Beckers, Laura; Speth, Lucianne; Rameckers, Eugène; Janssen-Potten, Yvonne
To produce a Dutch translation of the Lifestyle Assessment Questionnaire for children with cerebral palsy (LAQ-CP), adapted for cross-cultural differences. The translation process consisted of 6 stages, following a guideline for cross-cultural adaptations including duplicate forward- and back-translations, expert group review, pilot-testing, and a process audit. Several adaptations to the questionnaire were required due to cross-cultural differences. As a result of the pilot-test, the layout was adapted to the desires of the users. The process auditor stated that the process had been comprehensive and valued the quality of the work. The project resulted in a Dutch translation of the LAQ-CP, adapted for cross-cultural differences. Validation of the translated questionnaire is required before use in clinical practice and research is recommended (Dutch abstract, Supplemental Digital Content 1, available at: http://links.lww.com/PPT/A164).
Wang, Yan; Tu, Sheng; Steffen, Dana; Xiong, May
The formulation of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) is challenging due to poor water solubility and rapid elimination of drugs in vivo. This study investigated the effects of complexing iron (Fe3+) to the HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and LAQ824 (LAQ) prior to their encapsulation into PEGylated liposomes, and investigated whether this technique could improve drug solubility, in vitro release and in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) properties. METHODS. The reaction stoichiometry, binding constants and solubility were measured for Fe complexes of SAHA and LAQ. The complexes were passively encapsulated into PEGylated liposomes and characterized by size distribution, zeta-potential, encapsulation efficiency (EE), and in vitro drug release studies. PC-3 cells were used to verify the in vitro anticancer activity of the formulations. In vivo pharmacokinetic properties of liposomal LAQ-Fe (L-LAQ-Fe) was evaluated in rats. RESULTS. SAHA and LAQ form complexes with Fe at 1:1 stoichiometric ratio, with a binding constant on the order of 104 M-1. Fe complexation improved the aqueous solubility and the liposomal encapsulation efficiency of SAHA and LAQ (29-35% EE, final drug concentration > 1 mM). Liposomal encapsulated complexes (L-HDACi-Fe) exhibited sustained in vitro release properties compared to L-HDACi but cytotoxicity on PC-3 cells was comparable to free drugs. The PK of L-LAQ-Fe revealed 15-fold improvement in the plasma t1/2 (12.11 h)and 211-fold improvement in the AUC∞ (105.7 µg·h/ml) compared to free LAQ (0.79 h, 0.5 µg·h/ml). Similarly, the plasma t1/2 of Fe was determined to be 11.83 h in a separate experiment using radioactive Fe-59. The majority of Fe-59 activity was found in liver and spleen of rats and correlates with liposomal uptake by the mononuclear phagocyte system. CONCLUSIONS. We have demonstrated that encapsulation of Fe complexes of HDACi into PEGylated liposomes can improve overall drug aqueous solubility, in vitro release and in
Mavrinac, Martina; Brumini, Gordana; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija; Petrovecki, Mladen
To develop and test the psychometric characteristics of a questionnaire measuring attitudes toward plagiarism. Participants were 227 undergraduates and graduate students (128 women and 99 men) from three Croatian universities, with a median age of 21 years (range 18 to 48). Research was conducted from March to June 2009. For the purpose of construction of the first version of the questionnaire, 67 statements (items) were developed. The statements were based on the relevant literature and were developed following rules and recommendations for questionnaire writing, and 36 items were chosen for final validation. Factor analysis was used to find out the factor structure of the questionnaire and to measure construct validity. The final version of the questionnaire consisted of 29 items divided into a three-factor structure: factor I - positive attitude toward plagiarism (12 items); factor II - negative attitude toward plagiarism (7 items); and factor III - subjective norms toward plagiarism (10 items). Cronbach alpha was calculated to confirm the reliability of the scale: factor I - alpha=0.83; factor II - alpha=0.79; and factor III - alpha=0.85. Correlations between factors were: -0.37 between I and II, -0.41 between I and III, and +0.31 between II and III. Attitudes Toward Plagiarism questionnaire was developed, with good psychometric characteristics. It will be used in future research as a standardized tool for measuring attitudes toward plagiarism.
Heubach, Philip Gilbert
This Questionnaire, consisting of 74 yes/no, multiple choice, and completion items, is designed to assess smoking practices and attitudes toward smoking in high school students. Questions pertain to personal data, family smoking practices and attitudes, personal smoking habits, reasons for smoking or not smoking, and opinions on smoking. Detailed…
Ali Mohammad Rezaee
Full Text Available Aim: The study was aimed to determine the validity and reliability of opium attitudes questionnaire. Method: 6108 of guidance school (3th grades and high school students filled the opium attitude questionnaire in all of the country. The validity of questionnaire assessed by group discrimination and confirmatory factor analysis method. Results: the results of group discrimination showed that the questions can be discriminated of past and current opium addicts and normal groups. On the basis of factor analysis results 5 factors extracted. These factors with consideration of literature review and loaded items content named: interest to consume, attitude to dangers, attitude to physiological effects, attitude to psychic effects, attitude to social effects to opium. Reliability of subscales examined by Cronbakh’s alpha. The minimum measure of reliability was 0.77 and maximum was 0.86. Altogether, the validity and reliability of questionnaire were satisfied. Conclusion: On the basis of present research results, opium attitude questionnaire is appropriate for assessing of students’ attitude to opium among guidance and high school students.
Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Broderick, Patricia C.
The Motherhood Inventory (MI) is a 40-item questionnaire developed to study attitudes toward motherhood and the motherhood myth. It includes items related to the control of reproduction, abortion, adoption, single motherhood, male-female relationships, and idealized and punitive attitudes toward mothers. The MI was investigated using 301 subjects…
Mai, F M
To assess the attitudes of a random sample of Canadian psychiatrists to Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) and assess the relative prevalence of the condition in three comparable cities in Ontario. A questionnaire was sent to all psychiatrists who were members of the Canadian Psychiatric Association and who were resident in Ottawa, Kingston and London. Questions were asked on the respondent's personal clinical experience of MPD and his/her attitude to this condition. Some personal and demographic questions were also included. 180 out of 294 questionnaires (61.2%) were returned. The existence of MPD was doubted by 27.8% of psychiatrists who responded to the questionnaire, with a significantly higher proportion in London than in Kingston or in Ottawa. A substantial majority in all three cities agreed that media publicity and the psychiatrist's own belief system affected the prevalence of MPD. These results confirm that there is a split in the profession regarding belief in the existence of MPD as a diagnosis.
Poorolajal, J; Cheraghi, P; Irani, A Doosti; Cheraghi, Z; Mirfakhraei, M
This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (Pplagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.
Poorolajal, J; Cheraghi, P; Irani, A Doosti; Cheraghi, Z; Mirfakhraei, M
Background This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (Pplagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission. PMID:23304676
Manigandan, C; Charles, J; Divya, I; Edward, S J; Aaron, A
The importance of exercise for health and the long-term management of various diseases is now well documented and established. However, the challenge is the lack of patient compliance to exercises, which is true for almost all diseases, from acute back pain to chronic arthritis. One of the factors for compliance is the perception that exercises are effective in ameliorating unpleasant symptoms. Precisely, people's perception and their attitude towards exercises matter the most in determining the treatment outcome in such conditions. Unfortunately, the psychology of exercise initiation and adherence in the patient population is seriously under-researched. Recent literature has identified the need to consider various similar factors like motivation, barriers to exercise, exercise-related beliefs, attitudes, and the formulation of self-perceptions and self-identity towards exercises. However, no good instrument exists that is sensitive and standardized to evaluate people's attitude towards exercises, which is fundamental and crucial in determining the final outcome of exercise-treatable diseases. Hence we have attempted to design a questionnaire to 'evaluate the level of people's attitude towards exercises'.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is widespread interest in measuring healthcare provider attitudes about issues relevant to patient safety (often called safety climate or safety culture. Here we report the psychometric properties, establish benchmarking data, and discuss emerging areas of research with the University of Texas Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. Methods Six cross-sectional surveys of health care providers (n = 10,843 in 203 clinical areas (including critical care units, operating rooms, inpatient settings, and ambulatory clinics in three countries (USA, UK, New Zealand. Multilevel factor analyses yielded results at the clinical area level and the respondent nested within clinical area level. We report scale reliability, floor/ceiling effects, item factor loadings, inter-factor correlations, and percentage of respondents who agree with each item and scale. Results A six factor model of provider attitudes fit to the data at both the clinical area and respondent nested within clinical area levels. The factors were: Teamwork Climate, Safety Climate, Perceptions of Management, Job Satisfaction, Working Conditions, and Stress Recognition. Scale reliability was 0.9. Provider attitudes varied greatly both within and among organizations. Results are presented to allow benchmarking among organizations and emerging research is discussed. Conclusion The Safety Attitudes Questionnaire demonstrated good psychometric properties. Healthcare organizations can use the survey to measure caregiver attitudes about six patient safety-related domains, to compare themselves with other organizations, to prompt interventions to improve safety attitudes and to measure the effectiveness of these interventions.
Ewing, Donna L.; Monsen, Jeremy J.; Kielblock, Stephan
Teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education affect its successful implementation within mainstream schools. This paper reviews nine questionnaires which capture primary school teachers' attitudes towards inclusion, with the aim to support researchers in selecting the most appropriate measure according to the purpose of their study. Most of the…
Ayob, Ain; Awadh, Ammar Ihsan; Hadi, Hazrina; Jaffri, Juliana; Jamshed, Shazia; Ahmad, Hawa Mas Azmar
Background: Increased usage of cosmetic products has caused a growing concern about the safety of these products, and yet little is known about cosmetics from the consumers’ perspective. Hence, this study's aim is to develop a valid and reliable tool for assessing consumers’ awareness, perceptions, and attitudes toward cosmetic products. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was developed in the English language based on information collected from a literature search, in-depth interviews conducted with consumers prior to this study and consultations with experts. Subsequently, the questionnaire was subjected to translation, validation, and test-retest reliability. A final version of the questionnaire was piloted among 66 consumers via convenient sampling. A descriptive analysis was performed, and the internal consistency and the differences between variables in the questionnaire were analyzed. Results: The developed and translated questionnaire produced repeatable data for each of the domains (Spearman's correlation ≥ 0.7, P awareness, perceptions and attitudes indicates good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha value of more than 0.7 for each domain). Significant differences were found between the perception scores for the race, religion, and monthly expenses for cosmetic products, respectively, and the same pattern was found for the attitude scores, but monthly expenses for cosmetic products was replaced by monthly income. Conclusion: The results achieved via the Bahasa Malaysia questionnaire indicated that the developed and translated questionnaire can be used as a valid and reliable tool for assessing consumers’ awareness, perceptions, and attitudes toward cosmetic products in Malaysia in future studies. PMID:27413348
Fox, Claire L; Gadd, David; Sim, Julius
To provide a more robust assessment of the effectiveness of a domestic abuse prevention education program, a questionnaire was developed to measure children's attitudes to domestic violence. The aim was to develop a short questionnaire that would be easy to use for practitioners but, at the same time, sensitive enough to pick up on subtle changes in young people's attitudes. We therefore chose to ask children about different situations in which they might be willing to condone domestic violence. In Study 1, we tested a set of 20 items, which we reduced by half to a set of 10 items. The factor structure of the scale was explored and its internal consistency was calculated. In Study 2, we tested the factor structure of the 10-item Attitudes to Domestic Violence (ADV) Scale in a separate calibration sample. Finally, in Study 3, we then assessed the test-retest reliability of the 10-item scale. The ADV Questionnaire is a promising tool to evaluate the effectiveness of domestic abuse education prevention programs. However, further development work is necessary. © The Author(s) 2014.
Martinko, Mark J; Mackey, Jeremy D; Moss, Sherry E; Harvey, Paul; McAllister, Charn P; Brees, Jeremy R
Leadership research has been encumbered by a proliferation of constructs and measures, despite little evidence that each is sufficiently conceptually and operationally distinct from the others. We draw from research on subordinates' implicit theories of leader behavior, behaviorally anchored rating scales, and decision making to argue that leader affect (i.e., the degree to which subordinates have positive and negative feelings about their supervisors) underlies the common variance shared by many leadership measures. To explore this possibility, we developed and validated measures of positive and negative leader affect (i.e., the Leader Affect Questionnaires; LAQs). We conducted 10 studies to develop the five-item positive and negative LAQs and to examine their convergent, discriminant, predictive, and criterion-related validity. We conclude that a) the LAQs provide highly reliable and valid tools for assessing subordinates' evaluations of their leaders; b) there is significant overlap between existing leadership measures, and a large proportion of this overlap is a function of the affect captured by the LAQs; c) when the LAQs are used as control variables, in most cases, they reduce the strength of relationships between leadership measures and other variables; d) the LAQs account for significant variance in outcomes beyond that explained by other leadership measures; and e) there is a considerable amount of unexplained variance between leadership measures that the LAQs do not capture. Research suggestions are provided and the implications of our results are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
M Mirfakhraei; Z Cheraghi; A Doosti Irani; P Cheraghi; J Poorolajal
Background This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine quest...
Carver, Rebecca Bruu; Castéra, Jérémy; Gericke, Niklas; Evangelista, Neima Alice Menezes; El-Hani, Charbel N
In this paper we present the development and validation a comprehensive questionnaire to assess college students' knowledge about modern genetics and genomics, their belief in genetic determinism, and their attitudes towards applications of modern genetics and genomic-based technologies. Written in everyday language with minimal jargon, the Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Genetics and Genomics (PUGGS) questionnaire is intended for use in research on science education and public understanding of science, as a means to investigate relationships between knowledge, determinism and attitudes about modern genetics, which are to date little understood. We developed a set of core ideas and initial items from reviewing the scientific literature on genetics and previous studies on public and student knowledge and attitudes about genetics. Seventeen international experts from different fields (e.g., genetics, education, philosophy of science) reviewed the initial items and their feedback was used to revise the questionnaire. We validated the questionnaire in two pilot tests with samples of university freshmen students. The final questionnaire contains 45 items, including both multiple choice and Likert scale response formats. Cronbach alpha showed good reliability for each section of the questionnaire. In conclusion, the PUGGS questionnaire is a reliable tool for investigating public understanding and attitudes towards modern genetics and genomic-based technologies.
Carver, Rebecca Bruu; Castéra, Jérémy; Gericke, Niklas; Evangelista, Neima Alice Menezes
In this paper we present the development and validation a comprehensive questionnaire to assess college students’ knowledge about modern genetics and genomics, their belief in genetic determinism, and their attitudes towards applications of modern genetics and genomic-based technologies. Written in everyday language with minimal jargon, the Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Genetics and Genomics (PUGGS) questionnaire is intended for use in research on science education and public understanding of science, as a means to investigate relationships between knowledge, determinism and attitudes about modern genetics, which are to date little understood. We developed a set of core ideas and initial items from reviewing the scientific literature on genetics and previous studies on public and student knowledge and attitudes about genetics. Seventeen international experts from different fields (e.g., genetics, education, philosophy of science) reviewed the initial items and their feedback was used to revise the questionnaire. We validated the questionnaire in two pilot tests with samples of university freshmen students. The final questionnaire contains 45 items, including both multiple choice and Likert scale response formats. Cronbach alpha showed good reliability for each section of the questionnaire. In conclusion, the PUGGS questionnaire is a reliable tool for investigating public understanding and attitudes towards modern genetics and genomic-based technologies. PMID:28114357
Šter, Marija Petek; Švab, Igor; Klemenc-Ketiš, Zalika; Kersnik, Janko
The development of the EURACT (European Academy of Teachers in General Practice) Educational Agenda helped many family medicine departments in development of clerkship and the aims and objectives of family medicine teaching. Our aims were to develop and validate a tool for assessment of students' attitudes towards family medicine and to evaluate the impact of the clerkship on students' attitudes regarding the competences of family doctor. In the pilot study, experienced family doctors were asked to describe their attitudes towards family medicine by using the Educational Agenda as a template for brainstorming. The statements were paraphrased and developed into a 164-items questionnaire, which was administered to 176 final-year students in academic year 2007/08. The third phase consisted of development of a final tool using statistical analysis, which resulted in the 60-items questionnaire in six domains which was used for the evaluation of students' attitudes. At the beginning of the clerkship, person-centred care and holistic approach scored lower than the other competences. Students' attitudes regarding the competences at the end of 7 weeks clerkship in family medicine were more positive, with exception of the competence regarding primary care management. The students who named family medicine as his or her future career choice, found holistic approach as more important than the students who did not name it as their future career. With the decision tree, which included students' attitudes to the competences of family medicine, we can successfully predict the future career choice in family medicine in 93.5% of the students. This study reports on the first attempt to develop a valid and reliable tool for measuring attitudes towards family medicine based on EURACT Educational Agenda. The questionnaire could be used for evaluating changes of students' attitudes in undergraduate curricula and for prediction of students' preferences regarding their future professional
Siau, Ching Sin; Wee, Lei-Hum; Ibrahim, Norhayati; Visvalingam, Uma; Wahab, Suzaily
Understanding attitudes toward suicide, especially among healthcare personnel, is an important step in both suicide prevention and treatment. We document the adaptation process and establish the validity and reliability of the Attitudes Toward Suicide (ATTS) questionnaire among 262 healthcare personnel in 2 major public hospitals in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. The findings indicate that healthcare personnel in Malaysia have unique constructs on suicide attitude, compared with the original study on a Western European sample. The adapted Malay ATTS questionnaire demonstrates adequate reliability and validity for use among healthcare personnel in Malaysia.
Byrne, Louise; Happell, Brenda; Platania-Phung, Chris
The aims of this article were to evaluate the Mental Health Consumer Participation Questionnaire, and measure nursing students' attitudes to consumer participation. Undergraduate nursing students (n = 116) completed the Mental Health Consumer Participation Questionnaire at the start of a course on recovery for mental health nursing practice. The current findings confirm an endorsement of consumer participation in individual care processes, but less agreement with participation in organizational-level processes, such as management of mental health services and education of providers. This article also confirms that the questionnaire can effectively measure attitudes to consumer participation. The participation of consumers is critical for achieving person-centered services mental health services. It is important that nursing education influence positive attitudes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Tamura, Naomi; Terashita, Takayoshi; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko
In general, it is difficult to objectively evaluate the results of an educational program. The semantic differential (SeD) technique, a methodology used to measure the connotative meaning of objects, words, and concepts, can, however, be applied to the evaluation of students' attitudes. In this study, we aimed to achieve an objective evaluation of the effects of radiological technology education. We therefore investigated the attitude of radiological students using the SeD technique. We focused on X-ray examinations in the field of radiological technology science. Bipolar adjective scales were used for the SeD questionnaire. To create the questionnaire, appropriate adjectives were selected from past reports of X-ray examination practice. The participants were 32 senior students at Hokkaido University at the Division of Radiological Technology at the School of Medicine's Department of Health Sciences. All the participants completed the questionnaire. The study was conducted in early June 2012. Attitudes toward X-ray examination were identified using a factor analysis of 11 adjectives. The factor analysis revealed the following three attitudes: feelings of expectation, responsibility, and resistance. Knowledge regarding the attitudes that students have toward X-ray examination will prove useful for evaluating the effects of educational intervention. In this study, a sampling bias may have occurred due to the small sample size; however, no other biases were observed.
Zahiruddin, Wan Mohd; Arifin, Wan Nor; Mohd-Nazri, Shafei; Sukeri, Surianti; Zawaha, Idris; Bakar, Rahman Abu; Hamat, Rukman Awang; Malina, Osman; Jamaludin, Tengku Zetty Maztura Tengku; Pathman, Arumugam; Mas-Harithulfadhli-Agus, Ab Rahman; Norazlin, Idris; Suhailah, Binti Samsudin; Saudi, Siti Nor Sakinah; Abdullah, Nurul Munirah; Nozmi, Noramira; Zainuddin, Abdul Wahab; Aziah, Daud
In Malaysia, leptospirosis is considered an endemic disease, with sporadic outbreaks following rainy or flood seasons. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a new knowledge, attitude, belief and practice (KABP) questionnaire on leptospirosis for use in urban and rural populations in Malaysia. The questionnaire comprised development and validation stages. The development phase encompassed a literature review, expert panel review, focus-group testing, and evaluation. The validation phase consisted of exploratory and confirmatory parts to verify the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. A total of 214 and 759 participants were recruited from two Malaysian states, Kelantan and Selangor respectively, for the validation phase. The participants comprised urban and rural communities with a high reported incidence of leptospirosis. The knowledge section of the validation phase utilized item response theory (IRT) analysis. The attitude and belief sections utilized exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The development phase resulted in a questionnaire that included four main sections: knowledge, attitude, belief, and practice. In the exploratory phase, as shown by the IRT analysis of knowledge about leptospirosis, the difficulty and discrimination values of the items were acceptable, with the exception of two items. Based on the EFA, the psychometric properties of the attitude, belief, and practice sections were poor. Thus, these sections were revised, and no further factor analysis of the practice section was conducted. In the confirmatory stage, the difficulty and discrimination values of the items in the knowledge section remained within the acceptable range. The CFA of the attitude section resulted in a good-fitting two-factor model. The CFA of the belief section retained low number of items, although the analysis resulted in a good fit in the final three-factor model. Based on the IRT analysis and factor
Owen, Steven V.; Toepperwein, Mary Anne; Marshall, Carolyn E.; Lichtenstein, Michael J.; Blalock, Cheryl L.; Liu, Yan; Pruski, Linda A.; Grimes, Kandi
The Simpson-Troost Attitude Questionnaire (STAQ) was developed as part of a study to assess adolescent commitment to and achievement in science. For this psychometric reappraisal of the 57-item STAQ, data were analyzed from a convenience sample of 1,754 secondary students. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were applied, and results…
Ríos, A; López-Navas, A I; De-Francisco, C; Sánchez, Á; Hernández, A M; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P
Most psychosocial attitude studies for donors are not evaluated and are not valid. Validated questionnaires are necessary to compare results and guarantee that they measure what they are intended to measure. To analyze the psychometric characteristics of the attitude questionnaire toward the donation of one's own organs after death. We evaluated PCID-DTO RIOS (Questionnaire of "Proyecto Colaborativo Internacional Donante" about organ donation and transplant; donación y trasplante de órganos in Spanish), developed by Dr Ríos, for its validation in a Spanish-speaking population. A sample of 600 Spaniards over 18 stratified by age and gender according to the center were included. The PCID-DTO-RIOS was used, which allows determination of the factors that condition that attitude. Structured analysis was used in several stages, with an initial description of the data, exploratory factorial analysis, item analysis, and internal factor consistency. The 20 items of the questionnaire are grouped into 4 factors, which explain 63.203% of the total variance. By factors, this is distributed as follows: factor 1 (6 items) 26.287%; factor 2 (7 items) 24.972%; factor 3 (4 items) 6.834%; and factor 4 (3 items) 5.110%. The analysis of the items and the internal consistency measured through Cronbach α (α1 = .95, α2 = .80, α3 = .74, and α4 = .64) support the four-factor composition, with α = 0.834. The questionnaire PCID-DTO-RIOS is composed of 4 factors that explain a high percentage of the attitude toward the donation of one's own organs after death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Goetz, Katja; Kornitzky, Anna; Mahnkopf, Janis; Steinhäuser, Jost
In the future, 'delegation' as task shifting from general practitioners (GPs) to non-physicians will be important in primary care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the attitudes towards the concept of task shifting and to identify predictors of a positive attitude towards task shifting from the perspective of GPs. This cross-sectional questionnaire study analysed attitudes towards the concept of task shifting and delegated tasks from the perspective of GPs who were recruited in the German federal state of Schleswig-Holstein. Descriptive statistics and binary regression analyses were computed to identify potential predictors of a positive attitude towards task shifting. Out of 1538 questionnaires distributed, 577 GP questionnaires were returned (response rate: 37.5%). A total of 53.2% of the respondents were male, and 37.3% were female. A positive attitude regarding task shifting was shown by 49% of the participating GPs. The highest level of agreement (95.2%) was found for time savings with task shifting, and a lower agreement (39%) was found regarding the lack of clarity concerning the responsibilities and legal aspects with regards to task shifting. The most frequently delegated tasks were recording electrocardiograms and measuring blood glucose levels. A positive attitude towards task shifting was positively associated with higher job satisfaction and a need for qualified staff. Our sample of GPs for this study was very open-minded towards the concept of task shifting. Germany is just beginning this delegation, but the implementation of task shifting depends on different aspects, such as legal requirements, adequate payment and qualified staff. Finally, there is a need for continuing professional development in primary care teams, especially for non-clinical practice staff.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing recognition that public health strategies to prevent childhood obesity need to start early in life. Any behavioural interventions need to target maternal attitudes and infant feeding practices, This paper describes the development and preliminary validation of a questionnaire to assess maternal attitudes towards infant growth and milk feeding practices. Methods We designed a 57-item (19 questions, self-administered questionnaire to measure the following four domains- 1 type of milk feeding, decision making and sources of advice; 2 frequency and quantity of milk feeds; 3 attitudes to infant feeding and growth; and 4 theory-based beliefs about following infant feeding recommendations. Forty mothers completed the questionnaire on two occasions six days apart (to assess test-retest reliability and then participated in a semi-structured, open-ended telephone interview covering the same domains (to assess criterion validity. Percentage agreement, Cohen's Kappas (for categorical variables and Spearman's correlation coefficients (for continuous variables were used to quantify reliability and validity. Internal consistency between theory-based constructs (self-efficacy, outcome expectancy and intention was quantified by Chronbach's alpha. Results Of the 57 questionnaire items 51 (89% had percentage agreement above 70% indicating good test-retest reliability, and the remaining 6 items had moderate or substantial levels of agreement (kappa 0.41-0.68. Comparing questionnaire with interview coding (validity, percentage agreement was above 66% for 39/57 items (68%. Of the 16 items with percentage agreement below 66%, only five had kappa values below 0.20 (two items had insufficient interview responses. Internal consistency was 0.51, 0.79 and 0.90 for self-efficacy, outcome expectancy and intention respectively. Conclusions This questionnaire could be a useful tool in understanding the determinants of infant feeding and
Richards, Rickelle; Brown, Lora Beth; Williams, D Pauline; Eggett, Dennis L
Develop a questionnaire to measure students' knowledge, attitude, behavior, self-efficacy, and environmental factors related to the use of canned foods. The Knowledge-Attitude-Behavior Model, Social Cognitive Theory, and Canned Foods Alliance survey were used as frameworks for questionnaire development. Cognitive interviews were conducted with college students (n = 8). Nutrition and survey experts assessed content validity. Reliability was measured via Cronbach α and 2 rounds (1, n = 81; 2, n = 65) of test-retest statistics. Means and frequencies were used. The 65-item questionnaire had a test-retest reliability of .69. Cronbach α scores were .87 for knowledge (9 items), .86 for attitude (30 items), .80 for self-efficacy (12 items), .68 for canned foods use (8 items), and .30 for environment (6 items). A reliable questionnaire was developed to measure perceptions and use of canned foods. Nutrition educators may find this questionnaire useful to evaluate pretest-posttest changes from canned foods-based interventions among college students. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Køster, Brian; Søndergaard, Jens; Nielsen, Jesper Bo
in protection behavior was low. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report reliability for a completely validated questionnaire on sun-related behavior in a national random population based sample. Further, we show that attitude and knowledge questions confirmed their validity with good reliability......An important feature of questionnaire validation is reliability. To be able to measure a given concept by questionnaire validly, the reliability needs to be high. The objectives of this study were to examine reliability of attitude and knowledge and behavioral consistency of sunburn in a developed...... questionnaire for monitoring and evaluating population sun-related behavior. Sun related behavior, attitude and knowledge was measured weekly by a questionnaire in the summer of 2013 among 664 Danes. Reliability was tested in a test-retest design. Consistency of behavioral information was tested similarly...
Naghavi, Seyed Hamid Reza; Shabestari, Omid; Roudsari, Abdul V; Harrison, John
When pandemics lead to a higher workload in the healthcare sector, the attitude of healthcare staff and, more importantly, the ability to predict the rate of absence due to sickness are crucial factors in emergency preparedness and resource allocation. The aim of this study was to design and validate a questionnaire to measure the attitude of hospital staff toward work attendance during an influenza pandemic. An online questionnaire was designed and electronically distributed to the staff of a teaching medical institution in the United Kingdom. The questionnaire was designed de novo following discussions with colleagues at Imperial College and with reference to the literature on the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic. The questionnaire included 15 independent fact variables and 33 dependent measure variables. A total of 367 responses were received in this survey. The data from the measurement variables were not normally distributed. Three different methods (standardized residuals, Mahalanobis distance and Cook's distance) were used to identify the outliers. In all, 19 respondents (5.17%) were identified as outliers and were excluded. The responses to this questionnaire had a wide range of missing data, from 1 to 74 cases in the measured variables. To improve the quality of the data, missing value analysis, using Expectation Maximization Algorithm (EMA) with a non-normal distribution model, was applied to the responses. The collected data were checked for homoscedasticity and multicollinearity of the variables. These tests suggested that some of the questions should be merged. In the last step, the reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated. This process showed that three questions reduced the reliability of the questionnaire. Removing those questions helped to achieve the desired level of reliability. With the changes proposed in this article, the questionnaire for measuring staff attitudes concerning pandemic influenza can be converted to a
Mirzaee Rabor, Firoozeh; Taghipour, Ali; Mirzaee, Moghaddameh; Mirzaii Najmabadi, Khadigeh; Fazilat Pour, Masoud; Fattahi Masoum, Seyed Hosein
Vaginal delivery is one of the challenging issues in medical ethics. It is important to use an appropriate instrument to assess medical ethics attitudes in normal delivery, but the lack of tool for this purpose is clear. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire for the assessment of women's attitude on medical ethics application in normal vaginal delivery. This methodological study was carried out in Iran in 2013 - 2014. Medical ethics attitude in vaginal delivery questionnaire (MEAVDQ) was developed using the findings of a qualitative data obtained from a grounded theory research conducted on 20 women who had vaginal childbirth, in the first phase. Then, the validation criteria of this tool were tested by content and face validity in the second phase. Exploratory factor analysis was used for construct validity and reliability was also tested by Cronbach's alpha coefficient in the third phase of this study. SPSS version 13 was used in this study. The sample size for construct validity was 250 females who had normal vaginal childbirth. In the first phase of this study (tool development), by the use of four obtained categories and nine subcategories from grounded theory and literature review, three parts (98-items) of this tool were obtained (A, B and J). Part A explained the first principle of medical ethics, part B pointed to the second and third principles of medical ethics, and part J explained the fourth principle of medical ethics. After evaluating and confirming its face and content validity, 75 items remained in the questionnaire. In construct validity, by the employment of exploratory factor analysis, in parts A, B and J, 3, 7 and 3 factors were formed, respectively; and 62.8%, 64% and 51% of the total variances were explained by the obtained factors in parts A, B and J, respectively. The names of these factors in the three parts were achieved by consideration of the loading factor and medical ethics principles. The subscales of
Machado, Inês Maria de Jesus; Bandeira, Marina Bittencourt; Pinheiro, Hélady Sanders; Dutra, Nathália Dos Santos
Treatment adherence in hemodialysis is important for guaranteeing better results for patients, but Brazil still lacks validated assessment tools for this purpose. The current study aimed to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Renal Adherence Behaviour Questionnaire (RABQ) and the Renal Adherence Attitudes Questionnaire (RAAQ). The two questionnaires were submitted to the following cross-cultural adaptation procedures: translation, back-translation, expert panel review, and pilot study. Changes were made in the items' wording and application, which requires a face-to-face interview. It was not necessary to change the choices of answers. The Brazilian versions of the RABQ and RAAQ showed semantic and cultural equivalence to the original versions and are easy for the target population to understand. The two scales still require validity and reliability studies before use in the field.
José J. Mira
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To design and validate a questionnaire for assessing attitudes and knowledge about patient safety using a sample of medical and nursing students undergoing clinical training in Spain and four countries in Latin America. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a literature review was carried out and total of 786 medical and nursing students were surveyed at eight universities from five countries (Chile, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Spain to develop and refine a Spanish-language questionnaire on knowledge and attitudes about patient safety. The scope of the questionnaire was based on five dimensions (factors presented in studies related to patient safety culture found in PubMed and Scopus. Based on the five factors, 25 reactive items were developed. Composite reliability indexes and Cronbach's alpha statistics were estimatedfor each factor, and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess validity. After a pilot test, the questionnaire was refined using confirmatory models, maximum-likelihood estimation, and the variance-covariance matrix (as input. Multiple linear regression models were used to confirm external validity, considering variables related to patient safety culture as dependent variables and the five factors as independent variables. RESULTS: The final instrument was a structured five-point Likert self-administered survey (the "Latino Student Patient Safety Questionnaire" consisting of 21 items grouped into five factors. Compound reliability indexes (Cronbach's alpha statistic calculated for the five factors were about 0.7 or higher. The results of the multiple linear regression analyses indicated good model fit (goodness-of-fit index: 0.9. Item-total correlations were higher than 0.3 in all cases. The convergent-discriminant validity was adequate. CONCLUSIONS: The questionnaire designed and validated in this study assesses nursing and medical students' attitudes and knowledge about patient safety. This
Mira, José J; Navarro, Isabel M; Guilabert, Mercedes; Poblete, Rodrigo; Franco, Astolfo L; Jiménez, Pilar; Aquino, Margarita; Fernández-Trujillo, Francisco J; Lorenzo, Susana; Vitaller, Julián; de Valle, Yohana Díaz; Aibar, Carlos; Aranaz, Jesús M; De Pedro, José A
To design and validate a questionnaire for assessing attitudes and knowledge about patient safety using a sample of medical and nursing students undergoing clinical training in Spain and four countries in Latin America. In this cross-sectional study, a literature review was carried out and total of 786 medical and nursing students were surveyed at eight universities from five countries (Chile, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Spain) to develop and refine a Spanish-language questionnaire on knowledge and attitudes about patient safety. The scope of the questionnaire was based on five dimensions (factors) presented in studies related to patient safety culture found in PubMed and Scopus. Based on the five factors, 25 reactive items were developed. Composite reliability indexes and Cronbach's alpha statistics were estimated for each factor, and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess validity. After a pilot test, the questionnaire was refined using confirmatory models, maximum-likelihood estimation, and the variance-covariance matrix (as input). Multiple linear regression models were used to confirm external validity, considering variables related to patient safety culture as dependent variables and the five factors as independent variables. The final instrument was a structured five-point Likert self-administered survey (the "Latino Student Patient Safety Questionnaire") consisting of 21 items grouped into five factors. Compound reliability indexes (Cronbach's alpha statistic) calculated for the five factors were about 0.7 or higher. The results of the multiple linear regression analyses indicated good model fit (goodness-of-fit index: 0.9). Item-total correlations were higher than 0.3 in all cases. The convergent-discriminant validity was adequate. The questionnaire designed and validated in this study assesses nursing and medical students' attitudes and knowledge about patient safety. This instrument could be used to indirectly evaluate whether or
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV and AIDS. A questionnaire was administered to a cross section of 259 Chinese undergraduates. Respondents were asked to provide information about knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Study results indicated that the majority of undergraduates had a moderate level of HIV and AIDS knowledge, acceptance and attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS. Boys had more acceptance and positive attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS than girls. Students majoring in medicine performed better (more knowledgeable and accepting than non-medical students. Differences between students with various monthly expenditures were found-- 6.2% of students had 3-5 sexual partners which has rarely been found in Chinese students; most students did not know HIV VCT centers and most students did not show their confidence for controlling of HIV and AIDS in China. In conclusion, studentsÃ¢Â€Â™ knowledge about HIV/AIDS was uneven. A peer educational program to talk about self esteem, healthy sexual attitudes, being human-accepting and loving should be developed in the near future.
Hosadurga, Rajesh; Shanti, Tenneti; Hegde, Shashikanth; Kashyap, Rajesh Shankar; Arunkumar, Suryanarayan Maiya
In developing nations like India awareness and education about dental implants as a treatment modality is still scanty. The study was conducted to determine the awareness, knowledge, and attitude of patients toward dental implants as a treatment modality among the general population and to assess the influence of personality characteristics on accepting dental implants as a treatment modality in general and as well as treatment group. A structured questionnaire-based survey was conducted on 500 randomly selected participants attending the outpatient department. The study was conducted in 2 parts. In the first part of the study, level of awareness, knowledge, and attitude was assessed. In the second part of the study, interactive educational sessions using audiovisual aids were conducted following which a retest was conducted. The participants who agreed to undergo implant treatment were followed up to assess their change in attitude towards dental implants posttreatment. Thus pain, anxiety, functional, and esthetic benefits were measured using visual analog scale. They were further followed up for 1 year to reassess awareness, knowledge, and attitude towards dental implants. A total of 450 individuals completed the questionnaires. Only 106 individuals agreed to participate in the educational sessions and 83 individuals took the retest. Out of these, only 39 individuals chose implants as a treatment option. A significant improvement in the level of information, subjective and objective need for information, was noted after 1 year. In this study, a severe deficit in level of information, subjective and objective need for information towards, dental implants as a treatment modality was noted. In the treatment group, a significant improvement in perception of dental implant as a treatment modality suggests that professionally imparted knowledge can bring about a change in the attitude.
Jiang, Hualin; Zhang, Shaoru; Ding, Yi; Li, Yuelu; Zhang, Tianhua; Liu, Weiping; Fan, Yahui; Li, Yan; Zhang, Rongqiang; Ma, Xuexue
China faces many challenges in controlling tuberculosis (TB). One significant challenge is the control of college students' TB. In particular, cross-sectional studies of college students' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) in regard to TB have attracted substantial attention. However, few measurement tools have been developed to aid processes related to expert consultation, pre-testing, reliability and validity testing. Our study developed the College Students' TB Knowledge Attitudes and Practices Questionnaire (CS-TBKAPQ) following the scale development steps. The construction of the CS-TBKAPQ was based on the Theory of Knowledge, Attitude, Belief, and Practice (KABP or KAP). The item pool was compiled from literature reviews and individual interviews. The reliability validation was assessed by calculating Cronbach's α coefficient, the split-half reliability coefficient, and the test-retest reliability coefficient. Construct validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using the World Health Organization Advocacy, Communication and Social Mobilization KAP Survey Questionnaire (WHO-TBKAPQ) as the reference standard. A total of 31 questionnaire items were proposed. Cronbach's α coefficient, the split-half reliability coefficient and the test-retest reliability coefficient were 0.86, 0.78 and 0.91. Four factors that explained 62.52% of the total variance were also identified in EFA and confirmed in CFA. The CFA model fit indices were x 2 /df = 1.82 (p students with low-level KAP. The positive and negative predictive values were 83.23% and 69.91%. The findings of this study demonstrate that the CS-TBKAPQ is a reliable and valid tool for measuring the KAP towards TB in college students.
Philip J Domeyer
Full Text Available The use of generic medicines is a cost-effective policy, often dictated by fiscal restraints. To our knowledge, no fully validated tool exploring the students' knowledge and attitudes towards generic medicines exists. The aim of our study was to develop and validate a questionnaire exploring the knowledge and attitudes of M.Sc. in Health Care Management students and recent alumni's towards generic drugs in Greece.The development of the questionnaire was a result of literature review and pilot-testing of its preliminary versions to researchers and students. The final version of the questionnaire contains 18 items measuring the respondents' knowledge and attitude towards generic medicines on a 5-point Likert scale. Given the ordinal nature of the data, ordinal alpha and polychoric correlations were computed. The sample was randomly split into two halves. Exploratory factor analysis, performed in the first sample, was used for the creation of multi-item scales. Confirmatory factor analysis and Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Model analysis (GLLAMM with the use of the rating scale model were used in the second sample to assess goodness of fit. An assessment of internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, and construct validity was also performed.Among 1402 persons contacted, 986 persons completed our questionnaire (response rate = 70.3%. Overall Cronbach's alpha was 0.871. The conjoint use of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis resulted in a six-scale model, which seemed to fit the data well. Five of the six scales, namely trust, drug quality, state audit, fiscal impact and drug substitution were found to be valid and reliable, while the knowledge scale suffered only from low inter-scale correlations and a ceiling effect. However, the subsequent confirmatory factor and GLLAMM analyses indicated a good fit of the model to the data.The ATTOGEN instrument proved to be a reliable and valid tool, suitable for assessing students
Ducak, Kate; Keller, Heather
Few questionnaires to test nutrition knowledge and attitudes of older adults living independently in the community have been developed and tested to assess self-management tools such as Nutri-eSCREEN and other education programs. This study is a first step in the development of a questionnaire designed to evaluate the nutrition knowledge and attitudes of independent older adults (NAK-50+). The steps involved in this study were: (i) drafting initial questions based on the content of the Nutri-eSCREEN education material, (ii) using cognitive interviewing to determine if these questions were understandable and relevant (n = 9 adults ≥50 years of age), and (iii) completing test-retest reliability in a convenient community sample (n = 60 adults ≥50 years of age). Intra-class coefficients (ICC) and kappa were used to determine reliability. A 33-item questionnaire resulted from this development and analysis. ICC for the total score was 0.68 indicating good agreement and thus initial reliability. NAK-50+ is a face valid and reliable questionnaire that assesses nutrition knowledge and attitudes in independent adults aged ≥50 years. Further work to determine construct validity and to refine the questionnaire is warranted. Availability of the questionnaire for this age group will support rigorous evaluation of education and self-management interventions for this segment of the population.
Yoder, Jan D.; And Others
In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in the volume of empirical research directed toward the issue of sex-roles, including the development of evaluative instruments such as the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ). The United States Military Academy's Project Athena, designed to examine…
Čatipović, Marija; Marković, Martina; Grgurić, Josip
Validating a questionnaire/instrument before proceeding to the field for data collection is important. An 18-item breastfeeding intention, 39-item attitude and 44-item knowledge questionnaire was validated in a Croatian sample of secondary-school students ( N = 277). For the intentions, principal component analysis (PCA) yielded a four-factor solution with 8 items explaining 68.3% of the total variance. Cronbach’s alpha (0.71) indicated satisfactory internal consistency. For the attitudes, PCA showed a seven-factor structure with 33 items explaining 58.41% of total variance. Cronbach’s alpha (0.87) indicated good internal consistency. There were 13 knowledge questions that were retained after item analysis, showing good internal consistency (KR20 = 0.83). In terms of criterion validity, the questionnaire differentiated between students who received breastfeeding education compared to students who were not educated in breastfeeding. Correlations between intentions and attitudes (r = 0.49), intentions and knowledge (r = 0.29), and attitudes and knowledge (r = 0.38) confirmed concurrent validity. The final instrument is reliable and valid for data collection on breastfeeding. Therefore, the instrument is recommended for evaluation of breastfeeding education programs aimed at upper-grade elementary and secondary school students.
Samsuri, Srima Elina; Pei Lin, Lua; Fahrni, Mathumalar Loganathan
Objective To assess the safety attitudes of pharmacists, provide a profile of their domains of safety attitude and correlate their attitudes with self-reported rates of medication errors. Design A cross-sectional study utilising the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). Setting 3 public hospitals and 27 health clinics. Participants 117 pharmacists. Main outcome measure(s) Safety culture mean scores, variation in scores across working units and between hospitals versus health clinics, predictors of safety culture, and medication errors and their correlation. Results Response rate was 83.6% (117 valid questionnaires returned). Stress recognition (73.0±20.4) and working condition (54.8±17.4) received the highest and lowest mean scores, respectively. Pharmacists exhibited positive attitudes towards: stress recognition (58.1%), job satisfaction (46.2%), teamwork climate (38.5%), safety climate (33.3%), perception of management (29.9%) and working condition (15.4%). With the exception of stress recognition, those who worked in health clinics scored higher than those in hospitals (psafety culture. As perceptions improved, the number of medication errors reported decreased. Group-specific interventions that target specific domains are necessary to improve the safety culture. PMID:26610761
Lee, Wui-Chiang; Wung, Hwei-Ying; Liao, Hsun-Hsiang; Lo, Chien-Ming; Chang, Fei-Ling; Wang, Pa-Chun; Fan, Angela; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Yang, Han-Chuan; Hou, Sheng-Mou
Safety activities have been initiated at many hospitals in Taiwan, but little is known about the safety culture at these hospitals. The aims of this study were to verify a safety culture survey instrument in Chinese and to assess hospital safety culture in Taiwan. The Taiwan Patient Safety Culture Survey was conducted in 2008, using the adapted Safety Attitude Questionnaire in Chinese (SAQ-C). Hospitals and their healthcare workers participated in the survey on a voluntary basis. The psychometric properties of the five SAQ-C dimensions were examined, including teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction, perception of management, and working conditions. Additional safety measures were asked to assess healthcare workers' attitudes toward their collaboration with nurses, physicians, and pharmacists, respectively, and perceptions of hospitals' encouragement of safety reporting, safety training, and delivery delays due to communication breakdowns in clinical areas. The associations between the respondents' attitudes to each SAQ-C dimension and safety measures were analyzed by generalized estimating equations, adjusting for the clustering effects at hospital levels. A total of 45,242 valid questionnaires were returned from 200 hospitals with a mean response rate of 69.4%. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.792 for teamwork climate, 0.816 for safety climate, 0.912 for job satisfaction, 0.874 for perception of management, and 0.785 for working conditions. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated a good model fit for each dimension and the entire construct. The percentage of hospital healthcare workers holding positive attitude was 48.9% for teamwork climate, 45.2% for perception of management, 42.1% for job satisfaction, 37.2% for safety climate, and 31.8% for working conditions. There were wide variations in the range of SAQ-C scores in each dimension among hospitals. Compared to those without positive attitudes, healthcare workers with positive attitudes to each SAQ
Tonn, Peter; Reuter, Silja Christin; Kuchler, Isabelle; Reinke, Britta; Hinkelmann, Lena; Stöckigt, Saskia; Siemoneit, Hanna; Schulze, Nina
In the field of psychiatry and psychotherapy, there are now a growing number of Web-based interventions, mobile phone apps, or treatments that are available via remote transmission screen worldwide. Many of these interventions have been shown to be effective in studies but still find little use in everyday therapeutic work. However, it is important that attitude and expectation toward this treatment are generally examined, because these factors have an important effect on the efficacy of the treatment. To measure the general attitude of the users and prescribers toward telemedicine, which may include, for instance, Web-based interventions or interventions through mobile phone apps, there are a small number of extensive tests. The results of studies based on small groups of patients have been published too, but there is no useful short screening tool to give an insight into the general population's attitude. We have developed a screening instrument that examines such attitude through a few graded questions. This study aimed to explore the Attitude toward Telemedicine in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy (ATiPP) and to evaluate the results of general population and some subgroups. In a three-step process, the questionnaire, which is available in three versions (laypeople, physicians, and psychologists), was developed. Afterwards, it was evaluated by four groups: population-representative laypeople, outpatients in different faculties, physicians, and psychotherapists. The results were evaluated from a total of 1554 questionnaires. The sample population included 1000 laypeople, 455 outpatients, 62 physicians, and 37 psychotherapists. The reliability of all three versions of the questionnaire seemed good, as indicated by the Cronbach alpha values of .849 (the laypeople group), .80 (the outpatients' group), .827 (the physicians' group), and .855 (the psychotherapists' group). The ATiPP was found to be useful and reliable for measuring the attitudes toward the Web
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental disorders such as depression are common and rank as major contributors to the global burden of disease. Condition recognition and subsequent management of depression is variable and influenced by the attitudes and beliefs of clinicians as well as those of patients. Most studies examining health professionals’ attitudes have been conducted in Western nations; this study explores beliefs and attitudes about depression among doctors working in Lahore, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015 used a questionnaire concerning demographics, education in psychiatry, beliefs about depression causes, and attitudes about depression using the Revised Depression Attitude Questionnaire (R-DAQ. A convenience sample of 700 non-psychiatrist medical practitioners based in six hospitals in Lahore was approached to participate in the survey. Results Six hundred and one (86 % of the doctors approached consented to participate; almost all respondents (99 % endorsed one of various biopsychosocial causes of depression (38 to 79 % for particular causes, and 37 % (between 13 and 19 % for particular causes noted that supernatural forces could be responsible. Supernatural causes were more commonly held by female doctors, those working in rural settings, and those with greater psychiatry specialist education. Attitudes to depression were mostly less confident or optimistic and less inclined to a generalist perspective than those of clinicians in the UK or European nations, and deterministic perspectives that depression is a natural part of aging or due to personal failings were particularly common. However, there was substantial confidence in the efficacy of antidepressants and psychological therapy. More confident and therapeutically optimistic views and a more generalist perspective about depression management were associated with a rejection of supernatural explanations of the origin of depression. Conclusions Non
Haddad, Mark; Waqas, Ahmed; Qayyum, Wahhaj; Shams, Maryam; Malik, Saad
Mental disorders such as depression are common and rank as major contributors to the global burden of disease. Condition recognition and subsequent management of depression is variable and influenced by the attitudes and beliefs of clinicians as well as those of patients. Most studies examining health professionals' attitudes have been conducted in Western nations; this study explores beliefs and attitudes about depression among doctors working in Lahore, Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015 used a questionnaire concerning demographics, education in psychiatry, beliefs about depression causes, and attitudes about depression using the Revised Depression Attitude Questionnaire (R-DAQ). A convenience sample of 700 non-psychiatrist medical practitioners based in six hospitals in Lahore was approached to participate in the survey. Six hundred and one (86 %) of the doctors approached consented to participate; almost all respondents (99 %) endorsed one of various biopsychosocial causes of depression (38 to 79 % for particular causes), and 37 % (between 13 and 19 % for particular causes) noted that supernatural forces could be responsible. Supernatural causes were more commonly held by female doctors, those working in rural settings, and those with greater psychiatry specialist education. Attitudes to depression were mostly less confident or optimistic and less inclined to a generalist perspective than those of clinicians in the UK or European nations, and deterministic perspectives that depression is a natural part of aging or due to personal failings were particularly common. However, there was substantial confidence in the efficacy of antidepressants and psychological therapy. More confident and therapeutically optimistic views and a more generalist perspective about depression management were associated with a rejection of supernatural explanations of the origin of depression. Non-psychiatrist medical practitioners in Pakistan hold a range of views
Samsuri, Srima Elina; Pei Lin, Lua; Fahrni, Mathumalar Loganathan
To assess the safety attitudes of pharmacists, provide a profile of their domains of safety attitude and correlate their attitudes with self-reported rates of medication errors. A cross-sectional study utilising the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). 3 public hospitals and 27 health clinics. 117 pharmacists. Safety culture mean scores, variation in scores across working units and between hospitals versus health clinics, predictors of safety culture, and medication errors and their correlation. Response rate was 83.6% (117 valid questionnaires returned). Stress recognition (73.0±20.4) and working condition (54.8±17.4) received the highest and lowest mean scores, respectively. Pharmacists exhibited positive attitudes towards: stress recognition (58.1%), job satisfaction (46.2%), teamwork climate (38.5%), safety climate (33.3%), perception of management (29.9%) and working condition (15.4%). With the exception of stress recognition, those who worked in health clinics scored higher than those in hospitals (pculture. As perceptions improved, the number of medication errors reported decreased. Group-specific interventions that target specific domains are necessary to improve the safety culture. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Erdem, Cahit; Saykili, Abdullah; Kocyigit, Mehmet
This study primarily aims to adapt the Foreign Language Learning (FLL), Computer assisted Learning (CAL) and Computer assisted Language Learning (CALL) scales developed by Vandewaetere and Desmet into Turkish context. The instrument consists of three scales which are "the attitude towards CALL questionnaire" ("A-CALL")…
Bennett, J; Stennett, R
There is longstanding evidence of nurses demonstrating negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Student nurses' fear or discomfort with mentally ill patients results in poorer outcomes for patients and students' dissatisfaction with their experience of mental health nursing. There is evidence of negative attitudes towards mental illness in the Jamaican society; however, no studies have explored whether these attitudes are held by nursing students. The aim of the study was to examine the attitudes of nursing students towards mental illness. A questionnaire survey was conducted with a convenience sample of 143 third-year nursing students who were enrolled in a baccalaureate programme. Data were collected using the Attitudes Towards Acute Mental Health Scale (ATAMHS). A response rate of 71% was achieved for the survey. The findings indicated that the student nurses held an overall negative attitude towards mental illness, with a general perception that mentally ill people are dangerous. The student nurses were divided in their opinions in a number of areas, suggesting a possible conflict of opinions. Negative attitudes towards mental illness impact client outcomes and the career choices made by nurses. This study provides baseline data within the Jamaican context that adds to the evidence on nursing students' attitude to mental illness. Further research is needed to explore whether nursing education and clinical experience enables student nurses in Jamaica to develop a more positive attitude towards mental illness and mental health nursing and whether cultural factors contribute to negative attitudes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Verma, Pradhuman; Sachdeva, Suresh K; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Khosa, Rameen; Basavraju, Suman; Dutta, Sanjay
Due to competitiveness and academic benefits, most dental professionals feel an urgent need to increase their publications. Hence, we explored the attitude of students and faculty members toward scientific publications through a questionnaire. A questionnaire consisting of 13 questions was sent by e-mails and posting the printed copies to dental postgraduate (PG) students (second and third year) and faculty members (n = 500 each). The returned completed questionnaires were analyzed. About 37% of dental PG faculty and 35.6% PG students responded to the questionnaire, with overall response of 72.6%. Among the PG faculty, professors (P) had more scientific publications, followed by senior lecturers (SL) and readers (R). The publications as first or corresponding author were less among both faculty and PG students while co-authorship was more among PG students compared to faculty members. Awareness about the term "plagiarism" was overall high and relatively highest among R, followed by SL, P and PG students. The percentage of publications in fee charging journals was more among PG students than faculty members and self-funding for publication was observed in 86.4% of PG students and 94-100% among faculty members. About 72.6% of dental professionals were involved in publishing of their research work and the number of publications increased steadily with an increase in their academic experience. All the dental professionals concurred publications as the criteria for academic excellence.
Henry, Beverly W; Smith, Thomas J; Ahmad, Saadia
To assess parents' perspectives of their home environments to establish the validity of scores from the Behavior and Attitudes Questionnaire for Healthy Habits (BAQ-HH). In the present descriptive study, we surveyed a cross-sectional sample of parents of pre-school children. Questionnaire items developed in an iterative process with community-based programming addressed parents' knowledge/awareness, attitudes/concerns and behaviours about healthy foods and physical activity habits with 6-point rating scales. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to psychometrically evaluate scores from the scales. English and Spanish versions of the BAQ-HH were administered at parent-teacher conferences for pre-school children at ten Head Start centres across a five-county agency in autumn 2010. From 672 families with pre-school children, 532 parents provided responses to the BAQ-HH (79 % response rate). The majority was female (83 %), Hispanic (66 %) or white (16 %), and ages ranged from 20 to 39 years (85 %). Exploratory and confirmatory analyses revealed a knowledge scale (seven items), an attitude scale (four items) and three behaviour subscales (three items each). Correlations were identified between parents' perceptions of home activities and reports of children's habits. Differences were identified by gender and ethnicity groupings. As a first step in psychometric testing, the dimensionality of each of the three scales (Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours) was identified and scale scores were related to other indicators of child behaviours and parents' demographic characteristics. This questionnaire offers a method to measure parents' views to inform planning and monitoring of obesity-prevention education programmes.
Kristensen, Solvejg; Sabroe, Svend; Bartels, Paul
PURPOSE: Measuring and developing a safe culture in health care is a focus point in creating highly reliable organizations being successful in avoiding patient safety incidents where these could normally be expected. Questionnaires can be used to capture a snapshot of an employee's perceptions...... of patient safety culture. A commonly used instrument to measure safety climate is the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). The purpose of this study was to adapt the SAQ for use in Danish hospitals, assess its construct validity and reliability, and present benchmark data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The SAQ...... tested in a cross-sectional study. Goodness-of-fit indices from confirmatory factor analysis were reported along with inter-item correlations, Cronbach's alpha (α), and item and subscale scores. RESULTS: Participation was 73.2% (N=925) of invited health care workers. Goodness-of-fit indices from...
Barfoed, Benedicte Marie Lind; Paulsen, Maja Skov; Christensen, Palle Mark
the risk-averse patients, OR 0.80 (95 %-CI 0.68-0.95) and OR 0.83 (95 %-CI 0.71-0.98), respectively. No significant association was found between adherence and financial risk attitude. Further, patients in the youngest age group and patients with no CVD were less adherent to statin treatment. CONCLUSION......: We find some indication that risk attitude is associated with adherence to statin treatment, and that risk-neutral and risk-seeking patients may have poorer adherence than risk-averse patients. This is important for clinicians to consider when discussing optimal treatment decisions...... on the association between risk attitude and adherence. The aim of the present study was to estimate associations between patients' adherence to statin treatment and different dimensions of risk attitude, and to identify subgroups of patients with poor adherence. METHODS: Population-based questionnaire and register...
Full Text Available Nahid Rejeh,1 Majideh Heravi-Karimooi,1 Mojtaba Vaismoradi,2 Pauline Griffiths,3 Maryam Nikkhah,4 Tahereh Bahrami4 1Elderly Care Research Centre, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran; 2Faculty of Nursing and Health Sciences, Nord University, Bodø, Norway; 3College of Human and Health Sciences, Swansea University, Swansea, UK; 4Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran Background: Attitudes to the aging process are affected by the individual’s sociocultural background. The measurement of this important concept among older people in various societies requires the use of tools that are able to demonstrate both reliability and validity.Objective: The objectives of this study were to translate and validate the Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire (AAQ and investigate its psychometric features among Iranian older people.Methods: In this methodological study, the Farsi version of the AAQ was validated among 400 Iranian older adults who were members of citizen clubs in an urban area of Iran. Content, face and construct (exploratory factor analysis validities of the AAQ were assessed. In addition, its reliability was assessed in terms of internal consistency and stability. For discriminant validity, the discriminant power of the AAQ in terms of gender and education levels was evaluated. Criterion validity showed a significant correlation between the most subscales of the AAQ and the Short Form 36 (SF-36 and World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis.Results: The exploratory factor analysis confirmed the construct validity of the AAQ. The result of the test–retest reliability with a 2-week interval was satisfactory and reported as r=0.90 (p<0.001. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was reported as 0.75 for the whole instrument and 0.85–0.93 for its dimensions. There were associations between the AAQ subscales
This study analyses knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in the area of different waste management approaches of pupils in Romania. Examining school students' knowledge about waste management options and finding out the reasons that prevent them from participating in environmentally sound disposal options is essential for teachers and legislators. For this purpose, questionnaires were designed and distributed in two schools in Romania. The analysis revealed that knowledge is highly developed in...
Van Heerden, A
Full Text Available International Military Testing Association (IMTA) Conference, New Delhi, India, 7-11 November 2016 The formulation of a peer evaluation measure for special forces: operational forces operator traits and attitude questionnaire (SFO-TAQ) Van Heerden A...
Foster, Nadine E; Porcheret, Mark; Rathod, Trishna; Roddy, Edward
Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate general practitioners’ (GPs) attitudes, beliefs and behaviours regarding the use of exercise for patients with chronic knee pain (CKP) attributable to osteoarthritis. Setting Primary care GPs in the UK. Participants 5000 GPs, randomly selected from Binley’s database, were mailed a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Outcome measures GPs’ attitudes and beliefs were investigated using attitude statements, and reported behaviours were identified using vignette-based questions. GPs were invited to report barriers experienced when initiating exercise with patients with CKP Results 835 (17%) GPs responded. Overall, GPs were positive about general exercise for CKP. 729 (87%) reported using exercise, of which, 538 (74%) reported that they would use both general and local (lower limb) exercises. However, only 92 (11% of all responding) GPs reported initiating exercise in ways aligning with best-evidence recommendations. 815 (98%) GPs reported barriers in using exercise for patients with CKP, most commonly, insufficient time in consultations (n=419; 51%) and insufficient expertise (n=337; 41%). Conclusions While GPs’ attitudes and beliefs regarding exercise for CKP were generally positive, initiation of exercise was often poorly aligned with current recommendations, and barriers and uncertainties were reported. GPs’ use of exercise may be improved by addressing the key barriers of time and expertise, by developing a pragmatic approach that supports GPs to initiate individualised exercise, and/or by other professionals taking on this role. PMID:28624759
Full Text Available Abstract Background Available data suggest that body dissatisfaction is common during pregnancy and may even be a precursor to post-natal depression. However, in order to accurately identify at-risk women, it is essential to first establish that body image measures function appropriately in pregnant populations. Our study examines the suitability of the Body Attitudes Questionnaire (BAQ for measuring body dissatisfaction among pregnant women by comparing the psychometric functioning of the BAQ: (1 across key phases of pregnancy, and (2 between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods A total of 176 pregnant women from Melbourne, Victoria filled out a questionnaire battery containing demographic questions and the Body Attitudes Questionnaire at 16, 24, and 32 weeks during pregnancy. A comparison group of 148 non-pregnant women also completed the questionnaire battery at Time 1. Evaluations of the psychometric properties of the BAQ consisted of a series of measurement invariance tests conducted within a structural equation modelling framework. Results Although the internal consistency and factorial validity of the subscales of the BAQ were established across time and also in comparisons between pregnant and non-pregnant women, measurement invariance tests showed non-invariant item intercepts across pregnancy and also in comparison with the non-pregnant subgroup. Inspection of modification indices revealed a complex, non-uniform pattern of differences in item intercepts across groups. Conclusions Collectively, our findings suggest that comparisons of body dissatisfaction between pregnant and non-pregnant women (at least based on the BAQ are likely to be conflated by differential measurement biases that serve to undermine attempts to accurately assess level of body dissatisfaction. Researchers should be cautious in assessments of body dissatisfaction among pregnant women until a suitable measure has been established for use in this population. Given
Cottrell, Elizabeth; Foster, Nadine E; Porcheret, Mark; Rathod, Trishna; Roddy, Edward
The aim of this study was to investigate general practitioners' (GPs) attitudes, beliefs and behaviours regarding the use of exercise for patients with chronic knee pain (CKP) attributable to osteoarthritis. Primary care GPs in the UK. 5000 GPs, randomly selected from Binley's database, were mailed a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. GPs' attitudes and beliefs were investigated using attitude statements, and reported behaviours were identified using vignette-based questions. GPs were invited to report barriers experienced when initiating exercise with patients with CKP RESULTS: 835 (17%) GPs responded. Overall, GPs were positive about general exercise for CKP. 729 (87%) reported using exercise, of which, 538 (74%) reported that they would use both general and local (lower limb) exercises. However, only 92 (11% of all responding) GPs reported initiating exercise in ways aligning with best-evidence recommendations. 815 (98%) GPs reported barriers in using exercise for patients with CKP, most commonly, insufficient time in consultations (n=419; 51%) and insufficient expertise (n=337; 41%). While GPs' attitudes and beliefs regarding exercise for CKP were generally positive, initiation of exercise was often poorly aligned with current recommendations, and barriers and uncertainties were reported. GPs' use of exercise may be improved by addressing the key barriers of time and expertise, by developing a pragmatic approach that supports GPs to initiate individualised exercise, and/or by other professionals taking on this role. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Belletti, Giada; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin; Arbon, Paul; Dal Molin, Alberto
Patients are showing an increasing interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Most nurses are open to the adoption of CAM into clinical nursing practice, but they may experience a lack of knowledge about the safe and effective use of these therapies. Several studies concerning nurses' knowledge and attitudes toward CAM have been published, but only in one, the authors (Shorofi and Arbon) used a validated questionnaire. In Italy, there are no validated questionnaires to investigate this aspect of nursing practice. To test the psychometric properties of the Italian Shorofi and Arbon questionnaire for use with Italian nurses. A forward-backward translation method was used to translate the questionnaire from English to Italian. Content validity, face validity and reliability were established. This study examined the potential usefulness of the Shorofi and Arbon questionnaire for the evaluation of CAM knowledge of Italian speaking nurses, which showed good content validity and good reliability.
Fang, Liang-Yu; Xu, Yin-Chuan; Lin, Dan-Ni; Jin, Jing-Feng; Yan, Min
Optimal pain management is a priority in effective nursing care. Lack of sufficient pain knowledge associated with inadequate pain management has been proved. However, the intention, defined as the predictor of behavior, regarding pain management remains unknown. Therefore, the study was to determine the attitude and intention regarding pain management among Chinese nursing students and investigate the underlying determinants and their interactions in terms of intention toward pain management. The Pain Management Survey Questionnaire, comprising the key determinants of the theory of planned behavior-that is, direct attitude, belief-based intention, subjective norm, direct control, and indirect control-was used to collect data from 512 nursing students who undertook clinical rotation in an affiliated hospital of a medical college in China. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, Pearson correlation analysis, or structural equation modeling analysis. Chinese nursing students reported negative attitudes and behavioral intentions toward pain management. Direct control, subjective norm, belief-based attitude, and indirect control independently predicted nursing students' intention to treat patients with pain. Direct control was the strongest predictor. Structural equation modeling analysis further revealed 39.84% of the variance associated with intention that could be explained by determinants of the theory of planned behavior. Additionally, educational school level and previous pain management training had great effects on pain management intention. Overall, this study identified intention as an important factor in effective pain treatment. Chinese nursing students have negative attitudes and insufficient intention to pain management. Therefore, hospitals and universities in China should manage these factors to improve nursing students' practice regarding pain management. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing
Tanglakmankhong, Kamonthip; Perrin, Nancy A; Lowe, Nancy K
This paper is a report of the psychometric properties of the Thai language versions of the Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory and the Childbirth Attitudes Questionnaire, and the equivalence of the Thai and English versions of these instruments. The Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory and the Childbirth Attitudes Questionnaire were developed to measure women's abilities to cope with labour and fear of childbirth. Consistent with Bandura's Self-Efficacy Theory, women who have greater confidence in their ability to cope with labour have reported having less fear in childbirth. However, research is needed to validate the measures and this relationship in countries other than the United States of America, where the tools were developed. Back-translation was used. Content validity was examined by experts. The psychometric properties were estimated with internal consistency reliability, construct validity, contrasted groups and criterion-related validity with 148 pregnant women at a hospital in Thailand in 2008. Both measures were shown to have high internal consistency. Contrasting group and criterion-related validity were consistent with self-efficacy theory and findings in the United States. Differences between the stages of labour across expectancies in the Childbirth Self-Efficacy inventory were found only for second stage. Support for good validity and reliability of the instruments when used with Thai women was demonstrated. It may be appropriate for Thai women to use The Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory only in relation to the second stage of labour. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Nsonwu, Maura Busch; Welch-Brewer, Chiquitia; Heffron, Laurie Cook; Lemke, Melinda A.; Busch-Armendariz, Noel; Sulley, Caitlin; Cook, Sharon Warren; Lewis, Mary; Watson, Elizabeth; Moore, Wayne; Li, Jilan
Objective: This study sought to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a tool designed to assess social work students' knowledge of and perceptions and attitudes toward human trafficking. To achieve this aim, the Perceptions, Knowledge, and Attitudes toward Human Trafficking Questionnaire (PKA-HTQ) was developed and its psychometric…
Fančovičová, Jana; Prokop, Pavol
Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People's attitudes toward them are however, largely overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10-15 years. The final version of PAS consists from 29 Likert-scale items that were loaded to four distinct dimensions (Interest, Importance, Urban trees and Utilization). Mean scores revealed that Slovakian students lack positive attitudes toward plants and that gender had no effect on their mean attitude scores. Living in a family with a garden was associated with a more positive attitude toward plants. Further correlative research on diverse samples containing urban children and experimental research examining the impact of gardening in schools on student attitudes toward plants is required.
Full Text Available Solvejg Kristensen,1–3 Svend Sabroe,4 Paul Bartels,1,5 Jan Mainz,3,5 Karl Bang Christensen6 1The Danish Clinical Registries, Aarhus, Denmark; 2Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark; 3Aalborg University Hospital, Psychiatry, Aalborg, Denmark; 4Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; 5Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark; 6Department of Biostatistics, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Purpose: Measuring and developing a safe culture in health care is a focus point in creating highly reliable organizations being successful in avoiding patient safety incidents where these could normally be expected. Questionnaires can be used to capture a snapshot of an employee's perceptions of patient safety culture. A commonly used instrument to measure safety climate is the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ. The purpose of this study was to adapt the SAQ for use in Danish hospitals, assess its construct validity and reliability, and present benchmark data.Materials and methods: The SAQ was translated and adapted for the Danish setting (SAQ-DK. The SAQ-DK was distributed to 1,263 staff members from 31 in- and outpatient units (clinical areas across five somatic and one psychiatric hospitals through meeting administration, hand delivery, and mailing. Construct validity and reliability were tested in a cross-sectional study. Goodness-of-fit indices from confirmatory factor analysis were reported along with inter-item correlations, Cronbach's alpha (α, and item and subscale scores.Results: Participation was 73.2% (N=925 of invited health care workers. Goodness-of-fit indices from the confirmatory factor analysis showed: c2=1496.76, P<0.001, CFI 0.901, RMSEA (90%CI 0.053 (0.050-0056, Probability RMSEA (p close=0.057. Inter-scale correlations between the factors showed moderate-to-high correlations. The scale stress recognition had significant
Hoffman, Robert D; Golan, Ron; Vinker, Shlomo
It has become clear in recent years that a healthy lifestyle, including physical exercise is crucial for health maintenance. Nevertheless, most people do not exercise regularly. Physician intervention is beneficial in increasing patient exercise. In Israel, the 1994 "Sports Law" regarding exercising in a gymnasium requires a physician's written authorization, but does not direct the physicians what they should ascertain before issuing the certificate. This pre-exercise certificate has been widely discussed in Israel over the last year as the law is to be revised to enable using a modification of the PAR-Q+ (Physical Activity Readiness questionnaire) patient questionnaire as a screening tool. This will leave the requirement for a pre-exercise certificate for a less healthy population, yet without clear instructions to the primary care physician on criteria for ascertaining fitness. Our aim was to evaluate how primary care physicians deal with the ambiguity of defining health criteria for issuing exercise authorization/certificate. We used an anonymous ten-item attitude/knowledge multiple choice questionnaire with an additional 13 personal/education and employment questions. We assessed each potential predictor of physician attitude and knowledge in univariate models. 135 useable questionnaires were collected. Of these, 43.7 % of the doctors will provide the pre-exercise certificate to all their patients; 63 % were aware of their HMO/employers guidelines for issuing certificates; 62 % stated they complied with these guidelines, and 16 % stated they did not follow them. In addition, 70 % of the physicians reported regular exercise themselves, an average of 4.12 h/week. These physicians tended to provide the pre-exercise certificate to all patients unconditionally, as compared to physicians that did not exercise regularly. (46 % vs. 14.5 %, p exercise in the gym. There is a wide variation as to what physicians check before providing the certificate. The
Globally, amphibians are among the least appreciated vertebrates and are often negatively perceived by the general public. Such attitudes are particularly prevalent in South Africa, where fear, superstitions and myths associated with frogs are pervasive in some cultures. These attitudes could have harmful consequences ...
Travis A. Ryan
Full Text Available The Drive for Muscularity Attitudes Questionnaire (DMAQ was developed to measure men’s desire to attain an idealized muscular body. To date, the cross-cultural suitability of this measure has received limited attention. The current study addressed this omission by testing the psychometric properties of the DMAQ using an online sample of Irish men (N = 327. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that a unidimensional model adequately matched observed data (i.e., fit indices suggested acceptable model fit. Analyses also showed that the DMAQ yielded reliable and construct valid scores, suggesting that the scale holds promise as an indicant of the drive for muscularity among Irish men. Strengths and limitations associated with this study are discussed, such as advantages and disadvantages of Internet research. Directions for future research are given, including the need for more psychometric work.
The Diabetes Intention, Attitude, and Behavior Questionnaire: evaluation of a brief questionnaire to measure physical activity, dietary control, maintenance of a healthy weight, and psychological antecedents
Full Text Available Shana B Traina,1 Susan D Mathias,2 Hilary H Colwell,2 Ross D Crosby,2–4 Charles Abraham5 1Patient-Reported Outcomes, Janssen Global Services, LLC, Raritan, NJ, USA; 2Health Outcomes Solutions, Winter Park, FL, USA; 3Biomedical Statistics & Methodology, Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, Fargo, ND, USA; 4Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USA; 5Psychology Applied to Health, University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter, UK Background: This study assessed measurement properties of the 17-item Diabetes Intention, Attitude, and Behavior Questionnaire (DIAB-Q, which measures intention to engage in self-care behaviors, including following a diabetes diet and engaging in appropriate physical activity. Methods: The DIAB-Q includes questions based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Items were developed using published literature, input from health care professionals, and qualitative research findings in patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. In Stage I of the study, 23 adults with T2DM were interviewed to evaluate the content and clarity of the DIAB-Q. In Stage II 1,015 individuals with T2DM completed the DIAB-Q and supplemental questionnaires, including the Short Form-36 acute (SF-36, section III of the Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire, the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities questionnaire, and self-administered items relevant to the treatment and management of T2DM (eg, blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] at baseline and 3–7 days later. Once the DIAB-Q scale structure was determined, its test–retest reliability, construct validity, and known-groups validity were evaluated, and minimal clinically important change was estimated. Results: In Stage I, the 23 respondents surveyed generally reported that the DIAB-Q was clear and comprehensive and endorsed questions as relevant to their intentions to engage in diabetes
McGillicuddy, John William; Weiland, Ana Katherine; Frenzel, Ronja Maximiliane; Mueller, Martina; Brunner-Jackson, Brenda Marie; Taber, David James; Baliga, Prabhakar Kalyanpur; Treiber, Frank Anton
Mobile phone based remote monitoring of medication adherence and physiological parameters has the potential of improving long-term graft outcomes in the recipients of kidney transplants. This technology is promising as it is relatively inexpensive, can include intuitive software and may offer the ability to conduct close patient monitoring in a non-intrusive manner. This includes the optimal management of comorbidities such as hypertension and diabetes. There is, however, a lack of data assessing the attitudes of renal transplant recipients toward this technology, especially among ethnic minorities. To assess the attitudes of renal transplant recipients toward mobile phone based remote monitoring and management of their medical regimen; and to identify demographic or clinical characteristics that impact on this attitude. After a 10 minute demonstration of a prototype mobile phone based monitoring system, a 10 item questionnaire regarding attitude toward remote monitoring and the technology was administered to the participants, along with the 10 item Perceived Stress Scale and the 7 item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Between February and April 2012, a total of 99 renal transplant recipients were identified and agreed to participate in the survey. The results of the survey indicate that while 90% (87/97) of respondents own a mobile phone, only 7% (7/98) had any prior knowledge of mobile phone based remote monitoring. Despite this, the majority of respondents, 79% (78/99), reported a positive attitude toward the use of a prototype system if it came at no cost to themselves. Blacks were more likely than whites to own smartphones (43.1%, 28/65 vs 20.6%, 7/34; P=.03) and held a more positive attitude toward free use of the prototype system than whites (4.25±0.88 vs 3.76±1.07; P=.02). The data demonstrates that kidney transplant recipients have a positive overall attitude toward mobile phone based health technology (mHealth). Additionally, the data demonstrates
Full Text Available The present study was designed to examine secondary school students' information processing characteristics during learning and their relationship with the students' academic averages, internal motivation for learning and cognitive abilities, such as intelligence and creativity. Although many studies have previously focused on this issue, we are now studying this topic from the perspective of the IPOO-model, which is a new theoretical approach to school learning (note: IPOO is an acronym of Input, Process, Output, Organizing. This study featured 815 participants (secondary school students who completed the following tests and questionnaires: Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM intelligence test, the "Unusual Uses" creativity test (UUT, the 2nd version of the Jupiterbolha-próba (Jupiter Flea test – JB2 to test the information processing method of learning, and the Learning Attitude Questionnaire (LAQ. In our analysis we took the gender, school grade and academic average of participants into account. According to our results, the quality of information-processing methods of learning is at a low level, and there are no significant strong correlational relationships among the tests and questionnaire results (except in the cases of fluency, originality, and flexibility. There were no significant differences between genders or classes. These findings are consistent with the findings of previous studies.
Seija, Alanen; Kaila, Minna; Välimäki, Marita
to be shaped by perceptions of others, which makes the role of organizational implementation interventions interesting. AIMS: This article describes primary care nurses' attitudes toward guidelines among Finnish primary care nurses and the associations between attitudes, implementation interventions...... more positively and that guidelines were more easily available. Further, nurses who were familiar or very familiar with the guidelines had more positive attitudes toward them. Attitudes were also associated with self-reported guideline use. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence-based guidelines were accepted...... as a reliable source of advice in patient care in Finnish primary care. It seems that implementation interventions improve attitudes toward guidelines and enhance guideline use. These interventions might also be important from another point of view; they presumably improve familiarity with guidelines, which...
Mak, Winnie W S; Chan, Randolph C H; Yau, Sania S W
Considering the lack of existing measures on attitudes toward personal recovery and the need to acknowledge the cultural milieu in recovery attitude assessment, the present study developed and validated the Attitudes towards Recovery Questionnaire (ARQ) in a sample of people in recovery of mental illness, family carers, and mental health service providers in Hong Kong. The ARQ was developed based on existing literature and measures of recovery, and focus group discussions with various stakeholders. Findings of the multi-sample confirmatory factor analyses supported a five-factor structure: (1) resilience as a person in recovery, (2) self-appreciation and development, (3) self-direction, (4) family involvement, and (5) social ties and integration. The ARQ was positively correlated with recovery outcomes, empowerment, recovery knowledge, and recovery orientation of mental health services. As a tool for examining recovery attitudes, the ARQ informs us of the mindset across stakeholders and areas that need enhancement to facilitate the recovery process. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Majid, Hazreen A; Bin Sidek, Muhamad Adam; Chinna, Karuthan
To investigate the psychometric properties of the developed 21 item questionnaire to measure definitions, attitudes and management practices in relation to diarrhea during enteral nutrition (DAPonDEN). Data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis from a cross sectional study of 102 nurses aged 18 and over, conducted from December 2011 to February 2012 in Malaysia. Face and content validity of DAPonDEN were first evaluated by few expert panels and patients. For this study, adult nurses were recruited from the adult wards. In the final model, three items in DAPonDEN were dropped. In the exploratory factor analysis, five factors were extracted that explained a total of 55% of the variation in the remaining 18 items. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) value was 0.723. For definition, there were two underlying factors: 'Key items in defining diarrhea' and 'non-key items in defining diarrhea'. For attitude there was a single factor. For practice, there were two underlying factors: 'enteral nutrition (EN) related' and 'awareness related'. The items in each of the underlying dimensions seem to measure the respective concepts for definition, attitude and practices adequately. The 18-items DAPonDEN instrument can be a suitable education tool to be used in relation to diarrhea during EN. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Tests, Measurement, and Evaluation, Princeton, NJ.
This brief overview discusses the rationale for measuring teachers' attitudes toward the mainstreaming of handicapped students into regular classrooms, as well as research findings on teacher attitudes. Two attitude tests, Berryman and Berryman's Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale and Hall's Stages of Concern Questionnaire, are also briefly…
Mah, Kenneth; Tran, Kim T; Gauthier, Lynn R; Rodin, Gary; Zimmermann, Camilla; Warr, David; Librach, S Lawrence; Moore, Malcolm; Shepherd, Frances A; Gagliese, Lucia
Pain-related stoicism and cautiousness are theorized to be more prevalent in older than younger patients and to lead to greater pain under-reporting and consequently inadequate pain management in older patients. The Pain Attitudes Questionnaire-Revised (PAQ-R), which measures 5 pain-related stoicism (fortitude, concealment, superiority) and cautiousness (self-doubt, reluctance) factors in chronic pain, can help test this hypothesis in advanced cancer but requires validation. We conducted a psychometric evaluation of the PAQ-R in 155 younger (younger than 60 years) and 114 older (aged 60 years and older) patients with advanced cancer. Participants showed disagreement with self-doubt items and floor effects with the subscale. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed good fit of the PAQ-R's 5 factors to younger and older groups' data but collinearity between fortitude and concealment. Multisample confirmatory factor analyses supported partial scalar invariance between age groups. Few hypothesized age-related differences were observed. Younger patients reported higher superiority scores than older patients. Whereas older patients showed greater fortitude and superiority with lower average pain intensity, younger patients showed greater concealment or fortitude with greater worst and average pain intensity. Furthermore, whereas older patients displayed greater superiority with lower interference in relations with others, younger patients displayed greater concealment and superiority with greater interference in walking ability and greater concealment and self-doubt with more interference in relations with others. Cross-validation of the PAQ-R's factor structure and identification of pathways to the factors and effect on pain-related outcomes using multivariate approaches are warranted. This article presents the psychometric properties of a measure of 2 particular pain-related attitudes. The measure can help clarify whether these attitudes adversely influence pain
257-65 6. Bandura A. 1986. Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cogntive Theory . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall 7. Batterham PJ...Observational learning is also tied to attitude formation and behaviors (6). This theory suggests that attitudes may be formed based on observing the...which supported the link between attitudes and actions with the inclusion of social norms into the relationship (30). Later, this theory was
Lopez-McKee, Gloria; Bader, Julia
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among Hispanic women in the United States. Unfortunately Hispanic women exhibit poor mammography screening participation, are diagnosed at later stages of the disease, and have lower survival rates than non-Hispanic white women. Several cultural and psycho-social factors have been found to influence mammography screening participation among Hispanic women. We will begin by presenting the theoretical framework that grounded this research program to develop an instrument to assess factors contributing to poor mammography participation among Hispanic women. We will also summarize the early stages in the development of the English and Spanish Mammography Beliefs and Attitudes Questionnaire (MBAQ and SMBAQ) for use with low-health-literacy Mexican-American women. Next we will describe the initial psychometric testing of the MBAQ/SMBAQ, after which we will present the psychometric testing of the SMBAQ with low-health-literacy women. This will be followed by a discussion of the modification of the MBAQ and SMBAQ subscales. We'll conclude with a discussion of the instruments and share our assessment regarding the limitations of this research program, where the program stands to date, and the implications for practice and future research.
This paper will present what relationships exist between the attitude toward quality assurance and the variables of training and experience on the part of managers within the nuclear power industry. Managerial attitude toward quality assurance was measured via questionnaires submitted to managers within architect-engineering, nuclear steam supplier, and constructor firms throughout the United States. The data from the completed questionnaires were statistically analyzed using the chi-square test and conclusions were drawn. Additional study results related to major factors for positive and negative attitudes toward quality assurance will be presented
Sofiani, D.; Maulida, A. S.; Fadhillah, N.; Sihite, D. Y.
This study investigated the students’ attitude towards science and the effect of gender on students’ attitude. A total of 77 secondary school students participated in this study that were selected randomly in cluster, from various schools of Bandung, Indonesia. The attitude questionnaire consisted of 23 items related to four dimensions: enjoyment, self-confidence, value and motivation. Data collected by questionnaire were converted into interval scale using Method of Successive Interval (MSI) and further analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The use of MSI for analyzing the questionnaire data is still fairly new. Results showed that students’ positive attitude towards science was at medium level and there was no significant difference in attitude towards science between the female and male students. The study is of great significance to science teachers in order not to be gender biased when teaching science learning.
Suma Sogi, H P; Hugar, Shivayogi M; Nalawade, Triveni Mohan; Sinha, Anjali; Hugar, Shweta; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa M
The aim of this study was to assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and practices of "oral health care" in the prevention of early childhood caries (ECCs) among parents of children in Belagavi city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the outpatient Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka. Institutional Ethical Clearance was obtained. The study was conducted during the month of April 2014 to October 2014 after taking prior informed consent from the 218 parents. Inclusion criteria were parents getting their children treated for dental caries and who were willing to participate. Parents who could not read and write were excluded from the study. The self-administered, close-ended questionnaire was written in English. It was then translated in local languages, i.e. Kannada and Marathi, and a pilot study was conducted on 10 parents to check for its feasibility and any changes if required were done. The response rate was 100% as all 218 parents completed the questionnaire. Of 218 parents, 116 were mothers and 102 were fathers. The overall mean knowledge score was 69.5%. The overall mean attitude score was 53.5%. The overall attitude toward prevention of ECC was not in accordance to knowledge. The overall mean of "good" practices and "bad" practices score was 33.5% and 18.5%, respectively. Good knowledge and attitude toward oral health do not necessarily produce good practices.
Elliott, Mark A; Lee, Emme; Robertson, Jamie S; Innes, Rhona
According to the MODE model of attitude-to-behavior processes, attitude accessibility augments attitude-behavior correspondence, reflecting an automatic influence of attitudes on behavior. We therefore tested whether attitude accessibility moderates the attitude-behavior relationship in a context that is governed by characteristically automatic behavior, namely driving. In study 1 (correlational design), participants (N=130) completed online questionnaire measures of the valences and accessibilities of their attitudes towards speeding. Two weeks later, online questionnaire measures of subsequent speeding behavior were obtained. Attitude valence was a significantly better predictor of behavior at high (mean+1SD) versus low (mean-1SD) levels of attitude accessibility. In study 2 (experimental design), attitude accessibility was manipulated with a repeated attitude expression task. Immediately after the manipulation, participants (N=122) completed online questionnaire measures of attitude valence and accessibility, and two weeks later, subsequent speeding behavior. Increased attitude accessibility in the experimental (versus control) condition generated an increase in attitude-behavior correspondence. The findings are consistent with the MODE model's proposition that attitudes can exert an automatic influence on behavior. Interventions to reduce speeding could usefully increase the accessibility of anti-speeding attitudes and reduce the accessibility of pro-speeding attitudes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Heaven, Catherine P.; McCluskey-Fawcett, Kathleen
Intergenerational attitudes toward child care were examined among college-age students and their parents through the use of questionnaires, the Beliefs About the Consequences of Maternal Employment Scale (BACMEC), and the Bias in Attitudes toward Women Scale (BIAS). Findings indicated that traditional attitudes were more prevalent in males of both…
Alkhateeb, Haitham M; Mji, Andile
To investigate the attitudes of 200 university students (83% freshmen) toward mathematics, a questionnaire was administered to report on their attitudes toward mathematics. Analysis indicated that students studying precalculus had a somewhat positive attitude toward mathematics.
Larsson, Billy P M; Kaldo, Viktor; Broberg, Anders G
The authors describe the inception and subsequent testing of a questionnaire on attitudes regarding how psychotherapy ought to be pursued: the Valuable Elements in Psychotherapy Questionnaire (VEP-Q). A sample of 416 Swedish therapists (161 psychodynamic, 93 cognitive, 95 cognitive behavioral, and 67 integrative/eclectic) responded to the 17-item VEP-Q. A factor analysis of these items resulted in three subscales: PDT, CBT, and Common Factor, as validated by analyses of covariance. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the scales were excellent. In addition to theoretical orientation, variables such as gender and basic professional training influenced how respondents answered the VEP-Q. The authors conclude that the VEP-Q seems to be an appropriate instrument for describing similarities as well as differences among practitioners of various schools of psychotherapy.
Full Text Available Teachers’ perceptions of computers play an important role in integrating computers into education. The related literature includes studies developing or adapting a survey instrument in Turkish culture measuring teachers’ attitudes toward computers. These instruments have three to four factors (e.g., computer importance, computer enjoyment, computer confidence and 18 to 26 items under these factors. The purpose of the present study is to adapt a more detailed and stronger survey questionnaire measuring more dimensions related to teachers’ attitudes. The source instrument was developed by Christensen and Kenzek (2009 and called Teachers’ Attitudes toward Computers (TAC. It has nine factors with 51 items. Before testing the instrument, the interaction (e-mail factor was taken out because of the cultural differences. The reliability and validity testing of the translated instrument was completed with 273 teachers’ candidates in a Faculty of Education in Turkey. The results showed that the translated instrument (Cronbach’s Alpha: .94 included eight factors and consisted of 42 items under these factors, which were consistent with the original instrument. These factors were: Interest (α: .83, Comfort (α: .90, Accommodation (α: .87, Concern (α: .79, Utility (α: .90, Perception (α: .89, Absorption (α: .84, and Significance (α: .83. Additionally, the confirmatory factor analysis result for the model with eight factors was: RMSEA=0.050, χ2/df=1.69, RMR=0.075, SRMR=0.057, GFI= 0.81, AGFI= 0.78, NFI= 0.94, NNFI=0.97, CFI=0.97, IFI= 0.97. Accordingly, as a reliable, valid and stronger instrument, the adapted survey instrument can be suggested for the use in Turkish academic studies.
Studies have shown that mental health professionals in many cases have counterproductive attitudes towards patients with mental illnesses and comorbid substance use disorders (dual diagnosis). This is problematic because professionals’ attitudes are important for both the therapeutic alliance...... and treatment outcome. This study tested whether providing training in dual diagnosis treatment to mental health professionals will affect their attitudes positively. Twenty-one professionals completed a questionnaire on attitudes towards working with dual diagnosis (Comorbidity Problems Perceptions...... Questionnaire, CMPPQ) pre-training and post-training. Results showed that there was a significant positive change in total CMPPQ scores and a positive change in all six subscales of the CMPPQ following training, indicating that the training resulted in more positive attitudes. The study suggests that training...
St Pierre, M; Gall, C; Breuer, G; Schüttler, J
Simulation-based training with a focus on non-technical skills can have a positive influence on safety relevant attitudes of participants. If an organization succeeds in training sufficient staff, it may experience a positive change in the safety climate. As the effects of a single training are of a transient nature, annual training sessions may lead to an incremental improvement of safety relevant attitudes of employees over time. In spring 2012 the Department of Anesthesia at the University Hospital of Erlangen established an annual simulation-based training for staff members (e.g. consultants, trainee anesthetists and nurse anesthetists). The study aimed to test whether an annual simulation-based training would result in an incremental longitudinal improvement in attitudes towards teamwork, safety and stress recognition. A survey comprising three domains (teamwork climate, safety climate and stress recognition) of the safety attitudes questionnaire (SAQ) and items addressing briefing and speaking up was distributed to all participants in an annual in-house simulation training. Participants filled out the questionnaire in the morning of each training day. The attitudes were measured before the first training series in 2012, 6 months after the first training and then every year (2013-2016). Participants generated a personalized identification code which allowed individuals to be anonymously tracked over time. Results of the 5‑point Likert scale were transformed to a 100-point scale. Results were calculated at the group level and at the individual level. Univariable linear regression was used to calculate mean changes per year. Over a period of 5 years (2012-2016) a total of 255 individuals completed the questionnaire. Each year, 14-20% of all nurse anesthetists and 81-90% of all anesthetists participated in the simulation-based training. As a result of annual staff turnover 16-24% of participants were new staff members. A personalized code allowed the
Prestia, Mindy; Murphy, Susan; Yoder, Marian
In an effort to address the home care nursing shortage, this pilot study was designed to measure nursing students' attitudes toward home health nursing and to test the Home Health Attitude Questionnaire developed specifically for this study based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Senior undergraduate nursing students and registered nursing to bachelor of science in nursing students completed the questionnaire.
Marquié, J C; Thon, B; Baracat, B
The study of Bue and Gollac (1988) provided evidence that a significantly lower proportion of workers aged 45 years and over make use of computer technology compared with younger ones. The aim of the present survey was to explain this fact by a more intensive analysis of the older workers' attitude with respect to the computerization of work situations in relation to other individual and organizational factors. Six hundred and twenty office workers from 18 to 70 years old, either users or non-users of computerized devices, were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questions allowed the assessment of various aspects of the workers' current situation, such as the computer training they had received, the degree of consultation they were subjected to during the computerization process, their representation of the effects of these new technologies on working conditions and employment, the rate of use of new technologies outside the work context, and the perceived usefulness of computers for their own work. The analysis of the questionnaire revealed that as long as the step towards using computer tools, even minimally, has not been taken, then attitudes with respect to computerization are on the whole not very positive and are a source of anxiety for many workers. Age, and even more, seniority in the department, increase such negative representations. The effects of age and seniority were also found among users, as well as the effects of other factors such as qualification, education level, type and rate of computer use, and size of the firm. For the older workers, the expectation of less positive consequences for their career, or even the fear that computerization might be accompanied by threats to their own employment and the less clear knowledge of how computers operate, appeared to account for a significant part of the observed age and seniority differences in attitudes. Although the difference in the amount of computer training between age groups was smaller than
Rose, Jennifer Gorman; Chrisler, Joan C; Couture, Samantha
The present study investigated American women's attitudes toward menstrual suppression and the effect of priming attitudes toward menstruation on women's willingness to suppress menstruation. One hundred college women randomly were assigned to either a positive priming group or a negative priming group. The positive priming group first completed the menstrual joy questionnaire (MJQ) followed by a willingness to suppress menstruation (WSM) questionnaire, the beliefs and attitudes toward menstruation (BATM) questionnaire, the menstrual distress questionnaire (MDQ), and a demographic questionnaire. The negative priming group completed, in the following order: the MDQ, WSM, BATM, MJQ, and demographics. Priming affected women's reports of positive cycle-related changes on the MDQ, but not women's willingness to suppress menstruation. Higher scores on the MJQ, positive attitudes toward menstrual suppression, and previous oral contraceptive (OC) use were predictors of women's willingness to suppress menstruation. Women's primary source of information about menstrual suppression was "media," and their primary concern was "safety." Thus, researchers should continue to investigate the long-term effects of continuous OC use and to analyze information about menstrual suppression in the popular press.
McAllister, Sophie; Coxon, Kirstie; Murrells, T; Sandall, J
to examine healthcare professionals' attitudes, knowledge and levels of self-efficacy regarding the use of self-hypnosis in childbirth. a prospective survey. two large maternity units in London, England. healthcare professionals (n=129) involved in the care of childbearing women (anaesthetists, midwives and obstetricians). online questionnaire assessing healthcare professionals' experience, knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy relating to self-hypnosis in childbirth. attitude, self-efficacy and knowledge. over half of the participants surveyed (56%) reported they had minimal or no knowledge of hypnosis. Higher levels of knowledge were associated with higher levels of self-efficacy (phypnosis than doctors, and more exposure was significantly associated with higher levels of self-efficacy (midwives phypnosis in their own or partners' births had significantly higher self-efficacy scores (phypnosis in childbirth, they need to be confident in their ability to facilitate this method. Previous research has established that self-efficacy is a strong indicator of performance. Professionals with more knowledge of self-hypnosis are also more confident in supporting women using this technique in childbirth. Multi-disciplinary staff training which aims to increase knowledge, and which includes exposure to hypnosis in labour, may be beneficial in assisting staff to support women choosing to use self-hypnosis in labour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zysberg, Leehu; Schenk, Tal
Although theoretically proposed in the literature, the direct associations between political attitudes, religion, and creativity have been scarcely explored. A convenience sample of 123 adults working in Israel filled out questionnaires assessing political-social attitudes, religiosity, and background factors (e.g., age, gender, education, and…
Persoon, Anke; Bakker, Franka C.; van der Wal-Huisman, Hanneke; Rikkert, Marcel G. M. Olde
ObjectivesTo develop a questionnaire, the Geriatric In-hospital Nursing Care Questionnaire (GerINCQ), to measure, in an integrated way, the care that older adults receive in the hospital and nurses' attitudes toward and perceptions about caring for older adults. DesignQuestionnaire development.
Relihan, E; Glynn, S; Daly, D; Silke, B; Ryder, S
To assess the safety culture in an acute medical admissions unit (AMAU) of a teaching hospital in order to benchmark results against international data and guide a unit-based, integrated, risk management strategy. The safety attitudes questionnaire (SAQ), a validated instrument for the measurement of safety culture was applied to an AMAU. All AMAU healthcare staff (n = 92) were surveyed: doctors, nurses, healthcare assistants (HCAs) and allied healthcare professionals (AHPs). Safety attitude scores for the overall unit and individual caregiver types were assessed across six domains of safety culture. When compared against an international benchmark, the AMAU scored significantly higher for four of the six safety domains: p < 0.01 for 'teamwork climate', 'safety climate' and 'stress recognition' and p < 0.05 for 'job satisfaction'. The difference between nurse manager scores and the overall mean for the study group was statistically significant for the domains of 'teamwork climate' (p < 0.05) and 'safety climate' (p < 0.01). HCAs scored significantly lower relative to staff overall with regard to 'working conditions' (p < 0.05) and 'perceptions of management' (p < 0.01). The SAQ was successfully applied to an AMAU setting giving a valuable insight into staff issues of concern across the safety spectrum: employee and environmental safety, clinical risk management and medication safety.
Joan Andrés Traver Martí
Full Text Available In the present work the construction process of a scale-questionnaire is described to measure the attitude of the teaching staff as opposed to the educational innovation by means of techniques of cooperative work (CAPIC. In order to carry out its design and elaboration we need on the one hand a model of analysis of the attitudes and an instrument of measurement of the same ones capable of guiding its practical dynamics. The Theory of the Reasoned Action of Fisbhein and Ajzen (1975, 1980 and the summative scales (Likert have fulfilled, in both cases, this paper.
Kaiser, Tim; Schmutzhart, Lisa; Laireiter, Anton-Rupert
While monitoring systems in psychotherapy have become more common, little is known about the attitudes that mental health practitioners have towards these systems. In an online survey among 111 Austrian psychotherapists and trainees, attitudes towards therapy monitoring were measured. A well-validated questionnaire measuring attitudes towards outcome monitoring, the Outcome Measurement Questionnaire, was used. Clinicians' theoretical orientations as well as previous knowledge and experience with monitoring systems were associated with positive attitudes towards monitoring. Possible factors that may have led to these findings, like the views of different theoretical orientations or obstacles in Austrian public health care, are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background How to protect patients from harm is a question of universal interest. Measuring and improving safety culture in care giving units is an important strategy for promoting a safe environment for patients. The Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ is the only instrument that measures safety culture in a way which correlates with patient outcome. We have translated the SAQ to Norwegian and validated the translated version. The psychometric properties of the translated questionnaire are presented in this article. Methods The questionnaire was translated with the back translation technique and tested in 47 clinical units in a Norwegian university hospital. SAQ's (the Generic version (Short Form 2006 the version with the two sets of questions on perceptions of management: on unit management and on hospital management were distributed to 1911 frontline staff. 762 were distributed during unit meetings and 1149 through the postal system. Cronbach alphas, item-to-own correlations, and test-retest correlations were calculated, and response distribution analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were performed, as well as early validity tests. Results 1306 staff members completed and returned the questionnaire: a response rate of 68%. Questionnaire acceptability was good. The reliability measures were acceptable. The factor structure of the responses was tested by confirmatory factor analysis. 36 items were ascribed to seven underlying factors: Teamwork Climate, Safety Climate, Stress Recognition, Perceptions of Hospital Management, Perceptions of Unit Management, Working conditions, and Job satisfaction. Goodness-of-Fit Indices showed reasonable, but not indisputable, model fit. External validity indicators – recognizability of results, correlations with "trigger tool"-identified adverse events, with patient satisfaction with hospitalization, patient reports of possible maltreatment, and patient evaluation of organization of hospital work
This study asks if the Cockpit Management Attitude Questionnaire (CMAQ) can detect differences across countries, and/or across occupations. And if so, can those differences be interpreted? Research has shown that the CMAQ is sensitive to attitude differences between and within organizations, thereby demonstrating its effectiveness with American populations. But the CMAQ was originally designed by American researchers and psychometrically refined for American pilots. The items in the questionnaire, though general in nature, still reflect the ubiquitous Western bias, because the items were written by researchers from and for the one culture. Recognizing this constraint, this study is nonetheless interested in attitudes toward crew behavior, and how those attitudes may vary across country and occupation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately one in ten of the UK population are unpaid carers supporting a family member or friend who could not manage without their help, saving the UK economy an estimated £87 billion. This role is known to sometimes have a negative impact on carers and to require support both informally and from statutory services. General practice is a first point of contact for carers but research investigating general practitioners' (GPs' attitudes towards carers and awareness of issues facing carers is rare. This study therefore aimed to identify GPs' attitudes, awareness of issues, and perceptions of the barriers and enablers to provision of services. Methods Using a self-completion questionnaire distributed at a series of workshops, this study investigates GPs' attitudes to carers; awareness and knowledge of carers' issues; services offered in general practice and barriers to supporting carers. Results Seventy eight out of a total of 95 GPs (82% response rate from a variety of areas in England completed the questionnaires. The GPs identified time, resources and lack of knowledge as barriers, but only 9% agreed with the statement that there is little support they can offer carers. However, nine in ten GPs (89% feel they have insufficient training here and approximately half of them (47% lack confidence that they are meeting carers' needs. Confidence in identifying carers is also low (45%. Issues that GPs would look out for amongst carers include emotional and physical health problems and financial and isolation difficulties. GPs specifically highlighted educational and isolation issues for young carers. Few services were described that targeted carers. Conclusions GPs recognise that they have an important role to play in supporting carers but would like training and support. Further investigation is needed both to determine how best to train and facilitate GPs and general practice teams in their role in supporting carers and to
Kool, N.; van Meijel, B.; van der Bijl, J.; Koekkoek, B.; Kerkhof, A.
The attitude of nurses and treatment staff is crucial in the treatment of patients who self-harm. However, many patients experience that attitude as negative. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Attitude Towards Deliberate Self-Harm
U.S. Army Troop Support Command. The survey was conducted as part of an organizational diagnosis in preparation for the implementation of a civilian...survey as part of the program evaluation is recommended. Keywords: Surveys; Questionnaires; Employee attitudes; Attitude measurement; Organizational diagnosis .
Nadja Cristiane Lappann Bott
Full Text Available Objective. Examine the attitudes of nursing students with the suicidal behavior before and after a training course on the subject. Methodology. Performed quantitative, cross-sectional study, with 58 nursing students from a public university in Minas Gerais (Brazil who participated in training on the theme. For data collection were used the Questionnaire of Attitudes Before Suicidal Behavior. The questionnaire was applied just before the start and the end of the training measuring attitudes toward suicidal behavior. Results. Were found statistically significant differences in negative feelings factors on the patient and perception of professional competence (p <0.05. The right factor to suicide was not significantly different among nursing students. Conclusion. The academic training may have influenced positively the desired changes regarding the attitudes of nursing students across the suicidal behavior.
The study investigated junior secondary school pupils' attitudes towards mathematics. In addition, it investigated gender differences in attitudes towards the subject. The purposive sampling method was used to select nine schools in the Cape Coast Municipality, involving 581 pupils. Questionnaires on attitudes towards ...
Abstract. The study investigated junior secondary school pupils' attitudes towards mathematics. In addition, it investigated gender differences in attitudes towards the subject. The purposive sampling method was used to select nine schools in the Cape Coast. Municipality, involving 581 pupils. Questionnaires on attitudes ...
Køster, B; Søndergaard, J; Nielsen, J B; Olsen, A; Bentzen, J
An important feature of questionnaire validation is reliability. To be able to measure a given concept by questionnaire validly, the reliability needs to be high. The objectives of this study were to examine reliability of attitude and knowledge and behavioral consistency of sunburn in a developed questionnaire for monitoring and evaluating population sun-related behavior. Sun related behavior, attitude and knowledge was measured weekly by a questionnaire in the summer of 2013 among 664 Danes. Reliability was tested in a test-retest design. Consistency of behavioral information was tested similarly in a questionnaire adapted to measure behavior throughout the summer. The response rates for questionnaire 1, 2 and 3 were high and the drop out was not dependent on demographic characteristic. There was at least 73% agreement between sunburns in the measurement week and the entire summer, and a possible sunburn underestimation in questionnaires summarizing the entire summer. The participants underestimated their outdoor exposure in the evaluation covering the entire summer as compared to the measurement week. The reliability of scales measuring attitude and knowledge was high for majority of scales, while consistency in protection behavior was low. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report reliability for a completely validated questionnaire on sun-related behavior in a national random population based sample. Further, we show that attitude and knowledge questions confirmed their validity with good reliability, while consistency of protection behavior in general and in a week's measurement was low.
Dijkstra, E. M.; Goedhart, M. J.
This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes towards Climate Change and Science Instrument. This 63-item questionnaire measures students' pro-environmental behaviour, their climate change knowledge and their attitudes towards school science, societal implications of
Full Text Available Abstract Background Working life is an important arena in most people's lives, and the working line concept is important for the development of welfare in a society. For young people, the period before permanent establishment in working life has become longer during the last two decades. Knowledge about attitudes towards work can help us to understand young people's transition to the labour market. Adolescents are the future workforce, so it seems especially important to notice their attitudes towards work, including attitudes towards the welfare system. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse upper secondary school students' work attitudes, and to explore factors related to these attitudes. Methods The sample consisted of 606 upper secondary school students. They all received a questionnaire including questions about quality of life (QOL, sense of coherence (SOC, subjective health and attitudes towards work. The response rate was 91%. A factor analysis established two dimensions of work attitudes. Multivariate analyses were carried out by means of logistic regression models. Results Work ethics (WE and general work attitudes (GWA were found to be two separate dimensions of attitudes towards work. Concerning WE the picture was similar regardless of gender or study programme. Males in theoretical programmes appeared to have more unfavourable GWA than others. Multivariate analyses revealed that good QOL, high SOC and good health were significantly related to positive WE, and high SOC was positively related to GWA. Being female was positively connected to WE and GWA, while studying on a practical programme was positively related to GWA only. Among those who received good parental support, GWA seemed more favourable. Conclusion Assuming that attitudes towards work are important to the working line concept, this study points out positive factors of importance for the future welfare of the society. Individual factors such as female gender
Darlow, Ben; Perry, Meredith; Mathieson, Fiona; Stanley, James; Melloh, Markus; Marsh, Reginald; Baxter, G David; Dowell, Anthony
To develop an instrument to assess attitudes and underlying beliefs about back pain, and subsequently investigate its internal consistency and underlying structures. The instrument was developed by a multidisciplinary team of clinicians and researchers based on analysis of qualitative interviews with people experiencing acute and chronic back pain. Exploratory analysis was conducted using data from a population-based cross-sectional survey. Qualitative interviews with community-based participants and subsequent postal survey. Instrument development informed by interviews with 12 participants with acute back pain and 11 participants with chronic back pain. Data for exploratory analysis collected from New Zealand residents and citizens aged 18 years and above. 1000 participants were randomly selected from the New Zealand Electoral Roll. 602 valid responses were received. The 34-item Back Pain Attitudes Questionnaire (Back-PAQ) was developed. Internal consistency was evaluated by the Cronbach α coefficient. Exploratory analysis investigated the structure of the data using Principal Component Analysis. The 34-item long form of the scale had acceptable internal consistency (α=0.70; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.73). Exploratory analysis identified five two-item principal components which accounted for 74% of the variance in the reduced data set: 'vulnerability of the back'; 'relationship between back pain and injury'; 'activity participation while experiencing back pain'; 'prognosis of back pain' and 'psychological influences on recovery'. Internal consistency was acceptable for the reduced 10-item scale (α=0.61; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.66) and the identified components (α between 0.50 and 0.78). The 34-item long form of the scale may be appropriate for use in future cross-sectional studies. The 10-item short form may be appropriate for use as a screening tool, or an outcome assessment instrument. Further testing of the 10-item Back-PAQ's construct validity, reliability
Hidalgo, Marco A; Chen, Diane; Garofalo, Robert; Forbes, Catherine
Purpose: Parental acceptance of gender identity/expression in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ+) youth moderates the effects of minority stress on mental health outcomes. Given this association, mental health clinicians of gender-expansive adolescents often assess the degree to which these youth perceive their parents/primary caregivers as accepting or nonaffirming of their gender identity and expression. While existing measures may reliably assess youth's perceptions of general family support, no known tool aids in the assessment an adolescent's perceived parental support related to adolescent gender-expansive experiences. Methods: To provide both clinicians and researchers with an empirically derived tool, the current study used factor analysis to explore an underlying factor structure of a brief questionnaire developed by subject-matter experts and pertaining to multiple aspects of perceived parental support in gender-expansive adolescents and young adults. Respondents were gender-expansive adolescents and young adults seeking care in an interdisciplinary gender-health clinic within a pediatric academic medical center in the Midwestern United States. Results: Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 14-item questionnaire comprised of two subscales assessing perceived parental nonaffirmation and perceived parental acceptance. Internal consistency and construct validity results provided support for this new questionnaire. Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence of the factor structure, reliability and validity of the Parental Attitudes of Gender Expansiveness Scale for Youth (PAGES-Y). These findings demonstrate both the clinical and research utility of the PAGES-Y, a tool that can yield a more nuanced understanding of family-related risk and protective factors in gender-expansive adolescents.
Full Text Available An important feature of questionnaire validation is reliability. To be able to measure a given concept by questionnaire validly, the reliability needs to be high.The objectives of this study were to examine reliability of attitude and knowledge and behavioral consistency of sunburn in a developed questionnaire for monitoring and evaluating population sun-related behavior.Sun related behavior, attitude and knowledge was measured weekly by a questionnaire in the summer of 2013 among 664 Danes. Reliability was tested in a test-retest design. Consistency of behavioral information was tested similarly in a questionnaire adapted to measure behavior throughout the summer.The response rates for questionnaire 1, 2 and 3 were high and the drop out was not dependent on demographic characteristic. There was at least 73% agreement between sunburns in the measurement week and the entire summer, and a possible sunburn underestimation in questionnaires summarizing the entire summer. The participants underestimated their outdoor exposure in the evaluation covering the entire summer as compared to the measurement week. The reliability of scales measuring attitude and knowledge was high for majority of scales, while consistency in protection behavior was low.To our knowledge, this is the first study to report reliability for a completely validated questionnaire on sun-related behavior in a national random population based sample. Further, we show that attitude and knowledge questions confirmed their validity with good reliability, while consistency of protection behavior in general and in a week's measurement was low. Keywords: Questionnaire, Validation, Reliability, Skin cancer, Prevention, Ultraviolet radiation
Gaul, Charly; Schmidt, Thomas; Czaja, Eva; Eismann, Regina; Zierz, Stephan
Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is widely used and popular among patients with primary headache or low back pain (LBP). Aim of the study was to analyze attitudes of headache and LBP patients towards the use of CAM. Two questionnaire-based surveys were applied comparing 432 primary headache and 194 LBP patients. In total, 84.75% of all patients reported use of CAM; with significantly more LBP patients. The most frequently-used CAM therapies in headache were acupuncture (71.4%), massages (56.4%), and thermotherapy (29.2%), in LBP thermotherapy (77.4%), massages (62.7%), and acupuncture (51.4%). The most frequent attitudes towards CAM use in headache vs. LBP: "leave nothing undone" (62.5% vs. 52.1%; p = 0.006), "take action against the disease" (56.8% vs. 43.2%; p = 0.006). Nearly all patients with previous experience with CAM currently use CAM in both conditions (93.6% in headache; 100% in LBP). However, the majority of the patients had no previous experience. Understanding motivations for CAM treatment is important, because attitudes derive from wishes for non-pharmacological treatment, to be more involved in treatment and avoid side effects. Despite higher age and more permanent pain in LBP, both groups show high use of CAM with only little specific difference in preferred methods and attitudes towards CAM use. This may reflect deficits and unfulfilled goals in conventional treatment. Maybe CAM can decrease the gap between patients' expectations about pain therapy and treatment reality, considering that both conditions are often chronic diseases, causing high burdens for daily life.
Haddad, Mark; Waqas, Ahmed; Sukhera, Ahmed Bashir; Tarar, Asad Zaman
Depression is common mental health problem and leading contributor to the global burden of disease. The attitudes and beliefs of the public and of health professionals influence social acceptance and affect the esteem and help-seeking of people experiencing mental health problems. The attitudes of clinicians are particularly relevant to their role in accurately recognising and providing appropriate support and management of depression. This study examines the characteristics of the revised depression attitude questionnaire (R-DAQ) with doctors working in healthcare settings in Lahore, Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2015 using the revised depression attitude questionnaire (R-DAQ). A convenience sample of 700 medical practitioners based in six hospitals in Lahore was approached to participate in the survey. The R-DAQ structure was examined using Parallel Analysis from polychoric correlations. Unweighted least squares analysis (ULSA) was used for factor extraction. Model fit was estimated using goodness-of-fit indices and the root mean square of standardized residuals (RMSR), and internal consistency reliability for the overall scale and subscales was assessed using reliability estimates based on Mislevy and Bock (BILOG 3 Item analysis and test scoring with binary logistic models. Mooresville: Scientific Software, 55) and the McDonald's Omega statistic. Findings using this approach were compared with principal axis factor analysis based on Pearson correlation matrix. 601 (86%) of the doctors approached consented to participate in the study. Exploratory factor analysis of R-DAQ scale responses demonstrated the same 3-factor structure as in the UK development study, though analyses indicated removal of 7 of the 22 items because of weak loading or poor model fit. The 3 factor solution accounted for 49.8% of the common variance. Scale reliability and internal consistency were adequate: total scale standardised alpha was 0.694; subscale reliability for
Fisher, Ronald J.
Contemporary social psychology takes a simplistic approach to the conceptualization and measurement of intergroup attitudes. Most definitions involve only the affective component of attitudes, and most measurement devices are restricted self-report, paper and pencil questionnaires. A broader and more flexible approach is required to adequately…
Reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance and food behaviours, attitudes, knowledge and environments associated with healthy eating
Magarey Anthea M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Food behaviours, attitudes, environments and knowledge are relevant to professionals in childhood obesity prevention, as are dietary patterns which promote positive energy balance. There is a lack of valid and reliable tools to measure these parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire assessing all of these parameters, used in the evaluation of a community-based childhood obesity prevention project. Methods The development of the 14-item questionnaire was informed by the aims of the obesity prevention project. A sub-sample of children aged 10–12 years from primary schools involved in the intervention was recruited at the project's baseline data collection (Test 1. Questionnaires were readministered (Test 2 following which students completed a 7-day food diary designed to reflect the questionnaire. Twelve scores were derived to assess consumption of fruit, vegetables, water, noncore foods and sweetened beverages plus food knowledge, behaviours, attitudes and environments. Reliability was assessed using (a the intra class correlation coefficient (ICC and 95% confidence intervals to compare scores from Tests 1 and 2 (test-retest reliability and (b Cronbach's alpha (internal consistency. Validity was assessed with Spearman correlations, bias and limits of agreement between scores from Test 1 and the 7-day diaries. The Wilcoxon signed rank test checked for significant differences between mean scores. Results One hundred and forty one students consented to the study. Test 2 (n = 134 occurred between eight and 36 days after Test 1. For 10/12 scores ICCs ranged from 0.47–0.66 (p 0.05 for 10/12 (test-retest reliability and 3/7 (validity scores. Conclusion This child nutrition questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance, and food behaviours, attitudes and environments in
Masterton, Malin; Renberg, Tobias; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia
stakeholders. This study compared the attitudes of patients and researchers on animal testing. Focus-group interviews were held with patients suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases, resulting in a questionnaire that was distributed January–May 2011. The questionnaire was posted to patient members...... of support is comparable to those held by the general public found in national surveys. A clear majority of researchers were positive towards animal testing, and large statistical differences between patients and researchers were found regarding their attitudes towards testing animals commonly held as pets...... (Pattitude towards animal testing is not shared to an equal degree with patients, who are the intended end-users and beneficiaries of medical...
Al-Haidar, Fatima A.
Objective: To explore parental attitudes towards the prescription of psychotropic medication for their children. Method: A questionnaire built to collect socio-demographic data of parents and their attitudes was distributed among parents. Results: One thousand and ten questionnaires were filled by parents. Fathers who completed the questionnaire were double the number of mothers. Eight hundred and eighteen parents (84.3%) agreed to the dispensing psychotropic medication to their child...
Čukljek, Snježana; Jureša, Vesna; Grgas Bile, Cecilija; Režek, Biserka
The aim of this study was to determine the attitudes of nursing students towards nursing, and changes in their attitudes during the study. A quantitative study with pre-post survey was conducted among nursing students enrolled in first study year in the academic year 2012/2013 (N=115) and third study year in the academic year 2014/2015 (N=106). Students voluntarily and anonymously completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic information and the Nursing Image Questionnaire, which includes 30 items that assess how an individual looks at the roles and tasks, values, social stereotypes of nursing, professionalism and performance of nurses. The results indicated that students had positive attitude towards nursing at the beginning and during the study. During the study, there was a positive change in attitudes in the majority of items of the questionnaire, whereas at the end of the study lower attitude was expressed in only four items. The study conducted among nursing students indicated that students’ attitudes changed during the study, influenced by the acquisition of knowledge and skills. During the study, students acquire a more realistic perception of nursing, and adoption of professional values emerges.
Elementary School Teachers (MI in Salatiga to inclusive education; 2 their perceptions; and 3 their attitudes to the inclusive education. This is a survey research. The primary data collection method used in this research was questionnaires, besides structural interviews. Based upon the calculation of the questionnaires, the writer found out that 1 the teachers’ comprehension to inclusive education is still low (88.1 % and only 4.7 % feels having a little knowledge about it. In addition, 50.02 % have negative perceptions, and are only 21.46 % who have positive perceptions to it. Even though, 43.89 % have positive attitudes and 37.81 have negative attitudes to the inclusive education.
van der Pligt, J.; Eiser, J.R.; Spears, R.
Examined the effects of a TV documentary about the safety of the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant in the Northwest of England on public attitudes. In a study of 805 respondents (average age 47.8 yrs) to questionnaires from 4 districts in the Southwest of England, the attitudes and beliefs of
Zeng, Pei-Shan; Huang, Chih-Hsuan
This study uses the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory method to identify critical dimensions of the safety attitudes questionnaire in Taiwan in order to improve the patient safety culture from experts' viewpoints. Teamwork climate, stress recognition, and perceptions of management are three causal dimensions, while safety climate, job satisfaction, and working conditions are receiving dimensions. In practice, improvements on effect-based dimensions might receive little effects when a great amount of efforts have been invested. In contrast, improving a causal dimension not only improves itself but also results in better performance of other dimension(s) directly affected by this particular dimension. Teamwork climate and perceptions of management are found to be the most critical dimensions because they are both causal dimensions and have significant influences on four dimensions apiece. It is worth to note that job satisfaction is the only dimension affected by the other dimensions. In order to effectively enhance the patient safety culture for healthcare organizations, teamwork climate, and perceptions of management should be closely monitored. PMID:29686825
Full Text Available This study uses the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory method to identify critical dimensions of the safety attitudes questionnaire in Taiwan in order to improve the patient safety culture from experts’ viewpoints. Teamwork climate, stress recognition, and perceptions of management are three causal dimensions, while safety climate, job satisfaction, and working conditions are receiving dimensions. In practice, improvements on effect-based dimensions might receive little effects when a great amount of efforts have been invested. In contrast, improving a causal dimension not only improves itself but also results in better performance of other dimension(s directly affected by this particular dimension. Teamwork climate and perceptions of management are found to be the most critical dimensions because they are both causal dimensions and have significant influences on four dimensions apiece. It is worth to note that job satisfaction is the only dimension affected by the other dimensions. In order to effectively enhance the patient safety culture for healthcare organizations, teamwork climate, and perceptions of management should be closely monitored.
Dijkstra, E. M.; Goedhart, M. J.
This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes towards Climate Change and Science Instrument. This 63-item questionnaire measures students' pro-environmental behaviour, their climate change knowledge and their attitudes towards school science, societal implications of science, scientists, a career in science and the urgency…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM is widely used and popular among patients with primary headache or low back pain (LBP. Aim of the study was to analyze attitudes of headache and LBP patients towards the use of CAM. Methods Two questionnaire-based surveys were applied comparing 432 primary headache and 194 LBP patients. Results In total, 84.75% of all patients reported use of CAM; with significantly more LBP patients. The most frequently-used CAM therapies in headache were acupuncture (71.4%, massages (56.4%, and thermotherapy (29.2%, in LBP thermotherapy (77.4%, massages (62.7%, and acupuncture (51.4%. The most frequent attitudes towards CAM use in headache vs. LBP: "leave nothing undone" (62.5% vs. 52.1%; p = 0.006, "take action against the disease" (56.8% vs. 43.2%; p = 0.006. Nearly all patients with previous experience with CAM currently use CAM in both conditions (93.6% in headache; 100% in LBP. However, the majority of the patients had no previous experience. Conclusion Understanding motivations for CAM treatment is important, because attitudes derive from wishes for non-pharmacological treatment, to be more involved in treatment and avoid side effects. Despite higher age and more permanent pain in LBP, both groups show high use of CAM with only little specific difference in preferred methods and attitudes towards CAM use. This may reflect deficits and unfulfilled goals in conventional treatment. Maybe CAM can decrease the gap between patients' expectations about pain therapy and treatment reality, considering that both conditions are often chronic diseases, causing high burdens for daily life.
Zenere, Alessandra; Zanolin, M Elisabetta; Negri, Roberta; Moretti, Francesca; Grassi, Mario; Tardivo, Stefano
Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are a high-risk setting. The Safety Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ) is a widely used tool to measure safety culture. The aims of the study are to verify the psychometric properties of the Italian version of SAQ, to evaluate safety culture in the NICUs and to identify improvement interventions. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 6 level III NICUs. The SAQ was translated into Italian and adapted to the context, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to validate the questionnaire. 193 questionnaires were collected. The mean response rate was 59.7% (range 44.5%-95.7%). The answers were analysed according to six factors: f1 - teamwork climate, f2 - safety climate, f3 - job satisfaction, f4 - stress recognition, f5 - perception of management, f6 - working conditions. The CFA indexes were adequate (McDonald's omega indexes varied from 0.74 to 0.94, the SRMR index was equal to 0.79 and the RMSEA index was 0.070, 95% CI = 0.063-0.078). The mean composite score was 57.6 (SD 17.9), ranging between 42.3 and 69.7 on a standardized 100-point scale. We highlighted significant differences among units and professions (P < 0.05). The Italian version of the SAQ proved to be an effective tool to evaluate and compare the safety culture in the NICUs. The obtained scores significantly varied both within and among the NICUs. The organizational and structural characteristics of the involved hospitals probably affect the safety culture perception by the staff. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rurik, Imre; Langmár, Zoltán; Márton, Hajnalka; Kovács, Eszter; Szigethy, Endre; Ilyés, István
To evaluate the knowledge, motivation, and attitudes of Hungarian family physicians toward pandemic influenza vaccination in the 2009/10 influenza season. A questionnaire with 20 questions was developed and sent to 232 family physicians in 3 largest Hungarian cities: Budapest, Debrecen, and Miskolc. The study was conducted in December 2009 and January 2010. A hundred and ninety eight (85%) physicians answered the questionnaire adequately. Respondents believed that the influenza outbreak represented less of a threat to their practices than to Hungary or the world as a whole. They mostly agreed that vaccination was important and were frequently dissatisfied with the support from health authorities. The proportion of vaccinated patients ranged between 2% and 53%, without differences according to geographical region, age, sex, and duration of physicians' employment in family practice. Physicians who were satisfied with the payment for procedures and underwent vaccination themselves were more active in vaccination. Health authorities should provide clear and evidence-based professional support to family physicians and should encourage them to get vaccinated against pandemic influenza, while insurance funds have to establish appropriate reimbursement system.
Equivalência semântica e avaliação da consistência interna da versão em português do Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3 Semantic equivalence and internal consistency of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3
Ana Carolina Soares Amaral
Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi descrever o processo de adaptação transcultural do Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3 para a língua portuguesa. A metodologia foi baseada nas etapas de (1 tradução do questionário para o português; (2 retrotradução para o inglês; (3 comitê de peritos para construção da primeira versão; (4 avaliação da compreensão verbal por especialistas e por uma amostra da população-alvo; (5 análise da consistência interna do instrumento a partir do alfa de Cronbach. O instrumento foi traduzido para o português e a versão final contou com os 30 itens do instrumento original. Todos os itens foram interpretados como de fácil compreensão, tanto por especialistas quanto pela população-alvo. Os valores de consistência interna foram satisfatórios, sendo de 0,91 para toda a escala. O instrumento encontra-se traduzido e adaptado para o português, com evidências de boa compreensão e consistência interna, sendo ainda necessária a avaliação de sua equivalência de mensuração, validade externa e reprodutibilidade.This study aimed to describe the cross-cultural adaptation of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3 into Brazilian Portuguese. The methodology involved the following stages: (1 translation of the questionnaire into Portuguese; (2 back-translation into English; (3 meeting with experts to prepare a draft version; (4 assessment of verbal understanding of the draft by experts and by a sample of the target population; and (5 analysis of the tool's internal consistency, using Cronbach's alpha. The questionnaire was translated into Portuguese, and the scale's final version included 30 items, as in the original. Both the experts and target population members assessed all the items as easy to understand. Internal consistency was satisfactory, reaching 0.91 for the scale as a whole. The questionnaire has now been translated and adapted into
Jing, S.; Lay, A.; Weis, L.; Furnham, A.
The current study examined the relationship between traditional masculine traits and attitudes toward vibrator use, actual vibrator use, and frequency of vibrator use in China. In all, 235 Chinese females aged between 16 and 58 years completed a questionnaire regarding attitudes toward, and personal use of, vibrators. The results showed a positive association between masculine traits and attitudes toward women's vibrator use, attitudes toward vibrator use and actual vibrator use, as well as f...
This paper investigates indigenous communities' attitudes towards sustainable ecotourism development in Olumirin Waterfall Southwestern Nigeria. A field survey via structured questionnaire was conducted on 150 village respondents living in the vicinity of Olumirin waterfall of which fifty questionnaires were randomly ...
Full Text Available Numerous questionnaire studies on attitudes towards euthanasia produced conflicting results, precluding any general conclusion. This might be due to the fact that human behavior can be influenced by automatically triggered attitudes, which represent ingrained associations in memory and cannot be assessed by standard questionnaires, but require indirect measures such as reaction times (RT or electroencephalographic recording (EEG. Event related potentials (ERPs of the EEG and RT during an affective priming task were assessed to investigate the impact of automatically triggered attitudes and were compared to results of an explicit questionnaire. Explicit attitudes were ambivalent. Reaction time data showed neither positive nor negative associations towards euthanasia. ERP analyses revealed an N400 priming effect with lower mean amplitudes when euthanasia was associated with negative words. The euthanasia-related modulation of the N400 component shows an integration of the euthanasia object in negatively valenced associative neural networks. The integration of all measures suggests a bottom-up process of attitude activation, where automatically triggered negative euthanasia-relevant associations can become more ambiguous with increasing time in order to regulate the bias arising from automatic processes. These data suggest that implicit measures may make an important contribution to the understanding of euthanasia-related attitudes.
Enke, Martin; Meyer, Patric; Flor, Herta
Numerous questionnaire studies on attitudes towards euthanasia produced conflicting results, precluding any general conclusion. This might be due to the fact that human behavior can be influenced by automatically triggered attitudes, which represent ingrained associations in memory and cannot be assessed by standard questionnaires, but require indirect measures such as reaction times (RT) or electroencephalographic recording (EEG). Event related potentials (ERPs) of the EEG and RT during an affective priming task were assessed to investigate the impact of automatically triggered attitudes and were compared to results of an explicit questionnaire. Explicit attitudes were ambivalent. Reaction time data showed neither positive nor negative associations towards euthanasia. ERP analyses revealed an N400 priming effect with lower mean amplitudes when euthanasia was associated with negative words. The euthanasia-related modulation of the N400 component shows an integration of the euthanasia object in negatively valenced associative neural networks. The integration of all measures suggests a bottom-up process of attitude activation, where automatically triggered negative euthanasia-relevant associations can become more ambiguous with increasing time in order to regulate the bias arising from automatic processes. These data suggest that implicit measures may make an important contribution to the understanding of euthanasia-related attitudes.
Enke, Martin; Meyer, Patric; Flor, Herta
Numerous questionnaire studies on attitudes towards euthanasia produced conflicting results, precluding any general conclusion. This might be due to the fact that human behavior can be influenced by automatically triggered attitudes, which represent ingrained associations in memory and cannot be assessed by standard questionnaires, but require indirect measures such as reaction times (RT) or electroencephalographic recording (EEG). Event related potentials (ERPs) of the EEG and RT during an affective priming task were assessed to investigate the impact of automatically triggered attitudes and were compared to results of an explicit questionnaire. Explicit attitudes were ambivalent. Reaction time data showed neither positive nor negative associations towards euthanasia. ERP analyses revealed an N400 priming effect with lower mean amplitudes when euthanasia was associated with negative words. The euthanasia-related modulation of the N400 component shows an integration of the euthanasia object in negatively valenced associative neural networks. The integration of all measures suggests a bottom-up process of attitude activation, where automatically triggered negative euthanasia-relevant associations can become more ambiguous with increasing time in order to regulate the bias arising from automatic processes. These data suggest that implicit measures may make an important contribution to the understanding of euthanasia-related attitudes. PMID:27088244
Sami, W.; Ansari, T.; Butt, N. S.; Hamid, M. R. Ab
This research evaluated the psychometric properties of English version of dietary habits questionnaires developed for type 2 diabetic patients. There is scarcity of literature about availability of standardized questionnaires for assessing dietary habits of type 2 diabetics in Saudi Arabia. As dietary habits vary from country to country, therefore, this was an attempt to develop questionnaires that can serve as a baseline. Through intensive literature review, four questionnaires were developed / modified and subsequently tested for psychometric properties. Prior to pilot study, a pre-test was conducted to evaluate the face validity and content validity. The pilot study was conducted from 23 October - 22 November, 2016 to evaluate the questionnaires’ reliability and validity. Systematic random sampling technique was used to collect the data from 132 patients by direct investigation method. Questionnaires assessing diabetes mellitus knowledge (0.891), dietary knowledge (0.869), dietary attitude (0.841) and dietary practices (0.874) had good internal consistency reliability. Factor analysis conducted on dietary attitude questionnaire showed a valid 5 factor solution. Directions of loadings were positive and free from factorial complexity. Relying on the data obtained from type 2 diabetics, these questionnaires can be considered as reliable and valid for the assessment of dietary habits in Saudi Arabia and neighbouring Gulf countries population.
Shiina, Akihiro; Niitsu, Tomihisa; Sato, Aiko; Omiya, Soichiro; Nagata, Takako; Tomoto, Aika; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Igarashi, Yoshito; Iyo, Masaomi
To evaluate the effect of educational intervention on individuals' knowledge of and attitudes toward forensic mental health. We conducted a questionnaire regarding attitudes toward various ideas about forensic mental health. The respondents attended a 1-h seminar regarding forensic mental health after answering the questionnaire. On completion of the seminar, the respondents answered another questionnaire containing many of the same questions as contained in the pre-seminar questionnaire. A total of 86 individuals attended the seminar, and 78 responded to the questionnaire. Only 13 (18.8%) participants were supportive of the concept of criminal responsibility initially, and there was a statistically significant increase in those who became more supportive after the seminar, with 22 (33%) being supportive after the seminar (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, P criminal responsibility after the intervention. These results suggest that public attitudes toward criminal responsibility and mental health can be influenced via educational interventions.
Full Text Available Background: Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs are widespread in the population and are a serious dental public health problem among children. Dental trauma may cause both functional and esthetic problems, with possible impacts on the patient's quality of life. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of elementary school teachers regarding dental trauma and its management. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire study consisting of 12 closed-ended questions were used to interview 150 elementary school teachers who participated in this study. The questions assessed the knowledge and attitude of teachers toward their student's dental trauma and its management. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Packages of Social Sciences (SPSS version 17.0. Results: Among 150 teachers, 54% had dealt with trauma to their students, 91.3% school teachers said that they would save the avulsed tooth, 64% had heard about reimplantation of tooth, and 37% school teachers stated that they would not carry the tooth in any media reflecting their lack of knowledge regarding management of avulsed tooth. Conclusion: As many teachers have a low level of knowledge regarding dental trauma, there is a need for greater awareness to improve knowledge and attitude of teachers related to the emergency management of TDIs in children by organizing educative and motivational programs.
Chignell, Mark H.; Quan-Haase, Anabel; Gwizdka, Jacek
Privacy has been identified as a key issue in a variety of domains, including electronic commerce and public policy. While there are many discussions of privacy issues from a legal and policy perspective, there is little information on the structure of privacy as a psychometric construct. Our goal is to develop a method for measuring attitudes towards privacy that can guide the design and personalization of services. This paper reports on the development of an initial version of the PAQ. Four...
Hsieh, Wu-Ying; Hsieh, Chang-Ming
This study investigated the relationship between urban early childhood teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education and personal characteristics, professional background, and programme context. Questionnaires were completed by teachers (n = 130) who taught preschool children in primarily low-income, urban neighbourhoods. Attitude ratings were…
Vaart, van der W.
Survey questionnaires commonly include retrospective questions on attitudes as a substitute for concurrently obtained assessments. Empirical studies have shown that these retrospectively obtained attitudes often deviate seriously from the attitudes for which they are substitutes: the attitude that
Zimmermann, Natalie; Küng, Kaspar; Sereika, Susan M; Engberg, Sandra; Sexton, Bryan; Schwendimann, René
Improving patient safety has become a major focus of clinical care and research over the past two decades. An institution's patient safety climate represents an essential component of ensuring a safe environment and thereby can be vital to the prevention of adverse events. Covering six patient safety related factors, the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) is a validated and widely used instrument to measure the patient safety climate in clinical areas. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the German language version of the SAQ. A survey was carried out in two University Hospitals in Switzerland in autumn 2009 where the SAQ was distributed to a sample of 406 nurses and physicians in medical and surgical wards. Following the American Educational Research Association guidelines, we tested the questionnaire validity by levels of evidence: content validity, internal structure and relations to other variables. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine factor structure. Cronbach's alphas and inter-item correlations were calculated to examine internal consistency reliability. A total of 319 questionnaires were completed representing an overall response rate of 78.6%. For three items, the item content validity index was <0.75. Confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable model fit (RMSEA = 0.045; CFI = 0.944) for the six-factor model. Additional exploratory factor analysis could not identify a better factor model. SAQ factor scores showed positive correlations with the Safety Organizing Scale (r = .56-.72). The SAQ German version showed moderate to strong internal consistency reliability indices (Cronbach alpha = .65-.83). The German language version of the SAQ demonstrated acceptable to good psychometric properties and therefore shows promise to be a sound instrument to measure patient safety climate in Swiss hospital wards. However, the low item content validity and large number of missing responses for several items suggest
Mah Zhi Jian
Full Text Available This research investigates the attitude of 60 primary and secondary school teachers towards English in Batu Anam. A questionnaire was administered to find out whether they have a positive or a negative attitude towards the English language. Results indicate that teachers in Batu Anam generally have a positive attitude towards English. Comparison between male and female teachers, optionist and non-optionist teachers and teachers from different types of schools are also analyzed.
Uçar, Asli; Ozdoğan, Yahya; Ozçelik, Ayşe Özfer
This study was conducted in the Ankara Province of Turkey to determine the attitudes of adult consumers toward food consumption and purchasing activities. The data were collected by conducting face-to-face interviews with 700 adults working in ministries (government office) to fill in a questionnaire prepared especially for this purpose. The responses to the questionnaire were evaluated by assigning points for the "food-consumption-and-purchasing attitudes" of each respondent based on their replies. These food-consumption-and-purchasing attitude points have been then analyzed in terms of the gender, age, and educational level of the adults involved. The results showed that women, the 30-39 age group, and university graduates have a higher score of food-consumption-and-purchasing attitude points than do men, the age group comprising respondents < 30 and ≥ 40 years of age, and those with lower education levels, respectively. A statistically significantly relation was observed between food-consumption-and-purchasing attitude points and age.
Jarrah, Samiha Suhail; Kamel, Andaleeb Abu
The purpose of this study was to (i) investigate attitude and menstruation-related practices in Jordanian school-aged girls; (ii) identify the influence of premenstrual preparation on girls' attitude and menstruation-related practices. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Data was collected from a convenience sample of 490 school-age girls (12-18 years) from different districts in Jordan. Self-report instruments [Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ), and Menstrual Practices Questionnaires (MPQ)] were used to assess the study variables. Descriptive statistics, correlation and chi-square tests were used to analyze the data. It was found that menstrual attitude and practices were positively correlated. Poor attitude toward menstruation and low menstrual practices were significantly associated with inadequate premenstrual preparation. There is a need to prepare girls for menstruation before menarche. The role of the schools and teachers should be reinforced through formal and well planned reproductive health educators for girls and their mothers. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Matsubara, Hiroki; Enami, Miki; Hirose, Keiko; Kamikura, Takahisa; Nishi, Taiki; Takei, Yutaka; Inaba, Hideo
To determine the effect of Japanese obligatory basic life support training for new driver's license applicants on their willingness to carry out basic life support. We distributed a questionnaire to 9,807 participants of basic life support courses in authorized driving schools from May 2007 to April 2008 after the release of the 2006 Japanese guidelines. The questionnaire explored the participants' willingness to perform basic life support in four hypothetical scenarios: cardiopulmonary resuscitation on one's own initiative; compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation following telephone cardiopulmonary resuscitation; early emergency call; and use of an automated external defibrillator. The questionnaire was given at the beginning of the basic life support course in the first 6-month term and at the end in the second 6-month term. The 9,011 fully completed answer sheets were analyzed. The training significantly increased the proportion of respondents willing to use an automated external defibrillator and to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation on their own initiative in those with and without prior basic life support training experience. It significantly increased the proportion of respondents willing to carry out favorable actions in all four scenarios. In multiple logistic regression analysis, basic life support training and prior training experiences within 3 years were associated with the attitude. The analysis of reasons for unwillingness suggested that the training reduced the lack of confidence in their skill but did not attenuate the lack of confidence in detection of arrest or clinical judgment to initiate a basic life support action. Obligatory basic life support training should be carried out periodically and modified to ensure that participants gain confidence in judging and detecting cardiac arrest.
Perbøll, Penille Wimmer; Hammer, N. M.; Østergaard, Birte
AIM: The aim of this study was to examine Danish emergency nurses' attitudes toward people hospitalized after an acetaminophen poisoning. Furthermore, the study examined the relationship between attitudes and factors such as age, gender, and education on self-harm. METHODS: A cross-sectional design...... was applied. Nurses from seven emergency departments (EDs) in a region in Denmark were asked to complete the Danish version of Attitudes towards Deliberate Self-Harm Questionnaire (ADSHQ). RESULTS: Of the 254 eligible nurses working in the ED, 122 returned the questionnaires, leaving the response rate at 48......%. Results show that the emergency nurses generally held positive attitudes toward patients with acetaminophen poisoning. Nurses with longer ED experience held more positive attitudes, and women scored significantly higher than men on the whole scale. Only 19% of the respondents had received education...
Putyński, Leszek; Paciorek, Mariusz
Self-report Labour Anxiety Questionnaire (KLP II) was developed to asses the level of labour anxiety in pregnant women. This short tool consists of 9 items, which include attitudes toward labour and fear of labour. The questionnaire was valided on 53 pregnant women. The results of the study indicate that the Labour Anxiety Questionnaire (KLP II) is reliable and valid method to identify pregnant women with high level of labour anxiety.
Mirzaei, Ramazan; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Sadegh Sabagh, Mohammad; Ansari Moghaddam, Alireza; Eslami, Vahid; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
Evaluating the relation between Iranian drivers' knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding traffic regulations, and their deterministic effect on road traffic crashes (RTCs). Two cities of Tehran and Zahedan, Iran. A cross-sectional study was designed. Using a simplified cluster sampling design, 2200 motor vehicle drivers including 1200 in Tehran and 1000 in Zahedan were selected. Sixty locations in Tehran and 50 in Zahedan were chosen. In each pre-identified location, 20 adult drivers were approached consecutively. A questionnaire developed by researchers was filled by each participant. The questionnaire had four sections including items assessing the demographics, knowledge, attitude and practice of drivers toward traffic regulations. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between the RTCs and KAP variables. The study sample consisted of 619 (28.1%) occupational and 1580 (71.8%) private drivers. Among them, 86.4% were male. The median age was 33.6 ± 10.83. Drivers in Tehran and Zahedan had no significant differences between their mean scores of KAP items of the questionnaire. Higher knowledge, safer attitude, and safer practice were associated with a decreased number of RTC. After adjusting for possible confounders, increase of one standard deviation in attitude and practice scores (but not knowledge) resulted in 26.4% and 18.5% decrease in RTC, respectively. Finally, considering knowledge, attitude and practice of drivers in one model to assess their mutual effect, it was shown that only attitude is significantly associated with a decrease of RTC (OR=0.76, P=0.007). Increase in attitude and practice accompanied with decreased number of RTCs in Iranian drivers. Specifically, drivers' attitude had the crucial effect. It is not knowledge and standard traffic education; rather it is how such education is registered as an attitude that translates what is being learned into actions. Without safer attitude, even safer self
Nekuei, Nafisehsadat; Zirakidana, Akram; Kazemi, Ashraf; Beigi, Nastaran Mohhamad Ali; Alijanpoor, Masoomeh
Gender role attitude pertains to individuals' attitude toward proper role activities for men and women. Most of the factors relevant to family and society may affect individuals' attitudes toward their role. Meanwhile, parents' behaviors can act as an important factor in formation of different dimensions of children's personality. Accordingly, the present study was aimed to investigate the relationship between maltreatment and girls' attitudes toward parental and marital roles. This cross-sectional correlational study was conducted in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2013 with 190 female students as the sample. Participants were selected using the random-proportional sampling method. A demographic questionnaire, researcher-made maltreatment questionnaire, and Homami's gender role attitudes questionnaire were used as the data collection instruments. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney tests. Results indicated that the feminine attitude was the dominant attitude in gender roles. Findings also revealed no significant correlation between the type of gender role attitude in parental role and maltreatment. However, the correlation was meaningful in marital role of sexual and fertility affairs ( P = 0.02). Results revealed that participants had traditional female attitudes toward their gender roles in two aspects. First, taking the cultural domination on attitudes into account, that type of attitude is appreciated in which the individual feels relaxed and has an acceptable performance in the society. Furthermore, to promote certain types of attitudes, the entire socio-cultural and economic dimensions of the society must be taken into account. Family and social policy makings are regarded as starting points for different attitudes toward maltreatment.
Rodrigue, James R; Luskin, Richard; Nelson, Helen; Glazier, Alexandra; Henderson, Galen V; Delmonico, Francis L
Unfavorable attitudes and insufficient knowledge about donation after cardiac death among critical care providers can have important consequences for the appropriate identification of potential donors, consistent implementation of donation after cardiac death policies, and relative strength of support for this type of donation. The lack of reliable and valid assessment measures has hampered research to capture providers' attitudes. Design and Research Aims: Using stakeholder engagement and an iterative process, we developed a questionnaire to measure attitudes of donation after cardiac death in critical care providers (n = 112) and examined its psychometric properties. Exploratory factor analysis, internal consistency, and validity analyses were conducted to examine the measure. A 34-item questionnaire consisting of 4 factors (Personal Comfort, Process Satisfaction, Family Comfort, and System Trust) provided the most parsimonious fit. Internal consistency was acceptable for each of the subscales and the total questionnaire (Cronbach α > .70). A strong association between more favorable attitudes overall and knowledge ( r = .43, P donation after cardiac death ( P donation after cardiac death.
Eating attitude was evaluated using the EAT-26 questionnaire, lifestyle practice was assessed using the adapted health promoting lifestyle questionnaire (HPLP II) while 24-hour dietary recall and pretested food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the dietary intakes and pattern of the participants. Data were ...
Full Text Available Background: Eating attitude disorders may indicate an increased risk for eating disorders and their chronic health complications. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of eating attitude disorders and to identify the factors associated with them among female students in Tehran. Methods: A total of 14–18-year-old high school girls (N=619 completed a standardized self-report Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26 questionnaire and a demographic questionnaire. Mental health problems were investigated by means of the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 and the Generalized Anxiety Disorders-2. Results: Based on EAT-26 scores, 153 (24.7% students had eating attitude disorders. There was no relationship between abnormal eating attitudes and both individual and socioeconomic factors (P>0.05. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that eating attitude disorders were significantly associated with depression [OR=1.8 (1.2-2.8, P=0.007], anxiety [OR=1.6 (1.1-2.4, P=0.04], and perception of body shape as overweight [OR=2.7 (1.7-4.3, P<0.001]. Conclusion: A relatively high rate of eating attitude disorders was found among adolescent school girls in Tehran. Related factors were body image and psychological issues including depression and anxiety. Preventive and screening programs in schools could identify students at risk and prevent development and complications of eating disorders.
Seyedeh Shohreh Alavi
Full Text Available Background and purpose: Presently, the method of medical teaching has shifted from lecture-based to computer-based. The learning style may play a key role in the attitude toward learning computer. The goal of this study was to study the relationship between the learning style and attitude toward computer among Iranian medical students.Methods: This cross-sectional study included 400 medical students. Barsch learning style inventory and a questionnaire on the attitude toward computer was sent to each student. The enthusiasm, anxiety, and overall attitude toward computer were compared among the different learning styles.Results: The response rate to the questionnaire was 91.8%. The distribution of learning styles in the students was 181 (49.3% visual, 106 (28.9% auditory, 27 (7.4% tactual, and 53 (14.4% overall. Visual learners were less anxious for computer use and showed more positive attitude toward computer. Sex, age, and academic grade were not associated with students’ attitude toward computer.Conclusions: The learning style is an important factor in the students’ attitude toward computer among medical students, which should be considered in planning computer-based learning programs.Keywords: LEARNING STYLE, ATTITUDE, COMPUTER, MEDICAL STUDENT, ANXIETY, ENTHUSIASM
Malinen, Olli-Pekka; Savolainen, Hannu
A sample of 523 Chinese university students was given a questionnaire on their attitudes towards the inclusion of children with disabilities into regular classrooms. Factor analysis, analysis of variance, t-test and correlations were used to assess the respondents' general attitude towards inclusion, the factor structure of the attitudes, the…
Chęć, Magdalena; Potemkowski, Andrzej; Wąsik, Marta; Samochowiec, Agnieszka
A better functioning of adolescents involves proper relationships with parents, whereas negative relationships lead to aggressive behaviour. Young members of Emo subculture, characterised by deep emotional sensitivity, are particularly vulnerable to parental influence. The aim was to specify a relationship between parental attitudes and aggression among adolescents from the Emo subculture in comparison with a control group. 3,800 lower secondary school students took part in the introductory research. A target group constituted 41 people from the Emo subculture as well as a control group involving 48 people. A screening survey, the Parental Attitudes Scale, the Aggression Questionnaire and the author's questionnaire including questions concerning the functioning in the Emo subculture were used in the study. The results obtained in the research study suggest that there is a relationship between the indicated improper parental attitudes and aggressive behaviour among adolescents from the Emo subculture in comparison with the control group. In the Emo subculture, teenagers'aggressive behaviour is related to improper parental attitudes. It has been stated that mother's attitudes, irrespective of subculture, are much more strongly associated with the aggression among adolescents than father's attitudes. Moreover, aggressive behaviour in the Emo subculture occurs when father displays an excessively demanding attitude. A reduction of the level of almost all kinds of aggression manifested among teenagers from the Emo subculture is associated with mothers' attitude of acceptance. Mothers' autonomous attitude leads to an increase in the aggression in this group, whereas an inconsistent attitude of mothers fosters an increase in aggression among all teenagers.
This survey was carried out to assess attitudes and behaviour among youth within four constituencies in Oshana region, Namibia and to understand to how certain social and cultural factors inform attitudes and influence sexual behaviour among the population of young people surveyed. Using a structured questionnaire, ...
Noblett, Joanne E; Lawrence, Robert; Smith, Jared G
What are the attitudes of general hospital doctors toward patients with comorbid mental illness? Do certain characteristics of the health professional related to attitude valence to patients with comorbid mental illness? An anonymous questionnaire was sent out to a cohort of doctors working in three General Hospitals in South West London. The questionnaire included vignettes to assess the respondents' attitudes toward eight patients presenting with a physical compliant with different clinical histories, including depression, schizophrenia, personality disorder, diabetes, and criminal behavior. A total of 52 participants completed the questionnaire; 40 females and 12 males. Across all domains, the most positive attitudes were held toward patients without a diagnosis of mental illness. The least positive attitudes were toward patients with schizophrenia, personality disorder, and those classified as "criminals," and negative attitudes relating to the unpredictability of patients was identified in these categories. There was no statistically significant difference in attitudes depending on age or level of training. However, female participants tended to endorse more positive attitudinal responses, most clearly toward patients with depression and heroin addiction. Negative attitudes of doctors were identified toward certain mental illness diagnoses and are likely to contribute the physical health disparity between patients with and without a comorbid mental illness. This raises the question as to how these attitudes can be changed in order to improve the parity of physical health care between patient with and without mental illness. © The Author(s) 2015.
Fu, Sau Nga; Chin, Weng Yee; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Yeung, Vincent Tok Fai; Yiu, Ming Pong; Tsui, Hoi Yee; Chan, Ka Hung
To develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a Chinese questionnaire which assesses the barriers and enablers to commencing insulin in primary care patients with poorly controlled Type 2 diabetes. Questionnaire items were identified using literature review. Content validation was performed and items were further refined using an expert panel. Following translation, back translation and cognitive debriefing, the translated Chinese questionnaire was piloted on target patients. Exploratory factor analysis and item-scale correlations were performed to test the construct validity of the subscales and items. Internal reliability was tested by Cronbach's alpha. Twenty-seven identified items underwent content validation, translation and cognitive debriefing. The translated questionnaire was piloted on 303 insulin naïve (never taken insulin) Type 2 diabetes patients recruited from 10 government-funded primary care clinics across Hong Kong. Sufficient variability in the dataset for factor analysis was confirmed by Bartlett's Test of Sphericity (P 0.4 and Eigenvalues >1. Total variance for the 10 factors was 66.22%. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure was 0.725. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the first four factors were ≥0.6 identifying four sub-scales to which 13 items correlated. Remaining sub-scales and items with poor internal reliability were deleted. The final 13-item instrument had a four scale structure addressing: 'Self-image and stigmatization'; 'Factors promoting self-efficacy; 'Fear of pain or needles'; and 'Time and family support'. The Chinese Attitudes to Starting Insulin Questionnaire (Ch-ASIQ) appears to be a reliable and valid measure for assessing barriers to starting insulin. This short instrument is easy to administer and may be used by healthcare providers and researchers as an assessment tool for Chinese diabetic primary care patients, including the elderly, who are unwilling to start insulin.
Sau Nga Fu
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a Chinese questionnaire which assesses the barriers and enablers to commencing insulin in primary care patients with poorly controlled Type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD: Questionnaire items were identified using literature review. Content validation was performed and items were further refined using an expert panel. Following translation, back translation and cognitive debriefing, the translated Chinese questionnaire was piloted on target patients. Exploratory factor analysis and item-scale correlations were performed to test the construct validity of the subscales and items. Internal reliability was tested by Cronbach's alpha. RESULTS: Twenty-seven identified items underwent content validation, translation and cognitive debriefing. The translated questionnaire was piloted on 303 insulin naïve (never taken insulin Type 2 diabetes patients recruited from 10 government-funded primary care clinics across Hong Kong. Sufficient variability in the dataset for factor analysis was confirmed by Bartlett's Test of Sphericity (P 0.4 and Eigenvalues >1. Total variance for the 10 factors was 66.22%. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure was 0.725. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the first four factors were ≥0.6 identifying four sub-scales to which 13 items correlated. Remaining sub-scales and items with poor internal reliability were deleted. The final 13-item instrument had a four scale structure addressing: 'Self-image and stigmatization'; 'Factors promoting self-efficacy; 'Fear of pain or needles'; and 'Time and family support'. CONCLUSION: The Chinese Attitudes to Starting Insulin Questionnaire (Ch-ASIQ appears to be a reliable and valid measure for assessing barriers to starting insulin. This short instrument is easy to administer and may be used by healthcare providers and researchers as an assessment tool for Chinese diabetic primary care patients, including the elderly, who are
Haerkens, Marck Htm; van Leeuwen, Wouter; Sexton, J Bryan; Pickkers, Peter; van der Hoeven, Johannes G
As the first objective of caring for patients is to do no harm, patient safety is a priority in delivering clinical care. An essential component of safe care in a clinical department is its safety climate. Safety climate correlates with safety-specific behaviour, injury rates, and accidents. Safety climate in healthcare can be assessed by the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ), which provides insight by scoring six dimensions: Teamwork Climate, Job Satisfaction, Safety Climate, Stress Recognition, Working Conditions and Perceptions of Management. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Dutch language version of the SAQ in a variety of clinical departments in Dutch hospitals. The Dutch version (SAQ-NL) of the SAQ was back translated, and analyzed for semantic characteristics and content. From October 2010 to November 2015 SAQ-NL surveys were carried out in 17 departments in two university and seven large non-university teaching hospitals in the Netherlands, prior to a Crew Resource Management human factors intervention. Statistical analyses were used to examine response patterns, mean scores, correlations, internal consistency reliability and model fit. Cronbach's α's and inter-item correlations were calculated to examine internal consistency reliability. One thousand three hundred fourteen completed questionnaires were returned from 2113 administered to health care workers, resulting in a response rate of 62 %. Confirmatory Factor Analysis revealed the 6-factor structure fit the data adequately. Response patterns were similar for professional positions, departments, physicians and nurses, and university and non-university teaching hospitals. The SAQ-NL showed strong internal consistency (α = .87). Exploratory analysis revealed differences in scores on the SAQ dimensions when comparing different professional positions, when comparing physicians to nurses and when comparing university to non-university hospitals. The SAQ
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decade Poland has successfully carried out effective anti-tobacco campaigns and introduced tobacco control legislation. This comprehensive strategy has focused on the general population and has led to a considerable decrease in tobacco consumption. Prisoners constitute a relatively small part of the entire Polish population and smoking habits in this group have been given little attention. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking in Polish male prisoners, factors determining smoking in this group, prisoners' attitudes towards smoking cessation, and to evaluate prisoners' perception of different anti-tobacco measures. Methods An anonymous questionnaire including personal, demographic and smoking data was distributed among 944 male inmates. Of these, 907 men aged between 17 and 62 years (mean 32.3 years met the inclusion criteria of the study. For the comparison of proportions, a chi-square test was used with continuity correction whenever appropriate. Results In the entire group, 81% of the subjects were smokers, 12% – ex-smokers, and 7% – never smokers. Current smokers had significantly lower education level than non-smokers (p Conclusion The prevalence of cigarette smoking among Polish prisoners is high. However, a majority of smokers attempt to quit, and they should be encouraged and supported. Efforts to reduce cigarette smoking in prisons need to take into consideration the specific factors influencing smoking habits in prisons.
Okçu, Tuba Nur; Okcu, Tuba Nur
This thesis proposes to test the following three hypotheses: perceived political efficacy positively correlates with self-esteem; self-esteem positively correlates with perceived democratic parental attitude; and, lastly, self-esteem negatively correlates with perceived protective-demanding and perceived authoritarian parental attitudes. Two questionnaires (Q1 and Q2), each measure perceived political efficacy, selfesteem,and perceived parental attitudes. In Q2, the items of self-esteem and p...
Validity and reliability of the "German Utilization Questionnaire-Dissemination and Use of Research" to measure attitude, availability, and support toward implementation of research in nursing practice.
Haslinger-Baumann, Elisabeth; Lang, Gert; Müller, Gerhard
In nursing practice, research results have to undergo a systematic process of transformation. Currently in Austria, there is no empirical data available concerning the actual implementation of research results. An English validated questionnaire was translated into German and tested for validity and reliability. A survey of 178 registered nurses (n = 178) was conducted in a multicenter, quantitative, cross-sectional study in Austria in 2011. Cronbach's alpha values (.82-.92) were calculated for 4 variables ("use," "attitude," "availability," "support") after the reduction of 7 irrelevant items. Exploratory factor analysis was calculated with Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) ranging from .78 to .92; the total variance ranged from 46% to 56%. A validated German questionnaire concerning the implementation of research results is now available for the nursing practice.
Bebetsos, Evangelos; Antoniou, Panagiotis
The aim of this study was to discover the differences on attitudes of Greek Physical Education students towards the subject of computers, in comparison with their involvement in physical activities (PA). The sample consisted of 165 freshmen students, 93 males and 72 females. They completed the “Computer Attitude Scale” questionnaire (Selwyn, 1997) of 21 items which consist four factors (affect, perceived usefulness, perceived control and behavioural) Additionally, each student received a dia...
Kluit, M.J. van der; Goossens, P.J.J.; Leeuw, J.R.
In rehabilitation centers, many patients suffer a comorbid mental illness. Nurses have different attitudes toward these patients. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study among nurses in Dutch rehabilitation centers was undertaken to clarify the factors that underlie attitudes toward patients
Middleton, A.; Bragin, E.; Morley, K.I.; Parker, M
How can a researcher engage a participant in a survey, when the subject matter may be perceived as ‘challenging’ or even be totally unfamiliar to the participant? The Genomethics study addressed this via the creation and delivery of a novel online questionnaire containing 10 integrated films. The films documented various ethical dilemmas raised by genomic technologies and the survey ascertained attitudes towards these. Participants were recruited into the research using social media, traditional media and email invitation. The film-survey strategy was successful: 11,336 initial hits on the survey website led to 6944 completed surveys. Participants included from those who knew nothing of the subject matter through to experts in the field of genomics (61% compliance rate), 72% of participants answered every single question. This paper summarises the survey design process and validation methods applied. The recruitment strategy and results from the survey are presented elsewhere. PMID:24468445
Saksens, N.T.M.; Noyez, L.
Changes in smoking behaviour and attitudes of 2642 patients, undergoing cardiac surgery, between January 2000 and July 2008 were studied. All patients completed a preoperative questionnaire concerning smoking behaviour and attitude. Study endpoints are behaviour and attitude in relation to tobacco
Gerbild, H.; Larsen, C. M.; Rolander, B.
Students’ attitudes and educational needs regarding sexual health are important, since their ability to promote sexual health in their future profession can be challenged by their attitudes and knowledge of sexuality and sexual health. There are no existing Danish instruments able to measure...... students’ attitudes towards working with and communicating about sexual health; thus, to be able to use the Students’ Attitudes Towards Addressing Sexual Health (SA-SH) questionnaire in a Danish context, it is necessary to translate and test the translated questionnaire psychometrically. The aim...... of the SA-SH (SA-SH-D) had a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.67. The content validity index showed high relevance (item context validity index 0.82–1.0), and item scale correlation was satisfactory. The SA-SH-D is a valid and reliable questionnaire, which can be used to measure health care professional students...
Gary L. Beck Dallaghan
Full Text Available Background: Interprofessional education (IPE is an important component to training health care professionals. Research is limited in exploring the attitudes that faculty hold regarding IPE and what barriers they perceive to participating in IPE. The purpose of this study was to identify faculty attitudes about IPE and to identify barriers to participating in campus-wide IPE activities. Methods: A locally used questionnaire called the Nebraska Interprofessional Education Attitudes Scale (NIPEAS was used to assess attitudes related to interprofessional collaboration. Questions regarding perceived barriers were included at the end of the questionnaire. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were used to analyze the results in aggregate as well as by college. In addition, open-ended questions were analyzed using an immersion/crystallization framework to identify themes. Results: The results showed that faculty had positive attitudes of IPE, indicating that is not a barrier to participating in IPE activities. Most common barriers to participation were scheduling conflicts (x24,285=19.17, p=0.001, lack of department support (4,285=10.09, p=0.039, and lack of awareness of events (x24,285=26.38, p=0.000. Narrative comments corroborated that scheduling conflicts are an issue because of other priorities. Those who commented also added to the list of barriers, including relevance of the activities, location, and prior negative experiences. Discussion: With faculty attitudes being positive, the exploration of faculty's perceived barriers to IPE was considered even more important. Identifying these barriers will allow us to modify our IPE activities from large, campus-wide events to smaller activities that are longitudinal in nature, embedded within current curriculum and involving more authentic experiences.
Full Text Available Background: Gender role attitude pertains to individuals' attitude toward proper role activities for men and women. Most of the factors relevant to family and society may affect individuals' attitudes toward their role. Meanwhile, parents' behaviors can act as an important factor in formation of different dimensions of children's personality. Accordingly, the present study was aimed to investigate the relationship between maltreatment and girls' attitudes toward parental and marital roles. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional correlational study was conducted in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2013 with 190 female students as the sample. Participants were selected using the random-proportional sampling method. A demographic questionnaire, researcher-made maltreatment questionnaire, and Homami's gender role attitudes questionnaire were used as the data collection instruments. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, Kruskal–Wallis, and Mann–Whitney tests. Results: Results indicated that the feminine attitude was the dominant attitude in gender roles. Findings also revealed no significant correlation between the type of gender role attitude in parental role and maltreatment. However, the correlation was meaningful in marital role of sexual and fertility affairs (P = 0.02. Conclusions: Results revealed that participants had traditional female attitudes toward their gender roles in two aspects. First, taking the cultural domination on attitudes into account, that type of attitude is appreciated in which the individual feels relaxed and has an acceptable performance in the society. Furthermore, to promote certain types of attitudes, the entire socio-cultural and economic dimensions of the society must be taken into account. Family and social policy makings are regarded as starting points for different attitudes toward maltreatment.
Wadah Khriesat; Samantha Ismaile
Background Students nurses’ negative attitudes, misinformation and lack of support in relation to breastfeeding practice is a major contributing factor to decrease the prevalence and duration of breastfeeding. Aims To identify breastfeeding attitudes and knowledge among students in a nursing program. Methods A cross-sectional study using validated questionnaire was conducted. The questionnaire includes 8 multiple choice questions on breastfeeding management, 7...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about the determinants of participation and attitude towards the National Immunisation Program (NIP may be helpful in tailoring information campaigns for this program. Our aim was to determine which factors were associated with nonparticipation in the NIP and which ones were associated with parents' intention to accept remaining vaccinations. Further, we analyzed possible changes in opinion on vaccination over a 10 year period. Methods We used questionnaire data from two independent, population-based, cross-sectional surveys performed in 1995-96 and 2006-07. For the 2006-07 survey, logistic regression modelling was used to evaluate what factors were associated with nonparticipation and with parents' intention to accept remaining vaccinations. We used multivariate multinomial logistic regression modelling to compare the results between the two surveys. Results Ninety-five percent of parents reported that they or their child (had participated in the NIP. Similarly, 95% reported they intended to accept remaining vaccinations. Ethnicity, religion, income, educational level and anthroposophic beliefs were important determinants of nonparticipation in the NIP. Parental concerns that played a role in whether or not they would accept remaining vaccinations included safety of vaccinations, maximum number of injections, whether vaccinations protect the health of one's child and whether vaccinating healthy children is necessary. Although about 90% reported their opinion towards vaccination had not changed, a larger proportion of participants reported to be less inclined to accept vaccination in 2006-07 than in 1995-96. Conclusion Most participants had a positive attitude towards vaccination, although some had doubts. Groups with a lower income or educational level or of non-Western descent participated less in the NIP than those with a high income or educational level or indigenous Dutch and have been less well identified
Chow, Tan; Wolfe, Edward W; Olson, Beth H
Manager attitude is influential in female employees' perceptions of workplace breastfeeding support. Currently, no instrument is available to assess manager attitude toward supporting women who wish to combine breastfeeding with work. We developed and piloted an instrument to measure manager attitudes toward workplace breastfeeding support entitled the "Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire," an instrument that measures four constructs using 60 items that are rated agree/disagree on a 4-point Likert rating scale. We established the content validity of the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire measures through expert content review (n=22), expert assessment of item fit (n=11), and cognitive interviews (n=8). Data were collected from a purposive sample of 185 front-line managers who had experience supervising female employees, and responses were scaled using the Multidimensional Random Coefficients Multinomial Logit Model. Dimensionality analyses supported the proposed four-construct model. Reliability ranged from 0.75 to 0.86, and correlations between the constructs were moderately strong (0.47 to 0.71). Four items in two constructs exhibited model-to-data misfit and/or a low score-measure correlation. One item was revised and the other three items were retained in the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire. Findings of this study suggest that the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire measures are reliable and valid indicators of manager attitude toward workplace breastfeeding support, and future research should be conducted to establish external validity. The Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire could be used to collect data in a standardized manner within and across companies to measure and compare manager attitudes toward supporting breastfeeding. Organizations can subsequently develop targeted strategies to improve support for breastfeeding
Full Text Available Objetivo: La necesidad de generar instrumentos válidos y fiables para medir aspectos relacionados con la higiene de manos es importante para conocer la situación actual y el impacto de las acciones formativas en los profesionales. El objetivo principal del trabajo es validar un cuestionario sobre higiene de manos en médicos y analizar sus propiedades de la medida. Método: Estudio instrumental en el cual se elaboró un cuestionario que se aplicó entre enero de 2010 y marzo de 2011 en el Hospital Clínico San Cecilio (Granada. Éste constó finalmente de 44 ítems que evalúan la conducta del profesional médico antes y después del contacto con el paciente, los conocimientos declarativos y las actitudes sobre la higiene de manos. Se aplicó a 113 profesionales. Resultados: Tras realizar los análisis factoriales se obtuvieron datos que avalan la unidimensionalidad de la herramienta, con un valor de convergencia general que explica el 39,289% de la varianza total y un valor alfa de Cronbach para elementos tipificados de 0,784. Hay diferencias significativas entre la conducta de higiene de manos antes y después del contacto con el paciente (t=-8,991; p Objective: Valid and reliable instruments to measure aspects of hand hygiene are needed to determine the current situation and impact of training among health professionals. The main objective of this study was to describe the development of a questionnaire on hand hygiene among health professionals and to analyze the properties of this instrument. Method: A questionnaire was designed and implemented between January 2010 and March 2011 at the Hospital Clínico San Cecilio (Granada, Spain. The final questionnaire consisted of 44 items that assessed provider behavior before and after contact with the patient, declarative knowledge, and attitudes to hand hygiene. The questionnaire was administered to 113 health professionals. Results: A factor analysis was performed. Data were obtained that
The aim of this research is to find out what’s attitude Swedish consumers have to Chinese food. The questionnaires based on the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) are handed out to 100 Swedish respondents in order to investigate their motivation on Chinese food choice. 78 questionnaires which were filled completely were selected for this study. Eleven factors involved in the questionnaire are labeled health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, familiarity, ...
Winkelhorst, Dian; Loeff, Rosanne M; van den Akker-Van Marle, M Elske; de Haas, Masja; Oepkes, Dick
Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia is a potentially life-threatening disease with excellent preventative treatment available for subsequent pregnancies. To prevent index cases, the effectiveness of a population-based screening program has been suggested repeatedly. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate women's attitude towards possible future human platelet antigen-screening in pregnancy. We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire study among healthy pregnant women receiving prenatal care in one of seven participating midwifery practices. Attitude was assessed using a questionnaire based on the validated Multidimensional Measurement of Informed Choice model, containing questions assessing knowledge, attitude and intention to participate. A total of 143 of the 220 women (65%) completed and returned the questionnaire. A positive attitude towards human platelet antigen-screening was expressed by 91% of participants, of which 94% was based on sufficient knowledge. Attitude was more likely to be negatively influenced by the opinion that screening can be frightening. Informed choices were made in 87% and occurred significantly less in women from non-European origin, 89% in European women vs. 60% in non-European women (p = 0.03). Pregnant women in the Netherlands expressed a positive attitude towards human platelet antigen-screening in pregnancy. We therefore expect a high rate of informed uptake when human platelet antigen-screening is implemented. In future counseling on human platelet antigen-screening, ethnicity and possible anxiety associated with a screening test need to be specifically addressed. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Jing, Shen; Lay, Alixe; Weis, Laura; Furnham, Adrian
The current study examined the relationship between traditional masculine traits and attitudes toward vibrator use, actual vibrator use, and frequency of vibrator use in China. In all, 235 Chinese females aged between 16 and 58 years completed a questionnaire regarding attitudes toward, and personal use of, vibrators. The results showed a positive association between masculine traits and attitudes toward women's vibrator use, attitudes toward vibrator use and actual vibrator use, as well as frequency of vibrator use. The findings revealed an indirect path in which masculinity influences actual and frequency of vibrator use through attitudes toward women's vibrator use. Limitations and implications of the study are discussed.
Full Text Available Objective: The study aimed to design and evaluate the content and face validity, and reliability of knowledge, attitude, and behavior questionnaire on preventive behaviors among vulnerable women concerning sexually transmitted diseases (STDs.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in two phases of an action research. In the first phase, to explain STDs preventive domains, 20 semi- structured interviews were conducted with the vulnerable women, residing at women prison and women referred to counseling centers. After analyzing content of interviews, three domains were identified: improve their knowledge, modify their attitude and change their behaviors. In the second phase, the questionnaire was designed and tested in a pilot study. Then, its content validity was evaluated. Face validity and reliability of the questionnaire were assessed by test re- test method and Cronbach alpha respectively.Results: Index of content validity in each three domain of the questionnaire (knowledge, attitude and behavior concerning STDs was obtained over 0.6. Overall content validity index was 0.86 in all three domains of the questionnaire. The Cronbach’s alpha as reliability of questionnaire was 0.80 for knowledge, 0.79 for attitude and 0.85 for behavior.Conclusion: The results showed that the designed questionnaire was a valid and reliable tool to measure knowledge, attitude and behavior of vulnerable women, predisposed to risk of STDs.
Divsalar, Kouros; Nejadnaderi, Samira; Nakhaee, Nowzar; Rouhani, Saed
Given the university students' model role in the society and the importance of period of university education in selecting behavioral methods and lifestyles in the future have made it necessary to study the smoking pattern and its associated factors and complications among students. The aim of this study was to compare religious attitude and mental health between smoking and non-smoking students. In this research, religious attitude and mental health was studied in 1065 smoking and non-smoking students of Kerman University of Medical Sciences. In this study, three questionnaires were used (Demographic Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire and Religious Attitude Scale Questionnaire) which were completed by the students voluntarily. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistic methods, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), t-test, Pearson correlation, and regression coefficient. The mean age of smokers was 20 years and most of the smokers were male (78.9%), single (86.5%) and in BS or BA degree (52.5%). Most of them smoked a cigarette or more in the past month. The average age of start of smoking was 18 years. There was no significant difference between religious attitude and mental health in smoking students in terms of gender but in non-smoking students there was a significant difference in this regard. Smoking students had lower mental health status and religious attitude in comparison with non-smoking students. Between religious attitude and general health in smoking and non-smoking students was also a direct association. Due to psychological and physiological consequences of cigarette smoking, promoting smoking prevention by religious missionaries and university professors, and helping the students to quit smoking by counselors, psychologists and psychiatrics are necessary.
Hough, K J; Erwin, P G
Children's attitudes toward television violence were studied. A 47-item questionnaire collecting attitudinal and personal information was administered to 316 children aged 11 to 16 years. Cluster analysis was used to split the participants into two groups based on their attitudes toward television violence. A stepwise discriminant function analysis was performed to determine which personal characteristics would predict group membership. The only significant predictor of attitudes toward violence on television was the amount of television watched on school days (p < .05), but we also found that the impact of other predictor variables may have been mediated by this factor.
Ghulami, Hassan Rahnaward; Ab Hamid, Mohd Rashid; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah
Many statistics lecturers and statistics education researchers are interested to know the perception of their students' attitudes toward statistics during the statistics course. In statistics course, positive attitude toward statistics is a vital because it will be encourage students to get interested in the statistics course and in order to master the core content of the subject matters under study. Although, students who have negative attitudes toward statistics they will feel depressed especially in the given group assignment, at risk for failure, are often highly emotional, and could not move forward. Therefore, this study investigates the students' attitude towards learning statistics. Six latent constructs have been the measurement of students' attitudes toward learning statistic such as affect, cognitive competence, value, difficulty, interest, and effort. The questionnaire was adopted and adapted from the reliable and validate instrument of Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics (SATS). This study is conducted among engineering undergraduate engineering students in the university Malaysia Pahang (UMP). The respondents consist of students who were taking the applied statistics course from different faculties. From the analysis, it is found that the questionnaire is acceptable and the relationships among the constructs has been proposed and investigated. In this case, students show full effort to master the statistics course, feel statistics course enjoyable, have confidence that they have intellectual capacity, and they have more positive attitudes then negative attitudes towards statistics learning. In conclusion in terms of affect, cognitive competence, value, interest and effort construct the positive attitude towards statistics was mostly exhibited. While negative attitudes mostly exhibited by difficulty construct.
Amo, Michael F.; Bittner, John R.
Questionnaire attempts to determine attitudes in effort to learn how students perceive danger, or lack of it, in the use of marihuana. Tabulated responses are presented, and while no conclusions are drawn several interpretations are suggested. (Author/CJ)
Background Improving patient safety has become a major focus of clinical care and research over the past two decades. An institution’s patient safety climate represents an essential component of ensuring a safe environment and thereby can be vital to the prevention of adverse events. Covering six patient safety related factors, the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) is a validated and widely used instrument to measure the patient safety climate in clinical areas. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the German language version of the SAQ. Methods A survey was carried out in two University Hospitals in Switzerland in autumn 2009 where the SAQ was distributed to a sample of 406 nurses and physicians in medical and surgical wards. Following the American Educational Research Association guidelines, we tested the questionnaire validity by levels of evidence: content validity, internal structure and relations to other variables. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine factor structure. Cronbach’s alphas and inter-item correlations were calculated to examine internal consistency reliability. Results A total of 319 questionnaires were completed representing an overall response rate of 78.6%. For three items, the item content validity index was <0.75. Confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable model fit (RMSEA = 0.045; CFI = 0.944) for the six-factor model. Additional exploratory factor analysis could not identify a better factor model. SAQ factor scores showed positive correlations with the Safety Organizing Scale (r = .56 - .72). The SAQ German version showed moderate to strong internal consistency reliability indices (Cronbach alpha = .65 - .83). Conclusions The German language version of the SAQ demonstrated acceptable to good psychometric properties and therefore shows promise to be a sound instrument to measure patient safety climate in Swiss hospital wards. However, the low item content validity and large number
The aim of this study was to investigate the concepts of objectification and self-objectification among young women in the context of attitudes towards menstruation, menstrual suppression, menstrual and menarche experiences, disorder eating and exercise habits and to detect predictors of objectification and self-objectification. The negative effects of objectification are well founded. Considering the central role menstruation plays in female biology, it comes as quite a surprise that so little attention is given to the subject in the research on objectification. Cross-sectional explorative survey design. A questionnaire that included the Self-Objectification Questionnaire, the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale, the Belief and Attitudes Towards Menstruation Questionnaire and the Suppress Menstruation subscale of the Attitudes Towards Menstrual Suppression Questionnaire was administered at the end of 2013 to 319 Icelandic women who represented the population by age. A stepwise multiple linear regression model was employed to calculate significant predictors of objectification and self-objectification. Four models of objectification are presented: the self-objectification model, the body surveillance model, the body shame model and the control belief model. Taken together, the strongest predictors of these models were related to eating habits. However, the findings also support the proposition that menstrual-related experiences influence women's objectification, particularly in terms of age at menarche, of belief in the prescriptive role of menstruation and of use of pain medication for menstrual pain. Healthcare providers in general and nurses in particular could and should assist girls and women in developing a positive view of their body and its reproductive functions by discussing the body and menstruation based on women's concerns. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Saher, Marieke; Lindeman, Marjaana; Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto
Finnish students (N=3261) filled out a questionnaire on attitudes towards genetically modified and organic food, plus the rational-experiential inventory, the magical thinking about food and health scale, Schwartz's value survey and the behavioural inhibition scale. In addition, they reported their eating of meat. Structural equation modelling of these measures had greater explanatory power for attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods than for attitudes towards organic foods (OF). GM attitudes were best predicted by natural science education and magical food and health beliefs, which mediated the influence of thinking styles. Positive attitudes towards organic food, on the other hand, were more directly related to such individual differences as thinking styles and set of values. The results of the study indicate that OF attitudes are rooted in more fundamental personal attributes than GM attitudes, which are embedded in a more complex but also in a more modifiable network of characteristics.
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL learners’ use of vocabulary learning strategies and their autonomy with a focus on the gender. To meet this objective, 82(39 males and 43 females sophomore and junior students majoring in English Language Teaching who had passed at least 45 credits at Tabriz Azad University, in Iran were asked to take part in the study by filling the questionnaires on learner autonomy (LAQ and vocabulary learning strategies (VLSQ. After discarding incomplete questionnaires, 70 acceptable cases were used in the statistical analysis. Correlation analysis indicated a statistically significant and positive relationship between Iranian EFL learners’ use of vocabulary learning strategies and their autonomy for both male and female students. The findings can have some pedagogical implications for teachers.
Ambusaidi, Abdullah; Al-Farei, Khalid
A 30-item questionnaire was designed to determine Omani science teachers' attitudes toward teaching science and whether or not these attitudes differ according to gender and teaching experiences of teachers. The questionnaire items were divided into 3 domains: classroom preparation, managing hands-on science, and development appropriateness. The…
The Validity and Reliability Characteristics of the M-BACK Questionnaire to Assess the Barriers, Attitudes, Confidence, and Knowledge of Mental Health Staff Regarding Metabolic Health of Mental Health Service Users
Full Text Available BackgroundAddressing the burden of poor physical health and the subsequent gap in life expectancy experienced by people with mental illness is a major priority in mental health services. To equip mental health staff with the competence to deliver evidence-based interventions, targeted staff training regarding metabolic health is required. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of staff training regarding metabolic health, we aimed to develop a succinct measure to determine the barriers, attitudes, confidence, and knowledge of health practitioners through the development and test–retest reliability of the Metabolic-Barriers, Attitudes, Confidence, and Knowledge Questionnaire (M-BACK.MethodsThe M-BACK questionnaire was developed to evaluate the impact of specialized training in metabolic health care for mental health nurses. Content of the M-BACK was developed from a literature review and refined by an expert review panel and validated via a piloting process. To determine the test–retest reliability of the M-BACK, 31 nursing students recruited from the University of Notre Dame, Sydney completed the questionnaire on two separate occasions, 7 days apart. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs were calculated for the total score, as well as each of the four domains.ResultsPilot testing was undertaken with a sample of 106 mental health nurses with a mean age 48.2, ranging from 24 to 63 years of age, who participated in six training courses. Questionnaire development resulted in a 16-item instrument, with each item is scored on a five-point Likert scale ranging from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree.” Test–retest reliability of the M-BACK was completed by 30 of 31 nursing students recruited, ICCs ranged from 0.62 to 0.96.ConclusionThe M-BACK is a reliable measure of the key elements of practitioner perceptions of barriers, and their knowledge, attitudes, and confidence regarding metabolic monitoring in people with mental
Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Hassanpour, Kiana; Aramesh, Kiarash; Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hassan
The goal of this study was to assess attitude towards plagiarism in faculty members of Medical School at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. One hundred and twenty medical faculty members of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. They were asked to answer to valid and reliable Persian version of attitude towards plagiarism questionnaire. Attitude toward plagiarism, positive attitude toward self-plagiarism and plagiarism acceptance were assessed. Eighty seven filled-up questionnaires were collected. Mean total number of correct answers was 11.6±3.1. Mean number of correct answers to questions evaluating self-plagiarism was 1.7±0.4 and mean number of correct answers to questions evaluating plagiarism acceptance was 1.4±0.2. There was no significant correlation between plagiarism acceptance and self-plagiarism (r=0.17, P=0.1). It is essential to provide materials (such as workshops, leaflets and mandatory courses) to make Iranian medical faculty members familiar with medical research ethics issues such as plagiarism.
Seyed Hassan Emami-Razavi
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess attitude towards plagiarism in faculty members of Medical School at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. One hundred and twenty medical faculty members ofTehran University of Medical Sciences were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. They were asked to answer to valid and reliable Persian version of attitude towards plagiarism questionnaire. Attitude toward plagiarism, positive attitude toward self-plagiarism and plagiarism acceptance were assessed. Eighty seven filled-up questionnaires were collected. Mean total number of correct answers was 11.6 ± 3.1. Mean number of correct answers to questions evaluating self-plagiarism was 1.7 ± 0.4 and mean number of correct answers to questions evaluating plagiarism acceptance was 1.4 ± 0.2. There was no significant correlation between plagiarism acceptance and self-plagiarism (r=0.17, P=0.1. It is essential to provide materials (such as workshops, leaflets and mandatory courses to make Iranian medical faculty members familiar with medicalresearch ethics issues such as plagiarism.
Fernández-Prada, María; Ramos-Martín, Pedro; Madroñal-Menéndez, Jaime; Martínez-Ortega, Carmen; González-Cabrera, Joaquín
Immunization rates among medicine and nursing students -and among health professional in general- during hospital training are low. It is necessary to investigate the causes for these low immunization rates. The objective of this study was to design and validate a questionnaire for exploring the attitudes and behaviours of medicine and nursing students toward immunization of vaccine-preventable diseases. An instrument validation study. The sample included 646 nursing and medicine students at University of Oviedo, Spain. It was a non-ramdom sampling. After the content validation process, a 24-item questionnaire was designed to assess attitudes and behaviours/behavioural intentions. Reliability (ordinal alpha), internal validity (exploratory factor analysis by parellel analysis), ANOVA and mediational model tests were performed. Exploratory factor analysis yielded two factors which accounted for 48.8% of total variance. Ordinal alpha for the total score was 0.92. Differences were observed across academic years in the dimensions of attitudes (F5.447=3.728) and knowledge (F5.448=65.59), but not in behaviours/behavioural intentions (F5.461=1.680). Attitudes demonstrated to be a moderating variable of knowledge and attitudes/behavioural attitudes (Indirect effect B=0.15; SD=0.3; 95% CI:0.09-0.19). We developed a questionnaie based on sufficient evidence of reliability and internal validity. Scores on attitudes and knowledge increase with the academic year. Attitudes act as a moderating variable between knowledge and behaviours/behavioural intentions.
Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol
The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…
Full Text Available A questionnaire-based survey was conducted on a sample of 238 parents whose children attend the third and fourth grades in two Belgrade elementary schools: “Oslobodioci Beograda” and “Borislav Pekic”. The aim of this study was to deter¬mi¬ne the incidence of outdoor activities and the attitude of the third and fourth graders’ parents towards it. Statistical data processing was based on the use of the –R, and every question represented a random variable. The analysis of the collected data has proved the presence of outdoor activities among these pupils and their positive attitude towards camping out, as well as a positive attitude of their parents.
Petek Šter, Marija; Švab, Igor; Klemenc-Ketiš, Zalika; Kersnik, Janko
The development of the EURACT (European Academy of Teachers in General Practice) Educational Agenda helped many family medicine departments in development of clerkship and the aims and objectives of family medicine teaching. Our aims were to develop and validate a tool for assessment of students’ attitudes towards family medicine and to evaluate the impact of the clerkship on students’ attitudes regarding the competences of family doctor. In the pilot study, experienced family doc...
This study questions the presumed relation between formal schooling and scientific literacy about biotechnologies. Comparing science and nonscience majors' knowledge of and attitudes toward biotechnological applications, conclusions are drawn if their formal learnings improve pupils' understandings of and attitudes toward biotechnology applications. Sample of the study consists of 403 undergraduate and graduate students, 198 nonscience, and 205 science majors. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire and the Biotechnology Attitude Questionnaire were administered. Descriptive statistics (mean and percentages), t test, and correlations were used to examine the participants' knowledge of biotechnology and attitudes toward biotechnological applications and differences as regards their majors. Although the science majors had higher knowledge and attitude scores than the nonscience majors, it is not possible to say that they have sufficient knowledge of biotechnologies. Besides, the participants' attitudes toward biotechnological applications were not considerably related to their knowledge of biotechnology. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(2):115-125, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Smith, Haylie; Perez, Marisol; Sladek, Michael R; Becker, Carolyn Black; Ohrt, Tara K; Bruening, Amanda B
Body acceptance programs on college campuses indicated that collegiate women often report feeling pressure to dress in a sexualized manner, and use makeup to enhance beauty. Currently, no quantitative measures exist to assess attitudes and daily behaviors that may arise in response to perceived pressure to wear makeup or dress in a provocative manner. The goal of the current studies was to develop brief self-report questionnaires aimed at assessing makeup and sexualized clothing use and attitudes in young women. An exploratory factor analysis in a sample of 403 undergraduate women was used in Study 1 to create items to measure the pressure women feel to wear makeup and sexualized clothing. A confirmatory factor analysis ( N = 153) was used in Study 2 to confirm the factor structure found in Study 1. An incremental validity analysis was also conducted in Study 2. Across both studies, participants completed online questionnaires. In Study 1, items were developed for two questionnaires to assess perceived pressure to wear makeup and discomfort when not wearing makeup, and perceived pressure to wear sexualized clothing, and body image concerns with regards to sexualized clothing. The exploratory factor analyses revealed Unconfident and Unease scales for the Makeup Questionnaire (MUQ) and Body Dissatisfaction and Pressure scales for the Sexualized Clothing Questionnaire (SCQ). In Study 2, the confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the factor structure for the MUQ and SCQ. The incremental validity analysis revealed that these measures can be used to predict self-objectification and shape and weight concern in women. These studies provide preliminary support for the factor structure of two novel questionnaires aimed at assessing perceived pressure to wear makeup and sexualized clothing.
Corgiat, Claudia A; Templer, Donald I
The purpose was to estimate the relation of attitude toward body elimination in 93 college students (27 men and 66 women), to authoritarian personality features, participants' perception of their mothers' parenting style, and attitudes toward cleanliness, sex, and family nudity. Subjects were administered the Body Elimination Attitude Scale, the Four-item F Scale, the Parental Authority Questionnaire Pertaining to Mothers, and the items "Sex is dirty," "Cleanliness is next to godliness," and "Children should never see other family members nude." Larger scores for disgust toward body elimination were associated with authoritarian personality characteristics, being less likely to describe mother's parenting style as authoritative (open communication) and more likely to describe it as authoritarian and lower scores for tolerance for family nudity. Implications for further research were suggested.
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess attitudes and willingness of caring for patients infected with HIV in South Africa among 122 nursing students using self-administered questionnaires. Majority of the nursing students possess positive attitudes towards patients infected with HIV and are more than willing ...
Duerink, D.O.; Hadi, U.; Lestari, E.S.; Roeshadi, D.; Wahyono, H.; Nagelkerke, N.J.; Meulen, R.G.; Broek, P.J.A. van den
Aim: to investigate knowledge, attitude and behaviour toward infection control in two teaching hospitals on the island of Java by means of a questionnaire and to evaluate the use of the questionnaire as a tool. Methods: we investigated knowledge, attitude and behaviour toward infection control in
Costarelli, V; Demerzi, M; Stamou, D
A number of different psychological factors have been implicated in the multifactorial aetiology of disordered eating (DE) attitudes and behaviours; however, the possible role of emotional intelligence in DE symptomatology has not been thoroughly investigated in the past. The present study aimed to explore the possible differences in emotional intelligence, body image and anxiety levels in young females with DE attitudes and healthy controls. A total of 92 Greek female university students, 18-30 years old, were recruited. Subjects completed the following questionnaires: the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Multidimensional Body-Self Questionnaire (MBRSQ), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the BarOn Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (BarOn EQ-I). The EAT-26 revealed that 23% of the subjects presented DE attitudes. Women in the DE attitudes group had lower levels of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in comparison to the control group, particularly in factors such as emotional self-awareness (P emotional intelligence, such as emotional self-awareness and interpersonal relationships, which is an important finding in terms of the prevention and management of DE, and warrants further investigation.
Borhan, Mohamad Termizi; Ismail, Zurida
Purpose: The study investigated the environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviours exhibited by the pre-service teachers and determined if there was any significant relationship between environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. Method: This descriptive study adopted a quantitative approach using questionnaires to obtain information on…
Sutherland, H J; da Cunha, R; Lockwood, G A; Till, J E
The theory of reasoned action, which postulates that personal attitudes and external social influences predict intentions to undertake a behavior, was used as a conceptual framework for developing a questionnaire to elicit beliefs and attitudes associated with the decision to participate in a hypothetical cancer chemotherapy trial. After completing the questionnaire, two-thirds of the 150 respondents indicated they would enroll in such a trial if it were available. Considerable variation existed in both "universal" and "trial-specific" beliefs and attitudes underpinning their intentions. A substantial amount of the variance in "intention" to participate was explained by "attitude" alone (75%). Social influences, although statistically significant, made a mere 1% additional contribution. One interpretation is that subjective expected-utility theory, which essentially predicts beliefs or "attitude," is a better model. The authors conclude that both theories may be criticized regarding how well they capture the rationality and nuances of decision behavior.
Fariddanesh, Marjan; Rezaei, Ali Mohammad
The study aimed to predict the happiness of adolescents based on coping styles and religious attitudes. To this end, the correlational research methodology was used. In total, 381 subjects were selected from adolescents of Semnan (Eastern province of Iran), using multistage clustering sampling method. Research tools were Ways of Coping Questionnaire by Lazarus, Golriz and Barahani's Religious Attitude Questionnaire, and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire. Data analysis was performed in SPSS using Pearson's correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. Results of Pearson's correlation demonstrated a significant positive relationship between happiness of adolescents and variables of problem-focused coping styles (r = 0.31, P happiness (r = -0.184, P happiness in totality. According to the results, it is recommended that use of problem-focused styles be emphasized in addition to strengthening of religious attitudes to increase the happiness of adolescents.
Power, B T; Lennie, S C
Communication is a core skill and a prerequisite for dietitians' clinical competence. It is generally acknowledged that communication skills can be taught and learned. There is a paucity of published work identifying dietetic students' attitudes towards learning communication skills, and understanding this is important. The present cross-sectional study aimed to address this issue using an adapted version of the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS), which was designed to capture information concerning positive and negative attitudes to learning communication skills. An online questionnaire was sent to all undergraduate and post-graduate dietetic programmes in the UK. Of the students' solicited for enrolment in the study, 33.4% (n = 300) completed the questionnaire. A one-way analysis of variance showed attitudes to learning communication skills differed significantly between years of study on both subscales of the CSAS. Subsequent analyses indicated that first-year students' attitudes to learning communication skills were significantly more positive than those of fourth-year students (P = 0.042). Third-year students had significantly more positive attitudes to learning communication skills than fourth-year students (P = 0.028). Negative attitudes were also linked to the year of study with fourth-year students having significantly more negative attitudes than third-year students (P = 0.046). Sex, practice placement experience and parental occupation did not significantly influence attitudes to learning communication skills. These findings indicate that efforts are required to maintain positive attitudes to learning communication skills. Further longitudinal studies are recommended in this respect. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Barfoed, Benedicte Lind; Paulsen, Maja Skov; Christensen, Palle Mark
BACKGROUND: Poor adherence to medical treatment may have considerable consequences for the patients' health and for healthcare costs to society. The need to understand the determinants for poor adherence has motivated several studies on socio-demographics and comorbidity. Few studies focus...... on the association between risk attitude and adherence. The aim of the present study was to estimate associations between patients' adherence to statin treatment and different dimensions of risk attitude, and to identify subgroups of patients with poor adherence. METHODS: Population-based questionnaire and register......-based study on a sample of 6393 persons of the general. Danish population aged 20-79. Data on risk attitude were based on 4 items uncovering health-related as well as financial dimensions of risk attitude. They were collected through a web-based questionnaire and combined with register data on redeemed statin...
Banwari, G; Mistry, K; Soni, A; Parikh, N; Gandhi, H
Background and Rationale: Medical professionals’ attitude towards homosexuals affects health care offered to such patients with a different sexual orientation. There is absence of literature that explores the attitudes of Indian medical students or physicians towards homosexuality. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate Indian medical students and interns’ knowledge about homosexuality and attitude towards homosexuals. Materials and Methods: After IEC approval and written informed consent, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a purposive sample of undergraduate medical students and interns studying in one Indian medical college. The response rate was 80.5%. Only completely and validly filled responses (N = 244) were analyzed. The participants filled the Sex Education and Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire (SEKHQ) and the Attitudes towards Homosexuals Questionnaire (AHQ). SEKHQ consisted of 32 statements with response chosen from ‘true’, ‘false’, or ‘don’t know’. AHQ consisted of 20 statements scorable on a 5-point Likert scale. Multiple linear regression was used to find the predictors of knowledge and attitude. Results: Medical students and interns had inadequate knowledge about homosexuality, although they endorsed a neutral stance insofar as their attitude towards homosexuals is concerned. Females had more positive attitudes towards homosexuals. Knowledge emerged as the most significant predictor of attitude; those having higher knowledge had more positive attitudes. Conclusion: Enhancing knowledge of medical students by incorporation of homosexuality related health issues in the curriculum could help reduce prejudice towards the sexual minority and thus impact their future clinical practice. PMID:25766341
Banwari, G; Mistry, K; Soni, A; Parikh, N; Gandhi, H
Medical professionals' attitude towards homosexuals affects health care offered to such patients with a different sexual orientation. There is absence of literature that explores the attitudes of Indian medical students or physicians towards homosexuality. This study aimed to evaluate Indian medical students and interns' knowledge about homosexuality and attitude towards homosexuals. After IEC approval and written informed consent, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a purposive sample of undergraduate medical students and interns studying in one Indian medical college. The response rate was 80.5%. Only completely and validly filled responses (N = 244) were analyzed. The participants filled the Sex Education and Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire (SEKHQ) and the Attitudes towards Homosexuals Questionnaire (AHQ). SEKHQ consisted of 32 statements with response chosen from 'true', 'false', or 'don't know'. AHQ consisted of 20 statements scorable on a 5-point Likert scale. Multiple linear regression was used to find the predictors of knowledge and attitude. Medical students and interns had inadequate knowledge about homosexuality, although they endorsed a neutral stance insofar as their attitude towards homosexuals is concerned. Females had more positive attitudes towards homosexuals. Knowledge emerged as the most significant predictor of attitude; those having higher knowledge had more positive attitudes. Enhancing knowledge of medical students by incorporation of homosexuality related health issues in the curriculum could help reduce prejudice towards the sexual minority and thus impact their future clinical practice.
Holm, Søren; Hofmann, Bjørn
A precondition for reducing scientific misconduct is evidence about scientists' attitudes. We need reliable survey instruments, and this study investigates the reliability of Kalichman's "Survey 2: research misconduct" questionnaire. The study is a post hoc analysis of data from three surveys among biomedical doctoral students in Scandinavia (2010-2015). We perform reliability analysis, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis using a split-sample design as a partial validation. The results indicate that a reliable 13-item scale can be formed (Cronbach's α = .705), and factor analysis indicates that there are four reliable subscales each tapping a different construct: (a) general attitude to misconduct (α = .768), (b) attitude to personal misconduct (α = .784), (c) attitude to whistleblowing (α = .841), and (d) attitude to blameworthiness/punishment (α = .877). A full validation of the questionnaire requires further research. We, nevertheless, hope that the results will facilitate the increased use of the questionnaire in research.
Guyatt, G H; Cook, D J; Griffith, L; Walter, S D; Risdon, C; Liutkus, J
OBJECTIVE: To explore postgraduate medical trainees' attitudes toward the use of gender-inclusive language. DESIGN: Self-administered questionnaire. SETTING: Seven residency training programs at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., from July 1993 to June 1994. PARTICIPANTS: Of 225 residents in the programs, 186 responded to the survey, for a response rate of 82.7%. Men and women were equally represented among the respondents. OUTCOME MEASURES: Categorization of attitudes about the use of language as gender-inclusive or gender-exclusive; characteristics predicting a gender-inclusive attitude. RESULTS: Factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha (0.90) supported the existence of a construct related to attitudes about language use, the poles of which were categorized as gender-inclusive and gender-exclusive. The authors classified residents with respect to their attitudes to language use from their responses to the questionnaire. In univariate analyses, sex, residency program and country of graduation significantly predicted a gender-inclusive attitude (p < 0.01). Only the first 2 variables were significant in a multivariate model; residency program explained 18% of the variance and sex 3%. Residents in obstetrics and gynecology and psychiatry had the most gender-inclusive attitudes, whereas residents in surgery and anesthesia had the most gender-exclusive attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: Residents' values are reflected in the language they choose to use. Language use may provide an index of underlying attitudes that may create hostile environments for female trainees. PMID:9145055
Full Text Available Public attitudes to mental illness could influence how the public interact with, provide opportunities for, and help people with mental illness.This study aims to explore the underlying factors of the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the general population in Singapore and the socio-demographic correlates of each factor.From March 2014 to April 2015, a nation-wide cross-sectional survey on mental health literacy with 3,006 participants was conducted in Singapore.Factor analysis revealed a 4-factor structure for the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the Singapore general population, namely social distancing, tolerance/support for community care, social restrictiveness, and prejudice and misconception. Older age, male gender, lower education and socio-economic status were associated with more negative attitudes towards the mentally ill. Chinese showed more negative attitudes than Indians and Malays (except for prejudice and misconception.There is a need for culture-specific interventions, and the associated factors identified in this study should be considered for future attitude campaigns.
Yuan, Qi; Abdin, Edimansyah; Picco, Louisa; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Shahwan, Shazana; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Shafie, Saleha; Tay, Jenny; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily
Public attitudes to mental illness could influence how the public interact with, provide opportunities for, and help people with mental illness. This study aims to explore the underlying factors of the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the general population in Singapore and the socio-demographic correlates of each factor. From March 2014 to April 2015, a nation-wide cross-sectional survey on mental health literacy with 3,006 participants was conducted in Singapore. Factor analysis revealed a 4-factor structure for the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the Singapore general population, namely social distancing, tolerance/support for community care, social restrictiveness, and prejudice and misconception. Older age, male gender, lower education and socio-economic status were associated with more negative attitudes towards the mentally ill. Chinese showed more negative attitudes than Indians and Malays (except for prejudice and misconception). There is a need for culture-specific interventions, and the associated factors identified in this study should be considered for future attitude campaigns.
Kerssens, J.J.; Yperen, E.M. van
The study of patients' attitudes is an important subject because the success of many medical programs is linked to it. We have used a cognitive attitude theory - the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), to study how patients form an evaluation of dietetic care. Respondents answered one questionnaire
Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Broderick, Patricia C.
The Motherhood Inventory (MI), a 40-item questionnaire developed to study attitudes toward motherhood and the motherhood myth, revealed that education produced the most pronounced effect, with more liberal attitudes held by college graduates. Presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, August 1978. (Author)
Full Text Available Research has shown that students will exhibit a positive attitude towards self-study, but that they will often fail to complete self-study activities. The purpose of this paper is to investigate positive instructor interactions and motivation of students to complete self- study activities and students’ attitudes towards self-study. Six English instructors at the University of Shizuoka created a one-semester self-access study log for use in the university self-access language laboratory in order to find out how many students would complete the log. One of the six instructors applied motivational techniques in the classroom in an effort to engender greater student self-study. Later a questionnaire was administered to 465 student participants to determine their self-study attitudes and activities. The data collected from the questionnaire and the high participation in the self- study activities suggest the positive impact the motivational actions employed by the instructor had on his students' attitudes towards self-study activities.
Yago Simón, Teresa; Tomás Aznar, Concepción
To design and validate a questionnaire for young women on gender-determinant factors in contraception. A questionnaire was developed from conversations with young women attending contraception clinic in the Health Promotion Municpal Centre, Zaragoza. A total of 200 young women between the ages of 13 and 24 self-completed the questionnaire, with only one no response. Several items were analysed: reliability, using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and construct validity by analysis of the main components with eigenvalues above 1, and Quartimax rotation with Kaiser normalisation. The questionnaire contained 36 items and took 10minutes to self-complete. There was good internal consistency, with a Cronbach's alpha 0,853. Twelve factors were established with an explanation of 61.42% variance, and three descriptive lines: relationship dimension («submissive attitude», «blind attitude», «let go due to affection», «dominant partner»), gender identity («maternity as identity», «non-idealised maternity», «traditional role», «insecurity», «shame») and caring. This questionnaire enabled gender determinant-factors that take part in contraception to be identified, and will be useful to find out how the different ways of relating between the sexes influence the problems of sexual and reproductive health in young women in our environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Wong, Ambrose Hon-Wai; Gang, Maureen; Szyld, Demian; Mahoney, Heather
Health care providers must effectively function in highly skilled teams in a collaborative manner, but there are few interprofessional training strategies in place. Interprofessional education (IPE) using simulation technology has gained popularity to address this need because of its inherent ability to impact learners' cognitive frames and promote peer-to-peer dialog. Provider attitudes toward teamwork have been directly linked to the quality of patient care. Investigators implemented a simulation-enhanced IPE intervention to improve staff attitudes toward teamwork and interprofessional communication in the emergency department setting. The 3-hour course consisted of a didactic session highlighting teamwork and communication strategies, 2 simulation scenarios on septic shock and cardiac arrest, and structured debriefing directed at impacting participant attitudes to teamwork and communication. This was a survey-based observational study. We used the TeamSTEPPS Teamwork Attitudes Questionnaire immediately before and after the session as a measurement of attitude change as well as the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture before the session and 1 year after the intervention for program impact at the behavior level. Seventy-two emergency department nurses and resident physicians participated in the course from July to September 2012. Of the 5 constructs in TeamSTEPPS Teamwork Attitudes Questionnaire, 4 had a significant improvement in scores-6.4%, 2.8%, 4.0%, and 4.0% for team structure, leadership, situation monitoring, and mutual support, respectively (P teamwork and communication showed a significant improvement-20.6%, 20.5%, and 23.9%, for frequency of event reporting, teamwork within hospital units, and hospital handoffs and transitions, respectively (P = 0.028, P = 0.035, and P = 0.024, respectively). A simulation-enhanced IPE curriculum was successful in improving participant attitudes toward teamwork and components of patient safety culture related to
Huang, Hui-Ju; Lin, Yu-Teh Kirk
The study investigated American and Taiwan undergraduate students' attitudes toward biodiversity. The survey questionnaire consisted of statements prompted by the question "To what extent do you agree with the following statements about problems with the biodiversity issues." Students indicated strongly disagree, disagree, agree,…
Yapici, Gulcin; ?genler, Oya; Kurt, Ahmet ?ner; Ko?a?, Faz?l; ?a?maz, Tayyar
Background. Environmental destruction is one of the most important problems in this century. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the environmental attitudes and perceived risks associated with environmental factors of the students. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 7 faculties of Mersin University. The research data were collected using a questionnaire. The questionnaire included sociodemographic characteristics, the “Environmental Attitudes Scale,” and the “En...
International Journal of Health Research ... Purpose: To assess the attitude, perception and practice of pharmacists in Ogun State towards pharmaceutical care implementation. Methods: Pre-tested and validated structured questionnaire was ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The context of the study is the increased assessment and treatment of persons with mental illness in general hospital settings by general health staff, as the move away from mental hospitals gathers pace in low and middle income countries. The purpose of the study was to examine whether general attitudes of hospital staff towards persons with mental illness, and extent of mental health training and clinical experience, are associated with different attitudes and behaviours towards a patient with mental illness than towards a patients with a general health problem - diabetes. Methods General hospital health professionals in Malaysia were randomly allocated one of two vignettes, one describing a patient with mental illness and the other a patient with diabetes, and invited to complete a questionnaire examining attitudes and health care practices in relation to the case. The questionnaires completed by respondents included questions on demographics, training in mental health, exposure in clinical practice to people with mental illness, attitudes and expected health care behaviour towards the patient in the vignette, and a general questionnaire exploring negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Questionnaires with complete responses were received from 654 study participants. Results Stigmatising attitudes towards persons with mental illness were common. Those responding to the mental illness vignette (N = 356 gave significantly lower ratings on care and support and higher ratings on avoidance and negative stereotype expectations compared with those responding the diabetes vignette (N = 298. Conclusions Results support the view that, in the Malaysian setting, patients with mental illness may receive differential care from general hospital staff and that general stigmatising attitudes among professionals may influence their care practices. More direct measurement of clinician behaviours than able to be implemented
Irwin, Amy; Poots, Jill
Farming is a high-risk sector with up to 170,000 worldwide fatalities reported per year; it is therefore vital to identify methods of mitigating the dangers of this industry. Research within high-risk industries, such as aviation, shipping, and agriculture, has identified the importance of non-technical skills (NTS) in maintaining effective, safe performance and reducing error and injury. However, there is a lack of research evaluating factors that may contribute to NTS attitudes and behaviors. As a first step to address this literature gap, the current study evaluated a range of individual and environmental factors as potential predictors of attitudes toward NTS in agriculture. A sample of 170 farmers from within the United Kingdom and Ireland were surveyed using an online questionnaire. The questionnaire included measures of personality, stress, attitudes toward safety (safety climate, motivation, and risk), environmental stressors (workload, work-life imbalance), and non-technical skills (team and lone worker). Attitudes toward safety climate, compliance, and motivation showed a significant association with both team-based and lone worker NTS. Conscientiousness correlated positively with the majority of the NTS elements. Multiple regression analysis indicated neuroticism and conscientiousness demonstrated capacity to predict NTS attitudes. Concerns about costs and equipment, attitudes toward safety climate, and safety motivation were also found to be significant predictors of NTS attitudes. The results indicate the utility of individual characteristics and environmental factors when predicting farming NTS attitudes. As a result, these elements could be important when evaluating engagement with NTS and developing NTS training initiatives in agriculture.
Manakandan, S K; Rosnah, I; Mohd Ridhuan, J; Priya, R
The most crucial step in forming a set of survey questionnaire is deciding the appropriate items in a construct. Retaining irrelevant items and removing important items will certainly mislead the direction of a particular study. This article demonstrates Fuzzy Delphi method as one of the scientific analysis technique to consolidate consensus agreement within a panel of experts pertaining to each item's appropriateness. This method reduces the ambiguity, diversity, and discrepancy of the opinions among the experts hence enhances the quality of the selected items. The main purpose of this study was to obtain experts' consensus on the suitability of the preselected items on the questionnaire. The panel consists of sixteen experts from the Occupational and Environmental Health Unit of Ministry of Health, Vector-borne Disease Control Unit of Ministry of Health and Occupational and Safety Health Unit of both public and private universities. A set of questionnaires related to noise and chemical exposure were compiled based on the literature search. There was a total of six constructs with 60 items in which three constructs for knowledge, attitude, and practice of noise exposure and three constructs for knowledge, attitude, and practice of chemical exposure. The validation process replicated recent Fuzzy Delphi method that using a concept of Triangular Fuzzy Numbers and Defuzzification process. A 100% response rate was obtained from all the sixteen experts with an average Likert scoring of four to five. Post FDM analysis, the first prerequisite was fulfilled with a threshold value (d) ≤ 0.2, hence all the six constructs were accepted. For the second prerequisite, three items (21%) from noise-attitude construct and four items (40%) from chemical-practice construct had expert consensus lesser than 75%, which giving rise to about 12% from the total items in the questionnaire. The third prerequisite was used to rank the items within the constructs by calculating the average
Full Text Available Background Students nurses’ negative attitudes, misinformation and lack of support in relation to breastfeeding practice is a major contributing factor to decrease the prevalence and duration of breastfeeding. Aims To identify breastfeeding attitudes and knowledge among students in a nursing program. Methods A cross-sectional study using validated questionnaire was conducted. The questionnaire includes 8 multiple choice questions on breastfeeding management, 7 questions on attitudes and 13 questions on the knowledge of breastfeeding. Data collection took place in the spring academic term in 2016 at a public university in Saudi Arabia. 250 questionnaires were distributed, of which 234 were completed and returned with a response rate 93.6 per cent. Inclusion criteria included second to fourth year nursing student with the age range from 18–25 years old. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis and nonparametric statistic (Mann-Whitney Test was performed to compare the groups. Results The results were explained taking into consideration students nurses with or without children. Mean attitude’s score for participants without children was 157 as compared to 77 for those with children. The results showed similar negative attitude toward breastfeeding among participants, regardless of having children or not (p=0.35. This means that there was no significant difference in attitudes toward breastfeeding among nursing students either they are having children or not. However, having personal experience with breastfeeding did not increase breastfeeding attitudes and knowledge (p=0.35 vs. p=0.93, respectively. Conclusion The results highlight that female nursing students have negative attitudes, misinformation and lack of knowledge on breastfeeding.
S. S. Kunene
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to identify professional nurses attitudes towards euthanasia. A descriptive study of the attitudes of professional nurses towards euthanasia was undertaken. The data collecting instrument was a questionnaire, which was self-administered to 26 professional nurses working in different wards.
S. S. Kunene
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to identify professional nurses attitudes towards euthanasia. A descriptive study of the attitudes of professional nurses towards euthanasia was undertaken. The data collecting instrument was a questionnaire, which was self-administered to 26 professional nurses working in different wards.
Gould, Stephen J.
Questionnaires returned by 343 out of 350 subjects measured health attitudes and health status. Results suggest that some consumers take a more scientific approach to health care and prevention. Demographic factors, health status, and health consciousness are partial predictors of consumer attitudes and approach to health care. (SK)
Sardegna, Veronica G.; Lee, Juhee; Kusey, Crystal
This article proposes a structural model of English language learners' self-efficacy beliefs, attitudes toward learning pronunciation skills, and choice of pronunciation learning strategies. Participants' responses (N = 704) to two self-reported questionnaires--Strategies for Pronunciation Improvement (SPI) inventory and Learner Attitudes for…
mekar dwi anggraeni
Full Text Available Background and purpose: The earlier development of the attitude toward exclusive breastfeeding produces the longer exclusive breastfeeding duration. Considering the first marriage age among Indonesian, the attitude toward exclusive breastfeeding should be developed at the adolescence age. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the attitude toward breastfeeding concept based comic on the adolescent's attitude toward exclusive breastfeeding. Method: This was a quasy experimental posttest only with control group study. The respondents were provided an comic. The respondent's attitude toward exclusive breastfeeding was measured using The Breastfeeding Attitude Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using independent and dependent t test. Results: The majority of respondents were aged 17 years old in both intervention (70% and control grup (63%, first child in both intervention (23,3% and control grup (26,7%, and had a nuclear family in both intervention (80% and control grup (90%. The independent t test showed that there was a significant difference between post-test scores among the intervention and control groups (t = 5,602, p < 0,01. Conclusion and recommendation: Nurses may use the Attitude Toward Breastfeeding based comic to increase the Adolescence's attitude toward breastfeeding. Keywords: Comic, Attitudes Toward Exclusive Breastfeeding, Adolescence
Objective: To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of eye health care amongst doctors in Lagos. Methodology: Open and closed-ended questionnaires were given to respondents. The questionnaire contained information about age, sex, general knowledge as well as practice of eye care. Results: A total of 104 ...
Hung, Chang-Chiao; Chu, Tsui-Ping; Lee, Bih-O; Hsiao, Chia-Chi
The Aims of this study were to explore the effects of nurses' attitudes and intentions regarding medication administration error reporting on actual reporting behaviours. Underreporting of medication errors is still a common occurrence. Whether attitude and intention towards medication administration error reporting connect to actual reporting behaviours remain unclear. This study used a cross-sectional design with self-administered questionnaires, and the theory of planned behaviour was used as the framework for this study. A total of 596 staff nurses who worked in general wards and intensive care units in a hospital were invited to participate in this study. The researchers used the instruments measuring nurses' attitude, nurse managers' and co-workers' attitude, report control, and nurses' intention to predict nurses' actual reporting behaviours. Data were collected from September-November 2013. Path analyses were used to examine the hypothesized model. Of the 596 nurses invited to participate, 548 (92%) completed and returned a valid questionnaire. The findings indicated that nurse managers' and co-workers' attitudes are predictors for nurses' attitudes towards medication administration error reporting. Nurses' attitudes also influenced their intention to report medication administration errors; however, no connection was found between intention and actual reporting behaviour. The findings reflected links among colleague perspectives, nurses' attitudes, and intention to report medication administration errors. The researchers suggest that hospitals should increase nurses' awareness and recognition of error occurrence. Regardless of nurse managers' and co-workers' attitudes towards medication administration error reporting, nurses are likely to report medication administration errors if they detect them. Management of medication administration errors should focus on increasing nurses' awareness and recognition of error occurrence. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
de Boer, Anke; Timmerman, Marieke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Minnaert, Alexander
In many countries, there has been a development towards the inclusion of students with special educational needs in regular education. Over the past decade, this has resulted in an increased interest in attitudes towards this educational change of those directly involved. This current study aims at
Twichell, Sarah; Wang, Kathleen; Robinson, Humaira; Acebal, Maria; Sharma, Hemant
Since food allergy knowledge and perceptions may influence prevention and management of school-based reactions, we evaluated them among nurses in an urban school district. All District of Columbia public school nurses were asked to anonymously complete a food allergy knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Knowledge scores were calculated as percentage of correct responses. Attitude responses were tabulated across five-point Likert scales, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The knowledge questionnaire was completed by 87% of eligible nurses and the attitude questionnaire by 83%. The mean total knowledge score was 76 ± 13 with domain score highest for symptom recognition and lowest for treatment. Regarding attitudes, most (94%) felt food allergy is a serious health problem, for which schools should have guidelines (94%). Fewer believed that nut-free schools (82%) and allergen-free tables (44%) should be implemented. Negative perceptions of parents were identified as: parents of food-allergic children are overprotective (55%) and make unreasonable requests of schools (15%). Food allergy knowledge deficits and mixed attitudes exist among this sample of urban school nurses, particularly related to management of reactions and perceptions of parents. Food allergy education of school nurses should be targeted to improve their knowledge and attitudes. PMID:27417367
Twichell, Sarah; Wang, Kathleen; Robinson, Humaira; Acebal, Maria; Sharma, Hemant
Since food allergy knowledge and perceptions may influence prevention and management of school-based reactions, we evaluated them among nurses in an urban school district. All District of Columbia public school nurses were asked to anonymously complete a food allergy knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Knowledge scores were calculated as percentage of correct responses. Attitude responses were tabulated across five-point Likert scales, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The knowledge questionnaire was completed by 87% of eligible nurses and the attitude questionnaire by 83%. The mean total knowledge score was 76 ± 13 with domain score highest for symptom recognition and lowest for treatment. Regarding attitudes, most (94%) felt food allergy is a serious health problem, for which schools should have guidelines (94%). Fewer believed that nut-free schools (82%) and allergen-free tables (44%) should be implemented. Negative perceptions of parents were identified as: parents of food-allergic children are overprotective (55%) and make unreasonable requests of schools (15%). Food allergy knowledge deficits and mixed attitudes exist among this sample of urban school nurses, particularly related to management of reactions and perceptions of parents. Food allergy education of school nurses should be targeted to improve their knowledge and attitudes.
Full Text Available Since food allergy knowledge and perceptions may influence prevention and management of school-based reactions, we evaluated them among nurses in an urban school district. All District of Columbia public school nurses were asked to anonymously complete a food allergy knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Knowledge scores were calculated as percentage of correct responses. Attitude responses were tabulated across five-point Likert scales, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The knowledge questionnaire was completed by 87% of eligible nurses and the attitude questionnaire by 83%. The mean total knowledge score was 76 ± 13 with domain score highest for symptom recognition and lowest for treatment. Regarding attitudes, most (94% felt food allergy is a serious health problem, for which schools should have guidelines (94%. Fewer believed that nut-free schools (82% and allergen-free tables (44% should be implemented. Negative perceptions of parents were identified as: parents of food-allergic children are overprotective (55% and make unreasonable requests of schools (15%. Food allergy knowledge deficits and mixed attitudes exist among this sample of urban school nurses, particularly related to management of reactions and perceptions of parents. Food allergy education of school nurses should be targeted to improve their knowledge and attitudes.
Full Text Available This paper is the continuation of the work of articles “Strategies for Teaching a Novel Approach to Handling Uncertainty Scientifically via Internet”, “A Graphical Tool for Visualizing Bernoulli Stochastics” and “Empirical Evaluation of Stochastikon Magister”. In this paper we evaluate the usability and learnability of the virtual classroom – Stochastikon Magister by questionnaire. The result shows that more than 70% of the teacher candidates, who selected Magister E-Learning programme to learn Bernoulli Stochastics, feel satisfactory with both Magister learning environment and Bernoulli Stochastics teaching content. Besides, most of the participants hold positive attitudes toward the possibility of using E-Learning systems as a replacement of classroom teaching for educating other subjects of mathematics and natural science. The response to the questionnaire is identical with another empirical evaluation of Stochastikon Magister.
Yin, Wen-wen; Wu, Xiang; Ci, Hui-Peng; Qin, Shu-Qi; Liu, Jia-Long
To change unsafe behavior through adjusting people’s safety attitudes has become an important measure to prevent accidents. Demographic variables, as influential factors of safety attitude, are fundamental and essential for the research. This research does a questionnaire survey among coal mine industry workers, and makes variance analysis and correlation analysis of the results in light of age, length of working years, educational level and experiences of accidents. The results show that the coal miners’ age, length of working years and accident experiences correlate lowly with safety attitudes, and those older coal miners with longer working years have better safety attitude, as coal miners without experiences of accident do.However, educational level has nothing to do with the safety attitude. Therefore, during the process of safety management, coal miners with different demographic characteristics should be put more attention to.
Motamed-Jahromi, Mohadeseh; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Borhani, Fariba; Zaher, Homa
Patient advocacy is an inherent component of professional nursing ethics; in other words, nurses' enough knowledge would be essential to gain a positive attitude towards nursing advocacy. Using a descriptive-analytic design, this study aimed to assess the correlation between nurses' perception and attitudes towards patient advocacy, amongst 385 nurses in Kerman, Iran; hence, a three-part questionnaire was applied: part I, a demographic data sheet, part II, attitude measuring instrument, and part III, perception measuring instrument in nursing advocacy. The results implied that fairly positive attitudes and perception were found amongst the participants, and nurses' attitudes, in general, were positively correlated to their perception toward nursing advocacy. This means that with an improvement in perception, the attitude would also improve. In addition to our findings, it seems that these nurses needed more advocacy educational programs and support from responsible employers.
Full Text Available Background The number of casualties and critically ill patients referred to radiology departments increased during the past decade, which caused the risk of cardiac arrest in radiology departments to increase considerably. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of radiology technologists regarding Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR. Patients and Methods After approval a cross sectional study was designed. Ninety five radiology technologists (male and female were selected in four tertiary referral hospitals in Ahvaz, Iran. Accordingly, 87 radiologic technologists of which agreed to participate in the study. The researchers developed a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three distinct sections including demographic data, attitude, and technical knowledge questions. Reliability of the technical knowledge questions were evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha (76%. Data collection was performed using interview method. Results Of the total 87 questionnaires, one was incomplete. None of the participants had attended a training program since employment. The average scores of attitude towards CPR and technical knowledge were 80 ± 8.9 and 8.8 ± 2.3, respectively. A correlation was observed between age and work experience (r = 0.866, P ≤ 0.0001, age and technical knowledge (r = 0.380, P ≤ 0.0001, work experience and technical knowledge (r = 0.317, P = 0.003, and attitude and technical knowledge (r = 0.397, P ≤ 0.0001. Also a correlation was observed between work experience and attitude (r = 0.385, P ≤ 0.0001. No significant difference was observed between male and female subjects’ technical knowledge (P ≥ 0.05 and attitude (P ≥ 0.05. Conclusions It can be concluded that, although the attitude of participants towards CPR was positive in general, their technical knowledge was poor. This finding should urge decision-makers to consider delivering in-service training courses to radiology technologists
Within this work in which it has been aimed to indicate the attitudes of High School Students to environment, indication of the attitudes of high school students in Nigde has been regarded as the problem matter. This analysis has the qualification of survey model and techniques of questionnaire and observation have been used. The investigation has…
S. Nethra; Dr. V. T. Dhanaraj
The popularity of online shopping has caught the attention of many peoples. Many studies have been done in developed nations to know about the attitude and behaviour of consumers towards online shopping. The research is focused on consumer behaviour and attitude towards online shopping in Coimbatore district. The study is based on primary data which has been collected by issuing questionnaire to 200 respondents residing in Coimbatore district by adopting convenient sampling method. The stat...
Full Text Available It is very important for drivers to obtain driving information easily and efficiently. There are many advanced devices used for driving safety assistance. Of these assistance devices, the head-up display (HUD system can promote the reduction of driver's reaction time and improve spatial awareness. The drivers' attitude towards and preference for HUD system are crucial to design the functional framework and interface of HUD system. This study explored the relationships between drivers' attitude and HUD presentation image designs using stated preference data from questionnaire survey. The questionnaire included drivers' attitude towards the use of HUD and the preference for the information display zone and information display elements of the HUD. Contrastive analysis was adopted to examine the variations in drivers' attitude and preference for age and driving skills. According to the results, the participants have varying attitudes to HUD system, but most participants show relatively unified preference for the information display zone and information display elements. The results can also be used to customize a HUD presentation image which is in accordance with the drivers' feelings and preferences.
de Leeuw, Rebecca N H; Engels, Rutger C M E; Vermulst, Ad A; Scholte, Ron H J
Prevention and intervention programmes focus frequently upon retaining or creating negative attitudes towards smoking in an effort to prevent adolescents from smoking. As the focus upon attitudes is central in these programmes it is essential to know whether smoking attitudes actually precede smoking behaviour or, conversely, are affected by it. Therefore, in the present study we examined to what extent bi-directional relations existed between smoking attitudes and behaviour. Data were used from the three annual waves of the 'Family and Health' project. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires individually at their homes. Addresses of families consisting of two parents and two adolescents were obtained from the records of 22 municipalities in the Netherlands. At baseline, 428 families participated with a response rate of 94% at the third measurement. Self-reports were used to assess adolescents' smoking attitudes and behaviour. Associations between smoking attitudes and behaviour were tested using structural equation modelling. Findings revealed that smoking attitudes did not predict smoking consistently over time. However, past smoking affected subsequent attitudes moderately, suggesting that adolescents who started to smoke developed less negative attitudes towards smoking. The current findings imply that smoking behaviour predominantly shapes smoking-related attitudes, rather than vice versa. Focusing merely on smoking attitudes is probably not enough to prevent adolescents from smoking.
Different studies show different attitudes towards mental illness among medical students. This study was initiated to explore the attitude towards mental illness among medical students in a medical college of Manipur. A cross-sectional selfadministered questionnaire-based study was conducted among medical students in ...
In the present study, aims were (1) to determine gender differences in self-compassion, academic procrastination, and dysfunctional attitudes and (2) to examine the relationships between self-compassion, academic procrastination, and dysfunctional attitudes. Participants were 251 university students who completed a questionnaire package that…
Lee, M.; Hwang, S. Y.; Lim, I. C.; Kang, T. J.; Choi, H. Y
This report provides the that analysis results of the surveys on the safety culture attitude and related topics for the HANARO Management Division staff. The survey form consisted of the questionnaire on the safety culture attitude, happiness and life style, drinking habit and traffic safety attitude. The key information drawn from the analysis are as follow; First, the level of safety culture attitude of the staff was confirmed and it was found that the attitude improved when the present analysis results were compared with them for the survey in 1998. Second, the degree of happiness that the staff feel is higher than the average Korean and they enjoy more leisure time than the average Korean. Third, the staff drink more alcohol than the average Korean. Thus, the drinking habit must be improved for the health of the staff. Fourth, the questionnaire of the happiness and the traffic safety attitude should be improved to verify the hypotheses on the relation between them and the safety culture attitude.
Lee, M.; Hwang, S. Y.; Lim, I. C.; Kang, T. J.; Choi, H. Y.
This report provides the that analysis results of the surveys on the safety culture attitude and related topics for the HANARO Management Division staff. The survey form consisted of the questionnaire on the safety culture attitude, happiness and life style, drinking habit and traffic safety attitude. The key information drawn from the analysis are as follow; First, the level of safety culture attitude of the staff was confirmed and it was found that the attitude improved when the present analysis results were compared with them for the survey in 1998. Second, the degree of happiness that the staff feel is higher than the average Korean and they enjoy more leisure time than the average Korean. Third, the staff drink more alcohol than the average Korean. Thus, the drinking habit must be improved for the health of the staff. Fourth, the questionnaire of the happiness and the traffic safety attitude should be improved to verify the hypotheses on the relation between them and the safety culture attitude
Marván, Ma Luisa; Vázquez-Toboada, Rocío; Chrisler, Joan C
The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between ambivalent sexism and beliefs and attitudes towards menstruation, and, in turn, to study the influence of these variables on menstrual cycle-related symptoms. One hundred and six Mexican women completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, the Beliefs about and Attitudes toward Menstruation Questionnaire and the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire. The higher scores on benevolent sexism were associated with the most positive attitudes towards menstruation and also with the belief that a menstruating woman should or should not do some activities and that menstruation keeps women from their daily activities. The higher scores on hostile sexism were associated with rejection of menstruation as well as with feelings of embarrassment about it. Beliefs about and attitudes towards menstruation predicted menstrual cycle-related symptoms related to negative affect, impaired concentration and behavioural changes, but did not predict somatic symptoms. These results will be useful to health professionals and advocates who want to change the negative expectations and stereotypes of premenstrual and menstrual women and reduce the sexism and negative attitudes towards women that are evident in Mexican culture. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.
Using pretested questionnaire instrument, a cross sectional survey of clinicians working in the Lagos University Teaching Hospital to obtain their attitudes and perception towards autopsy practice. 230 questionnaires were administered and the response rate was 80.7% . 41.5% of respondents often requested for autopsy.
Zeldow, Peter B.
Males and females were divided into "masculine,""feminine," and "androgynous" based on their scores on an androgyny scale. The three groups then answered a questionnaire on attitudes toward women. Results show that feminine men were the most conservative group. (SE)
de Boer, Anke; Timmerman, Marieke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Minnaert, Alexander
In many countries, there has been a development towards the inclusion of students with special educational needs in regular education. Over the past decade, this has resulted in an increased interest in attitudes towards this educational change of those directly involved. This current study aims at the development, psychometric evaluation, and…
Hekmat, Somayeh Noori; Dehnavieh, Reza; Rahimisadegh, Rohaneh; Kohpeima, Vahid; Jahromi, Jahromi Kohpeima
Patients' health and safety is not only a function of complex treatments and advanced therapeutic technologies but also a function of a degree based on which health care professionals fulfill their duties effectively as a team. The aim of this study was to determine the attitude of hospital committee members about teamwork in Kerman hospitals. This study was conducted in 2014 on 171 members of clinical teams and committees of four educational hospitals in Kerman University of Medical Sciences. To collect data, the standard "team attitude evaluation" questionnaire was used. This questionnaire consisted of five domains which evaluated the team attitude in areas related to the team structure, leadership, situation monitoring, mutual support, and communication in the form of a 5-point Likert type scale. To analyze data, descriptive statistical tests, T-test, ANOVA, and linear regression were used. The average score of team attitude for hospital committee members was 3.9 out of 5. The findings showed that leadership had the highest score among the subscales of team work attitude, while mutual support had the lowest score. We could also observe that responsibility was an important factor in participants' team work attitude (β = -0.184, p = 0.024). Comparing data in different subgroups revealed that employment, marital status, and responsibility were the variables affecting the participants' attitudes in the team structure domain. Marital status played a role in leadership; responsibility had a role in situation monitoring; and work experience played a role in domains of communication and mutual support. Hospital committee members had a positive attitude towards teamwork. Training hospital staff and paying particular attention to key elements of effectiveness in a health care team can have a pivotal role in promoting the team culture.
Full Text Available This paper describes how gender and age affect Japanese pupils’ motivation for learning English and their attitudes to communication with people from different cultures. A new foreign language curriculum was introduced to Japanese elementary schools in 2011. Although each school can officially choose any foreign language in its own right, most elementary schools are now conducting English activity. However, as most homeroom teachers lack both experiences and qualifications for teaching English, this activity puts them under pressure. In addition, the number of foreign assistant language teachers (ALTs is not sufficient in most elementary schools. The writer surveyed fifth and sixth grade pupils’ motivation and their communicative attitudes in Japan during 2010, before the new course program, “foreign language activities,” began in 2011. The data were collected from three elementary schools in Japan via a questionnaire. The items on the questionnaire are related to motivational attitudes, orientations (reasons for studying a foreign language, communicative attitudes and some other variables relevant to learning foreign languages. The main focus of this study is to examine motivational and attitudinal variables among the pupils with regard to learning English, especially gender and age effects on these variables. The results show that girls generally have higher scores on motivation and communicative attitudes. Most previous studies have also shown that girls generally have a positive attitude toward learning a foreign language. This study argues that the reason behind this positive attitude toward learning English is due to their positive attitude toward communication in general. With regard to the age, there are a few differences between two school grades. As there is only one year difference in age between fifth and sixth grade pupils, the result is to be expected. The study suggests that Japanese elementary schools face a number of
SSBs) remains a public health problem among the young adults. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and consumption pattern of alcohol and SSBs among the undergraduate students. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire was ...
Stallings, William M.; Leslie, Elwood K.
The result of a study designed to assess student attitudes toward grading practices are discussed. Questionnaire responses of 3439 students in three institutions were tabulated. Responses were generally negative toward conventional grading systems. (MS)
Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lu, Zxy-yann J; Pu, Cheng-yun; Lan, Chung-Fu
No previous research has examined the importance of both individual and environmental factors for predicting caregivers' menstrual attitudes. To explore the predictors of female caregivers' attitudes towards menstruation and the help they give to women with intellectual disabilities, we conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey which was completed by 725 female workers from 12 institutions in Taiwan. The Menstrual Attitudes Questionnaire (MAQ) and a structured questionnaire were used. Logistic regression analysis revealed that individual characteristics such as age and education were significantly associated with menstrual attitudes of female caregivers working with institutionalized women with intellectual disabilities. Furthermore, the environmental context, such as the frequency of discussions with colleagues, training in menstrual management care and the level of difficulty when giving help in menstruation management, was important for improving caregivers' menstrual attitudes. This study contributes to the existing literature by determining both individual and environmental predictors of caregivers' menstrual attitudes.
Nagai, Yasuko; Hayashi, Chikio
The purpose of the present study was to 1) examine the differences of the perception between nuclear power generation (NPG) and electric power generation by nuclear fusion, 2) find the structural characteristics of the attitude toward NPG, 3) shed light on the characteristics of knowledge about NPG, and 4) develop a scale to measure the intensity in attitude toward NPG. Subjects (N = 1,582) were randomly assigned into 4 groups and were asked to answer a questionnaire including public attitudes toward NPG and related matters. The results were as follows: 1) the perception of electric power generation by nuclear fusion was less favorable than that of NPG; 2) Items which correlated with attitudes toward NPG were: 'sense of anxiety,' sensitivity to risk,' 'trust in science and technology,' 'evaluation of Japan's nuclear policy', 'evaluation of electric power companies,' and interest in life and environmental issues.' Moreover, people with a strong attitude tended to be rational and had a better knowledge of NPG; 3) The evaluation of the amount of subjective knowledge concerning nuclear power and electric power generation was reliable as a measure of objective knowledge; 4) The measurement method used in this study was characterized by the use of biased questions(ten positively and ten negatively biased questions) which were shown to the subjects using the split-half method. An attempt was made to measure the attitude and its intensity taking into consideration gender, positive or negative attitude toward NPG, level of knowledge about NPG, age, and occupation. As a result, differences in intensity between different attributes were found. (author)
Yapici, Gulcin; Ögenler, Oya; Kurt, Ahmet Öner; Koçaş, Fazıl; Şaşmaz, Tayyar
Environmental destruction is one of the most important problems in this century. The aim of the study was to determine the environmental attitudes and perceived risks associated with environmental factors of the students. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 7 faculties of Mersin University. The research data were collected using a questionnaire. The questionnaire included sociodemographic characteristics, the "Environmental Attitudes Scale," and the "Environmental Risk Perception Scale." 774 students who filled out questionnaires were evaluated. The sample included 55.8% females. Environmental Attitudes Scale mean scores of students were identified as 81.1 ± 11.3. The highest perceived risk was release of radioactive materials associated with nuclear power generation. The environmental attitudes and risk perception scores were higher in Health Sciences than in the other faculties. Females were more positive towards the environment and had higher risk perceptions than the men. There is a negative correlation between age and resource depletion risk and global environmental risk score. Students had a positive attitude to the environment and had moderate-level risk perception about the environment. Environmental awareness of students, especially those studying in the Social Sciences, should be increased. The environmental education curriculum should be revised throughout all the courses.
Liem, Andrian; Newcombe, Peter A; Pohlman, Annie
This study aimed to evaluate questionnaire development to measure the knowledge of Complementary-Alternative Medicine (CAM), attitudes towards CAM, CAM experiences, and CAM educational needs of clinical psychologists in Indonesia. A 26-item questionnaire was developed through an extensive literature search. Data was obtained from provisional psychologists from the Master of Professional Clinical Psychology programs at two established public universities in urban areas of Indonesia. To validate the questionnaire, panel reviews by executive members of the Indonesian Clinical Psychology Association (ICPA), experts in health psychology, and experts in public health and CAM provided their professional judgements. The self-reporting questionnaire consisted of four scales including: knowledge of CAM (6 items), attitudes towards CAM (10 items), CAM experiences (4 items), and CAM educational needs (6 items). All scales, except CAM Experiences, were assessed on a 7-point Likert scale. Sixty provisional psychologists were eligible to complete the questionnaire with a response rate of 73% (N=44). The results showed that the CAM questionnaire was reliable (Cronbach's coefficient alpha range=0.62-0.96; item-total correlation range=0.14-0.92) and demonstrated content validity. Following further psychometric evaluation, the CAM questionnaire may provide the evidence-based information to inform the education and practice of Indonesian clinical psychologists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ríos, A; López-Navas, A I; De-Francisco, C; Sánchez, Á; Hernández, A M; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P
The attitude toward living kidney donation is important for certain promotion campaigns, however, there are few validated questionnaires in this regard. The aim of this work was to analyze the psychometric characteristics of the attitudes questionnaire about living renal donation, PCID-DVR-Ríos (Cuestionario del Proyecto Colaborativo Internacional Donante sobre Donación de Vivo Renal [Questionnaire of the International Collaborative Donor Project on Living Kidney Donation] developed by Dr Ríos) for the validation of the questionnaire in population of Spanish speakers. The sample studied represented the population >18 years of age, native and resident of Spain, stratified by age and sex. The measurement instrument was the PCID-DVR-Ríos questionnaire. Analysis of data was structured in several stages: an initial description of the data, exploratory factor analysis, item analysis, and internal consistency of the factors. The questionnaire consists of 11 items, distributed in 3 factors of 6, 3, and 2 items. This structure accounts for 63.995% of the total variance. By factors, the variance is distributed as follows: factor 1: 38.461%; factor 2: 14.228%; and factor 3: 11.306%. The analysis of items and internal consistency supported the trifactorial composition. Each factor is internally consistent (α1 = .80; α2 = .70; α3 = .55). The analyzed dimensions of the PCID-DVR Ríos questionnaire to analyze attitude toward living kidney donation showed a good fit in terms of factorial validity and internal consistency values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
report questionnaire, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), which measures eating attitudes. ... schoolgirls, while Le Grange et al.5 used both the EAT-40 ... school. An information letter was sent to all parents who, ... and media influences. (These findings are ..... Corrmer JF. DeSIre to be thlnn&f and weight contrOl among children.
Çalik, Muammer; Ültay, Neslihan; Kolomuç, Ali; Aytar, Ayse
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of some variables (gender and year of study) on science student teachers' (SSTs) chemistry attitudes. An adapted version of Chemistry Attitudes and Experiences Questionnaire was administered to 983 SSTs drawn from four different universities in the region of Eastern Black Sea, Turkey. Significant…
María Elena Brenlla
Full Text Available Love styles described by Lee are Eros (passionate love, Ludus (game-pla- ying love, Storge (friendship love, Mania (possessive, dependent love, Pragma (logical, “shopping list” love and Agape (all-giving, selfless love. Based on those types, Hendrick and Hendrick developed a 42-ítem rating questionnaire with 7 items measuring each love style (Love Attitudes Scale. Beside, inform about frequency in love relationships and attachment style. The purpose of this study was analyze the reliability and factor structure of the Love Attitudes Scale and to investigate the association between love attitudes and the attachment style. The results (N=280 participants indicate adequate internal consistency (alfa = 0,73. The items were intercorrelated and factored. The best solution extracted six factors using varimax rotation and all six factors accounted 41% of the total variance. Secure attachment was related positively to eros.
Perikkou, Anastasia; Kokkinou, Eleni; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Yannakoulia, Mary
Teachers' attitudes about school food environments and their readiness to implement school-based nutrition programs were investigated. A total of 1,436 primary-school teachers filled out a questionnaire on their demographic and professional characteristics and their attitudes, beliefs, and barriers for implementing health educational programs. The…
Yuan, Qi; Abdin, Edimansyah; Picco, Louisa; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Shahwan, Shazana; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Shafie, Saleha; Tay, Jenny; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily
Background Public attitudes to mental illness could influence how the public interact with, provide opportunities for, and help people with mental illness. Aims This study aims to explore the underlying factors of the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the general population in Singapore and the socio-demographic correlates of each factor. Methods From March 2014 to April 2015, a nation-wide cross-sectional survey on mental health literacy with 3,006 participants was conducted in Singapore. Results Factor analysis revealed a 4-factor structure for the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the Singapore general population, namely social distancing, tolerance/support for community care, social restrictiveness, and prejudice and misconception. Older age, male gender, lower education and socio-economic status were associated with more negative attitudes towards the mentally ill. Chinese showed more negative attitudes than Indians and Malays (except for prejudice and misconception). Conclusions There is a need for culture-specific interventions, and the associated factors identified in this study should be considered for future attitude campaigns. PMID:27893796
Williams, Emyr; Francis, Leslie J
A sample of 158 churchgoers attending eight Anglican churches in the United Kingdom completed the abbreviated Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire together with the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity to replicate a 1996 study by Carter, Kay, and Francis. Data confirm that scores on Attitude toward Christianity were significantly negatively related to Psychoticism, but to neither Extraversion nor Neuroticism scores.
Kahriman-Ozturk, Deniz; Olgan, Refika; Tuncer, Gaye
This study explores preschool children's attitudes towards environmental issues with a focus on the issue of gender as a factor affecting their attitudes. The study sample comprised 40 preschool age children living in Ankara, Turkey. The research adopted a qualitative approach, and the data were collected through interviews in which a questionnaire was administered. The interview questionnaire was adapted from 'The Children's Attitudes Toward the Environment Scale-Preschool Version' which contains 15 interview questions and sub-questions. The findings of our study indicate that most of the 5-6-year-old children initially appear to have ecocentric attitudes towards environmental issues in all the dimensions. However, when the children explained their reasons for choosing one of the two pictures, their responses were evaluated as emanating from anthropocentric attitudes. No difference in the attitudes of the preschool children was detected in relation to their gender. In conclusion, this study shows that the educational programmes at the preschool stage need to be broadened and improved, particularly in the provision of outdoor study in natural settings for the children to develop a more ecocentric attitude towards the environment.
Shankar, Rohit; Laugharne, Richard; Pritchard, Colin; Joshi, Pallavi; Dhar, Romika
Objective: The Attitudes to Psychiatry Scale (APS) is a tool used to assess medical students' attitudes toward psychiatry. This study sought to examine the internal validity of the APS in order to identify dimensions within the questionnaire. Method: Using data collected from 549 medical students from India and Ghana, the authors analyzed 28…
LeSourd, Sandra J.; And Others
Findings from a study to develop and validate an instrument for the measurement of principals' attitudes toward visionary leadership are presented in this paper. Two leadership styles--visionary and managerial--were measured by a 35-item five-point Likert attitude scale. Questionnaires mailed to a random sample of 250 K-12 Nebraska and 250…
Milone, Jennifer M.; Gottumukkala, Aruna; Ward, Christopher P.; York, Kaki M.
Objective: The authors examined the effect of supervision on internal medicine residents' attitudes toward and management of depression. Method: Internal medicine residents completed a survey during preclinical conferences. The survey included a published, validated questionnaire, the Depression Attitude Questionnaire, and items developed by the…
Pekez-Pavliško, Tanja; Račić, Maja; Jurišić, Dinka
To explore family physicians' attitudes, previous experience and self-assessed preparedness to respond or to assist in mass casualty incidents in Croatia. The cross-sectional survey was carried out during January 2017. Study participants were recruited through a Facebook group that brings together family physicians from Croatia. They were asked to complete the questionnaire, which was distributed via google.docs. Knowledge and attitudes toward disaster preparedness were evaluated by 18 questions. Analysis of variance, Student t test and Kruskal-Wallis test t were used for statistical analysis. Risk awareness of disasters was high among respondents (M = 4.89, SD=0.450). Only 16.4 of respondents have participated in the management of disaster at the scene. The majority (73.8%) of physicians have not been participating in any educational activity dealing with disaster over the past two years. Family physicians believed they are not well prepared to participate in national (M = 3.02, SD=0.856) and local community emergency response system for disaster (M = 3.16, SD=1.119). Male physicians scored higher preparedness to participate in national emergency response system for disaster ( p =0.012), to carry out accepted triage principles used in the disaster situation ( p =0.003) and recognize differences in health assessments indicating potential exposure to specific agents ( p =0,001) compared to their female colleagues. Croatian primary healthcare system attracts many young physicians, who can be an important part of disaster and emergency management. However, the lack of experience despite a high motivation indicates a need for inclusion of disaster medicine training during undergraduate studies and annual educational activities.
Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Tak, Mridula; Sharda, Archana J; Asawa, Kailash; Jalihal, Sagar; Kakatkar, Gauri
This study determines and compares the attitudes of dentists to the provision of care for people with learning disabilities according to gender, qualification, previous experience of treating patients with learning disabilities and work experience of dentists. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 247 dentists (166 men and 81 women) using a pretested structured questionnaire. This questionnaire assessed the respondent's attitude towards learning-disabled patients in five categories: beliefs about treating them, their capabilities, discrimination against these patients, their social behaviour and quality of care to be received by these patients. The information on dentist's gender, qualification, work experience and previous experience of treating patients with learning disabilities was also collected through questionnaire. The Student's t-test and anova test were used for statistical analysis. The mean attitude score was found to be 71.13 ± 8.97. A statistically significant difference was found in the mean attitude scores of dentists with work experience (p = 0.000). Study subjects with postgraduate qualification and previous experience of treating patients with learning disabilities had significantly greater mean attitude score than their counterparts (p = 0.000). The overall attitude of dentists towards provision of care for people with learning disabilities was favourable, which increased with higher qualification and past experience. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Chen, Xingxing; Lin, Ruifang; Li, Huifang; Su, Meng; Zhang, Wenyi; Deng, Xia; Zhang, Ping; Zou, Changlin
Background . The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to pre-CRT in patients of stage II/III rectal cancer. Materials and Methods . Questionnaires regarding the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of pre-CRT were mailed to 145 rectal cancer patients in II/III stage between January 2012 and December 2014, and 111 agreed to participate and returned completed questionnaires to the researcher. Logistic regression model was used to compare sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, and attitude with practice, respectively. Results . A total of 145 patients were approached for interview, of which 111 responded and 48.6% (54) had undergone pre-CRT. Only 31.5% of the participants knew that CRT is a treatment of rectal cancer and 39.6% were aware of the importance of CRT. However, the vast majority of participants (68.5%) expressed a positive attitude toward rectal cancer. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that knowledge level ( p = 0.006) and attitudes ( p = 0.001) influence the actual practice significantly. Furthermore, age, gender, and income were potential predictors of practice (all p pre-CRT. Strengthening the professional health knowledge and realizing the importance of attitudes may deepen patients' understanding of preoperative therapy.
Cwik, Jan Christopher; Till, Benedikt; Bieda, Angela; Blackwell, Simon E; Walter, Carolin; Teismann, Tobias
Our study aimed to validate a previously published scale assessing attitudes towards suicide. Factor structure, convergent and discriminant validity, and predictive validity were investigated. Adult German participants (N=503; mean age=24.74years; age range=18-67years) anonymously completed a set of questionnaires. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted, and incongruous items were deleted. Subsequently, scale properties of the reduced scale and its construct validity were analyzed. A confirmatory factor analysis was then conducted in an independent sample (N=266; mean age=28.77years; age range=18-88years) to further confirm the factor structure of the questionnaire. Parallel analysis indicated a three-factor solution, which was also supported by confirmatory factor analysis: right to commit suicide, interpersonal gesture and resilience. The subscales demonstrated acceptable construct and discriminant validity. Cronbach's α for the subscales ranged from 0.67 to 0.83, explaining 49.70% of the total variance. Positive attitudes towards suicide proved to be predictive of suicide risk status, providing preliminary evidence for the utility of the scale. Future studies aiming to reproduce the factor structure in a more heterogeneous sample are warranted. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Reis, J; Wrestler, F
Knowledge of colds and flu and attitudes towards use of computers for self-care are compared for 260 young adult users and 194 young adult non-users of computer-assisted self-care for colds and flu. Participants completed a knowledge questionnaire on colds and flu, used a computer program designed to enhance self-care for colds and flu, and then completed a questionnaire on their attitudes towards using a computer for self-care for colds and flu, and then completed a questionnaire on their attitudes towards using a computer for self-care for colds and flu, perceived importance of physician interactions, physician expertise, and patient-physician communication. Compared with users, non-users preferred personal contact with their physicians and felt that computerized health assessments would be limited in vocabulary and range of current medical information. Non-users were also more likely to agree that people could not be trusted to do an accurate computerized health assessment and that the average person was too computer illiterate to use computers for self-care.
Flajsman, Ana Medic; Degmecic, Dunja; Pranjkovic, Tamara; Rogulja, Stanislav; Bošnjak, Dina; Kuzman, Martina Rojnic
In Croatia, psychiatric disorders are the leading group of disorders by days of hospitalization and they are in second place according to the number of hospitalizations in the period of working age. Nevertheless, psychiatry in Croatia, as well as in the world, is one of the least attractive specialties for medical students. In this paper we determined the impact of compulsory education in psychiatry on the attitudes of medical students of the fourth year of the Zagreb school of medicine and Osijek school of medicine. We tested attitudes toward psychiatry, psychiatric treatment and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help using questionnaires that were filled out twice, at the beginning of psychiatry placement and at the end of psychiatry placement. Questionnaires were completed by 239 students from the Zagreb school of medicine and Faculty of medicine Osijek (response rate 78.4%). After the placement, students had significantly more positive attitudes about psychiatry and psychiatric treatment, as well as the attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. Attitudes towards psychiatry, seeking psychological help and attitude towards psychiatric medication and psychotherapy correlated with the evaluation of the quality of psychiatric education. Additional forms of education in psychiatry should be offered, in order to maintain and increase the impact of education on students' attitudes.
Hirata, Hideki; Ohno, Kazuko; Saito, Tsutomu; Furui, Shigeru; Ogata, Hiromitsu; Sakai, Kazuo
This paper describes results of questionnaire conducted to members of Japanese College of Radiology (JCR) about their attitude and act for medical exposure. It asked, concerning medical exposure, about their attribute, attitude, education and knowledge, awareness at routine clinical practice and about occupational dose; was sent to 5,135 JCR members in September, 2011 for sending back within a month; and was replied by 1,177 members (22.9%), of which data were analyzed by chi-square distribution. Answered doctors (M/F of ca. 3/1, 30-59 years old) concerned with the actual practice (89.5%) for >10 years (ca. 67%) and >6 y (ca. 80) of imaging diagnosis (ca. 70%), radiotherapy (ca. 15) and nuclear medicine ( 300-bed hospital (ca. 70%). They were always or often aware of the medical exposure (>90%); their significantly high awareness was found in hospitals having >4 radiological doctors; and their awareness was significantly correlated with the population of their service area. They were also aware at CT (38%), IVR (interventional radiology) (27), radiotherapy (10) and PET (12), for patients of pediatrics (31%), of pregnancy-possible women (27), receiving frequent tests (30) and undergoing pelvic region imaging (12). Frequent questions to them arose from departments of nurse (28%), pediatrics (18), radiology (17), gynecology (13) and internal medicine (12); from patients often (5%), sometimes (28), rarely (55%) and null (12%). Significant relationship was found between questions by patients and the bed number/number of radiological doctors/population of medical service area. About 90% of doctors joined the education and training course always, often, or sometimes and about 40% of whom recognized its effectiveness. For accumulated dose restriction, 69.8% of doctors thought negative for patients while 72.1%, positive for volunteers in clinical trials (significant). Doctors who didn't explained patients about the exposure were 16%. Those highly aware of exposure wore the
Khorasgani, Sahar Rabani; Moghtadaie, Leila
The present study aimed at Investigating the knowledge and attitude of Nursing Students towards Iranian Traditional Medicine in universities of Tehran in 2012-2013. 300 students of nursing studying at different universities in Tehran participated in this descriptive, cross-sectional study. The data was collected through a standard questionnaire with an acceptable validity and reliability. The questionnaire was made of five sections including demographic, general knowledge of the Iranian traditional medicine, general attitude towards it, resources of the Iranian traditional medicine and the barriers to it. The results revealed that general knowledge of the students about Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine is low. The attitude of the students towards including Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine in their curriculum is positive. General attitude of students towards Iranian traditional medicine is positive too. The majority of the participants had not passed any course on Iranian traditional medicine. There was no relationship between participants’ attitude towards Iranian traditional medicine and the number of semesters they had passed. Considering the participants’ positive attitude and their low level of knowledge, it seems necessary for the university policy makers to provide nursing students with different training courses on Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine in order to increase their knowledge. PMID:25363119
Rybowiak, V.; Garst, H.; Frese, M.; Batinic, B.
An Error Orientation Questionnaire (EOQ) was developed, consisting of eight scales on attitudes to and on coping with errors at work. In Study I (representative sample of a German city, N=478) six scales were developed with the help of a confirmatory factor analysis using LISREL techniques. They
McPherson, Marianne E; Korfine, Lauren
This study explored the relationship between early and current menstrual experiences. The primary hypothesis was that women who reported positive menarcheal experiences (including menstrual education and menarche) would tend to report positive current menstrual attitudes, experiences, and/or behaviors, and vice versa for women who reported negative menarcheal experiences. In this survey-based study, college-aged women (n = 327) were screened by completing a questionnaire concerning their menarcheal experiences. Women who had extremely negative ("negative group," n = 46) or extremely positive ("positive group," n = 38) early menstrual experiences returned to complete questionnaires concerning current menstrual attitudes, experiences, and behaviors. Early and current menstrual experiences were most strongly associated in the domain of menstrual attitudes. Women in the negative group reported more negative menstrual attitudes than did women in the positive group. There were additional associations between early menstrual experiences and measures of body image and health behaviors. Positive group participants reported more positive body image and better general health behaviors. Results suggest that early menstrual experiences may be related to menstrual experiences later in life. This study invites further investigation of the psychology of menstruation and suggests connecting menstruation with other women's health issues.
Pupovac, Vanja; Bilic-Zulle, Lidija; Mavrinac, Martina; Petrovecki, Mladen
Introduction: Plagiarism is one of the most frequent and serious forms of misconduct in academic environment. The cross-sectional survey study was done with aim to explore the attitudes toward plagiarism. Materials and methods: First year students of Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, Croatia (N = 146) were anonymously tested using Attitude toward Plagiarism (ATP) questionnaire. The questionnaire is composed of 29 statements on a 5 point Likert scale, (1 - ...
Rungsiyanont, Sorasun; Lam-Ubol, Aroonwan; Vacharotayangul, Piamkamon; Sappayatosok, Kraisorn
To investigate the knowledge and attitudes of Thai dental practitioners regarding patients with HIV, a cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaires was conducted. The questionnaires requested demographic information and included questions evaluating the knowledge and attitude of dental practitioners towards HIV. The results were analyzed using Scheffe method for multiple comparisons at the 95 percent confidence level. Out of 1,200 questionnaires sent, 446 questionnaires were returned (response rate 37.2 percent). The subjects included final (sixth)-year dental students (11.9 percent), general dentists (29.1 percent), specialist dentists (15.5 percent), dental hygienists (30.5 percent), and dental assistants (13 percent). More than 80 percent of the dental practitioners correctly answered the questions testing their basic knowledge of HIV such as routes of transmission and common opportunistic infections. However, knowledge about HIV pathogenesis, complications, and advances in HIV management was lacking. Dental hygienists and dental assistants had statistically significant lower scores in knowledge about HIV than other groups. Sixty-seven percent of dental practitioners said they feel worried when treating patients with HIV, and 20.4 percent said they would deny treatment for patients with HIV if possible. While knowledge about HIV may be adequate among dental practitioners in Thailand, greater effort should be put into emphasizing positive attitudes towards patients with HIV.
Shpancer, Noam; Bennett-Murphy, Laura
Participants (n = 308; mean age = 20 years) completed questionnaires about their history, attitudes, and expectations regarding childcare, maternal employment and future parenting. Participants who experienced non-parental care as children had more favorable attitudes toward such care and toward maternal employment than did home-reared…
Trigwell, J.; Watson, P. M.; Murphy, R. C.; Stratton, G.; Cable, N. T.
Objective: This study examined the relationship between ethnic background and parental views of healthy body size, concerns surrounding overweight and attitudes to perceived causes of overweight in childhood. Method: A self-report questionnaire was designed to explore parental attitudes towards childhood weight. Sampling deliberately…
Siohong Tih; Sean Ennis; June M. L. Poon
This study examined the adequacy of using undergraduate student samples in research on online consumer attitudes by comparing the attitudes of students (n = 161) towards online retailing services with the attitudes of non-students (n = 252) towards such services. A structured questionnaire administered online was used to gather data on perceptions, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions with regard to online retailing services. The t-test results showed that, in general, students' attitude t...
Silva, T. C.; Ferreira, C. N.; Cardozo, M.; de Paula, R. L.
In recent years, Brazil has been the scene of international events, gaining worldwide repercussion. However, this increases the risk of terrorist attacks using chemical warfare agents. It brings the need to achieve proficiency to do a quick and unequivocal identification of these dangerous compounds. Thinking about it, the Laboratory of Chemical Analyzes (LAQ) of Brazilian Army has participated since the end of 2010 in the interlaboratory tests promoted by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). In this article, we discuss about the participation of LAQ in the 40th OPCW Proficiency Test, one more step in the way to become a laboratory designated by OPCW and an international reference.
Boer, Diana; Fischer, Ronald
This article examines how and when personal values relate to social attitudes. Considering values as motivational orientations, we propose an attitude-value taxonomy based on Moral Foundation Theory (Haidt & Joseph, 2007) and Schwartz's (1992) basic human values theory allowing predictions of (a) how social attitudes are related to personal values, and (b) when macro-contextual factors have an impact on attitude-value links. In a meta-analysis based on the Schwartz Value Survey (Schwartz, 1992) and the Portrait Value Questionnaire (Schwartz et al., 2001; k = 91, N = 30,357 from 31 countries), we found that self-transcendence (vs. self-enhancement) values relate positively to fairness/proenvironmental and care/prosocial attitudes, and conservation (vs. openness-to-change) values relate to purity/religious and authority/political attitudes, whereas ingroup/identity attitudes are not consistently associated with value dimensions. Additionally, we hypothesize that the ecological, economic, and cultural context moderates the extent to which values guide social attitudes. Results of the multi-level meta-analysis show that ecological and cultural factors inhibit or foster attitude-value associations: Disease stress is associated with lower attitude-value associations for conservation (vs. openness-to-change) values; collectivism is associated with stronger attitude-value links for conservation values; individualism is associated with stronger attitude-value links for self-transcendence (vs. self-enhancement) values; and uncertainty avoidance is associated with stronger attitude-values links, particularly for conservation values. These findings challenge universalistic claims about context-independent attitude-value relations and contribute to refined future value and social attitude theories. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Yanikkerem, Emre; Üstgörül, Sema; Karakus, Asli; Baydar, Ozge; Esmeray, Nicole; Ertem, Gül
To evaluate Turkish nursing students' attitudes towards voluntary induced abortion.. This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and June 2015, comprising students of Ege University Nursing Faculty and Celal Bayar University School of Health, located in two different cities of Turkey. Data was collected with a three-part questionnaire, focussing on students' characteristics, the knowledge of abortion law in Turkey and attitudes towards voluntary induced abortion. SPSS 15 was used for data analysis.. The mean score of students' attitude towards voluntary induced abortion was 39.8±7.9 which shows that nursing students moderately support abortion. Female students, students coming from upper class in society, and students who had higher family income and sexual experiences had more supportiveness attitudes towards voluntary induced abortion (pabortion.
Thomson, Hilary; Ross, Sue; Wilson, Philip; McConnachie, Alex; Watson, Richard
A copy of BabyCheck was sent to 497 mothers shortly after the birth of their baby. Six months later they were sent a questionnaire asking about their use of and attitudes to, BabyCheck. Questionnaires were returned by 323 (65%) mothers; 215 (67%) of them reported reading BabyCheck, the majority found it easy to understand (74%) and agreed with the advice (67%). Eighty-four (26%) of the mothers who returned the questionnaires reported using BabyCheck when their baby was ill; of these, 71% agre...
Muhammed Doğukan Balçın; Ayşegül Ergün
This research was carried out to determine secondary school students’ perceptions and attitudes towards scientists. The study group consists of 53 fifth and sixth grade students receiving education in a state secondary school in Turkey. Convergent parallel design among mixed research methods was used during the research. Research data were collected using “Questionnaire on attitudes towards scientists” and “Draw A Scientist (DAS)” forms. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods and con...
Sjoeberg, L.; Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M.
This is a study of risk perception and attitudes with regard to nuclear waste. Two data sets are reported. In the first set, data were obtained from a survey of the general population, using an extensive questionnaire. The second set constituted a follow-up 7 years later, with a limited number of questions. The data showed that people considered the topic of nuclear waste risks to be very important and that they were not convinced that the technological problems had been solved. Experts associated with government agencies were moderately trusted, while those employed by the nuclear industry were much distrusted by some respondents, and very much trusted by others. Moral obligations to future generations were stressed. A large portion (more than 50 per cent) of the variances in risk perception could be explained by attitude to nuclear power, general risk sensitivity and trust in expertise. Most background variables, except gender, had little influence on risk perception and attitudes. The follow-up study showed that the attitude to nuclear power had become more positive over time, but that people still doubted that the problems of nuclear waste disposal had been solved. 49 refs
Biasutti, Michele; Frate, Sara
This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes toward Sustainable Development scale, a quantitative 20-item scale that measures Italian university students' attitudes toward sustainable development. A total of 484 undergraduate students completed the questionnaire. The validity and reliability of the scale was statistically…
Maroo, Jill Deanne
The nursing profession combines the art of caregiving with scientific concepts. Nursing students need to learn science in order to start in a nursing program. However, previous research showed that students left the nursing program, stating it included too much science (Andrew et al., 2008). Research has shown a correlation between students' attitudes and their performance in a subject (Osborne, Simon, & Collins, 2003). However, little research exists on the overall attitude of nursing students toward science. At the time of my study there existed no large scale quantitative study on my topic. The purpose of my study was to identify potential obstacles nursing students face, specifically, attitude and motivation toward learning science. According to research the nation will soon face a nursing shortage and students cite the science content as a reason for not completing the nursing program. My study explored nursing students' attitudes toward science and reasons these students are motivated to learn science. I ran a nationwide mixed methods approach with 1,402 participants for the quantitative portion and 4 participants for the qualitative portion. I validated a questionnaire in order to explore nursing students' attitudes toward science, discovered five different attitude scales in that questionnaire and determined what demographic factors provided a statistically significant prediction of a student's score. In addition, I discovered no statistical difference in attitude exists between students who have the option of taking nursing specific courses and those who do not have that option. I discovered in the qualitative interviews that students feel science is necessary in nursing but do not feel nurses are scientists. My study gives a baseline of the current attitude of nursing students toward science and why these students feel the need to learn the science.
Full Text Available Objectives: The study investigates the dietary intakes of Omani preschoolers and associations with both socio-demographic characteristics and the mother’s nutritional knowledge and attitudes.Methods: A sample of 154 parents of preschoolers completed a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics, a food-frequency questionnaire to assess children’s food intake, nutritional knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating.Results: The results showed a lower dietary adequacy of children’s food intake in mothers with low educational levels, high-ranked occupation, and lower levels of both nutritional knowledge and food related health attitudes. The highest food intake and healthy eating attitude scores were found in children of mothers with high education level and mother without a job. The association of the dietary adequacy with socio-demographic background can help the Omani healthcare decision makers to develop better-tailored nutrition interventions which are more suitable for the Omani community.Conclusion: The results from this study of mothers’ nutritional knowledge and attitudes support the inclusion of knowledge and attitudes in dietary interventions.
Zenz, J; Tryba, M; Zenz, M
The current debate about end-of-life decisions in Germany focuses on physician-assisted suicide (PAS). However, there is only limited information available on physicians' attitudes towards euthanasia or PAS, and no data on nurses' attitudes. The aim is to explore attitudes of physicians and nurses with a special interest in palliative care and pain medicine using a case-related questionnaire. An anonymous questionnaire, consisting of eight questions, was distributed to all participants of a palliative care congress and a pain symposium. The questions focused on two scenarios: (1) a patient with an incurable fatal illness, (2) a patient with an incurable but nonfatal illness. The question was: Should euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide (PAS) be allowed. In addition, the participants were asked what they wanted for themselves if they were the patient concerned. A total of 317 questionnaires were analyzed; the return rate was 70 %. The general support for euthanasia and PAS was high: 40.5 % supported euthanasia in case of a fatal illness ("definitely…", "probably should be allowed"), 53.5 % supported PAS. The support decreased in case of a nonfatal illness; however, it increased when the participants were asked about their attitudes if they were the patient concerned. Nurses were more open towards euthanasia and PAS. In physicians the rejection of PAS was directly related to a higher level of qualification in the field of palliative care. The fact that nurses had a more positive attitude towards euthanasia and PAS and that all respondents accepted life-ending acts for themselves more than for their patients hints to still existing severe deficits in Germany.
Pachigar, Vinati; Stansfield, Jois; Goldbart, Juliet
Beliefs and attitudes of teachers in Mumbai, India, towards children who stutter were investigated using questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Questionnaires were completed by 58 teachers, four of whom were subsequently interviewed. Results from the questionnaires showed that teachers believed that a child's environment influenced…
Vadmann, Henrik; Pedersen, Susanne S; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis
BACKGROUND: Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) is an important but expensive procedure that is the subject of some debate. Physicians´ attitudes towards catheter ablation may influence promotion and patient acceptance. This is the first study to examine the attitudes of Danish...... cardiologists towards catheter ablation for AF, using a nationwide survey. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed a purpose-designed questionnaire to evaluate attitudes towards catheter ablation for AF that was sent to all Danish cardiologists (n = 401; response n = 272 (67.8%)). There was no association between...... attitudes towards ablation and the experience or age of the cardiologist with respect to patients with recurrent AF episodes with a duration of 7 days and/or need for cardioversion. The majority (69%) expected a recurrence of AF after catheter ablation in more than 30% of the cases...
Studies have demonstrated that gerontological content can have a positive effect on student nurses' attitudes toward older adults. However, few studies have attempted to investigate nurse teachers' attitudes toward older people. Yet authors acknowledge the importance of both clinical nurses and teachers in the socialisation process. The aim of this study is to compare the attitudes of student nurses with those of nurse teachers toward working with hospitalised older adults. A questionnaire was developed, piloted and refined until the final outcome was a 20 item questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed to nurse teachers (n=59); first year student nurses who had completed their first term of theory (n=82); student nurses who had completed a theory and a clinical placement (n=80). Statistical analysis of the data included ANOVA with a post hoc comparison. Results indicated that nurse teachers were most positive for a number of items on the questionnaire. However, they were least positive about their role in promoting an interest in older people and keeping up to date about advances in the field of older people. It is the responsibility of both teachers and clinical staff to dispel stereotypes that student nurses bring in to nursing.
Full Text Available This research is to study the attitudes of English students from English as a Second Language (ESL and English as a Foreign Language (EFL country in English and Foreign Languages University (EFL University, Hyderabad to English. This is a descriptive-quantitative research with a survey method. The attitudes researched include those to listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The data was taken through questionnaire consisting of 20 questions. The findings of this study showed that the English students in EFL University have neutral-to-positive attitudes to Listening, positive attitudes to Speaking, positive attitudes to Reading, and poor attitudes to Writing. In addition, the English students from ESL country have better attitudes to Reading (positive and Writing (neutral and those from EFL country have better attitudes to Speaking (neutral-to-positive and Listening (neutral-to-positive.
Full Text Available This research is to study the attitudes of English students from English as a Second Language (ESL and English as a Foreign Language (EFL country in English and Foreign Languages University (EFL University, Hyderabad to English. This is a descriptive-quantitative research with a survey method. The attitudes researched include those to listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The data was taken through questionnaire consisting of 20 questions. The findings of this study showed that the English students in EFL University have neutral-to-positive attitudes to Listening, positive attitudes to Speaking, positive attitudes to Reading, and poor attitudes to Writing. In addition, the English students from ESL country have better attitudes to Reading (positive and Writing (neutral and those from EFL country have better attitudes to Speaking (neutral-to-positive and Listening (neutral-to-positive.
Poote, A E; van den Akker, O B A
There has been little interest in the research literature on public opinions regarding assisted conception and surrogacy, particularly in European countries, despite the growing evidence showing that problems in adaptation and coping may be related to perceived normative values. This study investigated British women's attitudes to surrogacy using components of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Questionnaires on attitudes to surrogacy and reasons for parenthood were completed by 187 women from the general public. Significant socio-demographic differences were found between women who were possibly willing (n = 76) and those who were unwilling (n = 111) to become surrogate mothers. General attitudes to surrogacy also differed between groups (P = 0.000). This study supported the predictive utility of components of the TPB, and differentiated adequately between groups on attitudes to recruitment for surrogacy (P = 0.000), the consequences of surrogacy (P = 0.000), factors that induce people to become surrogates (P = 0.000), social support (P = 0.000), having personal control (P = 0.002) and reasons for parenthood (P = 0.000). Age (P = 0.000), attitudes to advertising (P = 0.02) and the consequences of surrogacy (P = 0.05) predicted (un)willingness to become a potential surrogate mother. Further research is needed with larger sample sizes of potential surrogates to determine whether the predictive attitudes reported here translate to actual behaviours. The larger group which was not interested in considering becoming a surrogate scored significantly more negatively on all attitudes towards surrogacy. The negative attitudes reported by the 'unwilling to consider being a surrogate' group may reflect attitudes held by the majority of the population and are likely to be influenced by reports of stigma associated with surrogacy.
Abdullah, Zhwan Dalshad; Bit Abu Ziden, Azidah; Binti Chi Aman, Rahimi; Mustafa, Khalid Ismail
The present quantitative study aims to find out the underlying factors of attitudes towards information technology and the relationship with academic achievement among students, through a self-developed questionnaire. The attitudes of the respondents were assessed in terms of three dimensions; namely affection, behavior, and belief. The results…
Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra; Gialamas, Vasilis
This paper regards a study aiming to investigate junior high school pupils' attitudes and self-efficacy of using mobile devices. A 25-item questionnaire was administered to 260 pupils aged 12-15 years old, in Greece. Pupils' attitudes were positive, and four factors were extracted, "perceived usefulness", "affection",…
A Survey of Pharmacists' Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Diabetes in Three Tertiary. Hospitals in ... using a structured questionnaire and analyzed based on descriptive statistics. A total of ... patients' treatment outcomes and quality of life.
Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to pre-CRT in patients of stage II/III rectal cancer. Materials and Methods. Questionnaires regarding the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of pre-CRT were mailed to 145 rectal cancer patients in II/III stage between January 2012 and December 2014, and 111 agreed to participate and returned completed questionnaires to the researcher. Logistic regression model was used to compare sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, and attitude with practice, respectively. Results. A total of 145 patients were approached for interview, of which 111 responded and 48.6% (54 had undergone pre-CRT. Only 31.5% of the participants knew that CRT is a treatment of rectal cancer and 39.6% were aware of the importance of CRT. However, the vast majority of participants (68.5% expressed a positive attitude toward rectal cancer. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that knowledge level (p=0.006 and attitudes (p=0.001 influence the actual practice significantly. Furthermore, age, gender, and income were potential predictors of practice (all p<0.05. Conclusion. This study shows that, despite the fact that participants had suboptimal level of knowledge on rectal cancer, their attitude is favorable to pre-CRT. Strengthening the professional health knowledge and realizing the importance of attitudes may deepen patients’ understanding of preoperative therapy.
Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin; Shariat, Abolhamid; Rezaei, Razieh; Etemadi, Samaneh; Ghaem, Haleh
To investigate the knowledge and attitudes of patients towards lumbar puncture (LP), its complications, and indications. In a questionnaire survey, patients who were referred to the general neurology outpatient clinic at Nemazee Hospital in Shiraz, Iran, from January 2007 to January 2008 were invited to complete a questionnaire consisting of items on demographic and socioeconomic variables, experiences with LP and complications, and knowledge of and attitudes regarding LP. A total of 410 patients were recruited (58% women, mean age 33.2 + - 2.7 years). Poor knowledge of LP was highly prevalent (92.6%), and negative attitudes toward LP were also common (63%) among our patients. Skepticism regarding LP was directly related to lack of information (p=0.00007). Lower socioeconomic status, lower educational level, and residence in rural areas were associated with being less well informed about LP, but interestingly those who had experience with LP before were better informed and had more positive attitudes. It is possible to overcome reluctance to undergo LP through education of its indications, contraindications, and complications. (author)
Jarurin Pitanupong; Chonnakarn Jatchavala
Objective: To determine the prevalence, and associated factors of atypical eating attitudes and behaviors in Thai medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey examined the eating abnormalities in Thai medical students, conducted in 2014. Research assistants collected data by using; self-reported questionnaires using The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26 Thai Version). The statistical analysis used R-program for qualitative variables and logistic regression was applied to ...
Lee, J. W. C.; Tanusia, A.
This paper examines the influence of attitude towards energy conservation at home, the attitude in the campus, subjective norm, and self-efficacy on energy conservation behavioural intention among students in a private university using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Data was collected from about 194 students using a questionnaire developed from current literature on TPB. Data analysis using Smart PLS version 3.2.4 found that attitude towards energy conservation at home has an indirect significant influence on attitude towards energy conservation behavioural intention via the mediating effect of attitude towards energy conservation in the campus. Self-efficacy and subjective norm are also positively related to energy conservation intention. The study also indicates the suitability of the TPB in predicting behavioural intention through attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy. Results suggest that energy education is vital in creating a positive attitude towards energy conservation while facilities managers in institutions need to formulate appropriate policies and regulations to inculcate the right attitude and behaviour towards energy saving.
Schulz, W; Shin, M A; Schmid-Ott, G
Due to the relatively recent introduction of psychotherapy in South Korea and against the background of collectivist and Confucian values, it has been suggested that South Koreans harbor more negative attitudes towards psychotherapy compared to Germans and that the social acceptance of psychotherapy is lower. We compared the attitudes of 99 women from South Korea with 98 German women using the questionnaire on attitudes towards psychotherapeutic treatment (FEP). For the study of the South Korean women we translated the questionnaire into the Korean language. The results of the psychometric analysis suggest that the Korean version of the FEP is of acceptable quality. South Korean women reported a significantly more negative attitude towards psychotherapy compared to German women. Furthermore, South Korean women anticipated a more skeptical social attitude towards psychotherapy compared to Germans. The presented results suggest the relevance of cultural imprinting in psychotherapy. They are discussed with respect to culture-specific self-concepts, concepts of disease and healing expectations and the increase of individualistic values in the Korean society.
Tavormina, Maurilio Giuseppe Maria; Tavormina, Romina; Nemoianni, Eugenio; Tavormina, Giuseppe
Psychiatric patients often suffer for two reasons: due to the illness and due to the social stigma of mental illness, that increases the uneasiness and psychic pain of the person suffering from serious psychiatric disorder. This unwell person is often the object of stigma because he is "different" from others, and he also can be margenalised by society. In this study we intend to assess whether these margenalising attitudes might be also present among mental health professionals who have presented psychic problems in a previous period of their life, against sick persons suffering of the same illness even if he is a mental health professional. Two questionnaires have been developed, one for professionals and another for the patients, with the aim of identifying these marginalising attitudes. We intend that this study shall be a multicenter, observational and international study, promoted by the Mental Health Dept. of Naples (ASL Naples 3 South, Italy).
Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari; Masoumeh Mohammadzadeh; Stefanos A. Nastis
Identifying factors that influence the attitudes of agricultural experts regarding precision agriculture plays an important role in developing, promoting and establishing precision agriculture. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting the attitudes of agricultural experts regarding the implementation of precision agriculture. A descriptive research design was employed as the research method. A research-made questionnaire was used to examine the agricultural experts’ attitude to...
Houlby, Louise; Nørnberg, Trine R.; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Perez-Cueto, Armando
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the attitudes towards choice architectural nudge interventions aiming to increase vegetable intake among Danish teenagers in a school context, and which factors influence these attitudes.Methodology: Cross-sectional data were collected through an online quantitative questionnaire, which was developed, validated and distributed to assess factors associated with attitude towards choice architectural nudge interventions. Data analysis inc...
This study endeavored to investigate primary school teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and perceived practices of continuous assessment (CA). Ninety-five primary school teachers from three primary schools in West Gojjam, Ethiopia, were randomly selected for the study. Questionnaire, interviews and content analyses were ...
Entrepreneurship Education (EE) and undergraduates' attitude of Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Nigeria, (OAU), to self-employment were examined. Over one thousand students enrolled for the special electives in 2006/2007 academic session. These students were administered with questionnaire, pre- and post- ...
Liang, H-Y; Lee, L-W; Kelsen, B A; Hsu, S-C; Liu, C-Y; Chen, C-Y
The aims of this cross-sectional, case-controlled, observational study were to examine attitudes toward menstruation in female patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and in a control group, and to explore the associations between attitudes toward menstruation and psychopathology, menstrual regularity during antipsychotic treatment, and menstrual distress symptoms. Fifty-eight patients treated with anti-psychotic medications for at least the previous 6 months were placed in irregular (irregular menstrual cycle) (n = 31) and regular (regular menstrual cycle) (n = 27) groups. Sixty-two, age-matched, healthy female participants with regular menstrual cycles were enrolled as a control group. Psychopathology was assessed by psychiatrists using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ) was used to assess attitudes toward menstruation, and symptom checklists based on the Moos Menstruation Distress Questionnaire (MMDQ) were used to assess menstrual distress symptoms. Patients with psychotic disorders (both irregular and regular groups) had more negative attitudes toward menstruation than the control group. In the Schizophrenia group, there was no association between the severity of psychotic symptoms and their influence on attitudes toward menstruation. Moreover, regular menstrual cycles during antipsychotic treatment and fewer menstrual distress symptoms were the two main predictors for more positive attitudes toward menstruation in the patient group. This is one of the first studies to explore the relationship between psychotic symptoms and attitudes toward menstruation. The findings provide more support for the assumption that attitudes toward menstruation are derived from a woman's perception of her bodily experience rather than a psychiatric disorder.
Kodaka, Manami; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Yamada, Mitsuhiko
Pharmacists could play a significant role in providing care for suicidal individuals. Previous studies reported that gatekeeper attitudes toward suicide could affect caregiving behaviors toward people at risk for suicide. Nevertheless, only few studies have examined the attitudes of pharmacists toward suicide. This study explores the factors associated with the attitudes of pharmacists toward suicide. A self-administered questionnaire and written explanation of the study were mailed to 541 pharmacists who had registered for the Board Certified Psychiatry Pharmacy Specialist Seminar in Tokyo, Japan. A Japanese version of the Attitudes Toward Suicide questionnaire was used to assess participant attitudes toward suicide. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to assess relationships between participant attitudes toward suicide as well as demographics, occupational, and personal factors. Participants who had previously received suicide-related education were more likely to have positive attitudes toward suicide prevention. Conversely, those with a lifetime history of suicidal thoughts had more permissive attitudes toward one's right to commit suicide. Our findings suggest that pharmacist suicide prevention training programs should aim to alter permissiveness attitudes of trainees toward suicide.
Full Text Available [english] Introduction: The implementation of complex medical interventions in daily practice is often fraught with difficulties. According to the iterative phase model proposed by the British Medical Research Council (MRC, the development, implementation and evaluation of complex interventions should be theory-driven. A conceptual model that seems to be a promising framework is the Theory of planned behaviour (TPB. In our study we aimed to develop and validate a generic and multifaceted questionnaire based on the TPB to detect physicians’ willingness to implement complex medical interventions and the factors influencing this willingness.Methods: The questionnaire was developed according to the literature and was informed by previous qualitative research of our department. It was validated on the example of an electronic library of decision aids, arriba-lib. The sample consisted of 181 General Practitioners (GPs who received a training regarding arriba-lib and subsequently filled in the questionnaire, assessing the TPB variables attitude, subjective norm, perceived behaviour control and intention. Follow-up assessments were conducted after two (assessing retest reliability and eight weeks (assessing target behaviour. We performed a confirmatory factor analysis investigating the factorial structure of our questionnaire according to the TPB. Beside the calculation of the questionnaire’s psychometric properties we conducted a structural equation model and an ordinal regression to predict actual behaviour regarding the installation and application of arriba-lib.Results: The postulated three factorial model (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behaviour control of our questionnaire based on the TPB was rejected. A two factorial model with a combined factor subjective norm/perceived behaviour control was accepted. The explained variance in the ordinal regression was low (Nagelkerke’s R=.12. Neither attitude nor intention were able to predict
Full Text Available There are often racial, ethnic intolerance among adolescents, which, in our opinion, caused by the presence of xenophobic attitudes, some combination of personality structures and situational factors. We hypothesized that there is a specificity of the relationship of xenophobic attitudes and personality characteristics in the structure of the person of adolescents with deviating (including illegal behavior and normative behavior. The study involved 254 female and a teenage male aged 14 - 18 years. The study used a questionnaire to identify the severity of xenophobic attitudes, as well as the methodology and questionnaires to identify the personality characteristics of adolescents and semantic constructs of personality. As a result, significant differences were found in the personal features (criterion U-Mann-Whitney test with p <0,01 and semantic structures in adolescents with regulations and illegal behavior of offenders with a nationalist orientation and without it. The results can be used in the framework of the prevention of hate crimes among adolescents.
Aggeliki V. Tsaprantzi MD
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the impact of information on doctors’ attitudes and perceptions toward generics. A cross-sectional survey based on a specially designed 21-item questionnaire was conducted. The survey involved doctors of different specialties working in a public hospital in Greece. The analysis includes descriptive and inferential statistics, reliability and validity tests, as well as structural equation modeling to evaluate the causal model. Statistical analysis was accomplished by using SPSS 20 and Amos 20. A total of 134 questionnaires out of 162 were received, providing a response rate of 82.71%. A number of significant associations were found between information and perceptions about generic medicines with demographic characteristics. It seems that the provision of quality information on generic drugs influences doctors’ attitudes and prescription practices toward generic drugs. This is not a static process but a rather dynamic issue involving information provision policies for strengthening the proper doctors’ attitudes toward generic drugs.
The purposes of this study were to validate the writing section of the Eiken Can-Do Questionnaires used in this study and the second purpose was to determine the effects of ten affective orientations (i.e., Desire to Write English, Attitude Toward Learning to Write English, Motivational Intensity, Instrumental Orientation for Writing in English,…
Mariana Campos de Sousa
Full Text Available Objective.To describe the quality of life (QL, knowledge and attitude of the elderly with diabetes mellitus (DM and to correlate the QL with the knowledge and the attitude of the elderly. Method. It is a cross-sectional study of household inquiry type and developed with 296 elderly with DM. The used instruments were: World Health Organization Quality of Life Bref (WHOQOL-BREF, World Health Organization Quality of Life Old (WHOQOL-OLD, Diabetes Knowledge Scale Questionnaire (DKN-A and Diabetes Attitudes Questionnaire (ATT-19. Results. The female were predominant (68.2%, aged from 70 - 79 years old (43.9%, married or living with a partner (41.6%, living with their children (43.2%, with income of one minimum wage (52.4%, had 4 - 7 years of education (32.8%, on diet use and oral hypoglycemic (68.6% and less than five years diagnosis (29.1%. The greater the knowledge and the attitude the higher QL scores in physical, psychological, social relationships and environment domains; and facets of sensory works, autonomy, and intimacy. Conclusion. Educational activities need to be worked improving the knowledge and attitude of the elderly about the DM.
Tabatabaei, Aminreza; Mortazavi, Seyyed Mostafa; Shamspour, Navvab; Shushtarizadeh, Naser
Iran has the highest number of Umrah pilgrims among Islamic countries. Health care plays a major role in fulfilling the Umrah rites. Pilgrims' health situation depends on their health knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP). In this study, we aimed to determine the health KAP among Iranian Umrah pilgrims. In this cross-sectional study, 157 Iranian Umrah pilgrims were randomly selected in Mecca, Saudi Arabia in June 2011. Data were collected using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of demographic information (sex, age, degree of education, and resource of health knowledge), health knowledge (5 questions), health attitude (5 questions) and health practice (10 questions). Level of knowledge were very low in 12.1%, low in 25.2%, average in 38.1%, good in 20.4% and very good in 4.2% of respondents. Mean and standard deviation of attitude score was 18.58 ± 2.20 out of 25 (ranged between 13.00 and 25.00). The pilgrims were given 74.2 % out of total score. The Mean and standard deviation of practice score was 8.19 ± 1.32 out of 10 (ranged between 3 and 10). Although the old and low educated pilgrims had little knowledge of health tips, they had a good health attitude and practice. Educational strategy to improve knowledge regarding health-related problems and to develop health practices among pilgrims is needed.
Chetcuti, Deborah A.; Kioko, Beriter
This study investigated girls' attitudes towards science in Kenya. It was carried out with 120 girls from four secondary schools in the Eastern province of Kenya. These were an urban single-sex (SS) and co-educational (Co-Ed) school and a rural SS and Co-Ed school. Different schools were chosen in order to explore whether there are any differences in attitudes in SS and Co-Ed schools and in schools in rural and urban areas. The methodology included the use of both questionnaires and focus group interviews. The main aim was to gain insight into the extent and depth of students' attitudes towards science. The findings of the study showed that the majority of Kenyan girls who participated in the study have a favourable attitude towards science. Girls in SS schools were found to have a more favourable attitude than those in Co-Ed schools, while girls in rural area schools were found to find science more relevant than those in urban schools. It emerged from this study that the attitudes of Kenyan girls are influenced by their perceptions of the relevance of science, enjoyment of studying science, perceptions of the suitability of science for a career, and their perceptions of subject difficulty.
Full Text Available Introduction : E-learning is used in the worldwide in higher education to improve the quality of the learning experience by students; at the same time using this approach requires behavioral changes in the faculty members. One of the steps in the implementation and monitoring of e-learning, is audience analysis using techniques such as knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP. This study investigates the knowledge, attitude and faculty members’ performance of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS on e-learning. Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014-15 through a research-made questionnaire. Face validity was determined by expert opinion, Cronbach’s alpha was measured to assess the reliability and its construct validity was investigated through exploratory factor analysis. . The questionnaire was e-mailed to all TUMS faculty members . 218 faculty members responded to the questionnaire. Results: The reliability score of the questionnaire was assessed using Cronbach alphs, and it was 0.79. Exploratory factor analysis of the attitude part of the questionnaire produced a single factor that explained 53% of the variance. The results showed the positive attitude of faculty members regarding e-learning, although their knowledge and practice scores was less than half of the total score. There wass not found any meaningful differences between knowledge, attitude and performance of the participants based on sex, rank and work experience. ANOVA test showed that the difference of scores among schools was statistically significant ( = 0.000; = 0.003 and = 0.000, respectively. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed the state of knowledge, attitude and faculty members’ performance of TUMS on e-learning. Over the past years, TUMS has established suitable e-learning infrastructure such as educational websites and virtual programs as well as training workshop for faculty members. The results of this study can
Erlenwein, J; Kundu, S; Schippert, C; Soergel, P; Hillemanns, P; Staboulidou, I
Surgical sterilization via tubal ligation or the disconnection of the tubes is a method of permanent contraception. The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitude, acceptance and knowledge of women about female sterilization as a method of contraception in terms of the social and cultural backgrounds of those women. Prospective study based on an anonymous questionnaire that analyzed background knowledge, attitude, influence factors and motivation regarding sterilization, as well as the reasons for declining. The questionnaire also attempted to evaluate the effects on the self-esteem of the women, as well as the impact of religious dogma and the related beliefs. One thousand, eight hundred questionnaires were distributed, and 1247 women completed the questionnaire—a response rate of 69.3%. There were mainly positive attitudes toward sterilization as a contraceptive method. Cultural background, including religion and faith; the mother's experiences and point of view; knowledge; family planning and the actual life situation have an influence on the attitudes toward and acceptance of sterilization as a contraceptive method and on the final choice of a contraceptive method. Cultural background and present life situation have a great impact on the attitude toward and acceptance of sterilization as a method of contraception, thus influencing the final choice of a contraceptive method. Detailed counselling about this topic is essential and should be improved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zahra Sharifi Feriz
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to examine home culture attachment construct and its underlying variables among Iranian English as Foreign Language learners as well as their attitudes towards English language learning. Pearson correlation is used with a sample of 411 English major university students from different provinces in Iran, mainly Khorasan Razavi, Khoran Jonoubi and Sistan Baluchestan participated in this study. As for the quantitative phase of data collection, the study employed home culture attachment and attitude towards English language learning questionnaires. The reliability and validity of these questionnaires are reported. A home culture attachment model and an attitude model are also developed and tested using structural equation modeling. The results suggest that all three subscales of attitudes (emotional, behavioral, and cognitive are positive and significant predictors of students' western attachment. From three subscales of attitude, only behavioral attitude is negative and significant predictors of students' religious attachment. In addition, Iranian attachment is influenced by cognitive attitudes and emotional attitudes. Besides, cognitive attitude is a positive and significant predictor of students' cultural attachment. It is also found that, artistic attachment is influenced by behavioral attitudes and emotional attitudes. Finally, the pedagogical implications are discussed in light of foreign language achievement.
Brooks, Charles T.; Patterson, David A.; McKiernan, Patrick M.
The focus of this study was to qualitatively evaluate worker's attitudes about clinical supervision. It is believed that poor attitudes toward clinical supervision can create barriers during supervision sessions. Fifty-one participants within a social services organization completed an open-ended questionnaire regarding their clinical supervision…
Full Text Available Introduction: Deliberation over euthanasia has been enduring for an extended period of time. On one end, there are populaces talking for the sacrosanctity of life and on the other end, there are those, who promote individual independence. All over the world professionals from different areas have already spent mammoth period over the subject. A large number of cases around the world have explored the boundaries of current legal distinctions, drawn between legitimate and nonlegitimate instances of ending the life. The term euthanasia was derived from the Greek words "eu" and "thanatos" which means "good death" or "easy death." It is also known as mercy killing. Euthanasia literally means putting a person to painless death especially in case of incurable suffering or when life becomes purposeless as a result of mental or physical handicap. Objective: To study the attitude of doctors toward euthanasia in Delhi. Methodology: It was a questionnaire based descriptive cross-sectional study carried out between July 2014 and December 2014. The study population included Doctors from 28 hospitals in Delhi both public and private. Equal numbers of doctors from four specialties were included in this study (50 oncologists, 50 hematologists, 50 psychiatrists, and 50 intensivists. Demographic questionnaire, as well as the Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS, a 30 items Likert-scale questionnaire developed by (Holloway, Hayslip and Murdock, 1995 was used to measure attitude toward Euthanasia. The scale uses both positively (16 items and negatively (14 items worded statements to control the effect of acquiescence. The scale also has four response categories, namely "definitely agree," "agree," "disagree," and "definitely disagree." The total score for the EAS was generated by adding all the sub-scales (question′s responses. The demographic questionnaire and EAS, a 30 items Likert-scale questionnaire developed by (Holloway, Hayslip and Murdock, 1995 was distributed
Full Text Available As democracy can develop better in a society of democratic people, democracy education can also get its intended goals better in a democratic school environment. As the most influential people in a school environment were teachers, this study, too, aimed to determine their levels of democratic attitudes. In the present study, 60 primary school teachers working in the schools attached to the Bursa Metropolitan Municipality were surveyed. The relationships between their attitudes and some variables were studied. These variables included school they work, age, gender, marital status, number of children they have, education level, teaching experience and number of broth-ers or sisters. The questionnaire used for this study was validated by Aydogan & Kukul (2003 based on previous studies made by Gomleksiz (1988, Yildirim (1994 and Atasoy (1997. For the validity of the questionnaire, Cronbach Alpha coefficient (0.829 was calculated. The results suggest that teachers show very positive attitude with a score of 103. When the items were examined individually, some significant relationships were found with the variables. Teachers should have positive democratic attitudes in order to give lessons of democracy to their students. An appropriate and encouraging environment should be prepared in order for students to gain desired democratic outcomes. In a democratic environment, teachers’ positive attitudes will help their students to gain critical thinking skills, effective discussion skills, capability for fighting against inequity, cooperation and collaboration skills, and showing empathy and respect for diversity.
Full Text Available Background: Adolescents pay more attention to their appearance and body.Irregular nutritional patterns, eating certain types of food, and consuming more protein-containing food are more common in this age group. Considering the importance of this issue and lack of adequate studies in Iran, especially in Fars province, we aimed to assess the relationship between weight-controlling attitudes and eating disorders with dietary intake in female adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 600 female students aged 14-17 years from the four educational districts of Shiraz, southern Iran, during 2011-2012 using the stratified random sampling method. Data were collected using three questionnaires as follows: demographic data questionnaire, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 to assess eating attitude disorders in students, and the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 13 and the NUT 4 software. Results: Six (1% EAT-26 questionnaire were omitted from analysis for being incomplete. Also, 556, 446, and 491 questionnaires were evaluated in meat, bread, and fat groups, respectively; and the rest were omitted because of not being complete. The mean±SD age of the students was 15.8±0.9 years. According to the EAT-26, we found that 80.1% of the students were at risk of eating attitude disorders (CI=95%, 76.9-83.3. By comparing the results of the FFQ and the EAT-26 and weight controlling behaviors, we found that consumption of meat and fat was significantly higher in students with eating attitude disorder (P=0.027 and P=0.003 respectively. Bread intake was significantly higher in the groups with no disorder (P=0.08. (This P value is not significant. Moreover, the mean consumption of sandwiches was higher in students with eating attitude disorders (P=0.002. Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of eating attitude disorders in our study, assessing the underlying reasons and implementing preventive
Lee, Kyong No; Chang, Kylie Hae Jin; Cho, Seong Sik; Park, Sung Ho; Park, Sung Taek
The aim of this study, carried out before the beginning of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations as a National Immunization Program (NIP) in Korea in 2016, is to assess the ranges of perceptions and personal experience and their influences on attitudes regarding HPV vaccinations of children, among mothers of adolescent (9-14 years of age) daughters in Korea. From November 2015 to February 2016, we distributed a written questionnaire to mothers who had daughters aged 9-14 years. The questionnaire consisted of several questions, related to knowledge of HPV, personal experiences of HPV vaccination, and attitudes toward HPV vaccinations of their adolescent daughters. Of the 260 questionnaires distributed, 140 participants returned answered ones. And although only 51% of participants were aware that cervical cancer is highly related with HPV infection, 70% said they were willing to vaccinate their daughters, showing that awareness does not coincide with intention to vaccinate. Among the participants showing negative attitudes, 50% were concerned about the vaccination side effects. The more the participants' pre-knowledge about HPV infection, and about the relationship of HPV to cervical cancer, the more positive their attitudes (P = 0.002, P mothers with negative attitudes toward vaccinating their adolescent daughters rose as well. Thus, the provision of correct education by health care providers and accurate information through active advertising may play an important role in increasing the vaccination rate among adolescent girls in Korea.
Maney, D W; Cain, R E
This preliminary investigation assessed preservice elementary teacher's attitudes toward homosexual parents and their children. The study populations included 195 college students enrolled in an elementary school health methods course at a large northeastern university. A 51-item " and Lesbian Parenting Questionnaire" was used for data collection purposes. Reliability estimates for the scales were: attitudes toward lesbians and gay men (alpha = .90), comfort toward gay and lesbian families (alpha = .92), and knowledge about homosexuality (alpha = .52). Most respondents agreed gay men: were not disgusting, should be allowed to teach, were not perverted, and should not overcome their feelings of homosexuality. Most respondents disagreed lesbians cannot fit into society or were sick. Nearly all agreed female homosexuality should not be a basis for job discrimination. Females were significantly (p attitudes toward gay fathers than did male respondents. Respondents with stronger religious attitudes had significantly (p attitudes toward lesbian parents than respondents with weaker religious attitudes.
This study investigated the relationship between stress and attitudes toward negative emotions in adolescents. Adolescent students (N=1500) completed a questionnaire that measured attitudes toward negative emotions, emotional-stress reactions, and stress coping. Analysis of date yielded, two factors of the attitudes toward negative emotions: "Negative feelings about negative emotions" and "Capabilities of switching of negative emotions". In order to examine the theoretical relationships among attitudes toward negative emotions, emotional-stress reactions, and stress coping, a hypothetical model was tested by covariance structure analysis. This model predicted that students who have a high level of attitudes toward negative emotions would report enhanced problem solving which promoted stress coping. The results indicated that "Negative feelings about negative emotions" enhanced avoidable coping, and avoidable coping enhanced stress reactions. "Capabilities of switching of negative emotions" was related to a decrease of avoidable coping. Based on the results from covariance structure analysis and a multiple population analysis, the clinical significance and developmental characteristics were discussed.
Barnoy, Sivia; Ehrenfeld, Malka; Sharon, Rina; Tabak, Nili
The success of mammal cloning in 1997 has brought the issue of human cloning into public discussion. Human cloning has several aspects and potential applications for use in both reproductive and non-reproductive matters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel. Data from 120 respondents (68 health professionals and 52 non-health professionals), all Jewish, Hebrew speaking with at least 15 years of education each, were collected using two questionnaires that dealt with knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning. Results showed that although health professionals had significantly more knowledge that non-health professionals, all respondents had poor knowledge about cloning. No difference in attitudes was found between the groups. Most respondents opposed human cloning, but more positive attitudes toward non-reproductive cloning were found. The results are discussed in the context of the deficit model. The findings indicate a need to provide information about human cloning to allow people to form their attitudes based on factual knowledge.
Yu. V. Lukina
Full Text Available Aim. To determine the most significant factors forming patient’s attitude to treatment and factors of adherence to treatment preceding hospitalization in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS.Material and methods. A register of patients admitted to Lyubertsy Regional Hospital №2 for ACS from 01.12.2011 to 01.12.2012 was used in the study. A total of 272 patients (men – 157, women – 115 were enrolled into the study. Age range was between 31 and 89 years, mean age was 63.6±12.6 years. Acute myocardial infarction was diagnosed in 181 patients, unstable angina pectoris – in 91 patients. While in hospital all the patients had filled out the questionnaire on therapy adherence.Results. Half of the 272 patients (133 persons enrolled into the study had regularly been followed-up for chronic diseases in different medical centers; 138 patients (50.7% had not been followed-up before the reference hospitalization. According to the valid Morisky-Green test results 120 patients (44.1% were adherent to treatment, in 141 (51.8% patients the adherence was unsatisfactory, 11 persons (4.1% did not answer the test questions. Younger patients adhered to doctors’ recommendations better. According to the patients (125 patients – 46% the most effective strategy to improve treatment adherence was the obtaining of detailed information about their disease and methods of its treatment provided by the doctor. 32 patients (11.8% pointed out the importance of lowering drug costs. 11 patients of 272 respondents demanded more care from their doctor; 4 persons suggested that better quality of medical care organization would help to ameliorate treatment adherence. Regular follow-up for chronic diseases with detailed informing about the condition by a physician positively influences adherence to recommended therapy. Patients of commercial medical centers and patients without any medical follow-up least of all adhered to treatment.Conclusion. Specially designed
Yu. V. Lukina
Full Text Available Aim. To determine the most significant factors forming patient’s attitude to treatment and factors of adherence to treatment preceding hospitalization in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS.Material and methods. A register of patients admitted to Lyubertsy Regional Hospital №2 for ACS from 01.12.2011 to 01.12.2012 was used in the study. A total of 272 patients (men – 157, women – 115 were enrolled into the study. Age range was between 31 and 89 years, mean age was 63.6±12.6 years. Acute myocardial infarction was diagnosed in 181 patients, unstable angina pectoris – in 91 patients. While in hospital all the patients had filled out the questionnaire on therapy adherence.Results. Half of the 272 patients (133 persons enrolled into the study had regularly been followed-up for chronic diseases in different medical centers; 138 patients (50.7% had not been followed-up before the reference hospitalization. According to the valid Morisky-Green test results 120 patients (44.1% were adherent to treatment, in 141 (51.8% patients the adherence was unsatisfactory, 11 persons (4.1% did not answer the test questions. Younger patients adhered to doctors’ recommendations better. According to the patients (125 patients – 46% the most effective strategy to improve treatment adherence was the obtaining of detailed information about their disease and methods of its treatment provided by the doctor. 32 patients (11.8% pointed out the importance of lowering drug costs. 11 patients of 272 respondents demanded more care from their doctor; 4 persons suggested that better quality of medical care organization would help to ameliorate treatment adherence. Regular follow-up for chronic diseases with detailed informing about the condition by a physician positively influences adherence to recommended therapy. Patients of commercial medical centers and patients without any medical follow-up least of all adhered to treatment.Conclusion. Specially designed
Kerzman, Hana; Van Dijk, Dina; Eizenberg, Limor; Khaikin, Rut; Phridman, Shoshi; Siman-Tov, Maya; Goldberg, Shoshi
In recent years, an increasing number of care procedures previously under the physician's authority have been placed in the hands of registered nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of nurses towards expanding nurses' authority and the relationships between these attitudes and job satisfaction facets, professional characteristics, and demographics. A cross-sectional study was conducted between 2010 and 2011 in three major medical centers in Israel. Participants included 833 nurses working in 89 departments. Attitudes toward the expansion of nurses' authority were assessed by self-report questionnaire, as well as job satisfaction facets including perception of professional autonomy, nurse-physician working relations, workload and burnout, perceptions of quality of care, and nursing staff satisfaction at work. Nurses reported positive attitudes toward the expansion of nurses' authority and moderate attitudes for interpretation of diagnostic tests in selected situations. The results of multivariate regression analyses demonstrate that the nurses' satisfaction from professional autonomy and work relations were the most influential factors in explaining their attitudes toward the expansion of nurses' authority. In addition, professionally young nurses tend to be more positive regarding changes in nurses' authority. In the Israeli reality of a nurse's shortage, we are witnessing professional transitions toward expansion of the scope of nurses' accountability and decision-making authority. The current research contributes to our understanding of attitudes toward the expansion of nurses' authority among the nursing staffs. The findings indicate the necessity of redefining the scope of nursing practice within the current professional context.
Willaing, Ingrid; Ladelund, Steen
individual smoking behavior among hospital staff and (a). smoking-related knowledge, (b). attitudes toward counseling on smoking, and (c). self-reported smoking-related counseling provided by the staff. The study was based on a survey using self-administered questionnaires given to all hospital staff...... in a large university hospital in Denmark. Altogether, 82% of staff (2561) returned a completed questionnaire. Analyses focused on a subsample consisting of health professionals in the clinical wards (1429). Multivariate analyses were performed in which smoking-related knowledge, attitudes toward smoking...... qualified to counsel patients about smoking than did never-smokers (ex-smokers, OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.3-2.5; smokers, OR=1.4, 95% CI=1.0-1.9). Individual smoking behavior among hospital staff was strongly associated with smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and counseling practices. Lack of self...
Full Text Available Background - Due to the rapid growth of the Internet and use of e-commerce in recent years, viral marketing has drawn the attention of manufacturing and service organizations. However, no research has been conducted to examine the impact of message appeal and message source credibility on consumers' attitude with mediating role of intellectual involvement of consumers and their risk taking level. Purpose - The aim of this study was to examine the impact of appeal and message source credibility on consumers’ attitude with mediating role of consumers’ intellectual involvement and their risk taking level. Design/methodology/approach – The population of this study includes consumers of mobile phones (Samsung, Sony, Nokia, LG and iPhone in Bushehr city (Iran. As the population of the study is unlimited, 430 questionnaires were distributed using available sampling method, and 391 questionnaires were collected and analyzed. Using structural equation modeling, data were analyzed through smart PLS software. Findings –The results show that the appeal and credibility of the message source have impact on consumer attitudes toward the brand. It was also found that intellectual involvement of consumers plays the mediating role in the relationship between message appeal and consumer attitudes toward brand. In the relationship between message source credibility and customer attitude towards the brand, the level of risk taking of people has no mediating role. Research limitations/implications – Data collection tool was questionnaire in this study, and questionnaire has some disadvantages that can affect the results. Additionally, this study was conducted in Bushehr city (Iran. Therefore, we should be cautious in generalizing the findings. Originality/value – In this study, the effect of message appeal and message source credibility on consumer attitude to brand was examined. The risk taking level of consumer and his involvement level were considered
Lee, Sang-Ahm; Yim, Soo Bin; Rho, Young Il; Chu, Minkyung; Park, Hyeon Mi; Lee, Geun-ho; Park, Sung-Pa; Jung, Dae Soo
We investigated factors contributing to teachers' attitudes toward students with epilepsy. Data were collected from 604 teachers in Korea. The questionnaire included the Scale of Attitudes Toward Persons with Epilepsy (ATPE) and a demographic and teaching experience survey. In stepwise linear regression analysis, ATPE Knowledge scores (PAttitude scores. The ATPE Knowledge scores accounted for 50.1% of the variance in the Attitude scores, and experience teaching a student with epilepsy accounted only for 1.0%. Our finding that teachers' knowledge is the most important factor influencing teacher's attitudes toward epilepsy indicates that teachers should be provided with information about epilepsy universally, across geographic settings, educational levels, and experience levels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kadijević Đorđe M.
Full Text Available Apart from the data on test reliability, the psychometric features of the TIMSS variables are not officially available. It is therefore not clear whether the TIMSS findings capture real educational trends. Being concerned with mathematics attitude, the aim of this research was to determine the psychometric values of a mathematics attitude scale derived from a student questionnaire, and, if these are appropriate, to examine the relation of mathematics attitude to gender and mathematics achievement, and search for gender differences in the applied mathematics attitude indicators. By using a sample of 89 seventh-grade students involved in a TIMSS 2003 pilot research, it revealed the following findings: (a the representativity reliability, homogeneity and validity of the applied attitude scale were acceptable, (b attitude to mathematics was related to mathematics achievement, (c gender differences in mathematics attitude were not found and (d gender differences in the applied indicators were only present for the statement "I need to do well in mathematics to get into the faculty of my choice" where males expressed a higher agreement than females.
Blackie, Norman K.
A 139-item questionnaire was constructed to account for additional variance in the attitudes and behaviors of student nurses toward the aged. This study was conducted to examine the effects of death anxiety on the attitudes and behaviors of student nurses toward old persons. To this end, 150 student nurses were surveyed. Eight scales were…
Full Text Available Attitude of residing people towards a protected forest area was evaluated for sustainable use of natural resources and forest conservation in the Phu Kao–PhuPhan Kham National Park in Thailand. Their economic and social conditions were assessed in three villages of Phukao, NongBua Lamphu Province. Data were collected from 348 households (66.5% heads or the representatives in the villages with the questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: (i general economic and social information (ii social grouping and participation and (iii attitude toward participation in conserving natural resources and tourism management in this area. To evaluate their attitude, the collected data were divided into four categories: (i level 4 equilibrium/nature (ii level 3 warning (iii level 2 risk (iv level 1 crisis for forest conservation in the protected area. Overall, their attitude towards natural resource conservation, the social grouping and the community participation was very low. However, the attitude towards ecotourism is very high. We suggest that forest conservation will be maintained by more progress of ecotourism in this area.
Adıbelli, Derya; Ünal, Ayşe Sevim; Şen, Tülay
Domestic violence is commonly observed worldwide; however, exposure to violence is not often mentioned directly. Prevention of domestic violence may be one of the most important social problems and requires much time and effort to resolve. This study was conducted to determine the attitudes toward domestic violence of Turkish males who are young adult and undertake military service, and the factors that affect these attitudes. A cross-sectional study design was used. This study was conducted with 221 young adult men who applied to Sarıkamış Military Hospital between December 2012 and February 2013. A questionnaire and the Attitude Toward Domestic Violence Scale were used for the collection of data. One-way ANOVA, T test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used in the process of analyzing the data. In the study, it was found that 10% of the young adult men were exposed to violence within their own family and the average of their total scores from the Attitude Toward Domestic Violence Scale was 49.41 ± 7.27. It was confirmed that undereducated men have more negative attitudes toward domestic violence than other groups. The present study determined that men who have negative attitudes toward domestic violence and who have a low education level affected attitudes toward domestic violence negatively. It is important that violence is prevented before it occurs. In this respect, health professionals, politicians, teachers, academics, and all community leaders have an important role in preventing initiatives on violence.
Full Text Available Background: Designing a valid and reliable questionnaire that allows a fair evaluation of sexual knowledge and attitudes and develop a proper sexual educational program is necessary. Objective: The present study was designed to develop and psychometric evaluation of the sexual knowledge and attitudes scale for premarital couples. Materials and Methods: An exploratory mixed method study was conducted in two phases; in the first, in order to develop a questionnaire an item pool was generated on sexual knowledge and attitudes through focus group discussions and individual interviews. In the second phase, the psychometric properties of the questionnaire were examined. For this purpose, face validity, content validity as well as construct validity were conducted. Reliability was assessed by the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient to assess internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Results: In the first phase an item pool with 88 questions was generated (sexual knowledge 45 items and sexual attitudes 43 items. In the second phase, the number of final items reduced to 33 and 34 items of sexual knowledge and sexual attitudes respectively, through exploratory factor analysis (EFA. Five factors for sexual knowledge and six factors for sexual attitudes identified by EFA. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for two sections was 0.84 and 0.81 respectively. The test- retest correlations for sexual knowledge and sexual attitude was 0.74 and 0.82 respectively. Conclusion: The findings suggest that the Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale for Premarital Couples is a valid and reliable instrument. Further studies are needed to establish stronger psychometric properties for the questionnaire.
The results of a survey by questionnaire on ''the attitudes of Japanese elite toward nuclear issues'' are described as follows: post-TMI Japanese attitude toward nuclear issues, dominant 'must-is-master' attitude toward nuclear power, domestic enrichment and reprocessing seen as more proliferation-prone, high consensus gained on internationalization of enrichment and reprocessing, diminishing psychological deterrent against nuclear proliferation, dim future of nuclear non-proliferation and growing importance of nuclear-age nationalism, knowledge of leaders concerning the number of nuclear power reactors in Japan. For so-called 'consistency' operating in attitude system, the data were cross-tabulated by the question ''Japan should increase nuclear power to free itself from excessive dependence upon oil imports,'' and the resultant cross-tabulations were submitted to chi-square test. Throughout, the presence of attitudinal consistency was confirmed. (J.P.N.)
López-Cortacans, Germán; Aragonès Benaiges, Enric; Caballero Alías, Antonia; Piñol Moreso, Josep Lluís
To describe nurse attitudes toward depression, using a standardized questionnaire and to evaluate how a training workshop can modify or influence these attitudes. A prospective study based on the application of the Depression Attitude Questionnaire, before and six months after, participating in a training day on the nursing role in the management of depression in Primary Care. The sample consisted of 40 Primary Care nurses from 10 health centers in the province of Tarragona. Nurses are in a neutral position when considering the management of depressed patients as a difficult task, or to feel comfortable in this task, but there is a high degree of acceptance of the claim that the time spent caring for depressed patients is rewarding. In general, there was little significant difference in the mean scores for the different items of the Depression Attitude Questionnaire, before and six months, after the training intervention. The attitude towards the management of depression in Primary Care and to the role that nurses can play in this task is generally favorable. Fruitful training and organizational initiatives can be established in order to define and structure the nursing role in the management of depression in Primary Care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Digital gap may exist in national scale, among organizations and other groups of society, since it is an indicative of inequality in information technology ground and communication. This study aims to investigate the attitude towards digital gap among students, and its relationship with educational progress and socio-economic status (SES of university students at Alborz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This was a cross sectional analytic study. students were randomly selected according to multistage cluster method. The tools for collecting data were Davis (1989 questionnaire on attitude towards internet, and a researcher made questionnaire. The formal validity of the questionnaires is confirmed by a panel of experts, Cronbach's alpha's coefficient was also calculated. Pearson coefficient were calculated andindependent T- test was used for analyzing the data. Result: The analysis of data indicates that there is a meaningful relationship between the attitude towards digital gap and educational progress, and also SES of the students. Furthermore, there was adifferences between the attitudes of males (48.7 and felames (46.5 toward digital gap (p=0.01. Conclusion:There is an attitude towards digital gap in university students. Interventions are needed to close the digital gaps in studnets.
Bayerl, P.S.; Lauche, K.
In this field study on distributed teams we examined the impact of communication media on attitudes towards empowerment and integration of remote subgroups. Using Q-methodology, interviews and questionnaires we compared attitudes of team members and managers in low and high media-rich environments.
Wong, Wing Chi; Li, Mei Kuen; Chan, Wai Ying Veronica; Choi, Yuen Yu; Fong, Chi Hung Sandra; Lam, Ka Wah Kara; Sham, Wun Chi; So, Ping Ping; Wong, Kit; Yeung, Kuen Ha; Yeung, Tsz Yan
To explore the beliefs and attitudes towards menstruation of Chinese undergraduates in Hong Kong and to compare those of (1) male and female undergraduates with those of (2) undergraduates studying health-related vs. nonhealth-related programmes. Menstruation is typically viewed as a forbidden topic or a troublesome experience. These negative beliefs and attitudes result from existing myths and taboos associated with cultural factors and health education levels. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in all universities in Hong Kong. Undergraduates were invited through convenience sampling to complete a questionnaire assessing their attitudes and beliefs towards menstruation. A questionnaire on 'beliefs about and attitudes towards menstruation' was adopted. Questionnaires were self-administered by the respondents. A total of 450 questionnaires were distributed, and a response rate of 96.6% was obtained; 416 completed questionnaires were collected and analysed. Many Chinese undergraduates agreed that menstruation is annoying, causes disability, involves prescription and proscription and is not pleasant. When comparing the beliefs and attitudes towards menstruation of Chinese male undergraduates with those of female undergraduates, females tended to disagree that menstruation should be maintained secret, but tended to agree that it was annoying. When comparing the beliefs and attitudes towards menstruation of Chinese undergraduates studying health-related programmes with those under nonhealth-related programmes, the latter group exhibited a higher level of belief in prescription and proscription for menstruation than the former group. Chinese undergraduates in Hong Kong were influenced by the traditional Chinese culture and social environment, resulting in negative attitudes towards menstruation. This study recommends that sex education, especially reproductive health education, be extended to tertiary education. This study provides relevant information on planning
Knowledge, Attitude and Self-management Practices of Patients with Type 2 ... and its complications, self-care practices to recognize and manage diabetes crisis, ... Pre-tested questionnaire was administered to 200 randomly selected type 2 ...
Full Text Available Gender roles defined as the patterns of behavior which are approved by society and culture. In other words gender role is the way men and women doing to recognition as feminine and masculine and culture, and society accepted and encourage those behaviors as appropriate behavior for men and women. Present study aimed to study gender role attitude using Islamic gender role attitude scale. A sample of 400 male and female students at public universities including Allameh-Tabataba'i University, Tehran University and the University of Kurdistan was drawn. Respondents were selected using random sampling method and data were collected with questionnaire. Results revealed that there were no traditional gender role attitude among students and all the respondents have professional and liberal attitude toward gender roles. There were significant gender differences between male and female in gender role attitude so that female students have more liberal attitude. In terms of ethnicity there were gender differences in Fars and Lur attitude, so that male have professional and female have liberal attitude. Among Kurdish respondents, male and female have liberal attitude while among Turkish, both male and female have traditional-professional attitude.
Ylli Vakeffliu; Silvana Bala; Rudina Pirushi; Kujtime Vakeffliu; Jul Bushati; Andrea S. Melani
Background. Available information about tobacco smoking habits, attitudes, and beliefs among Albanian nurse students shows some discrepancies and requires further investigation. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional school-based survey using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire in the Tirana Nurse University in December 2012 about tobacco smoking habits, attitudes, and beliefs. Results. Sixty hundred fifty one students (mean age 20.0 years; males 19%, females 81%) completed the questio...
Full Text Available An assessment of local attitudes towards conservation can guide wildlife managers in the effective application of measurements to improve these perceptions. Here we conducted a quantitative questionnaire survey around a protected area in northern Congo surveying 314 households living in four villages around the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park. We investigated the impact of the benefits of a conservation project (led by an international non-governmental organisation, the experience with human-elephant conflict and the respondents' socio-economic profile on local people's attitudes towards forest elephant conservation. Using multivariate analysis, we found overall positive attitudes towards elephant conservation with more positive answers in the village where a conservation project is based. Furthermore, people employed in the conservation project stated more positive attitudes compared to logging company employees famers, natural resource users and people conducting other jobs. Experience of human elephant conflict negatively impacted people's perceptions. Socio-economic variables, such as ethnic group, education level or salary category had relatively little impact on people's responses. Qualitative statements largely supported the questionnaire results. We discuss our results in the light of the limits of attitude surveys and suggest further investigations to identify the activities needed to foster positive attitudes for elephant conservation in all villages around the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park in partnership with the logging company.
Trentini Clarissa M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging has determined a demographic shift in the world, which is considered a major societal achievement, and a challenge. Aging is primarily a subjective experience, shaped by factors such as gender and culture. There is a lack of instruments to assess attitudes to aging adequately. In addition, there is no instrument developed or validated in developing region contexts, so that the particularities of ageing in these areas are not included in the measures available. This paper aims to develop and validate a reliable attitude to aging instrument by combining classical psychometric approach and Rasch analysis. Methods Pilot study and field trial are described in details. Statistical analysis included classic psychometric theory (EFA and CFA and Rasch measurement model. The latter was applied to examine unidimensionality, response scale and item fit. Results Sample was composed of 424 Brazilian old adults, which was compared to an international sample (n = 5238. The final instrument shows excellent psychometric performance (discriminant validity, confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch fit statistics. Rasch analysis indicated that modifications in the response scale and item deletions improved the initial solution derived from the classic approach. Conclusion The combination of classic and modern psychometric theories in a complementary way is fruitful for development and validation of instruments. The construction of a reliable Brazilian Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire is important for assessing cultural specificities of aging in a transcultural perspective and can be applied in international cross-cultural investigations running less risk of cultural bias.
Duerink, D O; Hadi, U; Lestari, E S; Roeshadi, Djoko; Wahyono, Hendro; Nagelkerke, N J D; Van der Meulen, R G; Van den Broek, P J
to investigate knowledge, attitude and behaviour toward infection control in two teaching hospitals on the island of Java by means of a questionnaire and to evaluate the use of the questionnaire as a tool. we investigated knowledge, attitude and behaviour toward infection control in two teaching hospitals on the island of Java by means of a questionnaire to identify problem areas, barriers and facilitators. The target was to include at least 50% of all health care workers (physicians, nurses, assistant nurses and infection control nurses) in each hospital, department and profession. Differences between demographic variables and scores for individual questions and groups of questions were compared using the chi-square statistic and analysis of variance and Spearman's rho was used to test for correlations between knowledge, attitude, self-reported behaviour and perceived obstacles. more than half of the health care workers of the participating departments completed the questionnaire. Of the 1036 respondents (44% nurses, 37% physicians and 19% assistant nurses), 34% were vaccinated against hepatitis B, 77% had experienced needle stick accidents and 93% had been instructed about infection control. The mean of the correct answers to the knowledge questions was 44%; of the answers to the attitude questions 67% were in agreement with the correct attitude; obstacles to compliance with infection control guidelines were perceived in 30% of the questions and the mean self-reported compliance was 63%. Safe handling of sharps, hand hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment were identified as the most important aspects for interventions. Significant positive correlations were found between knowledge, attitude, self-reported behaviour and perceived obstacles. the questionnaire in conjunction with site visits and interviews was a valuable strategy to identify trouble spots in the hospitals and to determine barriers to facilitators of change that should be taken into
Guyatt, G H; Cook, D J; Griffith, L; Walter, S D; Risdon, C; Liutkus, J
To explore postgraduate medical trainees' attitudes toward the use of gender-inclusive language. Self-administered questionnaire. Seven residency training programs at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., from July 1993 to June 1994. Of 225 residents in the programs, 186 responded to the survey, for a response rate of 82.7%. Men and women were equally represented among the respondents. Categorization of attitudes about the use of language as gender-inclusive or gender-exclusive; characteristics predicting a gender-inclusive attitude. Factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha (0.90) supported the existence of a construct related to attitudes about language use, the poles of which were categorized as gender-inclusive and gender-exclusive. The authors classified residents with respect to their attitudes to language use from their responses to the questionnaire. In univariate analyses, sex, residency program and country of graduation significantly predicted a gender-inclusive attitude (p inclusive attitudes, whereas residents in surgery and anesthesia had the most gender-exclusive attitudes. Residents' values are reflected in the language they choose to use. Language use may provide an index of underlying attitudes that may create hostile environments for female trainees.
Al-Shayyab, Mohammad H; Abu-Hammad, Osama A; Al-Omiri, Mahmoud K; Dar-Odeh, Najla S
The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitude of Jordanian dentists towards the treatment of oral candidiasis and their current antifungal prescribing habits, shedding more light on the possible influence of their socio-professional factors on the pattern of prescribing and practice. A structured validated questionnaire was developed and tested; it was then emailed to a random sample of 600 Jordanian dental practitioners during the period of this cross-sectional survey. The questionnaire recorded practitioners' personal details and their attitude and prescribing of antifungal therapy for oral candidiasis. Statistical significance was based on probability values of oral candidiasis. Of the 423 questionnaires returned, only 330 were included. The attitude of respondents was significantly influenced by their experience [odds ratio (OR) = 0.14; P oral candidiasis is much better among the least-experienced dentists working in private practice. Nystatin and miconazole are the most popular choices of antifungal agents among Jordanian dentists. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.
Full Text Available Literary fiction has been credited with considerable power to improve attitudes toward outgroups. It was even argued that it has been an important factor behind the global decline of violence against various minorities in the last centuries. Could it also help to reduce the human-inflicted suffering of animals? To test this, we studied the attitude toward animal welfare of n = 921 (experimental group people of both sexes who read a short fragment of an unpublished novel with a motif of the physical abuse of an animal. The control group (n = 912 read a fragment of a similar length but not related to animals. After reading the text all subjects filled out an on-line questionnaire with seven items (camouflaged among many others items measuring attitudes toward animal welfare. The questionnaire included also demographical questions, such as whether the subject keeps pets. We found that in comparison with the control group, the experimental group was significantly more concerned about animal welfare. This result indicates that literary fiction can influence attitudes toward other species. It is also worth noting that our study is characterized by a high level of ecological validity, i.e. a relatively high extent to which its results can be generalized (or extended to real-world settings. Due to its specific design, which involved the cooperation of a bestselling author and his publisher, the study approximated the typical conditions in which people read fiction in a remarkably accurate way. Finally, our research has potential practical implications for promoting animal welfare.
Małecki, Wojciech; Pawłowski, Bogusław; Sorokowski, Piotr
Literary fiction has been credited with considerable power to improve attitudes toward outgroups. It was even argued that it has been an important factor behind the global decline of violence against various minorities in the last centuries. Could it also help to reduce the human-inflicted suffering of animals? To test this, we studied the attitude toward animal welfare of n = 921 (experimental group) people of both sexes who read a short fragment of an unpublished novel with a motif of the physical abuse of an animal. The control group (n = 912) read a fragment of a similar length but not related to animals. After reading the text all subjects filled out an on-line questionnaire with seven items (camouflaged among many others items) measuring attitudes toward animal welfare. The questionnaire included also demographical questions, such as whether the subject keeps pets. We found that in comparison with the control group, the experimental group was significantly more concerned about animal welfare. This result indicates that literary fiction can influence attitudes toward other species. It is also worth noting that our study is characterized by a high level of ecological validity, i.e. a relatively high extent to which its results can be generalized (or extended) to real-world settings. Due to its specific design, which involved the cooperation of a bestselling author and his publisher, the study approximated the typical conditions in which people read fiction in a remarkably accurate way. Finally, our research has potential practical implications for promoting animal welfare.
Berry, Tanya R; McLeod, Nicole C; Pankratow, Melanie; Walker, Jessica
To examine whether participants who watched an exercise-related segment of The Biggest Loser television program would have different explicit and implicit affective exercise-related attitudes than those of control participants. University students (N=138) watched a clip of The Biggest Loser or American Idol, then completed a Go/No-go Association Task, a thought-listing task, and questionnaires measuring explicit attitudes, activity level, and mood. Participants who watched The Biggest Loser had significantly lower explicit, but not implicit, attitudes towards exercise than did control participants. There is a need to examine the influence of popular media depictions of exercise.
Marvan, Maria Luisa; Trujillo, Paulina
Women living in rural and urban areas of Mexico answered a questionnaire about what they were told at home about menstruation before their menarche (first menstruation), and answered the Beliefs About and Attitudes Toward Menstruation Questionnaire. Around half of both urban and rural women were told that they were going to experience negative perimenstrual changes. There were fewer urban than rural women who were advised to do or not to do certain activities while menstruating. Menstrual socialization affected the beliefs and attitudes concerning menstruation held by women as adults. These findings are discussed in light of the sociocultural background of the participants.
Melguizo-Herrera, Estela; Álvarez-Romero, Yuleysi; Cabarcas-Mendoza, Mayerlin Vanessa; Calvo-Rodríguez, Rossy Stefanie; Flórez-Almanza, Jeomaidis; Moadie-Contreras, Olga Patricia; Campo-Arias, Adalberto
There are many stereotypes and prejudices about the sexual lives of the elderly. However, there are no validated and reliable tools for measuring these in the Latin-American context. To determine the internal consistency, dimensionality, differential item functioning (DIF) by gender and stability of the Attitudes towards Sexuality in the Elderly Questionnaire (ASEQ) in adults over 60 years-old in Cartagena, Colombia. A validation study was designed that included a sample of 130 participants without cognitive impairment attending a Life Center. The ages ranged between 60 and 90 years (mean, 73.7±8.0), and there were 61.5% females. Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach alpha and McDonald omega, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) (dimensionality), DIF by gender (item response theory) with Kendall correlation, and stability (reproducibility) with Pearson correlation and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The ASEQ showed high internal consistency on the first application (α=.83 and ω=.87) and in the second one (α=.85 and ω=.89). AFE showed two salient factors (prejudices and limitations) that explained 42.6% of the total variance. The IDF presented appropriate coefficients, with the exception of item 14 that showed a high value (τ=.37). ASEQ showed high stability (r=.82 and ICC=.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.83- 0.92; P<.001). ASEQ is a two-dimensional and reliable scale in older adults attending a Life Center in Cartagena, Colombia. New studies are required to evaluate the performance in a representative sample. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Haefner, Martin; Bluethner, Thilo; Niederhagen, Manuel; Moebius, Christian; Wittekind, Christian; Mossner, Joachim; Caca, Karel; Wiedmann, Marcus
AIM: To investigate in vitro and in vivo treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors NVP-LAQ824 and NVP-LBH589 in pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Cell-growth inhibition by NVP-LAQ824 and NVP-LBH589 was studied in vitro in 8 human pancreatic cancer cell lines using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. In addition, the anti-tumoral effect of NVP-LBH589 was studied in a chimeric mouse model. Anti-tumoral activity of the drugs was assessed by immunoblotting for p21WAF-1, acH4, cell cycle analysis, TUNEL assay, and immunohistochemistry for MIB-1. RESULTS: In vitro treatment with both compounds significantly suppressed the growth of all cancer cell lines and was associated with hyperacetylation of nucleosomal histone H4, increased expression of p21WAF-1, cell cycle arrest at G2/M-checkpoint, and increased apoptosis. In vivo, NVP-LBH589 alone significantly reduced tumor mass and potentiated the efficacy of gemcitabine. Further analysis of the tumor specimens revealed slightly increased apoptosis and no significant reduction of cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that NVP-LBH589 and NVP-LAQ824 are active against human pancreatic cancer, although the precise mechanism of in vivo drug action is not yet completely understood. Therefore, further preclinical and clinical studies for the treatment of pancreatic cancer are recommended. PMID:18595135
Hartnett, Barbara M.; Zettle, Thomas E.
For seven consecutive semesters, questionnaires were administered to the students enrolled in Illinois Central College's human sexuality course to determine their sexual experience, practices, and orientation. The surveys also sought to assess the students' attitudes toward homosexuality, pornography, masturbation, extramarital relations,…
Lee, Lung-Sheng; Yang, Hsiu-Chuan
The purpose of this paper was to explore high-school (grades 10-12) technology teachers' attitudes toward nuclear energy and their implications to technology education. A questionnaire was developed to solicit 323 high-school technology teachers' responses in June 2013 and 132 (or 41%) valid questionnaires returned. Consequently, the following…
Putri Astawa Ni Luh Putu Ning Septyarini
Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study on the effect of Project-Based Learning (PBL on students’ English language learning (ELL attitudes and how the activities influence teaching-learning process in a junior high school in Bali. This research applied an embedded mixed-method design in which the quantitative data were collected using close-ended questionnaires test, and the qualitative data were collected using interview, observation checklist, open-ended questionnaire, and field note. Paired-samples t-test was used to analyse whether or not there is a significant effect on students’ attitude after being taught using PBL, while the qualitative data were analysed descriptively. The analysis shows a significant effect on students’ attitude. PBL enhances students’ learning quality in term of enthusiasm, confidence, and creativity learning ability while it also promotes teacher’s teaching satisfaction. This study supports the implementation of PBL which enhances students’ English Language Learning attitude and teaching-learning process.
Full Text Available Studies have shown that a positive attitude towards physical education (PE is in connection with students' engagement in PE classes and with the development of an active lifestyle. The objective of this study was to examine attitudes of early adolescent age students towards physical education, as well as to examine whether such attitudes vary with regard to gender, grade they attend and students' engagement in sport and physical exercises in extracurricular activities. The research was conducted on the sample of 531 students from 6th to 8th grade. The instrument Student's Attitudes toward Physical Education - SATPE was used to measure student's attitude towards PE. A special questionnaire was used to collect data on gender, grade and engagement in sport and physical exercising outside school. The results have shown that students have positive attitudes of moderate intensity towards physical education. MANOVA has shown that male students have more positive attitudes than female students, as well as that positivity of attitudes declines with age. Likewise, it was shown that students with more positive attitudes towards PE are more often engaged in physical exercises outside school. The connection between the attitude towards PE and involvement in organized sport was not confirmed. The paper presents suggestions for further research of students' attitude towards PE and its connection with physical activity of students.
Buga, G A B
Unsafe abortion causes 13% of maternal deaths worldwide. Safe abortion can only be offered under conditions where legislation has been passed for legal termination of unwanted pregnancy. Where such legislation exists, accessibility of safe abortion depends on the attitudes of doctors and other healthcare workers to induced abortion. Medical students as future doctors may have attitudes to abortion that will affect the provision of safe abortion. Little is known about the attitudes of South African medical students to abortion. To assess sexual practices and attitudes of medical students to induced abortion and to determine some of the factors that may influence these attitudes. A cross-sectional analytic study involving the self-administration of an anonymous questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to medical students at a small, but growing, medical school situated in rural South Africa. Demographic data, sexual practices and attitudes to induced abortion. Two hundred and forty seven out of 300 (82.3%) medical students responded. Their mean age was 21.81 +/- 3.36 (SD) years, and 78.8% were Christians, 17.1% Hindus and 2.6% Muslims. Although 95% of the respondents were single, 68.6% were already sexually experienced, and their mean age at coitarche was 17.24+/-3.14 (SD) years. Although overall 61.2% of the respondents felt abortion is murder either at conception or later, the majority (87.2%) would perform or refer a woman for abortion under certain circumstances. These circumstances, in descending order of frequency, include: threat to mother's life (74.1%), in case of rape (62.3%), the baby is severely malformed (59.5%), threat to mother's mental health (53.8%) and parental incompetence (21.0%). Only 12.5% of respondents would perform or refer for abortion on demand, 12.8% would neither perform nor refer for abortion under any circumstances. Religious affiliation and service attendance significantly influenced some of these attitudes and beliefs
Enosh, Guy; Leshem, Elazar; Buchbinder, Eli
The study regards attitudes of Russian immigrants in Israel toward wife abuse and corporal punishment. The sample consisted of 1,028 participants, based on a multistage cluster sampling. The study used a questionnaire related to immigration, acculturation, and attitudinal issues. The findings indicate a dual-causal model, in which corporal punishment attitudes contribute to wife abuse attitudes and vice versa. However, the effect of attitudes supporting corporal punishment was stronger than the effect of wife abuse attitudes, indicating that the attitudinal system as a precursor of violent behavior is already merging the two types of violence. © The Author(s) 2016.
Blank, C; Leichtfried, V; Schaiter, R; Fürhapter, C; Müller, D; Schobersberger, W
Strategies for doping prevention are based on prior identification of opportunities for intervention. There is no current research focusing on the potential role in doping prevention, which might be played by the parents of junior elite athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among parents of Austrian junior athletes and to analyze factors potentially influencing these beliefs. In this study, two questionnaires were distributed to 1818 student athletes, each with instructions that these surveys were to be completed by their parents (n(total) = 3636). Parents filled in questionnaires at home without observation. Responses from 883 parents were included in this analysis. Compared to female parents, male parents demonstrated significantly better knowledge about doping and its side effects and were more likely to be influenced by their own sporting careers and amounts of sports activities per week. Parental sex did not demonstrate a significant influence on responses reflecting attitudes toward doping. Additional research is needed to compare these results with young athletes' knowledge and attitudes to determine if and to what degree parental attitudes and beliefs influence the behavior and attitudes of their children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mikla, M; Rios, A; Lopez-Navas, A; Gotlib, J; Kilanska, D; Martinez-Alarcón, L; Ramis, G; Ramirez, P; Lopez Montesinos, M J
The opinion of future nursing professionals can influence the number of transplants. The objective of this study was to analyze the attitude of nursing students at the Medical University of Warsaw in the center of Poland toward organ donation and determine the factors that affect this attitude. The study was conducted in the 2011 to 2012 academic year. The study population consisted of nursing students. Type of sampling consisted of sampling in points of compulsory attendance, in the 5 nursing courses with the higher degree of fulfillment of 80%. Measuring instrument used was the validated questionnaire (PCID-DTO Rios). The questionnaire was completed anonymously and was self-administered. The completion rate was 96% (793 of 828). Of the students surveyed (n = 793), 69% (n = 547) were in favor of organ donation and transplantation, 25% (n = 201) were undecided, and 6% (n = 45) were against. This attitude was related to being in favor of donating the organs of a relative (OR = 3.174; P attitude toward donation and transplantation of the father (OR = 3.039; P = .001); considered to having good information on the subject (OR = 8.695; P attitude is conditioned by several psychosocial factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Muleya, Edmond Moses
Review of literature indicates that successful implementation of inclusion in regular schools is enhanced when regular class teachers have positive attitudes towards inclusion. This investigation explored teachers attitude toward including children with special education needs in the regular classroom. A questionnaire survey was administered to 300 teachers from 3 zones in three different districts in southern province of Zambia. In general it was found that teachers had negative attitudes t...
Xie, Xingli; Zou, Bing; Huang, Zhongyan
To investigate the suicide attitudes of college students and analyze the impact of the perception of life purpose and meaning of life on their suicide attitudes using structural equation modeling. A total of 1050 college students were tested by Suicide Attitude Questionnaire (QSA), Purpose in Life test (PIL) and Chinese version of Meaning of Life questionnaire (C-MLQ). A theoretical model was established for confirming the influence of the purpose in life and meaning in life on suicide attitudes of the college students. The college students had generally a negative attitude towards suicide. The female students tended to show more objective attitudes towards suicide and the students from rural areas had a stronger attitude against euthanasia.The meanings and purposes in life were closely correlated with the attitudes towards suicide, and the structural equation modeling well fitted the data (Χ(2)/df=1.924, GFI=0.936, AGFI=0.915, NFI=0.937, CFI=0.940, and RMSEA=0.045). The perception of meaning and purposes in life had a direct predictive value on the suicide attitude of the college students, and the presumptions derived from the theoretical model were strongly supported by structural equation modeling. The perceptions in meanings in life and purposes in livelihood have important influence on the suicide attitudes of college students, and intervention with effective life education should be administered to guide the suicide attitude of the college students.
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice in First Aid Management of Epistaxis by ... A vast majority of these patients settle with simple standard first aid measures. ... The principal researcher administered a questionnaire to the clinical staffs who were ...
Babaie, Mohadese; Hosseini, Mahdi; Hamissi, Jalaleddin; Hamissi, Zahra
Introduction: Treatment team charged to help patients and their family making decision about donate organs in the final stage of life. Hence, their knowledge and attitude is important to plan of increasing the rate of organ donation. Materials and Methods: About 150 nurses recruited in this cross-sectional study randomly. After taking informed consent, questionnaires were filled. The data collection tool was a multipart questionnaire including demographic information, 18 questions about attitude and practice and 15 question about knowledge toward organ donation. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using K-squire, Pearson correlation test, T-test, variance analyze on 95% confidence interval. Results: Most of participants (76%) were 25-44 years old. About 81.3% of them were female (n=122). The attitude average score between males and females was 85.25±35.61 and 70.37±46.53, respectively. The practice average score in females was 34.43±47.71 and between males was 29.63±46.53. The knowledge average scores were 50.60±16.19 and 56.54±17.48 for two groups (p>0.05). The knowledge average scores between different age groups was significant (porgan donation, it seems that educational curriculum and facilities should applied to enhance attitude and behavior favorable change of personnel towards this issue. PMID:26153179
Lim, Kheng Seang; Hills, Michael D; Choo, Wan Yuen; Wong, Mee Hoo; Wu, Cathie; Tan, Chong Tin
There is a lack of study comparing the attitudes toward epilepsy between the teachers and general population, teachers and students, using a similar quantitative scale. This study was performed in one primary and one secondary school in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, using the Public Attitudes Toward Epilepsy (PATE) scale. A total of 186 teachers aged 39.6±10.4 years completed the questionnaire. The mean scores in both personal and general domains of PATE scale were significantly better in the teachers, comparing to the scores in the secondary and college students reported in previous study (Lim et al., 2013; pjob, rather than tertiary education generally. Subanalysis showed that the attitudes of teachers were significantly better than the general population and the students related to employment and social life, but were equally negative on issues directly related to education, such as placing children with epilepsy in regular classes. Teachers had more positive attitudes toward epilepsy as compared with the general population with tertiary education. Attitude to epilepsy may differ specific to types of work. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Олег Анатольевич Сычев
Full Text Available An important factor of the successful integration of mentally retarded people is the readiness of the society to accept such people as equal members. In this study we tested the hypothesis that the attitude toward mentally retarded people depends on values and moral factors. The sample comprised 169 students of technical college and pedagogical university. The attitude toward mentally retarded people was measured using a modified version of Mental Retardation Attitude Inventory (MRAI-R by Antonak & Harth, values were tested using Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-R2 by Schwartz, and moral foundations were measured using Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ by Graham et al.. We elaborated modified Russian version of MRAI-R, showed its factor structure and good psychometric properties. The main moral factor of the attitude toward mentally retarded people was the importance of fairness: the higher it is the higher is the readiness to diminish the social distance with the mentally retarded. The importance of authority was associated with the low approval of inclusive education for the mentally retarded. The most important predictor of the attitude toward mentally retarded people was gender: girls demonstrated a more positive attitude towards the mentally retarded.
Dikaiou, M; Sakka, D; Haritos-fatouros, M
This study examines groups of Greek migrant mothers and their attitudes towards their children in different stages of the migratory process. There were 2 lots of samples of Greek migrants mothers who had at least 2 children 8-10 years old, 1 from the home country (5 villages of the District Drama in East Macedonia) and 1 from the receiving country (the area of Baden-Wurtenberg, where most of the migrants from East Macedonia are living). The 4 groups are: 1) 20 mothers who have always lived with their child in the host country; 2) 20 mothers who live in the host country where their child has joined them in the last 2-4 years; 3) 27 mothers who have lived in the host country with their child and have returned home in the last 2-4 years; and 4) 24 non-migrant mothers who have always lived with their families in the home country (control group). Women were interviewed using 2 questionnaires: a survey and an attitude questionnaire. The range of mothers' ages was 20-50 years. The youngest mothers were in the control group whereas group 1 mothers were the oldest. Groups 1 and 2 were mostly unskilled workers; groups 3 and 4 were mostly housewives. The returnees stayed in the host country a mean of 10 years, whereas the other 2 migrant groups were there 14.6 years. There were significantly fewer children in the families of groups 1 and 2 than 3 and 4. The attitude questionnaire covered the following child rearing practices: 1) training the child to participate in home duties; 2) keeping clean and tidy; 3) self-reliance and social behavior towards visitors; 4) ways of dealing with a child's obedience/disobedience; 5) dealing with favor-seeking behavior, food, and sleeping problems; and 6) mother's degree of permissiveness, supervision, and intervention on child's personal and interpersonal sphere of life. Findings show that moving from home to host country and coming back home creates the most controlling mothers, probably because mothers and children face anxiety
The aim of this study, carried out before the beginning of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations as a National Immunization Program (NIP) in Korea in 2016, is to assess the ranges of perceptions and personal experience and their influences on attitudes regarding HPV vaccinations of children, among mothers of adolescent (9–14 years of age) daughters in Korea. From November 2015 to February 2016, we distributed a written questionnaire to mothers who had daughters aged 9–14 years. The questionnaire consisted of several questions, related to knowledge of HPV, personal experiences of HPV vaccination, and attitudes toward HPV vaccinations of their adolescent daughters. Of the 260 questionnaires distributed, 140 participants returned answered ones. And although only 51% of participants were aware that cervical cancer is highly related with HPV infection, 70% said they were willing to vaccinate their daughters, showing that awareness does not coincide with intention to vaccinate. Among the participants showing negative attitudes, 50% were concerned about the vaccination side effects. The more the participants’ pre-knowledge about HPV infection, and about the relationship of HPV to cervical cancer, the more positive their attitudes (P = 0.002, P vaccinating their adolescent daughters rose as well. Thus, the provision of correct education by health care providers and accurate information through active advertising may play an important role in increasing the vaccination rate among adolescent girls in Korea. PMID:27914142
Patch, Craig S; Tapsell, Linda C; Williams, Peter G
To identify the nature, strength, and relative importance of influences on intentions to consume foods that are enriched with omega-3 fatty acids using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire. Community-based residents living in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia. Two subsamples were surveyed via questionnaire: community members who responded to a local media advertisement (n = 79), and subjects in a dietary intervention trial for type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 50). Using the TPB variables-intention, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control-questionnaire items were constructed to measure intention to consume omega-3-enriched novel foods. The results from subsamples did not differ and were combined for analysis. The determinants of intention defined in the TPB were investigated using multiple linear regressions. Regression analysis showed that the model was a significant determinant of intention (R2 = .725; P intention, whereas subjective norms and control beliefs were not. With attitude having the greatest influence on intentions, immediate prospects for modifying behavior are likely to come through a change in attitude, specifically in beliefs about the effectiveness of enriched products in achieving specific health benefits. Promoters of omega-3-enriched foods would be advised to direct their promotions toward changing the attitudes of consumers about the effectiveness of the functional ingredient.
Singh, Sheetal; Gupta, Shakti; Singh, I B; Madaan, Nirupam
The topic of euthanasia has induced differences not only among professionals in the medical fraternity but also in other fields as well. The dying process is being lengthened by the new state of art technologies erupting as such higher pace, and it is at the expense of standard quality of life and of a gracious death. To study the awareness and attitude toward euthanasia among select professionals in Delhi. It was a questionnaire-based descriptive cross-sectional study. The study population included doctors, nurses, judges, lawyers, journalist, and social activists of Delhi. Tool included a sociodemographic questionnaire, two questions to know awareness regarding euthanasia and a modified euthanasia attitude scale used to measure attitude toward euthanasia. Data were analyzed using Stata 11.2. Through our study, it is evident that professionals who participated in the study (judges, advocates, doctors, nurses, journalists, and social activists) in Delhi were familiar with the term euthanasia. No significant difference was seen in the attitude of professionals of different age group and sex toward euthanasia. Through this study, it is found that judiciary group most strongly endorsed euthanasia. The attitude of doctors was elicited from mixed group with doctors belonging to different specialties. Oncologists are not in favor of any form of euthanasia. However, doctors from other specialties did support euthanasia.
Lai Yuanxing; Aksornjarung, Prachamon
This study examined EFL learners' attitudes and motivation towards learning English through content-based instruction (CBI) at a university in Thailand. Seventy-one (71) university students, the majority sophomores, answered a 6-point Likert scale questionnaire on attitudes and motivation together with six open-ended questions regarding learning…
This study aims to explore the relationships among Turkish high school students' attitude towards physics, self-efficacy of learning physics, mathematics achievement, and physics achievement. To investigate the relationships, a unique questionnaire that identifies the attitude, self-efficacy and achievements were delivered to a total of 301 high…
Ndetei, David M.; Khasakhala, Lincoln; Ongecha-Owuor, Francisca; Kuria, Mary; Mutiso, Victoria; Syanda, Judy; Kokonya, Donald
Objectives: The authors aim to determine the attitudes of University of Nairobi, Kenya, medical students toward psychiatry. Methods: The study design was cross-sectional. Self-administered sociodemographic and the Attitudes Toward Psychiatry-30 items (ATP-30) questionnaires were distributed sequentially to every third medical student in his or her…
Benomir, Aisha M; Nicolson, Roderick I; Beail, Nigel
The attitude of the general population towards people with intellectual disability (ID) provides important background for policy development. Furthermore, because of changes in attitudes across cultures, it is vital to ground policy development for each country in data from that country. This paper aimed to undertake a cross-cultural study, investigating attitudes to people with ID in Libya in the year 2011, and to compare the Libyan data with those for the UK. This paper provides a cross-cultural analysis of attitudes to people with ID, using a questionnaire study of three groups in Libya and in the UK: science students, psychology students and professionals in ID support. The questionnaire used was the established Community Living Attitude Scales for Mental Retardation (CLAS-MR). In terms of the four CLAS-MR sub-scales, the Libyan sample showed significantly less favourable scores on Empowerment, Similarity and Exclusion than the UK sample, but no significant difference on the Sheltering sub-scale. Within-country analysis indicated no main effects of gender on all four sub-scales in Libya and the UK. This study is the first to undertake quantitative analysis of attitudes to people with ID in Libya. The attitudes were in general less favourable than in the UK and other Western countries, but showed similarities with studies of attitudes to people with ID in Pakistan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Howe, David; Anderson, Rachel J; Dewhurst, Stephen A
Previous studies have found that false memories and false beliefs of childhood experiences can have attitudinal consequences. Previous studies have, however, focused exclusively on explicit attitude measures without exploring whether implicit attitudes are similarly affected. Using a false feedback/imagination inflation paradigm, false memories and beliefs of enjoying a certain food as a child were elicited in participants, and their effects were assessed using both explicit attitude measures (self-report questionnaires) and implicit measures (a Single-Target Implicit Association Test). Positive changes in explicit attitudes were observed both in participants with false memories and participants with false beliefs. In contrast, only participants with false memories exhibited more positive implicit attitudes. The findings are discussed in terms of theories of explicit and implicit attitudes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Protean and boundaryless career attitudes scales: Spanish translation and validation Protean and boundaryless career attitudes scales: Spanish translation and validation Protean and boundaryless career attitudes scales: Spanish translation and validation
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to translate into Spanish and examine the psychometric properties of the resulting Spanish version of Briscoe, Hall and DeMuth (2006’s Protean and Boundayless Career Attitude Scale, encompassing: Self-Direction, Values-driven predispositions, Boundaryless mindset and Organizational Mobility Preference. Design/methodology/approach: Translation of the Protean and Boundayless Career Attitude Scale was carried out using a back-translation procedure and cognitive interviews were conducted to ensure an accurate interpretation of questionnaire items. The validity and reliability of the scale were evaluated using exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach’s alpha coefficients. Finally, confirmatory factor analysis was performed to evaluate the factor structure of the modified version of the scale, which consists in those items with higher factor loadings.Findings: The reliability coefficients of the modified scale are consistent with those reported by Briscoe et al. (2006. Nevertheless, the values-driven attitudes scale seem to measure two latent traits: strong core beliefs regarding one’s definition of career success and individual emphasis of core personal values through work (reliance on personal values when individual and organizational values do not match.Originality/value: This is the first study which provides a Spanish translation of the Protean and Boundaryless Career Attitude Scale.Purpose: The aim of this paper is to translate into Spanish and examine the psychometric properties of the resulting Spanish version of Briscoe, Hall and DeMuth (2006’s Protean and Boundayless Career Attitude Scale, encompassing: Self-Direction, Values-driven predispositions, Boundaryless mindset and Organizational Mobility Preference.Design/methodology/approach: Translation of the Protean and Boundayless Career Attitude Scale was carried out using a back-translation procedure and cognitive interviews were conducted to
Full Text Available .This paper describes the items, scale validity and scale reliability of a self-report questionnaire that measures bystander behavior in cyberbullying incidents among adolescents, and its behavioral determinants. Determinants included behavioral intention, behavioral attitudes, moral disengagement attitudes, outcome expectations, self-efficacy, subjective norm and social skills. Questions also assessed (cyber-bullying involvement. Validity and reliability information is based on a sample of 238 adolescents (M age=13.52 years, SD=0.57. Construct validity was assessed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA or Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA in Mplus7 software. Reliability (Cronbach Alpha, α was assessed in SPSS, version 22. Data and questionnaire are included in this article. Further information can be found in DeSmet et al. (2018 .
Ilvemark, Johan; Dahle, Bård; Matzen, Lars Erik
INTRODUCTION: Euthanasia (EU) and/or physician-assisted suicide (PAS) is legal in some countries and being considered in others. Attitudes to EU/PAS among Danish geriatricians were studied. METHODS: An online questionnaire with 12 questions was e-mailed to all members of the Danish Geriatric...
High consumption of alcoholic and sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) remains a public health problem among the young adults. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and consumption pattern of alcohol and SSBs among the undergraduate students. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain ...
Background: There is little information on sociocultural and contextual factors that may influence attitudes of patients to new treatments, such as artemisinin combination therapies (ACT). Methods: Semi-structured questionnaires and focus group discussions were used to assess views of parents of children with ...
Gras, L.M.; Swart, M.; Slooff, C.; van Weeghel, J.; Knegtering, H.; Castelein, S.
Purpose This study compares stigmatizing attitudes of different healthcare professionals towards psychiatry and patients with mental health problems. Methods The Mental Illness Clinicians Attitude (MICA) questionnaire is used to assess stigmatizing attitudes in three groups: general practitioners
Al-Omari, Hasan; Al-Motlaq, Mohammad A.; Al-Modallal, Hanan
International studies have revealed variable levels of knowledge and attitudes among teachers regarding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study investigated Jordanian teachers' ADHD knowledge and their attitudes towards children with this condition. A standardised self-report questionnaire was completed by a convenience sample…
Seet, Ling Ying Britta; Quek, Choon Lang
This research investigated 68 secondary school students' perceptions of their computer-mediated project-based learning environment and their attitudes towards Project Work (PW) using two instruments--Project Work Classroom Learning Environment Questionnaire (PWCLEQ) and Project Work Related Attitudes Instrument (PWRAI). In this project-based…
Smith, Sterling; Ogley, Peter
To assess whether newspaper advertising would affect attitudes toward handicapped children, a series of newspaper advertisements were run over a five-month period. It was concluded that the ads produced significant difference in attitudes of persons manifest by their response to the questionnaire. (SB)
Oh, Yoon Kyeong; Park, Sang Hag
To get the data for public information and education of medical students about Radiation Therapy (RT). We evaluated the knowledge and attitudes towards the RT and cancer in the third grade medical students who did not receive a lecture before starting the poly-clinic education about radiation oncology in our medical school. We obtained a total of 142 answers from the students that completed the questionnaire. More than half of the third grade medical school. We obtained a total of 142 answers from the students that completed the questionnaire. More than half of the third grade medical students answered 1 question correctly and 5 questions incorrectly among 6 questions about knowledge of RT. Incorrect answers were done about the frequency of RT, hair loss, the period of RT, re-RT, cost of RT. Fifty-six percent of students didn't wish to prolong the survival time from 1 year to 3 years with long courses of chemotherapy and RT. They had bad images about cancer of colorectum, lung, esophagus, liver, breast, cervix which consist of 56.3% of patients receiving RT. Public information about the basic points of RT should be considered. Also the students showed the pessimism about the anticancer treatments such as chemotherapy and RT, so the exact results and positive aspects of anticancer treatment should be educated more. Especially it is needed to inform the students and the public the positive aspects of RT in some cancers (colorectal, lung, esophageal, hepatic, breast, cervix cancers) which the students had bad images about
Asuncion, Alvie J.; Loterina, Roel A.; Cansino, Percedita T.
Nuclear energy's critical role in sustainable development has been highlighted in various reports and studies. This role, however, has been hampered by many influences; one of the most notable is public support which has been correlated with public attitudes. Public support drops rapidly in the midst of nuclear crises as in the case of the recent Fukushima accident, and unless interventions are made, this drop can become irreversible. Information dissemination and brief public communication may serve as short-term solutions, but these interventions appeal to opinions which are relatively more volatile than attitudes. Previous studies have shown that there are different pathways to attitude formation which include education and knowledge-building activities. In this study, the effect of training of the attitudes of participants towards nuclear science and technology was investigated. A questionnaire was designed and validated to measure attitudes towards Nuclear Science and Technology (NST) and was administered to participants of training courses conducted by the PNRI Nuclear Training Center. A total of 111 participants from five training courses were included as respondents which is 91% of the target population, of these, 30.6% are Educators, 44.1% are Medical Practitioners, and 25.2% are Licensees. Mean scores obtained from the questionnaire were analyzed and significant difference has been found at 0.05 confidence level, between participants' attitudes before and after attending a training course. There were slight differences observed from each group of respondents but over-all results show that knowledge-building activities like trainings can be utilized to improve public attitudes towards nuclear science and technology in the Philippine context. (author)
Paço, Arminda; Lavrador, Tânia
Numerous investigations have arisen in order to study and characterise environmentally friendly consumer profiles, with some authors applying the relationship between knowledge, attitudes and behaviour to this end. The present research approach, based upon the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), seeks to verify the existence of relationships between knowledge and attitudes and between knowledge and environmental behaviour. In this instance, data collection involved a questionnaire aimed at assessing the overall environmental knowledge of respondents as well as their attitudes and behaviours regarding energy issues (savings, consumption, interest, use). The results pointed to the lack of relationship between knowledge and attitudes, and between knowledge and behaviour whilst the relationship between attitudes and behaviour proved to be only weak. The results also found that males, older students and those studying Engineering and the Social and Human Sciences are those reporting higher levels of environmental knowledge. However, when it comes to attitudes and behaviours, females seem to display more awareness around these issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of using ICT tools such as Microsoft PowerPoint on EFL students’ attitude and anxiety. The participants in this study were 40 Master 2 students of Didactics of English as a Foreign Language, Djillali Liabes University, Sidi Bel Abbes Algeria. In order to find out the effects of Microsoft PowerPoint on EFL students’ attitude and anxiety, two main research tools were employed in this study: a questionnaire that was addressed to 40 Master 2 students of Didactics of English as a Foreign Language and an interview for 10 participants, randomly selected from the forty participants who answered the questionnaire. After the data had been analysed, the results revealed a positive attitude and low anxiety among students towards Microsoft PowerPoint. These concluding results promote the use of ICT and encourage EFL teachers to use these tools in the most beneficial way to improve students’ level of English and motivate them. Keywords: Information and Communication Technology (ICT, attitude, anxiety, English as foreign language, teaching, learning
Full Text Available The goal was to determine psychological predictors of reproductive attitudes among medical students. Material and Methods. The survey of 84 students (of the 3rd and the 5th year of medical faculty of Saratov State Medical University n.a. V. I. Razumovsky was carried out using a combination of methods (questionnaire, testing aimed to achieve the research goal. Results. Features of reproductive attitudes and reproductive intentions of students, as well as psychological characteristics of youth, such as personal maturity, belief in people and value orientations were studied. Psy- chological predictors of reproductive attitudes among medical students were determined. Conclusion. It was revealed that reproductive attitudes among students of the 5th year were higher than those of the 3rd year. There were gender differences in psychological predictors of reproductive attitudes among students. It was experimentally established that existence of faith in people, high level of personal maturity, high importance of personal values, altruistic values and values of acceptance of others had a positive impact on reproductive attitudes among young people. Based on the results of the study, recommendations were developed with the aim to improve reproductive attitudes and psychological readiness for parenting of medical students.
Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Nishiyama, Chika; Murakami, Yukiko; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Nakai, Shohei; Hamanishi, Masayoshi; Marukawa, Seishiro; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Iwami, Taku
Little is known about the effectiveness of systematic cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training for elementary school children. We introduced systematic training of chest compression-only CPR and automated external defibrillator (AED) use to elementary school students aged 10-12 years at 17 schools. The questionnaire compared student attitudes towards CPR and their knowledge about it before and after CPR training. We also evaluated parent and teacher views about CPR training in school education. The primary outcome was positive attitude, defined as "yes" and "maybe yes" on a 5 point Likert-type scale of student attitudes towards CPR.1 RESULTS: A total of 2047 elementary school students received CPR training. Of them, 1899 (92.8%) responded to the questionnaire regarding their attitude towards CPR before and after the training. Before training, 50.2% answered "yes" and 30.3% answered "maybe yes", to the question: "If someone suddenly collapses in front of you, can you do something such as check response or call emergency?" After training, their answers changed to 75.6% and 18.3% for "yes" and "maybe yes", respectively. Many of the students (72.3%, 271/370) who did not have a positive attitude before CPR training had a positive attitude after the training (P CPR (97.7%) and use an AED (98.5%). Parents (96.2%, 1173/1220) and teachers (98.3%, 56/57) answered that it was "good" and "maybe good" for children to receive the training at elementary schools. Systematic chest compression-only CPR training helped elementary school students to improve their attitude towards CPR. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.
Shontz, Marilyn L.; Parker, Jon C.; Parker, Richard
The purpose of this study was to identify attitudes of public librarians toward the marketing of library services and relate these attitudes to selected independent variables. A questionnaire was mailed to individual members of the New Jersey Library Association. Although most of the respondents had generally positive attitudes toward library…
María Elena Brenlla; Analía Brizzio; Alejandra Carreras
Love styles described by Lee are Eros (passionate love), Ludus (game-pla- ying love), Storge (friendship love), Mania (possessive, dependent love), Pragma (logical, “shopping list” love) and Agape (all-giving, selfless love). Based on those types, Hendrick and Hendrick developed a 42-ítem rating questionnaire with 7 items measuring each love style (Love Attitudes Scale). Beside, inform about frequency in love relationships and attachment style. The purpose of this study was analyze the relia...
Gras, Laura M.; Swart, Marte; Slooff, Cees J.; van Weeghel, Jaap; Knegtering, Henderikus; Castelein, Stynke
This study compares stigmatizing attitudes of different healthcare professionals towards psychiatry and patients with mental health problems. The Mental Illness Clinicians Attitude (MICA) questionnaire is used to assess stigmatizing attitudes in three groups: general practitioners (GPs, n = 55),
Sun, Yu-Hua Christine
This study addresses how various health concerns might influence not only consumers' food choice motives but also consumers' subsequent attitudes toward healthy eating. This study expects that those consumers with greater health concerns would have different food choice motives and better attitudes toward healthy eating. A self-completion questionnaire was used to gather information. Participants, a random sample of 500 undergraduate students from a national university in Taipei, Taiwan, provided a total of 456 usable questionnaires, representing a valid response rate of 91%. The average age of the respondents at the time of the survey was 21 years and 63% of respondents were females. The relationship between health concern and healthy eating attitudes was confirmed. The relationship between health concern of developing diseases and attitudes toward healthy eating was fully mediated by food choice motives. However, the relationship between calorie consumption health concern and healthy eating attitudes was only partially mediated by food choice motives. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Full Text Available The aim of the research was to establish the relationship between the attitude of consumers towards the environment and their behaviours when choosing food products taking into consideration their packaging. This relationship was established according to gender, age and the educational level of the consumers. Questionnaire study was carried out in 2010 within 548 adults from Warsaw. Participants were asked questions on attitudes towards environment and behaviours related to reduction of packaging waste. Frequency, factor and cluster analysis were used. Signifi cantly more women than men agreed that buying pro ducts in larger packages and beverages in glass bottles can reduce the amount of garbage. Over twice more people with positive attitude claimed not buying food in disposable plastic or paper packaging. Negative attitude fostered doing nothing to minimize waste packaging. Attitudes towards the environment have had signifi - cant impact on the choice of food packaging. More positive attitudes favoured the reduction of the amount of packaging waste. Thus, environmental campaigns focused on attitudes and environmentally relevant use of food packing are required.
Full Text Available This study examined the adequacy of using undergraduate student samples in research on online consumer attitudes by comparing the attitudes of students (n = 161 towards online retailing services with the attitudes of non-students (n = 252 towards such services. A structured questionnaire administered online was used to gather data on perceptions, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions with regard to online retailing services. The t-test results showed that, in general, students' attitude towards online retailing services is similar to that of non-students. Therefore, undergraduate students may be reasonable surrogates for consumers in research on online retailing.
Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.
Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…
Davidson, J. Kenneth, Sr.; Darling, Carol A.
Examined effects of functional marriage and family course on female undergraduates' masturbatory attitudes and behaviors. Subjects completed questionnaires during course and two years later. Control group also completed questionnaires. Course respondents became substantially more accepting of masturbation by acquaintances and were more likely to…
Natthawut Kaewpitoon; Soraya J Kaewpitoon; Prasit Pengsaa; Chutigan Pilasri
AIM:To investigate the knowledge,attitude and practice (KAP) in prevention and control of liver fluke infection in northeast Thailand.METHODS:A descriptive KAP survey pertaining to liver fluke infection was carried out in June 2005 to October 2006 using structured questionnaires. Data were collected by questionnaires consisting of general parameters,knowledge,attitude,practice,and a history of participation in the prevention and control of liver fluke infection.RESULTS:A total of 1077 persons who were interviewed and completed the questionnaires were enrolled in the study. The majority were females (69.5%) and many of them were 15-20 years of age (37.26%). The questionnaires revealed that information resources on Uver fluke infection included local public health volunteers (31.37%),public health officers (18.72%),televisions (14.38%),local heads of sub-districts (12.31%),doctors and nurses (9.18%),newspaper (5.72),internets (5.37%),and others (12.95%). Fifty-five point eleven percent of the population had a good level of liver fluke knowledge concerning the mode of disease transmission and 79.72% of the population had a good level of prevention and control knowledge with regards to defecation and consumption. The attitude and practice in liver fluke prevention and control were also at a good level with a positive awareness,participation,and satisfaction of 72.1% and 60.83% of the persons studied. However,good health behavior was found in 39.26% and 41.42% of the persons studied who had unhygienic defecation and ate raw cyprinoid's fish. Theresult also showed that 41.25% of the persons studied previously joined prevention and control campaigns.CONCLUSION:The persons studied have a high level of liver fluke knowledge and positive attitude. However,improvement is required regarding personal hygiene specifically with hygienic defecation and consumption of undercooked fish.
Data was collected using a semi-structured researcher administered questionnaire. Knowledge, awareness and attitudes were addressed using questions on balanced diet, healthy eating, healthy body weight, obesity, diabetes, hypertension and diabetes and hypertension causes. Socio-economic status was addressed by ...
Russ, Paul; Strümpell, Stephanie; Carvalho, Denise; Zander, Sabrina; Smits, Paul; Nowak, Dennis; Radon, Katja
Purpose To assess medical students' attitude toward occupational health (OH) in Brazil and Germany before and after a compulsory OH course. Methods A questionnaire regarding the attitude toward OH was completed by medical students at the beginning of the OH teaching term at the Federal University of
Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika
Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…
Nagy, Beáta Erika; Kovács, Karolina Eszter
Health awareness plays an important role in our life, which contains attitudes as well behavioural components. Social factors influencing health awareness were the basis of many previous investigations, measuring the effect of demographical and psychological factors. However, investigation of these factors usually happened with separated questions. The aim of the present study is to test a new questionnaire, which measures health behaviour and attitudes related to health awareness. In present study, the attention was drawn to the introduction of a new questionnaire related to health behaviour, attitudes toward health awareness and factors influencing those and measured on population in Debrecen (SHTE 2017; n = 256). the new measurement proved to be reliable based on Cronbach α analysis. This was created on the basis of focus content analysis of group conversations with 10 subscales and 35 items. It can be stated that gender, father's educational level, objective and subjective financial status has a significantly negative effect; while sport, subjective health and fitness as well as subjective religiosity have a significantly positive effect which reflects previous findings and confirm the reliability of our questionnaire. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(44): 1754-1760.
Sweeney, Jo Ann Cutler; Zandan, Peter A.
Describes a lesson for junior high social studies which uses a comparison of research findings to teach students about international political socialization. Students answer questionnaires about their own attitudes and knowledge of international political socialization and then compare and contrast their responses to responses of American,…
Engel, John W.
Traditional ideals discourage Japanese women from working outside the home. This study was conducted to explore generational differences in Japanese attitudes toward women's employment and to interpret those differences in terms of social change. Questionnaires were distributed to approximately 900 Japanese men and women. Subjects were classified…
The study investigated on the knowledge and attitude of secondary school students towards discovered eating. A sample of 300 students from six secondary schools was randomly selected in Owerri Municipal. A questionnaire titled QSKATDE was developed, structured and validated (r = 0.80). Four research questions and ...
Purpose: To explore healthcare providers' (HCPs) and medical students' attitudes to, and perceptions of the pharmaceutical services that clinical pharmacists can provide in United Arab Emirates. Methods: A total of 535 participants (265 HCPs and 270 medical students) were asked to complete a questionnaire over a ...
Gonen, Ayala; Grinberg, Keren
Background: Learning disabilities (LD) are lifelong disabilities that affect all facets of a person's life. Aim: Identifying the relationship between academic students' attitudes toward learning disability, self-image, and selected factors. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 213 students from an academic center in Israel. Two different…
The study investigated junior secondary school pupils' attitudes towards mathematics. ... They attributed this to their low interest and confidence in learning ... aspirations performed better in mathematics and science than those who did not .... The questionnaire items were hand delivered to respondents on the days that ...
Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationship between EFL teachers’ attitudes towards CLT and perceived difficulties of implementing CLT in language classes. Two hundred and three EFL teachers participated in the study. Their attitudes towards CLT and their perceptions of the problems of implementing CLT were assessed by two questionnaires. The results of the descriptive statistics showed that EFL teachers had positive attitudes towards CLT in general and group work in communicative classes in particular. Further, while EFL teachers generally did not find much difficulty in implementing CLT in language classes, they found the difficulties the educational system creates as a major obstacle to use CLT. Moreover, CLT attitudes and perceived difficulties of CLT implementation were not found to be related; however, when subscales of CLT attitudes and perceived difficulties questionnaires were considered, three correlations were found to be statistically significant. Difficulties caused by students in communicative classes were found to be inversely and significantly related to (a attitudes to CLT as a whole (r=-.160, p<.05 and (b attitudes towards group/pair work in CLT (r=-.156, p<.05. Further, attitudes towards the role of teacher in a communicative class were found to be positively related to difficulties inherent in the CLT method itself (r= .181, p<.01.
Tanimoto, Katia Suemi
One of the key features for public acceptance of nuclear energy is the belief that radioactive waste can be managed safely, in order to protect human beings from its possible harmful effects in present and future generations. In this sense, it is essential to understand how people perceive the risk associated with radioactive waste and which the main factors driving their attitudes toward its disposal are. One of the ways to achieve this understanding is through opinion polls. In this study, a questionnaire focused on the nuclear energy acceptability issue and its association with radioactive waste management was proposed, covering the following aspects: attitudes towards radioactive waste and nuclear power, credibility on institutions and sectors responsible by the nuclear safety, identification of perceived benefits, risk perception of specific technologies and activities, perception of real risk, emotional reaction comprehension and precautionary principle. Results obtained from a pilot questionnaire application are presented and discussed in this paper. (author)
Tiffany, Jeanne; Tollefson, Nona
This study field tests and evaluates the Parenting Questionnaire, an instrument designed to assess parental attitudes and behavior, based on the child-raising theories of Dreikurs and Dinkmeyer and the Adlerian model for parent study groups. Dreikurs and Adler stress the purposive nature of children's behavior or misbehavior, and teach parents to…
Marsha K. Youssef
Full Text Available Teachers are often the first persons responsible for identifying children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and are increasingly being called on to help manage such children. We sought to assess teachers’ knowledge of and attitudes toward ADHD in Trinidad & Tobago, a small island developing state in the Caribbean region. Based on previously published work, an instrument was adapted and pilot tested. Using convenience sampling, 440 questionnaires were distributed and 277 valid questionnaires were returned (response rate, 63%. Total knowledge scores were low, mean 12.6/26. Both postgraduate education and in-service training significantly improved knowledge scores as did having previously taught a child with ADHD. Attitudes toward children with ADHD were generally positive although most teachers felt children with ADHD should be taught by specialist teachers. Results suggest greater efforts must be made to provide teacher training specifically in the identification and management of children with ADHD.
Abdel Shaheed, Christina; Maher, Christopher G; Mak, Wendy; Williams, Kylie A; McLachlan, Andrew J
Practitioner beliefs and attitudes towards low back pain (LBP) influence treatment decisions. Little is known about pharmacists' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards LBP. To investigate the effect of educational interventions on pharmacists' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards LBP. Setting Sydney Metropolitan Area. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs was measured using the "Pharmacists' Back Beliefs Questionnaire", with items from two previously reported questionnaires on back beliefs. Responses from pharmacists attending a 2-h educational workshop on LBP (n = 204) and pharmacists recruiting participants for a LBP clinical trial (n = 66) were compared to responses from a control group of pharmacists (n = 65) to allow an evaluation of the two interventions. Responses from workshop participants were also evaluated before and after the session. Participants indicated their agreement with statements about LBP on a 5-point Likert scale. Preferred responses were based on guidelines for the evidence-based management of LBP. The primary analysis evaluated total score on the nine-inevitability items of the Back Beliefs Questionnaire ("inevitability score"). Inevitability score. There was no significant difference in inevitability score between LBP clinical trial pharmacists and the control group [mean difference (MD) 0.47 (95 % CI -1.35 to 2.29; p = 0.61)]. The educational workshop led to a significant and favourable change in inevitability score (MD 7.23 p changes in responses to misconceptions regarding bed rest and the need for imaging (p changing practitioner knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards LBP.
Gómez Burgos, Eric; Pérez Pérez, Sandra
A favourable attitude towards a language is a crucial factor in the process of learning a foreign language (Shams, 2008). In light of this premise, this article reports on a case study conducted in two subsidised secondary schools that involved 154 students from Puerto Montt, Chile. A questionnaire of five dimensions was given to the participants in order to identify their attitude towards teachers' methodology and language use in the English classroom, English as a subject at school, English...
Maier, Thomas; Moergeli, Hanspeter; Kohler, Michaela; Carraro, Giovanni E; Schnyder, Ulrich
To date, mental health professionals' attitudes toward posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), compared to other psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or depression, have rarely been studied. We assessed mental health professionals' attitudes toward patients with PTSD compared to patients suffering from depression. Case vignettes of a patient with either PTSD or depression were presented to two samples of mental health professionals: attendees of a conference on posttraumatic stress (N=226) or of a lecture for psychiatry residents (N=112). Participants subsequently completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitude reactions to the presented case. Participants showed similarly positive attitudes toward depression and PTSD. PTSD elicited a more favorable attitude with regard to prosocial reactions, estimated dependency, attributed responsibility, and interest in the case, particularly in mental health professionals specializing in psychotraumatology. Across diagnoses, higher age and longer professional experience were associated with more positive attitudes toward patients. Mental health professionals' positive attitudes toward patients with depression and PTSD correlate with their specific knowledge about the disorder, their level of professional training, and their years of professional experience. The instruments used, although based on established theoretical concepts in attitude research, were not validated in their present versions.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of group counseling using transactional analysis on the improvement of intimacy attitude in some depressed patients in city of Esfahan, Iran. In this paper, semi-experimental design with pretest posttest control groups was conducted among 30 patients. The sample was selected through available sampling method among the depressed patients referred to psychiatric centers. They were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. The measurement instrument is intimacy attitude scale (IAS questionnaire by Amidon et al. (1983 [Amidon, E., Kumar, V. K., & Treadwell, T. (1983. Measurement of intimacy attitudes: The intimacy attitude scale-revisited. Journal of personality assessment, 47(6, 635-639.] and the Beck depression inventory (BDI. The pretest and posttest scores of the intimacy attitude scale questionnaire were analyzed in both experimental and control groups. For statistical analysis of data, repeated measures analysis of variance was carried out. The research findings indicated that group counseling using transactional analysis increases the level of intimacy attitude in depressed individuals. It also increases the emotional intimacy, but it does not increase the mental intimacy.
Cho, Kyoung Won; Lee, Jakyoung; Ryu, Ji-Hye; Kim, Soo Jeong
This study aimed to identify the effects of anti-smoking public service announcements on the attitudes of Korean college students toward smoking. This study involved students via convenience sampling from seven universities who were randomly assigned to four groups. All groups completed a preliminary questionnaire, before being shown a public service announcement twice, and then completed a post viewing questionnaire. For announcements with positive messages, the proportion of changes in beliefs and attitudes were 39.1% and 19.8%, respectively, whereas those with negative messages showed a greater proportion of changes in the beliefs (59.7%) and attitudes (40.3%). After adjusting for sex and change in belief, the message types and smoking status were identified as factors affecting the change in the participants attitudes. A negative message resulted in a greater change in attitudes (odds ratio [OR], 3.047; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.847-5.053). Ever-smokers including current smokers showed a greater positive change in attitude than never-smokers (OR, 6.965; 95% CI, 4.107-11.812). This study found that positive anti-smoking public service announcements were more effective on attitude change than negative messages. Additionally these announcements were more effective among viewers who were current smokers or had a prior smoking experience.
Del Olmo-Romero, Francisco; González-Blanco, María; Sarró, Salvador; Grácio, Jaime; Martín-Carrasco, Manuel; Martinez-Cabezón, Ana C; Perna, Giampaolo; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Varandas, Pedro; Ballesteros-Rodríguez, Javier; Rebolleda-Gil, Carlos; Vanni, Giovanna; González-Fraile, Eduardo
Research shows that personnel working in mental health facilities may share some of the societal prejudices towards mental illness. This might result in stigmatizing behaviours towards people suffering from mental disorders, undermining the quality of their care. To describe and compare attitudes towards mental illness across a sample of professionals working in a wide range of mental health facilities in Spain, Portugal and Italy. We administered a survey to personnel including two questionnaires related to stigmatizing attitudes: The Community Attitudes toward the Mentally Ill (CAMI) and the Attribution Questionnaire (AQ-27). Data were compared according to professional category, work setting and country. 34.06% (1525) professionals of the surveyed population responded adequately. Psychologists and social therapists had the most positive attitudes, and nursing assistants the most negative, on most factors of CAMI and AQ-27. Community staff had more positive attitudes than hospital-based professionals in most factors on CAMI and in discriminatory responses on AQ-27. Globally, mental health professionals showed a positive attitude towards mental illness, but also a relative support to coercive treatments. There are differences in attitudes modulated by professional category and setting. Results can guide preventive strategies, particularly for the hospital-based and nursing staff.
Full Text Available Background and objective: Self-medication of slimming supplements has increased. Media advertising is involved in this field. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of media literacy educational intervention in the students' attitudes about self-medication of slimming supplements among the female dormitories in University of Medical Sciences in Iran. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study of controlled type, 98 students were selected by multistage cluster sampling method and randomly divided into two groups of 49 tests and 49 control. The data collecting instruments were the researcher-made questionnaire about media literacy and attitude on self-medication of slimming pills, BICI questionnaire of body image, and SEI Cooper Smith's questionnaire of self-esteem. Based on the results obtained from the questionnaires early completion, an appropriate educational intervention was designed and carried out. One and three months after the intervention, data was gathered and analyzed in (16 SPSS software using descriptive and analytical tests. Results: Before the intervention, the mean scores of attitude, body image, self-esteem, and dimensions of media literacy in both groups were moderate, and there was no significant difference between them. Also, positive correlations were observed in the experiment group between attitude and knowledge (r = 0.99, p = 0.001, critical thinking (r = 0.61, p = 0.001 and analysis (r=0.37, p=0.009. One and three months after the intervention, the mean scores of body image, self-esteem, and dimensions of media literacy were observed significant in both groups (p <0.05. Conclusion: Media literacy education was effective in promoting the attitude about slimming supplements. Paper Type: Research Article.
Dr. Ozge Razy
Full Text Available This study attempted to investigate foreign students feeling and behaviour towards learning English and different other languages. The study found out that there is any significant difference in the students aspects attitudes positive and negative towards learning English language inside and outside the school based on their response to 25 items. A total of participants were 18 took a questionnaire as an instrument to qualify their attitudes. The participants showed positive attitudes in the high level towards foreign languages such as English. The study presented recommendation to improve other languages in the future as English.
Bebbington, P; Ghubash, R; Hamdi, E
The Dubai Community Psychiatric Survey was carried out to assess the effect of very rapid social change on the mental health of women in Dubai, one of the United Arab Emirates. In order to measure social change at an individual level, we developed a questionnaire covering behaviour and attitudes in a wide range of situations, the Socio-cultural Change Questionnaire (ScCQ). In this paper we give an account of the considerations that determined the form of the ScCQ, its structural characteristics, and its validity.
Wole M. Olatokun
Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection. Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. Principal Component Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression was applied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance. Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the major determinants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was not significantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitude towards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge, although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positive knowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT usage was also found to significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’. Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more IT infrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers.
Fejza A; Kryeziu Z; Kadrija K; Musa M
Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude among Pharmacy students of the University of Prishtina in regards to the antibiotics. Methods: 144 pharmacy students at the University of Prishtina were recruited in this study to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The total number of questions in this questionnaire was eight (8), covering two (2) major themes: self-report of the current and past antibiotic use and behavior; and anticipated presc...
Full Text Available Abstract: The objective was to investigate students’ attitude toward the implementation of a whole language approach on Reading and Writing for Occupational Purposes Course in the academic year of 2013/2014. The approaches employed were phonological and phoneme awareness, phonic and word study, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension skills and strategies, and writing. The participants were 15 students of the English Language Education Department, Universitas Islam Indonesia. SCORE questionnaire using the Likert’s scale was the instrument. Calculation was to find out score index and categorization by following Riduwan’s (2007 score interpretation criteria. The findings showed that in the simple category, two of ten questions were agreed absolutely (100%, in the clear category, all questions were agreed for 80 %, in the original category, five of thirteen questions reached majority of agreement (100%, in the relevant category, one of five questions was agreed absolutely (100%, and in the enjoyable category, all questions were agreed by 93%. Keywords: a whole language approach, SCORE, score interpretation criteria PENGUKURAN SIKAP MAHASISWA TENTANG PERKULIAHAN BERBASIS A WHOLE LANGUAGE APPROACH DENGAN KUESIONER SCORE Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengukur sikap mahasiswa terhadap pelaksanaan a whole language approach dalam perkuliahan Reading and Writing for Occupational Purposes Course tahun akademik 2013/2014. Pendekatan yang diterapkan adalah kesadaran fonetik dan fonemik, pelafalan dan kata, kelancaran, kosakata, keterampilan dan strategi membaca komprehensif, dan menulis. Responden penelitian ini adalah 15 maahsiswa Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris Universitas Islam Indonesia. Kuesioner SCOREs dengan skala Likert sebagai instrumen. Penghitungan ditujukan kepada skor indeks dan kategorisasi mengikuti criteria interpretasi skor Riduwan (2007. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa pada kategori simple, dua pertanyaan disetujui mutlak (100%, pada kategori
Barroso, Violeta; Caceres, Wendy; Loftus, Pooja; Evans, Kambria H; Shieh, Lisa
We measured medical students' and resident trainees' hand hygiene behaviour, knowledge and attitudes in order to identify important predictors of hand hygiene behaviour in this population. An anonymous, web-based questionnaire was distributed to medical students and residents at Stanford University School of Medicine in August of 2012. The questionnaire included questions regarding participants' behaviour, knowledge, attitude and experiences about hand hygiene. Behaviour, knowledge and attitude indices were scaled from 0 to 1, with 1 representing superior responses. Using multivariate regression, we identified positive and negative predictors of superior hand hygiene behaviour. We investigated effectiveness of interventions, barriers and comfort reminding others. 280 participants (111 students and 169 residents) completed the questionnaire (response rate 27.8%). Residents and medical students reported hand hygiene behaviour compliance of 0.45 and 0.55, respectively (p=0.02). Resident and medical student knowledge was 0.80 and 0.73, respectively (p=0.001). The attitude index for residents was 0.56 and 0.55 for medical students. Regression analysis identified experiences as predictors of hand hygiene behaviour (both positive and negative influence). Knowledge was not a significant predictor of behaviour, but a working gel dispenser and observing attending physicians with good hand hygiene practices were reported by both groups as the most effective strategy in influencing trainees. Medical students and residents have similar attitudes about hand hygiene, but differ in their level of knowledge and compliance. Concerns about hierarchy may have a significant negative impact on hand hygiene advocacy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Kian, Ensiyeh Mohebbi; Riazi, Hedieh; Bashirian, Saeid
Surrogacy arrangements are multifaceted in nature, involving multiple controversial aspects and engaging ethical, moral, psychological and social issues. Successful treatment in reproductive medicine is strongly based on the mutual agreement of both partners, especially in Iran where men often make the final decision for health-related problems of this nature. The aim of the following study is to assess the attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy. This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Hamadan university of medical sciences, Iran. The study sample consisted of 150 infertile couples selected using a systematic randomized method. Data collection was based on responses to a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions. P surrogacy, the overall attitudes toward surrogacy were positive (53.3% of women and 54.6% of men surveyed). Although, there was not a significant difference between the overall positive attitudes of infertile women and men toward surrogacy, the general attitude toward using this method is not strongly positive. Therefore, further efforts are required to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile couples.
Solomon, Susan; Simiyon, Manjula; Vedachalam, Ahalya
This study was done to determine the effectiveness of a lecture and exposure to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) followed by interaction with patient, on medical students' knowledge about and attitude towards electroconvulsive therapy. A questionnaire was administered to second year medical students to determine their baseline knowledge about and attitude towards electroconvulsive therapy. Following this, they underwent two educational interventions, a lecture on ECT and exposure to the procedure and interaction with the patient and relative, and their knowledge and attitude were reassessed after each intervention using the same questionnaire. Eighty-one students completed all the three assessments. Students' knowledge about ECT at baseline was minimal (mean 3.58 out of 12). Their knowledge increased significantly after the lecture (mean 10.3), and there was further increase following exposure to the procedure and subsequent interaction with the patient and relative (mean 11.1). At baseline, students had an overall negative attitude towards ECT. There was significant improvement on all attitude items following the lecture. Exposure to the procedure resulted in further improvement in attitude regarding whether ECT is a cruel treatment and has to be used as a last resort. Exposure to ECT in lecture and clinical scenarios followed by interaction with the patient should be included in the undergraduate medical curriculum to improve students' knowledge and attitude about this safe, effective, and potentially lifesaving treatment modality.
Objective: The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of local residents about insecticide treated nets (ITNs) for malaria control in an endemic area of Ethiopia Methods: A descriptive cross-survey was conducted from July 2008 to September 2008. A structured questionnaire collecting ...
Statistical analyses of the pre-test and post-test data showed a statistically significant improvement in test results. Data generated by a questionnaire designed to ascertain the students' attitudes and feelings in terms of the cooperative learning strategy indicate that students in the pre-technician group also experienced ...
The paper examines the attitude of agricultural professionals towards their children or people under their care taking agriculture and agricultural extension as a career in Kwara State, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from one hundred and eighty respondents. The findings revealed that the ...
Horowitz, Stephen M.; And Others
The effect of an on-site health promotion program on lifestyle behavior, health, attitude, and stress was studied with 41 university faculty and nonacademic administrators. The participants were administered a maximal graded exercise tolerance test, hydrostatic weighing, and the Lifestyle Analysis Questionnaire. While 32 staff were assigned to an…
Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and use of the female condom among undergraduates of Kigali Health Institute. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out between May and June 2010. The sample was randomly selected from the students of Kigali Health Institute. A questionnaire based study was ...
Winna Justiana Sirait
Full Text Available Motorcyclists are vulnerable road users because of their particular combination of physical vulnerability. Motorcyclists’ training and licensing system have already implemented in so many countries in the world particularly developed countries. In the other hand, there are countries, particularly developing countries, where motorcyclists are less regulated in term of licensing, enforcement, and insurance. Therefore the objective of this research are to analyses the behavior and attitude of motorcyclists in Yorkshire and Humber Region (UK and Jakarta (Indonesia, and to analyses the efficacy of motorcycle training in UK to influence the self-reported negative behavior and attitude of motorcyclists. Motorcycle Rider Behavior Questionnaire (MRBQ and Motorcyclists Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ are used to conduct this study. The Mann Whitney test is used to evaluate the significance different of the mean score, which obtained from the survey in each country (UK and Indonesia. Mean score computation showed that Yorkshire and Humber Region’s respondents have better mean score than Jakarta’s respondents. However Mann Whitney test showed that the mean score different is not significant for speed violation factor in MRBQ and drink driving and speeding factor in MAQ. Keywords: motorcyclist, motorcycle training, Motorcycle Rider Behavior Questionnaire (MRBQ, Motorcyclist Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ.
Full Text Available Social support can have beneficial effects on psychological and physiological well-being. During acute bodily pain, however, the effects of social support on pain are mixed. This variability may be due to the multifaceted nature of both pain and social support, as well as individual differences. In this paper, we present the development, psychometric assessment, and initial validation of the first self-report measure designed to address this variability in the general population; the Responses and Attitudes to Support during Pain questionnaire (RASP. The RASP includes questions on social support from the romantic partner as well as healthcare professionals (HCPs and addresses different types of social support and pain responses. The development and validation of the RASP comprised four studies. In Study 1, a preliminary RASP version was completed by 179 healthy individuals regarding any type of acute pain. In Study 2, the reduced RASP was completed by 256 women with experiences of menstrual pain. Principal component analysis indicated a 22-item solution with five underlying dimensions reflecting general partner support, emotional support from HCPs, anxiety in the context of HCPs, pain behaviors during partner support, and distraction by the partner. Construct validity was assessed using a measure of adult attachment style. The RASP showed good validity and test-retest reliability. In Study 3, the 5-factor model received initial support through confirmatory factor analysis in a new sample of 120 individuals with recent musculoskeletal pain. Study 4 provided additional validation of the RASP in a sample of 180 individuals responding in reference to acute back pain. Overall, the RASP is a valid and reliable measure for assessing individual differences in attitudes and responses to social support in relation to acute pain.
Amedu, Odagboyi Isaiah; Gudi, Kreni Comfort
This study is aimed at investigating the attitude of students toward the cooperative learning approach. A quasiexperimental design was used for the study. The sample was made of 179 SS 1 students drawn from three public secondary schools in Nasarawa state. The Jigsaw Attitude Questionnaire (JAQ) was adapted from Koprowski and Perigo (2000) and was…
Li, Zhen; Zhou, Xinmei; Cao, Jing; Li, Zheng; Wan, Xia; Li, Jiaqian; Jiao, Jing; Liu, Ge; Liu, Ying; Li, Fangfang; Song, Baoyun; Jin, Jingfen; Liu, Yilan; Wen, Xianxiu; Cheng, Shouzhen; Wu, Xinjuan
To gain insight into nurses' knowledge and attitudes regarding major immobility complications (pressure ulcers, pneumonia, deep vein thrombosis and urinary tract infections) and explore the correlation of nurses' knowledge and attitudes with the incidence of these complications. Immobility complications have adverse consequences, and effective management requires appropriate knowledge, attitudes and skills. Evidence about nurses' knowledge and attitudes regarding immobility complications is lacking. Cross-sectional study. A total of 3,903 nurses and 21,333 bedridden patients from 25 hospitals in China were surveyed. Nurses' knowledge and attitudes regarding major immobility complications were assessed using researcher-developed questionnaires. The content validity, reliability and internal consistency of the questionnaires were validated through expert review and a pilot study. The incidence of major immobility complications among bedridden patients from selected wards was surveyed by trained investigators. Correlations between knowledge, attitudes and the incidence of major immobility complications were evaluated with multilevel regression models. Mean knowledge scores were 64.07% for pressure ulcers, 72.92% for deep vein thrombosis, 76.54% for pneumonia and 83.30% for urinary tract infections. Mean attitude scores for these complications were 86.25%, 84.31%, 85.00% and 84.53%, respectively. Knowledge and attitude scores were significantly higher among nurses with older age, longer employment duration, higher education level, previous training experience and those working in tertiary hospitals or critical care units. Nurses' knowledge about pressure ulcers was negatively related to the incidence of pressure ulcers, and attitude towards pneumonia was negatively correlated with the incidence of pneumonia. Clinical nurses have relatively positive attitudes but inadequate knowledge regarding major immobility complications. Improved knowledge and attitudes regarding
Sønderstrup-Andersen, Hans H. K.; Thomsen, Jane Dyrhauge; Müller, Renate
office workplaces. A paper-pencil questionnaire was developed in order to collect demographical information about the employees at the workplaces under investigation. A scale composed of 13 items regarding the attitudes towards ornamental plants at the workplace was also included in the questionnaire...... was 0.79 and 0.93 for the second factor. These two factors form an interesting platform from which the question of how personal attitudes are influencing the people-plant relationship at Danish workplaces can be investigated further. However, it should be noted that the results reported here...
Thomsen, Jane Dyrhauge; Müller, Renate; Sønderstrup-Andersen, Hans H. K.
office workplaces. A paper-pencil questionnaire was developed in order to collect demographical information about the employees at the workplaces under investigation. A scale composed of 13 items regarding the attitudes towards ornamental plants at the workplace was also included in the questionnaire...... was 0.79 and 0.93 for the second factor. These two factors form an interesting platform from which the question of how personal attitudes are influencing the people-plant relationship at Danish workplaces can be investigated further. However, it should be noted that the results reported here...
Ernest Cyril de Run
Full Text Available This research is aimed at determining the attitudes with regard to advertising from the perspective of generational cohorts in Sarawak. A two-phase of study was conducted to firstly identify generational cohorts in the state and, secondly, to investigate the attitude of each cohort to advertising. Utilizing theories of generations, a qualitative approach by means of personal interviews was used at the outset to identify external events which bring about the formation of cohorts. Accordingly, 48 interviews were conducted and data were content-analyzed. The findings were then incorporated into the second phase of study to investigate cohorts’ views about advertising, using theory of reasoned action. A quantitative approach via questionnaire-based survey was administered, and 1,410 copies were collected for analysis. Five distinct cohorts are proposed in the initial findings. They are labeled as Neoteric Inheritors, Prospective Pursuers, Social Strivers, Idealistic Strugglers and Battling Lifers on the basis of their respective engagement with events during the coming-of-age years. The subsequent findings show that beliefs about advertising are significant predictors of the attitudes to advertising, and so are the attitudes with regard to the intention of every cohort. However, their beliefs and attitudes to advertising are found to differ significantly, especially in the older cohort. The study thus highlights the implication of generational differences on the attitudes to advertising.
Sherman, Steven J.; Gorkln, Larry
To study the effects of behaving inconsistently with a central attitude, subjects (N=77) filled out a "Contemporary Social Issues Questionnaire," and then completed a sex-role or non-sex-role logic problem. It was hypothesized that subjects who score high on a feminism scale and who fail to solve a sex-role problem, thus demonstrating…
Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Epilepsy is associated with numerous misconceptions due to its dramatic manifestation and poor knowledge among the public. The aim of this study was to assess epilepsy awareness, knowledge and attitudes among secondary school teachers. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey by sending a simple self-administered questionnaire to all secondary schools in Podgorica, Montenegro. The questionnaire contained 16 questions regarding epilepsy awareness, knowledge and attitudes, first aid attitudes, as well as demographic and teaching experience data. Results. We analyzed 219 questionnaires. Almost all teachers had heard or read about epilepsy, 57.5% of whom knew someone with epilepsy; 21% had a pupil with epilepsy in their class; more than 50% had witnessed a seizure, with 25% of them linking epilepsy to a central nervous disturbance. Over 60% of teachers chose convulsions/shaking to be a major feature of an epileptic attack. Forty percent of teachers thought epilepsy could be cured. Almost 80% thought people with epilepsy should get married and have children, but only one third would marry a person with epilepsy. Over 13% would object to their child playing with another child with epilepsy, and more than 50% would object if their child married a person with epilepsy. About 35% of teachers suggested putting something in a person’s mouth during attack to prevent tongue injury and asphyxiation. Conclusion. Awareness and understanding of epilepsy among teachers were satisfactory, but the results also revealed negative attitudes. Teachers need further education about epilepsy to increase seizure recognition and first aid management, reduce stigma, and intensify acceptance of people with epilepsy.
Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on social and demographic factors of Ukr health literacy, health culture, young adults, concepts of health and healthy lifestyle, motivations, forms of communication, learning methods ainian youth money attitudes. The aim of the research is to identify dependency between money attitudes of the young people and such social and demographic characteristics as sex, age, education, place of residence, place of employment, employment position and level of income. The research required application of survey and questionnaire methods as well as statistical methods of results processing.
Nicolucci, Antonio; Kovacs Burns, K; Holt, Richard I G
AIMS: The second Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN2) study aimed to assess psychosocial outcomes in people with diabetes across countries for benchmarking. METHODS: Surveys included new and adapted questions from validated questionnaires that assess health-related quality of life, self......-management, attitudes/beliefs, social support and priorities for improving diabetes care. Questionnaires were conducted online, by telephone or in person. RESULTS: Participants were 8596 adults with diabetes across 17 countries. There were significant between-country differences for all benchmarking indicators; no one...... (17.2-67.6%). Overall quality of life was rated 'poor' or 'very poor' by 12.2% of participants (7.6-26.1%). Diabetes had a negative impact on all aspects investigated, ranging from 20.5% on relationship with family/friends to 62.2% on physical health. Approximately 40% of participants (18...
Wole M. Olatokun
Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes to knowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated the relationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’, and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA in the knowledge sharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection. Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. Principal Component Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression was applied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance.Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the major determinants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was not significantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitude towards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge, although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positive knowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT usage was also found to significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’.Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more IT infrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers.
This report presents the results of a questionnaire survey of attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. The questionnaire was mailed to 3,000 persons. Participants were young and older people in Oskarshamn municipality and Oesthammar municipality as well as in the rest of the country. Fifty-one percent responded. The questionnaire included a large number of questions of possible relevance for understanding the structure of and reasons for the person's attitude towards a final repository. Questions concerning nuclear power were dealt with in a special section. Men were more positively disposed towards a repository than women, older people more than young. The gender differences are mainly attributable to the variation in attitude towards nuclear power and concern about nuclear accidents. In the case of older people, interest was also a factor. Young people were not as interested in the issue. The most important factor in determining the attitude towards a final repository was the benefit it was expected to bring to the municipality. Moral and emotional aspects were also important. Risk played a relatively subordinate role. Social aspects were very important: those who frequently spoke with people who were positively disposed tended to be positive themselves, and vice versa for those who were negative. This factor could explain some of the gender differences in attitude. Attitudes in Oskarshamn were slightly more positive than in Oesthammar, probably due to the fact that the residents in Oskarshamn had a greater sense of participation in the municipality's decision in the matter. Information from SKB was also found to be an important factor for the differences in attitude between the municipalities. Eight percentage points more people had received information in Oskarshamn than in Oesthammar. The difference may be small, but it exists and does appear to be of some importance. Attitudes in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar continued to be much more
D'Alessio, Maria; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baiocco, Roberto
A new self-report measure of children's attitudes toward TV advertising is described. The self-report scale was administered to 300 8- to-10-year-old children, and their parents completed a questionnaire evaluating socioeconomic status, educational level, and peer influence. Results of a factor analysis supported three identifiable factors…
Darom, Efraim; Rich, Yisrael
To measure pupils' inconsistency in replying to a self-report questionnaire regarding attitudes toward school, 6,000 elementary and secondary school students participated in a nation-wide project to construct and validate the Israeli Quality of School Life Questionnaire (IQSL). (PN)
Full Text Available The relationships between maternal parenting attitudes and preschoolers’ hot and cool executive functions (EF were examined. Forty-eight children aged 3 to 4 years and their mothers took part in the study. Self-report questionnaire concerning parenting attitudes was obtained from the mothers of children who performed a set of EF tasks. Additionally, both maternal and child verbal ability were controlled. It was found that maternal parenting attitudes were related only to child cool EF. Protecting attitude was positively related to child inhibitory control and autonomy support was negatively related to child set-shifting ability. Further analyses revealed that maternal autonomy support accounted for unique variance in child set-shifting, above and beyond the child’s age. On the other hand, protecting attitude accounted for unique variance in child inhibitory control, above and beyond child verbal ability. The findings provide further evidence for the importance of mother-child relationships in children’s EF development.
The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in attitudes toward nuclear power and to discover what factors account for these differences. The marginality explanation for these differences suggest that women have less-favorable attitudes toward nuclear power because they are less concerned about energy supplies and economic growth and are less convinced of the benefits of nuclear power for society than are men. The irrationality explanation holds that women are less favorable toward nuclear power because they are less knowledgeable about this technology than are men. The lay-rationality explanation argues that people form attitudes toward nuclear power which are consistent with their relevant beliefs, attitudes and values; thus, this explanation suggests that women's unfavorable attitudes toward nuclear power stem from greater concern about environmental protection, exposing society to risk, and lower faith in science and technology. Data for this study were collected via a mail questionnaire administered to a state wide sample of Washington residents (n= 696)
Chesky, Kris; Pair, Marla; Lanford, Scott; Yoshimura, Eri
The effectiveness of a hearing loss prevention program within a college may be dependent on attitudes among students majoring in music. The purpose of this study was to assess the attitudes of music majors toward noise and to compare them to students not majoring in music. Participants ( N = 467) filled out a questionnaire designed to assess attitudes toward noise in youth culture and attitudes toward influencing their sound environment. Results showed that students majoring in music have a healthier attitude toward sound compared to students not majoring in music. Findings also showed that music majors are more aware and attentive to noise in general, likely to perceive sound that may be risky to hearing as something negative, and are more likely to carry out behaviors to decrease personal exposure to loud sounds. Due to these differences, music majors may be more likely than other students to respond to and benefit from a hearing loss prevention program.
A Alao, Kayode; F Adebowale, Olusegun
The purpose of this paper was to examine the attitudes of prison inmates and warders (prison staff) to rehabilitative counselling and its relationship to their prison status on one hand and their educational attainment on the other. The study adopts a descriptive survey research design. In all 123 prison inmates and 110 warders were selected by stratified random sampling from Osogbo prison headquarters, as well as Ilesa and Ile-Ife prisons in southwestern Nigeria. Data were collected through a self-constructed questionnaire titled "inmate and prison staff attitude to rehabilitation counselling". Data collected were analysed using percentages and χ2 statistics. The results showed that the prison inmates and staff possessed positive attitude to rehabilitative counselling. No significant difference was found between the attitudes of prison inmates and staff members or on the basis of their prison statuses. However, the study found a significant relationship between the prison inmates' attitude to rehabilitative counselling and their educational attainment. Research LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Statutory provision needs be made for professional rehabilitative counselling in Nigerian prisons in contrast to the religious instructions currently being allowed prisoners. Educational opportunities should be provided to ensure that the knowledge so obtained complements the rehabilitative counselling. Originality/value - This paper fulfils an identified need to study the attitude towards rehabilitative counselling.
Probst, Michel; Peuskens, Jos
In general, psychiatry is not very popular among healthcare providers, although no information is available concerning the attitudes of physiotherapy students towards mental heath. This study examined the attitudes of physiotherapy students towards psychiatry considering the subject's gender, previous experience with psychiatry and the impact of a specific course. This experimental study compared the attitudes of physiotherapy students (n=219) with those of students without a biomedical background (n=112) towards psychiatry. All students were between 17 and 28 years of age, and completed an established international questionnaire entitled 'Attitudes Towards Psychiatry'. Within the group of physiotherapy students, the effect of a 65-hour course on psychiatric rehabilitation on their attitudes was evaluated. Attitudes towards psychiatry were moderately positive [mean (SD) 103.3 (9.9)]. There was a small but significant difference between physiotherapy students and non-medical students (Cohen's d=0.31). Female students had a more positive attitude towards psychiatry than their male peers (Cohen's d=0.44). Prior experience with mental illness was associated with more positive attitudes (Cohen's d=0.68). Attitudes increased in positivity after completion of a psychiatry course (Cohen's d=0.72). To ensure basic physiotherapeutic treatment for the mentally ill, physiotherapy education should aim to promote positive attitudes towards mental illness as well as psychiatry. High-quality courses and personal interaction with patients are the best strategies to achieve this goal.
Bohner, Gerd; Dickel, Nina
Attitudes and attitude change remain core topics of contemporary social psychology. This selective review emphasizes work published from 2005 to 2009. It addresses constructionist and stable-entity conceptualizations of attitude, the distinction between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and implications of the foregoing for attitude change. Associative and propositional processes in attitude change are considered at a general level and in relation to evaluative conditioning. The role of bodily states and physical perceptions in attitude change is reviewed. This is followed by an integrative perspective on processing models of persuasion and the consideration of meta-cognitions in persuasion. Finally, effects of attitudes on information processing, social memory, and behavior are highlighted. Core themes cutting across the areas reviewed are attempts at integrative theorizing bringing together formerly disparate phenomena and viewpoints.
Jensen, Kamilla Bjørkøe; Vendsborg, Per; Hjorthøj, Carsten
BACKGROUND: Mental health-related stigma is a major public health issue, and is an obstacle to the possibility for successful treatment, recovery, and reintegration. AIM: To examine attitudes towards mental illness among employees in the social services. METHODS: The study design was part...... of a large randomized trial, and data presented in this study are baseline data from this trial. Respondents completed a baseline questionnaire to assess the respondents' attitudes. RESULTS: A significant difference was found between employees' personal attitudes towards depression and schizophrenia....... The same significant difference was found in the employees' perceived attitudes. Furthermore, a significant difference was found between the employees' personal and perceived attitudes. A significant difference was found between the respondents wish for social distance towards depression and schizophrenia...
Maor, Noga Roguin; Sayag, Shlomit; Dahan, Rachel; Hermoni, Doron
Israeli youth lead 27 western countries in dieting. The prevalence of eating disorders has been rising in the last 30 years, causing social problems and medical complications. To examine the prevalence of eating disorders among high school students in a region in northern Israel (Misgav) and to examine the relationship between the parents' employment status and the subject's eating disorder. A structured questionnaire was administered to collect demographic data. The short version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to evaluate the subject's attitudes toward and preoccupation with food, dieting, eating, physical appearance, and personal control over eating. Of 360 students approached, 283 (78%) completed the self-report EAT-26. One of every 5 females and one in every 20 males had an abnormal eating attitude. The rate of pathologic EAT-26 results, 20.8%, falls within the high range of similar community-based samples of female adolescents. There were no differences in EAT-26 score between students with an employed or unemployed mother; however, there was a trend for higher EAT-26 scores among those whose father was unemployed (21.4% vs. 12.7%, chi2 = 0.14). The findings support our hypothesis of a relatively high rate of abnormal eating attitudes (as reflected by high EAT-26 score) in this population. Another possible risk factor is having an unemployed father, which warrants further research and attention. Our next step is to introduce an intervention program in the school and to study its effect.
Full Text Available Although language teachers are aware of the benefits of using literature in language classrooms in theory, they do not use it “consciously” practically. For this reason, the purpose of the present paper is to “re-highlight” the use of literature in language classrooms and make teachers use it “consciously” in classes. Wherefore, this study was conducted in 2010-2011 education year, at a private language school in Turkey by the participation of 14 students having A2 level English proficiency. Data collection of the study was twofold as descriptive and experimental. The descriptive part was made of an attitude questionnaire towards the use of literature, namely theatrical plays, in language classrooms. The experimental part was conducted in ten-week period. There were two groups as one experimental group which had equal students. While the students of the control group had the lessons of the traditional curriculum of the private language school, the students of the experimental group had the literature, specially theatrical plays, integrated lessons together with the traditional curriculum of the private language school. A vocabulary test was applied to both groups to figure out the vocabulary learning levels of the students. The findings of the attitude questionnaires and vocabulary tests were analyzed by SPSS programme. It was found that there were positive attitudes towards literature integrated lessons and that the use of literature affected students’ vocabulary levels. The findings of the present study may be useful for language teachers, text book writers, syllabus designers and language learners.
Full Text Available Background: The current cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted to assess the oral health-related knowledge, attitude and practices among eunuchs (hijras residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: Based on a convenient non-probability snow ball sampling technique, all the self-identified eunuchs residing in the city of Bhopal who were present at the time of study and who fulfilled the selection criteria were approached. A cross section of the general population was also surveyed. An interviewer-based, predesigned, structured, close-ended 18-item questionnaire that had been designed based on the primary objective of the study was used. All the obtained data were analyzed using software, Statistical Package for Social Science version 20. Results: According to 188 (86.2% males, 187 (87.4% females and 168 (81.2% eunuchs, good oral health can improve the general health. Most of the study participants including 211 (98.6% females, 210 (96.3% males and 205 (99% eunuchs use either tooth paste or tooth powder to clean their teeth. While, a majority of eunuchs, i.e., 113 (54.6%, were having habit of chewing smokeless tobacco containing products such as betel nut, betel quid, gutkha, etc., The difference in use of tobacco products was statistically significant. Conclusion: The information presented in this study adds to our understanding of the common oral hygiene practices which are performed among eunuch population. Efforts to increase the awareness of oral effects of tobacco use and to eliminate the habit are needed to improve oral and general health of this population.
Power, Ailsa; Grammatiki, Aikaterini; Bates, Ian; Mc Kellar, Susan; Johnson, B Julienne; Diack, H Lesley; Stewart, Derek; Hudson, Steve A
To explore factors associated with Scottish pharmacists' views and attitudes to continuing professional development (CPD). A retrospective principal component analysis of 552 (22.8%) questionnaires returned from a sample of 2420 Scottish pharmacists randomly selected from the 4300 pharmacists registered with the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain and with a Scottish address. Principal component analysis of questionnaire items (n = 19) revealed four factors associated with Scottish pharmacists' views and attitudes to CPD: having positive support in the workplace, having access to resources and meeting learning needs, having confidence in the CPD process and motivation to participate in the CPD process. Community pharmacists were identified as the subgroup of pharmacists that needed most support for CPD regarding all four factors, while pharmacists working in primary care felt that they had most support in the workplace in comparison to other sectors (P Scottish pharmacists' views and attitudes to CPD. This may provide an approach to facilitate comparison of CPD views and attitudes with intra and inter professional groupings. Further study may allow identification of good practice and solutions to common CPD issues. © 2011 The Authors. IJPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Kim, H S; Yoo, Y S; Cho, O-H; Lee, C E; Choi, Y-H; Kim, H J; Park, J Y; Park, H S; Kwon, Y J
Administrative processing by the police may affect the process involved in organ donation in the event of an accidental brain injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of police toward brain-dead donors and organ donation. This was a descriptive research study using a 41-item questionnaire. As of July 19, 2017, 11 police stations in Seoul had collected questionnaires completed by 115 police officers. Data were analyzed using SAS (version 9.4) software. There were statistically significant differences in the scores on knowledge about brain death/donation according to religion (P = .022). Attitude was significantly positively correlated with the knowledge about brain-death organ donation (P = .029). It is necessary to understand and cooperate with the police when processing brain death organs from accidents. Education about organ donation can enhance the information and knowledge of the police and can also help to establish a positive attitude about organ donation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The study focused on analyzing the impact of ethnic and national identity on the ethnonational attitudes among young people living in the North Caucasus. The study involved students residing in the Chechen Republic (214 subjects aged 16—19 years (mean 17.8, girls — 97, boys — 117. We used: 1 Ethnonational attitudes scale; 2 Technique for studying expression of ethnic and national identity; 3 Interethnic Attitudes questionnaire; 4 General Social Attitudes Scale by E.Frenkel-Brunswik. The outcomes of the research indicate that national identity is a weak predictor of ethnonational attitudes. It is associated with ethnic identity, but does not play any significant role in the formation of interethnic relationships. However, ethnic identity does shape the feeling of pride and other positive feelings that one has about his/her own “nationality”. To a lesser extent, but still statistically significant, subjective importance of one’s ethnicity is associated with hostility towards other nationalities and with negative assessment of social equality and cultural diversity.
Bryant, Fred B.; Kastrup, Helge; Udo, Maria; Hislop, Nelda; Shefner, Rachel; Mallow, Jeffry
Students' attitudes and anxieties about science were measured by responses to two self-report questionnaires. The cohorts were Danish and American students at the upper secondary- and university-levels. Relationships between and among science attitudes, science anxiety, gender, and nationality were examined. Particular attention was paid to constructivist attitudes about science. These fell into at least three broad conceptual categories: Negativity of Science Toward the Individual, Subjective Construction of Knowledge, and Inherent Bias Against Women. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses revealed that these dimensions of constructivist attitudes were equally applicable and had the same meaning in both cultures. Gender differences in mean levels of constructivist attitudes were found; these varied across the two cultures. Constructivist beliefs were associated with science anxiety, but in different ways for females and males, and for Danes and Americans. In agreement with earlier studies, females in both the US and Danish cohorts were significantly more science anxious than males, and the gender differences for the Americans were larger than those for the Danes. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for reducing science anxiety by changing constructivist beliefs.
Komiya, Izumi; Torii, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu
In order to study the following two points, we conducted an attitude survey among senior high school students. Study 1 The differences in attitudes between nuclear power generation and other science and technologies. Study 2 The relationship between student's interest in science and attitudes toward nuclear power generation. In the questionnaire, the attitude toward nuclear power generation consisted of four questions: (1) pros and cons, (2) safety, (3) necessity, (4) reliability of scientists and engineers who are involved in nuclear power; and we treat four science and technology issues: (1) genetically modified foods, (2) nuclear power generation, (3) humanoid and pet robots, (4) crone technology. From study 1, on attitude to security toward nuclear power generation, about 80% of respondents answered negatively and on attitude to necessity toward it, about 75% of respondents answered positively. Therefore, we found that the structure of attitude was complicated and that it was specific to nuclear power generation. From study 2, we found students' interests in science that influence the attitude toward nuclear power generation. (author)
Purewal, Satvinder; Crawshaw, Marilyn; van den Akker, Olga
This study investigated the attitudes of parental order reporters (PORs) towards their work with surrogacy arrangements and their experiences of role conflict and role ambiguity. A questionnaire was used to assess PORs' perceptions of their role in parental order [PO] applications, attitudes towards surrogacy arrangements and the legal process and the influence of role ambiguity or conflict. Questionnaires were distributed to all PORs employed by the Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service in England. Thirty-three PORs participated (response rate 46%) who, on average, had each completed five PO applications (range 1-40). Positive attitudes towards surrogacy and the child's needs for openness about origins were found. Concerns about the inadequacy of preparation and assessment arrangements, overseas arrangements and non-regulation of surrogacy agencies were evident. PORs with high-role ambiguity were more likely to report less positive attitudes towards the emotional consequence of surrogacy on offspring. High scores on role ambiguity and role conflict were reflected in less positive attitudes towards the parties' preparation towards parenthood. These results have implications for training, policy and practice in this area.
Yang, Che-Ming; Chung, Chun-Chih; Lu, Meei-Shiow; Lin, Chiou-Fen; Chen, Jiun-Shyan
This research focused on understanding the attitudes toward human cloning in Taiwan among professionals in healthcare, law, and religion. The study was conducted utilizing a structured questionnaire. 220 healthcare professionals from two regional hospitals located in Taipei, 351 religious professionals in the northern Taiwan and 711 legal professionals were selected by to receive questionnaires. The valid response rate is 42.1% The questions were generated by an expert panel and represented major arguments in the human cloning debate. There were a total of six Likert scaled questions in the questionnaire. The responses were coded from 1 to 5 with 1 representing strong opposition to human cloning, 3 representing a neutral attitude; and 5 representing a strong favorable attitude toward human cloning. Healthcare professionals had the highest overall average score of 2.14 and the religious professionals had the lowest average at 1.58. All three categories of respondents' attitude toward cloning ranged from mild opposition to strong opposition to human cloning. The religious professionals were more strongly opposed to cloning. Age, education, and religion significantly influenced attitudes toward cloning. Professionals between fifty-one and sixty years old, those with less education, and Roman Catholic professionals were more strongly opposed to cloning. Religious professionals were more strongly opposed to human cloning than professionals in healthcare or law. Younger professionals as an age group demonstrated less opposition to human cloning. Regulation of human cloning will be influenced by professionals in healthcare, law, and religion, and the regulatory environment chosen now will play a pivotal role in influencing the acceptance of human cloning in the future.
Norheim, Astrid Berge; Grimholt, Tine K.; Loskutova, Ekaterina; Ekeberg, Oivind
Background Attitudes toward suicidal behaviour can be essential regarding whether patients seek or are offered help. Patients with suicidal behaviour are increasingly treated by mental health outpatient clinics. Our aim was to study attitudes among professionals at outpatient clinics in Stavropol, Russia and Oslo, Norway. Methods Three hundred and forty-eight (82?%) professionals anonymously completed a questionnaire about attitudes. Professionals at outpatient clinics in Stavropol (n?=?119; ...
Ellepola, Arjuna N B; Sundaram, Devipriya B; Jayathilake, Sumedha; Joseph, Bobby K; Sharma, Prem N
Several studies regarding knowledge and attitudes of dental students towards HIV/AIDS have been reported from various countries. However, to the best of our knowledge, an international comparison between countries with diverse cultural and educational backgrounds has not been reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to compare the knowledge and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS of dental students of Kuwait University (KU), Kuwait and the University of Peradeniya (UP), Sri Lanka, the only dental schools in the respective countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a total of 258 dental students, representing the clinical years of both universities, using a similar structured questionnaire with sixty questions to examine their knowledge of various aspects of HIV/AIDS and thirteen questions to examine their attitudes towards the disease. The mean knowledge and attitude scores were calculated and compared between students from the two universities using t-test with SPSS 17.0. A total of 215 questionnaires were completed and returned, giving a total response rate of 83.3 percent. The KU students were significantly more knowledgeable (p=0.018) regarding HIV/AIDS than the UP students. However, the UP students demonstrated a more highly significant positive attitude (peducation in these countries.
Full Text Available Background: To date, mental health professionals’ attitudes toward posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, compared to other psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or depression, have rarely been studied. Objective: We assessed mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD compared to patients suffering from depression. Method: Case vignettes of a patient with either PTSD or depression were presented to two samples of mental health professionals: attendees of a conference on posttraumatic stress (N=226 or of a lecture for psychiatry residents (N=112. Participants subsequently completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitude reactions to the presented case. Results: Participants showed similarly positive attitudes toward depression and PTSD. PTSD elicited a more favorable attitude with regard to prosocial reactions, estimated dependency, attributed responsibility, and interest in the case, particularly in mental health professionals specializing in psychotraumatology. Across diagnoses, higher age and longer professional experience were associated with more positive attitudes toward patients. Conclusions: Mental health professionals’ positive attitudes toward patients with depression and PTSD correlate with their specific knowledge about the disorder, their level of professional training, and their years of professional experience. Limitations: The instruments used, although based on established theoretical concepts in attitude research, were not validated in their present versions.
AJRH Managing Editor
The major objective of this study was to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices about HIV testing services and the uptake of this service amongst girls aged 15-19 in selected secondary schools in Malawi. A questionnaire was administered to 457 students and 18 focus group discussions and 45 in-depth interviews ...
A study was conducted among football players and team doctors in the football super league in Malawi to determine the level of knowledge, skills and attitude in sports medicine. One hundred football players and thirteen team doctors were involved in the study. Standardised questionnaires were used to collect data in an ...
Objectives: To assess the attitude and knowledge of family medicine practitioners (FMPs) towards the association between periodontal disease and obesity. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed and a 13-item survey questionnaire was given to FMPs practicing in 12 different teaching hospitals in ...
The consequences of the disease include social isolation and economic problems in family life. Objective: To explore the knowledge and attitude of the people affected by Buruli ulcer disease in Adjumani district, in northwestern Uganda. Design: A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to all the selected patients.
Questionnaires were administered to four hundred and seventy pregnant women from two hospitals and a traditional birth home (TBH) in Abeokuta, Nigeria, to assess their knowledge, attitude and practices about malaria. A high percentage of respondents 49.1% attributed malaria to mosquito bites; knowledge of ...
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the knowledge and attitudes of dentists toward shortened dental arch (SDA) therapy in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: In this cross‑sectional study, self‑designed‑structured questionnaires were distributed among specialists (SP), residents (RES), and ...
Abu Baker, Nesrin N.; Al-Ali, Nahla; Al-Ajlouni, Ranyah
Background: Obesity is a serious public health problem especially among adolescents. Understanding adolescents’ attitudes toward obesity and healthy lifestyle is a crucial step to develop effective health programs to treat and prevent obesity. Objectives: To examine the attitudes toward overweight and obesity among Jordanian adolescent students and to identify the components of obesity prevention program that the students perceive as important. Methods: A sample of 1000 students in 8th to 10th grades was randomly selected from 16 schools in Irbid, Jordan. A self-reported questionnaire including attitude related questions was used in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Results: Generally, the students expressed positive attitudes toward obesity; which means that their attitudes were consistent with societal norms in terms of health and social functioning (mean= 3.5, SD=0.39). Furthermore, the students expressed positive attitudes toward lifestyle; which means that their attitudes were consistent with healthy behaviors (mean=3.7, SD=0.58). However, boys had significantly more positive attitudes than girls (p=0.04). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 23.8%, while obese and non-obese students had similar attitudes toward lifestyle and obesity. Finally, around 20% to 30% of students desired a prevention program out of school time shared with their families and friends and involves eating healthy food and getting more exercise. Conclusion: More efforts are needed to build effective obesity prevention programs that focus on eating healthy diet and getting more exercise considering gender differences. PMID:29456780
Abu Baker, Nesrin N; Al-Ali, Nahla; Al-Ajlouni, Ranyah
Obesity is a serious public health problem especially among adolescents. Understanding adolescents' attitudes toward obesity and healthy lifestyle is a crucial step to develop effective health programs to treat and prevent obesity. To examine the attitudes toward overweight and obesity among Jordanian adolescent students and to identify the components of obesity prevention program that the students perceive as important. A sample of 1000 students in 8 th to 10 th grades was randomly selected from 16 schools in Irbid, Jordan. A self-reported questionnaire including attitude related questions was used in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Generally, the students expressed positive attitudes toward obesity; which means that their attitudes were consistent with societal norms in terms of health and social functioning (mean= 3.5, SD=0.39). Furthermore, the students expressed positive attitudes toward lifestyle; which means that their attitudes were consistent with healthy behaviors (mean=3.7, SD=0.58). However, boys had significantly more positive attitudes than girls (p =0.04). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 23.8%, while obese and non-obese students had similar attitudes toward lifestyle and obesity. Finally, around 20% to 30% of students desired a prevention program out of school time shared with their families and friends and involves eating healthy food and getting more exercise. More efforts are needed to build effective obesity prevention programs that focus on eating healthy diet and getting more exercise considering gender differences.
Zhou, Lizhen; Zhong, Shiquan; Ma, Shoufeng; Jia, Ning
This paper applied prospect theory (PT) to describe drivers' route choice behavior under Variable Message Sign (VMS), which presented visual traffic information to assist them to make route choice decisions. A quite rich empirical data from questionnaire and field spot was used to estimate parameters of PT. In order to make the parameters more realistic with drivers' attitudes, they were classified into different types by significant factors influencing their behaviors. Based on the travel time distribution of alternative routes and route choice results from questionnaire, the parameterized value function of each category was figured out, which represented drivers' risk attitudes and choice characteristics. The empirical verification showed that the estimates were acceptable and effective. The result showed drivers' risk attitudes and route choice characteristics could be captured by PT under real-time information shown on VMS. For practical application, once drivers' route choice characteristics and parameters were identified, their route choice behavior under different road conditions could be predicted accurately, which was the basis of traffic guidance measures formulation and implementation for targeted traffic management. Moreover, the heterogeneous risk attitudes among drivers should be considered when releasing traffic information and regulating traffic flow. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rayapudi, Jasmine; Usha, Carounanidy
Background: Minimally invasive dentistry (MID) encompasses early caries diagnosis through caries risk assessment (CRA), early detection of incipient carious lesion including primary and secondary prevention based on scientific evidence that remineralization of demineralized enamel and dentin is possible if detected early. Although the dental curriculum focuses on the advantages of MID in tooth preservation, this science is not usually translated into practice. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and skills of dental practitioners of Puducherry regarding the concepts of MID. Subjects and Methods: Data were collected through an online survey questionnaire based on awareness and practice of MID. Statistical evaluation was done on SPSS by Chi-square test. Results: A total of 126 dentists responded of which only 55% were trained in MID during their undergraduate and internship period, mainly through lectures (49.6%). Nearly 81% agreed that CRA should be conducted for all patients. Almost 42.7% had heard about International Caries Detection and Assessment System, but only 25.9% used a blunt explorer for caries detection. About 13.7% use magnification (loupes/microscope), but majority (84.7%) use radiographs. More than 70% were unaware of newer methods of caries detection. Statistically significant differences were found (P < 0.05) regarding qualification and experience about the effectiveness of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment and sandwich technique for treatment of caries in permanent teeth and high caries-risk children. Conclusion: Although there is knowledge about advantages of MID among dentists of Puducherry, it does not benefit patients, as many practitioners still follow the traditional principles of total caries removal. PMID:29899626
Vardanjani, Ali Esmaeili; Reisi, Mahnoush; Javadzade, Homamodin; Pour, Zabihollah Gharli; Tavassoli, Elahe
Background: Undoubtedly, proper nutrition has important role in safeguarding the individual from many diseases, especially chronic ones, and increasing ones physical and intellectual efficiency. Considering the importance of nutrition education to school-age kids, this research was done with the purpose of determining the effect of nutrition education on the knowledge, attitude, and performance of female students at primary school about junk food consumption. Materials and Methods: This is an experimental intervention study in Shahr-e-kord city about the reduction of junk foods consumption in 2011. Seventy-two primary girl students were randomly divided into 2 groups, experimental (36) and controls (36). Before of the educational program, self-administrative questionnaire and FFQ (Food Frequency Questionnaire) questionnaire were filled out for both the groups. The self-administrative questionnaire was completed 3 times (before, immediately, and 2 months after education), and FFQ questionnaire was completed 2 times (before and 2 months after education) by students. After pre-test, 4 educational session classes in experimental group were performed. Finally, data were collected and analyzed by SPSS 16 computer software. Results: Demographic variables of the studied population in 2 groups were similar. Before intervention, there were no significant differences regarding the knowledge, attitude, and performance in 2 groups (P > 0/05). After intervention, there were significant differences in the levels of knowledge, attitude, and performance between experimental and control groups (P effective on increasing or improving the knowledge, attitude, and performance of the students. PMID:26430680
Sabzghabaee, A.M.; Zolfaghari, B.; Ebrahimabadi, M.H.
This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of a cohort of Iranian community pharmacists about the pharmaceutical care indexes and drug therapy in female epileptic patients. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran (2011) and one hundred and twenty two community pharmacists were randomly selected using clustering method for sampling. A self-administered questionnaire which was originally made by a clinical pharmacy focus group was used. This questionnaire had 10 true/false questions for knowledge assessing (Spearman-Brown coefficient, 0.65) and 19 attitude statements (with Likert scale) about the intention of pharmacists for providing pharmaceutical care for epileptic females (Croanbach's alpha, 0.802). Face and content validity for both parts of the questionnaire were performed before the study. Results: There was a significant inverse relationship between pharmacists' knowledge on pharmaceutical care for epileptic females and the time elapsed from their graduation date. Considering the minimum passing score of 5, 85% of pharmacists did not have enough knowledge. The range of pharmacists' attitude scores was 35 to 64 and its mean was 46.09. Regarding the minimum passing score of 45, 63.3% of pharmacists had positive attitude to AEDs in epileptic females. Conclusion: It seems that the pharmaceutical care for epileptic females is a missing part of Pharmacy education. It is highly recommended to pay special attention to this topic in continuing education programs for Iranian pharmacists. (author)
Lumsden, Laura; Cosson, Philip
Background: The traditional role of the Diagnostic Radiographer in image acquisition has gradually been extended through skill-mix, particularly to include abnormality detection. Aims: This research focused on the attitudes of Radiographers to Radiographer-led Discharge (RLD), where Radiographers discharge patients with minor injuries and perform tasks previously undertaken by Accident and Emergency staff. The effects of job role, hospital type, experience and whether RLD was used in the participant's trust were examined. Method: A multiple-indicator online questionnaire assessed attitudes to RLD. Snowball sampling was used with advertisement via emails, posters and cards, containing Quick Response (QR) codes. Statement responses were coded, with reverse coding for negative statements and total scores were calculated. A higher score represented a more positive attitude. Results: 101 questionnaires were completed (an estimated 30% response rate) and the mean total score was 84/115. 95% of participants supported radiographer involvement in abnormality detection, with 46.5% selecting RLD as the preferred system for minor injuries patients vs 48.5% preferring commenting alone. Discussion: Participants were positive about extending their role through RLD and felt confident in their image interpretation abilities, though expressed concern for the legal consequences of the role and adequate pay. Generalization of the results is limited due to the possible low response rate. Conclusion: Overall, participants demonstrated positive attitudes towards RLD but they also indicate the need for appropriate payment for any additional responsibility. These findings are promising for successful implementation of RLD, though larger-scale research including radiologists, business managers, A and E staff and patients would be beneficial. - Highlights: • 101 questionnaires were completed (an estimated 30% response rate). • 95% of participants supported radiographer involvement
Jacob, Sabrina Anne; Ab Rahman, Ab Fatah; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad
Many patients have erroneous views with regard to depression and its management, and it was noted that these attitudes and beliefs significantly affected their adherence rates. The primary aim of this study was to determine the attitudes and beliefs of patients with depression toward depression and antidepressants. A secondary aim was to assess the influence of ethnicity on patients' attitudes and beliefs. The study involved patients with chronic depression being followed up at an outpatient clinic at a government-run hospital in Malaysia. Patients' attitudes and beliefs were assessed using the Antidepressant Compliance Questionnaire. A total of 104 patients of Malay, Chinese, and Indian ethnic groups met the selection criteria. Chinese patients had significantly negative attitudes and beliefs toward depression and antidepressants compared to Malays and Indians (b=-8.96, t 103=-3.22; Pcultures, can be used in tailoring psychoeducation sessions accordingly.
Costa, Pedro Alexandre; Davies, Michelle
Research has shown that negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men are common and widespread in Western societies. However, few studies have addressed attitudes toward transgender individuals. In addition, although research has shown that homophobic harassment and bullying is highly common among adolescents, little is known about adolescent's attitudes toward sexual minorities. This study aimed to fill these gaps in knowledge, by investigating adolescents' attitudes toward transgender individuals and possible attitudinal correlates of those attitudes. Participants (N = 188; 62 males and 126 females) were recruited in high schools in Lisbon, Portugal. Age ranged from 15 to 19 years (M = 17; SD = .96). Participants completed a questionnaire booklet measuring attitudes toward transgender individuals, lesbians, and gay men, and gender role beliefs. Results revealed that attitudes toward transgender individuals were significantly correlated with all attitude measures. Specifically, it was revealed that those participants who endorsed negative attitudes toward transgender individuals were also endorsing of negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men and tended to adhere to traditional gender roles. A significant gender effect was found with males being more negative toward sexual minorities than females, but these negative attitudes were more extreme toward gay men than toward lesbian women. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Full Text Available The main purpose of the present research is to evaluate the validity of an IT-based competency questionnaire in Information Science & Knowledge Studies. The Survey method has been used in the present research. A data collection tool has been a researcher-made questionnaire. Statistic samples, which are 315 people, have been chosen purposefully from among Iranian faculty members, Ph.D. students, and information center employees. The findings showed that by eliminating 17 items from the whole questionnaire and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the rest and rotating findings using the Varimax method, 8 Factors were revealed. The resulting components and also the items which had a high load factor with these components were considerably consistent with the classifications in the questionnaire and partly consistent with the findings of other researchers. 76 competency indicators (knowledge, skills, and attitudes were validated and grouped under 8 main categories: 1. “Computer Basics” 2. “Database Operating, Collection Development of Digital Resources, & Digital Library Management” 3. “Basics of Computer Networking” 4. “Basics of Programming & Database Designing” 5. “Web Designing & Web Content Analysis” 6. “Library Software & Computerized Organizing” 7. Archive of Digital Resources and 8. Attitudes.
Identifying and considering public attitudes towards various aspects of water supply and sanitation services by planners and decision makers represent an important developmental element relating to the quality, efficiency, and performance of those services. A sample of 1000 Palestinian adults completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes towards…
Dewan, N.; Wood, L.; Maxwell, S.; Cooper, C.; Brabin, B.
Objectives To determine the knowledge and attitudes of teenage mothers towards breast-feeding. Design A questionnaire of teenage ( <-20 years) and non-teenage (&GE;20 years) primigravidae attending the antenatal care services at the Liverpool Women's Hospital, during the period April-May 2000.
Chiara de Waure
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This article describes methodological issues of the "Sportello Salute Giovani" project ("Youth Health Information Desk", a multicenter study aimed at assessing the health status and attitudes and behaviours of university students in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The questionnaire used to carry out the study was adapted from the Italian health behaviours in school-aged children (HBSC project and consisted of 93 items addressing: demographics; nutritional habits and status; physical activity; lifestyles; reproductive and preconception health; health and satisfaction of life; attitudes and behaviours toward academic study and new technologies. The questionnaire was administered to a pool of 12 000 students from 18 to 30 years of age who voluntary decided to participate during classes held at different Italian faculties or at the three "Sportello Salute Giovani" centers which were established in the three sites of the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (Catholic University of the Sacred Heart of Rome. RESULTS: The final study sample was composed by 8516 university students. The mean age of responders was 22.2 (Standard Deviation 2.0 and 5702 (67.0% were females. According to the distribution in age classes, 3601 (43.3% belonged to the 18-21 one, 3796 (44.5% to the 22-24 class and 1019 (12.2% to the 25-30 class. With respect to socio-economic status, data were available for 8410 responders and showed that 50.3% of students belonged to the middle class. DISCUSSION: The project took into consideration a large number of individuals from different regions of the country and therefore may be considered representative of the general population of Italian university students. Furthermore, it is the first to address, at the same time, several issues, in particular attitudes and behaviours toward health, in Italian university students. CONCLUSION: The analysis of data from such a large sample of university students sets the basis for
An attitude can be defined as the evaluation of an object as positive or negative. The term "object" in this definition should be understood in a broad sense; an attitude object may be any concrete or abstract entity that is in some way represented in our thoughts and memory. In other words......, attitude objects are simply the things we like or dislike. Consumer researchers are mainly interested in attitude objects of two classes, products and services, including the attributes, issues, persons, communications, situations, and behaviours related to them. Research on consumer attitudes takes two...... perspectives: Understanding attitude structure: how is an attitude cognitively represented in a consumer's mind, including its components (intra-attitudinal structure) and its associations with other psychological variables (inter-attitudinal structure)? Understanding information processing: what...
Albarracin, Dolores; Shavitt, Sharon
This review covers research on attitudes and attitude change published between 2010 and 2017. We characterize this period as one of significant progress toward an understanding of how attitudes form and change in three critical contexts. The first context is the person, as attitudes change in connection to values, general goals, language, emotions, and human development. The second context is social relationships, which link attitude change to the communicator of persuasive messages, social media, and culture. The third context is sociohistorical and highlights the influence of unique events, including sociopolitical, economic, and climatic occurrences. In conclusion, many important recent findings reflect the fact that holism, with a focus on situating attitudes within their personal, social, and historical contexts, has become the zeitgeist of attitude research during this period.
Method:A self-administered questionnaire was utilised to assess oral health knowledge, attitude and practices among 46 orthodontic patients consisting of 18 males (39.1%) and 28 females (60.9%) with a mean age of 18.4 ± 7.6 years who were on active fixed orthodontic appliances at the University of Benin Teaching ...
Dede Parsaoran Damanik
Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the differences: (1 the difference of critical thinking skills of students' that using Inquiry Training and Direct Instruction. (2 The difference of critical thinking skills among students who at high scientific attitude and students who at low scientific attitude. (3 To see if there is interaction between inquiry learning model of the scientific attitude students' to increase the ability to critical thinking. This is a quasi experimental research. Which students of private junior high school Two Raya Kahean District Simalungun. Population choose random sample of each class. Instrument used consisted of: (1 test the scientific attitude of students through a questionnaire with 25 statements questionnaire number (2 test the critical thinking skills in the form of descriptions by 9 questions. The data were analyzed according to ANAVA. It showed that: (1 There are differences in students' critical thinking of skills achievement Inquiry Training model and Direct Instruction model, (2 there was a difference of students' critical thinking in scientific attitude at high is better than who thought there is a difference of students' critical thinking in scientific attitude at low. (3 There was no interaction between Inquiry Training model and Direct Instruction with the scientific attitude students' to increase student’s critical thinking of skills.