Sample records for attosecond electron-hole dynamics

  1. Attosecond photoionization dynamics in neon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omiste, Juan J.; Madsen, Lars Bojer


    We study the role of electron-electron correlation in the ground-state of Ne, as well as in photoionization dynamics induced by an attosecond XUV pulse. For a selection of central photon energies around 100 eV, we find that while the mean-field time-dependent Hartree-Fock method provides qualitat...

  2. Attosecond correlation dynamics (United States)

    Ossiander, M.; Siegrist, F.; Shirvanyan, V.; Pazourek, R.; Sommer, A.; Latka, T.; Guggenmos, A.; Nagele, S.; Feist, J.; Burgdörfer, J.; Kienberger, R.; Schultze, M.


    Photoemission of an electron is commonly treated as a one-particle phenomenon. With attosecond streaking spectroscopy we observe the breakdown of this single active-electron approximation by recording up to six attoseconds retardation of the dislodged photoelectron due to electronic correlations. We recorded the photon-energy-dependent emission timing of electrons, released from the helium ground state by an extreme-ultraviolet photon, either leaving the ion in its ground state or exciting it into a shake-up state. We identify an optical field-driven d.c. Stark shift of charge-asymmetric ionic states formed after the entangled photoemission as a key contribution to the observed correlation time shift. These findings enable a complete wavepacket reconstruction and are universal for all polarized initial and final states. Sub-attosecond agreement with quantum mechanical ab initio modelling allows us to determine the absolute zero of time in the photoelectric effect to a precision better than 1/25th of the atomic unit of time.

  3. Attosecond VUV Coherent Control of Molecular Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ranitovic, P; Riviere, P; Palacios, A; Tong, X M; Toshima, N; Gonzalez-Castrillo, A; Martin, L; Martin, F; Murnane, M M; Kapteyn, H C


    High harmonic light sources make it possible to access attosecond time-scales, thus opening up the prospect of manipulating electronic wave packets for steering molecular dynamics. However, two decades after the birth of attosecond physics, the concept of attosecond chemistry has not yet been realized. This is because excitation and manipulation of molecular orbitals requires precisely controlled attosecond waveforms in the deep ultraviolet, which have not yet been synthesized. Here, we present a novel approach using attosecond vacuum ultraviolet pulse-trains to coherently excite and control the outcome of a simple chemical reaction in a deuterium molecule in a non-Born Oppenheimer regime. By controlling the interfering pathways of electron wave packets in the excited neutral and singly-ionized molecule, we unambiguously show that we can switch the excited electronic state on attosecond timescales, coherently guide the nuclear wave packets to dictate the way a neutral molecule vibrates, and steer and manipula...

  4. Attosecond photoionization dynamics in neon (United States)

    Omiste, Juan J.; Madsen, Lars Bojer


    We study the role of electron-electron correlation in the ground state of Ne, as well as in photoionization dynamics induced by an attosecond XUV pulse. For a selection of central photon energies around 100 eV, we find that while the mean-field time-dependent Hartree-Fock method provides qualitatively correct results for the total ionization yield, the photoionization cross section, the photoelectron momentum distribution, as well as for the time delay in photoionization, electron-electron correlation is important for a quantitative description of these quantities.

  5. Vlasov simulations of electron hole dynamics in inhomogeneous magnetic field (United States)

    Kuzichev, Ilya; Vasko, Ivan; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Mozer, Forrest; Artemyev, Anton


    Electron holes (EHs) or phase space vortices are solitary electrostatic waves existing due to electrons trapped within EH electrostatic potential. Since the first direct observation [1], EHs have been widely observed in the Earth's magnetosphere: in reconnecting current sheets [2], injection fronts [3], auroral region [4], and many other space plasma systems. EHs have typical spatial scales up to tens of Debye lengths, electric field amplitudes up to hundreds of mV/m and propagate along magnetic field lines with velocities of about electron thermal velocity [5]. The role of EHs in energy dissipation and supporting of large-scale potential drops is under active investigation. The accurate interpretation of spacecraft observations requires understanding of EH evolution in inhomogeneous plasma. The critical role of plasma density gradients in EH evolution was demonstrated in [6] using PIC simulations. Interestingly, up to date no studies have addressed a role of magnetic field gradients in EH evolution. In this report, we use 1.5D gyrokinetic Vlasov code to demonstrate the critical role of magnetic field gradients in EH dynamics. We show that EHs propagating into stronger (weaker) magnetic field are decelerated (accelerated) with deceleration (acceleration) rate dependent on the magnetic field gradient. Remarkably, the reflection points of decelerating EHs are independent of the average magnetic field gradient in the system and depend only on the EH parameters. EHs are decelerated (accelerated) faster than would follow from the "quasi-particle" concept assuming that EH is decelerated (accelerated) entirely due to the mirror force acting on electrons trapped within EH. We demonstrate that EH propagation in inhomogeneous magnetic fields results in development of a net potential drop along an EH, which depends on the magnetic field gradient. The revealed features will be helpful for interpreting spacecraft observations and results of advanced particle simulations. In

  6. Dynamical Birefringence: Electron-Hole Recollisions as Probes of Berry Curvature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter B. Banks


    Full Text Available The direct measurement of Berry phases is still a great challenge in condensed-matter systems. The bottleneck has been the ability to adiabatically drive an electron coherently across a large portion of the Brillouin zone in a solid where the scattering is strong and complicated. We break through this bottleneck and show that high-order sideband generation (HSG in semiconductors is intimately affected by Berry phases. Electron-hole recollisions and HSG occur when a near-band-gap laser beam excites a semiconductor that is driven by sufficiently strong terahertz-frequency electric fields. We carry out experimental and theoretical studies of HSG from three GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells. The observed HSG spectra contain sidebands up to the 90th order, to our knowledge the highest-order optical nonlinearity reported in solids. The highest-order sidebands are associated with electron-hole pairs driven coherently across roughly 10% of the Brillouin zone around the Γ point. The principal experimental claim is a dynamical birefringence: the intensity and polarization of the sidebands depend on the relative polarization of the exciting near-infrared (NIR and the THz electric fields, as well as on the relative orientation of the laser fields with the crystal. We explain dynamical birefringence by generalizing the three-step model for high-order harmonic generation. The hole accumulates Berry phases due to variation of its internal state as the quasimomentum changes under the THz field. Dynamical birefringence arises from quantum interference between time-reversed pairs of electron-hole recollision pathways. We propose a method to use dynamical birefringence to measure Berry curvature in solids.

  7. Attosecond chirp-encoded dynamics of light nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haessler, S; Boutu, W; Weber, S; Breger, P; Monchicourt, P; Carre, B; Salieres, P [CEA Saclay, IRAMIS, Service des Photons, Atomes et Molecules, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Stankiewicz, M [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Frasinski, L J [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Caillat, J; Taieb, R; Maquet, A [UMPC Universite Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7614, LCPMR, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)], E-mail:


    We study the spectral phase of high-order harmonic emission as an observable for probing ultrafast nuclear dynamics after the ionization of a molecule. Using a strong-field approximation theory that includes nuclear dynamics, we relate the harmonic phase to the phase of the overlap integral of the nuclear wavefunctions of the initial neutral molecule and the molecular ion after an attosecond probe delay. We determine experimentally the group delay of the high harmonic emission from D{sub 2} and H{sub 2} molecules, which allows us to verify the relation between harmonic frequency and the attosecond delay. The small difference in the harmonic phase between H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} calculated theoretically is consistent with our experimental results.

  8. Can strong-field ionization prepare attosecond dynamics?

    CERN Document Server

    Pabst, Stefan


    Strong-field ionization (SFI) has been shown to prepare wave packets with few-femtosecond periods. Here, we explore whether this technique can be extended to the attosecond time scale. We introduce an intuitive model for predicting the bandwidth of ionic states that can be coherently prepared by SFI. This bandwidth is given by the Fourier-transformed sub-cycle SFI rate and decreases considerably with increasing central wavelength of the ionizing pulse. Many-body calculations based on time-dependent configuration-interaction singles (TDCIS) quantitatively support this result and reveal an additional decrease of the bandwidth as a consequence of channel interactions and non-adiabatic dynamics. Our results further predict that multi-cycle femtosecond pulses can coherently prepare attosecond wave packets with higher selectivity and versatility compared to single-cycle pulses.

  9. Multiscale dynamics of C60 from attosecond to statistical physics (United States)

    Lépine, F.


    C60 is a fascinating object that has become remarkably useful for experimentalists and theoreticians to study photo-induced processes in large many-particle systems. In this review article, we discuss how the knowledge accumulated over the past 30 years on this molecule provides a large panel of mechanisms that occur from the intrinsic time scale of electronic motion that is attosecond, to long ‘macroscopic’ time scale (second). This illustrates the multiscale aspect of dynamics in photo-excited systems, which connects coherent quantum processes to classical and statistical mechanisms. This also shines light onto future experiments and theoretical work required to complete the global picture of light-induced mechanisms in fullerenes.

  10. Attosecond pre-determination of reaction dynamics in polyatomic molecules (United States)

    Kitzler, Markus


    An important aim of Ultrafast Laser Science and Attosecond Physics is the measurement of valence electron dynamics in molecules during complex restructuring and fragmentation reactions. Such reactions may be triggered by the removal of electrons, e.g., by ionization with intense, ultrashort laser pulses. Depending on the valence-shell from which the electrons are removed, the molecular ion might be put into a binding state or a certain dissociative state. With control over the ionization process it might thus be possible to gain control over the subsequent restructuring and fragmentation processes on a purely electronic level. Detailed insight into the process of electron removal can be obtained from interferometric measurements using two bound state wavepackets released at different times within a sub-cycle of a laser field. I will present results of experiments that exploit this kind of electron wavepacket interferometry with sub-10 attosecond resolution for tracing the evolution of the phase of the bound state of an atom or molecule during the removal of an electron. I will furthermore present two conceptually similar schemes that allow pre-determining the outcome of molecular restructuring and fragmentation processes in polyatomic molecules on sub-femtosecond time-scales by gaining control over the process of electron removal. The first method involves recollision double ionization in intense few-cycle laser fields with a known carrier-envelope phase (CEP). Tuning of the CEP allows controlling the removal of inner-valence electrons and the controlled population of dissociative excited states. Using this method I will show experimental CEP-control over various fragmentation reactions of a series of polyatomic molecules. The second control scheme uses the strong preponderance of ionization from specific molecular orbitals to the alignment of the molecular axis with respect to the laser polarization direction for determining which valence level the electrons are

  11. Probing attosecond pulse structures by XUV-induced hole dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    You, Jhih-An; Dahlström, Jan Marcus


    We investigate a two-photon ionization process in neon by an isolated attosecond pump pulse and two coherent extreme ultraviolet probe fields. The probe fields, tuned to the 2s-2p transition in the residual ion, allow for coherent control of the photoelectron via indirect interactions with the hole. We show that the photoelectron-ion coincidence signal contains an interference pattern that can be used to reconstruct the temporal structure of attosecond pump pulses. Our results are supported by simulations based on time-dependent configuration-interaction singles and lowest-order perturbation theory within second quantization.

  12. Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with double optical gating and electronic dynamics in molecules studied via attosecond pump-probe experiment (United States)

    Mashiko, Hiroki


    Single isolated attosecond pulses are useful tools for studying electron dynamics. Previously, such as pulses can be generated by few cycle 5 fs driving lasers. It is still a technical challenge to reproduce daily such pulses. In order to allow longer driving laser pulses, two optical gating methods of polarization gating and two-color gating are combined. This approach is dubbed double optical gating. Due to less depletion of the ground state population by the leading edge of the field, this technique can produce isolated 250 as pulses using up to ˜25 fs driving laser pulses. Also, the supercontinuous spectra (28-620 eV) can in principle support a 16 as pulse duration, obtained from 8 fs driving lasers. Because of the relaxation on the driving laser requirements, more laboratories can enter the isolated attosecond pulse science field. Pump-probe experiments with such isolated attosecond pulses and IR pulses can provide quantitative information on electronic dynamics. In recent work, the photoelectron spectra of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) clearly indicates the precise shape of the IR driving pulse (1.5 eV), verifying that isolated ˜400 as pulses (93 eV) are achieved and these pulses produce an instantaneous inner valence ionization in the molecule. The pump-probe spectra of cation fragments resulting from double and triple ionization show 6-7 fs rise times (SF4^2+, SF3^2+, SF2^2+ and S^2+) or decay times (SF^+ and S^+) times governed by the overlap of the IR and XUV pulses. A suppression or enhancement of certain fragmentation channels is tentatively interpreted as resulting from the IR laser exciting the initial cations to higher states that exhibit different decay channels. This type of pump-probe experiment with isolated attosecond pulses is powerful for the study of electronic dynamics as well as resulting nuclear fragmentation measurements.

  13. Attosecond-correlated dynamics of two electrons in argon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    correlated dynamics of two electrons in argon. V Sharma N Camus B Fischer M Kremer A Rudenko B Bergues M Kuebel N G Johnson M F Kling T Pfeifer J Ullrich R Moshammer. Invited Talks Volume 82 Issue 1 January 2014 ...

  14. Mapping the Dissociative Ionization Dynamics of Molecular Nitrogen with Attosecond Time Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Trabattoni


    Full Text Available Studying the interaction of molecular nitrogen with extreme ultraviolet (XUV radiation is of prime importance to understand radiation-induced processes occurring in Earth’s upper atmosphere. In particular, photoinduced dissociation dynamics involving excited states of N_{2}^{+} leads to N and N^{+} atomic species that are relevant in atmospheric photochemical processes. However, tracking the relaxation dynamics of highly excited states of N_{2}^{+} is difficult to achieve, and its theoretical modeling is notoriously complex. Here, we report on an experimental and theoretical investigation of the dissociation dynamics of N_{2}^{+} induced by isolated attosecond XUV pulses in combination with few-optical-cycle near-infrared/visible (NIR/VIS pulses. The momentum distribution of the produced N^{+} fragments is measured as a function of pump-probe delay with subfemtosecond resolution using a velocity map imaging spectrometer. The time-dependent measurements reveal the presence of NIR/VIS-induced transitions between N_{2}^{+} states together with an interference pattern that carries the signature of the potential energy curves activated by the XUV pulse. We show that the subfemtosecond characterization of the interference pattern is essential for a semiquantitative determination of the repulsive part of these curves.

  15. Ab initio molecular dynamics study of the Eley-Rideal reaction of H + Cl-Au(111) → HCl + Au(111): Impact of energy dissipation to surface phonons and electron-hole pairs. (United States)

    Zhou, Linsen; Zhou, Xueyao; Alducin, Maite; Zhang, Liang; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua


    The reaction between an impinging H atom and a Cl atom adsorbed on Au(111), which is a prototype for the Eley-Rideal mechanism, is investigated using ab initio molecular dynamics at different incidence angles. The reaction yielding gaseous HCl with large internal excitation proceeds via both direct and hot-atom mechanisms. Significant energy exchange with both surface phonons and electron-hole pairs has been observed. However, their impact on the reactivity and final state distributions was found to be limited, thanks to the large exothermicity and small barrier of the reaction.

  16. Attosecond dynamics of light-induced resonant hole transfer in high-order-harmonic generation (United States)

    You, Jhih-An; Dahlström, Jan Marcus; Rohringer, Nina


    We present a study of high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) assisted by extreme ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulses, which can lead to the excitation of inner-shell electrons and the generation of a second HHG plateau. With the treatment of a one-dimensional model of krypton, based on time-dependent configuration interaction singles (TDCIS) of an effective two-electron system, we show that the XUV-assisted HHG spectrum reveals the duration of the semiclassical electron trajectories. The results are interpreted by the strong-field approximation (SFA) and the importance of the hole transfer during the tunneling process is emphasized. Finally, coherent population transfer between the inner and outer holes with attosecond pulse trains is discussed.

  17. Attosecond science in atomic, molecular, and condensed matter physics. (United States)

    Leone, Stephen R; Neumark, Daniel M


    Attosecond science represents a new frontier in atomic, molecular, and condensed matter physics, enabling one to probe the exceedingly fast dynamics associated with purely electronic dynamics in a wide range of systems. This paper presents a brief discussion of the technology required to generate attosecond light pulses and gives representative examples of attosecond science carried out in several laboratories. Attosecond transient absorption, a very powerful method in attosecond science, is then reviewed and several examples of gas phase and condensed phase experiments that have been carried out in the Leone/Neumark laboratories are described.

  18. Attosecond Electron Correlation Dynamics in Double Ionization of Benzene Probed with Two-Electron Angular Streaking (United States)

    Winney, Alexander H.; Lee, Suk Kyoung; Lin, Yun Fei; Liao, Qing; Adhikari, Pradip; Basnayake, Gihan; Schlegel, H. Bernhard; Li, Wen


    With a novel three-dimensional electron-electron coincidence imaging technique and two-electron angular streaking method, we show that the emission time delay between two electrons can be measured from tens of attoseconds to more than 1 fs. Surprisingly, in benzene, the double ionization rate decays as the time delay between the first and second electron emission increases during the first 500 as. This is further supported by the decay of the Coulomb repulsion in the direction perpendicular to the laser polarization. This result reveals that laser-induced electron correlation plays a major role in strong field double ionization of benzene driven by a nearly circularly polarized field.

  19. Attosecond physics at the nanoscale

    CERN Document Server

    Ciappina, M F; Landsman, A S; Okell, W; Zherebtsov, S; Förg, B; Schötz, J; Seiffert, J L; Fennel, T; Shaaran, T; Zimmermann, T; Chacón, A; Guichard, R; Zaïr, A; Tisch, J W G; Marangos, J P; Witting, T; Braun, A; Maier, S A; Roso, L; Krüger, M; Hommelhoff, P; Kling, M F; Krausz, F; Lewenstein, M


    Recently two emerging areas of research, attosecond and nanoscale physics, have started to come together. Attosecond physics deals with phenomena occurring when ultrashort laser pulses, with duration on the femto- and sub-femtosecond time scales, interact with atoms, molecules or solids. The laser-induced electron dynamics occurs natively on a timescale down to a few hundred or even tens of attoseconds, which is comparable with the optical field. On the other hand, the second branch involves the manipulation and engineering of mesoscopic systems, such as solids, metals and dielectrics, with nanometric precision. Although nano-engineering is a vast and well-established research field on its own, the merger with intense laser physics is relatively recent. In this article we present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical overview of physics that takes place when short and intense laser pulses interact with nanosystems, such as metallic and dielectric nanostructures. In particular we elucidate how the spati...

  20. Acoustic absorption by the electron-hole liquid in germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.D.A.


    The absorption of ultrasonic acoustic waves by the electron-hole liquid that may be created in germanium at liquid helium temperatures by intense optical excitation was studied. This is a degenerate compensated Fermi liquid that exhibits the behavior of both classical dynamics in a force field, and quantum phenomena in a magnetic field. Results of theoretical and experimental studies of the interaction of the mobile liquid with a travelling acoustic wave force field, the attenuation of the wave due to energy-dissipative processes coupling the liquid to the crystal lattice, and the effect of a moderately strong magnetic field on the dynamic behavior of the system are presented. In unstrained germanium the electron-hole liquid (EHL) is known to be condensed into small droplets of radius approx. 5; the creation of an EHL energy well by the application of an inhomogeneous stress causes the liquid to be aggregated into a macroscopically large volume.

  1. Circularly polarized attosecond pulse generation and applications to ultrafast magnetism (United States)

    Bandrauk, André D.; Guo, Jing; Yuan, Kai-Jun


    Attosecond science is a growing new field of research and potential applications which relies on the development of attosecond light sources. Achievements in the generation and application of attosecond pulses enable to investigate electron dynamics in the nonlinear nonperturbative regime of laser-matter interactions on the electron’s natural time scale, the attosecond. In this review, we describe the generation of circularly polarized attosecond pulses and their applications to induce attosecond magnetic fields, new tools for ultrafast magnetism. Simulations are performed on aligned one-electron molecular ions by using nonperturbative nonlinear solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. We discuss how bichromatic circularly polarized laser pulses with co-rotating or counter-rotating components induce electron-parent ion recollisions, thus producing circularly polarized high-order harmonic generation, the source of circularly polarized attosecond pulses. Ultrafast quantum electron currents created by the generated attosecond pulses give rise to attosecond magnetic field pulses. The results provide a guiding principle for producing circularly polarized attosecond pulses and ultrafast magnetic fields in complex molecular systems for future research in ultrafast magneto-optics.

  2. EDITORIAL: Focus on Attosecond Physics (United States)

    Bandrauk, André D.; Krausz, Ferenc; Starace, Anthony F.


    Investigations of light-matter interactions and motion in the microcosm have entered a new temporal regime, the regime of attosecond physics. It is a main 'spin-off' of strong field (i.e., intense laser) physics, in which nonperturbative effects are fundamental. Attosecond pulses open up new avenues for time-domain studies of multi-electron dynamics in atoms, molecules, plasmas, and solids on their natural, quantum mechanical time scale and at dimensions shorter than molecular and even atomic scales. These capabilities promise a revolution in our microscopic knowledge and understanding of matter. The recent development of intense, phase-stabilized femtosecond (10-15 s) lasers has allowed unparalleled temporal control of electrons from ionizing atoms, permitting for the first time the generation and measurement of isolated light pulses as well as trains of pulses on the attosecond (1 as = 10-18 s) time scale, the natural time scale of the electron itself (e.g., the orbital period of an electron in the ground state of the H atom is 152 as). This development is facilitating (and even catalyzing) a new class of ultrashort time domain studies in photobiology, photochemistry, and photophysics. These new coherent, sub-fs pulses carried at frequencies in the extreme ultraviolet and soft-x-ray spectral regions, along with their intense, synchronized near-infrared driver waveforms and novel metrology based on sub-fs control of electron-light interactions, are spawning the new science of attosecond physics, whose aims are to monitor, to visualize, and, ultimately, to control electrons on their own time and spatial scales, i.e., the attosecond time scale and the sub-nanometre (Ångstrom) spatial scale typical of atoms and molecules. Additional goals for experiment are to advance the enabling technologies for producing attosecond pulses at higher intensities and shorter durations. According to theoretical predictions, novel methods for intense attosecond pulse generation may in

  3. Attosecond physics at the nanoscale. (United States)

    Ciappina, M F; Pérez-Hernández, J A; Landsman, A S; Okell, W A; Zherebtsov, S; Förg, B; Schötz, J; Seiffert, L; Fennel, T; Shaaran, T; Zimmermann, T; Chacón, A; Guichard, R; Zaïr, A; Tisch, J W G; Marangos, J P; Witting, T; Braun, A; Maier, S A; Roso, L; Krüger, M; Hommelhoff, P; Kling, M F; Krausz, F; Lewenstein, M


    Recently two emerging areas of research, attosecond and nanoscale physics, have started to come together. Attosecond physics deals with phenomena occurring when ultrashort laser pulses, with duration on the femto- and sub-femtosecond time scales, interact with atoms, molecules or solids. The laser-induced electron dynamics occurs natively on a timescale down to a few hundred or even tens of attoseconds (1 attosecond  =  1 as  =  10 -18 s), which is comparable with the optical field. For comparison, the revolution of an electron on a 1s orbital of a hydrogen atom is  ∼152 as. On the other hand, the second branch involves the manipulation and engineering of mesoscopic systems, such as solids, metals and dielectrics, with nanometric precision. Although nano-engineering is a vast and well-established research field on its own, the merger with intense laser physics is relatively recent. In this report on progress we present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical overview of physics that takes place when short and intense laser pulses interact with nanosystems, such as metallic and dielectric nanostructures. In particular we elucidate how the spatially inhomogeneous laser induced fields at a nanometer scale modify the laser-driven electron dynamics. Consequently, this has important impact on pivotal processes such as above-threshold ionization and high-order harmonic generation. The deep understanding of the coupled dynamics between these spatially inhomogeneous fields and matter configures a promising way to new avenues of research and applications. Thanks to the maturity that attosecond physics has reached, together with the tremendous advance in material engineering and manipulation techniques, the age of atto-nanophysics has begun, but it is in the initial stage. We present thus some of the open questions, challenges and prospects for experimental confirmation of theoretical predictions, as well as experiments aimed at characterizing the

  4. Attosecond electron-electron collision dynamics of the four-electron escape in Be close to threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Emmanouilidou, A


    We explore the escape geometry of four electrons a few eV above threshold following single-photon absorption from the ground state of Be. We find that the four electrons leave the atom on the vertices of a pyramid instead of a previously-predicted tetrahedron. To illustrate the physical mechanisms of quadruple ionization we use a momentum transferring attosecond collision scheme which we show to be in accord with the pyramid break-up pattern.

  5. Analysis and simulation of BGK electron holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Muschietti


    Full Text Available Recent observations from satellites crossing regions of magnetic-field-aligned electron streams reveal solitary potential structures that move at speeds much greater than the ion acoustic/thermal velocity. The structures appear as positive potential pulses rapidly drifting along the magnetic field, and are electrostatic in their rest frame. We interpret them as BGK electron holes supported by a drifting population of trapped electrons. Using Laplace transforms, we analyse the behavior of one phase-space electron hole. The resulting potential shapes and electron distribution functions are self-consistent and compatible with the field and particle data associated with the observed pulses. In particular, the spatial width increases with increasing amplitude. The stability of the analytic solution is tested by means of a two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation code with open boundaries. We consider a strongly magnetized parameter regime in which the bounce frequency of the trapped electrons is much less than their gyrofrequency. Our investigation includes the influence of the ions, which in the frame of the hole appear as an incident beam, and impinge on the BGK potential with considerable energy. The nonlinear structure is remarkably resilient

  6. Correlation-driven charge migration following double ionization and attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (United States)

    Hollstein, Maximilian; Santra, Robin; Pfannkuche, Daniela


    We theoretically investigate charge migration following prompt double ionization. Thereby, we extend the concept of correlation-driven charge migration, which was introduced by Cederbaum and coworkers for single ionization [Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 205 (1999), 10.1016/S0009-2614(99)00508-4], to doubly ionized molecules. This allows us to demonstrate that compared to singly ionized molecules, in multiply ionized molecules, electron dynamics originating from electronic relaxation and correlation are particularly prominent. In addition, we also discuss how these correlation-driven electron dynamics might be evidenced and traced experimentally using attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. For this purpose, we determine the time-resolved absorption cross section and find that the correlated electron dynamics discussed are reflected in it with exceptionally great detail. Strikingly, we find that features in the cross section can be traced back to electron hole populations and time-dependent partial charges and hence, can be interpreted with surprising ease. By taking advantage of element-specific core-to-valence transitions even atomic spatial resolution can be achieved. Thus, with the theoretical considerations presented, not only do we predict particularly diverse and correlated electron dynamics in molecules to follow prompt multiple ionization but we also identify a promising route towards their experimental investigation.

  7. Attosecond nonlinear optics using gigawatt-scale isolated attosecond pulses (United States)

    Takahashi, Eiji J.; Lan, Pengfei; Mücke, Oliver D.; Nabekawa, Yasuo; Midorikawa, Katsumi


    High-energy isolated attosecond pulses required for the most intriguing nonlinear attosecond experiments as well as for attosecond-pump/attosecond-probe spectroscopy are still lacking at present. Here we propose and demonstrate a robust generation method of intense isolated attosecond pulses, which enable us to perform a nonlinear attosecond optics experiment. By combining a two-colour field synthesis and an energy-scaling method of high-order harmonic generation, the maximum pulse energy of the isolated attosecond pulse reaches as high as 1.3 μJ. The generated pulse with a duration of 500 as, as characterized by a nonlinear autocorrelation measurement, is the shortest and highest-energy pulse ever with the ability to induce nonlinear phenomena. The peak power of our tabletop light source reaches 2.6 GW, which even surpasses that of an extreme-ultraviolet free-electron laser.

  8. Attosecond nonlinear optics using gigawatt-scale isolated attosecond pulses. (United States)

    Takahashi, Eiji J; Lan, Pengfei; Mücke, Oliver D; Nabekawa, Yasuo; Midorikawa, Katsumi


    High-energy isolated attosecond pulses required for the most intriguing nonlinear attosecond experiments as well as for attosecond-pump/attosecond-probe spectroscopy are still lacking at present. Here we propose and demonstrate a robust generation method of intense isolated attosecond pulses, which enable us to perform a nonlinear attosecond optics experiment. By combining a two-colour field synthesis and an energy-scaling method of high-order harmonic generation, the maximum pulse energy of the isolated attosecond pulse reaches as high as 1.3 μJ. The generated pulse with a duration of 500 as, as characterized by a nonlinear autocorrelation measurement, is the shortest and highest-energy pulse ever with the ability to induce nonlinear phenomena. The peak power of our tabletop light source reaches 2.6 GW, which even surpasses that of an extreme-ultraviolet free-electron laser.

  9. Imaging attosecond electron wavepackets around the ionization threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swoboda, Marko; Remetter, Thomas; Mauritsson, Johan; L' Huillier, Anne [Dept. of Physics, Lund University (Sweden); Schafer, Kenneth J. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, Louisiana (United States); Kelkensberg, Freek; Siu, Wing-Kiu; Johnsson, Per; Vrakking, Marc J.J. [AMOLF Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kling, Matthias F.; Znakovskaya, Irina; Uphues, Thorsten; Zherebtsov, Sergey [MPI fuer Quantenoptik, Garching (Germany); Lepine, Franck [Univ. Lyon 1, CNRS, LASIM, UMR, Villeurbanne (France); Benedetti, Enrico; Ferrari, Federico; Sansone, Giuseppe; Nisoli, Mauro [CUSBO, ULTRAS-INFM, Politecnico, Milano (Italy)


    We image the momentum distributions of attosecond electron wavepackets generated from the ionization of Helium by attosecond XUV pulses. Using an infrared probing field, the evolution of these wavepackets can be captured in time and space. Tuning the central frequency of the pulses allows us to initiate a number of processes that originate from the interplay of partially bound and continuum wavepackets or returning electrons and the atomic potential. Using this attosecond pump-probe scheme, we can track electron dynamics around the ionization barrier, performing interferometric measurements of different ionization pathways.

  10. Plasma electron-hole kinematics: momentum conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Hutchinson, I H


    We analyse the kinematic properties of a plasma electron hole: a non-linear self-sustained localized positive electric potential perturbation, trapping electrons, that behaves as a coherent entity. When a hole accelerates or grows in depth, ion and electron plasma momentum is changed both within the hole and outside it, by an energization process we call jetting. We present a comprehensive analytic calculation of the momentum changes of an isolated general one-dimensional hole. The conservation of the total momentum gives the hole's kinematics, determining its velocity evolution. Our results explain many features of the behavior of hole speed observed in numerical simulations, including self-acceleration at formation, and hole pushing and trapping by ion streams.

  11. Plasma electron hole oscillatory velocity instability (United States)

    Zhou, Chuteng; Hutchinson, Ian H.


    In this paper, we report a new type of instability of electron holes (EHs) interacting with passing ions. The nonlinear interaction of EHs and ions is investigated using a new theory of hole kinematics. It is shown that the oscillation in the velocity of the EH parallel to the magnetic field direction becomes unstable when the hole velocity in the ion frame is slower than a few times the cold ion sound speed. This instability leads to the emission of ion-acoustic waves from the solitary hole and decay in its magnitude. The instability mechanism can drive significant perturbations in the ion density. The instability threshold, oscillation frequency and instability growth rate derived from the theory yield quantitative agreement with the observations from a novel high-fidelity hole-tracking particle-in-cell code.

  12. Connecting Lab-Based Attosecond Science with FEL research

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    In the last few years laboratory-scale femtosecond laser-based research using XUV light has developed dramatically following the successful development of attosecond laser pulses by means of high-harmonic generation. Using attosecond laser pulses, studies of electron dynamics on the natural timescale that electronic processes occur in atoms, molecules and solids can be contemplated, providing unprecedented insight into the fundamental role that electrons play in photo-induced processes. In my talk I will briefly review the present status of the attosecond science research field in terms of present and foreseen capabilities, and discuss a few recent applications, including a first example of the use of attosecond laser pulses in molecular science. In addition, I will discuss very recent results of experiments where photoionization of dynamically aligned molecules is investigated using a high-harmonics XUV source. Photoionization of aligned molecules becomes all the more interesting if the experiment is perfo...

  13. Attosecond pump-probe electron interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Mauritsson, J; Swoboda, M; Klunder, K; L'Huillier, A; Schafer, K J; Ghafur, O; Kelkensberg, F; Siu, W; Johnsson, P; Vrakking, M J J; Znakovskaya, I; Uphues, T; Zherebtsov, S; Kling, M F; Lepine, F; Benedetti, E; Ferrari, F; Sansone, G; Nisoli, M


    Attosecond science has as its goal the measurement and ultimately the control of electron dynamics on its natural time scale, the atomic unit of time, which is 24 attoseconds. The short pulses required to reach this time scale imply large bandwidths, leading to the excitation not of a single state but of a broad and coherent superposition of states, i.e., a wave packet. In this paper we present a novel interferometric method that uses a free wave packet as a reference to measure a bound wave packet. The resulting interferogram contains both quantum beats as well as multi-path interference and provides precise and state-specific time-resolved amplitude and phase information about the bound electron wave packet. We demonstrate our method experimentally by measuring a bound attosecond wave packet in helium, prepared using an isolated 350 attosecond pulse with a central energy in the vicinity of the ionization threshold. In addition we show that our approach can also be applied to bound wave packets irrespective ...

  14. Characterization and Application of Isolated Attosecond Pulses (United States)

    Wei, Hui

    Isolated attosecond pulse (IAP) is a tool of probing electronic dynamics occurring in atoms, molecules, clusters and solids, since the time scale of electronic motion is on the order of attoseconds. The generation, characterization and applications of IAPs has become one of the fast frontiers of laser experiments. This dissertation focuses on several aspects of attosecond physics. First, we study the driving wavelength scaling of the yield of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) by applying the quantum orbit theory. The unfavorable scaling law especially for the short quantum orbit is of great importance to attoseond pulse generation toward hundreds of eVs or keV photon energy region by mid-infrared (mid-IR) lasers. Second, we investigate the accuracy of the current frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts (FROG-CRAB) and phase retrieval by omega oscillation filtering (PROOF) methods for IAP characterization by simulating the experimental data by theoretical calculation. This calibration is critical but has not been carefully carried out before. We also present an improved method, namely the swPROOF which is more universal and robust than the original PROOF method. Third, we investigate the controversial topic of photoionization time delay. We find the limitation of the FROG-CRAB method which has been used to extract the photoionization time delay between the 2s and 2p channels in neon. The time delay retrieval is sensitive to the attochirp of the XUV pulse, which may lead to discrepancies between experiment and theory. A new fitting method is proposed in order to overcome the limitations of FROG-CRAB. Finally, IAPs are used to probe the dynamic of electron correlation in helium atom by means of attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. The agreement between the measurement and our analytical model verifies the observation of time-dependent build up of the 2s2p Fano resonance.

  15. Plasma phase transition in hydrogen and electron-hole plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filinov, V.; Levashov, P.; Fortov, V. [Institute for High Energy Density, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskay 13/19, Moscow 127412 (Russian Federation); Bonitz, M. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Ebeling, W. [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet Berlin Invalidenstrasse 110, D-10115 Berlin (Germany); Schlanges, M. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Greifswald, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany)


    The plasma phase transition in dense hydrogen and in electron-hole plasmas is investigated by direct path integral Monte Carlo simulations. Hydrogen results for the internal energy at T=10,000 K show a deep minimum and strong fluctuations around the density n=10{sup 23} cm{sup -3} indicating the existence of a phase transition. To verify this explanation, the analogous phenomenon is studied for an electron-hole plasma in Germanium. The calculated phase boundary of the electron-hole liquid is found to agree reasonably well with the available experimental data. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. An Attosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy Setup with a Water Window Attosecond source (United States)

    Chew, Andrew; Yin, Yanchun; Li, Jie; Ren, Xiaoming; Wang, Yang; Wu, Yi; Chang, Zenghu


    Attosecond transient absorption, or time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy, are excellent tools that can be used to investigate fast electron dynamics for a given atomic or molecular system. Recent push for high energy long wavelength few cycle laser sources has resulted in the production of x-ray spectra that would allow the probing of electron dynamics at the carbon k-edge in molecules such as CH4 and CO2. The motion of charges can be caused by photo-dissociation and charge migration. We present here the first results from our experimental setup where we produce a broadband attosecond pulse with spectra that stretches into the water window. National Science Foundation (1068604), Army Research Oce (W911NF-14-1-0383), Air Force Oce of Scientic Research (FA9550-15-1-0037, FA9550-16-1-0013) and the DARPA PULSE program by a Grant from AMRDEC (W31P4Q1310017).

  17. Attosecond photoelectron spectroscopy of electron transport in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magerl, Elisabeth


    Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of condensed matter systems in the attosecond regime promises new insights into excitation mechanisms and transient dynamics of electrons in solids. This timescale became accessible directly only recently with the development of the attosecond streak camera and of laser systems providing few-cycle, phase-controlled laser pulses in the near-infrared, which are used to generate isolated, sub-femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet pulses with a well-defined timing with respect to the near-infrared pulse. Employing these pulses, the attosecond streak camera offers time resolutions as short as a few 10 attoseconds. In the framework of this thesis, a new, versatile experimental apparatus combining attosecond pulse generation in gases with state of the art surface science techniques is designed, constructed, and commissioned. Employing this novel infrastructure and the technique of the attosecond transient recorder, we investigate transport phenomena occurring after photoexcitation of electrons in tungsten and rhenium single crystals and show that attosecond streaking is a unique method for resolving extremely fast electronic phenomena in solids. It is demonstrated that electrons originating from different energy levels, i.e. from the conduction band and the 4f core level, are emitted from the crystal surface at different times. The origin of this time delay, which is below 150 attoseconds for all studied systems, is investigated by a systematic variation of several experimental parameters, in particular the photon energy of the employed attosecond pulses. These experimental studies are complemented by theoretical studies of the group velocity of highly-excited electrons based on ab initio calculations. While the streaking technique applied on single crystals can provide only information about the relative time delay between two types of photoelectrons, the absolute transport time remains inaccessible. We introduce a scheme of a reference

  18. Attosecond experiments on plasmonic nanostructures principles and experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Schötz, Johannes


    Johannes Schötz presents the first measurements of optical electro-magnetic near-fields around nanostructures with subcycle-resolution. The ability to measure and understand light-matter interactions on the nanoscale is an important component for the development of light-wave-electronics, the control and steering of electron dynamics with the frequency of light, which promises a speed-up by several orders of magnitude compared to conventional electronics. The experiments presented here on metallic nanotips, widely used in experiments and applications, do not only demonstrate the feasibility of attosecond streaking as a unique tool for fundamental studies of ultrafast nanophotonics but also represent a first important step towards this goal. Contents Electron Scattering in Solids Attosecond Streaking from Metal Nanotips Target Groups Lecturers and students of physics, especially in the area of nanophotonics and attosecond physics About the Author Johannes Schötz received his Master's degree in physics and cu...

  19. Decoherence in attosecond photoionization. (United States)

    Pabst, Stefan; Greenman, Loren; Ho, Phay J; Mazziotti, David A; Santra, Robin


    The creation of superpositions of hole states via single-photon ionization using attosecond extreme-ultraviolet pulses is studied with the time-dependent configuration-interaction singles (TDCIS) method. Specifically, the degree of coherence between hole states in atomic xenon is investigated. We find that interchannel coupling not only affects the hole populations, but it also enhances the entanglement between the photoelectron and the remaining ion, thereby reducing the coherence within the ion. As a consequence, even if the spectral bandwidth of the ionizing pulse exceeds the energy splittings among the hole states involved, perfectly coherent hole wave packets cannot be formed. For sufficiently large spectral bandwidth, the coherence can only be increased by increasing the mean photon energy.

  20. Theory of attosecond absorption spectroscopy in krypton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Jan Conrad; Lindroth, Eva; Madsen, Lars Bojer


    A theory for time-domain attosecond pump–attosecond probe photoabsorption spectroscopy is formulated and related to the atomic response. The theory is illustrated through a study of attosecond absorption spectroscopy in krypton. The atomic parameters entering the formulation such as energies...

  1. Attomicroscopy: from femtosecond to attosecond electron microscopy (United States)

    Hassan, Mohammed Th


    In the last decade, the development of ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and microscopy (UEM) have enabled the imaging of atomic motion in real time and space. These pivotal table-top tools opened the door for a vast range of applications in different areas of science spanning chemistry, physics, materials science, and biology. We first discuss the basic principles and recent advancements, including some of the important applications, of both UED and UEM. Then, we discuss the recent advances in the field that have enhanced the spatial and temporal resolutions, where the latter, is however, still limited to a few hundreds of femtoseconds, preventing the imaging of ultrafast dynamics of matter lasting few tens of femtoseconds. Then, we present our new optical gating approach for generating an isolated 30 fs electron pulse with sufficient intensity to attain a temporal resolution on the same time scale. This achievement allows, for the first time, imaging the electron dynamics of matter. Finally, we demonstrate the feasibility of the optical gating approach to generate an isolated attosecond electron pulse, utilizing our recently demonstrated optical attosecond laser pulse, which paves the way for establishing the field of ‘Attomicroscopy’, ultimately enabling us to image the electron motion in action.

  2. Desorption by Femtosecond Laser Pulses : An Electron-Hole Effect?


    D. M., NEWNS; T. F., HEINZ; J. A., MISEWICH; IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center; IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center; IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center


    Desorption of molecules from metal surfaces induced by femtosecond visible laser pulses has been reported. Since the lattice temperature rise is insufficient to explain desorption, an electronic mechanism is clearly responsible. It is shown that a theory based on direct coupling between the center-of-mass degree of freedom of the adsorbate and the electron-hole excitations of the substrate provides a satisfactory explanation of the various experimental findings.

  3. Single 100-terawatt attosecond X-ray light pulse generation

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, X R; Zhang, Y X; Lu, H Y; Zhang, H; Dromey, B; Zhu, S P; Zhou, C T; Zepf, M; He, X T


    The birth of attosecond light sources is expected to inspire a breakthrough in ultrafast optics, which may extend human real-time measurement and control techniques into atomic-scale electronic dynamics. For applications, it is essential to obtain a single attosecond pulse of high intensity, large photon energy and short duration. Here we show that single 100-terawatt attosecond X-ray light pulse with intensity ${1\\times10^{21}}\\textrm{W}/\\textrm{cm}^{{ 2}}$ and duration ${7.9} \\textrm{as}$ can be produced by intense laser irradiation on a capacitor-nanofoil target composed of two separate nanofoils. In the interaction, a strong electrostatic potential develops between two nanofoils, which drags electrons out of the second foil and piles them up in vacuum, forming an ultradense relativistic electron nanobunch. This nanobunch exists in only half a laser cycle and smears out in others, resulting in coherent synchrotron emission of a single pulse. Such an unprecedentedly giant attosecond X-ray pulse may bring us...

  4. Next Generation Driver for Attosecond and Laser-plasma Physics. (United States)

    Rivas, D E; Borot, A; Cardenas, D E; Marcus, G; Gu, X; Herrmann, D; Xu, J; Tan, J; Kormin, D; Ma, G; Dallari, W; Tsakiris, G D; Földes, I B; Chou, S-W; Weidman, M; Bergues, B; Wittmann, T; Schröder, H; Tzallas, P; Charalambidis, D; Razskazovskaya, O; Pervak, V; Krausz, F; Veisz, L


    The observation and manipulation of electron dynamics in matter call for attosecond light pulses, routinely available from high-order harmonic generation driven by few-femtosecond lasers. However, the energy limitation of these lasers supports only weak sources and correspondingly linear attosecond studies. Here we report on an optical parametric synthesizer designed for nonlinear attosecond optics and relativistic laser-plasma physics. This synthesizer uniquely combines ultra-relativistic focused intensities of about 1020 W/cm2 with a pulse duration of sub-two carrier-wave cycles. The coherent combination of two sequentially amplified and complementary spectral ranges yields sub-5-fs pulses with multi-TW peak power. The application of this source allows the generation of a broad spectral continuum at 100-eV photon energy in gases as well as high-order harmonics in relativistic plasmas. Unprecedented spatio-temporal confinement of light now permits the investigation of electric-field-driven electron phenomena in the relativistic regime and ultimately the rise of next-generation intense isolated attosecond sources.

  5. Attosecond light sources in the water window (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoming; Li, Jie; Yin, Yanchun; Zhao, Kun; Chew, Andrew; Wang, Yang; Hu, Shuyuan; Cheng, Yan; Cunningham, Eric; Wu, Yi; Chini, Michael; Chang, Zenghu


    As a compact and burgeoning alternative to synchrotron radiation and free-electron lasers, high harmonic generation (HHG) has proven its superiority in static and time-resolved extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy for the past two decades and has recently gained many interests and successes in generating soft x-ray emissions covering the biologically important water window spectral region. Unlike synchrotron and free-electron sources, which suffer from relatively long pulse width or large time jitter, soft x-ray sources from HHG could offer attosecond time resolution and be synchronized with their driving field to investigate time-resolved near edge absorption spectroscopy, which could reveal rich structural and dynamical information of the interrogated samples. In this paper, we review recent progresses on generating and characterizing attosecond light sources in the water window region. We show our development of an energetic, two-cycle, carrier-envelope phase stable laser source at 1.7 μm and our achievement in producing a 53 as soft x-ray pulse covering the carbon K-edge in the water window. Such source paves the ways for the next generation x-ray spectroscopy with unprecedented temporal resolution.

  6. Generation and Characterization of Attosecond Pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian A. Walmsley; Robert W. Boyd


    The research undertaken in this project has been directed toward the area of attoscience, in particular the problem of attosecond metrology. That is, the accurate determination of the electric field of attosecond XUV radiation. This outstanding problem has been identified as a critical technology for further development of the field, and our research adds to the area by providing the first method for characterization using the harmonic radiation itself as a tool. The technical effectiveness of this approach is very high, since it is vastly easier to detect XUV radiation directly than via the spectrum of photoelectrons liberated from atoms by it. This means that the experimental data rate can be much higher in principle using all-optical detection that electron detection, which will greatly aid the utility of harmonic XUV sources in attoscience applications. There are as yet no direct public benefits from this area of scientific research, though access to material structural dynamics on unprecedented brief timescales are expected to yield significant benefits for the future.

  7. Structures of quantum 2D electron-hole plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filinov, V S; Levashov, P R; Fortov, V E [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaya 13 bldg 2, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Bonitz, M [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Leibnizstrasse 15, 24098 Kiel (Germany); Fehske, H [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str 6, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany)


    We investigate structures of 2D quantum electron-hole (e-h) plasmas by the direct path integral Monte Carlo method (PIMC) in a wide range of temperature, density and hole-to-electron mass ratio. Our simulation includes a region of appearance and decay of the bound states (excitons and biexcitons), the Mott transition from the neutral e-h plasma to metallic-like clusters, formation from clusters of the hexatic-like liquid and formation of the crystal-like lattice.

  8. Structures of quantum 2D electron-hole plasmas


    Filinov, V. S.; Bonitz, M.; Fehske, H.; Levashov, P. R.; Fortov, V. E.


    We investigate structures of 2D quantum electron-hole (e-h) plasmas by the direct path integral Monte Carlo method (PIMC) in a wide range of temperature, density and hole-to-electron mass ratio. Our simulation includes a region of appearance and decay of the bound states (excitons and biexcitons), the Mott transition from the neutral e-h plasma to metallic-like clusters, formation from clusters the hexatic-like liquid and formation of the crystal-like lattice.

  9. Electron holes observed in the Moon Plasma Wake (United States)

    Hutchinson, I. H.; Malaspina, D.; Zhou, C.


    Electrostatic instabilities are predicted in the magnetized wake of plasma flowing past a non-magnetic absorbing object such as a probe or the moon. Analysis of the data from the Artemis satellites, now orbiting the moon at distances ten moon radii and less, shows very clear evidence of fast-moving isolated solitary potential structures causing bipolar electric field excursions as they pass the satellite's probes. These structures have all the hallmarks of electron holes: BGK solitons typically a few Debye-lengths in size, self-sustaining by a deficit of phase-space density on trapped orbits. Electron holes are now observed to be widespread in space plasmas. They have been observed in PIC simulations of the moon wake to be the non-linear consequence of the predicted electron instabilities. Simulations document hole prevalence, speed, length, and depth; and theory can explain many of these features from kinetic analysis. The solar wind wake is certainly the cause of the overwhelming majority of the holes observed by Artemis, because we observe almost all holes to be in or very near to the wake. We compare theory and simulation of the hole generation, lifetime, and transport mechanisms with observations. Work partially supported by NASA Grant NNX16AG82G.

  10. Density variation in the electron-hole liquid in stressed germanium and silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelso, S.M.


    A detailed study is presented of the variation in electron-hole pair density in the electron-hole liquid (EHL) in stressed Ge and Si. First, the variation of the density and other properties of the EHL is studied theoretically as a function of uniaxial stress in both Ge and Si. Second, the variation of the density with position is studied both theoretically and experimentally in the strain-confined electron-hole liquid (SCEHL) in Ge.

  11. Using the focal phase to control attosecond processes (United States)

    Hoff, Dominik; Krüger, Michael; Maisenbacher, Lothar; Paulus, Gerhard G.; Hommelhoff, Peter; Sayler, A. M.


    The spatial evolution of the electric field of focused broadband light is crucial for many emerging attosecond technologies. Here the effects of the input beam parameters on the evolution of few-cycle laser pulses in the focus are discussed. Specifically, we detail how the frequency-dependent input beam geometry, chirp and chromatic aberration can affect the spatial dependence of the carrier-envelope phase (CEP), central frequency and pulse duration in the focus. These effects are confirmed by a direct, three-dimensional measurement of the CEP-evolution in the focus of a typical few-cycle pulse laser using electron rescattering at metal nanotips in combination with a CEP-metre. Moreover, we demonstrate a simple measurement technique to estimate the focal CEP evolution by input-beam parameters. These parameters can be used in novel ways in order to control attosecond dynamics and tailor highly nonlinear light–matter interactions.

  12. Probing electronic binding potentials with attosecond photoelectron wavepackets (United States)

    Kiesewetter, D.; Jones, R. R.; Camper, A.; Schoun, S. B.; Agostini, P.; Dimauro, L. F.


    The central goal of attosecond science is to visualize, understand and ultimately control electron dynamics in matter over the fastest relevant timescales. To date, numerous schemes have demonstrated exquisite temporal resolution, on the order of ten attoseconds, in measurements of the response of photo-excited electrons to time-delayed probes. However, attributing this response to specific dynamical mechanisms is difficult, requiring guidance from advanced calculations. Here we show that energy transfer between an oscillating field and low-energy attosecond photoelectron wavepackets directly provides coarse-grained information on the effective binding potential from which the electrons are liberated. We employ a dense extreme ultraviolet (XUV) harmonic comb to photoionize He, Ne and Ar atoms and record the electron spectra as a function of the phase of a mid-infrared dressing field. The amplitude and phase of the resulting interference modulations in the electron spectra reveal the average momentum and change in momentum of the electron wavepackets during the first quarter-period of the dressing field after their creation, reflecting the corresponding coarse characteristics of the binding potential.

  13. Attosecond physics at the nanoscale

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ciappina, Marcelo F.; Perez-Hernandez, J.A.; Landsman, A.S.; Okell, W.A.; Zherebtsov, S.; Foerg, B.; Schoetz, J.; Seiffert, L.; Fennel, T.; Shaaran, T.; Zimmermann, T.; Chacon, A.; Guichard, R.; Zair, A.; Tisch, J.W.G.; Marangos, J.P.; Witting, T.; Braun, A.; Maier, S. A.; Roso, L.; Krueger, M.; Hommelhoff, P.; Kling, M.F.; Krausz, F.; Lewenstein, M.


    Roč. 80, č. 5 (2017), 1-50, č. článku 054401. ISSN 0034-4885 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA MŠk LQ1606 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : attosecond physics * plasmonic fields * strong field physics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 14.311, year: 2016

  14. Attosecond beamline with actively stabilized and spatially separated beam paths. (United States)

    Huppert, M; Jordan, I; Wörner, H J


    We describe a versatile and compact beamline for attosecond spectroscopy. The setup consists of a high-order harmonic source followed by a delay line that spatially separates and then recombines the extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) and residual infrared (IR) pulses. The beamline introduces a controlled and actively stabilized delay between the XUV and IR pulses on the attosecond time scale. A new active-stabilization scheme combining a helium-neon-laser and a white-light interferometer minimizes fluctuations and allows to control delays accurately (26 as rms during 1.5 h) over long time scales. The high-order-harmonic-generation region is imaged via optical systems, independently for XUV and IR, into an interaction volume to perform pump-probe experiments. As a consequence of the spatial separation, the pulses can be independently manipulated in intensity, polarization, and frequency content. The beamline can be combined with a variety of detectors for measuring attosecond dynamics in gases, liquids, and solids.

  15. Exciton formation and dissociation in mass-asymmetric electron-hole plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehske, H [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald, Domstrasse 10a, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Filinov, V [Institute for High Energy Density, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskay 13/19, Moscow 127412 (Russian Federation); Bonitz, M [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Lehrstuhl Statistische Physik, Leibnizstrasse 15, 24098 Kiel (Germany); Fortov, V [Institute for High Energy Density, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskay 13/19, Moscow 127412 (Russian Federation); Levashov, P [Institute for High Energy Density, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskay 13/19, Moscow 127412 (Russian Federation)


    First-principle path integral Monte Carlo simulations were performed in order to analyze correlation effects in complex electron-hole plasmas, particularly with regard to the appearance of excitonic bound states. Results are discussed in relation to exciton formation in unconventional semiconductors with large electron hole mass asymmetry.

  16. Attosecond control of optical waveforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuji, Takao [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Rauschenberger, Jens [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Gohle, Christoph [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Apolonski, Alexander [Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Russian Academy of Science, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia (Russian Federation); Udem, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Yakovlev, Vladislav S [Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Tempea, Gabriel [Femtolasers Produktions GmbH, Fernkorngasse 10, A-1100 Vienna (Austria); Haensch, Theodor W [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Krausz, Ferenc [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Institut fuer Photonik, Technische Universitaet Wien, Gusshausstrasse 27/387, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)


    A new, monolithic scheme for stabilizing the phase between the carrier wave and the envelope (CE phase) in a train of few-cycle laser pulses is demonstrated. Self-phase modulation and second-harmonic generation or difference-frequency generation in a single periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, that transmits the main laser beam, allows for the CE-phase locking directly in the usable output. The monolithic scheme obviates the need for splitting off a fraction of the laser output for CE-phase control, coupling into microstructured fibre, as well as separation and recombination of spectral components. As a result, the CE-phase error integrated over the spectral range of 0.2 mHz-35 MHz is as small as 0.016 x 2{pi} rad. This implies that the phase of the field oscillations ({lambda} {approx} 830 nm) with respect to the pulse peak is locked to within 44 attoseconds, resulting in optical waveform control with subhundred attosecond fidelity for the first time.

  17. Non-linear Plasma Wake Growth of Electron Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hutchinson, I H; Zhou, C


    An object's wake in a plasma with small Debye length that drifts \\emph{across} the magnetic field is subject to electrostatic electron instabilities. Such situations include, for example, the moon in the solar wind wake and probes in magnetized laboratory plasmas. The instability drive mechanism can equivalently be considered drift down the potential-energy gradient or drift up the density-gradient. The gradients arise because the plasma wake has a region of depressed density and electrostatic potential into which ions are attracted along the field. The non-linear consequences of the instability are analysed in this paper. At physical ratios of electron to ion mass, neither linear nor quasilinear treatment can explain the observation of large-amplitude perturbations that disrupt the ion streams well before they become ion-ion unstable. We show here, however, that electron holes, once formed, continue to grow, driven by the drift mechanism, and if they remain in the wake may reach a maximum non-linearly stable...

  18. Diffusive scattering of electrons by electron holes around injection fronts (United States)

    Vasko, I. Y.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F. S.; Artemyev, A. V.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.; Bonnell, J. W.


    Van Allen Probes have detected nonlinear electrostatic spikes around injection fronts in the outer radiation belt. These spikes include electron holes (EH), double layers, and more complicated solitary waves. We show that EHs can efficiently scatter electrons due to their substantial transverse electric fields. Although the electron scattering driven by EHs is diffusive, it cannot be evaluated via the standard quasi-linear theory. We derive analytical formulas describing local electron scattering by a single EH and verify them via test particle simulations. We show that the most efficiently scattered are gyroresonant electrons (crossing EH on a time scale comparable to the local electron gyroperiod). We compute bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients and demonstrate their dependence on the EH spatial distribution (latitudinal extent and spatial filling factor) and individual EH parameters (amplitude of electrostatic potential, velocity, and spatial scales). We show that EHs can drive pitch angle scattering of ≲5 keV electrons at rates 10-2-10-4 s-1 and, hence, can contribute to electron losses and conjugated diffuse aurora brightenings. The momentum and pitch angle scattering rates can be comparable, so that EHs can also provide efficient electron heating. The scattering rates driven by EHs at L shells L ˜ 5-8 are comparable to those due to chorus waves and may exceed those due to electron cyclotron harmonics.

  19. Crystallization in mass-asymmetric electron-hole bilayers (United States)

    Ludwig, P.; Filinov, A.; Bonitz, M.; Stolz, H.; Lozovik, Yu. E.


    We analyze hole crystallization [1] in an electron-hole bilayer system and specifically study the effect of the hole to electron mass ratio M. Varying M between 1 and 100 at a fixed layer separation at low temperature and high density, we demonstrate that the hole behavior can be tuned from delocalized (liquid-like) to localized (crystal-like), while the electrons remain delocalized all the time. As was recently demonstrated [1] in bulk systems holes undergo a crystallization transition if M exceeds a critical value of 83. Here we extend this analysis to bilayer systems and demonstrate that the critical mass ratio can be drastically reduced by properly choosing the layer separation. The complicated interplay between Coulomb correlations and quantum effects of electrons and holes is fully taken into account by performing first principle path integral Monte Carlo simulations. [1] M. Bonitz, V.S. Filinov, V.E. Fortov, P.R. Levashov, and H. Fehske, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235006 (2005) and J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39, 4717 (2006); Phys. Rev. Focus, December 2 2005 [2] P. Ludwig, A. Filinov, Yu. Lozovik, H. Stolz, and M. Bonitz, Contrib. Plasma Phys. (2007)

  20. Time-resolved photoemission using attosecond streaking (United States)

    Nagele, S.; Pazourek, R.; Wais, M.; Wachter, G.; Burgdörfer, J.


    We theoretically study time-resolved photoemission in atoms as probed by attosecond streaking. We review recent advances in the study of the photoelectric efect in the time domain and show that the experimentally accessible time shifts can be decomposed into distinct contributions that stem from the feld-free photoionization process itself and from probe-field induced corrections. We perform accurate quantum-mechanical as well as classical simulations of attosecond streaking for efective one-electron systems and determine all relevant contributions to the time delay with attosecond precision. In particular, we investigate the properties and limitations of attosecond streaking for the transition from short-ranged potentials (photodetachment) to long-ranged Coulomb potentials (photoionization). As an example for a more complex system, we study time-resolved photoionization for endohedral fullerenes A@C60 and discuss how streaking time shifts are modifed due to the interaction of the C60 cage with the probing infrared streaking field.

  1. Energy Dissipation during Diffusion at Metal Surfaces: Disentangling the Role of Phonons versus Electron-Hole Pairs (United States)

    Rittmeyer, Simon P.; Ward, David J.; Gütlein, Patrick; Ellis, John; Allison, William; Reuter, Karsten


    Helium spin echo experiments combined with ab initio based Langevin molecular dynamics simulations are used to quantify the adsorbate-substrate coupling during the thermal diffusion of Na atoms on Cu(111). An analysis of trajectories within the local density friction approximation allows the contribution from electron-hole pair excitations to be separated from the total energy dissipation. Despite the minimal electronic friction coefficient of Na and the relatively small mass mismatch to Cu promoting efficient phononic dissipation, about (20 ±5 )% of the total energy loss is attributable to electronic friction. The results suggest a significant role of electronic nonadiabaticity in the rapid thermalization generally relied upon in adiabatic diffusion theories.

  2. Energy-conserving numerical simulations of electron holes in two-species plasmas (United States)

    Cheng, Yingda; Christlieb, Andrew J.; Zhong, Xinghui


    In this paper, we apply our recently developed energy-conserving discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for the two-species Vlasov-Ampère system to simulate the evolution of electron holes (EHs). The EH is an important Bernstein-Greene-Kurskal (BGK) state and is constructed based on the Schamel distribution in our simulation.Even though the knowledge of steady state EHs has advanced significantly, little is known about the full dynamics of EHs that nonlinearly interact with ions in plasmas. In this paper, we simulate the full dynamics of EHs with DG finite element methods, coupled with explicit and implicit time integrators. Our methods are demonstrated to be conservative in the total energy and particle numbers for both species. By varying the mass and temperature ratios, we observe the stationary and moving EHs, as well as the break up of EHs at later times upon initial perturbation of the electron distribution. In addition, we perform a detailed numerical study for the BGK states for the nonlinear evolutions of EH simulations. Our simulation results should help to understand the dynamics of large amplitude EHs that nonlinearly interact with ions in space and laboratory plasmas.

  3. Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers. (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Chang; Mancuso, Christopher; Hernández-García, Carlos; Dollar, Franklin; Galloway, Ben; Popmintchev, Dimitar; Huang, Pei-Chi; Walker, Barry; Plaja, Luis; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A; Becker, Andreas; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C; Popmintchev, Tenio


    High harmonic generation driven by femtosecond lasers makes it possible to capture the fastest dynamics in molecules and materials. However, to date the shortest subfemtosecond (attosecond, 10(-18) s) pulses have been produced only in the extreme UV region of the spectrum below 100 eV, which limits the range of materials and molecular systems that can be explored. Here we experimentally demonstrate a remarkable convergence of physics: when midinfrared lasers are used to drive high harmonic generation, the conditions for optimal bright, soft X-ray generation naturally coincide with the generation of isolated attosecond pulses. The temporal window over which phase matching occurs shrinks rapidly with increasing driving laser wavelength, to the extent that bright isolated attosecond pulses are the norm for 2-µm driving lasers. Harnessing this realization, we experimentally demonstrate the generation of isolated soft X-ray attosecond pulses at photon energies up to 180 eV for the first time, to our knowledge, with a transform limit of 35 attoseconds (as), and a predicted linear chirp of 300 as. Most surprisingly, advanced theory shows that in contrast with as pulse generation in the extreme UV, long-duration, 10-cycle, driving laser pulses are required to generate isolated soft X-ray bursts efficiently, to mitigate group velocity walk-off between the laser and the X-ray fields that otherwise limit the conversion efficiency. Our work demonstrates a clear and straightforward approach for robustly generating bright isolated attosecond pulses of electromagnetic radiation throughout the soft X-ray region of the spectrum.

  4. Electron-hole exchange blockade and memory-less recombination in photoexcited films of colloidal quantum dots (United States)

    Fidler, Andrew F.; Gao, Jianbo; Klimov, Victor I.


    Understanding charge transport and recombination dynamics in photoexcited colloidal quantum dot (QD) solids is key to their applications in optoelectronic devices. Towards this end, we conduct transient photocurrent studies of films of electronically coupled, device-grade PbSe QD films. We observe that the photocurrent amplitude detected following excitation with a short 100 fs pulse is virtually temperature independent down to 6 K, suggesting a tunnelling mechanism of early-time photoconductance. The later-time signal exhibits clear signatures of thermal activation with characteristic energies that are surprisingly robust and independent of the exact type of QD surface treatment. We attribute this behaviour to the involvement of intrinsic fine-structure states and specifically the electron-hole exchange interaction, which creates an energetic barrier to electron-hole separation between adjacent QDs. At room temperature, which is well above the largest activation energy, relaxation of photoconductivity is dominated by non-geminate recombination involving mobile band-edge carriers of one sign and low-mobility carriers of the opposite sign (pre-existing and photoexcited) residing in intragap states. This process leads to memory-less dynamics when the photocurrent relaxation time is directly linked to the instantaneous carrier density.

  5. Macroscopic effects in attosecond pulse generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruchon, T; Varju, K; Mansten, E; Swoboda, M; L' Huillier, A [Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Hauri, C P; Lopez-Martens, R [Laboratoire d' Optique Appliquee, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees (ENSTA)-Ecole Polytechnique CNRS UMR 7639, 91761 Palaiseau (France)], E-mail:


    We examine how the generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in a partly ionized gas medium affect their strength and synchronization. The temporal properties of the resulting attosecond pulses generated in long gas targets can be significantly influenced by macroscopic effects, in particular by the intensity in the medium and the degree of ionization which control the dispersion. Under some conditions, the use of gas targets longer than the absorption length can lead to the generation of compressed attosecond pulses. We show these macroscopic effects experimentally, using a 6 mm-long argon-filled gas cell as the generating medium.

  6. Benchmarking Attosecond Physics with Atomic Hydrogen (United States)


    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 12 Mar 12 – 11 Mar 15 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Benchmarking attosecond physics with atomic hydrogen 5a...AND SUBTITLE Benchmarking attosecond physics with atomic hydrogen 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA2386-12-1-4025 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Final Report for AOARD Grant FA2386-12-1-4025 “ Benchmarking

  7. Transient terahertz spectroscopy of excitons and unbound carriers in quasi two-dimensional electron-hole gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaindl, Robert A.; Hagele, D.; Carnahan, M. A.; Chemla, D. S.


    We report a comprehensive experimental study and detailed model analysis of the terahertz (THz) dielectric response and density kinetics of excitons and unbound electron-hole pairs in GaAs quantum wells. A compact expression is given, in absolute units, for the complex-valued THz dielectric function of intra-excitonic transitions between the 1s and higher-energy exciton and continuum levels. It closely describes the THz spectra of resonantly generated excitons. Exciton ionization and formation are further explored, where the THz response exhibits both intra-excitonic and Drude features. Utilizing a two-component dielectric function, we derive the underlying exciton and unbound pair densities. In the ionized state, excellent agreement is found with the Saha thermodynamic equilibrium, which provides experimental verification of the two-component analysis and density scaling. During exciton formation, in turn, the pair kinetics is quantitatively described by a Saha equilibrium that follows the carrier cooling dynamics. The THz-derived kinetics is, moreover, consistent with time-resolved luminescence measured for comparison. Our study establishes a basis for tracking pair densities via transient THz spectroscopy of photoexcited quasi-2D electron-hole gases.

  8. Generation of attosecond electron bunches in a laser-plasma accelerator using a plasma density upramp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weikum, M.K., E-mail: [Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Bdg. 30b, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, G4 0NG Glasgow (United Kingdom); Li, F.Y. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, G4 0NG Glasgow (United Kingdom); Assmann, R.W. [Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Bdg. 30b, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Sheng, Z.M. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, G4 0NG Glasgow (United Kingdom); Laboratory for Laser Plasmas and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Jaroszynski, D. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, G4 0NG Glasgow (United Kingdom)


    Attosecond electron bunches and attosecond radiation pulses enable the study of ultrafast dynamics of matter in an unprecedented regime. In this paper, the suitability for the experimental realization of a novel scheme producing sub-femtosecond duration electron bunches from laser-wakefield acceleration in plasma with self-injection in a plasma upramp profile has been investigated. While it has previously been predicted that this requires laser power above a few hundred terawatts typically, here we show that the scheme can be extended with reduced driving laser powers down to tens of terawatts, generating accelerated electron pulses with minimum length of around 166 attoseconds and picocoulombs charge. Using particle-in-cell simulations and theoretical models, the evolution of the accelerated electron bunch within the plasma as well as simple scalings of the bunch properties with initial laser and plasma parameters are presented. - Highlights: • LWFA with an upramp density profile can trap and accelerate sub-fs electron beams. • A reduction of the necessary threshold laser intensity by a factor 4 is presented. • Electron properties are tuned by varying initial laser and plasma parameters. • Simulations predict electron bunch lengths below 200 attoseconds with pC charge. • Strong bunch evolution effects and a large energy spread still need to be improved.

  9. Light-Induced Structures in Attosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy of Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Bækhøj, Jens E


    The nature of light-induced structures in attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of molecular systems is investigated theoretically. It is shown how nuclear dynamics affect these structures. We find that a theoretical three-surface model captures the main characteristics in the calculated spectra. Based on this model, nuclear dynamics is divided into different categories, each category having unique signatures in the absorption spectra. Finally, we discuss the possibility for experimental observation of light-induced structures in molecules.

  10. Transient evolution of solitary electron holes in low pressure laboratory plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhary, Mangilal; Mukherjee, Subroto


    Solitary electrons holes (SEHs) are localized electrostatic positive potential structures in collisionless plasmas. These are vortex-like structures in the electron phase space. Its existence is cause of distortion of the electron distribution in the resonant region. These are explained theoretically first time by Schamel [Phys. Scr. 20, 336 (1979) and Phys. Plasmas 19, 020501 (2012)]. Propagating solitary electron holes can also be formed in a laboratory plasma when a fast rising high positive voltage pulse is applied to a metallic electrode [Kar et. al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 102113 (2010)] immersed in a low pressure plasma. The temporal evolution of these structures can be studied by measuring the transient electron distribution function (EDF). In the present work, transient EDF is measured after formation of a solitary electron hole in nearly uniform, unmagnetized, and collisionless plasma for applied pulse width and, where and are applied pulse width and inverse of ion plasma frequency respectively. Fo...

  11. Plasma phase transition in dense hydrogen and electron-hole plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filinov, V S [Institute for High Energy Density, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskay 13/19, Moscow 127412, Russia (Russian Federation); Bonitz, M [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Levashov, P [Institute for High Energy Density, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskay 13/19, Moscow 127412, Russia (Russian Federation); Fortov, V E [Institute for High Energy Density, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskay 13/19, Moscow 127412, Russia (Russian Federation); Ebeling, W [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 110, D-10115 Berlin (Germany); Schlanges, M [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Greifswald, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Koch, S W [Fachbereich Physik, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg, D-35032 Marburg (Germany)


    Plasma phase transitions in dense hydrogen and electron-hole plasmas are investigated by direct path integral Monte Carlo methods. The phase boundary of the electron-hole liquid in germanium is calculated and is found to agree reasonably well with the known experimental results. Analogous behaviour is found for high-density hydrogen. For a temperature of T = 10 000 K it is shown that the internal energy is lowered due to droplet formation for densities between 10{sup 23} cm{sup -3} and 10{sup 24} cm{sup -3}.

  12. Plasma phase transition in dense hydrogen and electron-hole plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Filinov, V S; Levashov, P R; Fortov, V E; Ebeling, W; Schlanges, M; Koch, S W


    Plasma phase transitions in dense hydrogen and electron-hole plasmas are investigated by direct path integral Monte Carlo methods. The phase boundary of the electron-hole liquid in germanium is calculated and is found to agree reasonably well with the known experimental results. Analogous behaviour is found for high-density hydrogen. For a temperature of T = 10 000 K it is shown that the internal energy is lowered due to droplet formation for densities between 10 sup 2 sup 3 cm sup - sup 3 and 10 sup 2 sup 4 cm sup - sup 3.

  13. Ordered structure formation in 2D mass asymmetric electron-hole plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filinov, V.S. [Institute for High Energy Density, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaya 13/19, Moscow 127412 (Russian Federation)], E-mail:; Fehske, H. [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 6, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Bonitz, M. [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Leibnizstrasse 15, 24098 Kiel (Germany); Fortov, V.E.; Levashov, P. [Institute for High Energy Density, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaya 13/19, Moscow 127412 (Russian Federation)


    We study strong Coulomb correlations in dense two-dimensional electron-hole plasmas by means of direct path integral Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, the formation and dissociation of bound states, such as excitons, bi-excitons and many particle clusters, is analyzed and the density-temperature regions of their occurrence are identified. At high density, the Mott transition to the fully ionized state (electron-hole hexatic liquid) is detected. Particular attention is paid to the influence of the hole to electron mass ratio M on the properties of the plasma. For high enough values of M we observed the formation of Coulomb hole crystal-like structures.

  14. Nucleation phenomena in the formation of electron-hole drops in Ge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westervelt, R.M.


    A detailed theory of the nucleation of electron-hole drops from a gas of free excitons in Ge is presented, together with a systematic experimental study of hysteresis and threshold phenomena in the luminescence of optically excited crystals of ultrapure Ge.

  15. Measurement and Control of Attosecond Pulses (United States)


    the re-collision electron wave packet and therefore on the attosecond pulse that it produces. This modification deflects the beam and the deflection ...TYPE. State the type of report, such as final, technical, interim, memorandum, master’s thesis , progress, quarterly, research, special, group study...illustrated in Figure 1. A weak beam is incident on the nonlinear medium at a slight angle to the fundamental. It imposes a phased modification on

  16. Temporally-coherent terawatt attosecond XFEL synchronized with a few cycle laser. (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Parc, Yong Woon; Landsman, Alexandra S; Kim, Dong Eon


    Attosecond metrology using laser-based high-order harmonics has been significantly advanced and applied to various studies of electron dynamics in atoms, molecules and solids. Laser-based high-order harmonics have a limitation of low power and photon energies. There is, however, a great demand for even higher power and photon energy. Here, we propose a scheme for a terawatt attosecond (TW-as) X-ray pulse in X-ray free-electron laser controlled by a few cycle IR pulse, where one dominant current spike in an electron bunch is used repeatedly to amplify a seeded radiation to a terawatt level. This scheme is relatively simple, compact, straightforward, and also produces a temporally and spectrally clean pulse. The viability of this scheme is demonstrated in simulations using Pohang accelerator laboratory (PAL)-XFEL beam parameters.

  17. Spectral enhancement of single attosecond pulses by time-delayed control field

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Wei-Chun


    An optical coherent control scheme has been proposed where an extreme ultraviolet single attosecond pulse (SAP) propagates through a dense helium gas dressed by a time-delayed femtosecond laser pulse. The laser pulse couples the 2s2p(^1P) and 2s^2(^1S) autoionizing states when the SAP excites the 2s2p state. After going through the gas, the spectral and temporal profiles of the SAP are strongly distorted. A narrowed but enhanced spike in the spectrum shows up for specific intensities and time delays of the laser, which exemplifies the control of a broadband photon wave packet by an ultrashort dressing field for the first time. We analyze the photon and electron dynamics and conclude on the dressing condition that maximizes this enhancement. The result demonstrates new possibilities of attosecond optical control.

  18. Electron holes in phase space: What they are and why they matter (United States)

    Hutchinson, I. H.


    This is a tutorial and selective review explaining the fundamental concepts and some currently open questions concerning the plasma phenomenon of the electron hole. The widespread occurrence of electron holes in numerical simulations, space-craft observations, and laboratory experiments is illustrated. The elementary underlying theory is developed of a one-dimensional electron hole as a localized potential maximum, self-consistently sustained by a deficit of trapped electron phase-space density. The spatial extent of a hole is typically a few Debye lengths; what determines the minimum and maximum possible lengths is explained, addressing the key aspects of the as yet unsettled dispute between the integral and differential approaches to hole structure. In multiple dimensions, holes tend to form less readily; they generally require a magnetic field and distribution-function anisotropy. The mechanisms by which they break up are explained, noting that this transverse instability is not fully understood. Examples are given of plasma circumstances where holes play an important role, and of recent progress on understanding their holistic kinematics and self-acceleration.

  19. Strain-confined electron-hole liquid in Ge: Density variations and compressibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelso, S.M.


    We present a detailed theoretical and experimental investigation of a spatial variation in the electron-hole--pair density in the strain-confined electron-hole liquid in Ge. The density variation can be dramatic: We observed a compression of the central density by a factor of 3 for our largest drop radius, Rroughly-equal0.7 mm. Our experimental density profiles, obtained using Abel transforms of spatial luminescence profiles, are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions of approximately parabolic profiles with densities larger than the equilibrium value at the center of the drop. Our previous first-order theory has been extended to include the full density dependence of the pair free energy at finite stress and temperature. We discuss the shape and power dependence of spatial luminescence profiles and luminescence spectra, since the spatial density variation increases with drop size. We use the central densities for drop sizes ranging over an order of magnitude to measure the density dependence of the electron-hole--liquid chemical potential, providing a sensitive test of many-body theories for the correlation energy. We obtain an improved value for the isothermal compressibility of the strain-confined liquid: K/sub T/ = 0.067 +- 0.017 cm/sup 2//dyn for n = 0.47 x 10/sup 17/ cm/sup -3/, T = 1.9 K, and -sigma = 5.5 kgf/mm/sup 2/, where kgf represents kilogram force.

  20. Calculation of properties of the electron-hole liquid in uniaxially stressed Ge and Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelso, S.M.


    We present a detailed theoretical study of the stress dependence of properties of the electron-hole liquid, both at zero and finite temperatures, in <111>-stressed Ge and <100>-stressed Si. These properties include the ground-state equilibrium density, pair energy, electron and hole Fermi energies, sign of the electron-hole drop charge, luminescence linewidth, and liquid compressibility. The results are compared at T = 0 to the calculations of Kirczenow and Singwi and at Troughly-equal2 K to the available data. We discuss the possibility of a phase transition associated with the depopulation of the upper electron valleys in Ge. We also discuss methods of extrapolating from finite to infinite stress. The importance of the nonparabolicity of the valence bands is emphasized throughout. We discuss ranges of validity for a low-temperature expansion of the free energy. Results are presented for the systematic low-temperature variation of the liquid density, Fermi energy, and chemical potential and for the critical temperature and density. These theoretical results are found to be in reasonably good agreement with available data. Finally, we discuss scaling relations for combinations of electron-hole--liquid properties.

  1. Ultrafast XUV spectroscopy: Unveiling the nature of electronic couplings in molecular dynamics (United States)

    Timmers, Henry Robert

    Molecules are traditionally treated quantum mechanically using the Born-Oppenheimer formalism. In this formalism, different electronic states of the molecule are treated independently. However, most photo-initiated phenomena occurring in nature are driven by the couplings between different electronic states in both isolated molecules and molecular aggregates, and therefore occur beyond the Born-Oppenheimer formalism. These couplings are relevant in reactions relating to the perception of vision in the human eye, the oxidative damage and repair of DNA, the harvesting of light in photosynthesis, and the transfer of charge across large chains of molecules. While these reaction dynamics have traditionally been studied with visible and ultraviolet spectroscopy, attosecond XUV pulses formed through the process of high harmonic generation form a perfect tool for probing coupled electronic dynamics in molecules. In this thesis, I will present our work in using ultrafast, XUV spectroscopy to study these dynamics in molecules of increasing complexity. We begin by probing the relaxation dynamics of superexcited states in diatomic O 2. These states can relax via two types of electronic couplings, either through autoionization or neutral dissociation. We find that our pump-probe scheme can disentangle the two relaxation mechanisms and independently measure their contributing lifetimes. Next, we present our work in observing a coherent electron hole wavepacket initiated by the ionization of polyatomic CO 2 near a conical intersection. The electron-nuclear couplings near the conical intersection drive the electron hole between different orbital configurations. We find that we can not only measure the lifetime of quantum coherence in the electron hole wavepacket, but also control its evolution with a strong, infrared probing field. Finally, we propose an experiment to observe the migration of an electron hole across iodobenzene on the few-femtosecond timescale. We present

  2. Attosecond electron pulse trains and quantum state reconstruction in ultrafast transmission electron microscopy (United States)

    Priebe, Katharina E.; Rathje, Christopher; Yalunin, Sergey V.; Hohage, Thorsten; Feist, Armin; Schäfer, Sascha; Ropers, Claus


    Ultrafast electron and X-ray imaging and spectroscopy are the basis for an ongoing revolution in the understanding of dynamical atomic-scale processes in matter. The underlying technology relies heavily on laser science for the generation and characterization of ever shorter pulses. Recent findings suggest that ultrafast electron microscopy with attosecond-structured wavefunctions may be feasible. However, such future technologies call for means to both prepare and fully analyse the corresponding free-electron quantum states. Here, we introduce a framework for the preparation, coherent manipulation and characterization of free-electron quantum states, experimentally demonstrating attosecond electron pulse trains. Phase-locked optical fields coherently control the electron wavefunction along the beam direction. We establish a new variant of quantum state tomography—`SQUIRRELS'—for free-electron ensembles. The ability to tailor and quantitatively map electron quantum states will promote the nanoscale study of electron-matter entanglement and new forms of ultrafast electron microscopy down to the attosecond regime.

  3. Attosecond Control of Photoabsorption Through Manipulating the Electron-Electron Correlation (United States)

    Hu, S. X.


    This talk reports on studies of photoabsorption control by manipulating the electron -electron correlation in a double-ionization process with an attosecond extreme ultraviolet (EUV) pulse. Electron correlation plays an essential role in a wide range of fundamentally important many-body phenomena in modern physics and chemistry. An example is the importance of electron-electron correlation in multiple ionization of multielectron atoms and molecules exposed to intense laser pulses. Manipulating the dynamic electron correlation in such photoinduced processes is a crucial step toward the coherent control of chemical reactions and photobiological processes. We will show for the first time, from full-dimensional ab initio calculations of double ionization of helium in intense laser pulses (λ = 780 nm), that the electron-electron interactions can be instantaneously tuned using a time-delayed attosecond EUV pulse. Consequently, the probability of producing energetic electrons from excessive photoabsorption can be enhanced by an order of magnitude through the attosecond control of electron-electron correlation. This work was partially supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award No. DE-NA0001944, the University of Rochester, and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. Computations have been conducted utilizing the ``Kraken'' Supercomputer at NICS.

  4. Potential beneficial effects of electron-hole plasmas created in silicon sensors by XFEL-like high intensity pulses for detector development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Joel T.; Becker, Julian; Shanks, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Tate, Mark W. [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gruner, Sol M., E-mail: [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)


    There is a compelling need for a high frame rate imaging detector with a wide dynamic range, from single x-rays/pixel/pulse to >10{sup 6} x-rays/pixel/pulse, that is capable of operating at both x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) and 3rd generation sources with sustained fluxes of > 10{sup 11} x-rays/pixel/s [1, 2, 3]. We propose to meet these requirements with the High Dynamic Range Pixel Array Detector (HDR-PAD) by (a) increasing the speed of charge removal strategies [4], (b) increasing integrator range by implementing adaptive gain [5], and (c) exploiting the extended charge collection times of electron-hole pair plasma clouds that form when a sufficiently large number of x-rays are absorbed in a detector sensor in a short period of time [6]. We have developed a measurement platform similar to the one used in [6] to study the effects of high electron-hole densities in silicon sensors using optical lasers to emulate the conditions found at XFELs. Characterizations of the employed tunable wavelength laser with picosecond pulse duration have shown Gaussian focal spots sizes of 6 ± 1 µm rms over the relevant spectrum and 2 to 3 orders of magnitude increase in available intensity compared to previous measurements presented in [6]. Results from measurements on a typical pixelated silicon diode intended for use with the HDR-PAD (150 µm pixel size, 500 µm thick sensor) are presented.

  5. Photoelectron spectrometer for attosecond spectroscopy of liquids and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, I.; Huppert, M.; Wörner, H. J., E-mail: [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, ETH Zurich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Brown, M. A. [Laboratory for Surface Science and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Bokhoven, J. A. van [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 1, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Laboratory for Catalysis and Sustainable Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)


    A new apparatus for attosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids and gases is described. It combines a liquid microjet source with a magnetic-bottle photoelectron spectrometer and an actively stabilized attosecond beamline. The photoelectron spectrometer permits venting and pumping of the interaction chamber without affecting the low pressure in the flight tube. This pressure separation has been realized through a sliding skimmer plate, which effectively seals the flight tube in its closed position and functions as a differential pumping stage in its open position. A high-harmonic photon spectrometer, attached to the photoelectron spectrometer, exit port is used to acquire photon spectra for calibration purposes. Attosecond pulse trains have been used to record photoelectron spectra of noble gases, water in the gas and liquid states as well as solvated species. RABBIT scans demonstrate the attosecond resolution of this setup.

  6. Impact of electron-hole correlations on the 1T-TiSe_{2} electronic structure. (United States)

    Monney, G; Monney, C; Hildebrand, B; Aebi, P; Beck, H


    Several experiments have been performed on 1T-TiSe_{2} in order to identify whether the electronic structure is semimetallic or semiconducting without reaching a consensus. In this Letter, we theoretically study the impact of electron-hole and electron-phonon correlations on the bare semimetallic and semiconducting electronic structure. The resulting electron spectral functions provide a direct comparison of both cases and demonstrate that 1T-TiSe_{2} is of predominant semiconducting character with some spectral weight crossing the Fermi level.

  7. Coupled electron-hole bilayer graphene sheets: Superfluidity, Charge Density Waves, and Coupled Wigner Crystals (United States)

    Zarenia, Mohammad; Peeters, Francois; Neilson, David

    The juxtaposition of superconducting and charge density wave (CDW) phases that is often observed in connection with High-Temperature Superconductors, is attracting considerable attention. In these systems, the crystal lattice provides a polarizable background, needed to drive the CDW phase. We report on a different system that exhibits the association of superfluid and CDW phases, but in which the polarizable background is uniform. Our system consists of two coupled two-dimensional bilayers of graphene, one bilayer containing electrons and the other holes interacting through the long range Coulomb interaction. To account for the inter-layer correlation energy accurately, we introduce a new approach which is based on the random phase approximation at high densities and interpolation between the weakly- and strongly-interacting regimes. We determine the zero temperature phase diagram in which the two control parameters are the equal electron and hole densities and the thickness of the insulating barrier separating the two bilayers. We find in addition to an electron-hole superfluid and a one-dimensional CDW phases that there exist also a coupled electron-hole Wigner crystal. The structure of the crystal background plays no role in determining the phase diagram. This work was supported by the Flemish Science Foundation (FWO).

  8. Transport Properties of an Electron-Hole Bilayer in Contact with a Superconductor Hybrid Junction. (United States)

    Bercioux, D; Klapwijk, T M; Bergeret, F S


    We investigate the transport properties of a junction consisting of an electron-hole bilayer in contact with normal and superconducting leads. The electron-hole bilayer is considered as a semimetal with two electronic bands. We assume that in the region between the contacts the system hosts an exciton condensate described by a BCS-like model with a gap Γ in the quasiparticle density of states. We first discuss how the subgap electronic transport through the junction is mainly governed by the interplay between two kinds of reflection processes at the interfaces: the standard Andreev reflection at the interface between the superconductor and the exciton condensate, and a coherent crossed reflection at the semimetal-exciton-condensate interface that converts electrons from one layer into the other. We show that the differential conductance of the junction shows a minimum at voltages of the order of Γ/e. Such a minimum can be seen as a direct hallmark of the existence of the gapped excitonic state.

  9. High-throughput beamline for attosecond pulses based on toroidal mirrors with microfocusing capabilities. (United States)

    Frassetto, F; Trabattoni, A; Anumula, S; Sansone, G; Calegari, F; Nisoli, M; Poletto, L


    We have developed a novel attosecond beamline designed for attosecond-pump/attosecond probe experiments. Microfocusing of the Extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) radiation is obtained by using a coma-compensated optical configuration based on the use of three toroidal mirrors controlled by a genetic algorithm. Trains of attosecond pulses are generated with a measured peak intensity of about 3 × 10(11) W/cm(2).

  10. Nano-plasmonic near field phase matching of attosecond pulses. (United States)

    Shaaran, Tahir; Nicolas, Rana; Iwan, Bianca; Kovacev, Milutin; Merdji, Hamed


    Nano-structures excited by light can enhance locally the electric field when tuned to plasmonic resonances. This phenomenon can be used to boost non-linear processes such as harmonic generation in crystals or in gases, Raman excitation, and four wave mixing. Here we present a theoretical investigation of the near-field phase matching of attosecond pulses emitted by high-order harmonic generation (HHG) of an atom immersed in a multi-cycle femtosecond infrared laser field and a spatially inhomogeneous plasmonic field. We demonstrate that the spatial inhomogeneity factor of the plasmonic field strongly affects the electron trajectory and recombination time which can be used to control the attosecond emission. For further insight into the plasmonic field effect, we monitor the phase of each quantum path as a function of the inhomogeneity strength. Moreover, we investigate the attosecond emission as a function of near-field phase matching effects. This is achieved by calculating the coherent field superposition of attosecond pulses emitted from various intensities or field inhomogeneities. Finally, far-field and near-field phase matching effects are combined to modulate the harmonic spectral phase towards the emission of a single attosecond pulse.

  11. Coherent Interaction of Three-Dimensionally Confined Electron-Hole Pairs with LO-Phonons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gindele, F.; Reimann, T.; Woggon, U.


    The spectrally resolved FWM signal of CdSe quantum dots with sizes below the bulk excitonic Bohr radius has been studied as a function of temperature and excitation intensity and compared with bulk CdSe. A clear oscillation with a period of 163fs (approximate to 25 meV) is found in the transient...... FWM signal and attributed to a coherent coupling of confined electron-hole pairs with LO-phonons. Two side bands are observed in the spectrum 25 meV below and above the excitonic resonance. The strong coupling to LO-phonons is observed even at excitation densities around 1 x 10(16) cm(-3) which...

  12. Plasma electron hole kinematics. II. Hole tracking Particle-In-Cell simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, C.; Hutchinson, I. H. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)


    The kinematics of a 1-D electron hole is studied using a novel Particle-In-Cell simulation code. A hole tracking technique enables us to follow the trajectory of a fast-moving solitary hole and study quantitatively hole acceleration and coupling to ions. We observe a transient at the initial stage of hole formation when the hole accelerates to several times the cold-ion sound speed. Artificially imposing slow ion speed changes on a fully formed hole causes its velocity to change even when the ion stream speed in the hole frame greatly exceeds the ion thermal speed, so there are no reflected ions. The behavior that we observe in numerical simulations agrees very well with our analytic theory of hole momentum conservation and the effects of “jetting.”.

  13. Sum rules for electron-hole bilayer and two-dimensional point dipole systems. (United States)

    Golden, Kenneth I; Kalman, Gabor J


    We formulate and analyze the third-frequency-moment sum rules for the two-dimensional (point) dipole system (2DDS) and the mass-symmetric electron-hole bilayer (EHB) in their strongly coupled liquid phases. The former, characterized by the repulsive interaction potential φ_{D}(r)=μ^{2}/r^{3} (μ is the electric dipole moment), reasonably well approximates the latter in the d → 0 limit (d is the interlayer spacing), a conjecture that is further supported by the findings of the present work. We explore the extent to which the in-phase sum rule for the closely spaced EHB may or may not reconcile with its 2DDS sum-rule counterpart. This is the main emphasis of the present work.

  14. Correlated electron-hole mechanism for molecular doping in organic semiconductors (United States)

    Li, Jing; D'Avino, Gabriele; Pershin, Anton; Jacquemin, Denis; Duchemin, Ivan; Beljonne, David; Blase, Xavier


    The electronic and optical properties of the paradigmatic F4TCNQ-doped pentacene in the low-doping limit are investigated by a combination of state-of-the-art many-body ab initio methods accounting for environmental screening effects, and a carefully parametrized model Hamiltonian. We demonstrate that while the acceptor level lies very deep in the gap, the inclusion of electron-hole interactions strongly stabilizes dopant-semiconductor charge transfer states and, together with spin statistics and structural relaxation effects, rationalize the possibility for room-temperature dopant ionization. Our findings reconcile available experimental data, shedding light on the partial vs. full charge transfer scenario discussed in the literature, and question the relevance of the standard classification in shallow or deep impurity levels prevailing for inorganic semiconductors.

  15. Generation of Attosecond Light Pulses from Gas and Solid State Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos Chatziathanasiou


    Full Text Available Real-time observation of ultrafast dynamics in the microcosm is a fundamental approach for understanding the internal evolution of physical, chemical and biological systems. Tools for tracing such dynamics are flashes of light with duration comparable to or shorter than the characteristic evolution times of the system under investigation. While femtosecond (fs pulses are successfully used to investigate vibrational dynamics in molecular systems, real time observation of electron motion in all states of matter requires temporal resolution in the attosecond (1 attosecond (asec = 10−18 s time scale. During the last decades, continuous efforts in ultra-short pulse engineering led to the development of table-top sources which can produce asec pulses. These pulses have been synthesized by using broadband coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV spectral region generated by the interaction of matter with intense fs pulses. Here, we will review asec pulses generated by the interaction of gas phase media and solid surfaces with intense fs IR laser fields. After a brief overview of the fundamental process underlying the XUV emission form these media, we will review the current technology, specifications and the ongoing developments of such asec sources.

  16. Reversible electron-hole separation in a hot carrier solar cell (United States)

    Linke, Heiner

    Hot-carrier solar cells are envisioned to utilize energy filtering to extract power from photogenerated electron-hole pairs before they thermalize with the lattice, and thus potentially offer higher power conversion efficiency compared to conventional, single absorber solar cells. The efficiency of hot-carrier solar cells can be expected to strongly depend on the details of the energy filtering process, a relationship which to date has not been satisfactorily explored. Here, we establish the conditions under which electron-hole separation in hot-carrier solar cells can occur reversibly, that is, at maximum energy conversion efficiency. We find that, under specific conditions, the energy conversion efficiency of a hot-carrier solar cell can exceed the Carnot limit set by the intra-device temperature gradient alone, due to the additional contribution of the quasi-Fermi level splitting in the absorber. To achieve this, we consider a highly selective energy filter such as a quantum dot embedded into a one-dimensional conductor. We also establish that the open-circuit voltage of a hot-carrier solar cell is not limited by the band gap of the absorber, due to the additional thermoelectric contribution to the voltage. Additionally, we find that a hot-carrier solar cell can be operated in reverse as a thermally driven solid-state light emitter. In addition this theoretical analysis, I will also report on first experimental results in a nanowire-based energy filter device. Ref: S Limpert, S Bremner, and H Linke, New J. Phys 17, 095004 (2015)

  17. Electron Interference in Molecular Circular Polarization Attosecond XUV Photoionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Jun Yuan


    Full Text Available Two-center electron interference in molecular attosecond photoionization processes is investigated from numerical solutions of time-dependent Schrödinger equations. Both symmetric H\\(_2^+\\ and nonsymmetric HHe\\(^{2+}\\ one electron diatomic systems are ionized by intense attosecond circularly polarized XUV laser pulses. Photoionization of these molecular ions shows signature of interference with double peaks (minima in molecular attosecond photoelectron energy spectra (MAPES at critical angles \\(\\vartheta_c\\ between the molecular \\(\\textbf{R}\\ axis and the photoelectron momentum \\(\\textbf{p}\\. The interferences are shown to be a function of the symmetry of electronic states and the interference patterns are sensitive to the molecular orientation and pulse polarization. Such sensitivity offers possibility for imaging of molecular structure and orbitals.

  18. Structural transformations in silicon under exposure by femtosecond laser pulse: role of electron-hole plasma and phonon-phonon anharmonism

    CERN Document Server

    Kudryashov, S I


    It is experimentally shown for the first time that by the effect of the feed-up laser pulse of 100 fs duration on the silicon target the consecutive structural transitions of the substance into the new crystalline and liquid metallic phase occur both during the laser pulse feed-up and after 0.1-10 sup 3 ps, depending on the material excitation conditions. The thresholds of the observed structural transitions are determined and the phonon nodes, responsible for therefore, are identified. The structural transitions dynamics in the silicon by the 01.-10 sup 3 ps times is described within the frames of the model of the phonon modes instability, originating due to the plasma electron-hole effect and also due to the intra- and intermode phonon-phonon anharmonic interactions

  19. Harmonic and attosecond pulse enhancement in the presence of noise (United States)

    Feng, Li-Qiang; Chu, Tian-Shu


    In this paper, we theoretically investigate the effect of noise on the photoionization, the generation of the high-order harmonic and the attosecond pulse irradiated from a model He+ ion. It shows that by properly adding noise fields, such as Gaussian white noise, random light or colored noise, both the ionization probabilities (IPs) and the harmonic yields can be enhanced by several orders of magnitude. Further, by tuning the noise intensity, a stochastic resonance-like curve is observed, showing the existence of an optimal noise in the ionization enhancement process. Finally, by superposing a properly selected harmonic, an intense attosecond pulse with a duration of 67 as is directly generated.

  20. Disorder and magnetic-field-induced breakdown of helical edge conduction in an inverted electron-hole bilayer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulin, D.I.; Hyart, T.; Mi, S.; Tworzydlo, J.; Wimmer, M.T.; Beenakker, C.W.J.


    We calculate the conductance of a two-dimensional bilayer with inverted electron-hole bands to study the sensitivity of the quantum spin Hall insulator (with helical edge conduction) to the combination of electrostatic disorder and a perpendicular magnetic field. The characteristic breakdown field

  1. Design and Analysis of CMOS-Compatible III-V Compound Electron-Hole Bilayer Tunneling Field-Effect Transistor for Ultra-Low-Power Applications. (United States)

    Kim, Sung Yoon; Seo, Jae Hwa; Yoon, Young Jun; Lee, Ho-Young; Lee, Seong Min; Cho, Seongjae; Kang, In Man


    In this work, we design and analyze complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible III-V compound electron-hole bilayer (EHB) tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) by using two-dimensional (2D) technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulations. A recently proposed EHB TFET exploits a bias-induced band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) across the electron-hole bilayer by an electric field from the top and bottom gates. This is in contrast to conventional planar p(+)-p(-)-n TFETs, which utilize BTBT across the source-to-channel junction. We applied III-V compound semiconductor materials to the EHB TFETs in order to enhance the current drivability and switching performance. Devices based on various compound semiconductor materials have been designed and analyzed in terms of their primary DC characteristics. In addition, the operational principles were validated by close examination of the electron concentrations and energy-band diagrams under various operation conditions. The simulation results of the optimally designed In0.533Ga0.47As EHB TFET show outstanding performance, with an on-state current (Ion) of 249.5 μA/μm, subthreshold swing (S) of 11.4 mV/dec, and threshold voltage (Vth) of 50 mV at VDS = 0.5 V. Based on the DC-optimized InGaAs EHB TFET, the CMOS inverter circuit was simulated in views of static and dynamic behaviors of the p-channel device with exchanges between top and bottom gates or between source and drain electrodes maintaining the device structure.

  2. Generating ultrarelativistic attosecond electron bunches with laser wakefield accelerators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttikhof, M.J.H.; Khachatryan, A.G.; van Goor, F.A.; Boller, Klaus J.


    Femtosecond electron bunches with ultrarelativistic energies were recently generated by laser wakefield accelerators. Here we predict that laser wakefield acceleration can generate even attosecond bunches, due to a strong chirp of the betatron frequency. We show how the bunch duration scales with

  3. Secondary-electron cascade in attosecond photoelectron spectroscopy from metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Jan Conrad; Madsen, Lars Bojer


    Attosecond spectroscopy is currently restricted to photon energies around 100 eV. We show that under these conditions, electron-electron scatterings, as the photoelectrons leave the metal, give rise to a tail of secondary electrons with lower energies and hence a significant background. We develop...

  4. Two-photon double ionization of neon using an intense attosecond pulse train

    CERN Document Server

    Manschwetus, B; Campi, F; Maclot, S; Coudert-Alteirac, H; Lahl, J; Wikmark, H; Rudawski, P; Heyl, C M; Farkas, B; Mohamed, T; L'Huillier, A; Johnsson, P


    We present the first demonstration of two-photon double ionization of neon using an intense extreme ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulse train (APT) in a photon energy regime where both direct and sequential mechanisms are allowed. For an APT generated through high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in argon we achieve a total pulse energy close to 1 $\\mu$J, a central energy of 35 eV and a total bandwidth of $\\sim30$ eV. The APT is focused by broadband optics in a neon gas target to an intensity of $3\\cdot10^{12} $W$\\cdot$cm$^{-2}$. By tuning the photon energy across the threshold for the sequential process the double ionization signal can be turned on and off, indicating that the two-photon double ionization predominantly occurs through a sequential process. The demonstrated performance opens up possibilities for future XUV-XUV pump-probe experiments with attosecond temporal resolution in a photon energy range where it is possible to unravel the dynamics behind direct vs. sequential double ionization and the asso...

  5. Order enables efficient electron-hole separation at an organic heterojunction with a small energy loss

    KAUST Repository

    Menke, S. Matthew


    Donor–acceptor organic solar cells often show low open-circuit voltages (VOC) relative to their optical energy gap (Eg) that limit power conversion efficiencies to ~12%. This energy loss is partly attributed to the offset between Eg and that of intermolecular charge transfer (CT) states at the donor–acceptor interface. Here we study charge generation occurring in PIPCP:PC61BM, a system with a very low driving energy for initial charge separation (Eg−ECT ~ 50 meV) and a high internal quantum efficiency (ηIQE ~ 80%). We track the strength of the electric field generated between the separating electron-hole pair by following the transient electroabsorption optical response, and find that while localised CT states are formed rapidly (<100 fs) after photoexcitation, free charges are not generated until 5 ps after photogeneration. In PIPCP:PC61BM, electronic disorder is low (Urbach energy <27 meV) and we consider that free charge separation is able to outcompete trap-assisted non-radiative recombination of the CT state.

  6. Giant electron-hole transport asymmetry in ultra-short quantum transistors. (United States)

    McRae, A C; Tayari, V; Porter, J M; Champagne, A R


    Making use of bipolar transport in single-wall carbon nanotube quantum transistors would permit a single device to operate as both a quantum dot and a ballistic conductor or as two quantum dots with different charging energies. Here we report ultra-clean 10 to 100 nm scale suspended nanotube transistors with a large electron-hole transport asymmetry. The devices consist of naked nanotube channels contacted with sections of tube under annealed gold. The annealed gold acts as an n-doping top gate, allowing coherent quantum transport, and can create nanometre-sharp barriers. These tunnel barriers define a single quantum dot whose charging energies to add an electron or a hole are vastly different (e-h charging energy asymmetry). We parameterize the e-h transport asymmetry by the ratio of the hole and electron charging energies ηe-h. This asymmetry is maximized for short channels and small band gap tubes. In a small band gap device, we demonstrate the fabrication of a dual functionality quantum device acting as a quantum dot for holes and a much longer quantum bus for electrons. In a 14 nm-long channel, ηe-h reaches up to 2.6 for a device with a band gap of 270 meV. The charging energies in this device exceed 100 meV.

  7. Optical emission of graphene and electron-hole pair production induced by a strong terahertz field (United States)

    Oladyshkin, I. V.; Bodrov, S. B.; Sergeev, Yu. A.; Korytin, A. I.; Tokman, M. D.; Stepanov, A. N.


    We report on experimental observation of optical emission of graphene induced by an intense terahertz (THz) pulse. P-doped chemical-vapor-deposition graphene with an initial Fermi energy of about 200 meV was used; optical photons were detected in the 2.0-3.5 eV range. Emission started when the THz field amplitude exceeded 100 kV/cm. For the THz fields from 200 to 300 kV/cm, the temperature of optical radiation was constant, while the number of emitted photons increased by several dozen times. This fact clearly indicates multiplication of electron-hole pairs induced by an external field and not electron heating. The experimental data are in good agreement with the theory of Landau-Zener interband transitions. It is shown theoretically that Landau-Zener transitions are possible even in the case of heavily doped graphene because the strong THz field removes quasiparticles from the region of interband transitions for several femtoseconds, which cancels the Pauli blocking effect.

  8. Unconventional superconductivity in generalized Hubbard model: role of electron-hole symmetry breaking terms. (United States)

    Wysokiński, Marcin M; Kaczmarczyk, Jan


    We investigate the effect of the electron-hole (e-h) symmetry breaking on d-wave superconductivity induced by non-local effects of correlations in the generalized Hubbard model. The symmetry breaking is introduced in a two-fold manner: by the next-to-nearest neighbor hopping of electrons and by the charge-bond interaction-the off-diagonal term of the Coulomb potential. Both terms lead to a pronounced asymmetry of the superconducting order parameter. The next-to-nearest neighbor hopping enhances superconductivity for h-doping, while diminishes it for e-doping. The charge-bond interaction alone leads to the opposite effect and, additionally, to the kinetic-energy gain upon condensation in the underdoped regime. With both terms included, with similar amplitudes, the height of the superconducting dome and the critical doping remain in favor of h-doping. The influence of the charge-bond interaction on deviations from [Formula: see text] symmetry of the shape of the gap at the Fermi surface in the momentum space is briefly discussed.

  9. Electron-hole capture in polymer heterojunction light-emitting diodes (United States)

    Greenham, Neil


    Polymer light-emitting diodes based on blends of polyfluorene derivatives show very high efficiencies and low drive voltages. Electron-hole capture in these devices directly produces long-lived exciplex states where the electron and hole are predominantly localized on opposite sides of the heterojunction. The exciplex may then be thermally excited to form an intra-chain exciton, which can itself either emit, or be recycled to reform the exciplex. I will review the physics of exciplex formation and emission in these devices, and will show that exciplex formation rates are consistent with low free charge densities at the heterojunction. I will present evidence that the rate of charge transfer at polyfluorene heterojunctions can be modulated with an applied electric field, leading in some cases to an increase in photoluminescence efficiency with applied field. I will also present recent results showing enhanced triplet exciton formation after photoexcitation in polyfluorene blends, and will discuss the implications of the results for polymer light-emitting and photovoltaic devices.

  10. Hot carrier-enhanced interlayer electron-hole pair multiplication in 2D semiconductor heterostructure photocells (United States)

    Barati, Fatemeh; Grossnickle, Max; Su, Shanshan; Lake, Roger K.; Aji, Vivek; Gabor, Nathaniel M.


    Strong electronic interactions can result in novel particle-antiparticle (electron-hole, e-h) pair generation effects, which may be exploited to enhance the photoresponse of nanoscale optoelectronic devices. Highly efficient e-h pair multiplication has been demonstrated in several important nanoscale systems, including nanocrystal quantum dots, carbon nanotubes and graphene. The small Fermi velocity and nonlocal nature of the effective dielectric screening in ultrathin layers of transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) indicates that e-h interactions are very strong, so high-efficiency generation of e-h pairs from hot electrons is expected. However, such e-h pair multiplication has not been observed in 2D TMD devices. Here, we report the highly efficient multiplication of interlayer e-h pairs in 2D semiconductor heterostructure photocells. Electronic transport measurements of the interlayer I-VSD characteristics indicate that layer-indirect e-h pairs are generated by hot-electron impact excitation at temperatures near T = 300 K. By exploiting this highly efficient interlayer e-h pair multiplication process, we demonstrate near-infrared optoelectronic devices that exhibit 350% enhancement of the optoelectronic responsivity at microwatt power levels. Our findings, which demonstrate efficient carrier multiplication in TMD-based optoelectronic devices, make 2D semiconductor heterostructures viable for a new class of ultra-efficient photodetectors based on layer-indirect e-h excitations.

  11. Hot carrier-enhanced interlayer electron-hole pair multiplication in 2D semiconductor heterostructure photocells. (United States)

    Barati, Fatemeh; Grossnickle, Max; Su, Shanshan; Lake, Roger K; Aji, Vivek; Gabor, Nathaniel M


    Strong electronic interactions can result in novel particle-antiparticle (electron-hole, e-h) pair generation effects, which may be exploited to enhance the photoresponse of nanoscale optoelectronic devices. Highly efficient e-h pair multiplication has been demonstrated in several important nanoscale systems, including nanocrystal quantum dots, carbon nanotubes and graphene. The small Fermi velocity and nonlocal nature of the effective dielectric screening in ultrathin layers of transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) indicates that e-h interactions are very strong, so high-efficiency generation of e-h pairs from hot electrons is expected. However, such e-h pair multiplication has not been observed in 2D TMD devices. Here, we report the highly efficient multiplication of interlayer e-h pairs in 2D semiconductor heterostructure photocells. Electronic transport measurements of the interlayer I-V SD characteristics indicate that layer-indirect e-h pairs are generated by hot-electron impact excitation at temperatures near T = 300 K. By exploiting this highly efficient interlayer e-h pair multiplication process, we demonstrate near-infrared optoelectronic devices that exhibit 350% enhancement of the optoelectronic responsivity at microwatt power levels. Our findings, which demonstrate efficient carrier multiplication in TMD-based optoelectronic devices, make 2D semiconductor heterostructures viable for a new class of ultra-efficient photodetectors based on layer-indirect e-h excitations.

  12. Current densities due to electron-hole puddles in graphene flakes at the charge neutrality point (United States)

    Lima, Leandro; Lewenkopf, Caio


    Graphene flakes show a typical conductivity minimum of about e2 / h , almost independent of sample mobility, at the charge neutrality point. This is at odds with the notion that as the mobility increases, and graphene becomes more ballistic, its density of states (DOS) and conductivity at the charge neutrality point should vanish. The observed conductivity minimum is often attributed to the presence of electron-hole charge puddles, that give rise to an effective local-dependent chemical potential. In this way, the local chemical potential fluctuates creating p and n-doped regions and the electronic transport is facilitated by Klein tunneling through the p and n-doped domains. Although very attractive, there is little quantitative support for this this picture. We revisit this problem and analyze the transport properties using a self-consistent recursive Green's functions technique with spin resolution that includes the electronic interaction modeled by a mean field Hubbard term. We calculate electronic current densities between neighboring carbon sites near the p-n interface and relate the electronic propagation to the puddles charge, size and shapes.

  13. Giant electron-hole transport asymmetry in ultra-short quantum transistors (United States)

    McRae, A. C.; Tayari, V.; Porter, J. M.; Champagne, A. R.


    Making use of bipolar transport in single-wall carbon nanotube quantum transistors would permit a single device to operate as both a quantum dot and a ballistic conductor or as two quantum dots with different charging energies. Here we report ultra-clean 10 to 100 nm scale suspended nanotube transistors with a large electron-hole transport asymmetry. The devices consist of naked nanotube channels contacted with sections of tube under annealed gold. The annealed gold acts as an n-doping top gate, allowing coherent quantum transport, and can create nanometre-sharp barriers. These tunnel barriers define a single quantum dot whose charging energies to add an electron or a hole are vastly different (e-h charging energy asymmetry). We parameterize the e-h transport asymmetry by the ratio of the hole and electron charging energies ηe-h. This asymmetry is maximized for short channels and small band gap tubes. In a small band gap device, we demonstrate the fabrication of a dual functionality quantum device acting as a quantum dot for holes and a much longer quantum bus for electrons. In a 14 nm-long channel, ηe-h reaches up to 2.6 for a device with a band gap of 270 meV. The charging energies in this device exceed 100 meV.

  14. Attosecond gamma-ray pulses via nonlinear Compton scattering in the radiation dominated regime

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jian-Xing; Galow, Benjamin J; Keitel, Christoph H


    The interaction of a relativistic electron bunch with a counter-propagating tightly-focused laser beam is investigated for intensities when the dynamics is strongly affected by its own radiation. The Compton scattering spectra of gamma-radiation are evaluated employing a semiclassical description for the laser-driven electron dynamics and a quantum electrodynamical description for the photon emissions. We show for laser facilities under construction that gamma-ray bursts of few hundred attoseconds and dozens of megaelectronvolt photon energies may be detected in the near-backwards direction of the initial electron motion. Tight focussing of the laser beam and radiation reaction are demonstrated to be jointly responsible for such short gamma-ray bursts which are independent of both duration of electron bunch and laser pulse. Furthermore, the stochastic nature of the gamma-photon emission features signatures in the resulting gamma-ray comb in the case of the application of a multi-cycle laser pulse.

  15. Electron-hole droplet formation in direct-gap semiconductors observed by mid-infrared pump-probe spectroscopy. (United States)

    Nagai, M; Shimano, R; Kuwata-Gonokami, M


    Mid-infrared pump-probe measurements with subpicosecond time resolution reveal the existence of a metastable condensed phase of the electron-hole ensemble in a direct-gap semiconductor CuCl. High-density electrons and holes are directly created in a low-temperature state by the resonant femtosecond excitation of excitons above the Mott transition density. Strong metallic reflection with a plasma frequency Planck's over 2pi(omega)p approximately 0.5 eV builds up within 0.3 ps. Within a few picoseconds, the mid-infrared reflection spectrum is transformed from metalliclike into colloidlike. The observed resonance feature at Planck's over 2pi(omega)p/sqrt[3] allows us to obtain the carrier density in the metastable electron-hole droplets of 2x10(20) cm(-3).

  16. Light emission from thermally generated electron-hole plasma in a field-effect soi-transistor

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrovol's'kij, V M; Nyinyidze, G K; Pavlyuk, S P


    Field-effect silicon-on-insulator (SOI) transistors are investigated at extremely high drain currents.These currents heat the silicon film of a transistor and cause the generation of thermal electron-hole plasma there.We discovered the red light emission from such a plasma.Plasma stratification and formation of lighting spots are explained by the occurrence of thermodiffusion auto solitons.

  17. Electron holes in the outer radiation belt: Characteristics and their role in electron energization (United States)

    Vasko, I. Y.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F. S.; Artemyev, A. V.; Drake, J. F.; Kuzichev, I. V.


    Van Allen Probes have detected electron holes (EHs) around injection fronts in the outer radiation belt. Presumably generated near equator, EHs propagate to higher latitudes potentially resulting in energization of electrons trapped within EHs. This process has been recently shown to provide electrons with energies up to several tens of keV and requires EH propagation up to rather high latitudes. We have analyzed more than 100 EHs observed around a particular injection to determine their kinetic structure and potential energy sources supporting the energization of trapped electrons. EHs propagate with velocities from 1000 to 20,000 km/s (a few times larger than the thermal velocity of the coldest background electron population). The parallel scale of observed EHs is from 0.3 to 3 km that is of the order of hundred Debye lengths. The perpendicular to parallel scale ratio is larger than one in a qualitative agreement with the theoretical scaling relation. The amplitudes of EH electrostatic potentials are generally below 100 V. We determine the properties of the electron population trapped within EHs by making use of the Bernstein-Green-Kruskal analysis and via analysis of EH magnetic field signatures. The density of the trapped electron population is on average 20% of the background electron density. The perpendicular temperature of the trapped population is on average 300 eV and is larger for faster EHs. We show that energy losses of untrapped electrons scattered by EHs in the inhomogeneous background magnetic field may balance the energization of trapped electrons.

  18. Development of extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray multilayer optics for scientific studies with femtosecond/attosecond sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquila, Andrew Lee [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The development of multilayer optics for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation has led to advancements in many areas of science and technology, including materials studies, EUV lithography, water window microscopy, plasma imaging, and orbiting solar physics imaging. Recent developments in femtosecond and attosecond EUV pulse generation from sources such as high harmonic generation lasers, combined with the elemental and chemical specificity provided by EUV radiation, are opening new opportunities to study fundamental dynamic processes in materials. Critical to these efforts is the design and fabrication of multilayer optics to transport, focus, shape and image these ultra-fast pulses This thesis describes the design, fabrication, characterization, and application of multilayer optics for EUV femtosecond and attosecond scientific studies. Multilayer mirrors for bandwidth control, pulse shaping and compression, tri-material multilayers, and multilayers for polarization control are described. Characterization of multilayer optics, including measurement of material optical constants, reflectivity of multilayer mirrors, and metrology of reflected phases of the multilayer, which is critical to maintaining pulse size and shape, were performed. Two applications of these multilayer mirrors are detailed in the thesis. In the first application, broad bandwidth multilayers were used to characterize and measure sub-100 attosecond pulses from a high harmonic generation source and was performed in collaboration with the Max-Planck institute for Quantum Optics and Ludwig- Maximilians University in Garching, Germany, with Professors Krausz and Kleineberg. In the second application, multilayer mirrors with polarization control are useful to study femtosecond spin dynamics in an ongoing collaboration with the T-REX group of Professor Parmigiani at Elettra in Trieste, Italy. As new ultrafast x-ray sources become available, for example free electron lasers, the multilayer designs

  19. AXSIS: Exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy (United States)

    Kärtner, F. X.; Ahr, F.; Calendron, A.-L.; Çankaya, H.; Carbajo, S.; Chang, G.; Cirmi, G.; Dörner, K.; Dorda, U.; Fallahi, A.; Hartin, A.; Hemmer, M.; Hobbs, R.; Hua, Y.; Huang, W. R.; Letrun, R.; Matlis, N.; Mazalova, V.; Mücke, O. D.; Nanni, E.; Putnam, W.; Ravi, K.; Reichert, F.; Sarrou, I.; Wu, X.; Yahaghi, A.; Ye, H.; Zapata, L.; Zhang, D.; Zhou, C.; Miller, R. J. D.; Berggren, K. K.; Graafsma, H.; Meents, A.; Assmann, R. W.; Chapman, H. N.; Fromme, P.


    X-ray crystallography is one of the main methods to determine atomic-resolution 3D images of the whole spectrum of molecules ranging from small inorganic clusters to large protein complexes consisting of hundred-thousands of atoms that constitute the macromolecular machinery of life. Life is not static, and unravelling the structure and dynamics of the most important reactions in chemistry and biology is essential to uncover their mechanism. Many of these reactions, including photosynthesis which drives our biosphere, are light induced and occur on ultrafast timescales. These have been studied with high time resolution primarily by optical spectroscopy, enabled by ultrafast laser technology, but they reduce the vast complexity of the process to a few reaction coordinates. In the AXSIS project at CFEL in Hamburg, funded by the European Research Council, we develop the new method of attosecond serial X-ray crystallography and spectroscopy, to give a full description of ultrafast processes atomically resolved in real space and on the electronic energy landscape, from co-measurement of X-ray and optical spectra, and X-ray diffraction. This technique will revolutionize our understanding of structure and function at the atomic and molecular level and thereby unravel fundamental processes in chemistry and biology like energy conversion processes. For that purpose, we develop a compact, fully coherent, THz-driven attosecond X-ray source based on coherent inverse Compton scattering off a free-electron crystal, to outrun radiation damage effects due to the necessary high X-ray irradiance required to acquire diffraction signals. This highly synergistic project starts from a completely clean slate rather than conforming to the specifications of a large free-electron laser (FEL) user facility, to optimize the entire instrumentation towards fundamental measurements of the mechanism of light absorption and excitation energy transfer. A multidisciplinary team formed by laser

  20. Modulation of attosecond beating in resonant two-photon ionization

    CERN Document Server

    Galán, Álvaro J; Martín, Fernando


    We present a theoretical study of the photoelectron attosecond beating at the basis of RABBIT (Reconstruction of Attosecond Beating By Interference of Two-photon transitions) in the presence of autoionizing states. We show that, as a harmonic traverses a resonance, its sidebands exhibit a peaked phase shift as well as a modulation of the beating frequency itself. Furthermore, the beating between two resonant paths persists even when the pump and the probe pulses do not overlap, thus providing a sensitive non-holographic interferometric means to reconstruct coherent metastable wave packets. We characterize these phenomena quantitatively with a general finite-pulse analytical model that accounts for the effect of both intermediate and final resonances on two-photon processes, at a negligible computational cost. The model predictions are in excellent agreement with those of accurate ab initio calculations for the helium atom in the region of the N=2 doubly excited states.

  1. Producing High Intense Attosecond Pulse Train by Interaction of Three-Color Pulse and Overdense Plasma (United States)

    Salehi, M.; Mirzanejad, S.


    Amplifying the attosecond pulse by the chirp pulse amplification method is impossible. Furthermore, the intensity of attosecond pulse is low in the interaction of laser pulse and underdense plasma. This motivates us to propose using a multi-color pulse to produce the high intense attosecond pulse. In the present study, the relativistic interaction of a three-color linearly-polarized laser-pulse with highly overdense plasma is studied. We show that the combination of {{ω }}1, {{ω }}2 and {{ω }}3 frequencies decreases the instance full width at half maximum reflected attosecond pulse train from the overdense plasma surface. Moreover, we show that the three-color pulse increases the intensity of generated harmonics, which is explained by the relativistic oscillating mirror model. The obtained results demonstrate that if the three-color laser pulse interacts with overdense plasma, it will enhance two orders of magnitude of intensity of ultra short attosecond pulses in comparison with monochromatic pulse.

  2. Long-range coupling of electron-hole pairs in spatially separated organic donor-acceptor layers (United States)

    Nakanotani, Hajime; Furukawa, Taro; Morimoto, Kei; Adachi, Chihaya


    Understanding exciton behavior in organic semiconductor molecules is crucial for the development of organic semiconductor-based excitonic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells, and the tightly bound electron-hole pair forming an exciton is normally assumed to be localized on an organic semiconducting molecule. We report the observation of long-range coupling of electron-hole pairs in spatially separated electron-donating and electron-accepting molecules across a 10-nanometers-thick spacer layer. We found that the exciton energy can be tuned over 100 megaelectron volts and the fraction of delayed fluorescence can be increased by adjusting the spacer-layer thickness. Furthermore, increasing the spacer-layer thickness produced an organic light-emitting diode with an electroluminescence efficiency nearly eight times higher than that of a device without a spacer layer. Our results demonstrate the first example of a long-range coupled charge-transfer state between electron-donating and electron-accepting molecules in a working device. PMID:26933691

  3. Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale

    CERN Document Server

    Klünder, K; Gisselbrecht, M; Fordell, T; Swoboda, M; Guénot, D; Johnsson, P; Caillat, J; Mauritsson, J; Maquet, A; Taïeb, R; L'Huillier, A


    We study photoionization of argon atoms excited by attosecond pulses using an interferometric measurement technique. We measure the difference in time delays between electrons emitted from the $3s^2$ and from the $3p^6$ shell, at different excitation energies ranging from 32 to 42 eV. The determination of single photoemission time delays requires to take into account the measurement process, involving the interaction with a probing infrared field. This contribution can be estimated using an universal formula and is found to account for a substantial fraction of the measured delay.

  4. Deconfinement of Quarks with TeV Attosecond Photon Beams (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander


    Recently, I have proposed a novel heuristic method for the deconfinement of quarks.footnotetextM. Gell-Mann. The Quark and the Jaguar: Adventures in the Simple and the Complex (New York, NY: W.H. Freeman and Co., 1994) [cf. M. Gell-Mann, The Garden of Live Flowers in: V. Stefan (Editor), Physics and Society. Essays Honoring Victor Frederick Weisskopf (Springer, 1998), pp. 109-121]. It proceeds in two phases.footnotetextV. Alexander Stefan, On a Heuristic Point of View About Inertial Deconfinement of Quarks, American Physical Society, 2009 APS April Meeting, May 2-5, 2009, abstract #E1.038. Firstly, a frozen hydrogen pellet is inertially confined by the ultra-intense lasers up to a solid state density. Secondly, a solid state nano-pellet is ``punched'' by the photon beam created in the beat wave driven free electron laser (BW-FEL), leading to the ``rapture'' (in a ``karate chop'' model) of the ``MIT Bag''footnotetextJ. I. Friedman and H. Kendall, Viki, in: V. Stefan (Editor), Physics and Society. (Springer, 1998), pp. 103-108]. before the asymptotically free quarks move apart. Hereby, I propose TeV, a few 100s attosecond, photon beams in interaction with the nano-pellet. The threshold ``rapture force'' of the TeV attosecond photon is 10^7 N. )

  5. Dirac electron-hole pairing gap in the heterostructure of ultra-thin films of topological insulator bilayer (United States)

    Wang, Zhigang; Fu, Zhen-Guo; Zhang, Ping


    The electron-hole pairing gap in a system of topological insulator (TI) ultra-thin film bilayer separated by a dielectric barrier is theoretically investigated beyond the mean-field approximation. We show that the pairing gap Δ is dramatically suppressed when accounting for the Coulomb correlation effect as well as the finite-thickness effect of the dielectric barrier. However, Δ can be increased by the coupling between the upper and lower surface states of each TI ultra-thin film. In order to observe much larger Δ in the present structure experimentally, the dielectric surrounding media materials with much lower dielectric constant, such as SiO2-based xerogel films, may be needed.

  6. Scanning photocurrent microscopy reveals electron-hole asymmetry in ionic liquid-gated WS{sub 2} transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubrig, Nicolas, E-mail:; Kuzmenko, Alexey B., E-mail: [DPMC, Université de Genève, 24 quai Ernest Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Jo, Sanghyun; Morpurgo, Alberto F. [DPMC, Université de Genève, 24 quai Ernest Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); GAP, Université de Genève, 24 quai Ernest Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Berger, Helmuth [Institut de Physique de la Matière Condendée, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)


    We perform scanning photocurrent microscopy on WS{sub 2} ionic liquid-gated field effect transistors exhibiting high-quality ambipolar transport. By properly biasing the gate electrode, we can invert the sign of the photocurrent showing that the minority photocarriers are either electrons or holes. Both in the electron- and hole-doping regimes the photocurrent decays exponentially as a function of the distance between the illumination spot and the nearest contact, in agreement with a two-terminal Schottky-barrier device model. This allows us to compare the value and the doping dependence of the diffusion length of the minority electrons and holes on a same sample. Interestingly, the diffusion length of the minority carriers is several times larger in the hole accumulation regime than in the electron accumulation regime, pointing out an electron-hole asymmetry in WS{sub 2}.

  7. Interaction-enhanced electron-hole and valley asymmetries in the lowest Landau level of ABA-stacked trilayer graphene (United States)

    Shizuya, K.


    In a magnetic field, graphene trilayers support a special multiplet of 12 zero(-energy)-mode Landau levels with a threefold degeneracy in Landau orbitals. A close look is made into such zero-mode levels in ABA-stacked trilayers, with the Coulomb interaction taken into account. It turns out that the zero-mode Landau levels of ABA trilayers are greatly afflicted with electron-hole and valley asymmetries, which come from general hopping parameters and which are enhanced by the Coulomb interaction and the associated vacuum effect, the orbital Lamb shift, that lifts the zero-mode degeneracy. These asymmetries substantially affect the way the zero-mode levels evolve with filling via Coulomb interactions, and its consequences are discussed in the light of experiments.

  8. Attosecond-correlated dynamics of two electrons in argon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, 85748 Garching, Germany. 5Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany. ∗. Corresponding author. E-mail: DOI: 10.1007/s12043-013-0645-x; ...

  9. Single attosecond pulse production with an ellipticity-modulated driving IR pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strelkov, V [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1, 351 Cours de la liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Zair, A [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1, 351 Cours de la liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Tcherbakoff, O [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1, 351 Cours de la liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Lopez-Martens, R [Department of Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, PO Box 118, S-22100, Lund (Sweden); Cormier, E [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1, 351 Cours de la liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Mevel, E [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1, 351 Cours de la liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Constant, E [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1, 351 Cours de la liberation, 33405 Talence (France)


    We theoretically study attosecond pulse production via high-harmonic generation using a driving laser pulse with a time-dependent ellipticity. The theoretical approach produces results that agree with our experimental data obtained using 35 fs driving laser pulses and is further used to study the generation of single attosecond pulses with shorter laser pulses. We find an equation for the duration of the temporal window created by the time-varying driving laser polarization in which high-harmonic emission can occur. We formulate the necessary requirements concerning the driving laser field in order to confine the high-harmonic emission in the form of a single attosecond pulse. Indeed, we show that using incident 12 fs laser pulses single attosecond pulses can be produced for certain carrier-envelope phase (CEP) values of the driving pulse. For 6 fs incident laser pulses, single attosecond pulses are produced for all values of the CEP (the intensity of the attosecond pulse still depends on the actual value of the CEP). If implemented with state-of-the-art 5 fs laser pulses, this technique can even lead to the production of sub-100 as pulses. (letter to the editor)

  10. Optical circular deflector with attosecond resolution for ultrashort electron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhang


    Full Text Available A novel method using high-power laser as a circular deflector is proposed for the measurement of femtosecond (fs and sub-fs electron beam. In the scheme, the electron beam interacts with a laser pulse operating in a radially polarized doughnut mode (TEM_{01^{*}} in a helical undulator, generating angular kicks along the beam in two directions at the same time. The phase difference between the two angular kicks makes the beam form a ring after a propagation section with appropriate phase advance, which can reveal the current profile of the electron beam. Detailed theoretical analysis of the method and numerical results with reasonable parameters are both presented. It is shown that the temporal resolution can reach up to ∼100 attosecond, which is a significant improvement for the diagnostics of ultrashort electron beam.

  11. Attosecond interference in strong-field nonsequential double ionization (United States)

    Liao, Qing; Li, Ye; Qin, Meiyan; Lu, Peixiang


    Kinetic-energy spectra of a single electron from strong-field nonsequential double ionization are investigated in a high-intensity regime with a quantum mechanical model. We find interference fringes with large energy spacings, which increases with the electron kinetic energy. These interference fringes originate from the electronic wave packets born in the recollision by the returning electronic wave packets from the "short" and the "long" quantum paths. Since the recollision happens in a fraction of a near-infrared (NIR) optical cycle, i.e., in an attosecond time interval, the resulting interference fringes exhibit energy spacings much larger than the NIR photon energy. The comparison of the quantum mechanical results with a classical collision model suggests a near-equal energy sharing between two electrons during the recollision process at very high intensities, in contrast to the extremely unequal energy sharing at low intensities.

  12. Observation of molecular dipole excitations by attosecond self-streaking

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, Georg; Sato, Shunsuke A; Pazourek, Renate; Wais, Michael; Lemell, Christoph; Tong, Xiao-Min; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Burgdörfer, Joachim


    We propose a protocol to probe the ultrafast evolution and dephasing of coherent electronic excitation in molecules in the time domain by the intrinsic streaking field generated by the molecule itself. Coherent electronic motion in the endohedral fullerene \\Necsixty~is initiated by a moderately intense femtosecond UV-VIS pulse leading to coherent oscillations of the molecular dipole moment that persist after the end of the laser pulse. The resulting time-dependent molecular near-field is probed through the momentum modulation of photoemission from the central neon atom by a time-delayed attosecond XUV pulse. Our ab-initio time-dependent density functional theory and classical trajectory simulations predict that this self-streaking signal accurately traces the molecular dipole oscillations in real time. We discuss the underlying processes and give an analytical model that captures the essence of our ab-initio simulations.

  13. Effect of heterojunction on exciton binding energy and electron-hole recombination probability in CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. (United States)

    Elward, Jennifer M; Chakraborty, Arindam


    Presence of heterojunctions is important for generation of free charge carriers and the dissociation of bound electron-hole pairs in semiconductor nanoparticles. This work presents a theoretical investigation of the effect of core/shell heterojunction on electron-hole interaction in CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. The excitonic wave function in the CdSe/ZnS dots was calculated using the electron-hole explicitly correlated Hartree-Fock (eh-XCHF) method and the effect of successive addition of the ZnS shell on exciton binding energy, electron-hole recombination probability, and the electron-hole separation distance was investigated. It was found that the scaling of all the three quantities as a function of dot diameter did not follow conventional volume scaling laws of core-only dots, and the scaling laws were significantly altered due to the presence of the heterojunction. The spatial localization of the quasiparticles in the core/shell quantum dot was analyzed by calculating the 1-particle reduced density from the eh-XCHF wave function and partitioning the density spatially into core and shell regions. It was found that in the 15 nm CdSe/ZnS dot, the relative probability of the electron localization in the shell region was higher than the hole by a factor of 3. The degree of spatial localization of the quasiparticles was found to depend strongly on the initial size of the CdSe core in the core/shell quantum dot. It was found that a reduction in the CdSe core diameter by a factor of 1.7 resulted in an enhancement of the preferential localization of the electron in the shell region by a factor of 11.3. The results demonstrate that large CdSe/ZnS quantum dots with a small CdSe core have the necessary characteristics for efficient exciton dissociation and generation of free charge carriers.

  14. Research Update: Relativistic origin of slow electron-hole recombination in hybrid halide perovskite solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooya Azarhoosh


    Full Text Available The hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPI exhibits long minority-carrier lifetimes and diffusion lengths. We show that slow recombination originates from a spin-split indirect-gap. Large internal electric fields act on spin-orbit-coupled band extrema, shifting band-edges to inequivalent wavevectors, making the fundamental gap indirect. From a description of photoluminescence within the quasiparticle self-consistent GW approximation for MAPI, CdTe, and GaAs, we predict carrier lifetime as a function of light intensity and temperature. At operating conditions we find radiative recombination in MAPI is reduced by a factor of more than 350 compared to direct gap behavior. The indirect gap is retained with dynamic disorder.

  15. Attosecond angular flux of partial charges on the carbon atoms of benzene in non-aromatic excited state (United States)

    Hermann, Gunter; Liu, ChunMei; Manz, Jörn; Paulus, Beate; Pohl, Vincent; Tremblay, Jean Christophe


    Recently, it was discovered that excitation of the oriented model benzene from its aromatic electronic ground state S0 (1A1g) to the non-aromatic S0 +S2 (1B1u) superposition state generates negative and positive partial charges on alternating carbon atoms. Subsequently, they vary periodically, due to adiabatic attosecond charge migration AACM. Here, we determine the angular electronic flux that mediates this new type of AACM, by means of quantum dynamics simulations. It is found to be periodic, with period τ bar = 590as , and with a pincer motion type pattern such that a total of 1.2 valence electrons flow concertedly between alternating sources and sinks at the carbon nuclei.

  16. Attosecond evolution of energy- and angle-resolved photoemission spectra in two-color (XUV + IR) ionization of rare gases (United States)

    Picard, Y. J.; Manschwetus, B.; Géléoc, M.; Böttcher, M.; Casagrande, E. M. Staicu; Lin, N.; Ruchon, T.; Carré, B.; Hergott, J.-F.; Lepetit, F.; Taïeb, R.; Maquet, A.; Huetz, A.


    We have analyzed the angular distributions of the photoelectrons emitted upon photoionization of rare gases by a comb of harmonics in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the presence of a "dressing" infrared (IR) field with controlled delay τ, stabilized down to about ±60 as. The measurements have been performed with the help of the coincidence momentum imaging technique. We evidence marked differences in the measured angular distributions of the photoelectrons, depending on the number of IR photons exchanged. Joined to a theoretical interpretation, these observations bring new insights into the dynamics of this class of two-color photoionization processes that are a key step towards studying photoionization in the time domain, with attosecond time resolution.

  17. Strong electron-hole symmetric Rashba spin-orbit coupling in graphene/monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures (United States)

    Yang, Bowen; Lohmann, Mark; Barroso, David; Liao, Ingrid; Lin, Zhisheng; Liu, Yawen; Bartels, Ludwig; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Shi, Jing


    Despite its extremely weak intrinsic spin-orbit coupling (SOC), graphene has been shown to acquire considerable SOC by proximity coupling with exfoliated transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Here we demonstrate strong induced Rashba SOC in graphene that is proximity coupled to a monolayer TMD film, Mo S2 or WS e2 , grown by chemical-vapor deposition with drastically different Fermi level positions. Graphene/TMD heterostructures are fabricated with a pickup-transfer technique utilizing hexagonal boron nitride, which serves as a flat template to promote intimate contact and therefore a strong interfacial interaction between TMD and graphene as evidenced by quenching of the TMD photoluminescence. We observe strong induced graphene SOC that manifests itself in a pronounced weak-antilocalization (WAL) effect in the graphene magnetoconductance. The spin-relaxation rate extracted from the WAL analysis varies linearly with the momentum scattering time and is independent of the carrier type. This indicates a dominantly Dyakonov-Perel spin-relaxation mechanism caused by the induced Rashba SOC. Our analysis yields a Rashba SOC energy of ˜1.5 meV in graphene/WS e2 and ˜0.9 meV in graphene/Mo S2 . The nearly electron-hole symmetric nature of the induced Rashba SOC provides a clue to possible underlying SOC mechanisms.

  18. The impact of long-range electron-hole interaction on the charge separation yield of molecular photocells (United States)

    Nemati Aram, Tahereh; Ernzerhof, Matthias; Asgari, Asghar; Mayou, Didier


    We discuss the effects of charge carrier interaction and recombination on the operation of molecular photocells. Molecular photocells are devices where the energy conversion process takes place in a single molecular donor-acceptor complex attached to electrodes. Our investigation is based on the quantum scattering theory, in particular on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation; this minimizes the complexity of the problem while providing useful and non-trivial insight into the mechanism governing photocell operation. In this study, both exciton pair creation and dissociation are treated in the energy domain, and therefore there is access to detailed spectral information, which can be used as a framework to interpret the charge separation yield. We demonstrate that the charge carrier separation is a complex process that is affected by different parameters, such as the strength of the electron-hole interaction and the non-radiative recombination rate. Our analysis helps to optimize the charge separation process and the energy transfer in organic solar cells and in molecular photocells.

  19. Assessment of pseudo-bilayer structures in the heterogate germanium electron-hole bilayer tunnel field-effect transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, J. L., E-mail:; Alper, C.; Ionescu, A. M. [Nanoelectronic Devices Laboratory, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland); Medina-Bailón, C.; Gámiz, F. [Departamento de Electrónica y Tecnología de los Computadores, Universidad de Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)


    We investigate the effect of pseudo-bilayer configurations at low operating voltages (≤0.5 V) in the heterogate germanium electron-hole bilayer tunnel field-effect transistor (HG-EHBTFET) compared to the traditional bilayer structures of EHBTFETs arising from semiclassical simulations where the inversion layers for electrons and holes featured very symmetric profiles with similar concentration levels at the ON-state. Pseudo-bilayer layouts are attained by inducing a certain asymmetry between the top and the bottom gates so that even though the hole inversion layer is formed at the bottom of the channel, the top gate voltage remains below the required value to trigger the formation of the inversion layer for electrons. Resulting benefits from this setup are improved electrostatic control on the channel, enhanced gate-to-gate efficiency, and higher I{sub ON} levels. Furthermore, pseudo-bilayer configurations alleviate the difficulties derived from confining very high opposite carrier concentrations in very thin structures.

  20. Two-particle self-consistent analysis for the electron-hole asymmetry of superconductivity in cuprate superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogura, Daisuke; Kuroki, Kazuhiko [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka (Japan)


    In the hole-doped type cuprate superconductors, it is well-known that the superconducting transition temperature T{sub c} exhibits a dome-like structure against doping. On the other hand, recent experiments unveil that T{sub c} in the electron-doped compounds shows a monotonic increase with decreasing the doping, at least down to a very small doping rate. Our recent study for the three-band d-p model has unveiled that this asymmetric behavior can be explained as a combined effect of the intrinsic electron-hole asymmetry in systems comprising Cu3 d and O2 p orbitals and the band-filling-dependent vertex correction. In the present study, we study another compound Tl{sub 2} Ba{sub 2} CuO{sub 6} to show that this explanation can be applied to other cuprate superconductors with the small d{sub z{sup 2}} orbital mixture. By varying the d-p offset, we also study how the strength of the d-p hybridization controls the spin fluctuation and hence the pairing interaction. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Determination of the electron-hole pair creation energy for semiconductors from the spectral responsivity of photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Scholze, F; Kuschnerus, P; Rabus, H; Richter, M; Ulm, G


    Ionizing radiation can be detected by the measurement of the charge carriers produced in a detector. The improved semiconductor technology now allows detectors operating near the physical limits of the detector materials to be designed. The mean energy required for producing an electron-hole pair, W, is a material property of the semiconductor. Here, the determination of W from the spectral responsivity of photodiodes is demonstrated. Using spectrally dispersed synchrotron radiation, different types of semiconductor photodiodes have been examined in the UV-, VUV-, and soft X-ray spectral range. Their spectral responsivity was determined with relative uncertainties between 0.4% and 1% using a cryogenic electrical-substitution radiometer as primary detector standard. Results are presented for silicon n-on-p junction photodiodes and for GaAsP/Au Schottky diodes at room temperature. The investigations for silicon covered the complete spectral range from 3 to 1500 eV, yielding a constant value W=(3.66+-0.03) eV fo...

  2. Phase characterization of the reflection on an extreme UV multilayer: comparison between attosecond metrology and standing wave measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loch, R. A.; Dubrouil, A.; Sobierajski, R.; Descamps, D.; Fabre, B.; Lidon, P.; van de Kruijs, R. W. E.; Boekhout, F.; Gullikson, E.; Gaudin, J.; E. Louis,; F. Bijkerk,; Mevel, E.; Petit, S.; Constant, E.; Mairesse, Y.


    We characterize the phase shift induced by reflection on a multilayer mirror in the extreme UV range (80-93 eV) using two techniques: one based on high order harmonic generation and attosecond metrology (reconstruction of attosecond beating by interference of two-photon transitions), and a second

  3. Obtaining two attosecond pulses pulses for x-ray stimulated Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zholents, Alexander; Penn, G.


    Attosecond x-ray pulses are an indispensable tool for the study of electronic and structural changes in molecules undergoing chemical reactions. They have a wide bandwidth comparable to the energy bands of valence electronic states and, therefore, are well suited for making and probing multiple valence electronic excitations using core electron transitions. Here we propose a method of creating a sequence of two attosecond soft x-ray pulses in a free electron laser by optical manipulation of electrons located in two different sections of the electron bunch. The energy of each x-ray pulse can be of the order of 100 nJ and the pulse width of the order of 250 attoseconds. The carrier frequency of each x-ray pulse can be independently tuned to a resonant core electron transition of a specific atom of the molecule. The time interval between the two attosecond pulses is tunable from a few femtoseconds to a hundred femtoseconds with better than 100 attoseconds precision.

  4. Exploring various sources of electron-hole screening in CH3NH3PbI3 solar cell materials using the Bethe-Salpeter equation (United States)

    Leveillee, Joshua; Schleife, Andre

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite materials have emerged as promising next generation thin-film solar cells. While many working devices have been developed, the weak electron-hole interaction and low exciton binding energy have not been fully explained. Methods beyond ground-state calculations are required to fully understand the excited state properties of these materials. In this work, the excitonic spectrum of CH3NH3PbI3 is simulated using the Bethe-Salpeter Equation. We describe contributions to dielectric screening, such as electronic, free-carrier, lattice, and polaron, through the use of model dielectric functions for the electron-hole Coulomb interaction. The calculated optical properties are directly compared, qualitatively and quantitatively, to experimental results. We find that the contributions of lattice and free carrier screening are highly influential on the optical spectrum. Supported by National Science Foundation Research Grant CBET-1437230 and National Center for Super Computing Applications (Blue Waters Super Computer) at UIUC.

  5. Generation of isolated attosecond pulses by spatial shaping of a femtosecond laser beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strelkov, V V; Mevel, E; Constant, E [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications (CELIA), Domaine du Haut-Carre, Universite Bordeaux 1, 43 Rue Pierre Noailles, 33405 Talence (France)], E-mail:


    We present a new method for generating isolated attosecond pulses via high-order harmonic generation in gases. It relies on using collective effects to achieve transient phase-matching which provides both a high efficiency and a strong temporal confinement under specific conditions. By controlling the spatial shape of the fundamental beam and the geometry of the laser-gas interaction, this transient phase matching leads to the generation of isolated broadband attosecond pulses with long driving pulses (10-20 fs) even without controlling their carrier envelope phase. Such laser pulses are becoming available at high energy levels and our approach offers a route to increase the energy of isolated attosecond pulses by orders of magnitude as compared to existing sources.

  6. Attosecond pulse production using resonantly-enhanced high-order harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Strelkov, V V


    We study theoretically the effect of the giant resonance in Xe on the phase difference between the consecutive high order resonantly-enhanced harmonics and calculate the duration of the attosecond pulses produced by these harmonics. For certain conditions resonantly-induced dephasing compensates the phase difference which is intrinsic for the off-resonance harmonics. We find these conditions analytically and compare them with the numerical results. This harmonic synchronization allows attosecond pulse shortening in conjunction with the resonance-induced intensity increase by more than an order of magnitude; the latter enhancement relaxes the requirements for the UV filtering needed for the attosecond pulse production. Using a two-color driving field allows further increase of the intensity. In particular, a caustic-like feature in the harmonic spectrum leads to the generation efficiency growth up to two orders of magnitude, however accompanied by an elongation of the XUV pulse.

  7. Time delays for attosecond streaking in photoionization of neon

    CERN Document Server

    Feist, Johannes; Nagele, Stefan; Pazourek, Renate; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Guan, Xiaoxu; Bartschat, Klaus; Schneider, Barry I


    We revisit the time-resolved photoemission in neon atoms as probed by attosecond streaking. We calculate streaking time shifts for the emission of 2p and 2s electrons and compare the relative delay as measured in a recent experiment by Schultze et al. [Science 328, 1658 (2010)]. The B-spline R-matrix method is employed to calculate accurate Eisenbud-Wigner-Smith time delays from multi- electron dipole transition matrix elements for photoionization. The additional laser field-induced time shifts in the exit channel are obtained from separate, time-dependent simulations of a full streaking process by solving the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation on the single-active-electron level. The resulting accurate total relative streaking time shifts between 2s and 2p emission lie well below the experimental data. We identify the presence of unresolved shake-up satellites in the experiment as a potential source of error in the determination of streaking time shifts.

  8. Attosecond Timing in Optical-to-Electrical Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Baynes, Fred N; Fortier, Tara; Zhou, Qiugui; Beling, Andreas; Campbell, Joe C; Diddames, Scott A


    The most frequency-stable sources of electromagnetic radiation are produced optically, and optical frequency combs provide the means for high fidelity frequency transfer across hundreds of terahertz and into the microwave domain. A critical step in this photonic-based synthesis of microwave signals is the optical-to-electrical conversion process. Here we show that attosecond (as) timing stability can be preserved across the opto-electronic interface of a photodiode, despite an intrinsic temporal response that is more than six orders of magnitude slower. The excess timing noise in the photodetection of a periodic train of ultrashort optical pulses behaves as flicker noise (1/f) with amplitude of 4 as/Sqrt(Hz) at 1 Hz offset. The corresponding fractional frequency fluctuations are 1.4x10-17 at 1 second and 5.5x10-20 at 1000 seconds. These results demonstrate that direct photodetection, as part of frequency-comb-based microwave synthesis, can support the timing performance of the best optical frequency standards...

  9. Spatial transport of electron quantum states with strong attosecond pulses (United States)

    Chovancova, M.; Agueny, H.; Førre, M.; Kocbach, L.; Hansen, J. P.


    This work follows up the work of Dimitrovsky, Briggs and co-workers on translated electron atomic states by a strong field of an atto-second laser pulse, also described as creation of atoms without a nucleus. Here, we propose a new approach by analyzing the electron states in the Kramers–Henneberger moving frame in the dipole approximation. The wave function follows the displacement vector α (t). This allows arbitrarily shaped pulses, including the model delta-function potentials in the Dimitrovsky and Briggs approach. In the case of final-length single-cycle pulses, we apply both the Kramers–Henneberger moving frame analysis and a full numerical treatment of our 1D model. When the laser pulse frequency exceeds the frequency associated by the energy difference between initial and final states, the entire wavefunction is translated in space nearly without loss of coherence, to a well defined distance from the original position where the ionized core is left behind. This statement is demonstrated on the excited Rydberg states (n = 10, n = 15), where almost no distortion in the transported wave functions has been observed. However, the ground state (n = 1) is visibly distorted during the removal by pulses of reasonable frequencies, as also predicted by Dimitrovsky and Briggs analysis. Our approach allows us to analyze general pulses as well as the model delta-function potentials on the same footing in the Kramers–Henneberger frame.

  10. Phase distortions of attosecond pulses produced by resonance-enhanced high harmonic generation (United States)

    Haessler, S.; Strelkov, V.; Elouga Bom, L. B.; Khokhlova, M.; Gobert, O.; Hergott, J.-F.; Lepetit, F.; Perdrix, M.; Ozaki, T.; Salières, P.


    Resonant enhancement of high harmonic generation can be obtained in plasmas containing ions with strong radiative transitions resonant with harmonic orders. The mechanism for this enhancement is still debated. We perform the first temporal characterization of the attosecond emission from a tin plasma under near-resonant conditions for two different resonance detunings. We show that the resonance considerably changes the relative phase of neighboring harmonics. For very small detunings, their phase locking may even be lost, evidencing strong phase distortions in the emission process and a modified attosecond structure. These features are well reproduced by our simulations, allowing their interpretation in terms of the phase of the recombination dipole moment.

  11. Attosecond control of orbital parity mix interferences and the relative phase of even and odd harmonics in an attosecond pulse train. (United States)

    Laurent, G; Cao, W; Li, H; Wang, Z; Ben-Itzhak, I; Cocke, C L


    We experimentally demonstrate that atomic orbital parity mix interferences can be temporally controlled on an attosecond time scale. Electron wave packets are formed by ionizing argon gas with a comb of odd and even high-order harmonics, in the presence of a weak infrared field. Consequently, a mix of energy-degenerate even and odd parity states is fed in the continuum by one- and two-photon transitions. These interfere, leading to an asymmetric electron emission along the polarization vector. The direction of the emission can be controlled by varying the time delay between the comb and infrared field pulses. We show that such asymmetric emission provides information on the relative phase of consecutive odd and even order harmonics in the attosecond pulse train.

  12. Isolated atto-second pulse generated by spatial shaping of femtosecond laser beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strelkov, V.; Mevel, E.; Constant, E. [Univ Bordeaux 1, CELIA, F-33405 Talence (France); Strelkov, V. [Russian Acad Sci, Inst Gen Phys, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)


    We study numerically the time-dependent HHG phase-matching in the laser beam having a flat-top radial intensity profile. A flat-top profile is the key to produce similar ionization degree at the axis and at the periphery and thus to achieve simultaneous phase-matched generation. Such a profile can be obtained experimentally by using two concentric phase plates that introduce a specific phase shift between the central and the outer part of a focused Gaussian beam. We find realistic laser field parameters and medium density that allow obtaining (after spectral filtering) single atto-second pulse using 10 fs driving laser pulse. Our technique provides isolated atto-second pulse emission almost insensitive on the CEP of the laser pulse. Moreover, the technique is effective both for the mid-plateau and the cut-off spectral range. In particular, the XUV from Ar target in the cut-off spectral range (compatible with the Zr filter) provides isolated atto-second pulse with 185 as duration at a central energy of 92 eV. Using achievable multi mJ 10 fs laser pulses this technique could provide atto-second pulses approaching the {mu}J energy range. (authors)

  13. Attosecond streaking of shake-up and Auger electrons in xenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drescher M.


    Full Text Available We present first results of simultaneous attosecond streaking measurements of shake-up electrons and Auger electrons emitted from xenon. We extract relative photo-emission delays for electrons emitted from the 4d, 5s and 5p subshell, as well as for the 5p−25d correlation satellite (shake-up electrons.

  14. Compensation of high order harmonic long quantum-path attosecond chirp (United States)

    Guichard, R.; Caillat, J.; Lévêque, C.; Risoud, F.; Maquet, A.; Taïeb, R.; Zaïr, A.


    We propose a method to compensate for the extreme ultra violet (XUV) attosecond chirp associated with the long quantum-path in the high harmonic generation process. Our method employs an isolated attosecond pulse (IAP) issued from the short trajectory contribution in a primary target to assist the infrared driving field to produce high harmonics from the long trajectory in a secondary target. In our simulations based on the resolution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, the resulting high harmornics present a clear phase compensation of the long quantum-path contribution, near to Fourier transform limited attosecond XUV pulse. Employing time–frequency analysis of the high harmonic dipole, we found that the compensation is not a simple far-field photonic interference between the IAP and the long-path harmonic emission, but a coherent phase transfer from the weak IAP to the long quantum-path electronic wavepacket. Our approach opens the route to utilizing the long quantum-path for the production and applications of attosecond pulses.

  15. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of α-Bi2O3 with high electron-hole mobility by codoping approach: A first-principles study (United States)

    Li, Yujie; Yang, Fan; Yu, Ying


    To improve the photocatalytic activity of narrow-gap material Bi2O3, efforts need be made to lower the electron-hole recombination rate and widen the response range of visible light. Understanding the related mechanism is vital, which may lead to high electron-hole mobility and suitable band edge. In this paper we have studied the atomic and electronic structure of single metallic atom (Ag, Cu, Pb, Pd, Sn)-doped and nitrogen (N)-metal codoped Bi2O3 with α phase by first principles calculations. The calculation results firstly show that new impurity states appeared in band gap of α-Bi2O3 after single metal doping, especially for the doping of Cu, Ag and Pb, which showed shallow acceptor levels for α-Bi2O3. And the formation energy analysis indicates that Cu doped system was easier to be formed than other doped systems. All of those calculated properties are helpful to enhance the photocatalytic property of α-Bi2O3, which agrees well with experimental results. Interestingly, for anion atom N together with metallic atom (Ag, Cu, Pb, Pd, Sn) codoped α-Bi2O3 systems, it is found that N-2p state had impact on the electronic structure. Holes were demonstrated to be more delocalized in (Cu + N) codoped α-Bi2O3 system, which was responsible for high mobility of holes, then lowering the electron-hole recombination, and finally improving the photocatalytic performance of Bi2O3 significantly.

  16. Direct luminescence evidence for the degenerate electron-hole plasma formation in A/sup II/B/sup VI/ semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodin, M.S.; Bandura, V.M.; Matsko, M.G. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Fiziki)


    The emission spectra of ZnTe and ZnSe crystals are investigated at T = 4.2 K at high excitation densities by a Coumarin 30 and 120 dye laser. It is shown that for excitation densities R/sub exc/ > 0.1 MW/cm/sup 2/ the emission spectrum of ZnTe exhibits the P-band due to inelastic exciton-exciton scattering. For R/sub exc/ > 6 MW/cm/sup 2/ the emission of a degenerate electron-hole plasma (EHP) is observed. These emission bands may be differentiated by scanning the exciting quanta energy in the short-wavelength tail region.

  17. Mapping of electron-hole excitations in the charge-density-wave system 1T-TiSe2 using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering. (United States)

    Monney, C; Zhou, K J; Cercellier, H; Vydrova, Z; Garnier, M G; Monney, G; Strocov, V N; Berger, H; Beck, H; Schmitt, T; Aebi, P


    In high-resolution resonant inelastic x-ray scattering at the Ti L edge of the charge-density-wave system 1T-TiSe(2), we observe sharp low energy loss peaks from electron-hole pair excitations developing at low temperature. These excitations are strongly dispersing as a function of the transferred momentum of light. We show that the unoccupied bands close to the Fermi level can effectively be probed in this broadband material. Furthermore, we extract the order parameter of the charge-density-wave phase from temperature-dependent measurements.

  18. Generation of isolated single attosecond hard X-ray pulse in enhanced self-amplified spontaneous emission scheme. (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kang, Heung-Sik; Kim, Dong Eon


    The generation of isolated attosecond hard x-ray pulse has been studied under the enhanced self-amplified spontaneous emission (ESASE) scheme with the density and energy modulation of an electron bunch. It is demonstrated in simulation that an isolated attosecond hard x-ray pulse of a high contrast ratio can be produced by adjusting a driver laser wavelength and the energy distribution of an electron bunch. An isolated attosecond pulse of ~146 attosecond full-width half-maximum (FWHM) at 0.1 nm wavelength is obtained with a saturation length of 34 meter for the electron beam parameters of Korean X-ray Free Electron laser. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  19. Catching Conical Intersections in the Act; Monitoring Transient Electronic Coherences by Attosecond Stimulated X-Ray Raman Signals (United States)

    Bennett, Kochise; Kowalewski, Markus; Dorfman, Konstantin; Mukamel, Shaul

    Conical intersections (CIs) dominate the pathways and outcomes of virtually all photochemical molecular processes. Despite extensive experimental and theoretical effort, CIs have not been directly observed yet and the experimental evidence is inferred from fast reaction rates and vibrational signatures. We show that short X-ray pulses can directly detect the passage through a CI with the adequate temporal and spectral sensitivity. The non-adiabatic coupling that exists in the region of a CI redistributes electronic population but also generates electronic coherence. This coherent oscillation can then be detected via a coherent Raman process that employs a composite femtosecond/attosecond X-ray pulse. This technique, dubbed Transient Redistribution of Ultrafast Electronic Coherences (TRUECARS) is reminiscent of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) in that a coherent oscillation is set in motion and then monitored, but differs in that the dynamics is electronic (CARS generally observes nuclear dynamics) and the coherence is generated internally by passage through a region of non-adiabatic coupling rather than by an externally applied laser. Support provided by U.S. Department of Energy through Award No. DE-FG02-04ER15571, the National Science Foundation (Grant No CHE-1361516), and the Alexander von Humboldt foundation through the Feodor Lynen program.

  20. Theoretical Phase Diagram for the Room-Temperature Electron-Hole Liquid in Photoexcited Quasi-Two-Dimensional Monolayer MoS2. (United States)

    Rustagi, Avinash; Kemper, Alexander F


    Strong correlations between electrons and holes can drive the existence of an electron-hole liquid (EHL) state, typically at high carrier densities and low temperatures. The recent emergence of quasi-two-dimensional (2D) monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) provides ideal systems to explore the EHL state since ineffective screening of the out-of-plane field lines in these quasi-2D systems allows for stronger charge carrier correlations in contrast to conventional 3D bulk semiconductors and enables the existence of the EHL at high temperatures. Here we construct the phase diagram for the photoinduced first-order phase transition from a plasma of electron-hole pairs to a correlated EHL state in suspended monolayer MoS2. We show that the quasi-2D nature of monolayer TMDCs and the ineffective screening of the out-of-plane field lines allow for this phase transition to occur at and above room temperature, thereby opening avenues for studying many-body phenomena without the constraint of cryogenics.

  1. A BiPO{sub 4}/BiOCl heterojunction photocatalyst with enhanced electron-hole separation and excellent photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duo, Fangfang; Wang, Yawen; Mao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Xiaochao; Wang, Yunfang; Fan, Caimei, E-mail:


    Highlights: • BiPO{sub 4}/BiOCl heterojunction photocatalyst was fabricated by the hydrothermal method. • The obtained products exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity on MO degradation. • The formed p–n heterojunction of BiPO{sub 4}/BiOCl enhanced the electron-hole separation. - Abstract: The novel BiPO{sub 4}/BiOCl heterojunction composites were successfully fabricated by a facile one-step hydrothermal method. The XRD, SEM, TEM, UV–vis DRS, transient photocurrent and EIS measurements were employed to characterize the phase structures, morphologies, optical properties, and electron–hole separation effect of the photocatalysts. BiPO{sub 4}/BiOCl composites exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity for the methyl orange (MO) degradation than single BiOCl and BiPO{sub 4} under simulated sunlight irradiation. Moreover, the stability test for the optimum synergetic molar ratio of BiPO{sub 4}/BiOCl composites indicated that the synthetic p-n heterojunction BiPO{sub 4}/BiOCl photocatalyst had the gratifying reutilization after five cycles. The results of transient photocurrent measurements and EIS demonstrated that the large enhancement of photocatalytic activity could be mainly ascribed to the surface junction of BiPO{sub 4}/BiOCl composite which can effectively improve electron-hole separation speed during photocatalytic process.

  2. First-principles investigations of electron-hole inclusion effects on optoelectronic properties of Bi2Te3, a topological insulator for broadband photodetector (United States)

    Lawal, Abdullahi; Shaari, A.; Ahmed, R.; Jarkoni, Norshila


    Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3), a layered compound with narrow band gap has been potentially reported for thermoelectric. However, strong light interaction of Bi2Te3 is an exciting feature to emerge it as a promising candidate for optoelectronic applications within broadband wavelengths. In this study, we investigate structural, electronic and optical properties of Bi2Te3 topological insulator using combination of density functional theory (DFT) and many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) approach. With the inclusion of van der Waals (vdW) correction in addition to PBE, the lattice parameters and interlayer distance are in good agreement with experimental results. Furthermore, for the precise prediction of fundamental band gap, we go beyond DFT and calculated band structure using one-shot GW approach. Interestingly, our calculated quasiparticle (QP) band gap, Eg of 0.169 eV, is in good agreement with experimental measurements. Taken into account the effects of electron-hole interaction by solving Bethe-Salpeter equation, the calculated optical properties, namely, imaginary and real parts of complex dielectric function, absorption coefficient, refractive index, reflectivity, extinction coefficient, electron energy loss function and optical conductivity all are in better agreement with available experimental results. Consistencies of our findings with experimental data validate the effectiveness of electron-hole interaction for theoretical investigation of optical properties.

  3. Generation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in a longitudinal space charge amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohlus, M.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)


    A longitudinal space charge amplifier (LSCA), operating in soft X-ray regime, was recently proposed. Such an amplifier consists of a few amplification cascades (focusing channel and chicane) and a short radiator undulator in the end. Broadband nature of LSCA supports generation of few-cycle pulses as well as wavelength compression. In this paper we consider an application of these properties of LSCA for generation of attosecond X-ray pulses. It is shown that a compact and cheap addition to the soft X-ray free electron laser facility FLASH would allow to generate 60 attosecond (FWHM) long X-ray pulses with the peak power at 100 MW level and a contrast above 98%. (orig.)

  4. Nuclear-Motion Effects in Attosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy of Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Bækhøj, Jens E; Madsen, Lars Bojer


    We investigate the characteristic effects of nuclear motion on attosecond transient absorption spectra in molecules by calculating the spectrum for different model systems. Two models of the hydrogen molecular ion are considered: one where the internuclear separation is fixed, and one where the nuclei are free to vibrate. The spectra for the fixed nuclei model are similar to atomic spectra reported elsewhere, while the spectra obtained in the model including nuclear motion are very different and dominated by extremely broad absorption features. These broad absorption features are analyzed and their relation to molecular dissociation investigated. The study of the hydrogen molecular ion validates an approach based on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and a finite electronic basis. This latter approach is then used to study the three-dimensional hydrogen molecule including nuclear vibration. The spectrum obtained from H$_2$ is compared to the result of a fixed-nuclei calculation. In the attosecond transient ab...

  5. Obtaining attosecond x-ray pulses using a self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Zholents


    Full Text Available We describe a technique for the generation of a solitary attosecond x-ray pulse in a free-electron laser (FEL, via a process of self-amplified spontaneous emission. In this method, electrons experience an energy modulation upon interacting with laser pulses having a duration of a few cycles within single-period wiggler magnets. Two consecutive modulation sections, followed by compression in a dispersive section, are used to obtain a single, subfemtosecond spike in the electron peak current. This region of the electron beam experiences an enhanced growth rate for FEL amplification. After propagation through a long undulator, this current spike emits a ∼250   attosecond x-ray pulse whose intensity dominates the x-ray emission from the rest of the electron bunch.

  6. Spectral shaping of attosecond pulses using two-colour laser fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansten, E; Dahlstroem, J M; Johnsson, P; Swoboda, M; L' Huillier, A; Mauritsson, J [Department of Physics, Lund University, P O Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    We use a strong two-colour laser field composed of the fundamental (800 nm) and the second harmonic (400 nm) of an infrared (IR) laser field to generate attosecond pulses with controlled spectral and temporal properties. With a second-harmonic intensity equal to 15% of the IR intensity the second-harmonic field is strong enough to significantly alter and control the electron trajectories in the generation process. This enables us to tune the central photon energy of the attosecond pulses by changing the phase difference between the IR and the second-harmonic fields. In the time domain the radiation is emitted as a sequence of pulses separated by a full IR cycle. We also perform calculations showing that the effect of even stronger second-harmonic fields leads to an extended tunable range under conditions that are experimentally feasible.

  7. Attosecond delay of xenon $4d$ photoionization at the giant resonance and Cooper minimum

    CERN Document Server

    Magrakvelidze, Maia; Chakraborty, Himadri S


    A Kohn-Sham time-dependent local-density-functional scheme is utilized to predict attosecond time delays of xenon 4d photoionization that involves the 4d giant dipole resonance and Cooper minimum. The fundamental effect of electron correlations to uniquely determine the delay at both regions is demonstrated. In particular, for the giant dipole resonance, the delay underpins strong collective effect, emulating the recent prediction at C60 giant plasmon resonance [T. Barillot et al, Phys. Rev. A 91, 033413 (2015)]. For the Cooper minimum, a qualitative similarity with a photorecombination experiment near argon 3p minimum [S. B. Schoun et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 153001 (2014)] is found. The result should encourage attosecond measurements of Xe 4d photoemission.

  8. Attosecond Optics and Technology: Progress to Date and Future Prospects [Invited (United States)


    shown to depend on Rabi frequencies with intermediate excited states [116]. Circularly polarized attosecond pulses are theoretically proposed to inves... lattice of 6 pm. The results clearly separate the electronic and nuclear time scales through the experiment. 5. FUTURE PERSPECTIVES The rapid progress in...step-like features in the electronic response, (c) conduction band shift, and (d) slower lattice response. From [119]. Reprinted with permission from

  9. Macroscopic generation of attosecond-pulse trains in strongly ionized media (United States)

    Tosa, V.; Kim, K. T.; Nam, C. H.


    The characteristics of attosecond-pulse trains (APT) obtained from high-order harmonics are investigated by using a nonadiabatic three-dimensional model. A time-dependent phase matching approach is used in order to analyze the macroscopic formation of the APT. Under high ionization conditions, the process of APT formation is found to be the result of an interlace among the driving laser field, single atom response, phase matching effects in the near field and burst interference in the far field.

  10. Attosecond lighthouse above 100 eV from high-harmonic generation of mid-infrared pulses (United States)

    Kovács, K.; Negro, M.; Vozzi, C.; Stagira, S.; Tosa, V.


    In this paper, we numerically investigate the possibility to obtain a lighthouse emission for the attosecond pulses produced by high-order harmonics of a strong mid-infrared fundamental pulse without any optical element inserted in the path of the generating beam. The parameters of the driving pulse, focusing geometry, gas medium and detection configuration are currently experimentally feasible. Here, we study in detail the specific propagation conditions of the laser beam, and describe the exact mechanism of the sensitive space-time variation of the medium’s refractive index that lead to the dynamic wavefront rotation. This basic requirement for the lighthouse phenomenon is transmitted to the harmonic bursts, which are emitted with different divergence in successive optical half-cycles, thus can be detected in the far field at increasing distances from the optical axis. In this configuration, spectral filtering of the harmonics is not necessary, therefore the total harmonic pulse power might be used in further pump-probe experiments.

  11. Generating stable attosecond x-ray pulse trains with a mode-locked seeded free-electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Feng


    Full Text Available Generation of attosecond x-ray pulses is attracting much attention within the x-ray free-electron laser (FEL user community. We propose a novel scheme for the generation of coherent stable attosecond x-ray pulse trains in a seeded FEL, via a process of mode-locked amplification. Three modulators and two chicanes are used for generating separated attosecond scale microstructures in the electron beam using the beam echo effect. Such electron beam will produce high harmonic radiation with a comb of longitudinal modes at the very beginning of the radiator. By using a series of spatiotemporal shifts between the copropagating radiation and electron beam in the radiator, all these modes can be preserved and amplified to saturation. Using a representative realistic set of parameters, three-dimensional simulation results show that trains of 200 attosecond soft x-ray pulses with stable peak powers at gigawatt level can be generated directly from ultraviolet seed lasers. The even spacing between the attosecond pulses can be easily altered from subfemtosecond to tens of femtoseconds by slightly changing the wavelength of one seed laser.

  12. Capturing atomic-scale carrier dynamics with electrons (United States)

    Baum, Peter; Krausz, Ferenc


    Light-driven electronic motion unfolds on times as short as the cycle period of light and on length scales as small as the distance between two neighboring atoms in a molecule. Visualizing fundamental light-matter interactions therefore requires access to attosecond and picometer dimensions. Here we report on a potential unification of electron diffraction and microscopy with attosecond technology, which could provide a full space-time access to elementary electronic processes in matter and materials. We review recent progress in ultrafast diffraction and microscopy towards temporal resolutions approaching 10 fs by use of state-of-the-art microwave technology and discuss our latest findings on all-optical compression approaches for reaching sub-femtosecond, sub-optical-cycle resolution. Four-dimensional electron diffraction with attosecond-picometer resolution will access all dynamics outside the atomic core, offering an all-embracing insight into fundamental electron-nuclear dynamics of complex materials.

  13. Helicity-Selective Enhancement and Polarization Control of Attosecond High Harmonic Waveforms Driven by Bichromatic Circularly Polarized Laser Fields (United States)

    Dorney, Kevin M.; Ellis, Jennifer L.; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D.; Mancuso, Christopher A.; Brooks, Nathan; Fan, Tingting; Fan, Guangyu; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Grychtol, Patrik; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.


    High harmonics driven by two-color counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields are a unique source of bright, circularly polarized, extreme ultraviolet, and soft x-ray beams, where the individual harmonics themselves are completely circularly polarized. Here, we demonstrate the ability to preferentially select either the right or left circularly polarized harmonics simply by adjusting the relative intensity ratio of the bichromatic circularly polarized driving laser field. In the frequency domain, this significantly enhances the harmonic orders that rotate in the same direction as the higher-intensity driving laser. In the time domain, this helicity-dependent enhancement corresponds to control over the polarization of the resulting attosecond waveforms. This helicity control enables the generation of circularly polarized high harmonics with a user-defined polarization of the underlying attosecond bursts. In the future, this technique should allow for the production of bright highly elliptical harmonic supercontinua as well as the generation of isolated elliptically polarized attosecond pulses.

  14. Reversible Strain-Induced Electron-Hole Recombination in Silicon Nanowires Observed with Femtosecond Pump-Probe Microscopy (United States)


    optoelectronic devices that rely on long charge carrier lifetimes, such as nanostructured solar cells . Further studies of the effects of strain on the carrier...resolution and submicron spatial resolution to characterize charge–carrier recombination and transport dynamics in silicon nanowires (NWs) locally strained...release; distribution is unlimited. Reversible Strain-Induced Electron–Hole Recombination in Silicon Nanowires Observed with Femtosecond Pump–Probe

  15. The dynamics of electron and ion holes in a collisionless plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Eliasson


    Full Text Available We present a review of recent analytical and numerical studies of the dynamics of electron and ion holes in a collisionless plasma. The new results are based on the class of analytic solutions which were found by Schamel more than three decades ago, and which here work as initial conditions to numerical simulations of the dynamics of ion and electron holes and their interaction with radiation and the background plasma. Our analytic and numerical studies reveal that ion holes in an electron-ion plasma can trap Langmuir waves, due the local electron density depletion associated with the negative ion hole potential. Since the scale-length of the ion holes are on a relatively small Debye scale, the trapped Langmuir waves are Landau damped. We also find that colliding ion holes accelerate electron streams by the negative ion hole potentials, and that these streams of electrons excite Langmuir waves due to a streaming instability. In our Vlasov simulation of two colliding ion holes, the holes survive the collision and after the collision, the electron distribution becomes flat-topped between the two ion holes due to the ion hole potentials which work as potential barriers for low-energy electrons. Our study of the dynamics between electron holes and the ion background reveals that standing electron holes can be accelerated by the self-created ion cavity owing to the positive electron hole potential. Vlasov simulations show that electron holes are repelled by ion density minima and attracted by ion density maxima. We also present an extension of Schamel's theory to relativistically hot plasmas, where the relativistic mass increase of the accelerated electrons have a dramatic effect on the electron hole, with an increase in the electron hole potential and in the width of the electron hole. A study of the interaction between electromagnetic waves with relativistic electron holes shows that electromagnetic waves can be both linearly and nonlinearly

  16. Attosecond control of dissociative ionization of O{sub 2} molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, W.; Kelkensberg, F.; Gademann, G. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rouzee, A.; Vrakking, M. J. J. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Johnsson, P. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics, Lund University, Post Office Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Dowek, D. [Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires (UMR Universite Paris-Sud et CNRS, 8625), Batiment 351, Universite Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Lucchini, M.; Calegari, F. [Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie CNR-IFN, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); De Giovannini, U.; Rubio, A. [Nano-bio Spectroscopy Group, ETSF Scientific Development Centre, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Avenida Tolosa 72, E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Lucchese, R. R. [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, Post Office Box 30012, College Station, Texas 77842-3012 (United States); Kono, H. [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Lepine, F. [Universite Lyon 1/CNRS/LASIM, UMR 5579, 43 Boulevard Du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbane (France)


    We demonstrate that dissociative ionization of O{sub 2} can be controlled by the relative delay between an attosecond pulse train (APT) and a copropagating infrared (IR) field. Our experiments reveal a dependence of both the branching ratios between a range of electronic states and the fragment angular distributions on the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) to IR time delay. The observations go beyond adiabatic propagation of dissociative wave packets on IR-induced quasistatic potential energy curves and are understood in terms of an IR-induced coupling between electronic states in the molecular ion.

  17. Coherent hard x-rays from attosecond pulse train-assisted harmonic generation


    Klaiber, Michael; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z.; Müller, Carsten; Keitel, Christoph H.


    High-order harmonic generation from atomic systems is considered in the crossed fields of a relativistically strong infrared laser and a weak attosecond-pulse train of soft x-rays. Due to one-photon ionization by the x-ray pulse, the ionized electron obtains a starting momentum that compensates the relativistic drift which is induced by the laser magnetic field, and allows the electron to efficiently emit harmonic radiation upon recombination with the atomic core in the relativistic regime. I...

  18. Coherent hard x rays from attosecond pulse train-assisted harmonic generation. (United States)

    Klaiber, Michael; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z; Müller, Carsten; Keitel, Christoph H


    High-order harmonic generation from atomic systems is considered in the crossed fields of a relativistically strong infrared laser and a weak attosecond pulse train of soft x rays. Due to one-photon ionization by the x-ray pulse, the ionized electron obtains a starting momentum that compensates the relativistic drift, which is induced by the laser magnetic field, and allows the electron to efficiently emit harmonic radiation upon recombination with the atomic core in the relativistic regime. This way, short pulses of coherent hard x rays of up to 40 keV energy can be generated.

  19. Fractional high-harmonic combs by attosecond-precision split-spectrum pulse control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laux Martin


    Full Text Available Few-cycle laser fields enable pulse-shaping control of high-order harmonic generation by time delaying variable broadband spectral sections. We report the experimental generation of fractional (noninteger high-harmonic combs by the controlled interference of two attosecond pulse trains. Additionally the energy of the high harmonics is strongly tuned with the relative time delay. We quantify the tuning to directly result from the controlled variation of the instantaneous laser frequency at the shaped driver pulse intensity maximum.

  20. Magnetic field stabilized electron-hole liquid in indirect-band-gap A lxG a1 -xAs (United States)

    Alberi, K.; Fluegel, B.; Crooker, S. A.; Mascarenhas, A.


    An electron-hole liquid (EHL), a condensed liquidlike phase of free electrons and holes in a semiconductor, presents a unique system for exploring quantum many-body phenomena. While the behavior of EHLs is generally understood, less attention has been devoted to systematically varying the onset of their formation and resulting properties. We report on an experimental approach to tune the conditions of formation and characteristics using a combination of low excitation densities and high magnetic fields up to 90 T. Demonstration of this approach was carried out in indirect-band-gap A l0.387G a0.613As . EHL droplets can be nucleated from one of two multiexciton complex states depending on the applied excitation density. Furthermore, the excitation density influences the carrier density of the EHL at high magnetic fields, where filling of successive Landau levels can be controlled. The ability to manipulate the formation pathway, temperature, and carrier density of the EHL phase under otherwise fixed experimental conditions makes our approach a powerful tool for studying condensed carrier phases in further detail.

  1. Time-Resolved EPR Study of Electron-Hole Dissociations Influenced by Alkyl Side Chains at the Photovoltaic Polyalkylthiophene:PCBM Interface. (United States)

    Miura, Taku; Aikawa, Motoko; Kobori, Yasuhiro


    Nanosecond time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) spectroscopy has been utilized at T = 77 K to characterize alkyl side-chain effects on geometries and on the electronic couplings (VCR) of transient charge-separated (CS) states in the photoactive layers fabricated by the spin-coating of mixed solutions of regioregular polyalkylthiophenes (RR-P3AT) and [6,6]-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). By increasing the alkyl side-chain number from 6 to 12 in P3AT, a highly distant and long-lived CS state has been obtained. This result is explained by a coupling of the hole dissociation to the polymer librations by the side-chains. From an exponential decay of VCR with respect to the CS distance, the attenuation factor (βe) has been determined to be βe = 0.2 Å(-1). Such a long-range tunneling feature is explained by the generations of the shallowly trapped, delocalized electron-hole pairs by the dissociation of the hole toward π-stacking directions at the organic photovoltaic interface.

  2. Towards optical attosecond pulses: broadband phase coherence between an ultrafast laser and OPO using lock-tozero CEO stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid D. T.


    Full Text Available The carrier-envelope-offset frequencies of the pump, signal, idler and related sum-frequency mixing pulses have been locked to 0 Hz in a 20-fs-Ti:sapphire-pumped optical parametric oscillator, satisfying a critical prerequisite for optical attosecond pulse synthesis.

  3. Attosecond polarization control in atomic RABBITT-like experiments assisted by a circularly polarized laser (United States)

    Boll, D. I. R.; Fojón, O. A.


    We study theoretically the single ionization of noble gas atoms by the combined action of an attosecond pulse train with linear polarization and an assistant laser field with circular polarization. We employ a non-perturbative model that under certain approximations gives closed-form expressions for the angular distributions of photoelectrons. Interestingly, our model allow us to interpret these angular distributions as two-centre interferences where the orientation and the modulus of the separation vector between the virtual emitters is governed by the assistant laser field. Additionally, we show that such a configuration of light fields is similar to the polarization control technique, where both the attosecond pulse train and the assistant laser field have linear polarizations whose relative orientation may be controlled. Moreover, in order to compare our results with the available experimental data, we obtain analytical expressions for the cross sections integrated over the photoelectron emission angles. By means of these expressions, we define the ‘magic time’ as the delay for which the total cross sections for atomic targets exhibit the same functional form as the one of the monochromatic photoionization of diatomic molecular targets.

  4. Attosecond delays in laser-assisted photodetachment from closed-shell negative ions (United States)

    Lindroth, Eva; Dahlström, Jan Marcus


    We study laser-assisted photodetachment time delays by attosecond pulse trains from the closed-shell negative ions F- and Cl-. We investigate the separability of the delay into two contributions: (i) the Wigner-like delay associated with one-photon ionization by the attosecond pulse train and (ii) the delay associated with the exchange of an additional laser photon in the presence of the potential of the remaining target. Based on the asymptotic form of the wave packet, the latter term is expected to be negligible because the ion is neutralized, leading to a vanishing laser-ion interaction with increasing electron-atom separation. While this asymptotic behavior is verified at high photoelectron energies, we also quantify sharp deviations at low photoelectron energies. Further, these low-energy delays are clearly different for the two studied anions, indicating a breakdown of the universality of laser-ion-induced delays. The fact that the short-range potential can induce a delay of as much as 50 as can have implications for the interpretation of delay measurements also in other systems that lack long-range potential.

  5. Electron-ion coupling and ambipolar diffusion in dense electron-hole plasma in thin amorphous Si films studied by single-shot, pulse-width dependent ultrafast laser ablation (United States)

    Danilov, Pavel; Ionin, Andrey; Khmelnitskii, Roman; Kiseleva, Irina; Kudryashov, Sergey; Mel'nik, Nikolay; Rudenko, Andrey; Smirnov, Nikita; Zayarny, Dmitry


    Single-shot ablation of amorphous silicon films of 50-, 100- and 150-nm thickness by laser pulses of variable (0.2-6 ps) widths demonstrates non-monotonous variation of ablation thresholds and characteristic ablation 1/e-radii with their minima at the 0.6-ps pulse-width and the following increase. For the shorter laser pulses the increased thresholds and enhanced transport can be related to fast ambipolar electron-hole plasma diffusion and other electronic energy losses in dense transient plasma prior its energy transfer to the ionic subsystem (electron-ion thermalization) at 0.6 ps, while for the longer laser pulses slower ambipolar diffusion in moderate-density electron-hole plasma, ionic heat conduction and other thermal losses may predominate.

  6. Ultrafast electronic dynamics in laser-excited crystalline bismuth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekalin S.


    Full Text Available Femtosecond spectroscopy was applied to capture complex dynamics of non equilibrium electrons in bismuth. Data analysis reveals significant wavevector dependence of electron-hole and electron-phonon coupling strength along the Γ-T direction of the Brillouin zone

  7. Technique for the Generation of Attosecond X-Ray Pulses Using an FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Penn, Gregory


    We describe a technique for the generation of an isolated burst of X-ray radiation with a duration of ~100 attoseconds in a free electron laser (FEL) employing self-amplified spontaneous emission. Our scheme relies on an initial interaction of the electron beam with an ultra-short laser pulse in a one-period wiggler followed by compression in a dispersive section. The result of this interaction is to create a sub-femtosecond slice of the electron beam with enhanced growth rates for FEL amplification. After many gain lengths through the FEL undulator, the X-ray output from this slice dominates the radiation of the entire bunch. We consider the impact of various effects on the efficiency of this technique. Different configurations are considered in order to realize various timing structures for the resulting radiation.

  8. Interferometric autocorrelation of an attosecond pulse train in the single-cycle regime. (United States)

    Nabekawa, Yasuo; Shimizu, Toshihiko; Okino, Tomoya; Furusawa, Kentaro; Hasegawa, Hirokazu; Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Midorikawa, Katsumi


    We report on the direct observation of the phase locking of the attosecond pulse train (APT) via interferometric autocorrelation in the extreme ultraviolet region. APT is formed with Fourier synthesis of high-order harmonic fields of a femtosecond laser pulse. Time-of-flight mass spectra of N+, resulting from the Coulomb explosion of N2 absorbing two photons of APT, efficiently yield correlated signals of APT. The measured autocorrelation trace exhibits that the duration of the pulse should be only 1.3 periods of the extreme ultraviolet carrier frequency. A few interference fringes within the short pulse duration clearly show two types of symmetry, which ensure the phase locking between pulses in APT.

  9. Attosecond Interference Induced by Coulomb-Field-Driven Transverse Backward-Scattering Electron Wave-Packets

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Xiaohong; Lin, Cheng; Sheng, Zhihao; Yu, Xianhuan; Yang, Weifeng; Hu, Shilin; Chen, Jing; Xu, SongPo; Chen, YongJu; Quan, Wei; Liu, XiaoJun


    A novel and universal interference structure is found in the photoelectron momentum distribution of atoms in intense infrared laser field. Theoretical analysis shows that this structure can be attributed to a new form of Coulomb-field-driven backward-scattering of photoelectrons in the direction perpendicular to the laser field, in contrast to the conventional rescattering along the laser polarization direction. This transverse backward-scattering process is closely related to a family of photoelectrons initially ionized within a time interval of less than 200 attosecond around the crest of the laser electric field. Those electrons, acquiring near-zero return energy in the laser field, will be pulled back solely by the ionic Coulomb field and backscattered in the transverse direction. Moreover, this rescattering process mainly occurs at the first or the second return times, giving rise to different phases of the photoelectrons. The interference between these photoelectrons leads to unique curved interference ...

  10. Attosecond relative delay among xenon 5p, 5s, and 4d photoionization (United States)

    Magrakvelidze, Maia; Madjet, Mohamed; Chakraborty, Himadri


    Attosecond Wigner-Smith (WS) time delays of the photoemissions of Xe valence 5p, 5s, and core 4d electrons are investigated in details using the time-dependent local density approximation (TDLDA). Electron correlations determine the energy-dependent structures in ionization phases of the dipole channels and in the resulting WS delays at various shape resonances, induced by the collective motion of 4d electrons, and at various Cooper minima. We find that our calculation closely agrees with the streaking measurement for the delay of 4d relative to 5s, and predicts accelerated emission of 5p with respect to 4d as was experimentally observed at similar photon energies for Xe atoms adsorbed on the tungsten surface. This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation.

  11. Attosecond nanotechnology: NEMS of energy storage and nanostructural transformations in materials (United States)

    Beznosyuk, Sergey A.; Zhukovsky, Mark S.; Maslova, Olga A.


    The attosecond technology of the nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) energy storage as active center fast transformation of nanostructures in materials is considered. The self-organizing relaxation of the NEMS active center containing nanocube of 256-atoms limited by planes (100) in the FCC lattice matrix of 4d-transition metals (Ru, Rh, Pd) is described by the quantum NEMS-kinetics (NK) method. Typical for these metals change of the NEMS active center physicochemical characteristics during the time of relaxation is presented. There are three types of intermediate quasistationary states of the NEMS active center. Their forms are plainly distinguishable. The full relaxed NEMS active centers (Ru256, Rh256, Pd256) accumulate next storage energies: ERu = 2.27 eV/at, ERh = 1.67 eV/at, EPd = 3.02 eV/at.

  12. Attosecond nanotechnology: NEMS of energy storage and nanostructural transformations in materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beznosyuk, Sergey A., E-mail:; Maslova, Olga A., E-mail: [Altai State University, Barnaul, 656049 (Russian Federation); Zhukovsky, Mark S., E-mail: [Altai State Technical University, Barnaul, 656038 (Russian Federation)


    The attosecond technology of the nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) energy storage as active center fast transformation of nanostructures in materials is considered. The self-organizing relaxation of the NEMS active center containing nanocube of 256-atoms limited by planes (100) in the FCC lattice matrix of 4d-transition metals (Ru, Rh, Pd) is described by the quantum NEMS-kinetics (NK) method. Typical for these metals change of the NEMS active center physicochemical characteristics during the time of relaxation is presented. There are three types of intermediate quasistationary states of the NEMS active center. Their forms are plainly distinguishable. The full relaxed NEMS active centers (Ru{sub 256}, Rh{sub 256}, Pd{sub 256}) accumulate next storage energies: E{sub Ru} = 2.27 eV/at, E{sub Rh} = 1.67 eV/at, E{sub Pd} = 3.02 eV/at.

  13. Tomographic reconstruction of circularly polarized high-harmonic fields: 3D attosecond metrology. (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Tao, Zhensheng; Hernández-García, Carlos; Matyba, Piotr; Carr, Adra; Knut, Ronny; Kfir, Ofer; Zusin, Dimitry; Gentry, Christian; Grychtol, Patrik; Cohen, Oren; Plaja, Luis; Becker, Andreas; Jaron-Becker, Agnieszka; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret


    Bright, circularly polarized, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray high-harmonic beams can now be produced using counter-rotating circularly polarized driving laser fields. Although the resulting circularly polarized harmonics consist of relatively simple pairs of peaks in the spectral domain, in the time domain, the field is predicted to emerge as a complex series of rotating linearly polarized bursts, varying rapidly in amplitude, frequency, and polarization. We extend attosecond metrology techniques to circularly polarized light by simultaneously irradiating a copper surface with circularly polarized high-harmonic and linearly polarized infrared laser fields. The resulting temporal modulation of the photoelectron spectra carries essential phase information about the EUV field. Utilizing the polarization selectivity of the solid surface and by rotating the circularly polarized EUV field in space, we fully retrieve the amplitude and phase of the circularly polarized harmonics, allowing us to reconstruct one of the most complex coherent light fields produced to date.

  14. Distinguishing attosecond electron-electron scattering and screening in transition metals (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Tao, Zhensheng; Carr, Adra; Matyba, Piotr; Szilvási, Tibor; Emmerich, Sebastian; Piecuch, Martin; Keller, Mark; Zusin, Dmitriy; Eich, Steffen; Rollinger, Markus; You, Wenjing; Mathias, Stefan; Thumm, Uwe; Mavrikakis, Manos; Aeschlimann, Martin; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret


    Electron-electron interactions are the fastest processes in materials, occurring on femtosecond to attosecond timescales, depending on the electronic band structure of the material and the excitation energy. Such interactions can play a dominant role in light-induced processes such as nano-enhanced plasmonics and catalysis, light harvesting, or phase transitions. However, to date it has not been possible to experimentally distinguish fundamental electron interactions such as scattering and screening. Here, we use sequences of attosecond pulses to directly measure electron-electron interactions in different bands of different materials with both simple and complex Fermi surfaces. By extracting the time delays associated with photoemission we show that the lifetime of photoelectrons from the d band of Cu are longer by ˜100 as compared with those from the same band of Ni. We attribute this to the enhanced electron-electron scattering in the unfilled d band of Ni. Using theoretical modeling, we can extract the contributions of electron-electron scattering and screening in different bands of different materials with both simple and complex Fermi surfaces. Our results also show that screening influences high-energy photoelectrons (≈20 eV) significantly less than low-energy photoelectrons. As a result, high-energy photoelectrons can serve as a direct probe of spin-dependent electron-electron scattering by neglecting screening. This can then be applied to quantifying the contribution of electron interactions and screening to low-energy excitations near the Fermi level. The information derived here provides valuable and unique information for a host of quantum materials.

  15. Flexible attosecond beamline for high harmonic spectroscopy and XUV/near-IR pump probe experiments requiring long acquisition times (United States)

    Weber, S. J.; Manschwetus, B.; Billon, M.; Böttcher, M.; Bougeard, M.; Breger, P.; Géléoc, M.; Gruson, V.; Huetz, A.; Lin, N.; Picard, Y. J.; Ruchon, T.; Salières, P.; Carré, B.


    We describe the versatile features of the attosecond beamline recently installed at CEA-Saclay on the PLFA kHz laser. It combines a fine and very complete set of diagnostics enabling high harmonic spectroscopy (HHS) through the advanced characterization of the amplitude, phase, and polarization of the harmonic emission. It also allows a variety of photo-ionization experiments using magnetic bottle and COLTRIMS (COLd Target Recoil Ion Momentum Microscopy) electron spectrometers that may be used simultaneously, thanks to a two-foci configuration. Using both passive and active stabilization, special care was paid to the long term stability of the system to allow, using both experimental approaches, time resolved studies with attosecond precision, typically over several hours of acquisition times. As an illustration, applications to multi-orbital HHS and electron-ion coincidence time resolved spectroscopy are presented.

  16. Quantum dynamic imaging theoretical and numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Misha


    Studying and using light or "photons" to image and then to control and transmit molecular information is among the most challenging and significant research fields to emerge in recent years. One of the fastest growing areas involves research in the temporal imaging of quantum phenomena, ranging from molecular dynamics in the femto (10-15s) time regime for atomic motion to the atto (10-18s) time scale of electron motion. In fact, the attosecond "revolution" is now recognized as one of the most important recent breakthroughs and innovations in the science of the 21st century. A major participant in the development of ultrafast femto and attosecond temporal imaging of molecular quantum phenomena has been theory and numerical simulation of the nonlinear, non-perturbative response of atoms and molecules to ultrashort laser pulses. Therefore, imaging quantum dynamics is a new frontier of science requiring advanced mathematical approaches for analyzing and solving spatial and temporal multidimensional partial differ...

  17. Excitons in core-only, core-shell and core-crown CdSe nanoplatelets: Interplay between in-plane electron-hole correlation, spatial confinement, and dielectric confinement (United States)

    Rajadell, Fernando; Climente, Juan I.; Planelles, Josep


    Using semianalytical models we calculate the energy, effective Bohr radius, and radiative lifetime of neutral excitons confined in CdSe colloidal nanoplatelets (NPLs). The excitonic properties are largely governed by the electron-hole in-plane correlation, which in NPLs is enhanced by the quasi-two-dimensional motion and the dielectric mismatch with the organic environment. In NPLs with lateral size L ≳20 nm the exciton behavior is essentially that in a quantum well, with super-radiance leading to exciton lifetimes of 1 ps or less, only limited by the NPL area. However, for L crown configurations. In the former, the strong vertical confinement limits separation of electrons and holes even for type-II band alignment. The exciton behavior is then similar to that in core-only NPL, albeit with weakened dielectric effects. In the latter, charge separation is also inefficient if band alignment is quasi-type-II (e.g., in CdSe/CdS), because electron-hole interaction drives both carriers into the core. However, it becomes very efficient for type-II alignment, for which we predict exciton lifetimes reaching microseconds.

  18. Attosecond light pulses generation along the target surface driven by obliquely-incident lasers (United States)

    Zhang, Y. X.; Qiao, B.; Xu, X. R.; Chang, H. X.; Zhang, H.; Lu, H. Y.; Yu, M. Y.; Zhou, C. T.; Zhu, S. P.; He, X. T.


    A practical approach to achieve strong coherent synchrotron emissions (CSE) in relativistic laser-plasma interaction is proposed, where a plane target with its electron density satisfying the self-similar parameter S ≃ n e 0 / a 0 n c = 1 is obliquely irradiated by a P-polarized laser pulse. In this case, electrons at the target surface are periodically dragged out into the vacuum by the laser field component perpendicular to the target surface, resulting in the formation of a series of dense electron bunches propagating along the target surface. Intense CSE is generated by these electron bunches under acceleration by the laser field component parallel to the target surface. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that an intense attosecond light pulse at intensity 9.1 × 1020 W/cm2 (electric field strength ˜41% as that of the drive laser) can be obtained through such CSE. In the high-order harmonics with 15 ω 0 < ω n < 500 ω 0 (ω0 is the laser frequency), the power spectrum of the emission scales as I ( n ) ˜ n - 1.8 and the conversion efficiency from laser to emission reaches ˜10-2.

  19. Attosecond Electro-Magnetic Forces Acting on Metal Nanospheres Induced By Relativistic Electrons (United States)

    Lagos, M. J.; Batson, P. E.; Reyes-Coronado, A.; Echenique, P. M.; Aizpurua, J.


    Swift electron scattering near nanoscale materials provides information about light-matter behavior, including induced forces. We calculate time-dependent electromagnetic forces acting on 1-1.5 nm metal nanospheres induced by passing swift electrons, finding both impulse-like and oscillatory response forces. Initially, impulse-like forces are generated by a competition between attractive electric forces and repulsive magnetic forces, lasting a few attoseconds (5-10 as). Oscillatory, plasmonic response forces take place later in time, last a few femtoseconds (1- 5 fs), and apparently rely on photon emission by decay of the electron-induced surface plasmons. A comparison of the strength of these two forces suggests that the impulse-like behavior dominates the process, and can transfer significant linear momentum to the sphere. Our results advance understanding of the physics behind the observation of both attractive and repulsive behavior of gold nano-particles induced by electron beams in aberration-corrected electron microscopy. Work supported under DOE, Award # DE-SC0005132, Basque Gov. project ETORTEK inano, Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion, No. FIS2010-19609-C02-01.

  20. Attosecond interferometry with self-amplified spontaneous emission of a free-electron laser (United States)

    Usenko, Sergey; Przystawik, Andreas; Jakob, Markus Alexander; Lazzarino, Leslie Lamberto; Brenner, Günter; Toleikis, Sven; Haunhorst, Christian; Kip, Detlef; Laarmann, Tim


    Light-phase-sensitive techniques, such as coherent multidimensional spectroscopy, are well-established in a broad spectral range, already spanning from radio-frequencies in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to visible and ultraviolet wavelengths in nonlinear optics with table-top lasers. In these cases, the ability to tailor the phases of electromagnetic waves with high precision is essential. Here we achieve phase control of extreme-ultraviolet pulses from a free-electron laser (FEL) on the attosecond timescale in a Michelson-type all-reflective interferometric autocorrelator. By varying the relative phase of the generated pulse replicas with sub-cycle precision we observe the field interference, that is, the light-wave oscillation with a period of 129 as. The successful transfer of a powerful optical method towards short-wavelength FEL science and technology paves the way towards utilization of advanced nonlinear methodologies even at partially coherent soft X-ray FEL sources that rely on self-amplified spontaneous emission.

  1. Attosecond-controlled photoemission from metal nanowire tips in the few-electron regime

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, B.


    Metal nanotip photoemitters have proven to be versatile in fundamental nanoplasmonics research and applications, including, e.g., the generation of ultrafast electron pulses, the adiabatic focusing of plasmons, and as light-triggered electron sources for microscopy. Here, we report the generation of high energy photoelectrons (up to 160 eV) in photoemission from single-crystalline nanowire tips in few-cycle, 750-nm laser fields at peak intensities of (2-7.3) × 1012 W/cm2. Recording the carrier-envelope phase (CEP)-dependent photoemission from the nanowire tips allows us to identify rescattering contributions and also permits us to determine the high-energy cutoff of the electron spectra as a function of laser intensity. So far these types of experiments from metal nanotips have been limited to an emission regime with less than one electron per pulse. We detect up to 13 e/shot and given the limited detection efficiency, we expect up to a few ten times more electrons being emitted from the nanowire. Within the investigated intensity range, we find linear scaling of cutoff energies. The nonlinear scaling of electron count rates is consistent with tunneling photoemission occurring in the absence of significant charge interaction. The high electron energy gain is attributed to field-induced rescattering in the enhanced nanolocalized fields at the wires apex, where a strong CEP-modulation is indicative of the attosecond control of photoemission.

  2. Relativistic attosecond electron bunch emission from few-cycle laser irradiated nanoscale droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Di Lucchio


    Full Text Available Attosecond electron bunches produced at the surface of nanometer-scale droplets illuminated by a two-cycle laser pulse are investigated for the purpose of determining their optimal emission characteristics. Significant departures from Mie theory are found for electron bunch emission from droplets whose radii satisfy the condition δ_{r}

  3. Attosecond-controlled photoemission from metal nanowire tips in the few-electron regime (United States)

    Ahn, B.; Schötz, J.; Kang, M.; Okell, W. A.; Mitra, S.; Förg, B.; Zherebtsov, S.; Süßmann, F.; Burger, C.; Kübel, M.; Liu, C.; Wirth, A.; Di Fabrizio, E.; Yanagisawa, H.; Kim, D.; Kim, B.; Kling, M. F.


    Metal nanotip photoemitters have proven to be versatile in fundamental nanoplasmonics research and applications, including, e.g., the generation of ultrafast electron pulses, the adiabatic focusing of plasmons, and as light-triggered electron sources for microscopy. Here, we report the generation of high energy photoelectrons (up to 160 eV) in photoemission from single-crystalline nanowire tips in few-cycle, 750-nm laser fields at peak intensities of (2-7.3) × 1012 W/cm2. Recording the carrier-envelope phase (CEP)-dependent photoemission from the nanowire tips allows us to identify rescattering contributions and also permits us to determine the high-energy cutoff of the electron spectra as a function of laser intensity. So far these types of experiments from metal nanotips have been limited to an emission regime with less than one electron per pulse. We detect up to 13 e/shot and given the limited detection efficiency, we expect up to a few ten times more electrons being emitted from the nanowire. Within the investigated intensity range, we find linear scaling of cutoff energies. The nonlinear scaling of electron count rates is consistent with tunneling photoemission occurring in the absence of significant charge interaction. The high electron energy gain is attributed to field-induced rescattering in the enhanced nanolocalized fields at the wires apex, where a strong CEP-modulation is indicative of the attosecond control of photoemission.

  4. Efficient generation of high beam-quality attosecond pulse with polarization-gating Bessel-Gauss beam from highly-ionized media. (United States)

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Qingbin; Hong, Weiyi; Wang, Shaoyi; Wang, Zhe; Lu, Peixiang


    Single attosecond pulse generation with polarization gating Bessel-Gauss beam in relatively strongly-ionized media is investigated. The results show that Bessel-Gauss beam has the ability to suppress the spatial plasma dispersion effects caused by high density of free electrons, thus the laser field can maintain its spatial profile through highly-ionized medium. This indicates the use of Bessel-Gauss beam has advantages over Gaussian beam in high harmonic generation under high ionization conditions. In our scheme, significant improvement of spatiotemporal properties of harmonics is achieved and an isolated attosecond pulse with high beam quality is filtered out using polarization gating.

  5. Transition dynamics in two-photon ionisation (United States)

    Vacher, Morgane; Gaillac, Romain; Maquet, Alfred; Taïeb, Richard; Caillat, Jérémie


    We review various aspects of photoemission dynamics in the case of two-photon ionisation. We first recall the definition of a transition phase specific to two-photon transitions. Numerical experiments on model atoms are used to show how the group delay associated with the transition phase is actually representative of the early dynamics of the detected photoelectron wave packets. Then we address the question of measuring these transition delays using a standard interferometric technique of experimental attosecond physics, so-called rabbit. Finally, we outline different reinterpretations of rabbit giving access to the more fundamental scattering dynamics affecting any photoemission processes.

  6. Mathematical modeling of the infrastructure of attosecond actuators and femtosecond sensors of nonequilibrium physical media in smart materials (United States)

    Beznosyuk, Sergey A.; Maslova, Olga A.; Zhukovsky, Mark S.; Valeryeva, Ekaterina V.; Terentyeva, Yulia V.


    The task of modeling the multiscale infrastructure of quantum attosecond actuators and femtosecond sensors of nonequilibrium physical media in smart materials is considered. Computer design and calculation of supra-atomic femtosecond sensors of nonequilibrium physical media in materials based on layered graphene-transition metal nanosystems are carried out by vdW-DF and B3LYP methods. It is shown that the molybdenum substrate provides fixation of graphene nanosheets by Van der Waals forces at a considerable distance (5.3 Å) from the metal surface. This minimizes the effect of the electronic and nuclear subsystem of the substrate metal on the sensory properties of "pure" graphene. The conclusion is substantiated that graphene-molybdenum nanosensors are able to accurately orient and position one molecule of carbon monoxide. It is shown that graphene selectively adsorbs CO and fixes the oxygen atom of the molecule at the position of the center of the graphene ring C6.

  7. Theoretical investigation of the isolated attosecond pulse generation by restraining the spatial distribution of high-order harmonic emission (United States)

    Xia, Chang-Long; Liu, Qi-Ying; Miao, Xiang-Yang


    Isolated attosecond pulse (IAP) generation is theoretically investigated by using a few-cycle laser pulse from a two-dimensional model of hydrogen molecular ion. The harmonic spectra from two nuclei of hydrogen molecular ion lead to interference. We investigate the spatial distribution in harmonic generation and propose a scheme to restrain the harmonic generation from the nucleus along the positive-x direction, and thus the interference is weaken in spatial. By using a few-cycle 800 nm chirped laser pulse, the harmonics are mainly generated from the nucleus along negative-x direction in the region of 130th to 230th order. The harmonic spectra are smooth and are mainly contributed by the short quantum path near the cutoff region and IAP with a duration of 97 as is generated. The semiclassical of three-step model is also used to illustrate the physical mechanism.

  8. The dynamics of electron and ion holes in a collisionless plasma


    Eliasson, B.; Shukla, P. K.


    International audience; We present a review of recent analytical and numerical studies of the dynamics of electron and ion holes in a collisionless plasma. The new results are based on the class of analytic solutions which were found by Schamel more than three decades ago, and which here work as initial conditions to numerical simulations of the dynamics of ion and electron holes and their interaction with radiation and the background plasma. Our analytic and numerical studies reveal that ion...

  9. Doubly-excited state effects on two-photon double ionization of helium by time-delayed, oppositely circularly-polarized attosecond pulses (United States)

    Ngoko Djiokap, J. M.; Starace, Anthony F.


    We study two-photon double ionization (TPDI) of helium by a pair of time-delayed (non-overlapping), oppositely circularly-polarized attosecond pulses whose carrier frequencies are resonant with 1P o doubly-excited states. All of our TPDI results are obtained by numerical solution of the two-electron time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the six-dimensional case of circularly-polarized attosecond pulses, and they are analyzed using perturbation theory (PT). As compared with the corresponding nonresonant TPDI process, we find that the doubly-excited states change the character of vortex patterns in the two-electron momentum distributions for the case of back-to-back detection of the two ionized electrons in the polarization plane. The doubly-excited states also completely change the structure of fixed-energy, two-electron angular distributions. Moreover, both the fixed-energy and energy-integrated angular distributions, as well as the two-electron energy distributions, exhibit a periodicity with time delay τ between the two attosecond pulses of about 69 as, i.e. the beat period between the (2s2p){}1{{{P}}}o doubly-excited state and the He ground state. Using PT we derive an expression for an angle-integrated energy distribution that is sensitive to the slower beat period ∼1.2 fs between different doubly-excited states as well as to the long timescale ∼17 fs of autoionization lifetimes. However, with our current computer codes we are only able to study numerically the time-dependent phenomena occurring on an attosecond time scale.

  10. Multi-channel electronic and vibrational dynamics in polyatomic resonant high-order harmonic generation (United States)

    Ferré, A.; Boguslavskiy, A. E.; Dagan, M.; Blanchet, V.; Bruner, B. D.; Burgy, F.; Camper, A.; Descamps, D.; Fabre, B.; Fedorov, N.; Gaudin, J.; Geoffroy, G.; Mikosch, J.; Patchkovskii, S.; Petit, S.; Ruchon, T.; Soifer, H.; Staedter, D.; Wilkinson, I.; Stolow, A.; Dudovich, N.; Mairesse, Y.


    High-order harmonic generation in polyatomic molecules generally involves multiple channels of ionization. Their relative contribution can be strongly influenced by the presence of resonances, whose assignment remains a major challenge for high-harmonic spectroscopy. Here we present a multi-modal approach for the investigation of unaligned polyatomic molecules, using SF6 as an example. We combine methods from extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopy, above-threshold ionization and attosecond metrology. Fragment-resolved above-threshold ionization measurements reveal that strong-field ionization opens at least three channels. A shape resonance in one of them is found to dominate the signal in the 20–26 eV range. This resonance induces a phase jump in the harmonic emission, a switch in the polarization state and different dynamical responses to molecular vibrations. This study demonstrates a method for extending high-harmonic spectroscopy to polyatomic molecules, where complex attosecond dynamics are expected. PMID:25608712

  11. Dynamics at Solid State Surfaces and Interfaces, Volume 1 Current Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Bovensiepen, Uwe; Wolf, Martin


    This two-volume work covers ultrafast structural and electronic dynamics of elementary processes at solid surfaces and interfaces, presenting the current status of photoinduced processes. Providing valuable introductory information for newcomers to this booming field of research, it investigates concepts and experiments, femtosecond and attosecond time-resolved methods, as well as frequency domain techniques. The whole is rounded off by a look at future developments.

  12. Electronic dynamics due to exchange interaction with holes in GaAs (United States)

    Schneider, Hans Christian; Krauß, Michael


    We present an investigation of electron-spin dynamics in p-doped bulk GaAs due to the electron-hole exchange interaction, aka the Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanism. We discuss under which conditions a spin relaxation times for this mechanism is, in principle, accessible to experimental techniques, in particular to 2-photon photoemission, but also Faraday/Kerr effect measurements. We give numerical results for the spin relaxation time for a range of p-doping densities and temperatures. We then go beyond the relaxation time approximation and calculate numerically the spin-dependent electron dynamics by including the spin-flip electron-hole exchange scattering and spin-conserving carrier Coulomb scattering at the level of Boltzmann scattering integrals. We show that the electronic dynamics deviates from the simple spin-relaxation dynamics for electrons excited at high energies where the thermalization does not take place faster than the spin relaxation time. We also present a derivation of the influence of screening on the electron-hole exchange scattering and conclude that it can be neglected for the case of GaAs, but may become important for narrow-gap semiconductors.

  13. Nonlinear coherent Thomson scattering from relativistic electron sheets as a means to produce isolated ultrabright attosecond x-ray pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-C. Wu (武慧春


    Full Text Available A new way to generate intense attosecond x-ray pulses is discussed. It relies on coherent Thomson scattering (CTS from relativistic electron sheets. A double layer technique is used to generate planar solid-density sheets of monochromatic high-γ electrons with zero transverse momentum such that coherently backscattered light is frequency upshifted by factors up to 4γ^{2}. Here previous work [H.-C. Wu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 234801 (2010PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.104.234801] is extended to the regime of high-intensity probe light with normalized amplitude a_{0}>1 leading to nonlinear CTS effects such as pulse contraction and steepening. The results are derived both by particle-in-cell (PIC simulation in a boosted frame and by analytic theory. PIC simulation shows that powerful x-ray pulses (1 keV, 10   gigawatt can be generated. They call for experimental verification. Required prerequisites such as manufacture of nanometer-thick target foils is ready and ultrahigh contrast laser pulses should be within reach in the near future.

  14. Relativistic dynamical spin excitations of magnetic adatoms (United States)

    dos Santos Dias, M.; Schweflinghaus, B.; Blügel, S.; Lounis, S.


    We present a first-principles theory of dynamical spin excitations in the presence of spin-orbit coupling. The broken global spin rotational invariance leads to a new sum rule. We explore the competition between the magnetic anisotropy energy and the external magnetic field, as well as the role of electron-hole excitations, through calculations for 3 d -metal adatoms on the Cu(111) surface. The spin excitation resonance energy and lifetime display nontrivial behavior, establishing the strong impact of relativistic effects. We legitimate the use of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation down to the atomic limit, but with parameters that differ from a stationary theory.

  15. Exceptionally strong correlation-driven charge migration and attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy


    Hollstein, Maximilian; Santra, Robin; Pfannkuche, Daniela


    We investigate theoretically charge migration following prompt double ionization of a polyatomic molecule (C$_2$H$_4$BrI) and find that for double ionization, correlation-driven charge migration appears to be particularly prominent, i.e., we observe exceptionally rich dynamics solely driven by the electron-electron interaction even in the situation when the electrons are emitted from outer-valence orbitals. These strongly correlated electron dynamics are witnessed in the theoretically determi...

  16. Self-amplified spontaneous emission FEL with energy-chirped electron beam and its application for generation of attosecond x-ray pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Saldin


    Full Text Available Influence of a linear energy chirp in the electron beam on a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE Free Electron Laser (FEL operation is studied analytically and numerically using a 1D model. Analytical results are based on the theoretical background developed by Krinsky and Huang [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6, 050702 (2003PRABFM1098-4402]. Explicit expressions for Green’s functions and for output power of a SASE FEL are obtained for the high-gain linear regime in the limits of small and large energy chirp parameters. Saturation length and power versus energy chirp parameter are calculated numerically. It is shown that the effect of linear energy chirp on FEL gain is equivalent to the linear undulator tapering (or linear energy variation along the undulator. A consequence of this fact is a possibility to perfectly compensate FEL gain degradation, caused by the energy chirp, by means of the undulator tapering independently of the value of the energy chirp parameter. An application of this effect for generation of attosecond pulses from a hard x-ray FEL is proposed. Strong energy modulation within a short slice of an electron bunch is produced by a few-cycle optical laser pulse in a short undulator, placed in front of the main undulator. Gain degradation within this slice is compensated by an appropriate undulator taper while the rest of the bunch suffers from this taper and does not lase. Three-dimensional simulations predict that short (200 attoseconds high-power (up to 100 GW pulses can be produced in Angstrom wavelength range with a high degree of contrast. A possibility to reduce pulse duration to sub-100 attosecond scale is discussed.

  17. Solvothermal syntheses of Bi and Zn co-doped TiO{sub 2} with enhanced electron-hole separation and efficient photodegradation of gaseous toluene under visible-light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan-Juan [Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, and Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Cai, Song-Cai [Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, and Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China); Xu, Zhen [Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, and Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Chen, Xi [Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, and Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China); Chen, Jin [Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, and Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Jia, Hong-Peng, E-mail: [Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, and Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Chen, Jing, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China)


    Highlights: • Bi-Zn co-doped TiO{sub 2} catalysts were prepared by solvothermal route. • The incorporation of Bi doping into the TiO{sub 2} generates intermediate energy levels. • Bi and Zn doping showed the enhanced absorption in visible-light region. • Zn dopant acts as a mediator of interfacial charge transfer. • TiBi{sub 1.9%}Zn{sub 1%}O{sub 2} exhibited high photocatalytic degradation for toluene. - Abstract: This study investigated the effects of Bi doped and Bi-Zn co-doped TiO{sub 2} on photodegradation of gaseous toluene. The doped TiO{sub 2} with various concentration of metal was prepared using the solvothermal route and characterized by SEM, XRD, Raman, BET, DRS, XPS, PL and EPR. Their photocatalytic activities under visible-light irradiation were drastically influenced by the dopant content. The results showed that moderate metal doping levels were obviously beneficial for the toluene degradation, while high doping levels suppressed the photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic degradation of toluene over TiBi{sub 1.9%}O{sub 2} and TiBi{sub 1.9%}Zn{sub 1%}O{sub 2} can reach to 51% and 93%, respectively, which are much higher than 25% of TiO{sub 2}. Bi doping into TiO{sub 2} lattice generates new intermediate energy level of Bi below the CB edge of TiO{sub 2}. The electron excitation from the VB to Bi orbitals results in the decreased band gap, extended absorption of visible-light and thus enhances its photocatalytic efficiency. Zn doping not only further enhances the absorption in this visible-light region, but also Zn dopant exists as the form of ZnO crystallites located on the interfaces of TiO{sub 2} agglomerates and acts as a mediator of interfacial charge transfer to suppress the electron-hole recombination. These synergistic effects are responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic performance.

  18. How to understand the tunneling in attosecond experiment?. Bohr-Einstein photon box Gedanken experiment, tunneling time and the wave particle duality (United States)

    Kullie, Ossama


    The measurement of the tunneling time (T-time) in today's attosecond and strong field (low-frequency) experiments, despite its controversial discussion, offers a fruitful opportunity to understand time measurement and the time in quantum mechanics. In addition, as we will see in this work, a related controversial issue is the particulate nature of the radiation. The T-time in attosecond experiment and its different aspects and models, is discussed in this work, especially in relation to my model of real T-time (Kullie, 2015), where a good agreement with the experiment and an intriguing similarity to the Bohr-Einstein photon box Gedanken experiment was found. The tunneling process itself is still not well understood, but I am arguing that a scattering mechanism (by the laser wave packet) offers a possibility to understand the tunneling process in the tunneling region. This is related to the question about the corpuscular nature of light which is widely discussed in modern quantum optics experiments.

  19. Electron Dynamics in Nanostructures in Strong Laser Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kling, Matthias


    The goal of our research was to gain deeper insight into the collective electron dynamics in nanosystems in strong, ultrashort laser fields. The laser field strengths will be strong enough to extract and accelerate electrons from the nanoparticles and to transiently modify the materials electronic properties. We aimed to observe, with sub-cycle resolution reaching the attosecond time domain, how collective electronic excitations in nanoparticles are formed, how the strong field influences the optical and electrical properties of the nanomaterial, and how the excitations in the presence of strong fields decay.

  20. Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Lawrence E


    Beginning text presents complete theoretical treatment of mechanical model systems and deals with technological applications. Topics include introduction to calculus of vectors, particle motion, dynamics of particle systems and plane rigid bodies, technical applications in plane motions, theory of mechanical vibrations, and more. Exercises and answers appear in each chapter.

  1. Special issue on ultrafast electron and molecular dynamics (United States)

    Martin, Fernando; Hishikawa, Akiyoshi; Vrakking, Marc


    In the last few years, the advent of novel experimental and theoretical approaches has made possible the investigation of (time-resolved) molecular dynamics in ways not anticipated before. Experimentally, the introduction of novel light sources such as high-harmonic generation (HHG) and XUV/x-ray free electron lasers, and the emergence of novel detection strategies, such as time-resolved electron/x-ray diffraction and the fully coincident detection of electrons and fragment ions in reaction microscopes, has significantly expanded the arsenal of available techniques, and has taken studies of molecular dynamics into new domains of spectroscopic, spatial and temporal resolution, the latter including first explorations into the attosecond domain, thus opening completely new avenues for imaging electronic and nuclear dynamics in molecules. Along the way, particular types of molecular dynamics, e.g., dynamics around conical intersections, have gained an increased prominence, sparked by the realization of the essential role that this dynamics plays in relaxation pathways in important bio-molecular systems. In the short term, this will allow one to uncover and control the dynamics of elementary chemical processes such as, e.g., ultrafast charge migration, proton transfer, isomerization or multiple ionization, and to address new key questions about the role of attosecond coherent electron dynamics in chemical reactivity. The progress on the theoretical side has been no less impressive. Novel generations of supercomputers and a series of novel computational strategies have allowed nearly exact calculations in small molecules, as well as highly successful approximate calculations in large, polyatomic molecules, including biomolecules. Frequent and intensive collaborations involving both theory and experiment have been essential for the progress that has been accomplished. The special issue 'Ultrafast electron and molecular dynamics' seeks to provide an overview of the current

  2. Direct View of Hot Carrier Dynamics in Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Jens Christian; Ulstrup, Søren; Cilento, Federico


    The ultrafast dynamics of excited carriers in graphene is closely linked to the Dirac spectrum and plays a central role for many electronic and optoelectronic applications. Harvesting energy from excited electron-hole pairs, for instance, is only possible if these pairs can be separated before...... they lose energy to vibrations, merely heating the lattice. Until now, the hot carrier dynamics in graphene could only be accessed indirectly. Here, we present a dynamical view on the Dirac cone by time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. This allows us to show the quasi-instant thermalization...... of the electron gas to a temperature of 2000 K, to determine the time-resolved carrier density, and to disentangle the subsequent decay into excitations of optical phonons and acoustic phonons (directly and via supercollisions)....

  3. Intensity distributions and isolated attosecond pulse generation from molecular high-order harmonic generation in H2+ driven by nonhomogeneous field (United States)

    Feng, Liqiang; Chu, Tianshu


    Intensity distributions and isolated attosecond pulse generation from the molecular high-order harmonic generation (MHHG) in H2+ and T2+ driven by the nonhomogeneous field have been theoretically investigated. (i) Generally speaking, the intensities of the harmonics driven by the homogeneous field can be enhanced as the initial vibrational state increases and much more intense harmonics can be obtained from the light nuclei. However, with the introduction of the nonhomogeneous effect, the enhanced ratios of the harmonic yields are decreased as the initial vibrational state increases. Moreover, the intensities of the harmonics from H2+ and T2+ are very sensitive to the nonhomogeneous effect of the laser field. (ii) The contributions of the MHHG from the two-H nuclei present the periodic variation as a function of the laser phase for the case of the symmetric nonhomogeneous field. However, for the case of the positive and the negative asymmetric nonhomogeneous fields, the left-H and the right-H play the dominating role in the MHHG, respectively. Moreover, as the angle between the laser polarization direction and the molecular axis increases, the intensity differences of the harmonics from the two-H nuclei are increased. (iii) By properly adding a half-cycle pulse into the positive asymmetric nonhomogeneous field, a supercontinuum with the bandwidth of 279 eV and an isolated 25 as pulse can be obtained.

  4. Depth-resolved subcycle dynamics of photoionization in solids (United States)

    Zhokhov, P. A.; Zheltikov, A. M.


    We develop a theoretical framework for the analysis of ultrafast dynamics of photoionization in solids that treats the electron density buildup resolved within the field cycle jointly with the propagation dynamics of the laser driver. We show that while the standard, cycle-averaging photoionization models predict a monotonic buildup of the electron density within the driver pulse, the cycle-resolved photoionization model used in this work reveals a subcycle modulation of optical properties of a solid, giving rise to complex patterns of reflected and transmitted fields and providing a source for optical harmonic generation. Propagation effects are shown to heavily distort the spectra of high-order harmonics. Still, the analysis of harmonic spectra and the temporal structure of the harmonic field reveals physically significant properties of the nonlinear-optical response, suggesting the existence of attosecond bursts of interband optical-harmonic emission.

  5. Cluster dynamics transcending chemical dynamics toward nuclear fusion. (United States)

    Heidenreich, Andreas; Jortner, Joshua; Last, Isidore


    Ultrafast cluster dynamics encompasses femtosecond nuclear dynamics, attosecond electron dynamics, and electron-nuclear dynamics in ultraintense laser fields (peak intensities 10(15)-10(20) Extreme cluster multielectron ionization produces highly charged cluster ions, e.g., (C(4+)(D(+))(4))(n) and (D(+)I(22+))(n) at I(M) = 10(18), that undergo Coulomb explosion (CE) with the production of high-energy (5 keV to 1 MeV) ions, which can trigger nuclear reactions in an assembly of exploding clusters. The laser intensity and the cluster size dependence of the dynamics and energetics of CE of (D(2))(n), (HT)(n), (CD(4))(n), (DI)(n), (CD(3)I)(n), and (CH(3)I)(n) clusters were explored by electrostatic models and molecular dynamics simulations, quantifying energetic driving effects, and kinematic run-over effects. The optimization of table-top dd nuclear fusion driven by CE of deuterium containing heteroclusters is realized for light-heavy heteroclusters of the largest size, which allows for the prevalence of cluster vertical ionization at the highest intensity of the laser field. We demonstrate a 7-orders-of-magnitude enhancement of the yield of dd nuclear fusion driven by CE of light-heavy heteroclusters as compared with (D(2))(n) clusters of the same size. Prospective applications for the attainment of table-top nucleosynthesis reactions, e.g., (12)C(P,gamma)(13)N driven by CE of (CH(3)I)(n) clusters, were explored.

  6. Electron Dynamics in Finite Quantum Systems (United States)

    McDonald, Christopher R.

    The multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) and multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) methods are employed to investigate nonperturbative multielectron dynamics in finite quantum systems. MCTDHF is a powerful tool that allows for the investigation of multielectron dynamics in strongly perturbed quantum systems. We have developed an MCTDHF code that is capable of treating problems involving three dimensional (3D) atoms and molecules exposed to strong laser fields. This code will allow for the theoretical treatment of multielectron phenomena in attosecond science that were previously inaccessible. These problems include complex ionization processes in pump-probe experiments on noble gas atoms, the nonlinear effects that have been observed in Ne atoms in the presence of an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) and the molecular rearrangement of cations after ionization. An implementation of MCTDH that is optimized for two electrons, each moving in two dimensions (2D), is also presented. This implementation of MCTDH allows for the efficient treatment of 2D spin-free systems involving two electrons; however, it does not scale well to 3D or to systems containing more that two electrons. Both MCTDHF and MCTDH were used to treat 2D problems in nanophysics and attosecond science. MCTDHF is used to investigate plasmon dynamics and the quantum breathing mode for several electrons in finite lateral quantum dots. MCTDHF is also used to study the effects of manipulating the potential of a double lateral quantum dot containing two electrons; applications to quantum computing are discussed. MCTDH is used to examine a diatomic model molecular system exposed to a strong laser field; nonsequential double ionization and high harmonic generation are studied and new processes identified and explained. An implementation of MCTDHF is developed for nonuniform tensor product grids; this will allow for the full 3D implementation of MCTDHF and will provide a means to

  7. Electron holes appear to trigger cancer-implicated mutations (United States)

    Miller, John; Villagran, Martha

    Malignant tumors are caused by mutations, which also affect their subsequent growth and evolution. We use a novel approach, computational DNA hole spectroscopy [M.Y. Suarez-Villagran & J.H. Miller, Sci. Rep. 5, 13571 (2015)], to compute spectra of enhanced hole probability based on actual sequence data. A hole is a mobile site of positive charge created when an electron is removed, for example by radiation or contact with a mutagenic agent. Peaks in the hole spectrum depict sites where holes tend to localize and potentially trigger a base pair mismatch during replication. Our studies of reveal a correlation between hole spectrum peaks and spikes in human mutation frequencies. Importantly, we also find that hole peak positions that do not coincide with large variant frequencies often coincide with cancer-implicated mutations and/or (for coding DNA) encoded conserved amino acids. This enables combining hole spectra with variant data to identify critical base pairs and potential cancer `driver' mutations. Such integration of DNA hole and variance spectra could also prove invaluable for pinpointing critical regions, and sites of driver mutations, in the vast non-protein-coding genome. Supported by the State of Texas through the Texas Ctr. for Superconductivity.

  8. Electron-hole quantum physics in ZnO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, M.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829935


    This dissertation describes several new aspects of the quantum physics of electrons and holes in zinc oxide (ZnO), including a few possible applications. Zinc oxide is a II-VI semiconductor with a direct band gap in the ultraviolet. Experimental and theoretical studies have been performed, both on

  9. Electron-hole confinement symmetry in silicon quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, F.; Mueller, Filipp; Konstantaras, Georgios; Spruijtenburg, P.C.; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; Zwanenburg, Floris Arnoud


    We report electrical transport measurements on a gate-defined ambipolar quantum dot in intrinsic silicon. The ambipolarity allows its operation as either an electron or a hole quantum dot of which we change the dot occupancy by 20 charge carriers in each regime. Electron−hole confinement symmetry is

  10. Theory of molecular nonadiabatic electron dynamics in condensed phases (United States)

    Takatsuka, Kazuo


    In light of the rapid progress of ultrafast chemical dynamics driven by the pulse lasers having width as short as several tens of attoseconds, we herein develop a theory of nonadiabatic electron wavepacket dynamics in condensed phases, with which to directly track the dynamics of electronic-state mixing such as electron transfer in liquid solvents. Toward this goal, we combine a theory of path-branching representation for nonadiabatic electron wavepacket dynamics in vacuum {a mixed quantum-classical representation, Yonehara and Takatsuka [J. Chem. Phys. 129, 134109 (2008)]} and a theory of entropy functional to treat chemical dynamics in condensed phases {a mixed dynamical-statistical representation, Takatsuka and Matsumoto [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18, 1771 (2016)]}. Difficulty and complexity in the present theoretical procedure arise in embedding the Schrödinger equation into classically treated statistical environment. Nevertheless, the resultant equations of motion for electronic-state mixing due to the intrinsic nonadiabatic interactions and solute-solvent interactions, along with the force matrix that drives nuclear branching paths, both turn out to be clear enough to make it possible to comprehend the physical meanings behind. We also discuss briefly the nonvalidness of naive application of the notion of nonadiabatic transition dynamics among free energy surfaces.

  11. Theory of molecular nonadiabatic electron dynamics in condensed phases. (United States)

    Takatsuka, Kazuo


    In light of the rapid progress of ultrafast chemical dynamics driven by the pulse lasers having width as short as several tens of attoseconds, we herein develop a theory of nonadiabatic electron wavepacket dynamics in condensed phases, with which to directly track the dynamics of electronic-state mixing such as electron transfer in liquid solvents. Toward this goal, we combine a theory of path-branching representation for nonadiabatic electron wavepacket dynamics in vacuum {a mixed quantum-classical representation, Yonehara and Takatsuka [J. Chem. Phys. 129, 134109 (2008)]} and a theory of entropy functional to treat chemical dynamics in condensed phases {a mixed dynamical-statistical representation, Takatsuka and Matsumoto [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18, 1771 (2016)]}. Difficulty and complexity in the present theoretical procedure arise in embedding the Schrödinger equation into classically treated statistical environment. Nevertheless, the resultant equations of motion for electronic-state mixing due to the intrinsic nonadiabatic interactions and solute-solvent interactions, along with the force matrix that drives nuclear branching paths, both turn out to be clear enough to make it possible to comprehend the physical meanings behind. We also discuss briefly the nonvalidness of naive application of the notion of nonadiabatic transition dynamics among free energy surfaces.

  12. Dynamic space charge behaviour in polymeric DC cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens


    The use of extruded insulation for DC cables involves a risk of local electric field enhancement, caused by a space charge build-up within the dielectric. In this work, the theory of charge generation and transport in polymers is applied in a numerical computer model in order to predict...... the formation and transport of space charges in a polymeric dielectric. The model incorporates the processes of field assisted electron-hole pair generation from impurity atoms, trapping and charge injection at the electrodes. Its aim has been to study the field- and temperature dependent dynamic behaviour...... of a dielectric. Results obtained using this model-based framework are compared to measurement results obtained from Laser Induced Pressure Pulse (LIPP) space charge measurements as well as conductivity measurements on selected cable type samples....

  13. Sub-cycle ionization dynamics revealed by trajectory resolved, elliptically-driven high-order harmonic generation (United States)

    Larsen, E. W.; Carlström, S.; Lorek, E.; Heyl, C. M.; Paleček, D.; Schafer, K. J.; L’Huillier, A.; Zigmantas, D.; Mauritsson, J.


    The sub-cycle dynamics of electrons driven by strong laser fields is central to the emerging field of attosecond science. We demonstrate how the dynamics can be probed through high-order harmonic generation, where different trajectories leading to the same harmonic order are initiated at different times, thereby probing different field strengths. We find large differences between the trajectories with respect to both their sensitivity to driving field ellipticity and resonant enhancement. To accurately describe the ellipticity dependence of the long trajectory harmonics we must include a sub-cycle change of the initial velocity distribution of the electron and its excursion time. The resonant enhancement is observed only for the long trajectory contribution of a particular harmonic when a window resonance in argon, which is off-resonant in the field-free case, is shifted into resonance due to a large dynamic Stark shift. PMID:27991521

  14. Ultrafast dynamics driven by intense light pulses from atoms to solids, from lasers to intense X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Gräfe, Stefanie


    This book documents the recent vivid developments in the research field of ultrashort intense light pulses for probing and controlling ultrafast dynamics. The recent fascinating results in studying and controlling ultrafast dynamics in ever more complicated systems such as (bio-)molecules and structures of meso- to macroscopic sizes on ever shorter time-scales are presented. The book is written by some of the most eminent experimental and theoretical experts in the field. It covers the new groundbreaking research directions that were opened by the availability of new light sources such as fully controlled intense laser fields with durations down to a single oscillation cycle, short-wavelength laser-driven attosecond pulses and intense X-ray pulses from the upcoming free electron lasers. These light sources allowed the investigation of dynamics in atoms, molecules, clusters, on surfaces and very recently also in nanostructures and solids in new regimes of parameters which, in turn, led to the identification of...

  15. Rate Equation Analysis of the Dynamics of First-order Exciton Mott Transition (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Fumiya; Shimano, Ryo


    We perform a rate equation analysis of the dynamics of the exciton Mott transition (EMT) assuming a detailed balance between excitons and unbound electron-hole (e-h) pairs. Using the Saha equation and adopting an empirical expression for the band-gap renormalization effect caused by unbound e-h pairs, we show that the ionization ratio of excitons exhibits bistability as a function of the total e-h pair density at low temperatures. We demonstrate that an incubation time emerges in the dynamics of the EMT from the oversaturated exciton gas phase on the verge of the bistable region. The incubation time shows slowing down behavior when the pair density approaches saddle-node bifurcation of the hysteresis curve of the exciton ionization ratio.

  16. Attosecond spectroscopy of autoionizing states


    Jiménez Galán, Álvaro


    Tesis doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Química. Fecha de lectura: 15-12-2015 In this PhD Thesis we report a theoretical time-resolved study of the effects of electron correlation in the single photoionization spectrum of atomic systems, with particular focus on multi-photon transitions occurring in the presence of autoionizing states. For this task, we take two complementary approaches. On the one hand, we solve ...

  17. Dynamics of charge at water-to-semiconductor interface: Case study of wet [0 0 1] anatase TiO{sub 2} nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shuping [Department of Chemistry, University of South Dakota, Vermillion (United States); College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Balasanthiran, Choumini [Department of Chemistry, University of South Dakota, Vermillion (United States); Tretiak, Sergei [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hoefelmeyer, James D. [Department of Chemistry, University of South Dakota, Vermillion (United States); Kilina, Svetlana V. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, NDSU, Fargo, ND 58108 (United States); Kilin, Dmitri S., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of South Dakota, Vermillion (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, NDSU, Fargo, ND 58108 (United States)


    Highlights: • Dynamics of photoexcitations is computed for TiO{sub 2} nanowires in aqueous environment. • Aqueous TiO{sub 2} nanowires gain brighter but short-lived optical transitions. • Relaxation of electrons (holes) is 2 (4) times faster in water than in vacuum. • Calculated and experimental absorption/emission spectra correlate well. - Abstract: The behavior of water molecules on the surfaces of the TiO{sub 2} nanowire grown in [0 0 1] direction has been investigated by combining theoretical calculations and experiments. Calculated UV–visible absorption spectra reproduce the main features of the experimental spectra. Computations predict that a photoexcitation followed by a sequence of relaxation events results in photoluminescence across the gap. TiO{sub 2} nanowires in vacuum and aqueous environment exhibit different dynamics of photo-excited charge carriers. In water, computed relaxation of electrons (holes) is approximately 2 (4) times faster compared with vacuum environment. Faster relaxation of holes vs. electrons and specific spatial localization of holes result to formation of long lived charge transfer excitation with positive charge at the surface of the nanowire. Comparison of relaxation process in TiO{sub 2}/water interfaces focusing on different surfaces and nanostructures has potential in identifying structural characteristics of TiO{sub 2} materials important for efficient photo-electrochemical water splitting.

  18. Role of dynamical screening in excitation kinetics of biased quantum wells: Nonlinear absorption and ultrabroadband terahertz emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Monozon, B. S.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd


    In this work we describe the ultrafast excitation kinetics of biased quantum well, arising from the optically induced dynamical screening of a bias electric field. The initial bia electric field inside the quantum well is screened by the optically excited polarized electron-hole pairs. This leads...... to a dynamical modification of the properties of the system within an excitation pulse duration. We calculate the excitation kinetics of a biased quantum well and the dependency of resulting electronic and optical properties on the excitation pulse fluence, quantum well width,and initial bias field strength. Our...... wells are in good agreement with our experimental observations [Turchinovich et al., Phys. Rev. B 68, 241307(R) (2003)], as well as in perfect compliance with qualitative considerations. ©2006 American Institute of Physics...

  19. Communication: Hot-atom abstraction dynamics of hydrogen from tungsten surfaces: The role of surface structure (United States)

    Galparsoro, Oihana; Busnengo, Heriberto Fabio; Juaristi, Joseba Iñaki; Crespos, Cédric; Alducin, Maite; Larregaray, Pascal


    Adiabatic and non-adiabatic quasiclassical molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the role of the crystal face on hot-atom abstraction of H adsorbates by H scattering from covered W(100) and W(110). On both cases, hyperthermal diffusion is strongly affected by the energy dissipated into electron-hole pair excitations. As a result, the hot-atom abstraction is highly reduced in favor of adsorption at low incidence energy and low coverages, i.e., when the mean free path of the hyperthermal H is typically larger. Qualitatively, this reduction is rather similar on both surfaces, despite at such initial conditions, the abstraction process involves more subsurface penetration on W(100) than on W(110).

  20. Ultrafast Electron Dynamics in Solar Energy Conversion. (United States)

    Ponseca, Carlito S; Chábera, Pavel; Uhlig, Jens; Persson, Petter; Sundström, Villy


    Electrons are the workhorses of solar energy conversion. Conversion of the energy of light to electricity in photovoltaics, or to energy-rich molecules (solar fuel) through photocatalytic processes, invariably starts with photoinduced generation of energy-rich electrons. The harvesting of these electrons in practical devices rests on a series of electron transfer processes whose dynamics and efficiencies determine the function of materials and devices. To capture the energy of a photogenerated electron-hole pair in a solar cell material, charges of opposite sign have to be separated against electrostatic attractions, prevented from recombining and being transported through the active material to electrodes where they can be extracted. In photocatalytic solar fuel production, these electron processes are coupled to chemical reactions leading to storage of the energy of light in chemical bonds. With the focus on the ultrafast time scale, we here discuss the light-induced electron processes underlying the function of several molecular and hybrid materials currently under development for solar energy applications in dye or quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, polymer-fullerene polymer solar cells, organometal halide perovskite solar cells, and finally some photocatalytic systems.

  1. Dynamics of two-dimensional dipole systems. (United States)

    Golden, Kenneth I; Kalman, Gabor J; Hartmann, Peter; Donkó, Zoltán


    Using a combined analytical/molecular dynamics approach, we study the current fluctuation spectra and longitudinal and transverse collective mode dispersions of the classical two-dimensional (point) dipole system (2DDS) characterized by the ϕ{D}(r)=μ{2}/r{3} repulsive interaction potential; μ is the electric dipole strength. The interest in the 2DDS is twofold. First, the quasi-long-range 1/r{3} interaction makes the system a unique classical many-body system, with a remarkable collective mode behavior. Second, the system may be a good model for a closely spaced semiconductor electron-hole bilayer, a system that is in the forefront of current experimental interest. The longitudinal collective excitations, which are of primary interest for the liquid phase, are acoustic at long wavelengths. At higher wave numbers and for sufficiently high coupling strength, we observe the formation of a deep minimum in the dispersion curve preceded by a sharp maximum; this is identical to what has been observed in the dispersion of the zero-temperature bosonic dipole system, which in turn emulates so-called roton-maxon excitation spectrum of the superfluid 4He . The analysis we present gives an insight into the emergence of this apparently universal structure, governed by strong correlations. We study both the liquid and the crystalline solid state. We also observe the excitation of combination frequencies, resembling the roton-roton, roton-maxon, etc. structures in 4He .

  2. Special issue on ultrafast electron and molecular dynamics (United States)

    Hishikawa, Akiyoshi; Martin, Fernando; Vrakking, Marc


    Your invitation to submit. Journal of Physics. B: Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics (JPhysB) is delighted to announce a forthcoming special issue on ultrafast electron and molecular dynamics to appear in 2014, and invites you to submit a paper. Within the last decade, a number of novel approaches have emerged, both experimental and theoretical, that allow the investigation of (time-resolved) molecular dynamics in novel ways not anticipated before. Experimentally, the introduction of novel light sources such as high-harmonic generation and XUV/x-ray free electron lasers, and the emergence of novel detection strategies, such as time-resolved electron/x-ray diffraction and the fully coincident detection of electrons and fragment ions in reaction microscopes, has significantly expanded the arsenal of available techniques, and has taken studies of molecular dynamics into new domains of spectroscopic, spatial and temporal resolution, the latter including first explorations into the attosecond domain. Along the way, particular types of molecular dynamics, such as dynamics around conical intersections, have gained an increased prominence, sparked by an emerging realization about the essential role that this dynamics plays in relaxation pathways in important bio-molecular systems. The progress on the theoretical side has been no less impressive. Novel generations of supercomputers and a series of novel computational strategies have allowed nearly exact calculations in small molecules, as well as highly successful approximate calculations in large, polyatomic molecules. Frequent and intensive collaborations involving both theory and experiment have been essential for the progress that has been accomplished. The special issue 'Ultrafast electron and molecular dynamics' seeks to provide an overview of some of the most important developments in the field, while at the same time indicating how studies of (time-resolved) molecular dynamics are likely to evolve in the coming

  3. Wavelength dependence of sub-laser-cycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrwerth, O; Rudenko, A; Kremer, M; Jesus, V L B de; Fischer, B; Gademann, G; Simeonidis, K; Achtelik, A; Ergler, Th; Feuerstein, B; Schroeter, C D; Moshammer, R; Ullrich, J [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail:


    Recoil-ion momentum distributions for double and triple ionization of Ne and Ar, as well as for double ionization of N{sub 2} molecule by intense (0.3-0.5 PW cm{sup -2}), short ({approx}35-40 fs) laser pulses have been recorded in a so far unexplored long laser-wavelength regime at 1300 nm. Compared to earlier results at 800 nm, the direct (e, ne) ionization pathway during recollision is strongly enhanced manifesting itself in a pronounced double-hump structure in the longitudinal ion momentum spectra not only for Ne, but also surprisingly distinct for Ar and, found for the first time, for molecules. Observed wavelength dependence of the sub-laser-cycle correlated few-electron dynamics might be of paramount importance for possible future applications in attosecond science, in particular, for imaging of ultrafast molecular processes via recollision-induced fragmentation.

  4. Sub-Femtosecond Correlated Dynamics Explored with Antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Ullrich, J; Fischer, D; Moshammer, R; Najjari, B; Schulz, M; Voitkiv, A; Welsch, C P


    Ionizing collisions of antiprotons with atoms or molecules at energies between a few keV up to about one MeV provide a unique tool to explore correlated dynamics of electrons at large perturbations on a time scale between several femtoseconds (1 fs = 10−15 s) down to some tens of attoseconds (1 as = 10−18 s). Exploiting and developing many‐particle imaging methods — Reaction‐Microscopes — integrated into a novel ultra‐low energy storage ring (USR) for slow antiprotons will enable to access for the first time fully differential cross sections for single and multiple ionization in such collisions. Moreover, the formation of antiprotonic atoms, molecules or of protonium might be explored in kinematically complete experiments yielding unprecedented information on (n,l)‐distributions of captured antiprotons as well as precise spectroscopic data of the respective energy levels. In this contribution the present status on single and double ionization by antiproton and ion impact is highlighted pointin...

  5. Photo-excited hot carrier dynamics in hydrogenated amorphous silicon imaged by 4D electron microscopy (United States)

    Liao, Bolin; Najafi, Ebrahim; Li, Heng; Minnich, Austin J.; Zewail, Ahmed H.


    Charge carrier dynamics in amorphous semiconductors has been a topic of intense research that has been propelled by modern applications in thin-film solar cells, transistors and optical sensors. Charge transport in these materials differs fundamentally from that in crystalline semiconductors owing to the lack of long-range order and high defect density. Despite the existence of well-established experimental techniques such as photoconductivity time-of-flight and ultrafast optical measurements, many aspects of the dynamics of photo-excited charge carriers in amorphous semiconductors remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate direct imaging of carrier dynamics in space and time after photo-excitation in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) by scanning ultrafast electron microscopy (SUEM). We observe an unexpected regime of fast diffusion immediately after photoexcitation, together with spontaneous electron-hole separation and charge trapping induced by the atomic disorder. Our findings demonstrate the rich dynamics of hot carrier transport in amorphous semiconductors that can be revealed by direct imaging based on SUEM.

  6. New theoretical approaches to atomic and molecular dynamics triggered by ultrashort light pulses on the atto- to picosecond time scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pabst, Stefan Ulf


    The concept of atoms as the building blocks of matter has existed for over 3000 years. A revolution in the understanding and the description of atoms and molecules has occurred in the last century with the birth of quantum mechanics. After the electronic structure was understood, interest in studying the dynamics of electrons, atoms, and molecules increased. However, time-resolved investigations of these ultrafast processes were not possible until recently. The typical time scale of atomic and molecular processes is in the picosecond to attosecond realm. Tremendous technological progress in recent years makes it possible to generate light pulses on these time scales. With such ultrashort pulses, atomic and molecular dynamics can be triggered, watched, and controlled. Simultaneously, the need rises for theoretical models describing the underlying mechanisms. This doctoral thesis focuses on the development of theoretical models which can be used to study the dynamical behavior of electrons, atoms, and molecules in the presence of ultrashort light pulses. Several examples are discussed illustrating how light pulses can trigger and control electronic, atomic, and molecular motions. In the first part of this work, I focus on the rotational motion of asymmetric molecules, which happens on picosecond and femtosecond time scales. Here, the aim is to align all three axes of the molecule as well as possible. To investigate theoretically alignment dynamics, I developed a program that can describe alignment motion ranging from the impulsive to the adiabatic regime. The asymmetric molecule SO{sub 2} is taken as an example to discuss strategies of optimizing 3D alignment without the presence of an external field (i.e., field-free alignment). Field-free alignment is particularly advantageous because subsequent experiments on the aligned molecule are not perturbed by the aligning light pulse. Wellaligned molecules in the gas phase are suitable for diffraction experiments. From the

  7. Electron dynamics in MoS2-graphite heterostructures. (United States)

    Zhang, Xinwu; He, Dawei; Yi, Lixin; Zhao, Siqi; He, Jiaqi; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Hui


    The electron dynamics in heterostructures formed by multilayer graphite and monolayer or bulk MoS2 were studied by femtosecond transient absorption measurements. Samples of monolayer MoS2-multilayer graphite and bulk MoS2-multilayer graphite were fabricated by exfoliation and dry transfer techniques. Ultrafast laser pulses were used to inject electron-hole pairs into monolayer or bulk MoS2. The transfer of these photocarriers to the adjacent multilayer graphite was time resolved by measuring the differential reflection of a probe pulse. We found that photocarriers injected into monolayer MoS2 transfer to graphite on an ultrafast time scale shorter than 400 fs. Such an efficient charge transfer is key to the development of high performance optoelectronic devices with MoS2 as the light absorbing layer and graphite as electrodes. The absorption coefficient of monolayer MoS2 can be controlled by the carriers in graphite. This process can be used for interlayer coupling and control. In a bulk MoS2-graphite heterostructure, the photocarrier transfer time is about 220 ps, due to the inefficient interlayer charge transport in bulk MoS2. These results provide useful information for developing optoelectronic devices based on MoS2-graphite heterostructures.

  8. Real-Space Imaging of Carrier Dynamics of Materials Surfaces by Second-Generation Four-Dimensional Scanning Ultrafast Electron Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jingya


    In the fields of photocatalysis and photovoltaics, ultrafast dynamical processes, including carrier trapping and recombination on material surfaces, are among the key factors that determine the overall energy conversion efficiency. A precise knowledge of these dynamical events on the nanometer (nm) and femtosecond (fs) scales was not accessible until recently. The only way to access such fundamental processes fully is to map the surface dynamics selectively in real space and time. In this study, we establish a second generation of four-dimensional scanning ultrafast electron microscopy (4D S-UEM) and demonstrate the ability to record time-resolved images (snapshots) of material surfaces with 650 fs and ∼5 nm temporal and spatial resolutions, respectively. In this method, the surface of a specimen is excited by a clocking optical pulse and imaged using a pulsed primary electron beam as a probe pulse, generating secondary electrons (SEs), which are emitted from the surface of the specimen in a manner that is sensitive to the local electron/hole density. This method provides direct and controllable information regarding surface dynamics. We clearly demonstrate how the surface morphology, grains, defects, and nanostructured features can significantly impact the overall dynamical processes on the surface of photoactive-materials. In addition, the ability to access two regimes of dynamical probing in a single experiment and the energy loss of SEs in semiconductor-nanoscale materials will also be discussed.

  9. The role of internal dynamics in the coherent evolution of indirect excitons (United States)

    Grasselli, Federico; Bertoni, Andrea; Goldoni, Guido


    We study the time-dependent quantum scattering of a spatially indirect exciton by an external potential, taking fully into account the relative quantum dynamics of the electron-hole (e-h) pair. Exact calculations for an e-h wave packet show that transfer of energy between centre-of-mass (c.m.) and relative degrees of freedom may result in a genuine correction to the evolution during the scattering and eventually at asymptotic times. We show in experimentally relevant regimes and device configurations, that transmission resonances, tunnelling probabilities, diffraction patterns and wave packet fragmentation of indirect excitons are largely determined by the internal dynamics, and could not be reproduced by point-like dipole models or mean-field calculations. We show that a properly-designed local self-energy potential to be added to the c.m. Hamiltonian embeds the effects of the c.m.-internal motion correlation at a small fraction of the computation load needed for full-propagation calculations. The explicit form of this self-energy emphasises the dominant role of internal virtual transitions in determining scattering coefficients of indirect excitons.

  10. Atomic and molecular phases through attosecond streaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Jan Conrad; Madsen, Lars Bojer


    phase of the atomic or molecular ionization matrix elements from the two states through the interference from the two channels. The interference may change the phase of the photoelectron streaking signal within the envelope of the infrared field, an effect to be accounted for when reconstructing short...

  11. Attosecond pulse characterization with coherent Rydberg wavepackets

    CERN Document Server

    Pabst, Stefan


    We propose a new technique to fully characterize the temporal structure of extreme ultraviolet pulses by ionizing a bound coherent electronic wavepacket. The populated energy levels make it possible to interfere different spectral components leading to quantum beats in the photoelectron spectrum as a function of the delay between ionization and initiation of the wavepacket. The influence of the dipole phase, which is the main obstacle for state-of-the-art pulse characterization schemes, can be eliminated by angle integration of the photoelectron spectrum. We show that particularly atomic Rydberg wavepackets are ideal and that wavepackets involving multiple electronic states provide redundant information which can be used to cross-check the consistency of the phase reconstruction.

  12. Study of recombination processes for 'electron-hole' pairs in germanium irradiated by {gamma} rays from {sup 60}Co using the photovoltaic effect in P-N junctions; Etude du processus de recombinaison des paires ''electron-trou'' dans le germanium irradie par les rayons {gamma} du cobalt 60 a l'aide de l'effet photovoltaique dans les jonctions P-N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahedi-Mochadam, A.A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Using the photo-voltaic effect in p-n junctions, we have studied, during bombardment, the mechanism of the recombination of 'electron-hole' pairs in the presence of structure defects produced in germanium of the N and P types by {gamma} rays from a Co{sup 60} source. At 310 K the level of the recombination centres is situated 0.25 eV above the conduction band and the capture cross-sections of the holes and of the electrons have the respective values of: {sigma}{sub p} = 4 X 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2} and {sigma}{sub n} = 3 X 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2}. The value of {sigma}{sub n} appears to be under-estimated because the number of defects in P-type samples appears to be lower than that in N-type samples. These results lead to the conclusion that the interstitials are responsible for the recombination. At 80 K it has been found that in N-type samples, a shallow level exists at O.05 eV below the conduction band with a capture cross-section for the holes of {sigma}{sub p} {>=} 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}. We believe that in this case the recombination of charge carriers is controlled by the neighbouring 'defect-interstitial' pairs. In P-type samples at low temperature, the life-time is practically constant during irradiation. This fact is attributed to a spontaneous annealing of defects ol purely electrical origin. In the last part of the work the study of the photo-voltaic effect applied to the problem of gamma radiation dosimetry is considered. It is shown that such dosimeters, based on this principle, make it possible to measure the intensity of gamma rays over a very wide range. (author) [French] En utilisant l'effet photovoltaique dans les jonctions p-n, nous avons etudie au cours du bombardement le mecanisme de recombinaison des paires 'electron-trou' en presence des defauts de structure introduits dans le germanium de type N et de type P par les rayons gamma d'une source de Co{sup 60}. A 310 K, le niveau des centres de recombinaison se

  13. Electrons, holes, and excitons in GaAs polytype quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Climente, Juan I.; Segarra, Carlos; Rajadell, Fernando; Planelles, Josep, E-mail: [Departament de Química Física i Analítica, Universitat Jaume I, E-12080 Castelló (Spain)


    Single and multi-band k⋅p Hamiltonians for GaAs crystal phase quantum dots are used to assess ongoing experimental activity on the role of such factors as quantum confinement, spontaneous polarization, valence band mixing, and exciton Coulomb interaction. Spontaneous polarization is found to be a dominating term. Together with the control of dot thickness [Vainorius et al., Nano Lett. 15, 2652 (2015)], it enables wide exciton wavelength and lifetime tunability. Several new phenomena are predicted for small diameter dots [Loitsch et al., Adv. Mater. 27, 2195 (2015)], including non-heavy hole ground state, strong hole spin admixture, and a type-II to type-I exciton transition, which can be used to improve the absorption strength and reduce the radiative lifetime of GaAs polytypes.

  14. Novel detection methods for radiation-induced electron-hole pairs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Cich, Michael Joseph; Vawter, Gregory Allen; Derzon, Mark Steven; Martinez, Marino John


    Most common ionizing radiation detectors typically rely on one of two general methods: collection of charge generated by the radiation, or collection of light produced by recombination of excited species. Substantial efforts have been made to improve the performance of materials used in these types of detectors, e.g. to raise the operating temperature, to improve the energy resolution, timing or tracking ability. However, regardless of the material used, all these detectors are limited in performance by statistical variation in the collection efficiency, for charge or photons. We examine three alternative schemes for detecting ionizing radiation that do not rely on traditional direct collection of the carriers or photons produced by the radiation. The first method detects refractive index changes in a resonator structure. The second looks at alternative means to sense the chemical changes caused by radiation on a scintillator-type material. The final method examines the possibilities of sensing the perturbation caused by radiation on the transmission of a RF transmission line structure. Aspects of the feasibility of each approach are examined and recommendations made for further work.

  15. Observation of standing waves of electron-hole sound in a photoexcited semiconductor. (United States)

    Padmanabhan, P; Young, S M; Henstridge, M; Bhowmick, S; Bhattacharya, P K; Merlin, R


    Three-dimensional multicomponent plasmas composed of species with very different masses support a new branch of charge-density fluctuations known as acoustic plasmons. Here, we report on an ultrafast optical method to generate and probe coherent states of acoustic plasmons in a slab of GaAs, which relies on strong photoexcitation to create a large population of light electrons and heavy holes. Consistent with the random-phase-approximation theory, the data reveal standing plasma waves confined to these slabs, similar to those of conventional sound but with associated velocities that are significantly larger.

  16. Effect of electron-hole asymmetry on optical conductivity in 8 -P m m n borophene (United States)

    Verma, Sonu; Mawrie, Alestin; Ghosh, Tarun Kanti


    We present a detailed theoretical study of the Drude weight and optical conductivity of 8-P m m n borophene having tilted anisotropic Dirac cones. We provide exact analytical expressions of x x and y y components of the Drude weight as well as maximum optical conductivity. We also obtain exact analytical expressions of the minimum energy (ɛ1) required to trigger the optical transitions and energy (ɛ2) needed to attain maximum optical conductivity. We find that the Drude weight and optical conductivity are highly anisotropic as a consequence of the anisotropic Dirac cone. The optical conductivities have a nonmonotonic behavior with photon energy in the regime between ɛ1 and ɛ2, as a result of the tilted parameter vt. The tilted parameter can be extracted by knowing ɛ1 and ɛ2 from optical measurements. The maximum values of the components of the optical conductivity do not depend on the carrier density and the tilted parameter. The product of the maximum values of the anisotropic conductivities has the universal value (e2/4ℏ ) 2. The tilted anisotropic Dirac cones in 8-P m m n borophene can be realized by the optical conductivity measurement.

  17. Electrons, holes, and spin in Nd2-xCexCuO4-delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjernberg, O; Tjeng, LH; Ghiringhelli, G; Nugroho, AA; Menovsky, AA; Brookes, NB


    The spin nature of the states at the top of the valence band in Nd2CuO4 and Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4-delta has been investigated with spin polarized resonant photoemission. A clear Zhang-Rice singlet state is observed at the top of the valence band in the undoped compound showing that the parent compound of

  18. Effects of model approximations for electron, hole, and photon transport in swift heavy ion tracks (United States)

    Rymzhanov, R. A.; Medvedev, N. A.; Volkov, A. E.


    The event-by-event Monte Carlo code, TREKIS, was recently developed to describe excitation of the electron subsystems of solids in the nanometric vicinity of a trajectory of a nonrelativistic swift heavy ion (SHI) decelerated in the electronic stopping regime. The complex dielectric function (CDF) formalism was applied in the used cross sections to account for collective response of a matter to excitation. Using this model we investigate effects of the basic assumptions on the modeled kinetics of the electronic subsystem which ultimately determine parameters of an excited material in an SHI track. In particular, (a) effects of different momentum dependencies of the CDF on scattering of projectiles on the electron subsystem are investigated. The 'effective one-band' approximation for target electrons produces good coincidence of the calculated electron mean free paths with those obtained in experiments in metals. (b) Effects of collective response of a lattice appeared to dominate in randomization of electron motion. We study how sensitive these effects are to the target temperature. We also compare results of applications of different model forms of (quasi-) elastic cross sections in simulations of the ion track kinetics, e.g. those calculated taking into account optical phonons in the CDF form vs. Mott's atomic cross sections. (c) It is demonstrated that the kinetics of valence holes significantly affects redistribution of the excess electronic energy in the vicinity of an SHI trajectory as well as its conversion into lattice excitation in dielectrics and semiconductors. (d) It is also shown that induced transport of photons originated from radiative decay of core holes brings the excess energy faster and farther away from the track core, however, the amount of this energy is relatively small.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakamata, Tomoya [Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto (Japan); Shimamura, Kohei [Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto (Japan); Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kobe Univ., Kobe (Japan); Shimojo, Fuyuki [Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto (Japan); Kalia, Rajiv K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Nakano, Aiichiro [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Vashishta, Priya [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    Organometal halide perovskites are attracting great attention as promising material for solar cells because of their high power conversion efficiency. The high performance has been attributed to the existence of free charge carriers and their large diffusion lengths, but the nature of carrier transport at the atomistic level remains elusive. Here, nonadiabatic quantum molecular dynamics simulations elucidate the mechanisms underlying the excellent free-carrier transport in CH3NH3PbI3. Pb and I sublattices act as disjunct pathways for rapid and balanced transport of photoexcited electrons and holes, respectively, while minimizing efficiency-degrading charge recombination. On the other hand, CH3NH3 sublattice quickly screens out electrostatic electron-hole attraction to generate free carriers within 1 ps. Together this nano-architecture lets photoexcited electrons and holes dissociate instantaneously and travel far away to be harvested before dissipated as heat. As a result, this work provides much needed structure-property relationships and time-resolved information that potentially lead to rational design of efficient solar cells.

  20. Numerical investigation of the sequential-double-ionization dynamics of helium in different few-cycle-laser-field shapes (United States)

    Wustelt, Philipp; Möller, Max; Schöffler, Markus S.; Xie, Xinhua; Hanus, Vaclav; Sayler, A. Max; Baltuska, Andrius; Paulus, Gerhard G.; Kitzler, Markus


    We investigate sequential double ionization of helium by intense near-circularly polarized few-cycle laser pulses using a semiclassical ionization model with two independent electrons. Simulated He2 + ion momentum distributions are compared to those obtained in recent benchmark experiments [M. S. Schöffler, X. Xie, P. Wustelt, M. Möller, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, A. M. Sayler, A. Baltuska, G. G. Paulus, and M. Kitzler, Phys. Rev. A 93, 063421 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.063421]. We study the influence of a number of pulse parameters such as peak intensity, carrier-envelope phase, pulse duration, and second- and third-order spectral phase on the shape of the ion momentum distributions. Good agreement is found in the main features of these distributions and of their dependence on the laser pulse duration, peak intensity, and carrier-envelope phase. Furthermore, we find that for explaining certain fine-scale features observed in the experiments, it becomes important to consider subtle timing variations in the two-electron emissions introduced by small values of chirp. This result highlights the possibility of measuring and controlling multielectron dynamics on the attosecond time scale by fine tuning the field evolution of intense close-to-single-cycle laser pulses.

  1. Ultrafast dynamics of Coulomb correlated excitons in GaAs quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mycek, M.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.


    The author measures the transient nonlinear optical response of room temperature excitons in gallium arsenide quantum wells via multi-wave mixing experiments. The dynamics of the resonantly excited excitons is directly reflected by the ultrafast decay of the induced nonlinear polarization, which radiates the detected multi-wave mixing signal. She characterizes this ultrafast coherent emission in both amplitude and phase, using time- and frequency-domain measurement techniques, to better understand the role of Coulomb correlation in these systems. To interpret the experimental results, the nonlinear optical response of a dense medium is calculated using a model including Coulomb interaction. She contributes three new elements to previous theoretical and experimental studies of these systems. First, surpassing traditional time-integrated measurements, she temporally resolves the amplitude of the ultrafast coherent emission. Second, in addition to measuring the third-order four-wave mixing signal, she also investigates the fifth-order six-wave mixing response. Third, she characterizes the ultrafast phase dynamics of the nonlinear emission using interferometric techniques with an unprecedented resolution of approximately 140 attoseconds. The author finds that effects arising from Coulomb correlation dominate the nonlinear optical response when the density of excitons falls below 3 {times} 10{sup 11} cm{sup {minus}2}, the saturation density. These signatures of Coulomb correlation are investigated for increasing excitation density to gradually screen the interactions and test the validity of the model for dense media. The results are found to be qualitatively consistent with both the predictions of the model and with numerical solutions to the semiconductor Bloch equations. Importantly, the results also indicate current experimental and theoretical limitations, which should be addressed in future research.

  2. Femtosecond few- to single-electron point-projection microscopy for nanoscale dynamic imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Bainbridge


    Full Text Available Femtosecond electron microscopy produces real-space images of matter in a series of ultrafast snapshots. Pulses of electrons self-disperse under space-charge broadening, so without compression, the ideal operation mode is a single electron per pulse. Here, we demonstrate femtosecond single-electron point projection microscopy (fs-ePPM in a laser-pump fs-e-probe configuration. The electrons have an energy of only 150 eV and take tens of picoseconds to propagate to the object under study. Nonetheless, we achieve a temporal resolution with a standard deviation of 114 fs (equivalent to a full-width at half-maximum of 269 ± 40 fs combined with a spatial resolution of 100 nm, applied to a localized region of charge at the apex of a nanoscale metal tip induced by 30 fs 800 nm laser pulses at 50 kHz. These observations demonstrate real-space imaging of reversible processes, such as tracking charge distributions, is feasible whilst maintaining femtosecond resolution. Our findings could find application as a characterization method, which, depending on geometry, could resolve tens of femtoseconds and tens of nanometres. Dynamically imaging electric and magnetic fields and charge distributions on sub-micron length scales opens new avenues of ultrafast dynamics. Furthermore, through the use of active compression, such pulses are an ideal seed for few-femtosecond to attosecond imaging applications which will access sub-optical cycle processes in nanoplasmonics.

  3. Cu-Ni nanowire-based TiO{sub 2} hybrid for the dynamic photodegradation of acetaldehyde gas pollutant under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Shuying [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Xie, Xiaofeng, E-mail: [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Chen, Sheng-Chieh [College of Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Tong, Shengrui [Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Lu, Guanhong [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Pui, David Y.H. [College of Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Sun, Jing [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)


    dynamic photocatalytic efficiency of TCN containing 3 wt% Cu-Ni NWs was about 88% and 56% (continuous 500 ppm CH{sub 3}CHO feeding, 20 SCCM) under UV and visible light, respectively. ESR results proved that the recombination of photo-generated electron-hole pairs was inhibited significantly in TCN nanocomposite. Finally, the mechanism for electron-hole pairs’ separation and transmission at Schottky barrier interface between Cu-Ni NWs and TiO{sub 2} layers has been proposed based on the above analyses.

  4. Carrier Dynamics and Band Structure in InGaAs and InGaAs/InP Nanowires (United States)

    Linser, Samuel; Shojaei, Iraj; Jnawali, Giriraj; Wickramasuriya, Nadeeka; Jackson, Howard; Smith, Leigh; Ameruddin, Amira; Caroff, Philippe; Tan, Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    We use transient Rayleigh scattering (TRS) measurements to explore the electronic energy structure of wurtzite InGaAs nanowires. We studied single core-only InGaAs nanowires as well as strained core-shell InGaAs-InP heterostructures at 300 K and 10 K, with probe photon energies in the near-infrared from 0.79 to 1.16 eV. We report a factor of four enhancement of the typical lifetime of excited states in the core-shell nanowires (500 ps) when compared to the core-only nanowires (125 ps). We observe a clear band-edge-like structure in the core-shell wires at energies of 0.98 eV at 10 K and 0.88 eV at 300 K. In both cases, this structure is at a significantly higher energy than the reported bandgap of bulk zincblende InGaAs of the same nominal composition as our nanowires. We also present a phenomenological fitting model of our TRS spectra which provides insight into the cooling dynamics of the electron-hole plasma within a single photo-excited nanowire. We acknowledge the financial support of the NSF through Grants DMR 1507844, DMR 1531373 and ECCS 1509706, and the financial support of the Australian Research Council.

  5. Beam Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, E


    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Accelerators and Colliders' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Chapter '2 Beam Dynamics' with the content: 2 Beam Dynamics 2.1 Linear Transverse Beam Dynamics 2.2 Coupling 2.3 Liouville's Theorem 2.4 Momentum Dependent Transverse Motion 2.5 Longitudinal Motion

  6. Dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sternberg, Shlomo


    Celebrated mathematician Shlomo Sternberg, a pioneer in the field of dynamical systems, created this modern one-semester introduction to the subject for his classes at Harvard University. Its wide-ranging treatment covers one-dimensional dynamics, differential equations, random walks, iterated function systems, symbolic dynamics, and Markov chains. Supplementary materials offer a variety of online components, including PowerPoint lecture slides for professors and MATLAB exercises.""Even though there are many dynamical systems books on the market, this book is bound to become a classic. The the

  7. Dynamics Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Dynamics Lab replicates vibration environments for every Navy platform. Testing performed includes: Flight Clearance, Component Improvement, Qualification, Life...

  8. Immense Magnetic Response of Exciplex Light Emission due to Correlated Spin-Charge Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Wang


    Full Text Available As carriers slowly move through a disordered energy landscape in organic semiconductors, tiny spatial variations in spin dynamics relieve spin blocking at transport bottlenecks or in the electron-hole recombination process that produces light. Large room-temperature magnetic-field effects (MFEs ensue in the conductivity and luminescence. Sources of variable spin dynamics generate much larger MFEs if their spatial structure is correlated on the nanoscale with the energetic sites governing conductivity or luminescence such as in coevaporated organic blends within which the electron resides on one molecule and the hole on the other (an exciplex. Here, we show that exciplex recombination in blends exhibiting thermally activated delayed fluorescence produces MFEs in excess of 60% at room temperature. In addition, effects greater than 4000% can be achieved by tuning the device’s current-voltage response curve by device conditioning. Both of these immense MFEs are the largest reported values for their device type at room temperature. Our theory traces this MFE and its unusual temperature dependence to changes in spin mixing between triplet exciplexes and light-emitting singlet exciplexes. In contrast, spin mixing of excitons is energetically suppressed, and thus spin mixing produces comparatively weaker MFEs in materials emitting light from excitons by affecting the precursor pairs. Demonstration of immense MFEs in common organic blends provides a flexible and inexpensive pathway towards magnetic functionality and field sensitivity in current organic devices without patterning the constituent materials on the nanoscale. Magnetic fields increase the power efficiency of unconditioned devices by 30% at room temperature, also showing that magnetic fields may increase the efficiency of the thermally activated delayed fluorescence process.

  9. Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University.......These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  10. Molecular dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Bethke, I.


    Molecular dynamics is a model for the structure and meaning of object based programming systems. In molecular dynamics the memory state of a system is modeled as a fluid consisting of a collection of molecules. Each molecule is a collection of atoms with bindings between them. A computation is

  11. Discrete dynamics versus analytic dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxværd, Søren


    For discrete classical Molecular dynamics obtained by the “Verlet” algorithm (VA) with the time increment h there exists a shadow Hamiltonian H˜ with energy E˜(h) , for which the discrete particle positions lie on the analytic trajectories for H˜ . Here, we proof that there, independent of such a......For discrete classical Molecular dynamics obtained by the “Verlet” algorithm (VA) with the time increment h there exists a shadow Hamiltonian H˜ with energy E˜(h) , for which the discrete particle positions lie on the analytic trajectories for H˜ . Here, we proof that there, independent...... of such an analytic analogy, exists an exact hidden energy invariance E * for VA dynamics. The fact that the discrete VA dynamics has the same invariances as Newtonian dynamics raises the question, which of the formulations that are correct, or alternatively, the most appropriate formulation of classical dynamics....... In this context the relation between the discrete VA dynamics and the (general) discrete dynamics investigated by Lee [Phys. Lett. B122, 217 (1983)] is presented and discussed....

  12. Dynamic triggering (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Prejean, Stephanie; Schubert, Gerald


    Dynamic stresses propagating as seismic waves from large earthquakes trigger a spectrum of responses at global distances. In addition to locally triggered earthquakes in a variety of tectonic environments, dynamic stresses trigger tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor in the brittle–plastic transition zone along major plate-boundary faults, activity changes in hydrothermal and volcanic systems, and, in hydrologic domains, changes in spring discharge, water well levels, soil liquefaction, and the eruption of mud volcanoes. Surface waves with periods of 15–200 s are the most effective triggering agents; body-wave trigger is less frequent. Triggering dynamic stresses can be < 1 kPa.

  13. Jumping Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco


    paradigm the physical scale and henceforth also the massive spectrum of the theory jump at the lower boundary of the conformal window. In particular we propose that a theory can suddenly jump from a Quantum Chromodynamics type spectrum, at the lower boundary of the conformal window, to a conformal one...... without particle interpretation. The jumping scenario, therefore, does not support a near-conformal dynamics of walking type. We will also discuss the impact of jumping dynamics on the construction of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking....

  14. Galactic dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Binney, James


    Since it was first published in 1987, Galactic Dynamics has become the most widely used advanced textbook on the structure and dynamics of galaxies and one of the most cited references in astrophysics. Now, in this extensively revised and updated edition, James Binney and Scott Tremaine describe the dramatic recent advances in this subject, making Galactic Dynamics the most authoritative introduction to galactic astrophysics available to advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and researchers. Every part of the book has been thoroughly overhauled, and many section

  15. Charge and spin control of ultrafast electron and hole dynamics in single CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots (United States)

    Hinz, C.; Gumbsheimer, P.; Traum, C.; Holtkemper, M.; Bauer, B.; Haase, J.; Mahapatra, S.; Frey, A.; Brunner, K.; Reiter, D. E.; Kuhn, T.; Seletskiy, D. V.; Leitenstorfer, A.


    We study the dynamics of photoexcited electrons and holes in single negatively charged CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots with two-color femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. An initial characterization of the energy level structure is performed at low temperatures and magnetic fields of up to 5 T. Emission and absorption resonances are assigned to specific transitions between few-fermion states by a theoretical model based on a configuration interaction approach. To analyze the dynamics of individual charge carriers, we initialize the quantum system into excited trion states with defined energy and spin. Subsequently, the time-dependent occupation of the trion ground state is monitored by spectrally resolved differential transmission measurements. We observe subpicosecond dynamics for a hole excited to the D shell. The energy dependence of this D -to-S shell intraband transition is investigated in quantum dots of varying size. Excitation of an electron-hole pair in the respective p shells leads to the formation of singlet and triplet spin configurations. Relaxation of the p -shell singlet is observed to occur on a time scale of a few picoseconds. Pumping of p -shell triplet transitions opens up two pathways with distinctly different scattering times. These processes are shown to be governed by the mixing of singlet and triplet states due to exchange interactions enabling simultaneous electron and hole spin flips. To isolate the relaxation channels, we align the spin of the residual electron by a magnetic field and employ laser pulses of defined helicity. This step provides ultrafast preparation of a fully inverted trion ground state of the quantum dot with near unity probability, enabling deterministic addition of a single photon to the probe pulse. Therefore our experiments represent a significant step towards using single quantum emitters with well-controled inversion to manipulate the photon statistics of ultrafast light pulses.

  16. Cu-Ni nanowire-based TiO2 hybrid for the dynamic photodegradation of acetaldehyde gas pollutant under visible light (United States)

    Zhu, Shuying; Xie, Xiaofeng; Chen, Sheng-Chieh; Tong, Shengrui; Lu, Guanhong; Pui, David Y. H.; Sun, Jing


    One-dimensional bimetallic nanowires were introduced into TiO2-based matrix to enhance their photocatalysis efficiency and expand their light absorption range in this work. Recently, metal nanowires have attracted many attention in photocatalyst research fields because of their favorable electronic transmission properties and especially in the aspect of surface plasmon resonance effects. Moreover, Cu-Ni bimetallic nanowires (Cu-Ni NWs) have shown better chemical stability than ordinary monometallic nanowires in our recent works. Interestingly, it has been found that Ni sleeves of the bimetallic nanowires also can modify the Schottky barrier of interface between TiO2 and metallic conductor, so that be beneficial to the separation of photogenerated carriers in the Cu-Ni/TiO2 network topology. Hence, a novel heterostructured photocatalyst composed of Cu-Ni NWs and TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) was fabricated by one-step hydrolysis approach to explore its photocatalytic performance. TEM and EDX mapping images of this TiO2 NPs @Cu-Ni NWs (TCN) hybrid displayed that Cu-Ni NWs were wrapped by compact TiO2 layer and retained the one-dimensional structure in matrix. In experiments, the photocatalytic performance of the TCN nanocomposite was significantly enhanced comparing to pure TiO2. Acetaldehyde, as a common gas pollutant in the environment, was employed to evaluate the photodegradation efficiency of a series of TCN nanocomposites under continuous feeding. The TCN exhibited excellent potodegradation performance, where the dynamic photocatalytic efficiency of TCN containing 3 wt% Cu-Ni NWs was about 88% and 56% (continuous 500 ppm CH3CHO feeding, 20 SCCM) under UV and visible light, respectively. ESR results proved that the recombination of photo-generated electron-hole pairs was inhibited significantly in TCN nanocomposite. Finally, the mechanism for electron-hole pairs' separation and transmission at Schottky barrier interface between Cu-Ni NWs and TiO2 layers has been

  17. Cybersecurity Dynamics (United States)


    appropriate threshold cryptosystems or Byzantine fault-tolerance schemes or Moving Target Defense). Cybersecurity Dynamics offers natural security...solution to NP-hard problems ?) 21 Cybersecurity Dynamics Statistics Machine Learning Big Data Analytics Complex System Science Network...meaning that views/ideas can be subject to refinement (or even correction). Note: We are not trying to attain any kind of ver general science (e.g

  18. Excited state carrier dynamics in CdSxSe1-x semisconductor alloys as studied by ultrafast fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadd, Steven Edward [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This dissertation discusses studies of the electron-hole pair dynamics of CdSxSe1-x semiconductor alloys for the entire compositional range from x = 1 to x = 0 as examined by the ultrafast fluorescence techniques of time correlated single photon counting and fluorescence upconversion. Specifically, samples with x = 1, .75, .5, .25, and 0 were studied each at a spread of wavelengths about its respective emission maximum which varies according to λ = 718nm - 210x nm. The decays of these samples were found to obey a Kohlrausch distribution, exp [(t/τ)β], with the exponent 3 in the range .5-.7 for the alloys. These results are in agreement with those expected for localization due to local potential variations resulting from the random distribution of sulfur and selenium atoms on the element VI A sub-lattice. This localization can be understood in terms of Anderson localization of the holes in states whose energy distribution tails into the forbidden energy band-gap. Because these states have energy dependent lifetimes, the carriers can decay via many parallel channels. This distribution of channels is the ultimate source of the Kohlrausch form of the fluorescence decays.

  19. Record dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robe, Dominic M.; Boettcher, Stefan; Sibani, Paolo


    When quenched rapidly beyond their glass transition, colloidal suspensions fall out of equilibrium. The pace of their dynamics then slows down with the system age, i.e., with the time elapsed after the quench. This breaking of time translational invariance is associated with dynamical observables...... which depend on two time-arguments. The phenomenology is shared by a broad class of aging systems and calls for an equally broad theoretical description. The key idea is that, independent of microscopic details, aging systems progress through rare intermittent structural relaxations that are de......-facto irreversible and become increasingly harder to achieve. Thus, a progression of record-sized dynamical barriers are traversed in the approach to equilibration. Accordingly, the statistics of the events is closely described by a log-Poisson process. Originally developed for relaxation in spin glasses...

  20. Dynamic Bifurcations

    CERN Document Server


    Dynamical Bifurcation Theory is concerned with the phenomena that occur in one parameter families of dynamical systems (usually ordinary differential equations), when the parameter is a slowly varying function of time. During the last decade these phenomena were observed and studied by many mathematicians, both pure and applied, from eastern and western countries, using classical and nonstandard analysis. It is the purpose of this book to give an account of these developments. The first paper, by C. Lobry, is an introduction: the reader will find here an explanation of the problems and some easy examples; this paper also explains the role of each of the other paper within the volume and their relationship to one another. CONTENTS: C. Lobry: Dynamic Bifurcations.- T. Erneux, E.L. Reiss, L.J. Holden, M. Georgiou: Slow Passage through Bifurcation and Limit Points. Asymptotic Theory and Applications.- M. Canalis-Durand: Formal Expansion of van der Pol Equation Canard Solutions are Gevrey.- V. Gautheron, E. Isambe...

  1. Dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Birkhoff, George D


    His research in dynamics constitutes the middle period of Birkhoff's scientific career, that of maturity and greatest power. -Yearbook of the American Philosophical Society The author's great book€¦is well known to all, and the diverse active modern developments in mathematics which have been inspired by this volume bear the most eloquent testimony to its quality and influence. -Zentralblatt MATH In 1927, G. D. Birkhoff wrote a remarkable treatise on the theory of dynamical systems that would inspire many later mathematicians to do great work. To a large extent, Birkhoff was writing about his o

  2. Delta Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette

    . The warming air temperature affects the soil temperature and permafrost thaws and destabilizes the material in the coastal zone. In Greenland, the warming temperature lowers the surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet and more material is transported to the coastal zone. The sea ice extent is thinning...... of a fjord and the second type is a wider fan-shaped open delta. Most deltas are directly coupled to the Greenland Ice Sheet or local icecaps and are highly influenced by the dynamics in the catchments. It is demonstrated how a modern changing climate directly affects delta dynamics, and that Greenlandic...

  3. Classical dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Greenwood, Donald T


    Graduate-level text for science and technology students provides strong background in the more abstract and intellectually satisfying areas of dynamical theory. Topics include d'Alembert's principle and the idea of virtual work, Hamilton's equations, Hamilton-Jacobi theory, canonical transformations, more. Problems and references at chapter ends.

  4. Dynamic Assessment. (United States)

    Schoel, Jim


    Adventure therapists are often asked to assess clients in a manner that differs from their therapeutic approach, resulting in assessment being perceived as burdensome. Project Adventure's Decision Tree combines assessment with activity selection to create a dynamic tool that is responsive to group, individual, and leader needs. Example focuses on…

  5. Structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Strømmen, Einar N


    This book introduces to the theory of structural dynamics, with focus on civil engineering structures that may be described by line-like beam or beam-column type of systems, or by a system of rectangular plates. Throughout this book the mathematical presentation contains a classical analytical description as well as a description in a discrete finite element format, covering the mathematical development from basic assumptions to the final equations ready for practical dynamic response predictions. Solutions are presented in time domain as well as in frequency domain. Structural Dynamics starts off at a basic level and step by step brings the reader up to a level where the necessary safety considerations to wind or horizontal ground motion induced dynamic design problems can be performed. The special theory of the tuned mass damper has been given a comprehensive treatment, as this is a theory not fully covered elsewhere. For the same reason a chapter on the problem of moving loads on beams has been included.

  6. Membrane dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin


    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications...... for the lateral organization of membranes as wells as for physical properties like bending, permeability and elasticity...

  7. Glassy Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik J.; Sibani, Paolo


    The term glassy dynamics is often used to refer to the extremely slow relaxation observed in several types of many component systems. The time span needed to reach a steady, time independent, state will typically be far beyond experimentally accessible time scales. When melted alloys are cooled d...

  8. Exciton dynamics in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litvinenko, K.; Birkedal, Dan; Lyssenko, V. G.


    The changes induced in the optical absorption spectrum of a GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum well due to a photoexcited carrier distribution are reexamined. We use a femtosecond pump-probe technique to excite excitons and free electron-hole pairs. We find that for densities up to 10(11) cm(-2...

  9. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Peter S


    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  10. Dynamic Gossip


    van Ditmarsch, Hans; Eijck, Jan van; Pardo, Pere; Ramezanian, Rahim; Schwartzentruber, Francois


    textabstractA gossip protocol is a procedure for spreading secrets among a group of agents, using a connection graph. We consider distributed gossip protocols wherein the agents themselves instead of a global scheduler determine whom to call. In this paper the problem of designing and analyzing gossip protocols is given a dynamic twist by assuming that when a call is established not only secrets are exchanged but also telephone numbers. Both numbers and secrets can be represented by edges in ...

  11. Dynamic Terrin (United States)


    amount of computation for each iteration makes a real time simulation beyond the reach of current computer hardware. Also in 1986, Darwyn Peachy ... Peachy 861 introduced an ocean model to produce realistic images of waves on a beach. He uses a phase function to model wave refraction and the change of...and C. Lisle, Dynamic Terrain Databases on Networked Simulators, Proceedings of the IMAGE VI Conference, Phoenix AZ, July 1992, to appear. [ Peachy 86

  12. Dissociative photoionization of molecular hydrogen. A joint experimental and theoretical study of the electron-electron correlations induced by XUV photoionization and nuclear dynamics on IR-laser dressed transition states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Andreas


    In this thesis, the dissociative single-ionization of molecular hydrogen is investigated in a kinematically complete experiment by employing extreme ultraviolet attosecond pulse trains and infrared femtosecond laser pulses. Induced by the absorption of a single XUV photon, a pronounced energy-dependent asymmetry of the relative emission direction of the photoelectron and the ion is observed. The asymmetry pattern is explained in terms of an interference of two ionization pathways involving a doubly-excited state. This interpretation is validated by a semi-classical model which only takes the nuclear motion into account. Using this model and the observed asymmetry, it is furthermore possible to disentangle the two dissociation pathways which allows for the determination of the autoionization lifetime of the contributing doubly-excited state as a function of the internuclear distance. Moreover, using a pump-probe experiment the dissociation dynamics of molecular hydrogen is investigated. A time-delay dependent momentum distribution of the fragments is observed. With a combined quantum mechanical and semi-classical approach the mechanism giving rise to the observed time-dependence is identified in terms of an intuitive elevator mechanism.

  13. Tunable Optical Phenomena and Carrier Recombination Dynamics in III-V Semiconductor Nanostructures (United States)

    Kumar Thota, Venkata Ramana

    Semiconductor nanostructures such as quantum dots, quantum wires and quantum wells have gained significant attention in the scientific community due to their peculiar properties, which arise from the quantum confinement of charge carriers. In such systems, confinement plays key role and governs the emission spectra. With the advancements in growth techniques, which enable the fabrication of these nanostructured devices with great precision down to the atomic scale, it is intriguing to study and observe quantum mechanical effects through light-matter interactions and new physics governed by the confinement, size, shape and alloy composition. The goal is to reduce the size of semiconductor bulk material to few nanometers, which in turn localizes the charge carriers inside these structures such that the spin associated with them is used to carry and process information within ultra-short time scales. The main focus of this dissertation is the optical studies of quantum dot molecule (QDM) systems. A system where the electrons can tunnel between the two dots leading to observable tunneling effects. The emission spectra of such system has been demonstrated to have both intradot transitions (electron-hole pair residing in the same dot) and interdot transitions (electron-hole pair participating in the recombination origin from different dots). In such a system, it is possible to apply electric field such that the wavefunction associated with the charge carriers can be tuned to an extent of delocalizing between the two dots. This forms the first project of this dissertation, which addresses the origin of the fine structure splitting in the exciton-biexciton cascade. Moreover, we also show how this fine structure can be tuned in the quantum dot molecule system with the application of electric field along the growth direction. This is demonstrated through high resolution polarization dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy on a single QDM, which was described in great detail

  14. Spin dynamics in GaAs and (110)-GaAs heterostructures; Spindynamik in GaAs und (110)-GaAs-Heterostrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oertel, Stefan


    specially designed (110)-GaAs heterostructure consisting of a 9 nm thick quantum well separated by 3 nm thin AlGaAs barriers from two adjacent 4 nm quantum wells is characterized: The electron spin polarization in the 9 nm drain quantum well is measured in dependence on the energy of the circular optical injection. At the indirect optical injection via the heavy hole resonance of the thin quantum wells an electron spin polarization of 75% in the drain quantum well is reached. By means of the structure the impact of interface roughnesses in the 9 nm quantum well on the carrier dynamics is additionally investigated. The (110)-GaAs heterostructure is used to determine the spin relaxation time in (110)-GaAs quantum wells experimentally over a wide range of densities and temperatures. The special growth direction of the structure provides access to spin relaxation mechanisms that are usually concealed by the dominating Dyakonov-Perel mechanism. The measured elect ron spin relaxation times are interpreted as an exciton marker within the electron-hole plasma and are in good agreement with a simple model based upon the exciton fraction within the electron-hole plasma.

  15. Hamiltonian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Vilasi, Gaetano


    This is both a textbook and a monograph. It is partially based on a two-semester course, held by the author for third-year students in physics and mathematics at the University of Salerno, on analytical mechanics, differential geometry, symplectic manifolds and integrable systems. As a textbook, it provides a systematic and self-consistent formulation of Hamiltonian dynamics both in a rigorous coordinate language and in the modern language of differential geometry. It also presents powerful mathematical methods of theoretical physics, especially in gauge theories and general relativity. As a m

  16. PREFACE: Cooperative dynamics Cooperative dynamics (United States)

    Gov, Nir


    The dynamics within living cells are dominated by non-equilibrium processes that consume chemical energy (usually in the form of ATP, adenosine triphosphate) and convert it into mechanical forces and motion. The mechanisms that allow this conversion process are mostly driven by the components of the cytoskeleton: (i) directed (polar) polymerization of filaments (either actin or microtubules) and (ii) molecular motors. The forces and motions produced by these two components of the cytoskeleton give rise to the formation of cellular shapes, and drive the intracellular transport and organization. It is clear that these systems present a multi-scale challenge, from the physics of the molecular processes to the organization of many interacting units. Understanding the physical nature of these systems will have a large impact on many fundamental problems in biology and break new grounds in the field of non-equilibrium physics. This field of research has seen a rapid development over the last ten years. Activities in this area range from theoretical and experimental work on the underlying fundamental (bio)physics at the single-molecule level, to investigations (in vivo and in vitro) of the dynamics and patterns of macroscopic pieces of 'living matter'. In this special issue we have gathered contributions that span the whole spectrum of length- and complexity-scales in this field. Some of the works demonstrate how active forces self-organize within the polymerizing cytoskeleton, on the level of cooperative cargo transport via motors or due to active fluxes at the cell membrane. On a larger scale, it is shown that polar filaments coupled to molecular motors give rise to a huge variety of surprising dynamics and patterns: spontaneously looping rings of gliding microtubules, and emergent phases of self-organized filaments and motors in different geometries. All of these articles share the common feature of being out-of-equilibrium, driven by metabolism. As demonstrated here

  17. All-3 d Electron-Hole Bilayers in CrN /MgO (111 ) Multilayers for Thermoelectric Applications (United States)

    Botana, Antia S.; Pardo, Victor; Pickett, Warren E.


    CrN /MgO (111 ) multilayers modeled via ab initio calculations give rise to nanoscale, scalable, spatially separated two-dimensional electron and hole gases, each confined to its own CrN interface. Because of the Cr 3 d3 configuration, both electron and hole gases are based on correlated transition-metal layers involving bands of 3 d character. Transport calculations predict each subsystem will have a large thermopower, on the order of 250 μ V /K at room temperature. These heterostructures combine a large thermoelectric efficiency with scalable nanoscale conducting sheets; for example, operating at a temperature difference of 50 K, 40 bilayers could produce a 1-V voltage with a film thickness of 100 nm.

  18. Electron-hole interactions in coupled InAs-GaSb quantum dots based on nanowire crystal phase templates (United States)

    Nilsson, Malin; Namazi, Luna; Lehmann, Sebastian; Leijnse, Martin; Dick, Kimberly A.; Thelander, Claes


    We report growth and characterization of a coupled quantum dot structure that utilizes nanowire templates for selective epitaxy of radial heterostructures. The starting point is a zinc blende InAs nanowire with thin segments of wurtzite structure. These segments have dual roles: they act as tunnel barriers for electron transport in the InAs core, and they also locally suppress growth of a GaSb shell, resulting in coaxial InAs-GaSb quantum dots with integrated electrical probes. The parallel quantum dot structure hosts spatially separated electrons and holes that interact due to the type-II broken gap of InAs-GaSb heterojunctions. The Coulomb blockade in the electron and hole transport is studied, and periodic interactions of electrons and holes are observed and can be reproduced by modeling. Distorted Coulomb diamonds indicate voltage-induced ground-state transitions, possibly a result of changes in the spatial distribution of holes in the thin GaSb shell.

  19. Temperature-dependent anisotropic resistivity in electron, hole and isoelectron - doped BaFe2As2 superconductors (United States)

    Tanatar, M. A.


    Anisotropic electrical resistivity, ρ(T), was studied in iron-arsenide superconductors, obtained by doping the parent BaFe2As2 compound on three different sites: (1) electron donor transition metal (Co,Ni,Rh,Pd) substitution of Fe [1,2]; (2) hole donor K substitution of Ba [3]; (3) isoelectron P substitution of As. For all three types of dopants a range of T-linear behavior is found at the optimal doping in both the in-plane and the inter-plane ρ(T) above Tc. At some higher temperature this range of T-linear resistivity is capped by a slope-changing anomaly, which, by comparison with NMR, magnetic susceptibility and Hall effect measurements, can be identified with the onset of carrier activation over the pseudogap [1]. The doping-evolution of anisotropic temperature dependent ρ(T) and of the pseudogap are quite different for three types of doping. A three-dimensional T-H phase diagram summarizing our results will be presented. Furthermore, potential correlation of the anisotropic normal state transport and anisotropic superconducting state heat transport will be discussed. [4pt] In collaboration with N. Ni, A. Thaler, S.L.Bud'ko, P.C. Canfield, R. Prozorov, Bing Shen, Hai-Hu Wen, K. Hashimoto, S. Kasahara, T. Terashima, T. Shibauchi and Y. Matsuda. [4pt] [1] M.A.Tanatar et al. PRB 82, 134528 (2010)[0pt] [2] M.A.Tanatar et al. PRB 84, 014519 (2011)[0pt] [3] M.A.Tanatar et al. arXiv:1106.0533

  20. Partial hybridisation of electron-hole states in an InAs/GaSb double quantum well heterostructure (United States)

    Knox, C. S.; Morrison, C.; Herling, F.; Ritchie, D. A.; Newell, O.; Myronov, M.; Linfield, E. H.; Marrows, C. H.


    InAs/GaSb coupled quantum well heterostructures are important semiconductor systems with applications ranging from spintronics to photonics. Most recently, InAs/GaSb heterostructures have been identified as candidate two-dimensional topological insulators, predicted to exhibit helical edge conduction via fully spin-polarised carriers. We study an InAs/GaSb double quantum well heterostructure with an AlSb barrier to decouple partially the 2D electrons and holes, and find conduction consistent with a 2D hole gas, with an effective mass of 0.235 ± 0.005 m 0, existing simultaneously with hybridised carriers with an effective mass of 0.070 ± 0.005 m 0, where m 0 is the bare electron mass.

  1. Tuning a Schottky Barrier in a Photoexcited Topological Insulator with Transient Dirac Cone Electron-Hole Asymmetry (United States)


    ncomms4003 1 Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, CNRS-UMR 8502, Université Paris-Sud, Orsay F-91405, France. 2 Laboratoire des Solides Irradiés...Triangle de la Physique , the Ecole Polytechnique, the EU/FP7 under the contract Go Fast (Grant No. 280555), the ANR (Grant ANR-08-CEXCEC8-011-01) and the

  2. Electronic hole localization in rutile and anatase TiO2 - Self-interaction correction in Delta-SCF DFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zawadzki, Pawel; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Rossmeisl, Jan


    processes within DFT. The correction removes the non-linearity of energy for fractional excitations. We show that the self-trapped and the delocalized hole states have comparable stability in rutile TiO2 whereas in anatase the former is favoured. The theoretical prediction of the adiabatic Potential Energy...

  3. Proposed Quenching of Phonon-Induced Processes in Photoexcited Quantum Dots due to Electron-Hole Asymmetries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nysteen, Anders; Nielsen, Per Kær; Mørk, Jesper


    by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of a single quantum dot. We also investigate the implications for cavity QED, i.e., a coupled quantum dot-cavity system, and demonstrate that the phonon scattering may be strongly quenched. The quenching is explained by a balancing between the deformation potential...

  4. Complex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carleson, Lennart


    Complex dynamics is today very much a focus of interest. Though several fine expository articles were available, by P. Blanchard and by M. Yu. Lyubich in particular, until recently there was no single source where students could find the material with proofs. For anyone in our position, gathering and organizing the material required a great deal of work going through preprints and papers and in some cases even finding a proof. We hope that the results of our efforts will be of help to others who plan to learn about complex dynamics and perhaps even lecture. Meanwhile books in the field a. re beginning to appear. The Stony Brook course notes of J. Milnor were particularly welcome and useful. Still we hope that our special emphasis on the analytic side will satisfy a need. This book is a revised and expanded version of notes based on lectures of the first author at UCLA over several \\Vinter Quarters, particularly 1986 and 1990. We owe Chris Bishop a great deal of gratitude for supervising the production of cour...

  5. Population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooch, E. G.


    Full Text Available Increases or decreases in the size of populations over space and time are, arguably, the motivation for much of pure and applied ecological research. The fundamental model for the dynamics of any population is straightforward: the net change over time in the abundance of some population is the simple difference between the number of additions (individuals entering the population minus the number of subtractions (individuals leaving the population. Of course, the precise nature of the pattern and process of these additions and subtractions is often complex, and population biology is often replete with fairly dense mathematical representations of both processes. While there is no doubt that analysis of such abstract descriptions of populations has been of considerable value in advancing our, there has often existed a palpable discomfort when the ‘beautiful math’ is faced with the often ‘ugly realities’ of empirical data. In some cases, this attempted merger is abandoned altogether, because of the paucity of ‘good empirical data’ with which the theoretician can modify and evaluate more conceptually–based models. In some cases, the lack of ‘data’ is more accurately represented as a lack of robust estimates of one or more parameters. It is in this arena that methods developed to analyze multiple encounter data from individually marked organisms has seen perhaps the greatest advances. These methods have rapidly evolved to facilitate not only estimation of one or more vital rates, critical to population modeling and analysis, but also to allow for direct estimation of both the dynamics of populations (e.g., Pradel, 1996, and factors influencing those dynamics (e.g., Nichols et al., 2000. The interconnections between the various vital rates, their estimation, and incorporation into models, was the general subject of our plenary presentation by Hal Caswell (Caswell & Fujiwara, 2004. Caswell notes that although interest has traditionally

  6. Superconductor Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gömöry, F.


    Superconductors used in magnet technology could carry extreme currents because of their ability to keep the magnetic flux motionless. The dynamics of the magnetic flux interaction with superconductors is controlled by this property. The cases of electrical transport in a round wire and the magnetization of wires of various shapes (circular, elliptical, plate) in an external magnetic field are analysed. Resistance to the magnetic field penetration means that the field produced by the superconducting magnet is no longer proportional to the supplied current. It also leads to a dissipation of electromagnetic energy. In conductors with unequal transverse dimensions, such as flat cables, the orientation with respect to the magnetic field plays an essential role. A reduction of magnetization currents can be achieved by splitting the core of a superconducting wire into fine filaments; however, new kinds of electrical currents that couple the filaments consequently appear. Basic formulas allowing qualitative analyses ...

  7. Group dynamics. (United States)

    Scandiffio, A L


    Group dynamics play a significant role within any organization, culture, or unit. The important thing to remember with any of these structures is that they are made up of people--people with different ideas, motivations, background, and sometimes different agendas. Most groups, formal or informal, look for a leader in an effort to maintain cohesiveness of the unit. At times, that cultural bond must be developed; once developed, it must be nurtured. There are also times that one of the group no longer finds the culture comfortable and begins to act out behaviorally. It is these times that become trying for the leader as she or he attempts to remain objective when that which was once in the building phase of group cohesiveness starts to fall apart. At all times, the manager must continue to view the employee creating the disturbance as an integral part of the group. It is at this time that it is beneficial to perceive the employee exhibiting problem behaviors as a special employee, as one who needs the benefit of your experience and skills, as one who is still part of the group. It is also during this time that the manager should focus upon her or his own views in the area of power, communication, and the corporate culture of the unit that one has established before attempting to understand another's point of view. Once we understand our own motivation and accept ourselves, it is then that we may move on to offer assistance to another. Once we understand our insecurities recognizing staff dysfunction as a symptom of system dysfunction will not be so threatening to the concept of the manager that we perceive ourselves to be. It takes a secure person to admit that she or he favors staff before deciding to do something to change things. The important thing to know is that it can be done. The favored staff can find a new way of relating to others, the special employee can find new modes of behavior (and even find self-esteem in the process), the group can find new ways

  8. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, Anatoly I

    This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...

  9. Internet dynamics (United States)

    Lukose, Rajan Mathew

    The World Wide Web and the Internet are rapidly expanding spaces, of great economic and social significance, which offer an opportunity to study many phenomena, often previously inaccessible, on an unprecedented scale and resolution with relative ease. These phenomena are measurable on the scale of tens of millions of users and hundreds of millions of pages. By virtue of nearly complete electronic mediation, it is possible in principle to observe the time and ``spatial'' evolution of nearly all choices and interactions. This cyber-space therefore provides a view into a number of traditional research questions (from many academic disciplines) and creates its own new phenomena accessible for study. Despite its largely self-organized and dynamic nature, a number of robust quantitative regularities are found in the aggregate statistics of interesting and useful quantities. These regularities can be understood with the help of models that draw on ideas from statistical physics as well as other fields such as economics, psychology and decision theory. This thesis develops models that can account for regularities found in the statistics of Internet congestion and user surfing patterns and discusses some practical consequences. practical consequences.

  10. Single-cycle Optical Pulses and Isolated Attosecond Pulse Generation (United States)


    picosecond green light from a frequency-doubled hybrid cryogenic Yb:YAG laser system,” 36 UFO /HFSW 2009 (Arcachon, France, Aug. 31-Sept. 4, 2009...High Fields Short Wavelength,” ( UFO VII – HFSW XIII), Arcachon, France, August 31 – September 4, 2009 (invited). 25) Kyung-Han Hong, Juliet Gopinath

  11. Generation of high harmonics and attosecond pulses with ultrashort ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    time observation of motion of .... two electron trajectories: a short and a long path, which are the classical counterparts of short and long .... To understand the shearing effect, we analysed the quantum trajectory contributions by means of a ...

  12. Attosecond-recollision-controlled selective fragmentation of polyatomic molecules. (United States)

    Xie, Xinhua; Doblhoff-Dier, Katharina; Roither, Stefan; Schöffler, Markus S; Kartashov, Daniil; Xu, Huailiang; Rathje, Tim; Paulus, Gerhard G; Baltuška, Andrius; Gräfe, Stefanie; Kitzler, Markus


    Control over various fragmentation reactions of a series of polyatomic molecules (acetylene, ethylene, 1,3-butadiene) by the optical waveform of intense few-cycle laser pulses is demonstrated experimentally. We show both experimentally and theoretically that the responsible mechanism is inelastic ionization from inner-valence molecular orbitals by recolliding electron wave packets, whose recollision energy in few-cycle ionizing laser pulses strongly depends on the optical waveform. Our work demonstrates an efficient and selective way of predetermining fragmentation and isomerization reactions in polyatomic molecules on subfemtosecond time scales.

  13. Statistical approach to tunneling time in attosecond experiments (United States)

    Demir, Durmuş; Güner, Tuğrul


    Tunneling, transport of particles through classically forbidden regions, is a pure quantum phenomenon. It governs numerous phenomena ranging from single-molecule electronics to donor-acceptor transition reactions. The main problem is the absence of a universal method to compute tunneling time. This problem has been attacked in various ways in the literature. Here, in the present work, we show that a statistical approach to the problem, motivated by the imaginary nature of time in the forbidden regions, lead to a novel tunneling time formula which is real and subluminal (in contrast to various known time definitions implying superluminal tunneling). In addition to this, we show explicitly that the entropic time formula is in good agreement with the tunneling time measurements in laser-driven He ionization. Moreover, it sets an accurate range for long-range electron transfer reactions. The entropic time formula is general enough to extend to the photon and phonon tunneling phenomena.

  14. Atomic Cluster Ionization and Attosecond Generation at Long Wavelengths (United States)


    very sensitive to the small ellipticity of the driving field due to the modification of the electron trajectory . Figure 3 shows the HHG yield with...of short trajectories for our geometry. Second, the group delay from the cluster and monomer show a striking similarity suggesting that the...this test. In order to further investigate this result, we performed an ellipticity study of the HHG yield. The idea is that if the returning

  15. Fundamentals of structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Roy R


    From theory and fundamentals to the latest advances in computational and experimental modal analysis, this is the definitive, updated reference on structural dynamics.This edition updates Professor Craig's classic introduction to structural dynamics, which has been an invaluable resource for practicing engineers and a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in vibrations and/or structural dynamics. Along with comprehensive coverage of structural dynamics fundamentals, finite-element-based computational methods, and dynamic testing methods, this Second Edition includes new and e

  16. Spectral Features and Charge Dynamics of Lead Halide Perovskites: Origins and Interpretations. (United States)

    Sum, Tze Chien; Mathews, Nripan; Xing, Guichuan; Lim, Swee Sien; Chong, Wee Kiang; Giovanni, David; Dewi, Herlina Arianita


    Lead halide perovskite solar cells are presently the forerunner among the third generation solution-processed photovoltaic technologies. With efficiencies exceeding 20% and low production costs, they are prime candidates for commercialization. Critical insights into their light harvesting, charge transport, and loss mechanisms have been gained through time-resolved optical probes such as femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (fs-TAS), transient photoluminescence spectroscopy, and time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. Specifically, the discoveries of long balanced electron-hole diffusion lengths and gain properties in halide perovskites underpin their significant roles in uncovering structure-function relations and providing essential feedback for materials development and device optimization. In particular, fs-TAS is becoming increasingly popular in perovskite characterization studies, with commercial one-box pump-probe systems readily available as part of a researcher's toolkit. Although TAS is a powerful probe in the study of charge dynamics and recombination mechanisms, its instrumentation and data interpretation can be daunting even for experienced researchers. This issue is exacerbated by the sensitive nature of halide perovskites where the kinetics are especially susceptible to pump fluence, sample preparation and handling and even degradation effects that could lead to disparate conclusions. Nonetheless, with end-users having a clear understanding of TAS's capabilities, subtleties, and limitations, cutting-edge work with deep insights can still be performed using commercial setups as has been the trend for ubiquitous spectroscopy instruments like absorption, fluorescence, and transient photoluminescence spectrometers. Herein, we will first briefly examine the photophysical processes in lead halide perovskites, highlighting their novel properties. Next, we proceed to give a succinct overview of the fundamentals of pump-probe spectroscopy in relation

  17. Solar Dynamics Observatory (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A searchable database of all Solar Dynamics Observatory data including EUV, magnetograms, visible light and X-ray. SDO: The Solar Dynamics Observatory is the first...

  18. Universality in network dynamics. (United States)

    Barzel, Baruch; Barabási, Albert-László


    Despite significant advances in characterizing the structural properties of complex networks, a mathematical framework that uncovers the universal properties of the interplay between the topology and the dynamics of complex systems continues to elude us. Here we develop a self-consistent theory of dynamical perturbations in complex systems, allowing us to systematically separate the contribution of the network topology and dynamics. The formalism covers a broad range of steady-state dynamical processes and offers testable predictions regarding the system's response to perturbations and the development of correlations. It predicts several distinct universality classes whose characteristics can be derived directly from the continuum equation governing the system's dynamics and which are validated on several canonical network-based dynamical systems, from biochemical dynamics to epidemic spreading. Finally, we collect experimental data pertaining to social and biological systems, demonstrating that we can accurately uncover their universality class even in the absence of an appropriate continuum theory that governs the system's dynamics.

  19. Adaptive dynamical networks (United States)

    Maslennikov, O. V.; Nekorkin, V. I.


    Dynamical networks are systems of active elements (nodes) interacting with each other through links. Examples are power grids, neural structures, coupled chemical oscillators, and communications networks, all of which are characterized by a networked structure and intrinsic dynamics of their interacting components. If the coupling structure of a dynamical network can change over time due to nodal dynamics, then such a system is called an adaptive dynamical network. The term ‘adaptive’ implies that the coupling topology can be rewired; the term ‘dynamical’ implies the presence of internal node and link dynamics. The main results of research on adaptive dynamical networks are reviewed. Key notions and definitions of the theory of complex networks are given, and major collective effects that emerge in adaptive dynamical networks are described.

  20. Intramolecular and nonlinear dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)


    Research in this program focuses on three interconnected areas. The first involves the study of intramolecular dynamics, particularly of highly excited systems. The second area involves the use of nonlinear dynamics as a tool for the study of molecular dynamics and complex kinetics. The third area is the study of the classical/quantum correspondence for highly excited systems, particularly systems exhibiting classical chaos.

  1. The dynamics of scaffolding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Geert, P. L. C.; Steenbeek, H.W.


    In this article we have reinterpreted a relatively standard definition of scaffolding in the context of dynamic systems theory. Our main point is that scaffolding cannot be understood outside the context of a dynamic approach of learning and (formal or informal) teaching. We provide a dynamic

  2. Dynamic planar embeddings of dynamic graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob; Rotenberg, Eva


    We present an algorithm to support the dynamic embedding in the plane of a dynamic graph. An edge can be inserted across a face between two vertices on the face boundary (we call such a vertex pair linkable), and edges can be deleted. The planar embedding can also be changed locally by flipping...... query, one-flip- linkable(u,v) providing a suggestion for a flip that will make them linkable if one exists. We support all updates and queries in O(log 2 n) time. Our time bounds match those of Italiano et al. for a static (flipless) embedding of a dynamic graph. Our new algorithm is simpler...

  3. Dynamic planar embeddings of dynamic graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob; Rotenberg, Eva


    We present an algorithm to support the dynamic embedding in the plane of a dynamic graph. An edge can be inserted across a face between two vertices on the boundary (we call such a vertex pair linkable), and edges can be deleted. The planar embedding can also be changed locally by flipping......-flip-linkable(u, v) providing a suggestion for a flip that will make them linkable if one exists. We will support all updates and queries in O(log2 n) time. Our time bounds match those of Italiano et al. for a static (flipless) embedding of a dynamic graph. Our new algorithm is simpler, exploiting...

  4. Explicit Dynamic DDA Method considering Dynamic Contact Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jian Zhao; Ming Xiao; Juntao Chen; Dongdong Li


      This paper proposes an explicit dynamic DDA method considering dynamic contact force, which aims at solving the problems of low efficiency of dynamic contact detection and the simulation of dynamic...

  5. Silicon as a virtual plasmonic material: Acquisition of its transient optical constants and the ultrafast surface plasmon-polariton excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilov, P. A.; Ionin, A. A.; Kudryashov, S. I., E-mail:; Makarov, S. V.; Rudenko, A. A. [Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Saltuganov, P. N. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University) (Russian Federation); Seleznev, L. V.; Yurovskikh, V. I.; Zayarny, D. A. [Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Apostolova, T. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energetics (Bulgaria)


    Ultrafast intense photoexcitation of a silicon surface is complementarily studied experimentally and theoretically, with its prompt optical dielectric function obtained by means of time-resolved optical reflection microscopy and the underlying electron-hole plasma dynamics modeled numerically, using a quantum kinetic approach. The corresponding transient surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) dispersion curves of the photo-excited material were simulated as a function of the electron-hole plasma density, using the derived optical dielectric function model, and directly mapped at several laser photon energies, measuring spatial periods of the corresponding SPP-mediated surface relief nanogratings. The unusual spectral dynamics of the surface plasmon resonance, initially increasing with the increase in the electron-hole plasma density but damped at high interband absorption losses induced by the high-density electron-hole plasma through instantaneous bandgap renormalization, was envisioned through the multi-color mapping.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu


    Full Text Available Otto engine dynamics are similar in almost all common internal combustion engines. We can speak so about dynamics of engines: Lenoir, Otto, and Diesel. The dynamic presented model is simple and original. The first thing necessary in the calculation of Otto engine dynamics, is to determine the inertial mass reduced at the piston. It uses then the Lagrange equation. The dynamic equation of motion of the piston, obtained by integrating the Lagrange equation, takes a new form. It presents a new relation which determines the elastic constant of the crank shaft, k. The moment of inertia J1 can be determined with an original relation, as well.

  7. Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle: Dynamics Analysis (United States)

    Lee, A. Y.; Le, N. T.; Marriott, A. T.


    The Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle (VDTV) concept has been proposed as a tool to evaluate collision avoidance systems and to perform driving-related human factors research. The goal of this study is to analytically investigate to what extent a VDTV with adjustable front and rear anti-roll bar stiffnesses, programmable damping rates, and four-wheel-steering can emulate the lateral dynamics of a broad range of passenger vehicles.

  8. Dynamical systems theory for music dynamics. (United States)

    Boon, Jean Pierre; Decroly, Olivier


    We show that, when music pieces are cast in the form of time series of pitch variations, the concepts and tools of dynamical systems theory can be applied to the analysis of temporal dynamics in music. (i) Phase space portraits are constructed from the time series wherefrom the dimensionality is evaluated as a measure of the global dynamics of each piece. (ii) Spectral analysis of the time series yields power spectra ( approximately f(-nu)) close to red noise (nu approximately 2) in the low frequency range. (iii) We define an information entropy which provides a measure of the local dynamics in the musical piece; the entropy can be interpreted as an evaluation of the degree of complexity in the music, but there is no evidence of an analytical relation between local and global dynamics. These findings are based on computations performed on eighty sequences sampled in the music literature from the 18th to the 20th century. (c) 1995 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Dynamic Boiler Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim

    Traditionally, boilers have been designed mainly focussing on the static operation of the plant. The dynamic capability has been given lower priority and the analysis has typically been limited to assuring that the plant was not over-stressed due to large temperature gradients. New possibilities...... for buying and selling energy has increased the focus on the dynamic operation capability, efciency, emissions etc. For optimizing the design of boilers for dynamic operation a quantication of the dynamic capability is needed. A framework for optimizing design of boilers for dynamic operation has been...... developed. Analyzing boilers for dynamic operation gives rise to a number of opposing aims: shrinking and swelling, steam quality, stress levels, control system/philosophy, pressurization etc. Common for these opposing aims is that an optimum can be found for selected operation conditions. The framework has...

  10. Dynamic airfoil stall investigations (United States)

    Platzer, M. F.; Chandrasekhara, M. S.; Ekaterinaris, J. A.; Carr, L. W.


    Experimental and computational investigations of the dynamic stall phenomenon continue to attract the attention of various research groups in the major aeronautical research laboratories. There are two reasons for this continued research interest. First, the occurrence of dynamic stall on the retreating blade of helicopters imposes a severe performance limitation and thus suggests to search for ways to delay the onset of dynamic stall. Second, the lift enhancement prior to dynamic stall presents an opportunity to achieve enhanced maneuverability of fighter aircraft. A description of the major parameters affecting dynamic stall and lift and an evaluation of research efforts prior to 1988 has been given by Carr. In this paper the authors' recent progress in the development of experimental and computational methods to analyze the dynamic stall phenomena occurring on NACA 0112 airfoils is reviewed. First, the major experimental and computational approaches and results are summarized. This is followed by an assessment of our results and an outlook toward the future.

  11. Double dynamic scaling in human communication dynamics (United States)

    Wang, Shengfeng; Feng, Xin; Wu, Ye; Xiao, Jinhua


    In the last decades, human behavior has been deeply understanding owing to the huge quantities data of human behavior available for study. The main finding in human dynamics shows that temporal processes consist of high-activity bursty intervals alternating with long low-activity periods. A model, assuming the initiator of bursty follow a Poisson process, is widely used in the modeling of human behavior. Here, we provide further evidence for the hypothesis that different bursty intervals are independent. Furthermore, we introduce a special threshold to quantitatively distinguish the time scales of complex dynamics based on the hypothesis. Our results suggest that human communication behavior is a composite process of double dynamics with midrange memory length. The method for calculating memory length would enhance the performance of many sequence-dependent systems, such as server operation and topic identification.

  12. Topological dynamics on hyperspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Sharma


    Full Text Available In this paper we wish to relate the dynamics of the base map to the dynamics of the induced map. In the process, we obtain conditions on the endowed hyperspace topology under which the chaotic behaviour of the map on the base space is inherited by the induced map on the hyperspace. Several of the known results come up as corollaries to our results. We also discuss some metric related dynamical properties on the hyperspace that cannot be deduced for the base dynamics.

  13. Dynamics of machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Dresig, Hans


    Dynamic loads and disturbing oscillations increase with higher speed of the machines and more lightweight constructions. Industrial safety standards require better oscillation reduction and noise control. The book by Dresig/Holzweissig deals with these topics. It presents the classical areas of modeling, dynamics of rigid bodies, balancing, torsional and bending vibrations, problems of vibration isolation and the dynamic behavior of complex vibrating systems. Typical dynamic effects, i.e., the gyroscopic effect, the damping of oscillations, resonances of k-th order, subharmonic and nonlinear f

  14. Essential dynamics and relativity

    CERN Document Server

    O'Donnell, Peter J


    Essential Dynamics & Relativity provides students with an introduction to the core aspects of dynamics and special relativity. The author reiterates important ideas and terms throughout and covers concepts that are often missing from other textbooks at this level. He also places each topic within the wider constructs of the theory, without jumping from topic to topic to illustrate a point.The first section of the book focuses on dynamics, discussing the basic aspects of single particle motion and analyzing the motion of multi-particle systems. The book also explains the dynamical behavior of b



  16. Dynamic systemic resolution. (United States)

    Sakulsombat, Morakot; Zhang, Yan; Ramström, Olof


    Dynamic Systemic Resolution is a powerful technique for selecting optimal constituents from dynamic systems by applying selection pressures, either externally by addition of target entities, or internally within the system constraints. This concept is a subset of Constitutional Dynamic Chemistry, and the dynamic systems are generally based on reversible covalent interactions between a range of components where the systems are maintained under thermodynamic control. In the present chapter, the concept will be described in detail, and a range of examples will be given for both selection classes. For external pressure generation, target enzymes, in aqueous and/or organic solution, have been used to demonstrate the resolution processes. In a first example, a dynamic transthiolesterification system was generated in aqueous solution at neutral pH, and resolved by hydrolysis using serine hydrolases (cholinesterases). In organic solution, lipase-catalyzed acylation was chosen to demonstrate asymmetric resolution in different dynamic systems, generating chiral ester and amide structures. By use of such biocatalysts, the optimal constituents were selectively chosen and amplified from the dynamic systems in one-pot processes. In internal selection pressure resolution, self-transformation and crystallization-induced diastereomeric resolution have been successfully used to challenge dynamic systems. The technique was, for example, used to identify the best diastereomeric substrate from a large and varied dynamic system in a single resolution reaction.

  17. Nonlinear dynamics and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert; Fu, Xilin


    This important collection presents recent advances in nonlinear dynamics including analytical solutions, chaos in Hamiltonian systems, time-delay, uncertainty, and bio-network dynamics. Nonlinear Dynamics and Complexity equips readers to appreciate this increasingly main-stream approach to understanding complex phenomena in nonlinear systems as they are examined in a broad array of disciplines. The book facilitates a better understanding of the mechanisms and phenomena in nonlinear dynamics and develops the corresponding mathematical theory to apply nonlinear design to practical engineering.

  18. Dynamical holographic QCD model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Danning


    Full Text Available We develop a dynamical holographic QCD model, which resembles the renormalization group from ultraviolet (UV to infrared (IR. The dynamical holographic model is constructed in the graviton-dilaton-scalar framework with the dilaton background field Φ and scalar field X responsible for the gluodynamics and chiral dynamics, respectively. We summarize the results on hadron spectra, QCD phase transition and transport properties including the jet quenching parameter and the shear/bulk viscosity in the framework of the dynamical holographic QCD model.

  19. Dynamic power flow controllers (United States)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Prasai, Anish


    Dynamic power flow controllers are provided. A dynamic power flow controller may comprise a transformer and a power converter. The power converter is subject to low voltage stresses and not floated at line voltage. In addition, the power converter is rated at a fraction of the total power controlled. A dynamic power flow controller controls both the real and the reactive power flow between two AC sources having the same frequency. A dynamic power flow controller inserts a voltage with controllable magnitude and phase between two AC sources; thereby effecting control of active and reactive power flows between two AC sources.

  20. Introduction to dynamic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Leon; Rodin, E Y


    Introduction to Dynamic Programming provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of dynamic programming. This book considers problems that can be quantitatively formulated and deals with mathematical models of situations or phenomena that exists in the real world.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the fundamental components of any mathematical optimization model. This text then presents the details of the application of dynamic programming to variational problems. Other chapters consider the application of dynamic programming to inventory theory, Mark

  1. Structural Dynamics Laboratory (SDL) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Structural dynamic testing is performed to verify the survivability of a component or assembly when exposed to vibration stress screening, or a controlled simulation...

  2. Dynamical Systems Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Gils, S; Hoveijn, I; Takens, F; Nonlinear Dynamical Systems and Chaos


    Symmetries in dynamical systems, "KAM theory and other perturbation theories", "Infinite dimensional systems", "Time series analysis" and "Numerical continuation and bifurcation analysis" were the main topics of the December 1995 Dynamical Systems Conference held in Groningen in honour of Johann Bernoulli. They now form the core of this work which seeks to present the state of the art in various branches of the theory of dynamical systems. A number of articles have a survey character whereas others deal with recent results in current research. It contains interesting material for all members of the dynamical systems community, ranging from geometric and analytic aspects from a mathematical point of view to applications in various sciences.

  3. Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations on scattering of hyperthermal H atoms from Cu(111) and Au(111). (United States)

    Kroes, Geert-Jan; Pavanello, Michele; Blanco-Rey, María; Alducin, Maite; Auerbach, Daniel J


    Energy loss from the translational motion of an atom or molecule impinging on a metal surface to the surface may determine whether the incident particle can trap on the surface, and whether it has enough energy left to react with another molecule present at the surface. Although this is relevant to heterogeneous catalysis, the relative extent to which energy loss of hot atoms takes place to phonons or electron-hole pair (ehp) excitation, and its dependence on the system's parameters, remain largely unknown. We address these questions for two systems that present an extreme case of the mass ratio of the incident atom to the surface atom, i.e., H + Cu(111) and H + Au(111), by presenting adiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) predictions of the energy loss and angular distributions for an incidence energy of 5 eV. The results are compared to the results of AIMDEFp calculations modeling energy loss to ehp excitation using an electronic friction ("EF") model applied to the AIMD trajectories, so that the energy loss to the electrons is calculated "post" ("p") the computation of the AIMD trajectory. The AIMD calculations predict average energy losses of 0.38 eV for Cu(111) and 0.13-0.14 eV for Au(111) for H-atoms that scatter from these surfaces without penetrating the surface. These energies closely correspond with energy losses predicted with Baule models, which is suggestive of structure scattering. The predicted adiabatic integral energy loss spectra (integrated over all final scattering angles) all display a lowest energy peak at an energy corresponding to approximately 80% of the average adiabatic energy loss for non-penetrative scattering. In the adiabatic limit, this suggests a way of determining the approximate average energy loss of non-penetratively scattered H-atoms from the integral energy loss spectrum of all scattered H-atoms. The AIMDEFp calculations predict that in each case the lowest energy loss peak should show additional energy loss in the

  4. The Use of the Dynamic Magnification Factor in the Dynamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the use of the dynamic magnification factor in the analysis of framed structures. It is a method of practice in dynamic analysis of structures to magnify static response by a dynamic magnification factor in order to obtain the equivalent dynamic response. This method has been applied to the dynamic ...

  5. Dynamic normal forms and dynamic characteristic polynomial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Sankowski, Piotr


    We present the first fully dynamic algorithm for computing the characteristic polynomial of a matrix. In the generic symmetric case, our algorithm supports rank-one updates in O(n2logn) randomized time and queries in constant time, whereas in the general case the algorithm works in O(n2klogn...

  6. Dynamic covalent surfactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minkenberg, C.B.


    In this thesis the development of surfactant aggregates with fast exchange dynamics between the aggregated and non-aggregated state is described. Dynamic surfactant exchange plays an important role in natural systems, for instance in cell signaling, cell division, and uptake and release of cargo.

  7. Understanding Wheel Dynamics. (United States)

    Proffitt, Dennis R.; And Others


    In 5 experiments, assessments were made of subjects' understandings of the dynamics of wheels. The subjects--111 undergraduates and 19 high school physics teachers--made highly erroneous dynamical judgments about this commonplace event, both in explicit problem-solving contexts and when viewing ongoing events. Findings are related to accounts of…

  8. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of ...

  9. Friction and nonlinear dynamics


    Manini, N.; Braun, O. M.; Tosatti, E.; Guerra, R.; Vanossi, A.


    The nonlinear dynamics associated with sliding friction forms a broad interdisciplinary research field that involves complex dynamical processes and patterns covering a broad range of time and length scales. Progress in experimental techniques and computational resources has stimulated the development of more refined and accurate mathematical and numerical models, capable of capturing many of the essentially nonlinear phenomena involved in friction.

  10. Dynamic epistemic modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.N. van Eijck (Jan)


    textabstractThis paper introduces DEMO, a Dynamic Epistemic Modelling tool. DEMO llows modelling epistemic updates, graphical display of update results, graphical display of action models, formula evaluation in epistemic models, translation of dynamic epistemic formulas to PDL formulas, and so on.

  11. Structural Dynamics, Vol. 9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    This book has been prepared for the course on Computational Dynamics given at the 8th semester at the structural program in civil engineering at Aalborg University.......This book has been prepared for the course on Computational Dynamics given at the 8th semester at the structural program in civil engineering at Aalborg University....

  12. Advances in soil dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Advances in Soil Dynamics, Volume 3, represents the culmination of the work undertaken by the Advances in Soil Dynamics Monograph Committee, PM-45-01, about 15 years ago to summarize important developments in this field over the last 35 years. When this project was initiated, the main goal was to...

  13. Visualizing Dynamic Memory Allocations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreta, Sergio; Telea, Alexandru


    We present a visualization tool for dynamic memory allocation information obtained from instrumenting the runtime allocator used by C programs. The goal of the presented visualization techniques is to convey insight in the dynamic behavior of the allocator. The purpose is to help the allocator

  14. Dynamic Latent Classification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhong, Shengtong; Martínez, Ana M.; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    as possible. Motivated by this problem setting, we propose a generative model for dynamic classification in continuous domains. At each time point the model can be seen as combining a naive Bayes model with a mixture of factor analyzers (FA). The latent variables of the FA are used to capture the dynamics...

  15. Dynamics on the Circle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 11. Dynamics on the Circle - Interval Dynamics and Rotation Number. Siddhartha Gadgil. General Article Volume 8 Issue 11 November ... Author Affiliations. Siddhartha Gadgil1. Stat-Math Unit Indian Statistical Institute Bangalore 560 064, India.

  16. Dynamic defense workshop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.


    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  17. Dynamic reservoir well interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, W.L.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Wolfswinkel, O. van; Peters, M.C.A.M.; Verhelst, F.J.P.C.M.


    In order to develop smart well control systems for unstable oil wells, realistic modeling of the dynamics of the well is essential. Most dynamic well models use a semi-steady state inflow model to describe the inflow of oil and gas from the reservoir. On the other hand, reservoir models use steady

  18. Nonlinear dynamics of structures

    CERN Document Server

    Oller, Sergio


    This book lays the foundation of knowledge that will allow a better understanding of nonlinear phenomena that occur in structural dynamics.   This work is intended for graduate engineering students who want to expand their knowledge on the dynamic behavior of structures, specifically in the nonlinear field, by presenting the basis of dynamic balance in non‐linear behavior structures due to the material and kinematics mechanical effects.   Particularly, this publication shows the solution of the equation of dynamic equilibrium for structure with nonlinear time‐independent materials (plasticity, damage and frequencies evolution), as well as those time dependent non‐linear behavior materials (viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity). The convergence conditions for the non‐linear dynamic structure solution  are studied, and the theoretical concepts and its programming algorithms are presented.  

  19. Vehicle Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Rajamani, Rajesh


    Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system applications covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire-road friction coefficient estimation, rollover prevention, and hybrid electric vehicle. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics. A special effort has been made to explain the several different tire models commonly used in literature and to interpret them physically. In the second edition of the book, chapters on roll dynamics, rollover prevention and hybrid electric vehicles have been added, and the chapter on electronic stability co...

  20. Dynamic Capabilities and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilden, Ralf; Gudergan, Siegfried P.; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard


    Dynamic capabilities are widely considered to incorporate those processes that enable organizations to sustain superior performance over time. In this paper, we argue theoretically and demonstrate empirically that these effects are contingent on organizational structure and the competitive...... intensity in the market. Results from partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) analyses indicate that organic organizational structures facilitate the impact of dynamic capabilities on organizational performance. Furthermore, we find that the performance effects of dynamic capabilities...... are contingent on the competitive intensity faced by firms. Our findings demonstrate the performance effects of internal alignment between organizational structure and dynamic capabilities, as well as the external fit of dynamic capabilities with competitive intensity. We outline the advantages of PLS...

  1. Bursty human dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Karsai, Márton; Kaski, Kimmo


    This book provides a comprehensive overview on emergent bursty patterns in the dynamics of human behaviour. It presents common and alternative understanding of the investigated phenomena, and points out open questions worthy of further investigations. The book is structured as follows. In the introduction the authors discuss the motivation of the field, describe bursty phenomena in case of human behaviour, and relate it to other disciplines. The second chapter addresses the measures commonly used to characterise heterogeneous signals, bursty human dynamics, temporal paths, and correlated behaviour. These definitions are first introduced to set the basis for the discussion of the third chapter about the observations of bursty human patterns in the dynamics of individuals, dyadic interactions, and collective behaviour. The subsequent fourth chapter discusses the models of bursty human dynamics. Various mechanisms have been proposed about the source of the heterogeneities in human dynamics, which leads to the in...

  2. Dynamics of Multibody Systems (United States)

    Shabana, Ahmed A.


    Dynamics of Multibody Systems introduces multibody dynamics, with an emphasis on flexible body dynamics. Many common mechanisms such as automobiles, space structures, robots, and micro machines have mechanical and structural systems that consist of interconnected rigid and deformable components. The dynamics of these large-scale, multibody systems are highly nonlinear, presenting complex problems that in most cases can only be solved with computer-based techniques. The book begins with a review of the basic ideas of kinematics and the dynamics of rigid and deformable bodies before moving on to more advanced topics and computer implementation. This new edition includes important new developments relating to the problem of large deformations and numerical algorithms as applied to flexible multibody systems. The book's wealth of examples and practical applications will be useful to graduate students, researchers, and practicing engineers working on a wide variety of flexible multibody systems.

  3. Dynamics of aesthetic appreciation (United States)

    Carbon, Claus-Christian


    Aesthetic appreciation is a complex cognitive processing with inherent aspects of cold as well as hot cognition. Research from the last decades of empirical has shown that evaluations of aesthetic appreciation are highly reliable. Most frequently, facial attractiveness was used as the corner case for investigating aesthetic appreciation. Evaluating facial attractiveness shows indeed high internal consistencies and impressively high inter-rater reliabilities, even across cultures. Although this indicates general and stable mechanisms underlying aesthetic appreciation, it is also obvious that our taste for specific objects changes dynamically. Aesthetic appreciation on artificial object categories, such as fashion, design or art is inherently very dynamic. Gaining insights into the cognitive mechanisms that trigger and enable corresponding changes of aesthetic appreciation is of particular interest for research as this will provide possibilities to modeling aesthetic appreciation for longer durations and from a dynamic perspective. The present paper refers to a recent two-step model ("the dynamical two-step-model of aesthetic appreciation"), dynamically adapting itself, which accounts for typical dynamics of aesthetic appreciation found in different research areas such as art history, philosophy and psychology. The first step assumes singular creative sources creating and establishing innovative material towards which, in a second step, people adapt by integrating it into their visual habits. This inherently leads to dynamic changes of the beholders' aesthetic appreciation.

  4. Basic structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, James C


    A concise introduction to structural dynamics and earthquake engineering Basic Structural Dynamics serves as a fundamental introduction to the topic of structural dynamics. Covering single and multiple-degree-of-freedom systems while providing an introduction to earthquake engineering, the book keeps the coverage succinct and on topic at a level that is appropriate for undergraduate and graduate students. Through dozens of worked examples based on actual structures, it also introduces readers to MATLAB, a powerful software for solving both simple and complex structural d

  5. Elements of analytical dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kurth, Rudolph; Stark, M


    Elements of Analytical Dynamics deals with dynamics, which studies the relationship between motion of material bodies and the forces acting on them. This book is a compilation of lectures given by the author at the Georgia and Institute of Technology and formed a part of a course in Topological Dynamics. The book begins by discussing the notions of space and time and their basic properties. It then discusses the Hamilton-Jacobi theory and Hamilton's principle and first integrals. The text concludes with a discussion on Jacobi's geometric interpretation of conservative systems. This book will

  6. High enthalpy gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rathakrishnan, Ethirajan


    This is an introductory level textbook which explains the elements of high temperature and high-speed gas dynamics. written in a clear and easy to follow style, the author covers all the latest developments in the field including basic thermodynamic principles, compressible flow regimes and waves propagation in one volume covers theoretical modeling of High Enthalpy Flows, with particular focus on problems in internal and external gas-dynamic flows, of interest in the fields of rockets propulsion and hypersonic aerodynamics High enthalpy gas dynamics is a compulsory course for aerospace engine

  7. Fundamentals of gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, V


    Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition isa comprehensively updated new edition and now includes a chapter on the gas dynamics of steam. It covers the fundamental concepts and governing equations of different flows, and includes end of chapter exercises based on the practical applications. A number of useful tables on the thermodynamic properties of steam are also included.Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition begins with an introduction to compressible and incompressible flows before covering the fundamentals of one dimensional flows and normal shock wav

  8. Discrete Dynamics Lab (United States)

    Wuensche, Andrew

    DDLab is interactive graphics software for creating, visualizing, and analyzing many aspects of Cellular Automata, Random Boolean Networks, and Discrete Dynamical Networks in general and studying their behavior, both from the time-series perspective — space-time patterns, and from the state-space perspective — attractor basins. DDLab is relevant to research, applications, and education in the fields of complexity, self-organization, emergent phenomena, chaos, collision-based computing, neural networks, content addressable memory, genetic regulatory networks, dynamical encryption, generative art and music, and the study of the abstract mathematical/physical/dynamical phenomena in their own right.

  9. Dynamic Characteristics and Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars


    is that the dynamic characteristics of a flooring-system do not only depend on material characteristics, floor dimensions and boundary conditions. They are also influenced by the presence of stationary persons on the floor, and these persons may or may not be present. Stationary persons are humans in, for example......, sitting or standing posture, and that these persons influence the dynamic characteristics of the floor (floor frequency and floor damping) is demonstrated in the paper. The mechanism of the dynamic interaction between the floor mass and the mass of stationary persons is generally not well understood...

  10. Fluid dynamics transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Fiszdon, W


    Fluid Dynamics Transactions, Volume 2 compiles 46 papers on fluid dynamics, a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow. The topics discussed in this book include developments in interference theory for aeronautical applications; diffusion from sources in a turbulent boundary layer; unsteady motion of a finite wing span in a compressible medium; and wall pressure covariance and comparison with experiment. The certain classes of non-stationary axially symmetric flows in magneto-gas-dynamics; description of the phenomenon of secondary flows in curved channels by means of co

  11. Stability of dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Xiaoxin; Yu, P 0


    The main purpose of developing stability theory is to examine dynamic responses of a system to disturbances as the time approaches infinity. It has been and still is the object of intense investigations due to its intrinsic interest and its relevance to all practical systems in engineering, finance, natural science and social science. This monograph provides some state-of-the-art expositions of major advances in fundamental stability theories and methods for dynamic systems of ODE and DDE types and in limit cycle, normal form and Hopf bifurcation control of nonlinear dynamic systems.ʺ Presents

  12. Process Fairness and Dynamic Consistency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.T. Trautmann (Stefan); P.P. Wakker (Peter)


    textabstractAbstract: When process fairness deviates from outcome fairness, dynamic inconsistencies can arise as in nonexpected utility. Resolute choice (Machina) can restore dynamic consistency under nonexpected utility without using Strotz's precommitment. It can similarly justify dynamically

  13. Assimilation Dynamic Network (ADN) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Assimilation Dynamic Network (ADN) is a dynamic inter-processor communication network that spans heterogeneous processor architectures, unifying components,...

  14. Discrete Wigner function dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimov, A B; Munoz, C [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, 44410, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)


    We study the evolution of the discrete Wigner function for prime and the power of prime dimensions using the discrete version of the star-product operation. Exact and semiclassical dynamics in the limit of large dimensions are considered.

  15. Discrete dynamical models

    CERN Document Server

    Salinelli, Ernesto


    This book provides an introduction to the analysis of discrete dynamical systems. The content is presented by an unitary approach that blends the perspective of mathematical modeling together with the ones of several discipline as Mathematical Analysis, Linear Algebra, Numerical Analysis, Systems Theory and Probability. After a preliminary discussion of several models, the main tools for the study of linear and non-linear scalar dynamical systems are presented, paying particular attention to the stability analysis. Linear difference equations are studied in detail and an elementary introduction of Z and Discrete Fourier Transform is presented. A whole chapter is devoted to the study of bifurcations and chaotic dynamics. One-step vector-valued dynamical systems are the subject of three chapters, where the reader can find the applications to positive systems, Markov chains, networks and search engines. The book is addressed mainly to students in Mathematics, Engineering, Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Economic...

  16. Market Squid Population Dynamics (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains population dynamics data on paralarvae, juvenile and adult market squid collected off California and the US Pacific Northwest. These data were...

  17. Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) is a continuous flow wind-tunnel facility capable of speeds up to Mach 1.2 at stagnation pressures up to one atmosphere. The TDT...

  18. Invitation to dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Scheinerman, Edward R


    This text is designed for those who wish to study mathematics beyond linear algebra but are unready for abstract material. Rather than a theorem-proof-corollary exposition, it stresses geometry, intuition, and dynamical systems. 1996 edition.

  19. Dynamic origin of species


    Sadovsky, Michael G.


    A simple model of species origin resulted from dynamic features of a population, solely, is developed. The model is based on the evolution optimality in space distribution, and the selection is gone over the mobility. Some biological issues are discussed.

  20. Gun Dynamics Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Gun Dynamics Laboratory is a research multi-task facility, which includes two firing bays, a high bay area and a second floor laboratory space. The high bay area...

  1. Controlling Uncertain Dynamical Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. N Ananthkrishnan1 Rashi Bansal2. Head, CAE Analysis & Design Zeus Numerix Pvt Ltd. M-03, SINE, IIT Bombay Powai Mumbai 400076, India. MTech (Aerospace Engineering) with specialization in Dynamics & Control from IIT Bombay.

  2. Fish population dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulland, J. A


    This book describes how the dynamics of fish populations can be analysed in terms of the factors affecting their rates of growth, mortality and reproduction, with particular emphasis on the effects of fishing...

  3. Dynamic plasmonic colour display (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Kamin, Simon; Liu, Na


    Plasmonic colour printing based on engineered metasurfaces has revolutionized colour display science due to its unprecedented subwavelength resolution and high-density optical data storage. However, advanced plasmonic displays with novel functionalities including dynamic multicolour printing, animations, and highly secure encryption have remained in their infancy. Here we demonstrate a dynamic plasmonic colour display technique that enables all the aforementioned functionalities using catalytic magnesium metasurfaces. Controlled hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of the constituent magnesium nanoparticles, which serve as dynamic pixels, allow for plasmonic colour printing, tuning, erasing and restoration of colour. Different dynamic pixels feature distinct colour transformation kinetics, enabling plasmonic animations. Through smart material processing, information encoded on selected pixels, which are indiscernible to both optical and scanning electron microscopies, can only be read out using hydrogen as a decoding key, suggesting a new generation of information encryption and anti-counterfeiting applications. PMID:28232722

  4. Stochastic dynamics and irreversibility

    CERN Document Server

    Tomé, Tânia


    This textbook presents an exposition of stochastic dynamics and irreversibility. It comprises the principles of probability theory and the stochastic dynamics in continuous spaces, described by Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations, and in discrete spaces, described by Markov chains and master equations. Special concern is given to the study of irreversibility, both in systems that evolve to equilibrium and in nonequilibrium stationary states. Attention is also given to the study of models displaying phase transitions and critical phenomema both in thermodynamic equilibrium and out of equilibrium. These models include the linear Glauber model, the Glauber-Ising model, lattice models with absorbing states such as the contact process and those used in population dynamic and spreading of epidemic, probabilistic cellular automata, reaction-diffusion processes, random sequential adsorption and dynamic percolation. A stochastic approach to chemical reaction is also presented.The textbook is intended for students of ...

  5. Longitudinal beam dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tecker, F.


    The course gives a summary of longitudinal beam dynamics for both linear and circular accelerators. After discussing different types of acceleration methods and synchronism conditions, it focuses on the particle motion in synchrotrons.

  6. Structure, Reactivity and Dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Oppenheimer approx- imation are also studied. New and improved methodologies have been applied to study multi-surface multi-mode nuclear dynamics. The interesting phenomenon involving the geometric phase which may have important ...

  7. Holomorphic Dynamical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Guenot, Jacques; Patrizio, Giorgio


    The theory of holomorphic dynamical systems is a subject of increasing interest in mathematics, both for its challenging problems and for its connections with other branches of pure and applied mathematics. This volume collects the Lectures held at the 2008 CIME session on "Holomorphic Dynamical Systems" held in Cetraro, Italy. This CIME Course focused on a number of important topics in the study of discrete and continuous dynamical systems, including both local and global aspects, providing a fascinating introduction to many key problems in current research. The contributions provide an ample description of the phenomena occurring in central themes of holomorphic dynamics such as automorphisms and meromorphic self-maps of projective spaces, of entire maps on complex spaces and holomorphic foliations in surfaces and higher dimensional manifolds, elaborating on the different techniques used and familiarizing readers with the latest findings on current research topics.

  8. Dynamics of curved fronts

    CERN Document Server

    Pelce, Pierre


    In recent years, much progress has been made in the understanding of interface dynamics of various systems: hydrodynamics, crystal growth, chemical reactions, and combustion. Dynamics of Curved Fronts is an important contribution to this field and will be an indispensable reference work for researchers and graduate students in physics, applied mathematics, and chemical engineering. The book consist of a 100 page introduction by the editor and 33 seminal articles from various disciplines.

  9. Managing Dynamic Competition


    Tracy R. Lewis; Huseyin Yildirim


    In many important high-technology markets, including software development, data processing, communications, aeronautics, and defense, suppliers learn through experience how to provide better service at lower cost. This paper examines how a buyer designs dynamic competition among rival suppliers to exploit learning economies while minimizing the costs of becoming locked in to one producer. Strategies for controlling dynamic competition include the handicapping of more efficient suppliers in pr...

  10. Dynamics of Soft Matter

    CERN Document Server

    García Sakai, Victoria; Chen, Sow-Hsin


    Dynamics of Soft Matter: Neutron Applications provides an overview of neutron scattering techniques that measure temporal and spatial correlations simultaneously, at the microscopic and/or mesoscopic scale. These techniques offer answers to new questions arising at the interface of physics, chemistry, and biology. Knowledge of the dynamics at these levels is crucial to understanding the soft matter field, which includes colloids, polymers, membranes, biological macromolecules, foams, emulsions towards biological & biomimetic systems, and phenomena involving wetting, friction, adhesion, or micr

  11. Static vs Dynamic SAGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Lanese


    Full Text Available SAGAs calculi (or simply SAGAs have been proposed by Bruni et al. as a model for long-running transactions. The approach therein can be considered static, while a dynamic approach has been proposed by Lanese and Zavattaro. In this paper we first extend both static SAGAs (in the centralized interruption policy and dynamic SAGAs to deal with nesting, then we compare the two approaches.

  12. Photochemical reaction dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, B.C. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)


    The purpose of the program is to develop a fundamental understanding of unimolecular and bimolecular reaction dynamics with application in combustion and energy systems. The energy dependence in ketene isomerization, ketene dissociation dynamics, and carbonyl substitution on organometallic rhodium complexes in liquid xenon have been studied. Future studies concerning unimolecular processes in ketene as well as energy transfer and kinetic studies of methylene radicals are discussed.

  13. DPS - Dynamic Parallel Schedules


    IEEE Press; Gerlach, S.; Hersch, R. D.


    Dynamic Parallel Schedules (DPS) is a high-level framework for developing parallel applications on distributed memory computers (e.g. clusters of PC). Its model relies on compositional customizable split-compute-merge graphs of operations (directed acyclic flow graphs). The graphs and the mapping of operations to processing nodes are specified dynamically at runtime. DPS applications are pipelined and multithreaded by construction, ensuring a maximal overlap of computations and communications...

  14. Dynamically typed languages


    Tratt, Laurence


    Dynamically typed languages such as Python and Ruby have experienced a rapid grown in popularity in recent times. However, there is much confusion as to what makes these languages interesting relative to statically typed languages, and little knowledge of their rich history. In this chapter I explore the general topic of dynamically typed languages, how they differ from statically typed languages, their history, and their defining features.

  15. Homogenization of dislocation dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hajj, Ahmad; Ibrahim, Hassan; Monneau, Regis, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [CERMICS, ENPC, 6 and 8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cite Descartes, Champs sur Marne, 77455 Marne-la-Valle Cedex 2 (France)


    In this paper we consider the dynamics of dislocations with the same Burgers vector, contained in the same glide plane, and moving in a material with periodic obstacles. We study two cases: i) the particular case of parallel straight dislocations and ii) the general case of curved dislocations. In each case, we perform rigorously the homogenization of the dynamics and predict the corresponding effective macroscopic elasto-visco-plastic flow rule.

  16. Assimilating seizure dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanim Ullah


    Full Text Available Observability of a dynamical system requires an understanding of its state-the collective values of its variables. However, existing techniques are too limited to measure all but a small fraction of the physical variables and parameters of neuronal networks. We constructed models of the biophysical properties of neuronal membrane, synaptic, and microenvironment dynamics, and incorporated them into a model-based predictor-controller framework from modern control theory. We demonstrate that it is now possible to meaningfully estimate the dynamics of small neuronal networks using as few as a single measured variable. Specifically, we assimilate noisy membrane potential measurements from individual hippocampal neurons to reconstruct the dynamics of networks of these cells, their extracellular microenvironment, and the activities of different neuronal types during seizures. We use reconstruction to account for unmeasured parts of the neuronal system, relating micro-domain metabolic processes to cellular excitability, and validate the reconstruction of cellular dynamical interactions against actual measurements. Data assimilation, the fusing of measurement with computational models, has significant potential to improve the way we observe and understand brain dynamics.

  17. Static and dynamic properties of dissipative particle dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsh, C.A.; Backx, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304846724; Ernst, M.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/114179247

    The algorithm for the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) fluid, the dynamics of which is conceptually a combination of molecular dynamics, Brownian dynamics, and lattice gas automata, is designed for simulating rheological properties of complex fluids on hydrodynamic time scales. This paper

  18. Numerical Computation of Dynamical Schwinger-like Pair Production in Graphene (United States)

    Fillion-Gourdeau, F.; Blain, P.; Gagnon, D.; Lefebvre, C.; Maclean, S.


    The density of electron-hole pairs produced in a graphene sample immersed in a homogeneous time-dependent electric field is evaluated. Because low energy charge carriers in graphene are described by relativistic quantum mechanics, the calculation is performed within the strong field quantum electrodynamics formalism, requiring a solution of the Dirac equation in momentum space. The equation is solved using a split-operator numerical scheme on parallel computers, allowing for the investigation of several field configurations. The strength of the method is illustrated by computing the electron momentum density generated from a realistic laser pulse model. We observe quantum interference patterns reminiscent of Landau-Zener-Stückelberg interferometry.

  19. Electroabsorption Spectroscopy Measurements of the Exciton Binding Energy, ElectronHole Reduced Effective Mass, and Band Gap in the Perovskite CHsub3NHsub3PbIsub3 (United States)


    spectra at the fundamental absorption edge in thin - film CH3NH3PbI3 and have shown that at 300 K the χ(3) EA response can be interpreted in terms of the...measurements on polycrystalline thin films . In addition, recent time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy measurements have been interpreted as evidence that bound...microwave photoconductance studies on thin - film samples have been attributed to exciton dissociation.31,42 A classic method to unambiguously determine

  20. Studies of the optical properties of solids. I. Two-photon electroabsorption. II. Electron-hole exchange coupling at L-II, L-III edges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolber, Michael Allen [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)


    In Chapter I, it is shown that direct-gap covalent semiconductors, such as GaAs, should exhibit electric-field induced Franz-Keldysh-like structures in their two-photon absorption spectra. These structures are evaluated employing exciton theory; the resulting lineshapes are shown to be proportional to the lineshapes for one-photon ''forbidden'' transitions, a property which greatly facilitates computations of the two-photon absorption. In chapter two, exchange mixes the LII and LIII soft x-ray absorption edges of metallic Na, Mg, and Al, affecting the detailed absorption lineshape and the LIILIII intensity ratio. The Onodera theory of this mixing is generalized and the requirements of particle conservation and causality lead to significant modifications of the theoretical absorption lineshape. It is shown that under certain conditions an exchange-free lineshape can be extracted from experimental data for comparison with non-asymptotic theories of x-ray edges.

  1. Electronic hole transfer in rutile and anatase TiO2: Effect of a delocalization error in the density functional theory on the charge transfer barrier height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zawadzki, Pawel; Rossmeisl, Jan; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel


    where charge localization is strongly coupled to lattice distortion. As an example we calculate the adiabatic PES for the hole transfer process in rutile and anatase TiO2. (Semi) local DFT leads to qualitatively wrong, barrierless curves. Removal of the nonlinearity improves the PES shape and allows us...

  2. Effect of Electron-Hole Separation on the Magnetoluminescence Selection Rule in Layered Structures in a Tilted Magnetic Field: Magneto-Stark Effect (United States)

    Lyo, S. K.


    We show that the magneto-photoluminescence intensities of interband optical transitions between the electron and hole Landau levels (n_e, nh = 0, 1, ..) in a perpendicular magnetic field B_bot are modulated strongly by a superimposed in-plane magnetic field B_|| in quasi-two-dimensional type-II quantum wells, where the majority electrons and the photo-generated minority holes are spatially separated in the perpendicular (i.e., growth) direction. In this case, the in-plane field B_|| suppresses the intensities of the selection-rule-allowed ne arrow nh = ne direct transitions initially and generates ne arrow nh neq ne transitions which are forbidden at B_|| = 0. The intensities oscillate at higher B_||. An external DC electric field E_|| applied parallel to B_|| modifies the effective B_|| and introduces a magneto-Stark shift in the photoluminescence line. This new Stark shift requires B_|| neq 0 unlike the ordinary Stark shift in perpendicular E_bot.

  3. Separate electron-hole confinement in composite InAsyP1-y/GaxIn1-xAs quantum wells (United States)

    Silov, A. Y.; Aneeshkumar, Balakrishnan N.; Leys, M. R.; Averkiev, N. S.; Christianen, P. C. M.; Wolter, Joachim H.


    Composite double qunatum wells made from materials with a type-II band line-up have been grown to realize separate confinement in real space for electrons and holes. We have observed a substantial blue shift of the lowest energy transition in such composite double quantum wells. The photocurrent measurements demonstrate a linear Stark shift due to the separate confinement in real space for electrons and holes. The charge separation is up to 45 Å in the strain balanced InAs0.42P0.58/Ga0.67In0.33As samples. The experimental results agree very well with calculations in the framework of Bir-Pikus strain Hamiltonian.

  4. Modeling dynamic swarms

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanem, Bernard


    This paper proposes the problem of modeling video sequences of dynamic swarms (DSs). We define a DS as a large layout of stochastically repetitive spatial configurations of dynamic objects (swarm elements) whose motions exhibit local spatiotemporal interdependency and stationarity, i.e., the motions are similar in any small spatiotemporal neighborhood. Examples of DS abound in nature, e.g., herds of animals and flocks of birds. To capture the local spatiotemporal properties of the DS, we present a probabilistic model that learns both the spatial layout of swarm elements (based on low-level image segmentation) and their joint dynamics that are modeled as linear transformations. To this end, a spatiotemporal neighborhood is associated with each swarm element, in which local stationarity is enforced both spatially and temporally. We assume that the prior on the swarm dynamics is distributed according to an MRF in both space and time. Embedding this model in a MAP framework, we iterate between learning the spatial layout of the swarm and its dynamics. We learn the swarm transformations using ICM, which iterates between estimating these transformations and updating their distribution in the spatiotemporal neighborhoods. We demonstrate the validity of our method by conducting experiments on real and synthetic video sequences. Real sequences of birds, geese, robot swarms, and pedestrians evaluate the applicability of our model to real world data. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamics in Epistasis Analysis. (United States)

    Awdeh, Aseel; Phenix, Hilary; Kaern, Mads; Perkins, Theodore


    Finding regulatory relationships between genes, including the direction and nature of influence between them, is a fundamental challenge in the field of molecular genetics. One classical approach to this problem is epistasis analysis. Broadly speaking, epistasis analysis infers the regulatory relationships between a pair of genes in a genetic pathway by considering the patterns of change in an observable trait resulting from single and double deletion of genes. While classical epistasis analysis has yielded deep insights on numerous genetic pathways, it is not without limitations. Here, we explore the possibility of dynamic epistasis analysis, in which, in addition to performing genetic perturbations of a pathway, we drive the pathway by a time-varying upstream signal. We explore the theoretical power of dynamical epistasis analysis by conducting an identifiability analysis of Boolean models of genetic pathways, comparing static and dynamic approaches. We find that even relatively simple input dynamics greatly increases the power of epistasis analysis to discriminate alternative network structures. Further, we explore the question of experiment design, and show that a subset of short time-varying signals, which we call dynamic primitives, allow maximum discriminative power with a reduced number of experiments.

  6. Dynamic Whitening Saliency. (United States)

    Leboran, Victor; Garcia-Diaz, Anton; Fdez-Vidal, Xose R; Pardo, Xose M


    General dynamic scenes involve multiple rigid and flexible objects, with relative and common motion, camera induced or not. The complexity of the motion events together with their strong spatio-temporal correlations make the estimation of dynamic visual saliency a big computational challenge. In this work, we propose a computational model of saliency based on the assumption that perceptual relevant information is carried by high-order statistical structures. Through whitening, we completely remove the second-order information (correlations and variances) of the data, gaining access to the relevant information. The proposed approach is an analytically tractable and computationally simple framework which we call Dynamic Adaptive Whitening Saliency (AWS-D). For model assessment, the provided saliency maps were used to predict the fixations of human observers over six public video datasets, and also to reproduce the human behavior under certain psychophysical experiments (dynamic pop-out). The results demonstrate that AWS-D beats state-of-the-art dynamic saliency models, and suggest that the model might contain the basis to understand the key mechanisms of visual saliency. Experimental evaluation was performed using an extension to video of the well-known methodology for static images, together with a bootstrap permutation test (random label hypothesis) which yields additional information about temporal evolution of the metrics statistical significance.

  7. Astrophysical fluid dynamics (United States)

    Ogilvie, Gordon I.


    > These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is `frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, including shocks and other discontinuities, are discussed. The spherical blast wave resulting from a supernova, and involving a strong shock, is a classic problem that can be solved analytically. Steady solutions with spherical or axial symmetry reveal the physics of winds and jets from stars and discs. The linearized equations determine the oscillation modes of astrophysical bodies, as well as their stability and their response to tidal forcing.

  8. System dynamics with interaction discontinuity

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert C J


    This book describes system dynamics with discontinuity caused by system interactions and presents the theory of flow singularity and switchability at the boundary in discontinuous dynamical systems. Based on such a theory, the authors address dynamics and motion mechanism of engineering discontinuous systems due to interaction. Stability and bifurcations of fixed points in nonlinear discrete dynamical systems are presented, and mapping dynamics are developed for analytical predictions of periodic motions in engineering discontinuous dynamical systems. Ultimately, the book provides an alternative way to discuss the periodic and chaotic behaviors in discontinuous dynamical systems.

  9. Vehicle dynamics theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza N


    This intermediate textbook is appropriate for students in vehicle dynamics courses, in their last year of undergraduate study or their first year of graduate study. It is also appropriate for mechanical engineers, automotive engineers, and researchers in the area of vehicle dynamics for continuing education or as a reference. It addresses fundamental and advanced topics, and a basic knowledge of kinematics and dynamics, as well as numerical methods, is expected. The contents are kept at a theoretical-practical level, with a strong emphasis on application. This third edition has been reduced by 25%, to allow for coverage over one semester, as opposed to the previous edition that needed two semesters for coverage. The textbook is composed of four parts: Vehicle Motion: covers tire dynamics, forward vehicle dynamics, and driveline dynamics Vehicle Kinematics: covers applied kinematics, applied mechanisms, steering dynamics, and suspension mechanisms Vehicle Dynamics: covers applied dynamics, vehicle planar dynam...

  10. Dynamics in geometrical confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Kremer, Friedrich


    This book describes the dynamics of low molecular weight and polymeric molecules when they are constrained under conditions of geometrical confinement. It covers geometrical confinement in different dimensionalities: (i) in nanometer thin layers or self supporting films (1-dimensional confinement) (ii) in pores or tubes with nanometric diameters (2-dimensional confinement) (iii) as micelles embedded in matrices (3-dimensional) or as nanodroplets.The dynamics under such conditions have been a much discussed and central topic in the focus of intense worldwide research activities within the last two decades. The present book discusses how the resulting molecular mobility is influenced by the subtle counterbalance between surface effects (typically slowing down molecular dynamics through attractive guest/host interactions) and confinement effects (typically increasing the mobility). It also explains how these influences can be modified and tuned, e.g. through appropriate surface coatings, film thicknesses or pore...

  11. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, Peter


    An introductory textbook exploring the subject of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics, with a relaxed and self-contained setting. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics is the continuation of Newton's classical physics into new formalisms, each highlighting novel aspects of mechanics that gradually build in complexity to form the basis for almost all of theoretical physics. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics also acts as a gateway to more abstract concepts routed in differential geometry and field theories and can be used to introduce these subject areas to newcomers. Journeying in a self-contained manner from the very basics, through the fundamentals and onwards to the cutting edge of the subject, along the way the reader is supported by all the necessary background mathematics, fully worked examples, thoughtful and vibrant illustrations as well as an informal narrative and numerous fresh, modern and inter-disciplinary applications. The book contains some unusual topics for a classical mechanics textbook. Mo...

  12. Vorticity and vortex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jie-Zhi; Zhou, M-D


    The importance of vorticity and vortex dynamics has now been well rec- nized at both fundamental and applied levels of ?uid dynamics, as already anticipatedbyTruesdellhalfcenturyagowhenhewrotethe?rstmonograph onthesubject, The Kinematics of Vorticity(1954);andasalsoevidencedby the appearance of several books on this ?eld in 1990s. The present book is characterizedbythefollowingfeatures: 1. A basic physical guide throughout the book. The material is directed by a basic observation on the splitting and coupling of two fundamental processes in ?uid motion, i.e., shearing (unique to ?uid) and compre- ing/expanding.Thevorticityplaysakeyroleintheformer,andavortex isnothingbuta?uidbodywithhighconcentrationofvorticitycompared to its surrounding ?uid. Thus, the vorticity and vortex dynamics is - cordinglyde?nedasthetheoryofshearingprocessanditscouplingwith compressing/expandingprocess. 2. A description of the vortex evolution following its entire life.Thisbegins from the generation of vorticity to the formation of thi...

  13. Dynamics of Earthquake Faults

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, J M; Shaw, B E


    We present an overview of our ongoing studies of the rich dynamical behavior of the uniform, deterministic Burridge--Knopoff model of an earthquake fault. We discuss the behavior of the model in the context of current questions in seismology. Some of the topics considered include: (1) basic properties of the model, such as the magnitude vs. frequency distribution and the distinction between small and large events; (2) dynamics of individual events, including dynamical selection of rupture propagation speeds; (3) generalizations of the model to more realistic, higher dimensional models; (4) studies of predictability, in which artificial catalogs generated by the model are used to test and determine the limitations of pattern recognition algorithms used in seismology.

  14. Fractional Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, José; Luo, Albert


    Fractional Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive overview of recent advances in the areas of nonlinear dynamics, vibration and control with analytical, numerical, and experimental results. This book provides an overview of recent discoveries in fractional control, delves into fractional variational principles and differential equations, and applies advanced techniques in fractional calculus to solving complicated mathematical and physical problems.Finally, this book also discusses the role that fractional order modeling can play in complex systems for engineering and science. Discusses how fractional dynamics and control can be used to solve nonlinear science and complexity issues Shows how fractional differential equations and models can be used to solve turbulence and wave equations in mechanics and gravity theories and Schrodinger’s equation  Presents factional relaxation modeling of dielectric materials and wave equations for dielectrics  Develops new methods for control and synchronization of...

  15. Dynamics of absence seizures (United States)

    Deeba, Farah; Sanz-Leon, Paula; Robinson, Peter

    A neural field model of the corticothalamic system is used to investigate the dynamics of absence seizures in the presence of temporally varying connection strength between the cerebral cortex and thalamus. Variation of connection strength from cortex to thalamus drives the system into seizure once a threshold is passed and a supercritical Hopf bifurcation occurs. The dynamics and spectral characteristics of the resulting seizures are explored as functions of maximum connection strength, time above threshold, and ramp rate. The results enable spectral and temporal characteristics of seizures to be related to underlying physiological variations via nonlinear dynamics and neural field theory. Notably, this analysis adds to neural field modeling of a wide variety of brain activity phenomena and measurements in recent years. Australian Research Council Grants FL1401000225 and CE140100007.

  16. Introduction to dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, Friedrich


    This concise textbook for students preferably of a postgraduate level, but also for engineers in practice, contains the basic kinematical and kinetic structures of dynamics together with carefully selected applications. The book is a condensed introduction to the fundamental laws of kinematics and kinetics, on the most important principles of mechanics and presents the equations of motion in the form of Lagrange and Newton-Euler. Selected problems of linear and nonlinear dynamics are treated, as well as problems of vibration formation. The presented selection of topics gives a useful basis for stepping into more advanced problems of dynamics. The contents of this book represent the result of a regularly revised course, which has been and still is given for masters students at the Technische Universität München. .

  17. Dynamic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gabriele


    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the possibility of using dynamic sensor networks for measurements over large areas. The main idea is to replace static networks, where the allocation of the sensors is pre defined, no matter how, and then the configuration is assumed and maintained, with a dynamic network whose configuration continuously changes in order to cover the whole measure area getting the different measures of the same point within a prefixed time interval. The main advantages are the reduced number of sensors required, a faster recover from damages, the possibility of changing dynamically the area or the subareas of interest, etc. The feasibility of such solution is shown by finding, in an optimal control problem formulation context, the trajectories of each sensor and the controls for such a motion. Simulation results are reported to highlight such results.

  18. Dynamically stabilized magnetic skyrmions (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Iacocca, E.; Awad, A. A.; Dumas, R. K.; Zhang, F. C.; Braun, H. B.; Åkerman, J.


    Magnetic skyrmions are topologically non-trivial spin textures that manifest themselves as quasiparticles in ferromagnetic thin films or noncentrosymmetric bulk materials. So far attention has focused on skyrmions stabilized either by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) or by dipolar interaction, where in the latter case the excitations are known as bubble skyrmions. Here we demonstrate the existence of a dynamically stabilized skyrmion, which exists even when dipolar interactions and DMI are absent. We establish how such dynamic skyrmions can be nucleated, sustained and manipulated in an effectively lossless medium under a nanocontact. As quasiparticles, they can be transported between two nanocontacts in a nanowire, even in complete absence of DMI. Conversely, in the presence of DMI, we observe that the dynamical skyrmion experiences strong breathing. All of this points towards a wide range of skyrmion manipulation, which can be studied in a much wider class of materials than considered so far.

  19. Conference on Multibody Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Multibody Dynamics : Computational Methods and Applications


    By having its origin in analytical and continuum mechanics, as well as in computer science and applied mathematics, multibody dynamics provides a basis for analysis and virtual prototyping of innovative applications in many fields of contemporary engineering. With the utilization of computational models and algorithms that classically belonged to different fields of applied science, multibody dynamics delivers reliable simulation platforms for diverse highly-developed industrial products such as vehicle and railway systems, aeronautical and space vehicles, robotic manipulators, smart structures, biomechanical applications and nano-technologies. The chapters of this volume are based on the revised and extended versions of the selected scientific papers from amongst 255 original contributions that have been accepted to be presented within the program of the distinguished international ECCOMAS conference. It reflects state-of-the-art in the advances of multibody dynamics, providing excellent insight in the recen...

  20. Dynamic Data Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejlberg-Rasmussen, Casper

    In this thesis I will address three dynamic data structure problems using the concept of invariants. The first problem is maintaining a dynamically changing set of keys – a dictionary – where the queries we can ask are: does it contain a given key? and what is the preceding (or succeeding) key...... concept we use, throughout this thesis, to solve data structure problems is invariants. In the design of dynamic data structures we have some set of query and update operations which we want our data structure to support, but we do not choose the order that they are performed in. Invariants are logical...... structure is implicit, meaning that we do not use any extra space than that of the input keys. Our data structure is implicitly encoded through the permutation of the input keys. Other dictionaries with the working set property have constant factor overhead in the space usage, our dictionary has no overhead...

  1. Dynamics of aerospace vehicles (United States)

    Schmidt, David K.


    The focus of this research was to address the modeling, including model reduction, of flexible aerospace vehicles, with special emphasis on models used in dynamic analysis and/or guidance and control system design. In the modeling, it is critical that the key aspects of the system being modeled be captured in the model. In this work, therefore, aspects of the vehicle dynamics critical to control design were important. In this regard, fundamental contributions were made in the areas of stability robustness analysis techniques, model reduction techniques, and literal approximations for key dynamic characteristics of flexible vehicles. All these areas are related. In the development of a model, approximations are always involved, so control systems designed using these models must be robust against uncertainties in these models.

  2. Dynamic lighting design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnebjerg, Sofie

    Introduction to the concept of dynamic lighting design The importance of dynamic light to support health and well-being has been more and more recognized [Hansen et al., 2017]. Humans has through many years of evolution adapted to the changing light of the sun, varying through the day, seasons...... and under various weather conditions, creating a multitude of light settings. Humans live in interaction with this dynamic light and consider it as a natural part of our world [Mathiasen, 2015]. Furthermore, it has by the recent discovery of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in 2002...... [Berson et al., 2002] become apparent, that light, beside serving a purpose of enabling visual orientation, also are influencing the internal body clock, affecting sleep-wake cycle, immune responses, appetite, behaviour, mood, alertness and attention - depending on the duration, timing and quality...

  3. Dynamics of structures

    CERN Document Server

    Paultre, Patrick


    This book covers structural dynamics from a theoretical and algorithmic approach. It covers systems with both single and multiple degrees-of-freedom. Numerous case studies are given to provide the reader with a deeper insight into the practicalities of the area, and the solutions to these case studies are given in terms of real-time and frequency in both geometric and modal spaces. Emphasis is also given to the subject of seismic loading. The text is based on many lectures on the subject of structural dynamics given at numerous institutions and thus will be an accessible and practical aid to

  4. Introduction to cluster dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhard, Paul-Gerhard


    Clusters as mesoscopic particles represent an intermediate state of matter between single atoms and solid material. The tendency to miniaturise technical objects requires knowledge about systems which contain a ""small"" number of atoms or molecules only. This is all the more true for dynamical aspects, particularly in relation to the qick development of laser technology and femtosecond spectroscopy. Here, for the first time is a highly qualitative introduction to cluster physics. With its emphasis on cluster dynamics, this will be vital to everyone involved in this interdisciplinary subje

  5. Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan Shuang; Swanson, Nathan; Chen Zhe [Department of Computer Science, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Ma Lijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States)], E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:


    Gamma knife has been the treatment of choice for various brain tumors and functional disorders. Current gamma knife radiosurgery is planned in a 'ball-packing' approach and delivered in a 'step-and-shoot' manner, i.e. it aims to 'pack' the different sized spherical high-dose volumes (called 'shots') into a tumor volume. We have developed a dynamic scheme for gamma knife radiosurgery based on the concept of 'dose-painting' to take advantage of the new robotic patient positioning system on the latest Gamma Knife C(TM) and Perfexion(TM) units. In our scheme, the spherical high dose volume created by the gamma knife unit will be viewed as a 3D spherical 'paintbrush', and treatment planning reduces to finding the best route of this 'paintbrush' to 'paint' a 3D tumor volume. Under our dose-painting concept, gamma knife radiosurgery becomes dynamic, where the patient moves continuously under the robotic positioning system. We have implemented a fully automatic dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery treatment planning system, where the inverse planning problem is solved as a traveling salesman problem combined with constrained least-square optimizations. We have also carried out experimental studies of dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery and showed the following. (1) Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery is ideally suited for fully automatic inverse planning, where high quality radiosurgery plans can be obtained in minutes of computation. (2) Dynamic radiosurgery plans are more conformal than step-and-shoot plans and can maintain a steep dose gradient (around 13% per mm) between the target tumor volume and the surrounding critical structures. (3) It is possible to prescribe multiple isodose lines with dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, so that the treatment can cover the periphery of the target volume while escalating the dose for high tumor burden regions. (4) With dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, one can

  6. Substructured multibody molecular dynamics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grest, Gary Stephen; Stevens, Mark Jackson; Plimpton, Steven James; Woolf, Thomas B. (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD); Lehoucq, Richard B.; Crozier, Paul Stewart; Ismail, Ahmed E.; Mukherjee, Rudranarayan M. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY); Draganescu, Andrei I.


    We have enhanced our parallel molecular dynamics (MD) simulation software LAMMPS (Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator, to include many new features for accelerated simulation including articulated rigid body dynamics via coupling to the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute code POEMS (Parallelizable Open-source Efficient Multibody Software). We use new features of the LAMMPS software package to investigate rhodopsin photoisomerization, and water model surface tension and capillary waves at the vapor-liquid interface. Finally, we motivate the recipes of MD for practitioners and researchers in numerical analysis and computational mechanics.

  7. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (United States)

    Stengle, Tom; Flores-Amaya, Felipe


    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in fiscal year 2000. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics, spacecraft trajectory, attitude analysis, and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.

  8. Dynamics on Lorentz manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Scot


    Within the general framework of the dynamics of "large" groups on geometric spaces, the focus is on the types of groups that can act in complicated ways on Lorentz manifolds, and on the structure of the resulting manifolds and actions. This particular area of dynamics is an active one, and not all the results are in their final form. However, at this point, a great deal can be said about the particular Lie groups that come up in this context. It is impressive that, even assuming very weak recurrence of the action, the list of possible groups is quite restricted. For the most complicated of the

  9. Designing Dynamic Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie; Højlund, Marie


    This paper addresses the notion of atmospheres from a designerly perspective, and discusses temporal challenges facing interaction designers when acknowledging the dynamic character of it. As atmospheres are created in the relation between body, space, and time, a pragmatic approach seems useful,....... The potentials and implica-­‐ tions are presented through a design case, Kidkit, highlighting temporality as design parametre within interaction design.......This paper addresses the notion of atmospheres from a designerly perspective, and discusses temporal challenges facing interaction designers when acknowledging the dynamic character of it. As atmospheres are created in the relation between body, space, and time, a pragmatic approach seems useful...

  10. Maya Studio Projects Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Palamar, Todd


    The only hands-on book devoted to mastering Maya's dynamics tools for water, wind, and fire. In the world of animation, the ability to create realistic water, wind, and fire effects is key. Autodesk Maya software includes powerful dynamics tools that have been used to design breathtaking effects for movies, games, commercials, and short films. This professional guide teaches you the primary techniques you need to make the most of Maya's toolkit, so you'll soon be creating water that ripples, gusting winds and gentle breezes, and flickering fires the way Hollywood pros do. The one-of-a-kind boo

  11. Cavitation bubble dynamics. (United States)

    Lauterborn, W; Ohl, C D


    The dynamics of cavitation bubbles on water is investigated for bubbles produced optically and acoustically. Single bubble dynamics is studied with laser produced bubbles and high speed photography with framing rates up to 20.8 million frames per second. Examples for jet formation and shock wave emission are given. Acoustic cavitation is produced in water in the interior of piezoelectric cylinders of different sizes (up to 12 cm inner diameter). The filementary structure composed of bubbles is investigated and their light emission (sonoluminescence) studied for various driving strengths.

  12. Principles of dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Rodney


    Principles of Dynamics presents classical dynamics primarily as an exemplar of scientific theory and method. This book is divided into three major parts concerned with gravitational theory of planetary systems; general principles of the foundations of mechanics; and general motion of a rigid body. Some of the specific topics covered are Keplerian Laws of Planetary Motion; gravitational potential and potential energy; and fields of axisymmetric bodies. The principles of work and energy, fictitious body-forces, and inertial mass are also looked into. Other specific topics examined are kinematics

  13. Organisations’ evolutionary dynamics: a group dynamics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Eduardo Vargas


    Full Text Available Colombian entrepreneurs’ straggling, reactionary and inertial orientation has been inconsistently lustified by the availability of internal and leveraged resources, a concept intensifying deficient technological capacity. Company activity (seen as being a socioeconomic unit has been integrally orientated within an evolutionary framework by company identity and cohesion as well as adaptation and evolutionary mechanisms. The present document uses a group dynamics’ model to illustrate how knowledge-based strategic orientation and integration for innovation have become an imperative for development, from slight leverage, distinguishing between two evolutionary company forms: traditional economic (inertial, as they introduce sporadic incremental improvements and modern companies (dynamic and radical innovators. Revealing conclusions obtained from such model may be used for intervening in and modernising company activity.

  14. Dynamic Analysis of a Pendulum Dynamic Automatic Balancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Seung Sohn


    Full Text Available The automatic dynamic balancer is a device to reduce the vibration from unbalanced mass of rotors. Instead of considering prevailing ball automatic dynamic balancer, pendulum automatic dynamic balancer is analyzed. For the analysis of dynamic stability and behavior, the nonlinear equations of motion for a system are derived with respect to polar coordinates by the Lagrange's equations. The perturbation method is applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of the system around the equilibrium position. Based on the linearized equations, the dynamic stability of the system around the equilibrium positions is investigated by the eigenvalue analysis.

  15. EKC: Static or Dynamic?


    Dinda, Soumyananda


    This paper tests the robustness of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis, using dynamic model specification for the long panel data set rather than static model. The monotonic income - CO2 emission relationship exists in most of the under developed or developing economies but EKC exists mostly in developed economies.

  16. Stochastic Switching Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Maria

    mode control. It is investigated how to understand and interpret solutions to models of switched systems, which are exposed to discontinuous dynamics and uncertainties (primarily) in the form of white noise. The goal is to gain knowledge about the performance of the system by interpreting the solution...

  17. Dynamic Systems Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Dan ŞANDOR


    Full Text Available System Dynamics was introduced by Jay W. Forrester in the 1960s. Since then the methodology was adopted in many areas of natural or social sciences. This article tries to present briefly how this methodology works, both as Systems Thinking and as Modelling with Vensim computer software.

  18. Dynamics of human movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.


    The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads

  19. Modeling Climate Dynamically (United States)

    Walsh, Jim; McGehee, Richard


    A dynamical systems approach to energy balance models of climate is presented, focusing on low order, or conceptual, models. Included are global average and latitude-dependent, surface temperature models. The development and analysis of the differential equations and corresponding bifurcation diagrams provides a host of appropriate material for…

  20. Dynamic Planar Convex Hull

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølfting; Jacob, Rico


    In this paper we determine the computational complexity of the dynamic convex hull problem in the planar case. We present a data structure that maintains a finite set of n points in the plane under insertion and deletion of points in amortized O(log n) time per operation. The space usage of the d...

  1. Dynamic Systems and Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Per Grove


    A one-dimensional model with axial discretization of engine components has been formulated using tha balance equations for mass energy and momentum and the ideal gas equation of state. ODE's that govern the dynamic behaviour of the regenerator matrix temperatures are included in the model. Known ...

  2. The Dynamics of Shape

    CERN Document Server

    Gomes, Henrique


    This thesis consists of two parts, connected by one central theme: the dynamics of the "shape of space". The first part of the thesis concerns the construction of a theory of gravity dynamically equivalent to general relativity (GR) in 3+1 form (ADM). What is special about this theory is that it does not possess foliation invariance, as does ADM. It replaces that "symmetry" by another: local conformal invariance. In so doing it more accurately reflects a theory of the "shape of space", giving us reason to call it \\emph{shape dynamics} (SD). In the first part we will try to present some of the highlights of results so far, and indicate what we can and cannot do with shape dynamics. Because this is a young, rapidly moving field, we have necessarily left out some interesting new results which are not yet in print and were developed alongside the writing of the thesis. The second part of the thesis will develop a gauge theory for "shape of space"--theories. To be more precise, if one admits that the physically re...

  3. Overeducation Dynamics and Personality (United States)

    Blazquez, Maite; Budria, Santiago


    In this paper, we use the 2000-2008 waves of the German Socioeconomic Panel to examine overeducation transitions. The results are based on a first-order Markov model that allows us to account for both the initial conditions problem and potential endogeneity in attrition. We found that overeducation dynamics, especially the probability of entering…

  4. Ansatz for dynamical hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S.; Baas, N.A.; Mayer, B.


    the importance of this particular kind of organization for living systems. We then define a framework that enables us to formulate, investigate, and manipulate such dynamical hierarchies. This framework allows us to simultaneously investigate different levels of description together with them interrelationship...

  5. The dynamics of awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, J.; Velázquez-Quesada, F.R.


    Classical epistemic logic describes implicit knowledge of agents about facts and knowledge of other agents based on semantic information. The latter is produced by acts of observation or communication that are described well by dynamic epistemic logics. What these logics do not describe, however, is

  6. Regional Population Dynamics (United States)

    Andrew Birt


    The population dynamics of the southern pine beetle (SPB) exhibit characteristic fluctuations between relatively long endemic and shorter outbreak periods. Populations exhibit complex and hierarchical spatial structure with beetles and larvae aggregating within individual trees, infestations with multiple infested trees, and regional outbreaks that comprise a large...

  7. Models for Dynamic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Heitzig, Martina


    This chapter covers aspects of the dynamic modelling and simulation of several complex operations that include a controlled blending tank, a direct methanol fuel cell that incorporates a multiscale model, a fluidised bed reactor, a standard chemical reactor and finally a polymerisation reactor. T...

  8. Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik

    Through a significant number of detailed and realistic examples this book illustrates how the insights gained over the past couple of decades in the fields of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory can be applied in practice. Aomng the topics considered are microbiological reaction systems, ecological...

  9. Representation in dynamical agents. (United States)

    Ward, Ronnie; Ward, Robert


    This paper extends experiments by Beer [Beer, R. D. (1996). Toward the evolution of dynamical neural networks for minimally cognitive behavior. In P. Maes, M. Mataric, J. Meyer, J. Pollack, & S. Wilson (Eds.), From animals to animats 4: Proceedings of the fourth international conference on simulation of adaptive behavior (pp. 421-429). MIT Press; Beer, R. D. (2003). The dynamics of active categorical perception in an evolved model agent (with commentary and response). Adaptive Behavior, 11 (4), 209-243] with an evolved, dynamical agent to further explore the question of representation in cognitive systems. Beer's environmentally-situated visual agent was controlled by a continuous-time recurrent neural network, and evolved to perform a categorical perception task, discriminating circles from diamonds. Despite the agent's high levels of discrimination performance, Beer found no evidence of internal representation in the best-evolved agent's nervous system. Here we examine the generality of this result. We evolved an agent for shape discrimination, and performed extensive behavioral analyses to test for representation. In this case we find that agents developed to discriminate equal-width shapes exhibit what Clark [Clark, A. (1997). The dynamical challenge. Cognitive Science, 21 (4), 461-481] calls "weak-substantive representation". The agent had internal configurations that (1) were understandably related to the object in the environment, and (2) were functionally used in a task relevant way when the target was not visible to the agent.

  10. Dynamic update with probabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Benthem, Johan; Gerbrandy, Jelle; Kooi, Barteld


    Current dynamic-epistemic logics model different types of information change in multi-agent scenarios. We generalize these logics to a probabilistic setting, obtaining a calculus for multi-agent update with three natural slots: prior probability on states, occurrence probabilities in the relevant

  11. Dynamics of Information Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hirsch, Michael J; Murphey, Robert


    Our understanding of information and information dynamics has outgrown classical information theory. This book presents the research explaining the importance of information in the evolution of a distributed or networked system. It presents techniques for measuring the value or significance of information within the context of a system

  12. Dynamic term structure models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller; Meldrum, Andrew

    This paper studies whether dynamic term structure models for US nominal bond yields should enforce the zero lower bound by a quadratic policy rate or a shadow rate specification. We address the question by estimating quadratic term structure models (QTSMs) and shadow rate models with at most four...

  13. Electronic Spectroscopy & Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Maroncelli, Nancy Ryan Gray


    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Electronic Spectroscopy and Dynamics was held at Colby College, Waterville, NH from 07/19/2009 thru 07/24/2009. The Conference was well-attended with participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. The GRC on Electronic Spectroscopy & Dynamics showcases some of the most recent experimental and theoretical developments in electronic spectroscopy that probes the structure and dynamics of isolated molecules, molecules embedded in clusters and condensed phases, and bulk materials. Electronic spectroscopy is an important tool in many fields of research, and this GRC brings together experts having diverse backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biophysics, and materials science, making the meeting an excellent opportunity for the interdisciplinary exchange of ideas and techniques. Topics covered in this GRC include high-resolution spectroscopy, biological molecules in the gas phase, electronic structure theory for excited states, multi-chromophore and single-molecule spectroscopies, and excited state dynamics in chemical and biological systems.

  14. The Dynamics of Information

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    efficacy at making predictions in the real world. About the speaker Bernardo Huberman is a Senior HP Fellow and Director of the Information Dynamics Lab at Hewlett Packard Laboratories. He received his Ph.D. in Physics from the University of Pennsylvania, and is currently a Consulting Professor in the Department of Applied Physics at Stanford University...

  15. Dynamical Imaging with Interferometry (United States)

    Johnson, Michael D.; Bouman, Katherine L.; Blackburn, Lindy; Chael, Andrew A.; Rosen, Julian; Shiokawa, Hotaka; Roelofs, Freek; Akiyama, Kazunori; Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.


    By linking widely separated radio dishes, the technique of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) can greatly enhance angular resolution in radio astronomy. However, at any given moment, a VLBI array only sparsely samples the information necessary to form an image. Conventional imaging techniques partially overcome this limitation by making the assumption that the observed cosmic source structure does not evolve over the duration of an observation, which enables VLBI networks to accumulate information as Earth rotates and changes the projected array geometry. Although this assumption is appropriate for nearly all VLBI, it is almost certainly violated for submillimeter observations of the Galactic center supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), which has a gravitational timescale of only ∼ 20 s and exhibits intrahour variability. To address this challenge, we develop several techniques to reconstruct dynamical images (“movies”) from interferometric data. Our techniques are applicable to both single-epoch and multiepoch variability studies, and they are suitable for exploring many different physical processes including flaring regions, stable images with small time-dependent perturbations, steady accretion dynamics, or kinematics of relativistic jets. Moreover, dynamical imaging can be used to estimate time-averaged images from time-variable data, eliminating many spurious image artifacts that arise when using standard imaging methods. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques using synthetic observations of simulated black hole systems and 7 mm Very Long Baseline Array observations of M87, and we show that dynamical imaging is feasible for Event Horizon Telescope observations of Sgr A*.

  16. Dynamics via measurability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Generators f for σ -algebras can be used to view the dynamics of an invertible measurable transformation T in terms of the range values of f ∘ T . Such generators are the norm rather than the exception. Related measurable and quantitative methods of estimating a function from the behavior of ergodic averages are also discussed.

  17. Designing Dynamic Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie


    This paper addresses the notion of atmospheres from a designerly perspective, and discusses temporal challenges facing interaction designers when acknowledging the dynamic character of it. As atmospheres are created in the relation between body, space, and time, a pragmatic approach seems useful....... The potentials and implications are presented through a design case, Kidkit, highlighting temporality as design parametre within interaction design....

  18. Supervision and group dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren; Jensen, Lars Peter


     An important aspect of the problem based and project organized study at Aalborg University is the supervision of the project groups. At the basic education (first year) it is stated in the curriculum that part of the supervisors' job is to deal with group dynamics. This is due to the experience ...

  19. Dynamic Contingency Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Dynamic Contingency Analysis Tool (DCAT) is an open-platform and publicly available methodology to help develop applications that aim to improve the capabilities of power system planning engineers to assess the impact and likelihood of extreme contingencies and potential cascading events across their systems and interconnections. Outputs from the DCAT will help find mitigation solutions to reduce the risk of cascading outages in technically sound and effective ways. The current prototype DCAT implementation has been developed as a Python code that accesses the simulation functions of the Siemens PSS/E planning tool (PSS/E). It has the following features: It uses a hybrid dynamic and steady-state approach to simulating the cascading outage sequences that includes fast dynamic and slower steady-state events. It integrates dynamic models with protection scheme models for generation, transmission, and load. It models special protection systems (SPSs)/remedial action schemes (RASs) and automatic and manual corrective actions. Overall, the DCAT attempts to bridge multiple gaps in cascading-outage analysis in a single, unique prototype tool capable of automatically simulating and analyzing cascading sequences in real systems using multiprocessor computers.While the DCAT has been implemented using PSS/E in Phase I of the study, other commercial software packages with similar capabilities can be used within the DCAT framework.

  20. Dynamic Displays of Data (United States)

    Angotti, Robin


    This article describes Gapminder, a dynamic time-series graph that can be found at Gapminder was created by a team of developers (Rosling, Ronnlund, and Rosling 2005) to create beautiful, interactive graphs of otherwise lifeless numbers. Their goal is increased use and understanding of statistics and data that…

  1. Macroevolution: dynamics of diversity. (United States)

    Erwin, Douglas H


    The fossil record typically exhibits very dynamic patterns of innovation, diversification and extinction. In contrast, molecular phylogenies suggest smoother patterns of evolutionary change. Several new studies reconcile this difference and reveal more about the mechanisms behind macroevolutionary change. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Unemployment Dynamics and Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den G.J.; Gijsbert, A.; Lomwel, van C.; Ours, van Jan C.


    Youth unemployment is an issue of primary concern in WesternEuropean countries. In this paper we analyze dynamics in unemployment foryouths, adults (prime-aged individuals), and elderly. We use quarterly Frenchunemployment data, stratified by gender, age group, and duration, over theperiod

  3. Arctic avalanche dynamics (United States)

    Prokop, Alexander; Eiken, Mari; Ganaus, Kerstin; Rubensdotter, Lena


    Since the avalanche disaster December 19th, 2015 in Longyearbyen (Svalbard) happened, where two people were killed within settlements, the dynamic of avalanches in arctic regions is of increasing interest for hazard mapping in such areas. To investigate the flow behavior of arctic avalanches we focused on avalanches that occurred in Central Svalbard. In this regions historic avalanche events can be analyzed due to their deposition behavior visible on geomorphological maps in the run-out area of the avalanches. To get an idea about possible snow mass that was involved in the avalanches we measured the snow volume balance of recent avalanches (winters 2015/16) via terrestrial laser scanning. In this way we gained reasonable data to set calibration and input parameters for dynamic avalanche modeling. Using state of the art dynamic avalanche models allowed us to back calculate how much snow was involved in the historic avalanches that we identified on the geomorphological maps and what the return period of those events are. In our presentation we first explain our methodology; we discuss arctic avalanche behavior of the avalanches measured via terrestrial laser scanning and how the dynamic avalanche models performed for those case examples. Finally we conclude how our results can improve avalanche hazard mapping for arctic regions.

  4. Effective relational dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höhn, P.A.


    We provide a synopsis of an effective approach to the problem of time in the semiclassical regime. The essential features of this new approach to evaluating relational quantum dynamics in constrained systems are illustrated by means of a simple toy model.

  5. Scientists Probe Pesticide Dynamics (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974


    Summarizes discussions of a symposium on pesticide environmental dynamics with emphases upon pesticide transport processes, environmental reactions, and partitioning in air, soil, water and living organisms. Indicates that the goal is to attain knowledge enough to predict pesticide behavior and describe pesticide distribution with models and…


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Analysis of extended molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of lysozyme in vacuo and in aqueous solution reveals that it is possible to separate the configurational space into two subspaces: (1) an ''essential'' subspace containing only a few degrees of freedom in which anharmonic motion occurs that

  7. Dynamic Nanoparticles Assemblies (United States)



    CONSPECTUS Importance Although nanoparticle (NP) assemblies are at the beginning of their development, their unique geometrical shapes and media-responsive optical, electronic and magnetic properties have attracted significant interest. Nanoscale assembly bridges multiple sizes of materials: individual nanoparticles, discrete molecule-like or virus-like nanoscale agglomerates, microscale devices, and macroscale materials. The capacity to self-assemble can greatly facilitate the integration of nanotechnology with other technologies and, in particular, with microscale fabrication. In this Account, we describe developments in the emerging field of dynamic NP assemblies, which are spontaneously formed superstructures containing more than two inorganic nanoscale particles that display ability to change their geometrical, physical, chemical, and other attributes. In many ways, dynamic assemblies can represent a bottleneck in the ‘bottom-up’ fabrication of NP-based devices because they can produce a much greater variety of assemblies, but they also provide a convenient tool for variation of geometries and dimensions of nanoparticle assemblies. Classification Superstructures of NPs (and those held together by similar intrinsic forces) are classified into two groups: Class 1 where media and external fields can alter shape, conformation, and order of stable superstructures with a nearly constant number same. The future development of successful dynamic assemblies requires understanding the equilibrium in dynamic NP systems. The dynamic nature of Class 1 assemblies is associated with the equilibrium between different conformations of a superstructure and is comparable to the isomerization in classical chemistry. Class 2 assemblies involve the formation and/or breakage of linkages between the NPs, which is analogous to the classical chemical equilibrium for the formation of a molecule from atoms. Finer classification of NP assemblies in accord with established conventions

  8. Dynamic nanoparticle assemblies. (United States)

    Wang, Libing; Xu, Liguang; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai; Kotov, Nicholas A


    Although nanoparticle (NP) assemblies are at the beginning of their development, their unique geometrical shapes and media-responsive optical, electronic, and magnetic properties have attracted significant interest. Nanoscale assembly bridges multiple levels of hierarchy of materials: individual nanoparticles, discrete molecule-like or virus-like nanoscale agglomerates, microscale devices, and macroscale materials. The capacity to self-assemble can greatly facilitate the integration of nanotechnology with other technologies and, in particular, with microscale fabrication. In this Account, we describe developments in the emerging field of dynamic NP assemblies, which are spontaneously form superstructures containing more than two inorganic nanoscale particles that display the ability to change their geometrical, physical, chemical, and other attributes. In many ways, dynamic assemblies can represent a bottleneck in the "bottom-up" fabrication of NP-based devices because they can produce a much greater variety of assemblies, but they also provide a convenient tool for variation of geometries and dimensions of nanoparticle assemblies. Superstructures of NPs (and those held together by similar intrinsic forces)are classified into two groups: Class 1 where media and external fields can alter shape, conformation, and order of stable super structures with a nearly constant number of NPs or Class 2 where the total number of NPs changes, while the organizational motif in the final superstructure remains the same. The future development of successful dynamic assemblies requires understanding the equilibrium in dynamic NP systems. The dynamic nature of Class 1 assemblies is associated with the equilibrium between different conformations of a superstructure and is comparable to the isomerization in classical chemistry. Class 2 assemblies involve the formation or breakage of linkages between the NPs, which is analogous to the classical chemical equilibrium for the formation of

  9. Gravitomagnetic dynamical friction (United States)

    Cashen, Benjamin; Aker, Adam; Kesden, Michael


    A supermassive black hole moving through a field of stars will gravitationally scatter the stars, inducing a backreaction force on the black hole known as dynamical friction. In Newtonian gravity, the axisymmetry of the system about the black hole's velocity v implies that the dynamical friction must be antiparallel to v . However, in general relativity the black hole's spin S need not be parallel to v , breaking the axisymmetry of the system and generating a new component of dynamical friction similar to the Lorentz force F =q v ×B experienced by a particle with charge q moving in a magnetic field B . We call this new force gravitomagnetic dynamical friction and calculate its magnitude for a spinning black hole moving through a field of stars with Maxwellian velocity dispersion σ , assuming that both v and σ are much less than the speed of light c . We use post-Newtonian equations of motion accurate to O (v3/c3) needed to capture the effect of spin-orbit coupling and also include direct stellar capture by the black hole's event horizon. Gravitomagnetic dynamical friction will cause a black hole with uniform speed to spiral about the direction of its spin, similar to a charged particle spiraling about a magnetic field line, and will exert a torque on a supermassive black hole orbiting a galactic center, causing the angular momentum of this orbit to slowly precess about the black hole spin. As this effect is suppressed by a factor (σ /c )2 in nonrelativistic systems, we expect it to be negligible in most astrophysical contexts but provide this calculation for its theoretical interest and potential application to relativistic systems.

  10. Dynamic stiffness of suction caissons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten; Andersen, Lars

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the dynamic soil-structure interaction of suction caissons for offshore wind turbines. The investigation is limited to a determination of the vertical dynamic stiffness of suction caissons. The soil surrounding the foundation is homogenous with linear...... viscoelastic properties. The dynamic stiffness of the suction caisson is expressed by dimensionless frequency-dependent dynamic stiffness coefficients corresponding to the vertical degree of freedom. The dynamic stiffness coefficients for the foundations are evaluated by means of a dynamic three...

  11. Explicit Dynamic DDA Method considering Dynamic Contact Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhao


    Full Text Available This paper proposes an explicit dynamic DDA method considering dynamic contact force, which aims at solving the problems of low efficiency of dynamic contact detection and the simulation of dynamic contact force in the conventional DDA method. The mutual contact between blocks can be regarded as the application of point loading on a single block, and the corresponding contact submatrix can be calculated and the simultaneous equations of the block system can be integrated. The central difference method is adopted to deduce the explicit expression of block displacement containing dynamic contact force. With the relationship between displacement and dynamic contact force, contact constraint equations of a block system are obtained to calculate the dynamic contact force and the corresponding block displacement. The accuracy of the explicit dynamic DDA method is verified using two numerical cases. The calculation results show that the new DDA method can be applied in large-scale geotechnical engineering.

  12. NVU dynamics. II. Comparing to four other dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Trond; Toxværd, Søren; Schrøder, Thomas


    -potential-energy hypersurface. Here, simulations of NVU dynamics are compared to results for four other dynamics, both deterministic and stochastic. First, NVU dynamics is compared to the standard energy-conserving Newtonian NVE dynamics by simulations of the Kob-Andersen binary Lennard-Jones liquid, its WCA version (i.......e., with cut-off's at the pair potential minima), and the Lennard-Jones Gaussian liquid. We find identical results for all quantities probed: radial distribution functions, incoherent intermediate scattering functions, and mean-square displacement as function of time. Arguments are presented...... on the constant-potential-energy hypersurface, and to Nos-Hoover NVT dynamics. If time is scaled for the two stochastic dynamics to make single-particle diffusion constants identical to that of NVE dynamics, the simulations show that all five dynamics are equivalent at low temperatures except at short times....

  13. Growth of nanocomposite films : From dynamic roughening to dynamic smoothening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Shaha, K.P.; Chen, C.Q.; van der Hulst, Ruben; Turkin, A; Vainshtein, D.I.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De


    This paper reports several new findings on the breakdown of dynamic roughening in thin film growth. With increasing energy flux of concurrent ion impingement during pulsed DC sputtering, a transition from dynamic roughening to dynamic smoothening is observed in the growth behavior of TiC/a-C

  14. Nonlinear Dynamic Model Explains The Solar Dynamic (United States)

    Kuman, Maria

    Nonlinear mathematical model in torus representation describes the solar dynamic. Its graphic presentation shows that without perturbing force the orbits of the planets would be circles; only perturbing force could elongate the circular orbits into ellipses. Since the Hubble telescope found that the planetary orbits of other stars in the Milky Way are also ellipses, powerful perturbing force must be present in our galaxy. Such perturbing force is the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy with its heavy Black Hole and leftover stars, which we see orbiting around the center of our galaxy. Since observations of NASA's SDO found that magnetic fields rule the solar activity, we can expect when the planets align and their magnetic moments sum up, the already perturbed stars to reverse their magnetic parity (represented graphically as periodic looping through the hole of the torus). We predict that planets aligned on both sides of the Sun, when their magnetic moments sum-up, would induce more flares in the turbulent equatorial zone, which would bulge. When planets align only on one side of the Sun, the strong magnetic gradient of their asymmetric pull would flip the magnetic poles of the Sun. The Sun would elongate pole-to-pole, emit some energy through the poles, and the solar activity would cease. Similar reshaping and emission was observed in stars called magnetars and experimentally observed in super-liquid fast-spinning Helium nanodroplets. We are certain that NASA's SDO will confirm our predictions.

  15. Nonlinear dynamics: Challenges and perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Nonlinear .... engineering problems as well as population dynamics, economics, social dynamics, etc. [11]. 2.1 Nonlinear ordinary ..... niques such as dispersion management method have been developed. Multina- tional organizations have ...

  16. Dynamic Hedging in Currency Crisis


    Malte Krüger


    Garber and Spencer have argued that dynamic hedging may lead to perverse results when interest rates are used to defend an exchange rate. This paper shows that interest rate changes have little effects on dynamic hedgers when volatility is high.

  17. Nonlinear Dynamics in Ventricular Fibrillation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harold M. Hastings; Steven J. Evans; Weilun Quan; Martha L. Chong; Obi Nwasokwa


    .... Motivated by the work of Sugihara on atmospheric dynamics and the Durbin--Watson test for nonlinearity, we introduce a new statistical test that recovers significant dynamical patterns from smoothed lag plots...

  18. Homegarden Dynamics in Kerala, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peyre, A.; Guidal, A.; Wiersum, K.F.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.


    The study of structural and functional dynamics of homegardens offers an opportunity to understand the trends in socioeconomic sustainability in relation to their ecological sustainability. These dynamics were studied in a survey of 30 homegardens

  19. Dynamical Cluster Approximation (United States)

    Fotso, H.; Yang, S.; Chen, K.; Pathak, S.; Moreno, J.; Jarrell, M.; Mikelsons, K.; Khatami, E.; Galanakis, D.

    The dynamical cluster approximation (DCA) is a method which systematically incorporates nonlocal corrections to the dynamical mean-field approximation. Here we present a pedagogical discussion of the DCA by describing it as a Φ-derivable coarse-graining approximation in k-space, which maps an infinite lattice problem onto a periodic finite-sized cluster embedded in a self-consistently determined effective medium. We demonstrate the method by applying it to the two-dimensional Hubbard model. From this application, we show evidences of the presence of a quantum critical point (QCP) at a finite doping underneath the superconducting dome. The QCP is associated with the second-order terminus of a line of first order phase separation transitions. This critical point is driven to zero temperature by varying the band parameters, generating the QCP. The effect of the proximity of the QCP to the superconducting dome is also discussed.

  20. Signaling dynamics and peroxisomes. (United States)

    Mast, Fred D; Rachubinski, Richard A; Aitchison, John D


    Peroxisomes are remarkably responsive organelles. Their composition, abundance and even their mechanism of biogenesis are influenced strongly by cell type and the environment. This plasticity underlies peroxisomal functions in metabolism and the detoxification of dangerous reactive oxygen species. However, peroxisomes are integrated into the cellular system as a whole such that they communicate intimately with other organelles, control signaling dynamics as in the case of innate immune responses to infectious disease, and contribute to processes as fundamental as longevity. The increasing evidence for peroxisomes having roles in various cellular and organismal functions, combined with their malleability, suggests complex mechanisms operate to control cellular dynamics and the specificity of cellular responses and functions extending well beyond the peroxisome itself. A deeper understanding of the functions of peroxisomes and the mechanisms that control their plasticity could offer opportunities for exploiting changes in peroxisome abundance to control cellular function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Metaheuristics for Dynamic Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Nakib, Amir; Siarry, Patrick


    This book is an updated effort in summarizing the trending topics and new hot research lines in solving dynamic problems using metaheuristics. An analysis of the present state in solving complex problems quickly draws a clear picture: problems that change in time, having noise and uncertainties in their definition are becoming very important. The tools to face these problems are still to be built, since existing techniques are either slow or inefficient in tracking the many global optima that those problems are presenting to the solver technique. Thus, this book is devoted to include several of the most important advances in solving dynamic problems. Metaheuristics are the more popular tools to this end, and then we can find in the book how to best use genetic algorithms, particle swarm, ant colonies, immune systems, variable neighborhood search, and many other bioinspired techniques. Also, neural network solutions are considered in this book. Both, theory and practice have been addressed in the chapters of t...

  2. Granular dynamics during impact. (United States)

    Nordstrom, K N; Lim, E; Harrington, M; Losert, W


    We study the impact of a projectile onto a bed of 3 mm grains immersed in an index-matched fluid. We vary the amount of prestrain on the sample, strengthening the force chains within the system. We find this affects only the prefactor of the linear depth-dependent term in the stopping force. We propose a simple model to account for the strain dependence of this term, owing to increased pressure in the pile. Interestingly, we find that the presence of the fluid does not affect the impact dynamics, suggesting that dynamic friction is not a factor. Using a laser sheet scanning technique to visualize internal grain motion, we measure the trajectory of each grain throughout an impact. Microscopically, our results indicate that weaker initial force chains result in more irreversible, plastic rearrangements, suggesting static friction between grains does play a substantial role in the energy dissipation.

  3. Dynamics and Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Forshaw, Jeffrey


    A new title in the Manchester Physics Series, this introductory text emphasises physical principles behind classical mechanics and relativity. It assumes little in the way of prior knowledge, introducing relevant mathematics and carefully developing it within a physics context. Designed to provide a logical development of the subject, the book is divided into four sections, introductory material on dynamics, and special relativity, which is then followed by more advanced coverage of dynamics and special relativity. Each chapter includes problems ranging in difficulty from simple to challenging with?solutions for solving problems. Includes?solutions for solving problemsNumerous worked examples included throughout the bookMathematics is carefully explained and developed within a physics environmentSensitive to topics that can appear daunting or confusing

  4. Dynamic Global Currency Hedging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; Varneskov, Rasmus T.


    This paper proposes a model for discrete-time hedging based on continuous-time movements in portfolio and foreign currency exchange rate returns. In particular, the vector of optimal currency exposures is shown to be given by the negative realized regression coefficients from a one......-period conditional expectation of the intra-period quadratic covariation matrix for portfolio and foreign exchange rate returns. These are labelled the realized currency betas. The model, hence, facilitates dynamic hedging strategies that depend exclusively on the dynamic evolution of the ex-post quadratic...... that the realized currency betas exhibit important time variation, leading to substantial economic, as well as statistically significant, volatility reductions from the proposed hedging strategies, compared to existing benchmarks, without sacrificing returns. As a result, a risk-averse investor is shown...

  5. Dynamical quark mass generation

    CERN Document Server

    Frezzotti, Roberto


    Taking inspiration from lattice QCD results, we argue that a non-perturbative mass term for fermions can be generated as a consequence of the dynamical phenomenon of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, in turn triggered by the explicitly breaking of chiral symmetry induced by the critical Wilson term in the action. In a pure lattice QCD-like theory this mass term cannot be separated from the unavoidably associated linearly divergent contribution. However, if QCD with a Wilson term is enlarged to a theory where also a scalar field is present, coupled to a doublet of SU(2) fermions via a Yukawa interaction, then in the phase where the scalar field takes a non-vanishing (large) expectation value, a dynamically generated and ``naturally'' light fermion mass (numerically unrelated to the expectation value of the scalar field) is seen to emerge, at a critical value of the Yukawa coupling where the symmetry of the model is maximally enhanced.

  6. Classical Dynamics of Fullerenes (United States)

    Sławianowski, Jan J.; Kotowski, Romuald K.


    The classical mechanics of large molecules and fullerenes is studied. The approach is based on the model of collective motion of these objects. The mixed Lagrangian (material) and Eulerian (space) description of motion is used. In particular, the Green and Cauchy deformation tensors are geometrically defined. The important issue is the group-theoretical approach to describing the affine deformations of the body. The Hamiltonian description of motion based on the Poisson brackets methodology is used. The Lagrange and Hamilton approaches allow us to formulate the mechanics in the canonical form. The method of discretization in analytical continuum theory and in classical dynamics of large molecules and fullerenes enable us to formulate their dynamics in terms of the polynomial expansions of configurations. Another approach is based on the theory of analytical functions and on their approximations by finite-order polynomials. We concentrate on the extremely simplified model of affine deformations or on their higher-order polynomial perturbations.

  7. Dynamics of Catalyst Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Cavalca, Filippo; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    under gas exposure, dynamic phenomena such as sintering and growth can be observed with sub-Ångstrøm resolution. Metal nanoparticles contain the active sites in heterogeneous catalysts, which are important for many industrial applications including the production of clean fuels, chemicals...... and pharmaceuticals, and the cleanup of exhaust from automobiles and stationary power plants. Sintering, or thermal deactivation, is an important mechanism for the loss of catalyst activity. In order to initiate a systematic study of the dynamics and sintering of nanoparticles, various catalytic systems have been...... that particle sintering is not solely governed by the mechanisms previously proposed. These results are divided into the different phases of the catalyst lifetime....

  8. Dynamics of cyclic machines

    CERN Document Server

    Vulfson, Iosif


    This book focuses on modern methods of oscillation analysis in machines, including cyclic action mechanisms (linkages, cams, steppers, etc.). It presents schematization techniques and mathematical descriptions of oscillating systems, taking into account the variability of the parameters and nonlinearities, engineering evaluations of dynamic errors, and oscillation suppression methods. The majority of the book is devoted to the development of new methods of dynamic analysis and synthesis for cyclic machines that form regular oscillatory systems with multiple duplicate modules.  There are also sections examining aspects of general engineering interest (nonlinear dissipative forces, systems with non-stationary constraints, impacts and pseudo-impacts in clearances, etc.)  The examples in the book are based on the widely used results of theoretical and experimental studies as well as engineering calculations carried out in relation to machines used in the textile, light, polygraphic and other industries. Particu...

  9. Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng Olesen, Thomas

    with companies in the maritime sector. This report “Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics – Business strategies in the offshore supply industry” is the second report in mapping project D. It examines the markets and business strategies of various suppliers and furthermore presents an analysis of the challenges...... and opportunities for the companies engaged in the different parts of the sector. The report is developed from interviews with top management of key players in the Danish supply industry combined with studies on management literature. The macro- and meso levels of the offshore sector are examined in the CBS...... Maritime report “Offshore Supply Chain Dynamics – The main drivers in the energy sector and the value chain characteristics for offshore oil and gas and offshore wind”, which constitutes the first part of mapping project D. It offers insights into the main drivers in the energy sector (macro level...

  10. Fluid dynamics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rieutord, Michel


    This book is dedicated to readers who want to learn fluid dynamics from the beginning. It assumes a basic level of mathematics knowledge that would correspond to that of most second-year undergraduate physics students and examines fluid dynamics from a physicist’s perspective. As such, the examples used primarily come from our environment on Earth and, where possible, from astrophysics. The text is arranged in a progressive and educational format, aimed at leading readers from the simplest basics to more complex matters like turbulence and magnetohydrodynamics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help readers to test their understanding of the subject (solutions are provided at the end of the book), and a special chapter is devoted to introducing selected aspects of mathematics that beginners may not be familiar with, so as to make the book self-contained.

  11. Fundamental composite electroweak dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbey, Alexandre; Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Cai, Haiying


    symmetry is embedded, either as a pseudo-Goldstone boson or as a massive excitation of the condensate. In our template, a mass term for the fermions in the fundamental theory acts as a stabilizer of the Higgs potential, without the need for partners of the top quark. We constrain the available parameter......Using the recent joint results from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations on the Higgs boson, we determine the current status of composite electroweak dynamics models based on the expected scalar sector. Our analysis can be used as a minimal template for a wider class of models between the two limiting...... cases of composite Goldstone Higgs and Technicolor-like ones. This is possible due to the existence of a unified description, both at the effective and fundamental Lagrangian levels, of models of composite Higgs dynamics where the Higgs boson itself can emerge, depending on the way the electroweak...

  12. Dynamic system classifier

    CERN Document Server

    Pumpe, Daniel; Müller, Ewald; Enßlin, Torsten A


    Stochastic differential equations describe well many physical, biological and sociological systems, despite the simplification often made in their derivation. Here the usage of simple stochastic differential equations to characterize and classify complex dynamical systems is proposed within a Bayesian framework. To this end, we develop a dynamic system classifier (DSC). The DSC first abstracts training data of a system in terms of time dependent coefficients of the descriptive stochastic differential equation. Thereby the DSC identifies unique correlation structures within the training data. For definiteness we restrict the presentation of DSC to oscillation processes with a time dependent frequency {\\omega}(t) and damping factor {\\gamma}(t). Although real systems might be more complex, this simple oscillator captures many characteristic features. The {\\omega} and {\\gamma} timelines represent the abstract system characterization and permit the construction of efficient signal classifiers. Numerical experiment...

  13. Validated dynamic flow model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben


    model structure suggested by University of Lund the WP4 leader. This particular model structure has the advantages that it fits better into the control design frame work used by WP3-4 compared to the model structures previously developed in WP2. The different model structures are first summarised....... Then issues dealing with optimal experimental design is considered. Finally the parameters are estimated in the chosen static and dynamic models and a validation is performed. Two of the static models, one of them the additive model, explains the data well. In case of dynamic models the suggested additive...... model turns out not to be useful for prediction of the flow. Moreover, standard Box Jenkins model structures and multiple output auto regressive models proves to be superior as they can give useful predictions of the flow....

  14. Isotropic stochastic rotation dynamics (United States)

    Mühlbauer, Sebastian; Strobl, Severin; Pöschel, Thorsten


    Stochastic rotation dynamics (SRD) is a widely used method for the mesoscopic modeling of complex fluids, such as colloidal suspensions or multiphase flows. In this method, however, the underlying Cartesian grid defining the coarse-grained interaction volumes induces anisotropy. We propose an isotropic, lattice-free variant of stochastic rotation dynamics, termed iSRD. Instead of Cartesian grid cells, we employ randomly distributed spherical interaction volumes. This eliminates the requirement of a grid shift, which is essential in standard SRD to maintain Galilean invariance. We derive analytical expressions for the viscosity and the diffusion coefficient in relation to the model parameters, which show excellent agreement with the results obtained in iSRD simulations. The proposed algorithm is particularly suitable to model systems bound by walls of complex shape, where the domain cannot be meshed uniformly. The presented approach is not limited to SRD but is applicable to any other mesoscopic method, where particles interact within certain coarse-grained volumes.

  15. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H.B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)


    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.

  16. Bubble dynamics in DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanke, Andreas [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Metzler, Ralf [NORDITA-Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark)


    The formation of local denaturation zones (bubbles) in double-stranded DNA is an important example of conformational changes of biological macromolecules. We study the dynamics of bubble formation in terms of a Fokker-Planck equation for the probability density to find a bubble of size n base pairs at time t, on the basis of the free energy in the Poland-Scheraga model. Characteristic bubble closing and opening times can be determined from the corresponding first passage time problem, and are sensitive to the specific parameters entering the model. A multistate unzipping model with constant rates recently applied to DNA breathing dynamics (Altan-Bonnet et al 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 138101) emerges as a limiting case. (letter to the editor)

  17. Corruption dynamics model (United States)

    Malafeyev, O. A.; Nemnyugin, S. A.; Rylow, D.; Kolpak, E. P.; Awasthi, Achal


    The corruption dynamics is analyzed by means of the lattice model which is similar to the three-dimensional Ising model. Agents placed at nodes of the corrupt network periodically choose to perfom or not to perform the act of corruption at gain or loss while making decisions based on the process history. The gain value and its dynamics are defined by means of the Markov stochastic process modelling with parameters established in accordance with the influence of external and individual factors on the agent's gain. The model is formulated algorithmically and is studied by means of the computer simulation. Numerical results are obtained which demonstrate asymptotic behaviour of the corruption network under various conditions.

  18. Visualizing dynamic-stall airflows


    Carr, L.; Chandrasekhara, M.


    This work was done by L. Carr of Ames Research Center and M. Chandrasekhara of the Naval Postgraduate School. Further information may be found in AIAA paper 89A-25511, "Design and Development of a Compression Dynamic Stall Facility". A new wind-tunnel apparatus facilitates experiments on airfoils undergoing dynam­ic stall. Dynamic stall occurs when an airfoil is pitched rapidly past the static stall angle. In dynamic stall, lift can become greater than that in steady flow.

  19. An Otto Engine Dynamic Model


    Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu; Relly Victoria Virgil Petrescu


    Otto engine dynamics are similar in almost all common internal combustion engines. We can speak so about dynamics of engines: Lenoir, Otto, and Diesel. The dynamic presented model is simple and original. The first thing necessary in the calculation of Otto engine dynamics, is to determine the inertial mass reduced at the piston. One uses then the Lagrange equation. Kinetic energy conservation shows angular speed variation (from the shaft) with inertial masses. One uses and elastic constant of...

  20. Nonlinear dynamics in ventricular fibrillation. (United States)

    Hastings, H M; Evans, S J; Quan, W; Chong, M L; Nwasokwa, O


    Electrogram recordings of ventricular fibrillation appear complex and possibly chaotic. However, sequences of beat-to-beat intervals obtained from these recordings are generally short, making it difficult to explicitly demonstrate nonlinear dynamics. Motivated by the work of Sugihara on atmospheric dynamics and the Durbin-Watson test for nonlinearity, we introduce a new statistical test that recovers significant dynamical patterns from smoothed lag plots. This test is used to show highly significant nonlinear dynamics in a stable canine model of ventricular fibrillation.