease rate influenced willingness to pay for additional units of lease attributes. Depending on the specific levels of these attributes, WTP could vary as much as $5.70 per acre. Of the hunter-specific attributes, age and income significantly influenced hunter decision to buy a lease or opt for status quo. Results of this study should assist landowners in increasing financial returns from fee-hunting endeavors through appropriate changes to their hunting access policies and wildlife management activities in response to hunter preferences regarding lease attributes.

  4. Firm Search for External Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The innovation performance of modern firms is increasingly determined by their ability to search and absorb external knowledge. However, after a certain threshold firms "oversearch" their environment and innovation performance declines. In this paper, we argue that prior literature has largely...... ignored the institutional context that provides or denies access to external knowledge at the country level. Combining institutional and knowledge search theory, we suggest that the market orientation of the institutional environment and the magnitude of institutional change influence when firms begin...... to experience the negative performance effects of oversearch. Based on a comprehensive sample of almost 8,000 firms from ten European countries, we find that institutions matter considerably for firms' search activity. Higher market orientation of institutions increases the effectiveness of firms' search...

  5. Direct Visual Editing of Node Attributes in Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Eichner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many expressive visualization techniques for analyzing graphs. Yet, there is only little research on how existing visual representations can be employed to support data editing. An increasingly relevant task when working with graphs is the editing of node attributes. We propose an integrated visualize-and-edit approach to editing attribute values via direct interaction with the visual representation. The visualize part is based on node-link diagrams paired with attribute-dependent layouts. The edit part is as easy as moving nodes via drag-and-drop gestures. We present dedicated interaction techniques for editing quantitative as well as qualitative attribute data values. The benefit of our novel integrated approach is that one can directly edit the data while the visualization constantly provides feedback on the implications of the data modifications. Preliminary user feedback indicates that our integrated approach can be a useful complement to standard non-visual editing via external tools.

  6. Individualism and collectivism: cultural orientation in locus of control and moral attribution under conditions of social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Jose H; Tarantino, Santo J

    2002-12-01

    This study examined the validity of the view that the constructs of individualism and collectivism are coherent cultural manifestations necessarily reflected in an individual's attribution patterns. It was hypothesized that the attribution patterns of locus of control and moral accountability would show divergent individualistic and collectivistic influences in a culture during change from a collectivist culture to an individualist culture. 98 university students from the United States and Puerto Rico were administered the Singelis Individualism-Collectivism Scale, Rotter's Locus of Control Scale, and Miller and Luthar's justice-related moral accountability vignettes. Contrary to expectation, the Puerto Rican sample scored less external in locus of control than the United States sample. No cultural differences in moral accountability were found. No strong correlations were found among the variables at the individual level of analysis. Accounting for these results included the lack of representativeness of the samples, the independence of relation between variables at different levels of analysis, and social change.

  7. 消极完美主义对学业成败归因与考研焦虑的影响%Influence of negative perfectionism on achievement attribution and the post-graduate entrance test anxiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申鲁军; 杨磊; 罗艳艳; 邱智超

    2012-01-01

    目的 考察消极完美主义在大学生考研焦虑与学业成败归因中的作用.方法 采用随机整群抽样法选择500名考研大学生为被试对象,采用考研焦虑问卷、学业成败归因问卷及消极完美主义问卷进行测试.结果 考研焦虑、学业成败归因与消极完美主义之间存在显著正相关(r1 =0.464,P<0.01;r2 =0.519,P<0.01);消极完美主义作为中介变量调节着学业成败归因与考研焦虑之间的关系,中介效应量为0.138.结论 考研焦虑受消极完美主义与学业成败归因的影响,而学业成败归因可能是更本质的影响因素.%Objective To investigate the effect of negative perfectionism on achievement attribution and the post-graduate entrance test anxiety. Methods Five hundred students were selected by random cluster sampling method. The post-graduate entrance test anxiety scale, achievement attribution scale and negative perfectionism scale were used to test the students. Results There was a significant positive relationship between the graduate entrance test anxiety, negative perfectionism and achievement attribution(r1=0.464,P <0. 01 ;r2 =0. 519,P <0. 01). Negative perfectionism as intervening variable adjusted the relationship between achievement attribution and the graduate entrance test anxiety, the intermediary effect was about 0. 138. Conclusion The graduate entrance test anxiety is affected by negative perfectionism and achievement attribution, and achievement attribution may be a more essential influential factor.

  8. IMPORTANCE OF DELIVERY CONDITIONS IN THE EXTERNAL PRICE CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta ISAI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The delivery conditions of the merchandise at export, established by the rules INCOTERMS2000, influence the external price structure. There are some conditions in which the external priceincludes only the value of the merchandise and other conditions in which, besides the value of themerchandise, the price includes also the external transport and insurance. In the case of the exportson commercial credit, when it appears the notion of external interest, this one may be included in theprice or may be invoiced separately, thus defining gross external prices and net external prices.

  9. Spanning Tree Based Attribute Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Jorge, Cordero Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    inconsistent edges from a maximum spanning tree by starting appropriate initial modes, therefore generating stable clusters. It discovers sound clusters through simple graph operations and achieves significant computational savings. We compare the Star Discovery algorithm against earlier attribute clustering...

  10. 浅析元件参数对外腔半导体激光器输出谱宽影响%Influencing factors on spectral linewidth of external cavity diode laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元栋; 武永福; 胡猛; 孙瑞

    2014-01-01

    High power narrowed linewidth pump source is needed with diode pumped alkali laser developed. But the linewidth of the commercial diode laser is far exceed the absorption linewidth of the alkali atom. So the Littrow external cavity is used to narrowed the spectrum of high power diode laser array. The linewidth of high power diode laser array is directly affected by the parameters of elements in Littrow external cavity. In this paper, the model of external cavity diode laser was set up by using ray tracing method. By replacing cylindrical lens with sphere lens, the influence of micro-cylindrical lens array, beam shaping optics and grating were analysed. The resutls show that, to obtain narrower output laser linewidth, the focal length of micro-cylindrical lens array should be smaller, the grating grooves is denser, and the focal of spherical lens is larger. And the theoretical conclusions is demonstrated by experimental results.%半导体抽运碱金属蒸气激光器(DPAL)需大功率窄线宽泵浦源,但市售半导体激光器输出线宽远远大于碱金属原子吸收谱宽,难以实现有效泵浦,因此需采用Littrow外腔法压窄半导体激光器输出谱宽。 Littrow外腔系统中元件参数的选择直接影响大功率半导体激光器输出谱宽。为此文中沿入射光线方向构建外腔压窄模型,利用球面镜替代柱面镜,分析了微柱透镜阵列、光学系统和光栅元件对外腔输出谱宽的影响,模拟结果为微柱透镜阵列焦距越小、光栅刻线越密、球面镜焦距越大,外腔输出谱宽越窄,实验结果符合理论模型。

  11. Influencing Factors of Corporate External Knowledge Network Capabilities:An Interactive Empirical Study%企业外部知识网络能力的影响因素:一个交互效应的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海花; 周嵩安

    2015-01-01

    With the transformation from the funnel-type closed innovation to the sieve-type open innovation, the exogenous knowledge search and external knowledge sources management are becoming the components of corporate innovation system. It is increasingly becoming one of the important topics in both corporate practice and theoretical research how to improve the external knowledge network capabilities. This paper, by applying the combination of qualitative and quantitative research, systematically reveals the“black box”of factors influencing the external knowledge network capabilities from multi-dimen⁃sions, including macro environment, inter-organizational situation, micro firm and content attribute and so on. Based on the research findings,the paper proposes the strategies to enhance the external knowledge network capabilities from multiple perspectives, namely building the macro environment“monitor”to instantaneously scan and take advantage of opportuni⁃ties, configuring heterogeneous knowledge potential energy to promote knowledge network embeddedness, fostering culture and internal resources to form network construction foundation,and developing employees’ learning and creative abilities to construct knowledge absorption and transfer platform.%随着漏斗式的封闭创新向筛子式的开放创新的转变,外源知识搜索和外部知识源管理逐渐纳入企业创新系统的范畴。如何提升外部知识网络能力,日益成为企业实践界和理论研究界愈来愈关注的重要课题之一。文章运用质化研究和量化研究相结合的方式,从宏观环境、中观情境、微观主体和内容属性等多维度系统地探秘企业外部知识网络能力影响因素的“黑箱”,基于研究结论从多个角度提出企业外部知识网络能力的提升策略,即建立宏观环境“监控器”,即时扫描并利用各种机会;配置异质化知识势能,提升知识网络嵌入性;培育文化与

  12. Multiple organizational identification levels and the impact of perceived external prestige and communication climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, J.; Pruyn, A.T.H.; Jong, de M.D.T.; Joustra, I.

    2007-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that perceived external prestige and communication climate influence organizational identification. In this paper we present the results of a study of the influence of communication climate and perceived external prestige on organizational identification at various organiz

  13. Checklists for external validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Kidholm, Kristian; Gerke, Oke;

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The quality of the current literature on external validity varies considerably. An improved checklist with validated items on external validity would aid decision-makers in judging similarities among circumstances when transferring evidence from a study setting...... to an implementation setting. In this paper, currently available checklists on external validity are identified, assessed and used as a basis for proposing a new improved instrument. METHOD: A systematic literature review was carried out in Pubmed, Embase and Cinahl on English-language papers without time restrictions....... The retrieved checklist items were assessed for (i) the methodology used in primary literature, justifying inclusion of each item; and (ii) the number of times each item appeared in checklists. RESULTS: Fifteen papers were identified, presenting a total of 21 checklists for external validity, yielding a total...

  14. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Esophageal Cancer Treatment Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Why is ... Radiation Oncology) Breast Cancer Treatment Esophageal Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer Treatment Images related to External Beam Therapy (EBT) Sponsored ...

  15. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... otitis. Fungal external otitis (otomycosis), typically caused by Aspergillus niger or Candida albicans, is less common. Boils are ... of fullness in the ear. Otomycosis caused by Aspergillus niger usually causes grayish black or yellow dots (called ...

  16. Individuals' insight into intrapersonal externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Stillwell

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An intrapersonal externality exists when an individual's decisions affect the outcomes of her future decisions. It can result in decreasing or increasing average returns to the rate of consumption, as occurs in addiction or exercise. Experimentation using the Harvard Game, which models intrapersonal externalities, has found differences in decision making between drug users and control subjects, leading to the argument that these externalities influence the course of illicit drug use. Nevertheless, it is unclear how participants who behave optimally conceptualise the problem. We report two experiments using a simplified Harvard Game, which tested the differences in contingency knowledge between participants who chose optimally and participants who did not. Those who demonstrated optimal performance exhibited both a pattern of correct responses and systematic errors to questions about the payoff schedules. The pattern suggested that they learned explicit knowledge of the change in reinforcement on a trail-by-trial basis. They did not have, or need, a full knowledge of the historical interaction leading to each payoff. We also found no evidence of choice differences between participants who were given a guaranteed payment and participants who were paid contingent on their performance, but those given a guaranteed payment were able to report more contingency knowledge as the experiment progressed, suggesting that they explored more rather than settling into a routine. Experiment 2 showed that using a fixed inter-trial interval did not change the results.

  17. Spatial correlations in attribute communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cerina

    Full Text Available Community detection is an important tool for exploring and classifying the properties of large complex networks and should be of great help for spatial networks. Indeed, in addition to their location, nodes in spatial networks can have attributes such as the language for individuals, or any other socio-economical feature that we would like to identify in communities. We discuss in this paper a crucial aspect which was not considered in previous studies which is the possible existence of correlations between space and attributes. Introducing a simple toy model in which both space and node attributes are considered, we discuss the effect of space-attribute correlations on the results of various community detection methods proposed for spatial networks in this paper and in previous studies. When space is irrelevant, our model is equivalent to the stochastic block model which has been shown to display a detectability-non detectability transition. In the regime where space dominates the link formation process, most methods can fail to recover the communities, an effect which is particularly marked when space-attributes correlations are strong. In this latter case, community detection methods which remove the spatial component of the network can miss a large part of the community structure and can lead to incorrect results.

  18. Sen cycles and externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Piggins, Ashley; Salerno, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    It has long been understood that externalities of some kind are responsible for Sen’s (1970) theorem on the impossibility of a Paretian liberal. However, Saari and Petron (2006) show that for any social preference cycle generated by combining the weak Pareto principle and individual decisiveness, every decisive individual must suffer at least one strong negative externality. We show that this fundamental result only holds when individual preferences are strict. Building on their contribution,...

  19. Migration with fiscal externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercowitz, Z; Pines, D

    1991-11-01

    "This paper analyses the distribution of a country's population among regions when migration involves fiscal externalities. The main question addressed is whether a decentralized decision making [by] regional governments can produce an optimal population distribution...or a centralized intervention is indispensable, as argued before in the literature.... It turns out that, while with costless mobility the fiscal externality is fully internalized by voluntary interregional transfers, with costly mobility, centrally coordinated transfers still remain indispensable for achieving the socially optimal allocation."

  20. Small relief shape variations influence spatial variability of soil chemical attributes Pequenas variações das formas de relevo influenciam a variabilidade espacial de atributos químicos do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zigomar Menezes de Souza

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Soils with small variations in relief and under the same management system present differentiated spatial variabilities of their attributes. This variability is a function of soil position in the landscape, even if the relief has little expression. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of relief shape and depth on spatial variability of soil chemical attributes in a Typic Hapludox cultivated with sugar cane at two landscape compartments. Soil samples were collected in the intercrossing points of a grid, in the traffic line, at 0-0.2 m and 0.6-0.8 m depths, comprising a set of 100 georeferenced points. The spatial variabilities of pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, cation exchange capacity and base saturation were quantified. Small relief shape variations lead to differentiated variability in soil chemical attributes as indicated by the dependence on pedoform found for chemical attributes at both 0-0.2 m and 0.6-0.8 m depths. Because of the higher variability, it is advisable to collect large number of samples in areas with concave and convex shapes. Combining relief shapes and geostatistics allows the determination of areas with different spatial variability for soil chemical attributes.Solos submetidos ao mesmo sistema de manejo em locais com pequena variação de relevo, manifestam variabilidade espacial diferenciada de seus atributos. Esta variabilidade é condicionada pela posição dos solos na paisagem ou no declive, mesmo que o relevo seja de pequena expressão. O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da forma do relevo na variabilidade espacial de atributos químicos em um latossolo cultivado com cana-de-açúcar em dois compartimentos da paisagem. Os solos foram amostrados nos pontos de cruzamento de uma malha, com intervalos regulares de 10 m, perfazendo um total de 100 pontos, nas profundidades de 0-0,2 m e 0,6-0,8 m. Foi avaliado a variabilidade espacial do pH, fósforo (P, potássio (K, cálcio (Ca, magnésio (Mg, acidez

  1. Subspace clustering through attribute clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun NIU; Shubo ZHANG; Junliang CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Many recently proposed subspace clustering methods suffer from two severe problems. First, the algorithms typically scale exponentially with the data dimensionality or the subspace dimensionality of clusters. Second, the clustering results are often sensitive to input parameters. In this paper, a fast algorithm of subspace clustering using attribute clustering is proposed to over-come these limitations. This algorithm first filters out redundant attributes by computing the Gini coefficient. To evaluate the correlation of every two non-redundant attributes, the relation matrix of non-redundant attributes is constructed based on the relation function of two dimensional united Gini coefficients. After applying an overlapping clustering algorithm on the relation matrix, the candidate of all interesting subspaces is achieved. Finally, all subspace clusters can be derived by clustering on interesting subspaces. Experiments on both synthesis and real datasets show that the new algorithm not only achieves a significant gain of runtime and quality to find subspace clusters, but also is insensitive to input parameters.

  2. SOA: A Quality Attribute Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    JMS) – CORBA … • Infrastructure services available to service providers and/or service consumers to perform common tasks or satisfy QoS requirements...Services is one technology for SOA implementation SOA and Quality Attributes SOA WS* Web Services CORBA REST Services and POX Key Class Realization

  3. k-visit Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Skyum, S.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that any well-defined attribute grammar is k-visit for some k. Furthermore, it is shown that given a well-defined grammar G and an integer k, it is decidable whether G is k-visit. Finally it is shown that the k-visit grammars specify a proper hierarchy with respect to translations...

  4. Abstract Interpretation Using Attribute Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the correctness proofs of attribute grammars using methods from abstract interpretation. The technique will be described by defining a live-variable analysis for a small flow-chart language and proving it correct with respect to a continuation style semantics. The proof tech...

  5. Temporal context for authorship attribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Dalum; Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger;

    2014-01-01

    A study of temporal aspects of authorship attribution - a task which aims to distinguish automatically between texts written by different authors by measuring textual features. This task is important in a number of areas, including plagiarism detection in secondary education, which we study...

  6. 交互设备的交互模式分类及其显示属性影响研究%Research on Interaction Pattern Classification and the Influence of Display Attributes of Interactive Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翠洁; 陈硕

    2011-01-01

    Aimed to summarize typical interaction pattern of users and the impact factors, extract the display attributes, typical usage scenarios and interactive behaviors of interactive products based on text mining of the data mining methods, which mainly come from the Internet, and further, based on the usage scenarios and interactive behaviors to extract interaction pattern. Then analyze the relationship between interaction pattern and display attributes by semantic -analysis. We received seven categories: 1)information processing;2)mobile information exchange.3)the display of manipulation message; 4) the reception of the information; 5) the display of functional message; 6) the display of one -direction message; 7) information records. Conclusions; in the development of interaction equipment, interaction patterns maintain relative stability; display attributes play a key role in the interaction patterns, restricting the usage behaviors and the usage scenarios. The above results have important reference value for the design of interaction product.%本研究旨在总结用户与设备典型的交互模式分类及其影响因素.基于文本挖掘的数据挖掘方法,从主要源自互联网的数据中提取显示属性及典型使用场景和交互行为,进而基于场景和交互行为挖掘交互模式,并通过语义分析探讨交互模式与显示属性的关系.共得到7类交互模式:1)信息加工;2)移动信息交流;3)控制信息显示;4)信息接收;5)功能信息显示;6)单向信息展示;7)信息记录.结论:交互模式在交互设备的发展中保持相对稳定性;显示属性在交互模式中起关键作用,制约使用场景及交互行为.上述结果对交互产品设计具有重要参考价值.

  7. Influences of Fog-Haze on External Insulation of Transmission and Distribution Equipments%雾霾天气对输变电设备外绝缘的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宿志一

    2013-01-01

      从输变电设备防污闪角度讲,雾霾与传统的湿沉降、污(脏)雾是同一概念。雾霾对输变电设备外绝缘影响的研究,主要包括雾霾的理化特征、雾霾对绝缘子表面污秽度的影响、雾霾的模拟及其对绝缘子污闪电压的影响等内容。文章重点介绍了20世纪90年代以来北京、上海两地开展的试验研究工作:大气污染易演变成霾与雾霾天气,导致输变电设备外绝缘表面湿沉降的增加。雾霾脏污程度可用雾水电导率表征,雾霾的持续作用可使绝缘子表面污秽度有限增大,绝缘子污闪电压有所降低。近年来,国网公司系统坚持“绝缘到位,留有裕度”的防污闪方针,成功地抵御了雾霾天气对输变电设备的侵袭,遏制了大面积污闪事故的发生,线路污闪跳闸率降至历史最低水平。%In the viewpoint of preventing pollution flashover occurred on transmission and distribution equipments, the fog-haze is of the same concept as the traditional concept for wet deposition and dust fog. The research on the influences of fog-haze on external insulation of transmission and distribution equipments mainly includes the physical and chemical features of the fog-haze, the influence of the fog-haze on contamination level of insulator surface, the simulation of the fog-haze and its influence on pollution flashover voltage of insulators. The achievements of experimental research on the fog-haze performed in Shanghai and Beijing since 1990s are emphatically presented: atmospheric pollution easily evolves into the haze or the fog-haze weather, and it makes the increase of wet deposition on external insulation surfaces of transmission and distribution equipments; the smudgy degree caused by fog-haze can be characterized by fog conductivity;the sustained action of fog-haze makes the degree of contamination on insulator surfaces limitedly increased, so the pollution flashover voltage of

  8. Environmental external effects from wind power based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...

  9. Metasurface external cavity laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Luyao, E-mail: luyaoxu.ee@ucla.edu; Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chen, Qi-Sheng [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States)

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  10. Externality or sustainability economics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den [ICREA, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Economics and Economic History and Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)

  11. The self-attribution bias and paranormal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Elk, Michiel

    2017-02-22

    The present study investigated the relation between paranormal beliefs, illusory control and the self-attribution bias, i.e., the motivated tendency to attribute positive outcomes to oneself while negative outcomes are externalized. Visitors of a psychic fair played a card guessing game and indicated their perceived control over randomly selected cards as a function of the congruency and valence of the card. A stronger self-attribution bias was observed for paranormal believers compared to skeptics and this bias was specifically related to traditional religious beliefs and belief in superstition. No relation between paranormal beliefs and illusory control was found. Self-report measures indicated that paranormal beliefs were associated to being raised in a spiritual family and to anomalous experiences during childhood. Thereby this study suggests that paranormal beliefs are related to specific cognitive biases that in turn are shaped by socio-cultural factors.

  12. The Characteristics of Attributes in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Hui

    2008-01-01

    This essay focuses on two aspects.One is the characteristic of attribute.The other is concern with some points of using attributes in English.This understanding contributes to using attributes correctly both in written and spoken English.

  13. Organizational Attributes, Market Growth, and Product Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Michael; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Extensive research has shown that organizational attributes affect product innovation. Extending this literature, this article delimits two general categories of organizational attributes and relates them to product innovation. Organizational attributes can be either control oriented or flexibility

  14. The external microenvironment of healing skin wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Carla R; Nuutila, Kristo; Lee, Cameron Cy

    2015-01-01

    The skin wound microenvironment can be divided into two main components that influence healing: the external wound microenvironment, which is outside the wound surface; and the internal wound microenvironment, underneath the surface, to which the cells within the wound are exposed. Treatment...

  15. Disease proportions attributable to environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineis Paolo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Population disease proportions attributable to various causal agents are popular as they present a simplified view of the contribution of each agent to the disease load. However they are only summary figures that may be easily misinterpreted or over-interpreted even when the causal link between an exposure and an effect is well established. This commentary discusses several issues surrounding the estimation of attributable proportions, particularly with reference to environmental causes of cancers, and critically examines two recently published papers. These issues encompass potential biases as well as the very definition of environment and of environmental agent. The latter aspect is not just a semantic question but carries implications for the focus of preventive actions, whether centred on the material and social environment or on single individuals.

  16. Morphosemantic Attributes of Meetei Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourembam Surjit Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes to investigate the functions of morphosemantic in Meetei proverbs, particularly the attribution of different meanings of the lexical items in Meetei Proverbial verbs. Meetei society has been using proverbs in the all ages, stages of development, social changes, and cultural diversifications to mark their wisdom of social expertise. Meetei used proverbs as an important aspect of verbal discourses within the socio-cultural and ethno-civilization contexts in which skills, knowledge, ideas, emotion, and experiences are communicating. The language used in proverbs reflects the Meetei’s status of life, food habits, belief systems, philosophy, cultural and social orientations. At the same time, various meanings attribute in Meetei proverbs in the forms of figurative, witty, pithy, didactic etc. The construction of these forms are grammatically insightful thereby creating spaces for a whole range of possibilities for investigating the features, functions and structure of verbal inflectional markers occurred in Meetei proverbial sentences. Keywords: Proverbs, morphosemantics, features of lexical items, attributes of meanings and language

  17. Productivity Change and Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravtsova, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    firms and the economy as a whole. The approach used in the current research accounts for different internal as well as external factors that individual firms face and evaluates the effect on changes in productivity, technology as well as the efficiency of domestic firms. The empirical analysis focuses...... change in different types of firms and sectors of the economy...

  18. Stochastic Control - External Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2005-01-01

    This note is devoted to control of stochastic systems described in discrete time. We are concerned with external descriptions or transfer function model, where we have a dynamic model for the input output relation only (i.e.. no direct internal information). The methods are based on LTI systems...

  19. An exploration of pre-service teachers’ attributions in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz Cevdet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the developments in cognitive psychology, language learners’ beliefs have received considerable attention in the domain of language teaching and learning. One area that merits investigation as to what the learner brings to this educational process is learner attributions which are commonly defined as ‘perceived causes of success and failure’. This paper investigated pre-service teachers’ perceptions of student attributions and their performance in English. Attributions are categorized as either internal (for instance ability or external (for instance task difficulty. Motivated by these theoretical concerns, the study investigated the attributions of 122 pre-service teachers majoring in English and the connections between attribution and proficiency and gender. The study concludes with a set of far-reaching pedagogical implications and suggestions for learner training and teacher action in the EFL classroom. The results underscore the need for pre-service students to become aware of their own perceptions with regard to students' success and failure in English.

  20. External-Memory Multimaps

    CERN Document Server

    Angelino, Elaine; Mitzenmacher, Michael; Thaler, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Many data structures support dictionaries, also known as maps or associative arrays, which store and manage a set of key-value pairs. A \\emph{multimap} is generalization that allows multiple values to be associated with the same key. For example, the inverted file data structure that is used prevalently in the infrastructure supporting search engines is a type of multimap, where words are used as keys and document pointers are used as values. We study the multimap abstract data type and how it can be implemented efficiently online in external memory frameworks, with constant expected I/O performance. The key technique used to achieve our results is a combination of cuckoo hashing using buckets that hold multiple items with a multiqueue implementation to cope with varying numbers of values per key. Our external-memory results are for the standard two-level memory model.

  1. External cervical resorption: diagnostic and treatment tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolaro, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT External cervical resorption is caused, almost exclusively, by dental trauma - especially those characterized by concussion - and is a dental disease to be diagnosed and treated accurately by endodontists. However, the vast majority of the cases is initially diagnosed by an orthodontist, due to the imaging possibilities in standardized documentations. Among the causes of external cervical resorption, it is common to mistakenly attribute it to orthodontic treatment, traumatic occlusion or even to chronic inflammatory periodontal disease. External cervical resorption is associated to dental trauma in several situations mentioned in this paper. In old cases, and eventually still nowadays, it may have been induced by internal tooth bleaching, which is increasingly less frequent in endodontically treated teeth. There are some tips to be followed and some care that must be taken during the diagnosis and treatment of external cervical resorption clinical cases. The present study lists foundations that will allow the professional to perform safely and accurately in each specific case. Some of these tips and care measures are of orthodontic nature. PMID:27901225

  2. External cervical resorption: diagnostic and treatment tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT External cervical resorption is caused, almost exclusively, by dental trauma - especially those characterized by concussion - and is a dental disease to be diagnosed and treated accurately by endodontists. However, the vast majority of the cases is initially diagnosed by an orthodontist, due to the imaging possibilities in standardized documentations. Among the causes of external cervical resorption, it is common to mistakenly attribute it to orthodontic treatment, traumatic occlusion or even to chronic inflammatory periodontal disease. External cervical resorption is associated to dental trauma in several situations mentioned in this paper. In old cases, and eventually still nowadays, it may have been induced by internal tooth bleaching, which is increasingly less frequent in endodontically treated teeth. There are some tips to be followed and some care that must be taken during the diagnosis and treatment of external cervical resorption clinical cases. The present study lists foundations that will allow the professional to perform safely and accurately in each specific case. Some of these tips and care measures are of orthodontic nature.

  3. Mortality of American alligators attributed to cannibalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, Michael F.; Woodward, Allan R.; Kiltie, Richard A.; Moore, Clinton T.

    2011-01-01

    Mortality of juvenile (Alligator mississippiensis) attributed to cannibalism on Orange Lake, Florida was examined. Alligator web tags used in mark–recapture studies were found in 12% of 267 stomachs sampled from alligators ≥168 cm TL. Captive alligators retained 76% of force-fed tags during a 588-d tag-retention trial. Models relating the probability of tag recovery to the annual probabilities of juvenile survival, cannibalism, tag retention, adult survival, and adult harvest suggested that cannibalism may on average remove 6–7% of the juvenile alligator population annually. Vulnerability continued to 140 cm TL (age 6–8 yr). Cannibalism of juveniles may serve to regulate the alligator population on Orange Lake. Alligator cannibalism may vary widely among populations, depending on demography and environmental conditions. The role and importance of cannibalism in alligator population dynamics should be more fully assessed and environmental and population factors that influence cannibalism identified to better evaluate management programs.

  4. Memory for recently accessed visual attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuhong V; Shupe, Joshua M; Swallow, Khena M; Tan, Deborah H

    2016-08-01

    Recent reports have suggested that the attended features of an item may be rapidly forgotten once they are no longer relevant for an ongoing task (attribute amnesia). This finding relies on a surprise memory procedure that places high demands on declarative memory. We used intertrial priming to examine whether the representation of an item's identity is lost completely once it becomes task irrelevant. If so, then the identity of a target on one trial should not influence performance on the next trial. In 3 experiments, we replicated the finding that a target's identity is poorly recognized in a surprise memory test. However, we also observed location and identity repetition priming across consecutive trials. These data suggest that, although explicit recognition on a surprise memory test may be impaired, some information about a particular target's identity can be retained after it is no longer needed for a task. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Headache attributed to psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Vincenzo; Galli, Federica; Sheftell, Fred

    2010-01-01

    The association between psychiatric illness and headache is widely recognized. "Headache attributed to psychiatric disorder" is a new category of secondary headache introduced in the 2004 revision of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II) (Headache Classification Subcommittee of the International Headache Society, 2004). It represents a new, but not conclusive, step toward a better systematization of the topic "headache and psychological factors." From the early 1990s the involvement of psychological factors in headache disorders has been clearly identified as "psychiatric comorbidity." The current conceptualization of the term implies an association, more than casual, but likely not causal, between an index disease or disorder and one or more coexisting physical or psychological pathologies. Additionally, clarifying the direction, meaning, and weight of comorbidities has pathophysiological, nosological, course, and treatment implications. However, the study of comorbidity may present a series of difficulties related to the current understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of diseases at the center of our attention. Sometimes, as happens in the subject of headache, we proceed against a background where many issues need to be clarified. In this chapter, we analyze the past and current literature, tracing the line from "migraine personality" to "psychiatric comorbidity" to "headache attributed to psychiatric disorders." Questions related to etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options are discussed for different headache subtypes.

  6. EXTERNAL BODY FORCE IN FINITE DIFFERENCE LATTICE BOLTZMANN METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Sheng; LIU Zhao-hui; SHI Bao-chang; ZHENG Chu-guang

    2005-01-01

    A new finite difference lattice Boltzmann scheme is developed. Because of analyzing the influence of external body force roundly, the correct Navier-Stokes equations with the external body force are recovered, without any additional unphysical terms. And some numerical results are presented. The result which close agreement with analytical data shows the good performance of the model.

  7. Instructions to Adopt an External Focus Enhance Muscular Endurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, David C.; Greig, Matt; Bullough, Jonathan; Hitchen, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The influence of internal (movement focus) and external (outcome focus) attentional-focusing instructions on muscular endurance were investigated using three exercise protocols with experienced exercisers. Twenty-three participants completed a maximal repetition, assisted bench-press test on a Smith's machine. An external focus of attention…

  8. Gestão das fontes externas de informação: uma análise dos fatores que influenciam o desempenho inovador Management of external sources of information: an analysis of factors influencing the innovation performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clandia Maffini Gomes

    2011-01-01

    reference for developing processes of sustainable technological innovation. Managing sources of information not only helps an organization harmonize the potential inside and outside sources of information but also helps organizations broaden their activities geared to stimulating and bringing about innovation. Companies today are setting up more and more alliances in order to make use of outside sources of information for innovation, but they still lack explicit management strategies. A survey was carried out in Brazilian industrial companies with innovative characteristics, and the aim was to provide new inferences on the relationships between the management of outside sources of technology information and the innovative performance of the companies studied. The objective of the research presented in this paper is to study the relationship between practices for managing external sources of information and the innovative performance of the enterprise. The research can be characterized as quantitative. The data were collected through questionnaires from enterprises seen as having substancial technological innovation activities. The bivariate and multivariate independent and dependent variables suggest the existence of an association between the management of outside sources of technology information and innovative performance. Especially important here is how the different types of sources of information influence the indicators related to products innovation and how the type of access to technology affects the indicators related to processes innovation. The findings of the study suggest many significant relationships between the innovation performance of the enterprise and the types of sources of technological information used and the access modalities to their external sources of technolgical information. The results indicate a trend towards increased use of external sources of information.

  9. External Tonehole Interactions in Woodwind Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Lefebvre, Antoine; Kergomard, Jean

    2012-01-01

    The transfer matrix method is often used to calculate the input impedance of woodwind instruments but it ignores the possible influence of the radiated sound from toneholes on other open holes. In this paper, a method is proposed to account for external tonehole interactions. It is found that the external tonehole interactions increase the amount of radiated energy, reduce slightly the lower resonance frequencies, and modify significantly the response near and above the tonehole lattice cutoff frequency. The results of simulations with the Finite Element Method, as well as experimental measurements, are presented and compared to the calculation with the method presented in this paper, confirming that the external tonehole interactions play a significant role in woodwind instrument.

  10. Limiting Conditions of the "Physical Attractiveness Stereotype": Attributions about Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, John C.

    1980-01-01

    Subjects, reading a profile of a couple filing for divorce, made attributions about responsibility, financial settlement, future behavior, and personality traits. Reasons for divorce, physical attractiveness of husband and wife, and sex of subject were varied. Attractiveness strongly influenced personality ratings. Reason for divorce was related…

  11. The effect of extrinsic attributes on liking of cottage cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, E M; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2016-01-01

    Preference mapping studies with cottage cheese have demonstrated that cottage cheese liking is influenced by flavor, texture, curd size, and dressing content. However, extrinsic factors such as package, label claims, and brand name may also influence liking and have not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of package attributes and brand on the liking of cottage cheese. A conjoint survey with Kano analysis (n=460) was conducted to explore the effect of extrinsic attributes (brand, label claim, milkfat content, and price) on liking. Following the survey, 150 consumers evaluated intrinsic attributes of 7 cottage cheeses with and without brand information in a 2-d crossover design. Results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Milkfat content and price had the highest influence on liking by conjoint analysis. Cottage cheese with 2% milkfat and a low price was preferred. Specific label claims such as "excellent source of calcium (>10%)" were more attractive to consumers than "low sodium" or "extra creamy." Branding influenced overall liking and purchase intent for cottage cheeses to differing degrees. For national brands, acceptance scores were enhanced in the presence of the brand. An all-natural claim was more appealing than organic by conjoint analysis and this result was also confirmed with consumer acceptance testing. Findings from this study can help manufacturers, as well as food marketers, better target their products and brands with attributes that drive consumer choice.

  12. Attributing Responsibility for Child Maltreatment when Domestic Violence Is Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, Miriam J.; Hartley, Carolyn Copps

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine factors that influence how child welfare workers attribute responsibility for child maltreatment and child safety in cases involving domestic violence. Methods: The study used a factorial survey approach, combining elements of survey research with an experimental design. Case vignettes were…

  13. Marketing Cooperatives' Re-engineering: Influences among Organizational Attributes, Strategic Attributes & Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benos, T.; Kalogeras, N.; Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this paper we expand the agribusiness co-op literature by studying the re-engineering process of marketing cooperatives (co-ops). More specifically we discuss and empirically examine organizational innovations adopted by marketing co-ops in Greece. We hypothesize three types of relations

  14. Eudragit(®) RS PO/RL PO as rate-controlling matrix-formers via roller compaction: Influence of formulation and process variables on functional attributes of granules and tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Vivek S; Fahmy, Raafat M; Bensley, Dennis; Hoag, Stephen W

    2012-10-01

    The influence of plasticizer level, roll pressure and sintering temperature was investigated on the granule properties, tablet breaking force and theophylline release from tablets. Nine formulations using theophylline as a model drug, Eudragit(®) RL PO, Eudragit(®) RS PO, or both as a matrix former and triethyl citrate (TEC) as a plasticizer were prepared. The formulations were roller compacted and the granules obtained were evaluated for particle size distribution and flowability. These granules were compacted into tablets at a compression force of 7 kN. The tablets were thermally treated at different temperatures (50 and 75°C) for 5 h and were evaluated for breaking force and dissolution. Increase in roll pressure and TEC levels resulted in a progressive increase in the mean particle size of the granules. The flowability of the granules also improved with increasing roll pressures and TEC levels. Tablet breaking force increased with an increase in TEC levels and sintering temperatures. But these effects were significant only at the highest level of plasticizer and sintering temperature respectively. For the tablets containing Eudragit(®) RS PO, theophylline release decreased proportionately with increase in TEC levels and sintering temperatures. Tablets containing either Eudragit(®) RL PO or a mixture of RS PO and RL PO failed to impart an extended-release property to the tablets at the studied variables i.e. roll pressure, TEC levels and sintering temperature. It was clearly demonstrated that with suitable optimization of these parameters, the release-rate of a water soluble drug from the matrix tablets prepared via roller compaction can be finely controlled.

  15. Metacognitive Attributes and Liberated Progress

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the cardinal and acknowledged importance of autonomy (AU) in learning, especially second-language learning, and influenced by the importance of inspecting its nature and the way it is associated with other psychological/cognitive/metacognitive factors, this research investigated the relationship among English as a foreign language (EFL) learners’ AU, creativity (CR), and critical thinking (CT). The population ...

  16. Research on Radar Emitter Attribute Recognition Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to solve emitter recognition problems in a practical reconnaissance environment, attribute mathematics is introduced. The basic concepts and theory of attribute set and attribute measure are described in detail. A new attribute recognition method based on attribute measure is presented in this paper. Application example is given, which demonstrates this new method is accurate and effective. Moreover, computer simulation for recognizing the emitter purpose is selected, and compared with classical statistical pattern recognition through simulation. The excellent experimental results demonstrate that this is a brand-new attribute recognition method as compared to existing statistical pattern recognition techniques.

  17. Influência social, atribuição de causalidade e julgamentos de responsabilidade e justiça Social influence, attribution of causality, and judgments of responsibility and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroldo Rodrigues

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudos anteriores demonstraram que comportamento antinormativo, causado por influência social derivada dos poderes de recompensa, informação e referência, é percebido como mais interno e mais controlável, e seu autor visto como mais responsável, do que quando ele deriva dos poderes de conhecimento, legitimidade ou coerção. Esta pesquisa constitui uma réplica desses estudos, acrescida de refinamento metodológico para a equalização da força das bases de poder, e de investigação do efeito da influência decorrente dessas bases nos julgamentos de justiça da punição ao autor. Participaram 84 universitários, metade na condição de desfecho positivo e metade na de desfecho negativo. Os resultados replicaram achados anteriores e revelaram que punição severa é considerada mais justa quando a transgressão resulta das bases de poder que eliciam comportamentos percebidos como mais internos e controláveis. Discutem-se os resultados em termos de sua relevância para melhor entendimento de fenômenos como obediência, dissonância cognitiva, comportamento criminoso e justiça retributiva.Previous studies have convincingly demonstrated that transgressional behavior caused by social influence based on reward, informational and referent power is perceived as more internal and more controllable, and the perpetrator seen as more responsible, than similar behavior caused by the use of expert, legitimate or coercive power. This research replicates these studies, adds a methodological refinement by equalizing the strength of power bases, and investigates the effect of power bases on judgments of justice of the punishment applied to the transgression. Eighty four College students served as participants, randomly assigned to two experimental conditions (Good Outcome and Bad Outcome Conditions. The results replicated those found in previous studies and showed that severe punishment is considered more fair when the transgression results from

  18. Scientists' views about attribution of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo

    2014-08-19

    Results are presented from a survey held among 1868 scientists studying various aspects of climate change, including physical climate, climate impacts, and mitigation. The survey was unique in its size, broadness and level of detail. Consistent with other research, we found that, as the level of expertise in climate science grew, so too did the level of agreement on anthropogenic causation. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), explicitly agreed with anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) being the dominant driver of recent global warming. The respondents' quantitative estimate of the GHG contribution appeared to strongly depend on their judgment or knowledge of the cooling effect of aerosols. The phrasing of the IPCC attribution statement in its fourth assessment report (AR4)-providing a lower limit for the isolated GHG contribution-may have led to an underestimation of the GHG influence on recent warming. The phrasing was improved in AR5. We also report on the respondents' views on other factors contributing to global warming; of these Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) was considered the most important. Respondents who characterized human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having had the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change.

  19. The Scenario Experiment Study on the Mechanism of the Influence of the Enterprise Crisis Response Strategies to the Consumer Sequent Behaviors---Based on Attribution Theory%企业危机应对策略对消费者后续行为影响机制的实验研究--基于归因视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王妤扬; 王东晨

    2014-01-01

    Frequent product crisis makes crisis management an important aspect of business administration. This paper selected 209 samples and used scenario experiment to explore the influence of the Enterprise crisis response strategies to consumer sequent behaviors. Based on attribution theory, this paper tested the mediation of consumer responsibility attribution and the moderation of consumer loyalty. The research result shows (1) Enterprise response strategy and compensation strategy have significant positive impact on consumer repurchase intention and WOM. (2) Consumer responsibility attribution play a mediation role between the Enterprise crisis response strategies and consumer sequent behaviors. (3) Consumer loyalty has the moderation function between the relationship between Enterprise response strategy and consumer repurchase intention.%产品危机频发使危机管理成为企业管理的重要方面。本文基于归因理论,利用情境实验,探索了企业危机应对策略对消费者后续行为的影响机制,检验消费者责任归因和顾客忠诚在上述关系中的中介和调节作用。研究显示:(1)企业响应策略及赔偿策略对消费者重复购买意图和口碑传播意图有显著正向影响。(2)消费者责任归因在企业应对策略和消费者后续行为的关系中起中介作用。(3)顾客忠诚调节企业响应策略与消费者重复购买的关系。

  20. Employability attributes and personality preferences of postgraduate business management students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Potgieter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The demand for sustained employability and a proactive career agency has led to a renewed interest in the dispositional and psychological attributes of students and employees – like their employability attributes and personality preferences – because these relate to the proactive management of their career development in a changing employment world.Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between employees’ employability attributes (as the Employability Attributes Scale measures them and their personality preferences (as the Myers-Briggs Type indicator, Form M, measures them. Motivation for the study: There seems to be a paucity of information about how employees’ personality preferences relate to their employability attributes in South Africa’s multicultural organisational context.Research design, approach and method: The authors conducted a quantitative survey. It involved a non-probability sample of 304 early career adults enrolled for an Honour’s degree in business management in an open distance learning higher education institution. They used correlational statistics and multiple regression analyses to analyse the data.Main findings: The authors observed a number of significant relationships between the participants’ personality preferences and their employability attributes.Practical/managerial implications: Career counsellors and human resource practitioners need to recognise how employees’ personality preferences influence their employability attributes in the management of their career development and employability.Contribution/value add: The findings add to the existing career literature on the career metacompetencies that influence employees’ employability. They also provide valuable information that organisations can use for career development support and counselling practices in the contemporary world of work.

  1. Analysis of Consumer Attitude Using Fishbein Multi-Attributes Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ramdhani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of today's economy growing rapidly, accompanied by increasingly sophisticated technological advances that led to the emergence of competition among firms.Increasing number of motorcycle brand in circulation led to a very tight competition in the motorcycle market, particularly in the type of motorcycle. This makes the consumer faced with various choices of brands, so the motorcycle manufacturers need to know the tastes and desires of consumers to create and sell a motorcycle can be favored by consumers. The purpose of this study were to determine what attributes are considered important by consumers to the product brand motorcycle Honda, Yamaha, and Suzuki, and to assess consumer attitudes toward product attributes motorcycle Honda, Yamaha, and Suzuki, The model used is multi-attribute attitude model of Fishbein Attitude Toward To Object Model and the Theory Of Reasoned Action. The results of this study indicate that (1 that are considered important attributes are attached to the product brand motorcycle Honda, Yamaha, and Suzuki is the attribute Price has the highest positive score compared * with a score of other attributes for each of the Honda brand motorcycle , Yamaha, and Suzuki. (2 consumer attitudes showed a positive attitude in which the score for the Honda is +60.03, +56.14 Yamaha, and Suzuki is +55.00. (3 the dominant factor influencing purchasing decisions motorcycle products for the Honda brand is a member of the family, while for the brand Yamaha, and Suzuki are the others

  2. Do cognitive attributions for smoking predict subsequent smoking development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qian; Unger, Jennifer B; Azen, Stanley P; MacKinnon, David P; Johnson, C Anderson

    2012-03-01

    To develop more effective anti-smoking programs, it is important to understand the factors that influence people to smoke. Guided by attribution theory, a longitudinal study was conducted to investigate how individuals' cognitive attributions for smoking were associated with subsequent smoking development and through which pathways. Middle and high school students in seven large cities in China (N=12,382; 48.5% boys and 51.5% girls) completed two annual surveys. Associations between cognitive attributions for smoking and subsequent smoking initiation and progression were tested with multilevel analysis, taking into account plausible moderation effects of gender and baseline smoking status. Mediation effects of susceptibility to smoking were investigated using statistical mediation analysis (MacKinnon, 2008). Six out of eight tested themes of cognitive attributions were associated with subsequent smoking development. Curiosity (β=0.11, psocial image (β=0.10, p=Social image (β=0.05, p=0.043), engagement (β=0.07, p=0.003), and mental enhancement (β=0.15, pmediated most of the associations, with the proportion of mediated effects ranging from 4.3% to 30.8%. This study identifies the roles that cognitive attributions for smoking play in subsequent smoking development. These attributions could be addressed in smoking prevention programs.

  3. "It Was My Fault": Bullied Students' Causal and Controllable Attributions in Bullying Blogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Carly M; Emmers-Sommer, Tara M

    2016-01-01

    Student bullying is a growing and damaging social problem. The devastating outcomes bullied individuals often experience due to such treatment make understanding this phenomenon imperative. Utilizing Heider's (1958) attribution theory, this study explores how bullied students (n = 100) attribute locus of causality and controllability for their victimization in 5 bullying blogs. Findings from this investigation reveal that (a) male and female bloggers' causal and controllable attributions do not differ; (b) bloggers most often attribute blame to bullies, although a noteworthy portion also attribute internal causation; and (c) bloggers often attribute bullying as uncontrollable for several reasons. This study also identifies factors that influence shifts in negative attributions about bullying. These findings inform bullying programs with the hope of reducing destructive attribution formations that potentially lead to prolonged victimization and detrimental consequences.

  4. Attributions and Relapse in Opiate Addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Brendan P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated whether attributions of opiate addicts would predict abstinence and reactions to abstinence violations. Found that addicts who at admission attributed to themselves greater responsibility for negative outcomes and who attributed relapse episodes to more personally controllable factors were subsequently more likely either to be…

  5. Culturally Responsive: Exploring the Attributes of Islamic Health Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohd Khairie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the attributes (basis and values of faith-based communication strategy on health communication. Eight series of focus group studies on Muslim community were conducted to gather the data. The finding makes abundantly clear that the tawhidic (the belief in Oneness of God conception significantly determine the effectiveness of Islamic communication message. In addition, there were another six themes that contributes to Islamic health communication attributes which may influence the receiver’s attitudes and behaviours. The insights of this paper may contribute to the further development of health promotion strategies for Muslims community.

  6. Invertebrates associated to Eichhornea azurea Kunth in a lagoon of the Upper Paraná River: composition, community attributes and influence of abiotic factors Invertebrados associados à Eichhornea azurea Kunth em uma lagoa do alto rio Paraná: composição, atributos da comunidade e influência de fatores abióticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Flávia Batista-Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: We evaluated the composition and community attributes of invertebrates associated to Eichhornia azurea at Cascalho Lagoon, Upper Paraná River, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, over a hydrological cycle, as well the possible influence of abiotic factors upon these attributes. METHODS: The samplings were conducted during 2010 in the rainy and dry periods at stands of E. azurea. The attributes evaluated were abundance, richness, diversity, evenness and dominance. The abiotic factors, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and turbidity were summarized by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. In order to verify possible differences between the mean values of the community attributes and the scores of the PCA axis in different periods, we employed null models analysis of variance. The influence of abiotic factors on each attribute was evaluated through Pearson correlations. RESULTS: We captured 3,052 individuals, distributed into 32 taxa, belonging to the phyllum Mollusca, Annelida, Nematoda and Arthropoda. Among the assessed attributes, only abundance and richness varied significantly between periods, with higher values during the rainy period. Chironomidade was dominant in both periods, whereas Notonectidae and Cyclopoida were rare in the rainy, and Bivalve, Decapoda, Haliplidae, Trichoptera and Pyralidae, in the dry period. A temporal distinction was evident only for the PCA axis 1, which represented gradients in temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH. Among the community attributes, only abundance was significant and negatively correlated with this axis. CONCLUSION: We attested that: i the rainy period should add favorable conditions for invertebrates' higher richness and abundance in this macrophyte; ii only the later attribute was influenced by limnological gradients.OBJETIVO: Nós avaliamos a composição e atributos da comunidade de invertebrados associados à Eichhornia azurea na lagoa do Cascalho, alto rio Paraná, MS, Brasil, durante um

  7. Are retailers' preferences for seafood attributes predictive for consumers wants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Polancoa, José; Mueller Loose, Simone; Luna, Ladislao

    2013-01-01

    choice and to test for differences in attribute preferences between retailers and consumers. Results indicate that both consumers and retailers agree in their marginal willingness to pay for wild over farmed seabream. However, they differ in the extent to which the disutility from farmed production can......Aquaculture production has grown considerably in the southern countries of Europe during the last two decades. This increase in supply has not been matched by an equivalent rise in consumer demand, resulting in price decay. For farmed seabream (Sparus aurata) this paper examines which attributes...... and claims are able to successfully influence Spanish consumers’ perceived value of seafood and to which degree consumers and retailers in a traditional fish market differ in their choice reaction to these attributes. A heteroscedastic logit model was used to assess the impact of seafood claims on consumer...

  8. Sex differences in perceived attributes of computer-mediated communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Vernon B

    2003-02-01

    Researchers have pointed to the influence of sex with respect to the attributes of the computer medium. The author elaborates upon possible sex differences in reference to perceived attributes of the computer medium, i.e., Richness, Accessibility, Velocity, Interactivity, Plasticity, and Immediacy. Data from both a pilot and main study are reported and interpreted. The pilot study included 78 participants, while the main study involved 211. The independent samples were composed of Communication Studies students enrolled at two Mid-Atlantic universities. Nine items with anchors of 1: strongly disagree and 7: strongly agree were taken from the 2000 Computer Mediated Communication Competence Scale of Spitzberg to assess the attributes of computer-mediated interaction. The results indicate that women scored higher than men on perceptions of Accessibility, Velocity, Interactivity, and Immediacy.

  9. The influence of sex on character attribute preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Companion, Michèle; Sambrook, Roger

    2008-12-01

    This study investigates the sex-based differences in preferences for character types and game play. It is hypothesized that males will prefer more combat-oriented roles, while females will prefer less violent ones, with an emphasis on nurturing others and supporting the group. We find support for sex-based differences in character type selection. Violence aversion is a factor for females, while cooperative, nurturing factors are not.

  10. Organizational and individual attributes influencing patient risk detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despins, Laurel A

    2014-10-01

    This study examined organizational and individual variables impacting patient risk detection by Intensive Care Unit nurses and their decision to reduce the risk of failure to rescue. Thirty-four nurses were randomly assigned to two groups. A video of a manager and staff nurse patient safety discussion was used to prime one group to prioritize patient safety. Participants provided demographic information, received end-of-shift report on two fictional patients, experienced 52 alarm trials during a medication preparation scenario, and completed the Safety Attitude Questionnaire. No difference existed in risk detection; however, nurses who perceived their work environment quality to be good correctly ignored a clinically irrelevant alarm more often and were more apt to classify an alarm as irrelevant. They chose to reduce the risk of medication error rather than that of failure to rescue. This information can assist nurses to balance disregarding distractions with responding to potential patient risk signals.

  11. Detecting and attributing an anthropogenic influence on climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santer, B.D.; Taylor, K.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore (United States); Jones, P.D. [East Anglia Univ. (United States). Climatic Research Unit; Wigley, T.M.L. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder (United States); Penner, J.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore (United States). Global Climate Research Div.; Cubasch, U. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum, Hamburg (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    A pattern correlation statistic is used, R(t), to compare the observed pattern temperature change with that predicted by the equilibrium model results with carbon dioxide and sulphate aerosols forcing. The results indicate that in JJA and SON the pattern of changes is showing similarities with the observations. The significance of the trends in R(t) is assessed, using the century-long control integrations of two coupled ocean atmosphere GCMs. Although results are robust to both model integrations there are doubts whether such models adequately represent the full range of natural variability on the century timescale when compared with paleoclimatic data. (author)

  12. Labeled experimental choice design for estimating attribute and availability cross effects with N attributes and specific brand attribute levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien

    2011-01-01

    , orthogonal design is not available for every situation. Instead, efficient design based on computerized design algorithm is always available. This paper presents the method of efficient design for estimating brand models having attribute and availability cross effects. The paper gives a framework...... for implementing designs that is efficient enough to estimate model with N brands, each brand have K attributes, and brand attribute has specific levels. The paper also illustrates an example in food consumption study....

  13. MELA: Modelling in Ecology with Location Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovica Luisa Vissat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecology studies the interactions between individuals, species and the environment. The ability to predict the dynamics of ecological systems would support the design and monitoring of control strategies and would help to address pressing global environmental issues. It is also important to plan for efficient use of natural resources and maintenance of critical ecosystem services. The mathematical modelling of ecological systems often includes nontrivial specifications of processes that influence the birth, death, development and movement of individuals in the environment, that take into account both biotic and abiotic interactions. To assist in the specification of such models, we introduce MELA, a process algebra for Modelling in Ecology with Location Attributes. Process algebras allow the modeller to describe concurrent systems in a high-level language. A key feature of concurrent systems is that they are composed of agents that can progress simultaneously but also interact - a good match to ecological systems. MELA aims to provide ecologists with a straightforward yet flexible tool for modelling ecological systems, with particular emphasis on the description of space and the environment. Here we present four example MELA models, illustrating the different spatial arrangements which can be accommodated and demonstrating the use of MELA in epidemiological and predator-prey scenarios.

  14. Attribution and Motivation: Gender, Ethnicity, and Religion Differences among Indonesian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutantoputri, Novita W.; Watt, Helen M. G.

    2013-01-01

    The study explores the possibilities of gender, ethnicity, and religion differences on attributions (locus of control, stability, personal and external control), motivational goals (learning, performance approach, performance avoidance, and work avoidance), self-efficacy, intelligence beliefs, religiosity, racial/ethnic identity, and academic…

  15. Markets, Herding and Response to External Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the influence of external sources of information upon financial markets. In particular, we develop a stochastic agent-based market model characterized by a certain herding behavior as well as allowing traders to be influenced by an external dynamic signal of information. This signal can be interpreted as a time-varying advertising, public perception or rumor, in favor or against one of two possible trading behaviors, thus breaking the symmetry of the system and acting as a continuously varying exogenous shock. As an illustration, we use a well-known German Indicator of Economic Sentiment as information input and compare our results with Germany’s leading stock market index, the DAX, in order to calibrate some of the model parameters. We study the conditions for the ensemble of agents to more accurately follow the information input signal. The response of the system to the external information is maximal for an intermediate range of values of a market parameter, suggesting the existence of three different market regimes: amplification, precise assimilation and undervaluation of incoming information. PMID:26204451

  16. Markets, Herding and Response to External Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the influence of external sources of information upon financial markets. In particular, we develop a stochastic agent-based market model characterized by a certain herding behavior as well as allowing traders to be influenced by an external dynamic signal of information. This signal can be interpreted as a time-varying advertising, public perception or rumor, in favor or against one of two possible trading behaviors, thus breaking the symmetry of the system and acting as a continuously varying exogenous shock. As an illustration, we use a well-known German Indicator of Economic Sentiment as information input and compare our results with Germany's leading stock market index, the DAX, in order to calibrate some of the model parameters. We study the conditions for the ensemble of agents to more accurately follow the information input signal. The response of the system to the external information is maximal for an intermediate range of values of a market parameter, suggesting the existence of three different market regimes: amplification, precise assimilation and undervaluation of incoming information.

  17. Markets, Herding and Response to External Information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Carro

    Full Text Available We focus on the influence of external sources of information upon financial markets. In particular, we develop a stochastic agent-based market model characterized by a certain herding behavior as well as allowing traders to be influenced by an external dynamic signal of information. This signal can be interpreted as a time-varying advertising, public perception or rumor, in favor or against one of two possible trading behaviors, thus breaking the symmetry of the system and acting as a continuously varying exogenous shock. As an illustration, we use a well-known German Indicator of Economic Sentiment as information input and compare our results with Germany's leading stock market index, the DAX, in order to calibrate some of the model parameters. We study the conditions for the ensemble of agents to more accurately follow the information input signal. The response of the system to the external information is maximal for an intermediate range of values of a market parameter, suggesting the existence of three different market regimes: amplification, precise assimilation and undervaluation of incoming information.

  18. Analysis of the Internal and External Factors Involved in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲艳春

    2009-01-01

    Materialist dialectics holds that internal causes are the basis of change and the external causes are the condition of change, and that external causes become operative through internal causes. This law can be applied into SLA. The internal causes and external causes influence SLA gready. This paper mainly discusses the factors involved in SLA process.

  19. Second Attribute Algorithm Based on Tree Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Qing Han; Jue Wang

    2006-01-01

    One view of finding a personalized solution of reduct in an information system is grounded on the viewpoint that attribute order can serve as a kind of semantic representation of user requirements. Thus the problem of finding personalized solutions can be transformed into computing the reduct on an attribute order. The second attribute theorem describes the relationship between the set of attribute orders and the set of reducts, and can be used to transform the problem of searching solutions to meet user requirements into the problem of modifying reduct based on a given attribute order. An algorithm is implied based on the second attribute theorem, with computation on the discernibility matrix. Its time complexity is O(n2 × m) (n is the number of the objects and m the number of the attributes of an information system).This paper presents another effective second attribute algorithm for facilitating the use of the second attribute theorem,with computation on the tree expression of an information system. The time complexity of the new algorithm is linear in n. This algorithm is proved to be equivalent to the algorithm on the discernibility matrix.

  20. Key attributes of expert NRL referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gavin; O'Connor, Donna

    2017-05-01

    Experiential knowledge of elite National Rugby League (NRL) referees was investigated to determine the key attributes contributing to expert officiating performance. Fourteen current first-grade NRL referees were asked to identify the key attributes they believed contributed to their expert refereeing performance. The modified Delphi method involved a 3-round process of an initial semi-structured interview followed by 2 questionnaires to reach consensus of opinion. The data revealed 25 attributes that were rated as most important that underpin expert NRL refereeing performance. Results illustrate the significance of the cognitive category, with the top 6 ranked attributes all cognitive skills. Of these, the referees ranked decision-making accuracy as the most important attribute, followed by reading the game, communication, game understanding, game management and knowledge of the rules. Player rapport, positioning and teamwork were the top ranked game skill attributes underpinning performance excellence. Expert referees also highlighted a number of psychological attributes (e.g., concentration, composure and mental toughness) that were significant to performance. There were only 2 physiological attributes (fitness, aerobic endurance) that were identified as significant to elite officiating performance. In summary, expert consensus was attained which successfully provided a hierarchy of the most significant attributes of expert NRL refereeing performance.

  1. The influence of intensive electro-acupuncture on external humeral epicondylitis%强化电针刺治疗肱骨外上髁炎的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨和平; 李易; 舒相平; 易陆; 梁莹

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical effects of intensive electro-acupuncture at tenderness point and electro-acupuncture at acupoints in the treatment of external humeral epicondylitis. To find a treatment prescription on external humeral epicondylitis,that is simple, safe, pragmatic and applied to rural area.Methods: The parallel single blind randomized control clinical trial was administered 80 patients with external humeral epicondylitis were divided into two groups by random. Among these patients, therapeutic group(40) was treated with intensive electro-acupuncture at tenderness point, the control group(40) was treated with electro-acupuncture at acupoints, 5 times of treatment was a course.Results: The clinical observing showed that in therapeutic group intensive electro-acupuncture at tenderness point could improve the degrees of pain, compared to the control group, the difference was significant(P<0.01).Conclusion: intensive electro-acupuncture at tenderness point can effectively alleviate pain surffered from external humeral epicondylitis.and that is simple, safe, pragmatic and applied to rural area.%目的对比分析压痛点强化电针刺与常规腧穴电针治疗肱骨外上髁炎的临床疗效,以期探索一种适用于乡村的简便、安全、实用的治疗方案。方法 采用平行单盲随机对照研究,将80例肱骨外上髁炎患者随机分为治疗组和对照组各40例,其中治疗组给予强化电针刺治疗,对照组给予常规腧穴电针治疗,两组均治疗5次。结果 治疗组患者疼痛程度明显改善,与对照组比较差异具有显著性(P<0.01)。结论 强化电针刺治疗肱骨外上髁炎疗效显著且简单、安全、实用,适于在乡村推广。

  2. 外部情境因素对城市女性公共环境行为的影响%Influences of External Situational Factors on City Women’s Public Environmental Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄粹; 鹿群; 赵闯

    2015-01-01

    This paper studied the moderating effects of situational factors on the relationship between environ‐mental attitude and environmental behavior using hierarchical regression analysis ,based on the ABC theory of psychology ,and using questionnaire surveys and interviews .The statistic results show that in the case of fa‐vorable external factors ,positive attitude can lead to environmental behavior ;while in the case of unfavorable external factors ,positive attitude cannot produce environmental behavior ,which indicates that the effect of en‐vironmental attitude on environmental behavior is restricted by external factors ,especially moderated by exter‐nal factors such as “cooperation and participation” ,“participation way” and “policies and regulations” .This conclusion shows that it is necessary for the departments concerned to improve the relevant external factors in order to promote the women’s public environmental behavior ,in addition to the cultivation of female positive environmental attitudes .%文章基于心理学中的ABC理论,采用问卷调查和访谈的方法,在肯定以往研究得出的环境态度影响环境行为的基础上,采用分层回归分析重点研究外部情境因素对环境态度与环境行为之间关系的调节作用。统计结果表明:在外部情境因素极其有利的情况下,积极的环境态度能够导致环境行为的发生,当外部情境因素不利的时候,积极的环境态度也不会产生环境行为。这说明了环境态度对环境行为的影响受到外部情境因素的制约,尤其是受到外部情境因素“合作参与”、“参与渠道”、“政策法规”的调节作用。这一结论说明促进城市女性在公共领域的环境行为,除了要培养女性积极的环境态度外,更需要有关部门完善相关的外部情境因素。

  3. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summaris...... how the methodology has been applied so far in a previous Danish study. Finally, results of a case study are reported. Exposure factors have been calculated for various urban categories in the Greater Copenhagen Area...

  4. External ionization mechanisms for advanced thermionic converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatziprokopiou, M. E.

    Ion generation and recombination mechanisms in the cesium plasma were investigated as they pertain to the advanced mode thermionic energy converters. The changes in plasma density and temperature within the converter were studied under the influence of several promising auxiliary ionization candidate sources. Three novel approaches of external cesium ion generation were investigated in some detail, namely vibrationally excited N2 as an energy source of ionization of Cs ions in a DC discharge, microwave power as a means of resonant sustenance of the cesium plasma, and ion generation in a pulse N2-Cs mixture. The experimental data obtained and discussed in this work show that all three techniques--i.e. the non-LTE high-voltage pulsing, the energy transfer from vibrationally excited diatomic gases, and the external pumping with a microwave power--have considerable promise as schemes in auxiliary ion generation applicable to the advanced thermionic energy converter.

  5. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  6. Retrofitting Systems for External Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report, 9 different external and internal retrofitting systems are analyzed using numerical calculations. The analysis focuses on the thermal bridge effects in the different systems, and on this basis it is discussed whether internal or external retrofitting has the most advantages...

  7. External doses from radioactive fallout. Dosimetry and levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woehni, T.

    1995-12-31

    The design, manufacture and calibration of a TL-based dosemeter for measurement of low level external photon radiation are presented. The dosemeter is based on CaF{sub 2} with 2 mm brass filter for energy compensation. It is able to resolve a 8% dose increase relative to natural background radiation. With this dosemeter external dose measurements were made in 6 villages in a heavily contaminated region in Russia (Chernobyl fallout), in order to assess external doses to the population. The results were analyzed in the light of additional existing information on radioactive deposition, social habits, decontamination measures and other influencing technical and physical factors. The observed dose values were lower than theoretical estimates of external doses based on published values for external dose levels relative to the level of contamination. 84 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. He Did It on Purpose! Family Correlates of Negative Attributions about an Adolescent Sibling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lisa S.; Conger, Rand D.

    2004-01-01

    Scholars have suggested that family life may influence children's attributions about close relationships. Using a sample of 369 two-parent families with 2 children (a target adolescent in the 8th grade and a sibling aged 10 to 18), we investigated whether the sibling's negative attributions regarding the target adolescent were associated with…

  9. Causal Attributions of Hyperactive Children: Implications for Teaching Strategies and Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Molly K.; Borkowski, John G.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of attribution and self-control training on short- and long-term maintenance of strategic behavior, impulsivity, and beliefs about self-efficacy was assessed in 77 underachieving, hyperactive children. Results supported the use of attribution and self control training in treating strategic deficits in hyperactive and learning…

  10. I Think, Therefore I Am: A Twin Study of Attributional Style in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Eley, Thalia C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Parenting factors may be important to the development of attributional style in adolescence, which in turn relates to depression symptoms. These relationships have mainly been considered in terms of social risk mechanisms, and little is known about the role of genetic influences. Method: Self-reported measures of attributional style,…

  11. Stress, externality, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganellen, R J; Blaney, P H

    1984-12-01

    Previous research has found mixed support for the possibility that locus of control moderates the effects of life stress on depression. Two methodological choices may have influenced previous findings: the use of a unidimensional rather than a multidimensional locus of control scale, and reliance on linear statistical methods using median splits. We attempted to correct these choices by using the Levenson IPC scale (1974) and multiple regression analyses in a female undergraduate population (N = 158). The results supported use of a multidimensional scale, since Stress, Internality, and Powerful Others were found to have main effects on depression whereas Chance interacted with life stress. The question of whether locus of control refers to responsibility for causing an event, i.e., self-blame, or belief in control over future events, i.e., coping behavior, was discussed.

  12. EXTERNAL FACTORS FOR THE MONETARY POLICY TRANSMISSION MECHANISM

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Horatiu

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews and analyzes the effects that external (or exogenous) factors, defined as economic factors that cannot be controlled or influenced by the central bank, have on monetary policy and the monetary policy transmission mechanism. Adopting a theoretical research position, we aim at identifying the main external factors to monetary policy and discuss the ways in which these factors alter the economic environment and implicitly the monetary policy transmission mechanism. This is don...

  13. Crisis Workers' Attributions for Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Margaret E.

    Attributions affect coping with victimization. Battered women who blame their husbands' moods are less likely to leave than are women who blame their husbands' permanent characteristics for the violence. Abused women often have repeated contacts with crisis intervention workers and the attitudes of those workers may affect the attributions made by…

  14. Scaling Terrain Attributes By Fractal Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrain attributes derived from grid digital elevation models (DEMs) are commonly used in distributed hydrologic models. However, many attribute estimations are biased by DEM grid cell size. For example, land surface slopes estimated from 30-m DEMs are, on average, less than slopes estimated from ...

  15. The Aestetic and Perceived Attributes of Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Johnson, Kara; Ashby, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    The performance of a product – technical, aesthetic or perceived – is determined by its attributes. Technical attributes of a product, such as its weight, power, scale, efficiency, cost and the chosen material or manufacturing technologies can be measured or expressed in standard, accepted, ways....

  16. Attributes Heeded When Representing an Osmosis Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, June Trop

    Eighteen high school science students were involved in a study to determine what attributes in the problem statement they need when representing a typical osmosis problem. In order to realize this goal students were asked to solve problems aloud and to explain their answers. Included as a part of the results are the attributes that the students…

  17. An Exploration of EFL Teachers' Attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonsooly, Behzad; Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh; Ghazanfari, Mohammad; Ghabanchi, Zargham

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' attributions of success and failure. It also set out to investigate whether these attributions vary by teachers' age, teaching experience, gender and educational level. To do so, 200 EFL teachers were selected according to convenience sampling among EFL teachers teaching…

  18. Accounting Students' Perceptions of Effective Faculty Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfraih, Mishari M.; Alanezi, Faisal S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the attributes of an effective accounting faculty from the student perspective. It also examines similarities and differences in the perceived importance of these attributes between bachelor's and associate's accounting degree students in two public higher education institutions in Kuwait, namely, Kuwait…

  19. A characterization of attribute evaluation in passes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alblas, Henk

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of semantic attributes in a bounded number of passes from left-to-right and/or from right-to-left over the derivation tree of a program. Evaluation strategies where different instances of the same attribute in any derivation tree are restricted to be evaluated in

  20. Anonymous Credential Schemes with Encrypted Attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guajardo Merchan, J.; Mennink, B.; Schoenmakers, B.

    2011-01-01

    In anonymous credential schemes, users obtain credentials on certain attributes from an issuer, and later show these credentials to a relying party anonymously and without fully disclosing the attributes. In this paper, we introduce the notion of (anonymous) credential schemes with encrypted attribu

  1. Racing to define pharmaceutical R&D external innovation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liangsu; Plump, Andrew; Ringel, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The pharmaceutical industry continues to face fundamental challenges because of issues with research and development (R&D) productivity and rising customer expectations. To lower R&D costs, move beyond me-too therapies, and create more transformative portfolios, pharmaceutical companies are actively capitalizing on external innovation through precompetitive collaboration with academia, cultivation of biotech start-ups, and proactive licensing and acquisitions. Here, we review the varying innovation strategies used by pharmaceutical companies, compare and contrast these models, and identify the trends in external innovation. We also discuss factors that influence these external innovation models and propose a preliminary set of metrics that could be used as leading indicators of success.

  2. Equatorial Rossby Solitary Wave Under the External Forcing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Zun-Tao; LIU Shi-Kuo; LIU Shi-Da

    2005-01-01

    A simple shallow-water model with influence of external forcing on a β-plane is applied to investigate the nonlinear equatorial Rossby waves in a shear flow. By the perturbation method, the extended variable-coefficient KdV equation under an external forcing is derived for large amplitude equatorial Rossby wave in a shear flow. And then various periodic-like structures for these equatorial Rossby waves are obtained with the help of Jacobi elliptic functions.It is shown that the external forcing plays an important role in various periodic-like structures.

  3. Comparison of binaural microphones for externalization of sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cubick, Jens; Sánchez Rodríguez, C.; Song, Wookeun

    2015-01-01

    or with microphones placed inside the ear canals of a person. In this study, binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs) were measured with several commercially available binaural microphones, both placed inside the listeners’ ears (individual BRIR) and on a head and torso simulator (generic BRIR). The degree...... of externalization of speech and noise stimuli was tested in a listening experiment with a multi-stimulus test. No influence was found for the stimulus signal, but the externalization scores were found to be lower for 0◦ incidence. With all microphones, relatively high externalization scores were achieved...

  4. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results; to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the results of the national implementation for Denmark. Three different fuel cycles have been chosen as case studies. These are fuel cycles for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant based on biogas. The report covers all the details of the application of the methodology to these fuel cycles aggregation to a national level. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 59 tabs., 25 ills., 61 refs.

  5. EXTERNAL FACTORS FOR THE MONETARY POLICY TRANSMISSION MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Horatiu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews and analyzes the effects that external (or exogenous factors, defined as economic factors that cannot be controlled or influenced by the central bank, have on monetary policy and the monetary policy transmission mechanism. Adopting a theoretical research position, we aim at identifying the main external factors to monetary policy and discuss the ways in which these factors alter the economic environment and implicitly the monetary policy transmission mechanism. This is done by changing the way in which monetary transmission channels work and deliver monetary policy decisions throughout the economy, with the final goal of producing central bank desired outcomes with regard to economic variables like inflation, employment, or the production level. We will begin this article with a brief introduction on the topic of monetary policy, the monetary policy transmission mechanism and the potential external factors that may influence the monetary policy and the functioning of its transmission mechanism. The main external factors are identified as linked to fiscal policy, commodity prices, financial market volatility or other globalization related processes. After this introduction, we will proceed with the analysis of the nature and influences of each of the above mentioned external factors on monetary policy and its transmission, indentifying the potential ways in which they can change the structure and internal processes of the transmission channels. As we will see in the study and highlight in our conclusion, the external factors cause decisive changes in the way monetary policy is transmitted, and thus will strongly influence the decisions that central banks take in order to alter key economic variables. The profound understanding of how these non-central bank controlled factors influence the monetary policy transmission mechanism is a key requirement for central banks, as only by being able to predict, recognize and evaluate the

  6. External fuel thermionic reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondt, J. F.; Peelgren, M. L.

    1971-01-01

    Thermionic reactors are prime candidates for nuclear electric propulsion. The national thermionic reactor effort is concentrated on the flashlight concept with the external-fuel concept as the backup. The external-fuel concept is very adaptable to a completely modular power subsystem which is attractive for highly reliable long-life applications. The 20- to 25-cm long, externally-fueled converters have been designed, fabricated, and successfully tested with many thermal cycles by electrical heating. However, difficulties have been encountered during encapsulation for nuclear heated tests and none have been started to date. These nuclear tests are required to demonstrate the concept feasibility.

  7. EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL CONTROL IN PLANT DEVELOPMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beáta Oborny

    2003-01-01

    Bodies of plants are modularly organized. Development proceeds by adding new modules to open endings with a potential for branching. Each module is autonomous to some extent. Development relies on the self-organized patterns that emerge from the interactions of individual modules. Interactions include both competition and cooperation, and several types of positive and negative feedback loops are involved. Development can be open to external influences, thus enabling the plant to adjust its form to the environment, for example, to the spatial distribution of ecological resources. This paper provides a review on adaptive plasticity in plants.

  8. Combination of external loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, S.; Tarp Johansen, N.J.; Joergensen, H. [Forskningscenter Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Gravesen, H.; Soerensen, S.L. [Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark); Pedersen, J. [Elsam Engineering, Fredericia (Denmark); Zorn, R.; Hvidberg Knudsen, M. [DHI Water and Environment, Hoersholm (Denmark); Voelund, P. [Energi E2, Koebenhavn (Denmark)

    2003-09-01

    The project onbectives have been: To improve and consequently opimise the basis for design of offshore wind turbines. This is done through 1) mapping the wind, wave ice and current as well as correlations of these, and 2) by clarifyring how these external conditions transform into loads. A comprehensive effort has been made to get a thorough understanding of the uncertainties that govern the reliability of wind turbines with respect to wind and wave loading. One of the conclusions is that the reliability of wind turbines is generally lower, than the average reliability of building structures that are subject not only to environmental loads, which are very uncertain, but also imposed loads and self weight, which are less uncertain than the environmental loads. The implication is that, at the moment lower load partial safety factors for onshore wind turbines cannot be recommended. For the combination of wind and wave design loads the problem is twofold: 1). A very conservative design will be generated by simply adding the individual wind and wave design loads disregarding the independence of the short-term fluctuations of wind and wave loads. 2). Characteristic values and partial safety factors for wind and wave loads are not defined similarly. This implies that the reliability levels of turbine support structures subject to purely aerodynamic loads and subject to purely hydrodynamic loads are not identical. For the problem of combining aerodynamic design loads and hydrodynamic design loads two results have been obtained in the project: 1). By simple means a site specific wave load safety factor rendering the same safety level for hydrodynamic loads as for aerodynamic loads is derived, and next, by direct square summation of extreme fluctuations, the wind and wave load safety factors are weighted. 2). Under the assumptions that a deep water site is considered and that the wave loading is a fifty-fifty mix of drag and inertia the same wind and wave load safety factor

  9. Multiple organizational identification levels and the impact of perceived external prestige and communication climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Jos; Pruyn, Ad; Jong, de Menno; Joustra, Inge

    2007-01-01

    sEarlier studies have shown that perceived external prestige and communication climate influence organizational identification. In this paper we present the results of a study of the influence of communication climate and perceived external prestige on organizational identification at various organi

  10. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs (SAMMEC) - Smoking-Attributable Expenditures (SAE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2009. SAMMEC - Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs. Smoking-attributable expenditures (SAEs) are excess health care expenditures...

  11. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs (SAMMEC) - Smoking Attributable Mortality (SAM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2009. SAMMEC - Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs. Smoking attributable mortality (SAM) is the number of deaths caused by cigarette...

  12. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs (SAMMEC) - Smoking-Attributable Mortality (SAM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2009. SAMMEC - Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs. Smoking-attributable mortality (SAM) is the number of deaths caused by cigarette...

  13. DETERMINANTS OF INTERNAL VS. EXTERNAL CEO SUCCESSIONS IN MALAYSIAN PUBLIC LISTED COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokiah Ishak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a CEO turnover, a company may select an internal or external successor. The objective of this study is to determine if firm performance, board attributes, ownership structure and incumbent power influence the decision of whether to elect an internal or external candidate. Results from logistic regression analysis on 145 succession events over a four-year period (2002 to 2005 indicate that firms which are controlled by blockholders tend to select an outsider as the successor. Further, firms that are controlled by family members and position their former CEOs within the firms are more likely to select insiders as successors. However, firm performance, board composition, CEO duality and turnover type do not affect the selection choice. This study implies that poor firm performance does not necessarily lead to outside CEO selection choice. Further, boards of Malaysian PLCs are not effective in choosing outsiders as successors as both board composition and CEO duality do not necessarily select outsiders to become new CEOs. Another implication of this study is that former CEOs who continue their directorship in the same companies do have some power in naming new CEOs as the former tend to select insiders as successors.

  14. A neuroimaging investigation of attribute framing and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Kevin B; Krawczyk, Daniel C

    2014-10-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate the neural basis of framing effects. We tested the reflexive and reflective systems model of social cognition as it relates to framing. We also examined the relationships among frame susceptibility, intelligence and personality measures. Participants evaluated whether personal attributes applied to themselves from multiple perspectives and in positive and negative frames. Participants rated whether each statement was descriptive or not and endorsed positive frames more than negative frames. Individual differences on frame decisions enabled us to form high and low frame susceptibility groups. Endorsement of frame-consistent attributes was associated with personality factors, cognitive reflection and intelligence. Reflexive brain regions were associated with positive frames while reflective areas were associated with negative frames. Region of Interest analyses showed that frame-inconsistent responses were associated with increased activation within reflective cognitive control regions including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsomedial PFC and left ventrolateral PFC. Frame-consistent responses were associated with increased activation in the right orbitofrontal cortex. These results demonstrate that individual differences in frame susceptibility influence personal attribute evaluations. Overall, this study clarifies the neural correlates of the reflective and reflexive systems of social cognition as applied to decisions about social attributions.

  15. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P. [eds.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results, to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the detailed information concerning the ExternE methodology. Importance is attached to the computer system used in the project and the assessment of air pollution effects on health, materials and ecological effects. Also the assessment of global warming damages are described. Finally the report covers the detailed information concerning the national implementation for Denmark for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant base on biogas. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 79 tabs., 11 ills., 201 refs.

  16. The Role of Empathy in Mental Attribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunsteins, Patricia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This work examines in what extent a notion of empathy may clarify mindreading’s debate. Taking into account an interdisciplinary and integrative notion of empathy, compatibility with mental attribution strategies both mental simulation and theory-theory, in non pure versions, is evaluated. Firstly, new empirical research is supposed to contribute strengthening an integrative empathy instead of theory-theory or mental simulation `s points of view. Secondly, new empirical research will bring better tools to distinguish between empathy and simulation. Consequently, the relationship between empathy and mental attribution theories may be better delimited and a full mental attribution theory may possibly be proposed.

  17. Salmonella source attribution based on microbial subtyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barco, Lisa; Barrucci, Federica; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2013-01-01

    Source attribution of cases of food-borne disease represents a valuable tool for identifying and prioritizing effective food-safety interventions. Microbial subtyping is one of the most common methods to infer potential sources of human food-borne infections. So far, Salmonella microbial subtyping...... source attribution models have been implemented by using serotyping and phage-typing data. Molecular-based methods may prove to be similarly valuable in the future, as already demonstrated for other food-borne pathogens like Campylobacter. This review assesses the state of the art concerning Salmonella...... in the context of their potential applicability for Salmonella source attribution studies....

  18. Causal Attributions for Poverty in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juan Vázquez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes attributional differences about causes of poverty in the less developed countries, among Nicaraguan ("actors" and Spanish ("observers" undergraduates. A self–applied questionnaire was used. It included socio–demographic questions and an adaptation of the "Causes of Third World Poverty Questionnaire" (CTWPQ. Results show agreement between Spanish and Nicaraguan in attributions about the main causes of poverty in the less developed countries, although there are differences about the perception of the incidence of the different causes in that situation. Nicaraguan students consider, as causes of poverty, more dispositional attributes about the population in those countries.

  19. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    as a market mechanism that can be brought inside the firm to provide incentives for continuous improvement and the development of competitive advances. However, whereas extant research primarily has focused on the importance and effects of using external benchmarks, less attention has been directed towards...... towards the conditions for the use of the external benchmarks we provide more insights to some of the issues and challenges that are related to using this mechanism for performance management and advance competitiveness in organizations....

  20. Externality and burnout among dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Yves, A; Freeston, M H; Godbout, F; Poulin, L; St-Amand, C; Verret, M

    1989-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and locus of control as measured by the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Locus of Control (ANS-IE) for 82 dentists. Significant Pearson correlations between two Maslach subscales and locus of control show Personal Accomplishment to be negatively associated -.31 and Emotional Exhaustion to be positively correlated .21 to externality.

  1. Relatie interne en externe audit

    OpenAIRE

    Ghys, Emelie

    2011-01-01

    In het eerste hoofdstuk wordt de probleemstelling van deze eindverhandeling besproken. Interne en externe audit worden de laatste jaren internationaal en nationaal meer en meer erkend in het bedrijfsleven. Aanleiding voor de toenemende belangstelling van de interne en externe auditfunctie zijn de verschillende boekhoudschandalen rond corporate governance of deugdelijk bestuur. Deze financiële mislukkingen leidden wereldwijd tot diverse wetten, nieuwe regels en verbeterde standaarden om zo een...

  2. Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Coupled Gear-Rotor-Bearing System with the Effect of Internal and External Excitations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shihua; SONG Guiqiu; REN Zhaohui; WEN Bangchun

    2016-01-01

    Extensive studies on nonlinear dynamics of gear systems with internal excitation or external excitation respectively have been carried out. However, the nonlinear characteristics of gear systems under combined internal and external excitations are scarcely investigated. An eight-degree-of-freedom(8-DOF) nonlinear spur gear-rotor-bearing model, which contains backlash, transmission error, eccentricity, gravity and input/output torque, is established, and the coupled lateral-torsional vibration characteristics are studied. Based on the equations of motion, the coupled spur gear-rotor-bearing system(SGRBS) is investigated using the Runge-Kutta numerical method, and the effects of rotational speed, error fluctuation and load fluctuation on the dynamic responses are explored. The results show that a diverse range of nonlinear dynamic characteristics such as periodic motion, quasi-periodic motion, chaotic behaviors and impacts exhibited in the system are strongly attributed to the interaction between internal and external excitations. Significantly, the changing rotational speed could effectively control the vibration of the system. Vibration level increases with the increasing error fluctuation. Whereas the load fluctuation has an influence on the nonlinear dynamic characteristics and the increasing excitation force amplitude makes the vibration amplitude increase, the chaotic motion may be restricted. The proposed model and numerical results can be used for diagnosis of faults and vibration control of practical SGRBS.

  3. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of coupled gear-rotor-bearing system with the effect of internal and external excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shihua; Song, Guiqiu; Ren, Zhaohui; Wen, Bangchun

    2016-03-01

    Extensive studies on nonlinear dynamics of gear systems with internal excitation or external excitation respectively have been carried out. However, the nonlinear characteristics of gear systems under combined internal and external excitations are scarcely investigated. An eight-degree-of-freedom(8-DOF) nonlinear spur gear-rotor-bearing model, which contains backlash, transmission error, eccentricity, gravity and input/output torque, is established, and the coupled lateral-torsional vibration characteristics are studied. Based on the equations of motion, the coupled spur gear-rotor-bearing system(SGRBS) is investigated using the Runge-Kutta numerical method, and the effects of rotational speed, error fluctuation and load fluctuation on the dynamic responses are explored. The results show that a diverse range of nonlinear dynamic characteristics such as periodic motion, quasi-periodic motion, chaotic behaviors and impacts exhibited in the system are strongly attributed to the interaction between internal and external excitations. Significantly, the changing rotational speed could effectively control the vibration of the system. Vibration level increases with the increasing error fluctuation. Whereas the load fluctuation has an influence on the nonlinear dynamic characteristics and the increasing excitation force amplitude makes the vibration amplitude increase, the chaotic motion may be restricted. The proposed model and numerical results can be used for diagnosis of faults and vibration control of practical SGRBS.

  4. Continuous Attributes Discretization Algorithm based on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Sun

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of Discretization of continuous attributes in rough set. Discretization of continuous attributes is an important part of rough set theory because most of data that we usually gain are continuous data. In order to improve processing speed of discretization, we propose a FPGA-based discretization algorithm of continuous attributes making use of the speed advantage of FPGA. Combined attributes dependency degree of rough ret, the discretization system was divided into eight modules according to block design. This method can save much time of pretreatment in rough set and improve operation efficiency. Extensive experiments on a certain fighter fault diagnosis validate the effectiveness of the algorithm.  

  5. Object attributes combine additively in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod, R T; Arun, S P

    2016-01-01

    We perceive objects as containing a variety of attributes: local features, relations between features, internal details, and global properties. But we know little about how they combine. Here, we report a remarkably simple additive rule that governs how these diverse object attributes combine in vision. The perceived dissimilarity between two objects was accurately explained as a sum of (a) spatially tuned local contour-matching processes modulated by part decomposition; (b) differences in internal details, such as texture; (c) differences in emergent attributes, such as symmetry; and (d) differences in global properties, such as orientation or overall configuration of parts. Our results elucidate an enduring question in object vision by showing that the whole object is not a sum of its parts but a sum of its many attributes.

  6. External Costs Related to Power Production Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1997-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...

  7. 外部知识整合能力对绿色企业竞争力的影响%Research on the Influence of External Knowledge Integrative Capabilities on Product Competitive Capabilities of Green Enterprises: Taking Green Product Development Capabilities as Mediating Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛捷; 张振刚

    2016-01-01

    提出"外部知识整合能力→绿色产品开发能力→绿色产品竞争力"的理论框架,并对珠三角地区327家具有绿色产品开发能力的企业进行了调查研究和实证分析.结论显示,在以绿色产品设计能力为中介变量的结构模型中,外部知识整合能力的3个维度,即纵向结网能力、知识交流能力和专有技术融合能力对绿色产品设计能力均具有显著的正向影响;绿色产品设计能力对于绿色产品差异化具有显著的正向影响,并在外部整合能力的3个维度对绿色产品差异化的影响中发挥着完全的中介效应.同时,在以绿色工艺创新能力为中介变量的结构模型中,外部知识整合能力中的纵向结网能力和专有技术融合能力对于绿色工艺创新能力具有显著的正向影响;绿色工艺创新能力对于绿色产品顾客满意度具有显著的正向影响,并在纵向结网能力对于绿色产品顾客满意度的影响中具有完全的中介作用,在专有技术融合能力对于绿色产品顾客满意度的影响中具有部分中介作用.%It is important for a company to cope with the challenge of environmental sustainability and develop competitive green products based on the integration and exploitation of external resources. The paper puts forward the framework composed of external integrative capabilities, green product development and green product competi-tive capabilities, and tests their relationships in a sample based on data collected from 327 green firms located in Pearl River Delta. The analysis results from the model taking product design capabilities as mediator demonstrate that external integrative capabilities positively influences green product design capabilities, and green product de-sign capabilities not only positively influences green product differentiation but also mediates the positive effect of external integrative capabilities on green product differentiation. In addition, the

  8. Quality Attribute Driven Software Architecture Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-21

    3890 Quality Attribute Driven Software Architecture Reconstruction SATURN Workshop April 7, 2005 Liam O’Brien © 2005 by Carnegie Mellon University...Version 1.0 QADSAR – SATURN 2005 - page 2 Motivation - 1 • Software architectures are critical to implement an organization’s business goals and critical...Attribute Driven Software Architecture Reconstruction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  9. Influencia de las imperfecciones geométricas en estructuras de paredes delgadas sometidas a presión externa // Influences of the geometric imperfections in thin wall structures with external pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. González Fernández

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo está relacionado con el estudio del comportamiento de estructuras de paredes delgadas sometidas a presiónexterna, cuando aparecen imperfecciones geométricas, inherentes a los procesos de fabricación, que afectan los valores delas cargas críticas. En el mismo se describen comportamientos pos críticos típicos y su importancia en el estudio de losefectos de estas imperfecciones, así como formulaciones aproximadas, tomando en consideración la necesidad delconocimiento de las posibles trayectorias de equilibrio por parte del ingeniero en el análisis y toma de decisiones acerca deuna estructura.Palabras claves: Estructura, bóveda, estabilidad, fallas estructurales, trayectorias de equilibrio.________________________________________________________________________________AbstractThis work deals with the study of the behavior of thin walled structures external pressure, when in the same appear geometricimperfections that are inherent to the process of manufacturing and affect the values of critical loads. In the same, post criticaltypical behaviors and its importance in the study of the effects of the geometric imperfections are described, as well asapproximate formulations taking in consideration the possible trajectories of equilibrium in the structure analysis re.Key words: structures, shells, stability, structural failures, trajectories of equilibrium.

  10. 从内因到外因:影响教师专业发展的四个因素%The Four Internal and External Factors Influencing Teacher' s Professional Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯云洁

    2011-01-01

    Teachers' beliefs about happiness, career, and teacher self- efficacy and group efficacy are four internal and external factors affecting each teacher' s professional development. Beliefs about happiness and career decide teachers' value and development orientation, and the amount of time and efforts spent; self- efficacy is a necessary psychological motive, providing the energy for teachers' persistent pursuit of professional development; group efficacy has the driving force for promoting teacher development.%教师的幸福观、职业观、自我效能感和群体效能感,是从内因到外因影响教师专业发展的四个重要因素。幸福观和职业观决定了教师专业发展的个人价值取向和路径取向,以及时间付出的多少和努力程度;自我效能感是专业发展必要的心理机制,决定了教师努力的强度和持续度;群体效能感是牵引教师专业发展的推动力。

  11. The influence of physique on dose conversion coefficients for idealised external photon exposures: a comparison of doses for Chinese male phantoms with 10th, 50th and 90th percentile anthropometric parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wei; He, Hengda; Liu, Qian

    2017-03-22

    For evaluating radiation risk, the construction of anthropomorphic computational phantoms with a variety of physiques can help reduce the uncertainty that is due to anatomical variation. In our previous work, three deformable Chinese reference male phantoms with 10th, 50th and 90th percentile body mass indexes and body circumference physiques (DCRM-10, DCRM-50 and DCRM-90) were constructed to represent underweight, normal weight and overweight Chinese adult males, respectively. In the present study, the phantoms were updated by correcting the fat percentage to improve the precision of radiological dosimetry evaluations. The organ dose conversion coefficients for each phantom were calculated and compared for four idealized external photon exposures from 15 keV to 10 MeV, using the Monte Carlo method. The dosimetric results for the three deformable Chinese reference male phantom (DCRM) phantoms indicated that variations in physique can cause as much as a 20% difference in the organ dose conversion coefficients. When the photon energy was physiques. Hence, it is difficult to predict the conversion coefficients of the phantoms from the anthropometric parameters alone. Nevertheless, the complex organ conversion coefficients presented in this report will be helpful for evaluating the radiation risk for large groups of people with various physiques.

  12. Perceptual and motor attribute ratings for 559 object concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsel, Ben D; Urbach, Thomas P; Kutas, Marta

    2012-12-01

    To understand how and when object knowledge influences the neural underpinnings of language comprehension and linguistic behavior, it is critical to determine the specific kinds of knowledge that people have. To extend the normative data currently available, we report a relatively more comprehensive set of object attribute rating norms for 559 concrete object nouns, each rated on seven attributes corresponding to sensory and motor modalities-color, motion, sound, smell, taste, graspability, and pain-in addition to familiarity (376 raters, M = 23 raters per item). The mean ratings were subjected to principal-components analysis, revealing two primary dimensions plausibly interpreted as relating to survival. We demonstrate the utility of these ratings in accounting for lexical and semantic decision latencies. These ratings should prove useful for the design and interpretation of experimental tests of conceptual and perceptual object processing.

  13. Evaluation of an attributive measurement system in the automotive industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simion, C.

    2016-08-01

    Measurement System Analysis (MSA) is a critical component for any quality improvement process. MSA is defined as an experimental and mathematical method of determining how much the variation within the measurement process contributes to overall process variability and it falls into two categories: attribute and variable. Most problematic measurement system issues come from measuring attribute data, which are usually the result of human judgment (visual inspection). Because attributive measurement systems are often used in some manufacturing processes, their assessment is important to obtain the confidence in the inspection process, to see where are the problems in order to eliminate them and to guide the process improvement. It was the aim of this paper to address such a issue presenting a case study made in a local company from the Sibiu region supplying products for the automotive industry, specifically the bag (a technical textile component, i.e. the fabric) for the airbag module. Because defects are inherent in every manufacturing process and in the field of airbag systems a minor defect can influence their performance and lives depend on the safety feature, there is a stringent visual inspection required on the defects of the bag material. The purpose of this attribute MSA was: to determine if all inspectors use the same criteria to determine “pass” from “fail” product (i.e. the fabric); to assess company inspection standards against customer's requirements; to determine how well inspectors are conforming to themselves; to identify how inspectors are conforming to a “known master,” which includes: how often operators ship defective product, how often operators dispose of acceptable product; to discover areas where training is required, procedures must be developed and standards are not available. The results were analyzed using MINITAB software with its module called Attribute Agreement Analysis. The conclusion was that the inspection process must

  14. A new statistical approach to climate change detection and attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribes, Aurélien; Zwiers, Francis W.; Azaïs, Jean-Marc; Naveau, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    We propose here a new statistical approach to climate change detection and attribution that is based on additive decomposition and simple hypothesis testing. Most current statistical methods for detection and attribution rely on linear regression models where the observations are regressed onto expected response patterns to different external forcings. These methods do not use physical information provided by climate models regarding the expected response magnitudes to constrain the estimated responses to the forcings. Climate modelling uncertainty is difficult to take into account with regression based methods and is almost never treated explicitly. As an alternative to this approach, our statistical model is only based on the additivity assumption; the proposed method does not regress observations onto expected response patterns. We introduce estimation and testing procedures based on likelihood maximization, and show that climate modelling uncertainty can easily be accounted for. Some discussion is provided on how to practically estimate the climate modelling uncertainty based on an ensemble of opportunity. Our approach is based on the " models are statistically indistinguishable from the truth" paradigm, where the difference between any given model and the truth has the same distribution as the difference between any pair of models, but other choices might also be considered. The properties of this approach are illustrated and discussed based on synthetic data. Lastly, the method is applied to the linear trend in global mean temperature over the period 1951-2010. Consistent with the last IPCC assessment report, we find that most of the observed warming over this period (+0.65 K) is attributable to anthropogenic forcings (+0.67 ± 0.12 K, 90 % confidence range), with a very limited contribution from natural forcings (-0.01± 0.02 K).

  15. The Development of an Attribution-Based Theory of Motivation: A History of Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The history of ideas guiding the development of an attribution-based theory of motivation is presented. These influences include the search for a "grand" theory of motivation (from drive and expectancy/value theory), an attempt to represent how the past may influence the present and the future (as Thorndike accomplished), and the…

  16. 外加电压对沥青碳纤维/ABS树脂复合材料导电性的影响%INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL VOLTAGE ON THE CONDUCTIVITY OF COMPOSITES COMPOSED OF CARBON FIBERS AND ABS RESIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晓怿; 凌立成; 吕春祥; 刘朗

    2001-01-01

    通用级沥青碳纤维与ABS树脂通过单螺杆挤出机共混后模压成型, 所制复合材料的电阻率随材料中纤维添加量的增多而迅速降低.当复合材料中纤维添加量较少时,材料的电流电压关系不满足欧姆定律所描述的线性关系,材料电阻随外电压的增大而减小.随着纤维含量的增加,材料电流电压关系的线性度逐渐增大.当纤维含量达到40 wt%时,材料电阻不随外电压的增大而变化,材料满足欧姆定律.经外加高电压处理后,材料电阻率发生永久性降低,其电流电压关系的线性度提高.隧道跃迁理论能够较好地解释上述现象.%Conductive ABS resin composites filled with general pitch-based carbon fibers were fabricated by hot-press moulding after raw materials were preblended through a single screw extruder. The composite resistivity decreases with fibers content going up. And the electrical current displays non-linear dependence on the external voltage acted on composites and the resistance of composites varies down with the raise of voltage, which implies that the composites don't meet Ohm's Law. When fibers fraction increases, the linearity between current and voltage goes up correspondingly. For the sample containing fillers of 40 wt%, its resistance remains constant and it satisfies Ohm's Law very well. It is interesting that the high voltage can result in the permanent reduction of composite resistance. And the voltage, which makes the permanent reduction of composites resistance, goes up with the increase of fillers loading. Moreover, the linearity of current and voltage rises after composites were treated by high voltage. All these phenomena can be explained by quantum tunneling model the results of this paper provide a new method for improving the conductivity and stability to varied voltage of composites.

  17. Damage costs produced by electric power plants: an externality valuation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, P; Islas, J

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents an estimate of the externalities produced in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) through the impacts on health caused by secondary pollutants attributed to seven electric power plants located outside this area. An original method was developed to make possible a simplified application of the impact pathway approach to estimate the damage costs in the specified area. Our estimate shows that the annual costs attributed to secondary pollutants total 71 million USD (min/max 20/258 million USD). Finally, this paper discusses basic ideas on the implications for energy policy arising from this exercise in externality valuation.

  18. Source attribution of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Rosenquist, Hanne; Rosenquist, J. T.

    2014-01-01

    . Isolates were characterized by multilocus sequence typing, flaA typing and susceptibility to antibiotics. Both models used indicate that the major burden of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark originates from the domestic broiler chicken reservoir. The second most important reservoir was found to be cattle....... The Asymmetric Island model attributed 52% [95% credibility interval (CrI) 37-67] to Danish chicken, 17% (95% CrI 3-33) to imported chicken, and 17% (95% CrI 7-28) to cattle. Similarly, the Campylobacter source-attribution model apportioned 38% (95% CrI 28-47) to Danish chicken, 14% (95% CrI 10-18) to imported...... chicken, and 16% (95% CrI 7-25) to cattle. The addition of flaA type as an extra discriminatory typing parameter did not change the attribution of cases markedly....

  19. Maternal Emotion Coaching, Adolescent Anger Regulation, and Siblings' Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortt, Joann Wu; Stoolmiller, Mike; Smith-Shine, Jessica N.; Eddy, J. Mark; Sheeber, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Background: Increases in externalizing behaviors during the transition to adolescence may put children at risk for developing mental disorders and related problems. Although children's ability to regulate their emotions appears to be a key factor influencing risk for maladjustment, emotion processes during adolescence remain understudied. In this…

  20. Process attributes in bio-ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade André Q

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical processes can provide essential information about the (mal- functioning of an organism and are thus frequently represented in biomedical terminologies and ontologies, including the GO Biological Process branch. These processes often need to be described and categorised in terms of their attributes, such as rates or regularities. The adequate representation of such process attributes has been a contentious issue in bio-ontologies recently; and domain ontologies have correspondingly developed ad hoc workarounds that compromise interoperability and logical consistency. Results We present a design pattern for the representation of process attributes that is compatible with upper ontology frameworks such as BFO and BioTop. Our solution rests on two key tenets: firstly, that many of the sorts of process attributes which are biomedically interesting can be characterised by the ways that repeated parts of such processes constitute, in combination, an overall process; secondly, that entities for which a full logical definition can be assigned do not need to be treated as primitive within a formal ontology framework. We apply this approach to the challenge of modelling and automatically classifying examples of normal and abnormal rates and patterns of heart beating processes, and discuss the expressivity required in the underlying ontology representation language. We provide full definitions for process attributes at increasing levels of domain complexity. Conclusions We show that a logical definition of process attributes is feasible, though limited by the expressivity of DL languages so that the creation of primitives is still necessary. This finding may endorse current formal upper-ontology frameworks as a way of ensuring consistency, interoperability and clarity.

  1. INFLUENCE OF GEOMORPHIC SURFACES ON THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL ATTRIBUTES IN A SUGARCANE CULTIVATION AREA INFLUÊNCIA DAS SUPERFÍCIES GEOMÓRFICAS NA DISTRIBUIÇÃO ESPACIAL DOS ATRIBUTOS DO SOLO EM ÁREA SOB CULTIVO DE CANA-DE-AÇÚCAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gener Tadeu Pereira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Variations in soil attributes occur based on relief forms and parent material. The objective of this research was to study the influences of geomorphic surfaces on the spatial distribution of soil attributes in a sugarcane cultivation area. First, 530,67 hectares were mapped by using a Global Positioning System. Then, a Digital Elevation Model was developed and geomorphic surfaces were identified and delimited, according to topographic and stratigraphic criteria based on detailed field investigations. Soil samples were collected every 7 ha, at 0.0-0.25 m and 0.80-1.00 m depths, totalizing 134 samples. Texture, Ca, K, Mg, SB, CEC, V%, pH, and OMS analyses were carried out as well as descriptive statistics and geostatistics analysis. It was concluded that the geostatistic techniques and digital elevation model helped to notice that soil attributes presented limits close to the geomorphic surfaces ones.

    KEY-WORDS: Soil attributes; geomorphic surface; soil-landscape relationship; landscape form.

    As variações dos atributos do solo ocorrem em função das

  2. Corporate apologia and the attribution of guilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow-Møller, Anne Marie

    This paper argues that in the difficult disciplines of crisis communication and image restoration, attribution theory has explanatory value. Corporate apologia - the explanations that an organisation offers after an attack - differs with the type of crisis it is designed to diffuse, and if the cr......This paper argues that in the difficult disciplines of crisis communication and image restoration, attribution theory has explanatory value. Corporate apologia - the explanations that an organisation offers after an attack - differs with the type of crisis it is designed to diffuse...

  3. Evaluating attributes concepts for build environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gilberto R; Mont'Alvão, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Based on semi-structured interviews answered by professionals in Architecture and Interior Design areas, this research aimed to investigate, how these professionals develop their projects. Considering a real situation, the research tried to find out how these professionals consider users necessities and opinions. It was also verified which attributes are considered most relevant and how these professionals correlate them to uses demands about ergonomic aspects and intrinsic characteristics of each project. The paper is concluded presenting a list of attributes that were identified as the most important when developing a design for a home kitchen (as example), and some considerations about this topic are also presented.

  4. Desired skills and attributes for dietitian preceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sharon; Grosjean, Garnet

    2010-01-01

    We examined the research literature to determine the skills and attributes that dietetic interns desire in clinical preceptors. A search of three databases produced little information specific to dietetics. Literature on preceptors in other health disciplines identified preceptor attributes that students in clinical placements value. We were able to cluster the data from these studies into four themes: knowledge and experience, personal characteristics, teaching skills and attitudes, and interpersonal relationships. This review suggests a need for further development of dietitian preceptor training, as well as for further research specific to dietetic interns' needs.

  5. Fechamento parcial do anel inguinal externo em eqüinos: avaliação pós-operatória e influência na morfologia testicular Partial closure of the equine external inguinal ring: post-operatory evaluation and influence on testicular morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J.M. Rio Tinto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência do fechamento parcial do anel inguinal externo (AIE na morfologia testicular e caracterizaram-se as alterações pós-operatórias decorrentes de sua utilização em seis eqüinos machos. Sob anestesia geral, criou-se um acesso à cavidade vaginal que foi seguido de síntese da túnica vaginal parietal e sutura do AIE ipsilateral em aproximadamente 75% de seu diâmetro (antímero suturado. No antímero contralateral foi realizado procedimento cirúrgico semelhante, mas a sutura do anel inguinal foi removida imediatamente após sua aplicação (antímero controle. No pós-operatório, os animais foram examinados diariamente por quatro semanas. O trauma cirúrgico acarretou degeneração testicular no período pós-operatório e o acesso à cavidade vaginal predispôs à formação de aderências testiculares. O grau de degeneração testicular foi equivalente nos dois antímeros, suturado e controle, e nenhum dos testículos apresentou degeneração. O procedimento mostrou ser uma alternativa viável para o tratamento de hérnias inguinais quando se deseja evitar a orquiectomia.In order to evaluate the influence of parcial closure of the external inguinal ring on testicular morphology and to characterize the local post-operatory changes, six adult horses were submitted to surgery under general anesthesia. The vaginal cavity was opened and approximately 75% of the external inguinal ring was sutured (sutured side. The same procedure was performed on the contralateral side, and the sutures of the external inguinal ring were immediately removed (sham side. The horses were examined daily for four weeks. The surgical procedure induced testicular degeneration and adhesion of the testis to the parietal vaginal tunic. Similar levels of testicular degeneration were detected in both sides (sutured and sham, and none of the testes evaluated had severe degeneration. This procedure can be used for the treatment of inguinal herniation

  6. Organizational attributes that assure optimal utilization of public health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher-Stewart, Donna; Underwood, Jane; MacDonald, Mary; Schoenfeld, Bonnie; Blythe, Jennifer; Knibbs, Kristin; Munroe, Val; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Ehrlich, Anne; Ganann, Rebecca; Crea, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Optimal utilization of public health nurses (PHNs) is important for strengthening public health capacity and sustaining interest in public health nursing in the face of a global nursing shortage. To gain an insight into the organizational attributes that support PHNs to work effectively, 23 focus groups were held with PHNs, managers, and policymakers in diverse regions and urban and rural/remote settings across Canada. Participants identified attributes at all levels of the public health system: government and system-level action, local organizational culture of their employers, and supportive management practices. Effective leadership emerged as a strong message throughout all levels. Other organizational attributes included valuing and promoting public health nursing; having a shared vision, goals, and planning; building partnerships and collaboration; demonstrating flexibility and creativity; and supporting ongoing learning and knowledge sharing. The results of this study highlight opportunities for fostering organizational development and leadership in public health, influencing policies and programs to optimize public health nursing services and resources, and supporting PHNs to realize the full scope of their competencies.

  7. Hostile Attributional Bias, Negative Emotional Responding, and Aggression in Adults: Moderating Effects of Gender and Impulsivity

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the main effects of hostile attributional bias (HAB) and negative emotional responding on a variety of aggressive behaviors in adults, including general aggression, physical aggression, relational aggression, and verbal aggression. Effects of both externalizing (anger) and internalizing (embarrassment/upset) negative emotions were considered. In addition, the moderating roles of gender and impulsivity on the effects of HAB and negative emotional responding were expl...

  8. Parallel External Memory Graph Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study parallel I/O efficient graph algorithms in the Parallel External Memory (PEM) model, one o f the private-cache chip multiprocessor (CMP) models. We study the fundamental problem of list ranking which leads to efficient solutions to problems on trees, such as computing lowest...

  9. [Treatment by external insulin pump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Sylvaine

    2010-12-01

    Since the recent recommendations by the French speaking association for research on diabetes and metabolic illnesses (Alfediam), treatment by insulin pump has found itself in competition with basal-bolus, a procedure using similar injections of insulin which has become a benchmark treatment. The latest Alfediam guidelines focus on defining ways of treating diabetics with an external insulin pump.

  10. Femoral Reconstruction Using External Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Palatnik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of an external fixator for the purpose of distraction osteogenesis has been applied to a wide range of orthopedic problems caused by such diverse etiologies as congenital disease, metabolic conditions, infections, traumatic injuries, and congenital short stature. The purpose of this study was to analyze our experience of utilizing this method in patients undergoing a variety of orthopedic procedures of the femur. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed our experience of using external fixation for femoral reconstruction. Three subgroups were defined based on the primary reconstruction goal lengthening, deformity correction, and repair of nonunion/bone defect. Factors such as leg length discrepancy (LLD, limb alignment, and external fixation time and complications were evaluated for the entire group and the 3 subgroups. Results. There was substantial improvement in the overall LLD, femoral length discrepancy, and limb alignment as measured by mechanical axis deviation (MAD and lateral distal femoral angle (LDFA for the entire group as well as the subgroups. Conclusions. The Ilizarov external fixator allows for decreased surgical exposure and preservation of blood supply to bone, avoidance of bone grafting and internal fixation, and simultaneous lengthening and deformity correction, making it a very useful technique for femoral reconstruction.

  11. Conceptual challenges for internalising externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miguel, Brandão; Weidema, Bo Pedersen

    2013-01-01

    We analyse a number of different externalities to identify conceptual challenges for the practical implementation of their internalisation. Three issues were identified: i) The balance between compensation and technology change and the respective effects on the nominal and real GDP; ii) The relev...

  12. Organizing for External Knowledge Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabbiosi, Larissa; Reichstein, Toke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to the special issue. We briefly consider the external knowledge sourcing and organizing for innovation literatures, which offer a background for the special issue, and we highlight their mutual dialogue. We then illustrate the main findings...

  13. Optimal Auctions with Financial Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maasland, E.; Onderstal, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    We construct optimal auctions when bidders face financial externalities.In a Coasean World, in which the seller cannot prevent a perfect resale market, nor withhold the object, the lowest-price all-pay auction is optimal.In a Myersonean World, in which the seller can both prevent resale after the au

  14. Lupus vulgaris of external nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Ranganna, B Usha

    2008-12-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of cutaneous tuberculosis which commonly involve trunk and buttocks. Lupus vulgaris affecting nose and face, are rarely reported in India. This study reports an unusual case of lupus vulgaris involving the external nose that showed dramatic outcome after six months of anti- tubercular treatment.

  15. Regulatory Styles, Causal Attributions and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soric, Izabela

    2009-01-01

    In the past few decades a growing research interest in internal and external factors that contribute to a student's motivation to learn has yielded numerous models and theories. Despite their similarities, these theories have tended to be developed and tested independently of each other, although some connections have been made between them. The…

  16. Inflated applicants: attribution errors in performance evaluation by professionals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A Swift

    Full Text Available When explaining others' behaviors, achievements, and failures, it is common for people to attribute too much influence to disposition and too little influence to structural and situational factors. We examine whether this tendency leads even experienced professionals to make systematic mistakes in their selection decisions, favoring alumni from academic institutions with high grade distributions and employees from forgiving business environments. We find that candidates benefiting from favorable situations are more likely to be admitted and promoted than their equivalently skilled peers. The results suggest that decision-makers take high nominal performance as evidence of high ability and do not discount it by the ease with which it was achieved. These results clarify our understanding of the correspondence bias using evidence from both archival studies and experiments with experienced professionals. We discuss implications for both admissions and personnel selection practices.

  17. The role of feedback, casual attributions, and self-efficacy in goal revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolli, Adam P; Schmidt, Aaron M

    2008-05-01

    An important issue in work motivation is how, when, and why individuals revise their goals up or down over time. In the current study, the authors examine feedback, causal attributions, and self-efficacy in this process. Although self-efficacy has frequently been suggested as a key explanatory variable for goal revision, its role has yet to be directly evaluated. Additionally, although attributions have been shown to influence goal revision following failure, the extent to which attributions influence goal revision following success remains unclear. In the current study, the authors address these issues by experimentally manipulating goal progress via performance feedback and tracking the resulting changes in self-efficacy and goal revision over time. In so doing, the authors also address several interpretive ambiguities present in the existing research. Results support the hypothesized model, finding that performance feedback and attributions interactively influenced self-efficacy, which in turn influenced goal revision. These results suggest that interventions targeting attributions, and self-efficacy more directly, may have meaningful influences on goal setting and pursuit, particularly following feedback.

  18. Novel Topic Impact on Authorship Attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    consisted of 72 documents written by eight students . Each student wrote a total of 24 documents in three different genres about three different topics [14...attribution," in Proceedings of the SIGIR 󈧋 Workshop on Plagiarism Analysis, Authorship Identification, and Near-Duplicate Detection, PAN 2007

  19. Effects of Media Attributes in Anchored Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Hsin-Yih

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the effects of computer-assisted video-based anchored instruction on promoting students' attitudes toward mathematical instruction and problem-solving skills. Examines the effects of different media attributes on students' mathematical achievement and attitudes in a situated learning environment. Findings suggest that anchored…

  20. On Parallel Evaluation of Ordered Attribute Grammars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王顺迁; 叶大兴

    1991-01-01

    In this paper,a parallel algorithm is presented for the evaluation of orgered attribute grammars.The parallelism is achieved by constructing the so-called paralled visit sequences and accordingly augmenting the ordinary evaluation driver as well.For experimental purposes,the algorithm has been implemented by simulation.

  1. Empathy and attribution: turning observers into actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, D T; Totten, J

    1975-11-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to test Jones and Nisbett's information-processing explanation of the often-observed tendency for individuals (actors) to provide relatively more situational and less dispositional causal attributions for their behavior than those provided by observers of the same behavior. According to this explanation, aspects of the situation are phenomenologically more salient for actors, whereas characteristics of the actor and his behavior are more salient for observers. To test this explanation, the phenomenological perspective of observers are altered without making available any additional information. Subjects watched a videotape of a get-acquainted conversation after instructions either to observe a target conversant or to empathize with her. As predicted, taking the perspective of the target through empathy resulted in attributions that were relatively more situational and less dispositional than attributions provided by standard observers. The results support Jones and Nisbett's information-processing explanation of actor-observer attributional differences, and shed additional light on the process of empathy.

  2. Attribution of Fault to Rape Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Saul

    An experimental design, the impact of the marital status, physical attractiveness, amount of victim resistance, and immediate reaction of the victim as well as sex of observer on attributions of fault to hypothetical rape victims were investigated. Participants were 440 undergraduate students at the University of Wyoming. Each participant was…

  3. Attributional and consequential LCA of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, M.A.; Dalgaard, P.; Heijungs, R.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background, aim and scope Different ways of performing a life cycle assessment (LCA) are used to assess the environmental burden of milk production. A strong connection exists between the choice between attributional LCA (ALCA) and consequential LCA (CLCA) and the choice of how to handle co-products

  4. On defining semantics of extended attribute grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1980-01-01

    Knuth has introduced attribute grammars (AGs) as a tool to define the semanitcs of context-free languages. The use of AGs in connection with programming language definitions has mostly been to define the context-sensitive syntax of the language and to define a translation in code for a hypothetical...

  5. Attribute-space connectivity and connected filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper connected operators from mathematical morphology are extended to a wider class of operators, which are based on connectivities in higher dimensional spaces, similar to scale spaces, which will be called attribute-spaces. Though some properties of connected filters are lost, granulometr

  6. Attribution of Hostile Intent in Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadel, Barbara S.; Altrocchi, John

    1969-01-01

    Presents a selective literary analysis, including Melville, Shakespeare, J. P. Donleavy, Truman Capote, Dostoevsky, Emily Bronte, Ken Kesey and John Knowles, that attempts to show which types of people attribute hostile intent to which other types of people under which conditions. (MB)

  7. Distress attributed to negative symptoms in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selten, JP; Wiersma, D; van den Bosch, RJ

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine (1) to which negative symptoms schizophrenia patients attribute distress and (2) whether clinical variables can predict the levels of reported distress. With the help of a research assistant, 86 hospitalized patients completed a self-rating scale for negative

  8. Attribution of Negative Intention in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbee, Kali; Porter, Melanie A.

    2013-01-01

    People with Williams syndrome (WS) are said to have sociable and extremely trusting personalities, approaching strangers without hesitation. This study investigated whether people with WS are less likely than controls to attribute negative intent to others when interpreting a series of ambiguous pictures. This may, at least partially, explain…

  9. Image Attributes: A Study of Scientific Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunskill, Jeff; Jorgensen, Corinne

    2002-01-01

    Discusses advancements in imaging technology and increased user access to digital images, as well as efforts to develop adequate indexing and retrieval methods for image databases. Describes preliminary results of a study of undergraduates that explored the attributes naive subjects use to describe scientific diagrams. (Author/LRW)

  10. The Personal Attributes Questionnaire: A Conceptual Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Daniel

    The rich complexity of the concepts of masculinity and femininity has been reflected in personality measures in at least two different ways: by employing a variety of subscales with comparatively homogeneous items or by using a single scale with comparatively heterogeneous items. The Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) was the subject of an…

  11. A mock juror investigation of blame attribution in the punishment of hate crime perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J; Clark, John W; Kehn, Andre; Burks, Alixandra C; Wechsler, Hayley J

    2014-01-01

    We examined blame attribution as a moderator of perceptions of hate crimes against gay, African American, and transgender victims. Participants were 510 Texas jury panel members. Results of vignette-based crime scenarios showed that victim blame displayed significant negative, and perpetrator blame significant positive, effects on sentencing recommendations. Also as hypothesized, victim and perpetrator blame moderated the effect of support for hate crime legislation. Interaction patterns suggested that both types of blame attribution influence sentencing recommendations, but only for participants disagreeing with hate crime legislation. Three-way interactions with victim type also emerged, indicating that the effects of both types of blame attribution show particular influences when the victim is gay, as opposed to transgender or African American. Implications for attribution theory, hate crime policy, and jury selection are discussed.

  12. Broadening our understanding of clinical quality: from attribution error to situated cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artino, A R; Durning, S J; Waechter, D M; Leary, K L; Gilliland, W R

    2012-02-01

    The tendency to overestimate the influence of personal characteristics on outcomes, and to underestimate the influence of situational factors, is known as the fundamental attribution error. We argue that medical-education researchers and policy makers may be guilty of this error in their quest to understand clinical quality. We suggest that to truly understand clinical quality, they must examine situational factors, which often have a strong influence on the quality of clinical encounters.

  13. Behaviour of ferrocholesterics under external magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Emil; Motoc, Cornelia

    2001-08-01

    The influence of an external magnetic field on the orientational behaviour of a ferrocholesteric with a positive magnetic anisotropy is investigated. Both the phenomena arising when the field was switched on or switched off are considered. It is found that the field needed for a ferrocholesteric-ferronematic transition BFC↑ is higher when compared to that obtained for the pure cholesteric ( BC↑). A similar result was obtained when estimating the critical field for the homeotropic ferronematic-ferrocholesteric (focal conic) transition, occurring when the magnetic field was decreased or switched off. We found that BFC↓> BC↓. These results are explained when considering that the magnetic moments of the magnetic powder are not oriented parallel to the liquid crystal molecular directors, therefore hindering their orientation under a magnetic field.

  14. Soil carbon mineralization following biochar addition associated with external nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudong Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biochar has been attracting increasing attention for its potentials of C sequestration and soil amendment. This study aimed to understand the effects of combining biochar with additional external N on soil C mineralization. A typical red soil (Plinthudults was treated with two biochars made from two types of plantation-tree trunks (soil-biochar treatments, and was also treated with external N (soil-biochar-N treatments. All treatments were incubated for 42 d. The CO2-C released from the treatments was detected periodically. After the incubation, soil properties such as pH, microbial biomass C (MBC, and microbial biomass N (MBN were measured. The addition of biochar with external N increased the soil pH (4.31-4.33 compared to the soil treated with external N only (4.21. This was not observed in the comparison of soil-biochar treatments (4.75-4.80 to soil only (4.74. Biochar additions (whether or not they were associated with external N increased soil MBC and MBN, but decreased CO2-C value per unit total C (added biochar C + soil C according to the model fitting. The total CO2-C released in soil-biochar treatments were enhanced compared to soil only (i.e., 3.15 vs. 2.57 mg and 3.23 vs. 2.45 mg, which was attributed to the labile C fractions in the biochars and through soil microorganism enhancement. However, there were few changes in soil C mineralization in soil-biochar-N treatments. Additionally, the potentially available C per unit total C in soil-biochar-N treatments was lower than that observed in the soil-biochar treatments. Therefore, we believe in the short term, that C mineralization in the soil can be enhanced by biochar addition, but not by adding external N concomitantly.

  15. Impacts of Situational Factors on Process Attribute Uses for Food Purchases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loebnitz, Natascha; Mueller Loose, Simone; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Consumer buying decisions for food reflect considerations about food production. However, consumers’ interest in process-related product characteristics does not always translate into buying intentions. The present study investigates how situational factors affect the use of process......-related considerations when consumers select food products. A conjoint study provides estimated part worth utilities for product alternatives that differ on five product attributes (including four process-related factors) across two products (bread and sports drink) that differ on perceived naturalness....... The investigation of the utilities of the process-related attributes features both an internal (priming of environmental values/ value centrality) and an external (time pressure) situational factor. The results indicate that the importance of process-related attributes is product specific and also depends...

  16. 外界条件对硅酸盐细菌分解高硫煤矸石的影响%Influence of External Conditions on Silicate Bacteria Decomposing High-sulfur Coal Gangue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁向芬; 程帆; 杨艳梅; 谢承卫

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the serious environment pollution caused by abundant dumped coal gangue in Guizhou,the authors studied that silicate bacteria act on high-sulfur coal gangue to make invalid nutrient elements in gangue into effective.The factors which influence the decomposition effect of high-sulfur coal gangue such as the particle size of coal gangue,pH,incubation time,culture temperature,bacteria quantity,humidity and oscillation were studied.The results showed that the coal gangue possessed the best performance when the particle size of coal in 200 mesh,system pH 7.0~8.0,besides,the inoculation quantity of 1.0 × 1017 ~ 1.5 × 1017 cfu/g,culture temperature reached 30℃ for 15 days.The effective phosphorus,available potassium and effective sulfur contents of coal gangue were 7.18 times,21.05 times and 3.40 times relative to the original coal gangue;The effective calcium and effective silicon contents of coal gangue were respectively 1.12 times and 1.16 times relative to the original coal gangue.%为减少高硫煤矸石对环境的污染,并对其进行综合利用,研究了煤矸石粒度、pH、温度、接菌量、培养时间、干湿条件和振荡等条件对硅酸盐细菌分解高硫煤矸石的影响。结果表明:10.00 g 粒度为200目的煤矸石在硅酸盐细菌接种量为1.0×1017~1.5×1017 cfu/g、体系 pH7.0~8.0、25~30℃的条件下培养15 d,其有效磷、速效钾和有效硫的含量分别是原煤矸石的7.18倍、21.05倍和3.40倍,有效钙和有效硅的含量分别是原煤矸石的1.12倍和1.16倍。

  17. External observer reflections on QBism

    CERN Document Server

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    In this short review I present my personal reflections on QBism. I have no intrinsic sympathy neither to QBism nor to subjective interpretation of probability in general. However, I have been following development of QBism from its very beginning, observing its evolution and success, sometimes with big surprise. Therefore my reflections on QBism can be treated as "external observer" reflections. I hope that my representation of this interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) has some degree of objectivity. It may be useful for researchers who are interested in quantum foundations, but do not belong to the QBism-community, because I tried to analyze essentials of QBism critically (i.e., not just emphasizing its advantages, as in a typical publication of QBists). QBists may be interested as well - in comments of an external observer who monitored development of this approach to QM during last 16 years. The second part of the paper is devoted to interpretations of probability, objective versus subjective, and view...

  18. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Booth

    1999-11-06

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

  19. Externe Kosten in der Energiewirtschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Voß, Alfred; Friedrich, Rainer

    1994-01-01

    Als externe Effekte werden unbeteiligte Dritte betreffende Zusatzkosten oder Zusatznutzen verstanden, die sich in den jeweiligen Güterpreisen nicht wiederfinden und denen die Betroffenen nicht indifferent gegenüberstehen. Die gegenwärtige Energiebereitstellung und -nutzung ist in vielen Bereichen eine wesentliche Quelle der Belastung von Umwelt und Natur. Begriffe und Schlagworte wie Waldsterben, Tankerunglücke, Tschernobyl und Treibhauseffekt seien in diesem Zusammenhang erwähnt.

  20. ENDOSCOPIC DCR VERSUS EXTERNAL DCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare success rates of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR and external DCR for acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective comparative non randomized study of 64 patients who presented with acquired NLD obstruction to a tertiary hospital. They were fully evaluated to ascertain the site of obstruction and patients with distal obstruction were included in the study. 34 patients underwent endoscopic DCR and 30 patients underwent external DCR RESULTS: 64 patients were included in the study and 72 procedures carried out. Success was achieved in 65 cases and failure in 7. Of the 7 failed cases, anatomical obstruction at the fistula site was found in 3, whereas functional failure was found in 4. In our patients, endoscopic DCR had a significantly higher success rate than external DCR, 95.23% versus 83.33% (P = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: The success rate of Endoscopic DCR for acquired NLDO in our group of patients was 95.23%, with endoscopic surgery showing better results.

  1. Valuing the attributes of renewable energy investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Ariel [Economics Department, University of Glasgow, Adam Smith Building, Glasgow G12 8RT (United Kingdom); Hanley, Nick; Wright, Robert [Economics Department, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    Increasing the proportion of power derived from renewable energy sources is becoming an increasingly important part of many countries' strategies to achieve reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. However, renewable energy investments can often have external costs and benefits, which need to be taken into account if socially optimal investments are to be made. This paper attempts to estimate the magnitude of these external costs and benefits for the case of renewable technologies in Scotland, a country which has set particularly ambitious targets for expanding renewable energy. The external effects we consider are those on landscape quality, wildlife and air quality. We also consider the welfare implications of different investment strategies for employment and electricity prices. The methodology used to do this is the choice experiment technique. Renewable technologies considered include hydro, on-shore and off-shore wind power and biomass. Welfare changes for different combinations of impacts associated with different investment strategies are estimated. We also test for differences in preferences towards these impacts between urban and rural communities, and between high- and low-income households. (author)

  2. Causal attributions of obese men and women in genetic testing: implications of genetic/biological attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Dierk, Jan-Michael; Conradt, Matthias; Schlumberger, Pia; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand, Johannes; Rief, Winfried

    2009-09-01

    The present study sought to investigate genetic/biological attributions of obesity, their associations with a predisposition to obesity and their crossectional and longitudinal implications for weight regulation in obese individuals presenting for genetic testing and counselling. A total of 421 obese men and women underwent psychological and anthropometric assessment and a mutation screen of the melanocortin-4 receptor gene. At study entry, women revealed more genetic/biological attributions than men on the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire adapted to obesity (86.2% versus 59.7%). Genetic/biological attributions of obesity were associated in both sexes with a family history of obesity, assessed through Stunkard's Figure Rating Scale. In both sexes, genetic/biological attributions were unrelated to weight regulation beliefs and behaviour (i.e. self-efficacy, controllability beliefs, restrained eating and physical activity), assessed through standardised questionnaires or interview at baseline and at six-month follow-up. In addition, causal attributions and weight regulation beliefs and behaviour were not predictive of body mass index at six-month follow-up. Overall, the results indicate that causal attributions of obesity to genetic/biological factors in obese individuals presenting for genetic screening and counselling are crossectionally and longitudinally unrelated to weight regulation and longer-term weight outcome. Those who attribute their obesity to genetic/biological factors likely have a familial obesity risk.

  3. Customers' attributional judgments towards complaint handling in airline service: a confirmatory study based on attribution theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2007-06-01

    Besides flight safety, complaint handling plays a crucial role in airline service. Based upon Kelley's attribution theory, in the present study customers' attributions were examined under different conditions of complaint handling by the airlines. There were 531 passengers (216 women; ages 21 to 63 years, M = 41.5, SD = 11.1) with experiences of customer complaints who were recruited while awaiting boarding. Participants received one hypothetical scenario of three attributional conditions about complaint handling and then reported their attributional judgments. The findings indicated that the passengers were most likely to attribute the company's complaint handling to unconditional compliance when the airline company reacted to customer complaints under low distinctiveness, high consistency, and when consensus among the airlines was low. On the other hand, most passengers attributed the company's complaint handling to conditional compliance under the conditions in which distinctiveness, consistency, and consensus were all high. The results provide further insights into how different policies of complaint management affect customers' attributions. Future directions and managerial implications are also discussed.

  4. AcquisitionFootprintAttenuationDrivenbySeismicAttributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuellar-Urbano Mayra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition footprint, one of the major problems that PEMEX faces in seismic imaging, is noise highly correlated to the geometric array of sources and receivers used for onshore and offshore seismic acquisitions. It prevails in spite of measures taken during acquisition and data processing. This pattern, throughout the image, is easily confused with geological features and misguides seismic attribute computation. In this work, we use seismic data from PEMEX Exploración y Producción to show the conditioning process for removing random and coherent noise using linear filters. Geometric attributes used in a workflow were computed for obtaining an acquisition footprint noise model and adaptively subtract it from the seismic data.

  5. Secondary Headaches Attributed to Arterial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Assarzadegan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mild (140 to 159/90 to 99 mmHg or moderate (160 to 179/100 to 109 mmHg chronic arterial hypertension does not appear to cause headache. Whether moderate hypertension predisposes patients to headache at all remains controversial, but there is little evidence that it does. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in patients with mild and moderate hypertension has shown no convincing relationship between blood pressure fluctuations over a 24-hour period and presence or absence of headache. However, headaches are associated to various disorders that lead to abrupt, severe, and paroxysmal elevations in blood pressure. In this paper, the secondary headaches attributed to acute crises of hypertension and the criteria for diagnosing each of them have been reviewed. These are headaches attributed to pheochromocytoma, hypertensive crisis without encephalopathy, hypertensive encephalopathy, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and acute pressure response to exogenous agents.

  6. Weighted Attribute Fusion Model for Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Sakthivel, S

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing a face based on its attributes is an easy task for a human to perform as it is a cognitive process. In recent years, Face Recognition is achieved with different kinds of facial features which were used separately or in a combined manner. Currently, Feature fusion methods and parallel methods are the facial features used and performed by integrating multiple feature sets at different levels. However, this integration and the combinational methods do not guarantee better result. Hence to achieve better results, the feature fusion model with multiple weighted facial attribute set is selected. For this feature model, face images from predefined data set has been taken from Olivetti Research Laboratory (ORL) and applied on different methods like Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based Eigen feature extraction technique, Discrete Cosine Transformation (DCT) based feature extraction technique, Histogram Based Feature Extraction technique and Simple Intensity based features. The extracted feature set obt...

  7. Self Views of African American Youth are Related to the Gender Stereotypes and Academic Attributions of Their Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Stephanie; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rouland, Karmen

    2013-01-01

    We examined relations among African American mothers' (N = 392) stereotypes about gender differences in mathematics, science, and reading performance, parents' attributions about their children's academic successes and failures, and their seventh and eighth grade children's academic self-views (domain-specific ability attributions and self-concept). Parents' stereotypes about gender differences in abilities were related to their ability attributions for their children's successes and failures within academic domains. Mothers' attributions, in turn, were related to children's attributions, particularly among girls. Mothers' attributions of their children's successes to domain-specific ability were related to the self-concepts of daughters, and failure attributions were related to domain-specific self-concepts of sons. The influences of parents' beliefs on young adolescents' identity beliefs are discussed.

  8. Innovation cascades: artefacts, organization and attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, David A

    2016-03-19

    Innovation cascades inextricably link the introduction of new artefacts, transformations in social organization, and the emergence of new functionalities and new needs. This paper describes a positive feedback dynamic, exaptive bootstrapping, through which these cascades proceed, and the characteristics of the relationships in which the new attributions that drive this dynamic are generated. It concludes by arguing that the exaptive bootstrapping dynamic is the principal driver of our current Innovation Society.

  9. DESIDERATUM OF NEW REALITY: FORENSIC AUTHORSHIP ATTRIBUTION

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The overarching premise in this discussion is to reiterate the cross-disciplinary intersection between law and language. Correspondingly, the application of language studies to legal issues generates a separate domain, referred to as forensic linguistics. The paper looks into one aspect of forensic linguistics, namely forensic authorship attribution that entails the process of identifying the author of an anonymous text by employing methods and features of forensic linguistics. This concept i...

  10. Experimental functional realization of attribute grammar system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Attali

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an experimental functional realization of attribute grammar(AG system for personal computers. For AG system functioning only Turbo Prolog compiler is required. The system functioning is based on a specially elaborated metalanguage for AG description, universal syntactic and semantic constructors. The AG system provides automatic generation of target compiler (syntax--oriented software using Turbo Prolog as object language.

  11. Anomaly Detection and Attribution Using Bayesian Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Anomaly Detection and Attribution Using Bayesian Networks Andrew Kirk, Jonathan Legg and Edwin El-Mahassni National Security and...detection in Bayesian networks , en- abling both the detection and explanation of anomalous cases in a dataset. By exploiting the structure of a... Bayesian network , our algorithm is able to efficiently search for local maxima of data conflict between closely related vari- ables. Benchmark tests using

  12. A calculus for attribute-based communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrahman, Yehia Abd; De Nicola, Rocco; Loreti, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The notion of attribute-based communication seems promising to model and analyse systems with huge numbers of interacting components that dynamically adjust and combine their behaviour to achieve specific goals. A basic process calculus, named AbC, is introduced that has as primitive construct...... of how well-established process calculi could be encoded into AbC is given by considering the translation into AbC of a proto-typical π-calculus process....

  13. Fuzzy attributes for knowledge representation and acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, R.L.; Webster, R.B.

    1996-04-01

    Repertory grids and other matrix-like structures can be used to represent knowledge and elicit knowledge from experts. A grid or matrix is a representation of a knowledge domain where the elements in the domain appear long the horizontal axis and constructs or attributes of the elements appear along the horizontal axis and constructs or attributes of the elements appear along the vertical axis. Each construct is rated for its presence in a given element or how much a construct applies to an element. Analysis of these ratings can determine similarities and differences between the elements. Traditionally, constructs are bipolar entities where a rating falls on a range from one pole to the other. For example, temperature may be represented by the bipolar construct hot-cold and a range of 1 to 5 in which 1 represents hot and 5 represents cold. Ratings of 2, 3, and 4 lie in between hot and cold. Additionally, all constructs in a grid have the same range of values and the range in arbitrarily chosen. This paper presents a method for translating grid ratings in to fuzzy membership values. The fuzzy membership values become the values for describing and analyzing the associations between elements. Thus, constructs no longer need to use the same scaling range and no longer need to be bipolar. A construct of an element now becomes a true attribute of an element. An attribute can be rated in its own range and with its own unit of measurement. In the previous example, the bipolar construct hot-cold becomes simply, temperature measured in degrees. Experts or users need no longer translate to an artificial rating range.

  14. Team formation and biased self-attribution

    OpenAIRE

    Corgnet, Brice

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the impact of individuals' self-attribution biases on the formation of teams in the workplace. We consider a two periods model in which workers jointly decide whether to form a team or work alone. We assume workers' abilities are unknown. Agents update their beliefs about abilities after receiving a signal at the end of the first period. We show that allowing workers to learn about their abilities undermines cooperation when a fixed allocation of the group outcome is assumed. Consi...

  15. Software attribute visualization for high integrity software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollock, G.M.

    1998-03-01

    This report documents a prototype tool developed to investigate the use of visualization and virtual reality technologies for improving software surety confidence. The tool is utilized within the execution phase of the software life cycle. It provides a capability to monitor an executing program against prespecified requirements constraints provided in a program written in the requirements specification language SAGE. The resulting Software Attribute Visual Analysis Tool (SAVAnT) also provides a technique to assess the completeness of a software specification.

  16. Confounding and bias in the attributable fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Lyndsey A; Steenland, N Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Inappropriate methods are frequently used to calculate the population attributable fraction (AF) for a given exposure of interest. This commonly occurs when authors use adjusted relative risks (RRs) reported in the literature (the "source" data), without access to the original data. In this analysis, we examine the relationship between the direction and magnitude of confounding in the source data and resulting bias in the attributable fraction when incorrect methods are used. We assess confounding by the confounding risk ratio, which is the ratio of the crude RR to the adjusted RR. We assess bias in the AF by the ratio of the incorrectly calculated AF to the correctly calculated AF. Using generated data, we examine the relationship between confounding and AF bias under various scenarios of population prevalence of exposure and strength of the exposure-disease association. For confounding risk ratios greater than 1.0 (ie, crude RR >adjusted RR), the AF is underestimated; for confounding risk ratios less than 1.0 (ie, crude RR confounding increases, and is dependent on the prevalence of exposure in the total population, with bias greatest at the lowest prevalence of exposure. Bias in the AF is also higher when the exposure-disease association is weaker. Results of these analyses can assist interpretation of incorrectly calculated attributable fraction estimates commonly reported in the epidemiologic literature.

  17. Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D K; Niemeyer, S

    2005-11-04

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Program is to develop the technical capability for the nation to rapidly, accurately, and credibly attribute the origins and pathways of interdicted or collected materials, intact nuclear devices, and radiological dispersal devices. A robust attribution capability contributes to threat assessment, prevention, and deterrence of nuclear terrorism; it also supports the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in its investigative mission to prevent and respond to nuclear terrorism. Development of the capability involves two major elements: (1) the ability to collect evidence and make forensic measurements, and (2) the ability to interpret the forensic data. The Program leverages the existing capability throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory complex in a way that meets the requirements of the FBI and other government users. At the same time the capability is being developed, the Program also conducts investigations for a variety of sponsors using the current capability. The combination of operations and R&D in one program helps to ensure a strong linkage between the needs of the user community and the scientific development.

  18. STUDENTS’ ATTRIBUTIONS ON THEIR ENGLISH SPEAKING ENHANCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustinus Mali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Attribution refers to explanations and reasons that people provide for progress, achievement, and even failure towards something they have experienced, particularly in their language learning. This study aimed to investigate the attributions that students had for their English-speaking enhancement. The participants of the study were eighteen students at Sekolah Tinggi Pariwisata Ambarukmo Yogyakarta (STIPRAM. Open-ended questionnaire and interview were used as the instruments to collect the data. On the questionnaire, the participants were specifically asked to provide written responses to three statements, while in the interview process, the researcher involved three participants to provide further clarification toward their written responses on the questionnaire. The data analysis revealed that a clear purpose of doing particular English speaking activities, strategy, and the positive motivation/encouragement from friends as well as from the teacher became the major students’ attributions on their English-speaking enhancement. Besides, this study would seem to indicate that a teacher took an essential role in the enhancement of the students’ English speaking skill. Eventually, this study proposed some pedagogical implications for the development of teaching and learning in English speaking classes specifically in Indonesian context.

  19. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, Wayne D.; Acevedo, Horacio; Green, Aaron; Len, Shawn; Minavea, Anastasia; Wood, James; Xie, Deyi

    2002-01-29

    This project has completed the initially scheduled third year of the contract, and is beginning a fourth year, designed to expand upon the tech transfer aspects of the project. From the Stratton data set, demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along `phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the Boonsville data set , developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and developed a method involving cross-correlation of seismic waveforms to provide a reliable map of the various facies present in the area. The Teal South data set provided a surprising set of data, leading us to develop a pressure-dependent velocity relationship and to conclude that nearby reservoirs are undergoing a pressure drop in response to the production of the main reservoir, implying that oil is being lost through their spill points, never to be produced. The Wamsutter data set led to the use of unconventional attributes including lateral incoherence and horizon-dependent impedance variations to indicate regions of former sand bars and current high pressure, respectively, and to evaluation of various upscaling routines.

  20. Relative Attribute SVM+ Learning for Age Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengzheng; Tao, Dacheng; Yang, Jie

    2016-03-01

    When estimating age, human experts can provide privileged information that encodes the facial attributes of aging, such as smoothness, face shape, face acne, wrinkles, and bags under-eyes. In automatic age estimation, privileged information is unavailable to test images. To overcome this problem, we hypothesize that asymmetric information can be explored and exploited to improve the generalizability of the trained model. Using the learning using privileged information (LUPI) framework, we tested this hypothesis by carefully defining relative attributes for support vector machine (SVM+) to improve the performance of age estimation. We term this specific setting as relative attribute SVM+ (raSVM+), in which the privileged information enables separation of outliers from inliers at the training stage and effectively manipulates slack variables and age determination errors during model training, and thus guides the trained predictor toward a generalizable solution. Experimentally, the superiority of raSVM+ was confirmed by comparing it with state-of-the-art algorithms on the face and gesture recognition research network (FG-NET) and craniofacial longitudinal morphological face aging databases. raSVM+ is a promising development that improves age estimation, with the mean absolute error reaching 4.07 on FG-NET.

  1. Explaining researchers' readiness to incorporate external stimuli in their research agendas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olmos Penuela, Julia; Benneworth, Paul; Castro-Martinez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to provide a better understanding of how researchers incorporate external (non-academic) influences in their research process. Firstly we advance the notion of ‘openness’ as a researcher characteristic that describes researchers’ readiness to let external stimuli modify the differen

  2. The Role of External Knowledge Sources and Organizational Design in the Process of Opportunity Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob; Zahra, Shaker A.

    2013-01-01

    involving 536 Danish firms shows that the use of external knowledge sources is positively associated with opportunity exploitation, but the strength of this association is significantly influenced by organizational designs that enable the firm to access external knowledge during the process of exploiting...

  3. The Role of External Knowledge Sources and Organizational Design in the Process of Opportunity Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob; A. Zahra, Shaker

    involving 536 Danish firms shows that the use of external knowledge sources is positively associated with opportunity exploitation, but the strength of this association is significantly influenced by organizational designs that enable the firm to access external knowledge during the process of exploiting...

  4. Estudio de la influencia de parámetros geométricos en la resistencia de superficies de revolución sometidas a presión externa. // Influence of geometric parameters in the load capacity of cylindrical surfaces under external pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. González Fernández

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se inserta en el desarrollo de los proyectos de estructuras cilíndricas presurizadas, evaluando y complementando losrecursos existentes para el proyecto de superficies de revolución sometidas a presión externa y considerando las formulacionesanalíticas que toman en cuenta los comportamientos no lineales, tanto geométrico como físico, importantes cuando se desea verificarel colapso de este tipo de estructuras.Con este trabajo se pretende la aplicación de métodos probabilísticos de análisis de resistencia al caso de estructuras en forma desuperficies de revolución sometidas a presión externa. Para cumplir este objetivo serán determinadas las cargas críticas con laformación de lóbulos circunferenciales según la teoría de Reynolds, tomando en consideración las variaciones de algunos parámetrosgeométricos que influyen en esta carga.Palabras claves: Estructura, estabilidad, falla estructural, imperfección geométrica, superficie a presión.______________________________________________________________________________Abstract:This work is inserted in the development of the projects of cylindrical structure under pressure, evaluating and supplementing theexistent resources for the project of circular cylindrical surface under external pressure. In the same are considered the analyticformulations to take into account the non-linear behaviours, (geometric and physic when is necessary to verify the collapse of thistype of structures.The application of probabilistic methods of resistance analysis to the case of structures with shape of cylindrical shell under externalpressure is sought. To complete this objective the critical loads are determined according to Reynolds’s theory taking intoconsideration the variations of some geometric parameters with influence in this load.Key words: Structures, stability, structural failures, imperfections, cylindrical shell under external pressure.

  5. CALIBRATION OF SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne D. Pennington

    2001-04-01

    The project, ''Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Calibration,'' is on schedule and making unplanned discoveries in addition to those intended when the project commenced. The discoveries, planned and unplanned, can be grouped into four classes: pitfalls to avoid in interpretation of seismic attributes; suggested workflows to follow in working with seismic attributes; new methods of calculating certain new attributes which we feel to be useful; and new theoretical approaches to certain petrophysical properties. We are using data from Wyoming, North Texas, South Texas, and the Gulf of Mexico offshore of Louisiana. These environments provide a diverse array of physical conditions and rock types, and a variety of interpretation methods to be applied to them. The Wyoming field is a very difficult one, including alternating layers of thin beds of coals, shales, and hard sandstones, and there may be an observable effect due to hydrocarbon production; we are using this field as the ''test'' of those techniques and methods we have developed or that we prefer based on our work on the other fields. Work on this field is still underway, although progressing nicely. The work on the public domain data sets in Texas, Boonsville and Stratton, is complete except for some minor additional processing steps, and final write-ups are underway. The work on the Gulf of Mexico field has been completed to the extent originally planned, but it has led us to such important new observations and discoveries that we have expanded our original scope to include time-lapse studies and petrophysical aspects of pressure changes; work on this expanded scope is continuing. Presentations have been made at professional-society meetings, company offices, consortium workshops, and university settings. Papers, including one review paper on ''Reservoir Geophysics'' have been published. Several Master's theses, which will spin off

  6. The Relationship among Attributions, Emotions, and Interpersonal Styles of Staff Working with Clients with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlmans, Linda J. M.; Embregts, Petri J. C. M.; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Willems, Arno P. A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have tested Weiner's model, which suggests a relationship among causal attributions regarding challenging behavior (CB), emotions, and helping behavior of staff. No studies have focused on interpersonal styles. The goals of this study were to investigate the influence of type of CB on attributions, emotions and interpersonal style…

  7. Abuse and Parental Characteristics, Attributions of Blame, and Psychological Adjustment in Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinzow, Heidi; Seth, Puja; Jackson, Joan; Niehaus, Ashley; Fitzgerald, Monica

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of abuse and parental characteristics on attributional content and determine the relative contribution of different attributions of blame in predicting psychological symptomatology among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. One hundred eighty-three female undergraduates with a history of…

  8. Collaborative innovation: Internal and external involvement in new product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timenes Laugen, Bjørge; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2011-01-01

    Industry and academia alike are increasingly becoming aware of the fact that innovation does not take place in isolated cells or functions within the firm. During the last the years the term open innovation has emphasized the importance of internal and external collaboration in order to increase...... the competitiveness of companies. Although the idea of involving internal and external actors in the new product development (NPD) process is not new, the knowledge about the benefits and pitfalls is still limited. This paper aims to contribute to refining the concept of open innovation, by investigating how...... strategic priorities influence the degree of external and internal involvement in the NPD process, moderated by contextual factors. Results based on analyses of 584 companies from the International Manufacturing Strategy Survey (IMSS) 2005 indicate that suppliers are heavily involved in the NPD process...

  9. Numerical analysis of rainfall effects in external overburden dump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Radhakanta Koner⇑; Debashish Chakravarty

    2016-01-01

    The effect of slope angle for external overburden dump in response to average and heavy rainfall has been analyzed using a two dimensional finite difference method of transient water flow through unsaturated–saturated soil. The external dump stability is evaluated for five geomaterial types on the basis of globally accepted safety factor analysis technique, based on shear strength reduction approach using finite differ-ence method. The results obtained from the finite difference method of analysis indicate that the external dump with more than 30? slope angle is greatly influenced by the rainfall under the studied conditions for geomaterial 3, 4 and 5, whereas dumps with geomaterial 1 and 2 remain safe. The analysis shows that major slope failure is out of preview for the studied rainfall conditions.

  10. A Look at Contrastive Linguistics-Differences and Similarities between English Attributes and Chinese Attributes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔维

    2013-01-01

    Contrastive linguistics is a branch of linguistics which mainly involves contrast or comparison, and it can leave us some useful insights into our problems, especially for translation work. This paper discusses similarities and differences between English attributes and Chinese attributes from the perspective of the location, the composition, and the function, for the purpose of pre-senting a sound version for the original text.

  11. The strategic Samaritan : How effectiveness and proximity affect corporate responses to external crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordan, Jennifer; Diermeier, Daniel A.; Galinsky, Adam D.

    2012-01-01

    This research examines how two dimensions of moral intensity involved in a corporation's external crisis response-magnitude of effectiveness and interpersonal proximity-influence observer perceptions of and behavioral intentions toward the corporation. Across three studies, effectiveness decreased n

  12. On the limiting behavior of a harmonic oscillator with random external disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Kulinich

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the limiting behavior of a harmonic oscillator under the external random disturbance that is a process of the white noise type. Influence of noises is investigated in resonance and non-resonance cases.

  13. Leveraging External Sources of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    own specific set of mechanisms and conditions. Integrating innovations has been mostly studied from an absorptive capacity perspective, with less attention given to the impact of competencies and culture (including “not invented here”). Commercializing innovations puts the most emphasis on how......” in a way inconsistent with earlier definitions in innovation management. The paper concludes with recommendations for future research that include examining the end-to-end innovation commercialization process, and studying the moderators and limits of leveraging external sources of innovation....

  14. Skepticism, Contextualism, Externalism and Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Wilburn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I argue for the following claims. Contextualist strategies to tame or localize epistemic skepticism are hopeless if contextualist factors are construed internalistically. However, because efforts to contextualize externalism via subjunctive conditional analysis court circularity, it is only on an internalistic interpretation that contextualist strategies can even be motivated. While these claims do not give us an argument for skepticism, they do give us an argument that contextualism, as such, is not likely to provide us with an argument against skepticism.

  15. [Discharges for external injuries from a hospital in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Apodaca, Beatriz A; De Cosio, Federico G; Moye-Elizalde, Gustavo; Fornelli-Laffon, Felipe F

    2012-05-01

    In Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, morbidity and mortality from injuries have increased alarmingly since 2008. This paper aims to examine the changes in the number of hospital discharges for external injuries recorded during the 2008-2010 period in a hospital in Ciudad Juarez. A descriptive retrospective study conducted at the Ciudad Juarez General Hospital looked at the incidence of external injuries as the reason for hospital discharges during the period under analysis. The average proportion of hospital discharges attributed to external injuries was 27%, with the 25-44-year-old age group being the most affected. More than half of the discharges were for fractures. The incidence rate of hospital discharges attributed to injuries in Ciudad Juarez was almost four times greater than that reported at the national level.

  16. Visual perspective in causal attribution, empathy and attitude change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, Ozdem M; Oner-Ozkan, Bengi

    2003-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the effect of visual perspective on the actor-observer bias. For this aim, we examined the effects of different visual perspectives on individuals' external and internal attributions. In addition to this, we examined the presence or absence of an attitude change toward the death penalty due to participants' visual perspective. One week before the experiment, we measured the participants' attitudes toward the death penalty. Then, during the experiment, films produced by one of the authors of this study were shown to two separate groups of participants. There were two films, each film constituting one of the two levels of visual perception. The content of each film was the memories of a person who was given the death penalty for the murder of his own brother. Level of visual perception was manipulated by using different camera perspectives, one from the actor's point of view and the other from the observer's point of view. At the end of the experiment, participants' attitudes toward the death penalty were measured again.

  17. Burden attributable to child maltreatment in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Ferrari, Alize J; Mills, Ryan; Dunne, Michael P; Erskine, Holly E; Devries, Karen M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; McCarthy, Molly; Norman, Rosana E

    2015-10-01

    Child maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, with four main types (childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect) highly interrelated. All types of maltreatment have been linked to adverse health consequences and exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment increases risk. In Australia to date, only burden attributable to childhood sexual abuse has been estimated. This study synthesized the national evidence and quantified the burden attributable to the four main types of child maltreatment. Meta-analyses, based on quality-effects models, generated pooled prevalence estimates for each maltreatment type. Exposure to child maltreatment was examined as a risk factor for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made for co-occurrence of multiple forms of child maltreatment. Overall, an estimated 23.5% of self-harm, 20.9% of anxiety disorders and 15.7% of depressive disorders burden in males; and 33.0% of self-harm, 30.6% of anxiety disorders and 22.8% of depressive disorders burden in females was attributable to child maltreatment. Child maltreatment was estimated to cause 1.4% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4-2.3%) of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in males, and 2.4% (0.7-4.1%) of all DALYs in females in Australia in 2010. Child maltreatment contributes to a substantial proportion of burden from depressive and anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm in Australia. This study demonstrates the importance of including all forms of child maltreatment as risk factors in future burden of disease studies.

  18. A systematic review of ecological attributes that confer resilience to climate change in environmental restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpane-Padgham, Britta L; Beechie, Tim; Klinger, Terrie

    2017-01-01

    Ecological restoration is widely practiced as a means of rehabilitating ecosystems and habitats that have been degraded or impaired through human use or other causes. Restoration practices now are confronted by climate change, which has the potential to influence long-term restoration outcomes. Concepts and attributes from the resilience literature can help improve restoration and monitoring efforts under changing climate conditions. We systematically examined the published literature on ecological resilience to identify biological, chemical, and physical attributes that confer resilience to climate change. We identified 45 attributes explicitly related to climate change and classified them as individual- (9), population- (6), community- (7), ecosystem- (7), or process-level attributes (16). Individual studies defined resilience as resistance to change or recovery from disturbance, and only a few studies explicitly included both concepts in their definition of resilience. We found that individual and population attributes generally are suited to species- or habitat-specific restoration actions and applicable at the population scale. Community attributes are better suited to habitat-specific restoration at the site scale, or system-wide restoration at the ecosystem scale. Ecosystem and process attributes vary considerably in their type and applicability. We summarize these relationships in a decision support table and provide three example applications to illustrate how these classifications can be used to prioritize climate change resilience attributes for specific restoration actions. We suggest that (1) including resilience as an explicit planning objective could increase the success of restoration projects, (2) considering the ecological context and focal scale of a restoration action is essential in choosing appropriate resilience attributes, and (3) certain ecological attributes, such as diversity and connectivity, are more commonly considered to confer

  19. Efficient Learning with Partially Observed Attributes

    CERN Document Server

    Cesa-Bianchi, Nicolò; Shamir, Ohad

    2010-01-01

    We describe and analyze efficient algorithms for learning a linear predictor from examples when the learner can only view a few attributes of each training example. This is the case, for instance, in medical research, where each patient participating in the experiment is only willing to go through a small number of tests. Our analysis bounds the number of additional examples sufficient to compensate for the lack of full information on each training example. We demonstrate the efficiency of our algorithms by showing that when running on digit recognition data, they obtain a high prediction accuracy even when the learner gets to see only four pixels of each image.

  20. Modyfing an attribute control chart: Daudin's methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Bernabeu, Elena; Sellés Cantó, Miguel Ángel; Carrión García, Andrés; Jabaloyes Vivas, José Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Copyright (2012) American Institute of Physics. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics. The following article appeared in Pérez Bernabeu, E.; Sellés Cantó, MÁ.; Carrión García, A.; Jabaloyes Vivas, JM. (2012). Modyfing an attribute control chart: Daudin's methodology. AIP Conference Proceedings. 1431:920-924 and may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4707651 There are many me...