Bear, George G.
Describes study of seventh graders that was conducted to examine the relationship of a knowledge of computer ethics to attitudes toward computers and sociomoral reasoning. Variables of gender and verbal ability are examined, a measure of computer ethics is described, and results are analyzed. (31 references) (LRW)
Deniz Mertkan GEZGIN
Full Text Available Mobile learning has started to perform an increasingly significant role in improving learning outcomes in education. Successful and efficient implementation of m-learning in higher education, as with all educational levels, depends on users’ acceptance of this technology. This study focuses on investigating the attitudes of undergraduate students of Computer Engineering (CENG and Computer Education and Instructional Technology (CEIT departments in a Turkish public university towards m-learning from three perspectives; gender, area of study, and mobile device ownership. Using a correlational survey method, a Mobile Learning Attitude Scale (MLAS was administered to 531 students, analysis of which revealed a positive attitude to m-learning in general. A further investigation of the aforementioned three variables showed a more positive attitude for female students in terms of usability, for CEIT students in terms of advantages, usability and independence, and for those owning a mobile device in terms of usability. An important implication from the findings, among others, is supplementing Computer Engineering curriculum with elective courses on the fundamentals of mobile learning, and/or the design and development of m-learning software, so as to create, in the long run, more specialized and complementary teams comprised of trained CENG and CEIT graduates in m-learning sector.
Cruickshank, P. J.
Data are presented from two surveys where a 26-item questionnaire was used to measure patients' attitudes to diagnostic computers and to medical computers in general. The first group of respondents were 229 patients who had been given outpatient appointments at a hospital general medical clinic specializing in gastrointestinal problems, where some had experienced a diagnostic computer in use. The second group of respondents were 416 patients attending a group general practice where there was no computer. Patients who had experience of the diagnostic computer or a personal computer had more favourable attitudes to computers in medicine as did younger people and males. The two samples of patients showed broadly similar attitudes, and a notable finding was that over half of each group believed that, with a computer around, the personal touch of the doctor would be lost. PMID:6471021
Celik, Vehbi; Yesilyurt, Etem
There is a large body of research regarding computer supported education, perceptions of computer self-efficacy, computer anxiety and the technological attitudes of teachers and teacher candidates. However, no study has been conducted on the correlation between and effect of computer supported education, perceived computer self-efficacy, computer…
Buti, Allison L; Eakins, Danielle; Fussell, Holly; Kunkel, Lynn E; Kudura, Aisha; McCarty, Dennis
The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) works to bridge the gap between research and practice and tested a Web-delivered psychosocial intervention (the Therapeutic Education System, TES) in 10 community treatment centers. Computer-assisted therapies, such as Web-delivered interventions, may improve the consistency and efficiency of treatment for alcohol and drug use disorders. Prior to the start of the study, we surveyed counselors (N=96) in participating treatment centers and assessed counselor attitudes, perceived social norms and intentions to use a Web-delivered intervention. Analysis of the intention to adopt a Web-delivered intervention assessed the influence of attitudes and perceived social norms. Perceived social norms were a significant contributor to clinician intention to adopt Web-based interventions while attitude was not. To promote successful implementation, it may be helpful to create social norms supportive of computer-assisted therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gezgin, Deniz Mertkan; Adnan, Muge; Acar Guvendir, Meltem
Mobile learning has started to perform an increasingly significant role in improving learning outcomes in education. Successful and efficient implementation of m-learning in higher education, as with all educational levels, depends on users' acceptance of this technology. This study focuses on investigating the attitudes of undergraduate students…
Pancer, S. Mark; And Others
The ability of the theory of reasoned action to predict computer-related attitudes and behavior was demonstrated through two studies: a questionnaire on computer behaviors and attitudes; and word processing training involving various levels of persuasive communication based on belief statements identified in the first study. (22 references) (MES)
There is a pressing need for gender inclusive approaches to engage young people in computer science. A recent popular approach has been to harness learners' enthusiasm for computer games to motivate them to learn computer science concepts through game authoring. This article describes a study in which 992 learners across 13 schools took part in a game-making project. It provides evidence from 225 pre-test and post-test questionnaires on how learners' attitudes to computing changed during the project, as well as qualitative reflections from the class teachers on how the project affected their learners. Results indicate that girls did not enjoy the experience as much as boys, and that in fact, the project may make pupils less inclined to study computing in the future. This has important implications for future efforts to engage young people in computing.
Full Text Available Based on the new technology initiative in Serbian education, we explored primary school teachers’ attitudes toward Computer Assisted Learning (CAL in biology teaching, as well as the relationships between the teachers’ attitudes and four independent variables: age, teaching experience, teachers’ competence to use modern teaching aids and their professional advanced training in the field of computer applied learning. Fifty-four elementary school biology teachers from Novi Sad participated in the study. The findings suggested that the teachers generally had positive attitudes toward CAL in biology teaching. Correlation analyses revealed significant relationships between age, teaching experience, teachers’ competence to use modern teaching aids in the teaching process, professional advanced training in the field of computer applied learning, and the teachers’ attitudes toward CAL. We offer suggestions for further research in this field. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179010
Rahman, Mohammad Ataur
This study examined how teacher educators perceive the attitude towards use of computer technology in Teachers' Training Colleges in Bangladesh. This study investigated teacher educators' computer attitudes by using the valid and reliable instruments of Loyd and Gressard's (1984) Computer Attitude Scale (CAS). The data was collected through …
Webster, Joan; Davis, James; Holt, Victoria; Stallan, Glenys; New, Karen; Yegdich, Tania
The introduction of a new information retrieval system for the use of health service staff at a large tertiary referral hospital provided an excellent opportunity for nurses to make greater use of evidence to inform their practice. However, the extent to which nurses were able to access the resource was unknown. The aim of the study was to obtain this information and to test nurses' knowledge of computers and their attitudes to using them in their practice. During October 2001 a computer use questionnaire was attached to the pay advice slips of all nursing staff at the Royal Brisbane and Royal Women's Hospital (n = 1708). Staff were asked to return their completed questionnaire in a preaddressed return envelope. To encourage this, a prize (a Gold Class cinema pass for two) was offered. Of the 1708 questionnaires distributed, 590 were returned, giving a 34.5% response rate. Computer use was influenced by education, nursing seniority, age, and length of time in the service and, to a lesser extent, gender. Information from the study has assisted planners and educators to identify clusters of nurses to target for interventions in this area. Results will also be used to assess the success of any interventions.
The Internet as a useful tool that supports teaching and learning is not in full use in most secondary schools in Nigeria hence limiting the students from maximizing the potentials of Internet in advancing their academic pursuits. This study, therefore, examined the extent to which computer self-efficacy and computer attitude ...
Seyedeh Shohreh Alavi; Jalil Makarem
Background and purpose: Presently, the method of medical teaching has shifted from lecture-based to computer-based. The learning style may play a key role in the attitude toward learning computer. The goal of this study was to study the relationship between the learning style and attitude toward computer among Iranian medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 400 medical students. Barsch learning style inventory and a questionnaire on the attitude toward computer was s...
Seyedeh Shohreh Alavi
Full Text Available Background and purpose: Presently, the method of medical teaching has shifted from lecture-based to computer-based. The learning style may play a key role in the attitude toward learning computer. The goal of this study was to study the relationship between the learning style and attitude toward computer among Iranian medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 400 medical students. Barsch learning style inventory and a questionnaire on the attitude toward computer was sent to each student. The enthusiasm, anxiety, and overall attitude toward computer were compared among the different learning styles. Results: The response rate to the questionnaire was 91.8%. The distribution of learning styles in the students was 181 (49.3% visual, 106 (28.9% auditory, 27 (7.4% tactual, and 53 (14.4% overall. Visual learners were less anxious for computer use and showed more positive attitude toward computer. Sex, age, and academic grade were not associated with students’ attitude toward computer. Conclusions: The learning style is an important factor in the students’ attitude toward computer among medical students, which should be considered in planning computer-based learning programs. Keywords: LEARNING STYLE, ATTITUDE, COMPUTER, MEDICAL STUDENT, ANXIETY, ENTHUSIASM
The purpose of this paper is to compare the effects of paper-based and computer-based concept mappings on computer hardware achievement, computer anxiety and computer attitude of the eight grade secondary school students. The students were randomly allocated to three groups and were given instruction on computer hardware. The teaching methods used…
Gürdaş Topkaya, Sati; Kaya, Nurten
This descriptive and cross-sectional study was designed to address nurses' computer literacy and attitudes towards the use of computers in health care and to determine the correlation between these two variables. This study was conducted with the participation of 688 nurses who worked at two university-affiliated hospitals. These nurses were chosen using a stratified random sampling method. The data were collected using the Multicomponent Assessment of Computer Literacy and the Pretest for Attitudes Towards Computers in Healthcare Assessment Scale v. 2. The nurses, in general, had positive attitudes towards computers, and their computer literacy was good. Computer literacy in general had significant positive correlations with individual elements of computer competency and with attitudes towards computers. If the computer is to be an effective and beneficial part of the health-care system, it is necessary to help nurses improve their computer competency. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Erlich, Zippy; Gadot, Rivka; Shahak, Daphna
Studies indicate that the use of technologies as teaching aids and tools for self-study is influenced by students' attitudes toward computers and their applications. The purpose of this study is to determine whether taking a Computer Literacy and Applications (CLA) course has an impact on students' attitudes toward computer applications, across…
Smith, B.; Caputi, P.; Rawstorne, P.
Describes a study that defined and provided initial empirical support for differentiating the concepts of computer attitude, subjective computer experience, and objective computer experience. Discusses results of a principal component factor analysis and presents a conceptual analysis of the relation between subjective computer experience and…
Tosun, Nilgun; Sucsuz, Nursen; Yigit, Birol
The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of the computer-assisted and computer-based instructional methods on students achievement at computer classes and on their attitudes towards using computers. The study, which was completed in 6 weeks, were carried out with 94 sophomores studying in formal education program of Primary…
Ocak, Mehmet A.
This study reports an investigation of the effects of gender, age, and racial and ethnicity on the attitudes of mathematics teachers towards computer use. The participants of the study were mathematics teachers working in a wide range of New York public schools (n = 50). A Confidence with Computers in Mathematics Teachers (CCMT) rating scale was…
Njagi, K. O.; Havice, W. L.
Recent advances in the contemporary world, especially in the area of computer technology, have heralded the development and implementation of new and innovative teaching strategies and particularly with the Internet revolution. This study assessed students' attitude towards computer technology. Specifically, the study assessed differences in…
Murathan, Talha; Kaya, Oktay
Technologic developments have--the same as they have done it in every sector--influenced the education system. These influences have forced to use the computer in the education-training applications within the education system. The aim of this research is to determine, compare, and examine the influences on the conduct for learning of sport…
Levine, Tamar; Donitsa-Schmidt, Smadar
Introduces a causal model which links measures of computer experience, computer-related attitudes, computer-related confidence, and perceived computer-based knowledge. The causal model suggests that computer use has a positive effect on perceived computer self-confidence, as well as on computer-related attitudes. Questionnaires were administered…
Leonard, Jacqueline; Buss, Alan; Gamboa, Ruben; Mitchell, Monica; Fashola, Olatokunbo S.; Hubert, Tarcia; Almughyirah, Sultan
This paper describes the findings of a pilot study that used robotics and game design to develop middle school students' computational thinking strategies. One hundred and twenty-four students engaged in LEGO® EV3 robotics and created games using Scalable Game Design software. The results of the study revealed students' pre-post self-efficacy scores on the construct of computer use declined significantly, while the constructs of videogaming and computer gaming remained unchanged. When these constructs were analyzed by type of learning environment, self-efficacy on videogaming increased significantly in the combined robotics/gaming environment compared with the gaming-only context. Student attitudes toward STEM, however, did not change significantly as a result of the study. Finally, children's computational thinking (CT) strategies varied by method of instruction as students who participated in holistic game development (i.e., Project First) had higher CT ratings. This study contributes to the STEM education literature on the use of robotics and game design to influence self-efficacy in technology and CT, while informing the research team about the adaptations needed to ensure project fidelity during the remaining years of the study.
Full Text Available There is an increasing pressure from school leaders in many countries for teaching to be based solely on ICT tools. The present study is interested in what this does to pupils’ attitudes towards ICT in language classrooms. Is a digital monopoly a good way for pupils to learn languages? Is it what they want? To understand for which tasks students feel that computers are an appropriate tool, a qualitative survey mapping upper secondary school pupils’ attitudes towards the ICT use for learning Spanish has been conducted. The study looks at ICT use for grammar practice. A group of pupils have completed lesson diaries, reflecting upon web-based grammar exercises, comparing them to paper-based exercises, and a questionnaire survey on general attitudes towards ICT in language learning. The results indicate that the majority of participating pupils ask for a greater variety of tasks and see a need also for traditional forms of grammar practice, especially written exercises which give time to reflect upon grammar, syntax and vocabulary. They want ICT use to be an option, not a constraint. Many complain on flaws in the design of web-based grammar exercises. This shows a need for more research into the effects of different designs of web-based tools. It also becomes clearer that decision-makers and teachers must focus more on the pedagogical purpose of learning tasks and that the first question to ask is: “How can I teach this in a way that suits my pupils?” rather than: “How can I add more ICT to my teaching?”.
The first aim of this study was to determine undergraduate students' attitudes on the use of computers in education. A questionnaire as survey was administered to 156 undergraduate students in two departments--the Department of Educational Sciences, and the Computer and Educational Technologies--at Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University during the fall…
The aim of this research was to explore the relationship among students' attitudes toward programming, gender and academic achievement in programming. The scale used for measuring students' attitudes toward programming was developed by the researcher and consisted of 35 five-point Likert type items in four subscales. The scale was administered to…
Mitra, Ananda; Steffensmeier, Timothy; Lenzmeier, Stefne; Massoni, Angela
Examines two components related to faculty adoption of computers on university campuses: change in use patterns and change in attitudes and opinions. Results show that use and attitudes are multidimensional constructs and that changes happen at different rates for different categories of use. Findings suggest that faculty members need adequate…
The purpose of this study is to examine pre-service teachers' attitudes to computers. This study extends the technology acceptance model (TAM) framework by adding subjective norm, facilitating conditions, and technological complexity as external variables. Results show that the TAM and subjective norm, facilitating conditions, and technological…
Romi, Shlomo; Zoabi, Houssien
Describes a study that examined the attitudes of Arab dropout youth in Israel toward the use of computer technology and the influence of this use on their self-esteem. Results supported the assumptions that exposure to computer technology would change the attitudes of dropout adolescents toward computers to positive ones. (Contains 43 references.)…
Bekmezci, Mehmet; Celik, Ismail; Sahin, Ismail; Kiray, Ahmet; Akturk, Ahmet Oguz
In this research, students' scientific attitude, computer anxiety, educational use of the Internet, academic achievement, and problematic use of the Internet are analyzed based on different variables (gender, parents' educational level and daily access to the Internet). The research group involves 361 students from two middle schools which are…
Steele, David J; Johnson Palensky, Jodi E; Lynch, Thomas G; Lacy, Naomi L; Duffy, Sean W
To explore the relationship between learning preferences, attitudes towards computers, and student evaluation of a computer-assisted instructional (CAI) program. A third year required clerkship in surgery at the University of Nebraska Medical Center. A mixed-methods design combining attitudinal measures and qualitative interviews was employed to assess student reactions to a CAI program on angiography completed during a required surgical clerkship. Between January 1998 and July 1999, 151 students completed the program. Prior to participating, students completed the Rezler Learning Preference Inventory (LPI) and a computer attitudes survey (CAS). The LPI characterizes learning preferences as being abstract or concrete, individual or interpersonal, and student-structured or teacher-structured. The CAS measures attitudes towards computers and their role in education. After using the CAI program, students evaluated the module by completing an 18 item questionnaire. Based on LPI and CAS scores, 31 students were invited to participate in an in-depth qualitative interview on their experiences and perceptions of the program. There was no relationship between learning preferences, computer attitudes, and evaluation of the CAI program. Students were very positive about the program's content, clarity, organization, and ease of use. They also rated it as efficient and effective. However, many still indicated a preference for lecture and text-based learning. Qualitative interviews suggest students worry computers will supplant student--teacher contact. Learning preferences and prior attitudes toward computers did not bias student reactions to the CAI program assessed in this study. However, students expressed concerns that CAI would interfere with the traditional student--teacher encounter and relationship.
Fessakis, Georgios; Karakiza, Tsampika
Pedagogical beliefs and attitudes significantly determine the professional skills and practice of teachers. Many professional development programs for teachers aim to the elaboration of the pedagogical knowledge in order to improve teaching quality. This paper presents the study of pedagogical beliefs of computer science teachers in Greece. The…
Tsai, Chin-Chung; Lin, Sunny S. J.
The purpose of this study was to explore the interplay between young people's attitudes toward computer networks and Internet addiction. After analyzing questionnaire responses of an initial sample of 615 Taiwanese high school students, 78 subjects, viewed as possible Internet addicts, were selected for further explorations. It was found that…
Filiz Yalçın TILFARLIOĞLU
Full Text Available This study aims at revealing faculty attitudes towards computer assistedinstruction at University of Gaziantep, Turkey in a multifaceted way. Additionally, ittries to determine underlying factors that shape these attitudes. After a pilot study, thequestionnaire was applied to a sample population of 145 faculty that were chosenrandomly. The results revealed that faculty attitudes towards computer assistedinsruction are positive. Age, sex, teaching experience, level of proficiency in Englishand computer usage skills have no or little effects over these attitudes.According to theresults of the study, faculty who have prior knowledge on computers expose ratherpositive attitudes towards computers in education.Another important outcome of thestudy is the existence of a gender gap in terms of computer assisted instruction.Althoughthere seems to be no difference between male and female faculty concerning theirbackground education regarding computers, male faculty feel confident about thematter, whereas female faculty feel uncomfortable about using computers in theirlessons.
The study was conducted to investigate attitudes toward using computers as a learning tool among undergraduate students in a private university. In this regards, some variables which might be potential antecedents of attitudes toward computer including gender, experience of using computers and perceived abilities in using programs were examined.…
In today's age of exponential change and technological advancement, awareness of any gender gap in technology and computer science-related fields is crucial, but further research must be done in an effort to better understand the complex interacting factors contributing to the gender gap. This study utilized a survey to investigate specific gender differences relating to computing self-efficacy, computer usage, and environmental factors of exposure, personal interests, and parental influence that impact gender differences of high school students within a one-to-one computing environment in South Dakota. The population who completed the One-to-One High School Computing Survey for this study consisted of South Dakota high school seniors who had been involved in a one-to-one computing environment for two or more years. The data from the survey were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics for the determined variables. From the review of literature and data analysis several conclusions were drawn from the findings. Among them are that overall, there was very little difference in perceived computing self-efficacy and computing anxiety between male and female students within the one-to-one computing initiative. The study supported the current research that males and females utilized computers similarly, but males spent more time using their computers to play online games. Early exposure to computers, or the age at which the student was first exposed to a computer, and the number of computers present in the home (computer ownership) impacted computing self-efficacy. The results also indicated parental encouragement to work with computers also contributed positively to both male and female students' computing self-efficacy. Finally the study also found that both mothers and fathers encouraged their male children more than their female children to work with computing and pursue careers in computing science fields.
There is an increasing pressure from school leaders in many countries for teaching to be based solely on ICT tools. The present study is interested in what this does to pupils' attitudes towards ICT in language classrooms. Is a digital monopoly a good way for pupils to learn languages? Is it what they want? To understand for which tasks students…
Seplovich, Gabriela; Horvath, Keith J; Haughton, Lorlette J; Blackstock, Oni J
For persons living with chronic medical conditions, the Internet can be a powerful tool for health promotion, and allow for immediate access to medical information and social support. However, women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States face numerous barriers to computer and Internet use. Health behavior change models suggest that the first step towards adopting a new health behavior is to improve attitudes towards that behavior. To develop and pilot test Get+Connected, an intervention to improve computer and Internet attitudes and Internet use among women living with HIV. To develop Get+Connected, we reviewed the extant literature, adapted an existing curriculum, and conducted a focus group with HIV-positive women (n=20) at a community-based organization in the Bronx, New York. Get+Connected was comprised of five weekly sessions covering the following topics: basic computer knowledge and skills, identifying reliable health-related websites, setting up and using email and Facebook accounts, and a final review session. We recruited 12 women to participate in pilot testing. At baseline, we collected data about participants' sociodemographic information, clinical characteristics, and technology device ownership and use. At baseline, intervention completion, and three months postintervention, we collected data regarding attitudes towards computers and the Internet (Attitudes Towards Computers and the Internet Questionnaire [ATCIQ]; possible scores range from 5-50) as well as frequency of Internet use (composite measure). To examine changes in ATCIQ scores and Internet use over time, we used generalized estimating equations. We also collected qualitative data during intervention delivery. Among women in our sample, the median age was 56 years (interquartile range=52-63). All participants were black/African American and/or Latina. Seven participants (7/12, 58%) had a high school diploma (or equivalent) or higher degree. Ten participants (10
Seplovich, Gabriela; Horvath, Keith J; Haughton, Lorlette J
Background For persons living with chronic medical conditions, the Internet can be a powerful tool for health promotion, and allow for immediate access to medical information and social support. However, women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States face numerous barriers to computer and Internet use. Health behavior change models suggest that the first step towards adopting a new health behavior is to improve attitudes towards that behavior. Objective To develop and pilot test Get+Connected, an intervention to improve computer and Internet attitudes and Internet use among women living with HIV. Methods To develop Get+Connected, we reviewed the extant literature, adapted an existing curriculum, and conducted a focus group with HIV-positive women (n=20) at a community-based organization in the Bronx, New York. Get+Connected was comprised of five weekly sessions covering the following topics: basic computer knowledge and skills, identifying reliable health-related websites, setting up and using email and Facebook accounts, and a final review session. We recruited 12 women to participate in pilot testing. At baseline, we collected data about participants’ sociodemographic information, clinical characteristics, and technology device ownership and use. At baseline, intervention completion, and three months postintervention, we collected data regarding attitudes towards computers and the Internet (Attitudes Towards Computers and the Internet Questionnaire [ATCIQ]; possible scores range from 5-50) as well as frequency of Internet use (composite measure). To examine changes in ATCIQ scores and Internet use over time, we used generalized estimating equations. We also collected qualitative data during intervention delivery. Results Among women in our sample, the median age was 56 years (interquartile range=52-63). All participants were black/African American and/or Latina. Seven participants (7/12, 58%) had a high school diploma (or equivalent
William H. Burkett
Full Text Available Studying the impact of computer attitudes on the production of knowledge is central to the understanding of information sciences in the new millennium. The major results from a survey of diverse college populations suggest that Liberal Arts College (LAC students, in this demographic, have somewhat more ambivalence toward computers than students in a Community College (CC or a nontraditional Business College (BC environment. The respondents generally agreed that computers were an important part of daily life and not particularly frustrating. In addition, it appears that today's students like computers, know at least something about them, feel competent when using one, and are not tired of hearing about computers as a matter of daily discourse. The participants generally agreed, although not strongly so, that they would like to learn more about computers. The surveyed students generally expressed an interest in on-line courses, although students from the LAC were more neutral about on-line courses. On-line courses were generally considered somewhat inferior to traditional classes. Most of the respondents feel that they have a reasonable amount of computer-related experiences and, as a result, have considerable competence and success when using one, and believed that they could successfully master new software. The majority of the students expressed at least some degree of enjoyment from computer and non-computer games. Last, students at the LAC and BC appeared to possess greater knowledge about computer operation, a fact that may in part be due to the age of the respondents.
Çelik, Halil Coskun
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of computer courses on young individuals' computer self-efficacy, attitudes and achievement. The study group of this research included 60 unemployed young individuals (18-25 ages) in total; 30 in the experimental group and 30 in the control group. An experimental research model with pretest…
Cataloged from PDF version of article. This study explored teacher and student attitudes towards use of computer mediated communication (CMC) in support of teaching speaking skills. Data were collected through the questionnaires distributed to 20 Tourism students and 60 English instructors at Muğla University and through interviews conducted with 12 CMC-experienced international EFL instructors. The questionnaire for students investigated students’ feelings about the four ...
Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Lee, Chun-Yi; Chen, Jen-Huang
With ever increasing exposure to computer games, gaining an understanding of the attitudes held by young adolescents toward such activities is crucial; however, few studies have provided scales with which to accomplish this. This study revisited the Computer Game Attitude Scale developed by Chappell and Taylor in 1997, reworking the overall…
The purpose of this study is to examine the pre-service teachers' attitudes toward computers use. The impact of five variables (perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, subjective norm, facilitating conditions, and technological complexity) on attitude towards computer was assessed. Data were collected from 230 preservice teachers through…
Li, Lung-Yu; Lee, Long-Yuan
The purpose of this study was to explore graduate students' competencies in computer use and their attitudes toward online learning in asynchronous online courses of distance learning programs in a Graduate School of Education (GSOE) in Taiwan. The research examined the relationship between computer literacy and the online learning attitudes of…
The Effects of a Computer-Assisted Teaching Material, Designed According to the ASSURE Instructional Design and the ARCS Model of Motivation, on Students' Achievement Levels in a Mathematics Lesson and Their Resulting Attitudes
Karakis, Hilal; Karamete, Aysen; Okçu, Aydin
This study examined the effects that computer-assisted instruction had on students' attitudes toward a mathematics lesson and toward learning mathematics with computer-assisted instruction. The computer software we used was based on the ASSURE Instructional Systems Design and the ARCS Model of Motivation, and the software was designed to teach…
Ogunkola, Babalola J.
This study investigated the effect of computer attitude, ownership and use on the computer literacy of science teachers in Nigeria. One hundred and twenty (120) science teachers drawn from the four political divisions of Ogun State, Nigeria were used for the study. Two valid and reliable instruments namely Computer Attitude, Ownership and Use…
North, Alice S.; Noyes, J. M.
This study considers whether technophobia is a transitory phenomenon by assessing computer attitudes and cognition of 11- and 12-year-old children in an English secondary school via self-reporting questionnaires. Results showed a low prevalence of technophobia and that gender did not significantly influence attitudes or cognition towards…
Lawson, R. J.
A survey was conducted on 1,012 people in the Oxford Region to determine their general attitude to doctors' age, sex and colour and to various aspects of doctor/patient communication. Results indicate that whereas there were no prejudices about appearance there was a significant degree of dissatisfaction with information given by doctors in general and hospital doctors in particular.
Tsao, Yea-Ling; Pan, Ting-Rung
Main purpose of this study is to investigate what level of computational estimation performance is possessed by fifth graders and explore computational estimation attitude towards fifth graders. Two hundred and thirty-five Grade-5 students from four elementary schools in Taipei City were selected for "Computational Estimation Test" and…
Leonard, Jacqueline; Buss, Alan; Gamboa, Ruben; Mitchell, Monica; Fashola, Olatokunbo S.; Hubert, Tarcia; Almughyirah, Sultan
This paper describes the findings of a pilot study that used robotics and game design to develop middle school students' computational thinking strategies. One hundred and twenty-four students engaged in LEGO® EV3 robotics and created games using Scalable Game Design software. The results of the study revealed students' pre-post self-efficacy…
Abedalaziz, Nabeel; Jamaluddin, Shahrir; Leng, Chin Hai
The aim of this study is to investigate and measure postgraduate students' attitudes toward the Internet and computer use. Specifically, the present study sought answers to the following questions: What is the overall
Behnke, Carl; Greenan, James P.
This study examined the relationship between postsecondary students' emotional-social intelligence and attitudes toward computer-based instructional materials. Research indicated that emotions and emotional intelligence directly impact motivation, while instructional design has been shown to impact student attitudes and subsequent engagement with…
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between computer attitudes and learning strategies. Study group of the research consists of 195 candidate teachers (77 male, 118 female from Education Faculty of Selcuk University. The research data were gathered from Computer Attitude Scale, Cognitive Learning Strategies Scale, Metacognitive Learning Strategies Scale and Personal Data Form. The research findings are: candidate teachers have medium level computer attitudes, a significant correlation between computer attitude, cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies, candidate teachers who have low computer attitude uses more cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies, male candidate teachers have higher level of computer attitudes than female candidate teachers, female candidate teachers use more cognitive learning strategies, a significant difference in cognitive learning strategies of candidate teachers’ according to the type of the high school graduated.
Ozyurek, Pakize; Oztasan, Nuray; Kilic, Ibrahim
The aim of this study is to define attitudes of students in health sciences towards perceived personal stress and computer technologies, and to present the relationship between stress and computer technology attitudes. In this scope, this study has a descriptive nature and thus a questionnaire has been applied on 764 students from Afyon Kocatepe University Health Sciences High School, Turkey for data gathering. Descriptive statistics, independent samples, t test, one way ANOVA, and regression analysis have been used for data analysis. In the study, it is seen that female (=3,78) have a more positive attitude towards computer technology than male students (=3,62). according to the results of regression analysis of the study, the regression model between computer technology attitude (CTA) and perceived stress (PS) has been found meaningful (F=16,291; pcomputer technology attitude and perceived stress (when computer technology altitude increases, perceived stress decreases), and an increase of one unit in computer attitude results in 0.275 decrease in perceived stress. it can be concluded that correct and proper use of computer technologies can be accepted as a component of overcoming stress methods.
Kumar, C. Ashok
The main aim of the study was to find out whether there was a significant difference in the attitude and opinion towards using Computer Technology in teaching among B.Ed., trainees in terms of select independent variables. Normative survey was the technique employed. Opinion towards Computer Usage and Attitude towards Computer Technology inventory…
Alejandro L. Giray, Jr
Full Text Available The study aimed to trace the profile of the senior elementary pre-service teachers in terms of sex, course, grade in basic computer subject, presence of computers at home, experience in using computer, and their perceived computer skills in terms of MS Word, MS Excel, MS Publisher, MS PowerPoint, Electronic Mail (E-mail, and internet surfing. The study also determined the attitudes of the senior elementary pre-service teachers towards computer-based instruction (CBI and found out the significant relationship between the variables. Using descriptive-correlational research, 123 senior elementary pre-service teachers were involved as respondents. Majority of the respondents are female, have no computers at home and have used computers in reporting/teaching while most have an average grade in Basic Computer. Generally, most are skilled in using computer programs. Majority have favorable attitudes towards CBI. There is no significant relationship between the profile and the perceived computer skills and attitudes towards CBI. There is no significant relationship between the perceived computer skills and attitudes towards CBI. The study concludes that despite the average computer skills, the respondents are open to the advantages of CBI
Conrad, Agatha M.; Munro, Don
Two studies are reported which describe the development and evaluation of a new instrument, the Computer Technology Use Scale (CTUS), comprising three domains: computer self-efficacy, attitudes to technology, and technology related anxiety. Study 1 describes the development of the instrument and explores its factor structure. Study 2 used…
El Tantawi, M M A; Saleh, S M
This mixed design study explored attitudes of dental students towards use of computers. It employed quantitative analyses of a questionnaire answered by 979 students and qualitative analysis of suggestions by a subgroup of 339. Positive attitudes towards computers were predicted by "computer use for > 1 year" and "year of study". Qualitative analysis of students' suggestions confirmed these findings and brought up new issues such as the need for establishing a website for the faculty. The results indicate that careful planning is needed to improve students' skills and incorporate computer applications in educational curricula.
Michael B. Weigner
Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about patient attitudes towards informed consent for computed tomography (CT in the emergency department (ED. We set out to determine ED patient attitudes about providing informed consent for CTs.Methods: In this cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey study, we evaluated a convenience sample of patients’ attitudes about providing informed consent for having a CT at 2 institutional sites. Historically, at our institutional network, patients received a CT at approximately 25% of their ED visits. The survey consisted of 17 “yes/no” or multiple-choice questions. The primary outcome question was “which type of informed consent do you feel is appropriate for a CT in the Emergency Department?”Results: We analyzed 300 survey responses, which represented a 90% return rate of surveys distributed. Seventy-seven percent thought they should give their consent prior to receiving a CT, and 95% were either comfortable or very comfortable with their physician making the decision regarding whether they needed a CT. Forty percent of the patients felt that a general consent was appropriate before receiving a CT in the ED, while 34% thought a verbal consent was appropriate and 15% percent thought a written consent was appropriate. Seventy-two percent of the ED patients didn’t expect to receive a CT during their ED visit and 30% of the ED patients had previously provided consent prior to receiving a CT. Conclusion: Most patients feel comfortable letting the doctor make the decision regarding the need for a CT. Most ED patients feel informed consent should occur before receiving a CT but only a minority feel the consent should be written and specific to the test. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(1:14–19.
Whitley, Bernard E., Jr.
A meta-analysis of studies of gender differences in computer attitudes and behavior found that males exhibited greater sex-role stereotyping of computers, higher computer self-efficacy, and more positive attitudes toward computers than females. Most differences in attitudes and behavior were small, with the largest found in high school students.…
Abstract. This study investigated the relationship between computer attitudes and literacy of science teachers in secondary schools in Nigeria. A sample of two hundred and forty (240) science teachers drawn from the four political divisions of Ogun State, Nigeria was used for the study. Two valid and reliable instruments ...
Bovee, Chantal; Voogt, Joke; Meelissen, Martina R.M.
This study investigated computer attitudes of 240 students from eight primary and secondary schools in South Africa. The student population of six of the eight schools that participated in the study can be characterised as middle or upper class. Two schools were from South African townships. All
Anderson, Delia Marie Castro
Computer literacy and use have become commonplace in our colleges and universities. In an environment that demands the use of technology, educators should be knowledgeable of the components that make up the overall computer attitude of students and be willing to investigate the processes and techniques of effective teaching and learning that can take place with computer technology. The purpose of this study is two fold. First, it investigates the relationship between computer attitudes and gender, ethnicity, and computer experience. Second, it addresses the question of whether, and to what extent, students' attitudes toward computers change over a 16 week period in an undergraduate microbiology course that supplements the traditional lecture with computer-driven assignments. Multiple regression analyses, using data from the Computer Attitudes Scale (Loyd & Loyd, 1985), showed that, in the experimental group, no significant relationships were found between computer anxiety and gender or ethnicity or between computer confidence and gender or ethnicity. However, students who used computers the longest (p = .001) and who were self-taught (p = .046) had the lowest computer anxiety levels. Likewise students who used computers the longest (p = .001) and who were self-taught (p = .041) had the highest confidence levels. No significant relationships between computer liking, usefulness, or the use of Internet resources and gender, ethnicity, or computer experience were found. Dependent T-tests were performed to determine whether computer attitude scores (pretest and posttest) increased over a 16-week period for students who had been exposed to computer-driven assignments and other Internet resources. Results showed that students in the experimental group were less anxious about working with computers and considered computers to be more useful. In the control group, no significant changes in computer anxiety, confidence, liking, or usefulness were noted. Overall, students in
Full Text Available Peoples' subjective attitude towards costs such as, e.g., risk, delay or effort are key determinants of inter-individual differences in goal-directed behaviour. Thus, the ability to learn about others' prudent, impatient or lazy attitudes is likely to be critical for social interactions. Conversely, how adaptive such attitudes are in a given environment is highly uncertain. Thus, the brain may be tuned to garner information about how such costs ought to be arbitrated. In particular, observing others' attitude may change one's uncertain belief about how to best behave in related difficult decision contexts. In turn, learning from others' attitudes is determined by one's ability to learn about others' attitudes. We first derive, from basic optimality principles, the computational properties of such a learning mechanism. In particular, we predict two apparent cognitive biases that would arise when individuals are learning about others' attitudes: (i people should overestimate the degree to which they resemble others (false-consensus bias, and (ii they should align their own attitudes with others' (social influence bias. We show how these two biases non-trivially interact with each other. We then validate these predictions experimentally by profiling people's attitudes both before and after guessing a series of cost-benefit arbitrages performed by calibrated artificial agents (which are impersonating human individuals.
Wallace, Sean; Clark, Marcia; White, Jonathan
The last decade has seen the introduction of new technology which has transformed many aspects of our culture, commerce, communication and education. This study examined how medical teachers and learners are using mobile computing devices such as the iPhone in medical education and practice, and how they envision them being used in the future. Semistructured interviews were conducted with medical students, residents and faculty to examine participants' attitudes about the current and future use of mobile computing devices in medical education and practice. A thematic approach was used to summarise ideas and concepts expressed, and to develop an online survey. A mixed methods approach was used to integrate qualitative and quantitative findings. Medical students, residents and faculty at a large Canadian medical school in 2011. Interviews were conducted with 18 participants (10 students, 7 residents and 1 faculty member). Only 213 participants responded to the online survey (76 students, 65 residents and 41 faculty members). Over 85% of participants reported using a mobile-computing device. The main uses described for mobile devices related to information management, communication and time management. Advantages identified were portability, flexibility, access to multimedia and the ability to look up information quickly. Challenges identified included: superficial learning, not understanding how to find good learning resources, distraction, inappropriate use and concerns about access and privacy. Both medical students and physicians expressed the view that the use of these devices in medical education and practice will increase in the future. This new technology offers the potential to enhance learning and patient care, but also has potential problems associated with its use. It is important for leadership in medical schools and healthcare organisations to set the agenda in this rapidly developing area to maximise the benefits of this powerful new technology while
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine prospective elementary teachers’ attitudes towards computers. This research was carried out in fall semester of 2007 at a small university in northeastern Turkey with 248 prospective elementary teachers. In order to get general results about the sample survey methodology was used. Results show that computer attitudes of prospective elementary teachers are at medium level. No significant differences were found between gender, high school type and monthly family income independent variables and computer liking, computer anxiety and use of computers in education/instruction sub-scales. However, a significant difference was found between high school type and computer anxiety and computers in education/instruction sub-scales.
An, Yun-Jo; Haynes, Linda; D'Alba, Adriana; Chumney, Frances
Science teachers' experiences, attitudes, perceptions, concerns, and support needs related to the use of educational computer games were investigated in this study. Data were collected from an online survey, which was completed by 111 science teachers. The results showed that 73% of participants had used computer games in teaching. Participants…
This article will provide an overview of whether students have positive motivational attitudes towards the use of computers for writing and communication. Firstly, it summarizes the basic theories of motivation and then explains the relationship between language and motivation, and the use of computers and motivation. Then, it aims to explore the…
Full Text Available There is an issue, which is connected with the active using of multimedia technology in education, including art. The question of the effectiveness of the production computer presentation as compared with the traditional method of production in getting acquainted students with the works of art. It is presented a study, which is aimed to analyze the differences in the perception of junior school children works of art, depending on the format of presentation (reproduction, the electronic form. It is explained a special designed method for this study, called "Talk about your impressions". There were 60 students, of the second grade progymnasium number 1756, who were involved in this study. The method "Talk about your impressions" is used to identify differences in the perception of works of art, depending on the presentation format. In order to identify the differences in the understanding of the subjects of figurative content of the picture, depending on the development of imaginative and logical thinking, and the stability and concentration following methods were used: Test Toulouse-Pieroni, Raven Progressive Matrices, the method of semantic differential Charles Osgood (modification of Guruzhapova V.A.. The results showed that the vast majority of the subjects in the comparison of the situation identical pictures, but in different formats (reproduction, electronic format prefer reproduction. It is shown that the understanding of a holistic way of painting subjects are not related to the format requirements of the pictures. It was found that the difference in the understanding of younger schoolboys figurative content of the picture does not dependent on the development of imaginative or logical thinking, and on the stability and concentration. This work was performed by grant of Davydov V. V.
Awofala, Adeneye O. A.; Akinoso, Sabainah O.; Fatade, Alfred O.
The study investigated attitudes towards computer and computer self-efficacy as predictors of computer anxiety among 310 preservice mathematics teachers from five higher institutions of learning in Lagos and Ogun States of Nigeria using the quantitative research method within the blueprint of the descriptive survey design. Data collected were…
Berkant, Hasan Güner
This study investigates faculty of education students' computer self-efficacy beliefs and their attitudes towards computers and implementing computer supported education. This study is descriptive and based on a correlational survey model. The final sample consisted of 414 students studying in the faculty of education of a Turkish university. The…
McCoy, Leah P.; Heafner, Tina L.
Male and female students have historically had different computer attitudes and levels of computer use. These equity issues are of interest to researchers and practitioners who seek to understand why a digital divide exists between men and women. In this study, these questions were examined in an intensive computing environment in which all students at one university were issued identical laptop computers and used them extensively for 4 years. Self-reported computer use was examined for effects of gender. Attitudes toward computers were also assessed and compared for male and female students. The results indicated that when the technological environment was institutionally equalized for male and female students, many traditional findings of gender differences were not evident.
Bayomy, Hanaa; El Awadi, Mona; El Araby, Eman; Abed, Hala A
Computer-assisted medical education has been developed to enhance learning and enable high-quality medical care. This study aimed to assess computer knowledge and attitude toward the inclusion of computers in medical education among second-year medical students in Benha Faculty of Medicine, Egypt, to identify limitations, and obtain suggestions for successful computer-based learning. This was a one-group pre-post-test study, which was carried out on second-year students in Benha Faculty of Medicine. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to compare students' knowledge, attitude, limitations, and suggestions toward computer usage in medical education before and after the computer course to evaluate the change in students' responses. The majority of students were familiar with use of the mouse and keyboard, basic word processing, internet and web searching, and e-mail both before and after the computer course. The proportion of students who were familiar with software programs other than the word processing and trouble-shoot software/hardware was significantly higher after the course (Peducation, downloading lecture handouts, and computer-based exams (Peducation (Pcampus; all would support computer-assisted medical education. Medical students in Benha University are computer literate, which allows for computer-based medical education. Staff training, provision of computer labs, and internet access are essential requirements for enhancing computer usage in medical education in the university.
Almuqayteeb, Taghreed Abdulaziz
The purpose of this study was to examine female faculty members' use of computer technologies, their attitudes toward computers, the factors that best predict their attitudes toward computers, and the barriers that limit their use of computer technologies in girls' colleges in Dammam and Jubail, Saudi Arabia. Also, this study examined how female…
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of gender and cooperative learning with CAI on college students' computer science achievement and attitudes toward computers, when the effects of computer ownership, prior computer instruction, previous software and programming experience were controlled. The participants were 155 undergraduates enrolled in introductory computer courses at two colleges in North Taiwan during the Fall 1996 semester. Before the treatment period, they were asked to fill out the Background Data Form, instructed with cooperative learning strategy, and trained on cooperative and individual learning with CAI. During the treatment period, they were randomly assigned to the treatment (78 students) or the control group (77 students). The treatment group students used a CAI program on computer numbering, encoding, and hardware systems with their partner throughout all six CAI sessions. The control group students used the same CAI program individually within the six CAI sessions. After the 6-week treatment period, both groups were posttested by a 40-item multiple-choice Computer Science Achievement Test (CSAT) and a 30-item Computer Attitude Scale (CAS). Data for both posttests were collected from 153 students (77 in the treatment, 76 in the control group; 62 males, 91 females) and analyzed by MANCOVA and follow-up univariate hierarchical MRC analyses for ANCOVAs. Based on the covariate-adjusted CSAT scores, the results indicated that students using CAI cooperatively had a significantly higher mean than those using CAI individually. Neither gender nor interaction effects were found. Regarding the covariate-adjusted CAS scores, the results showed that males had a significantly higher mean than females. No treatment or interaction effects were found. Due to the higher computer achievement resulted from cooperative learning with CAI, this study suggested that instructors apply cooperative learning strategy in CAI settings in computer courses
Discusses the probable changes in public attitudes toward science and technology as a result of the engineering accidents of 1979. Results of national polls conducted to identify public confidence in technological progress are included. (HM)
Link, Thomas Michael; Marz, Richard
At the Medical University of Vienna, most information for students is available only online. In 2005, an e-learning project was initiated and there are plans to introduce a learning management system. In this study, we estimate the level of students' computer skills, the number of students having difficulty with e-learning, and the number of students opposed to e-learning. The study was conducted in an introductory course on computer-based and web-based training (CBT/WBT). Students were asked to fill out a questionnaire online that covered a wide range of relevant attitudes and experiences. While the great majority of students possess sufficient computer skills and acknowledge the advantages of interactive and multimedia-enhanced learning material, a small percentage lacks basic computer skills and/or is very skeptical about e-learning. There is also a consistently significant albeit weak gender difference in available computer infrastructure and Internet access. As for student attitudes toward e-learning, we found that age, computer use, and previous exposure to computers are more important than gender. A sizable number of students, 12% of the total, make little or no use of existing e-learning offerings. Many students would benefit from a basic introduction to computers and to the relevant computer-based resources of the university. Given to the wide range of computer skills among students, a single computer course for all students would not be useful nor would it be accepted. Special measures should be taken to prevent students who lack computer skills from being disadvantaged or from developing computer-hostile attitudes.
The absolute beginner's guide to learning basic computer skills Computing Fundamentals, Introduction to Computers gets you up to speed on basic computing skills, showing you everything you need to know to conquer entry-level computing courses. Written by a Microsoft Office Master Instructor, this useful guide walks you step-by-step through the most important concepts and skills you need to be proficient on the computer, using nontechnical, easy-to-understand language. You'll start at the very beginning, getting acquainted with the actual, physical machine, then progress through the most common
The bachelor thesis "Attitude of nurses to euthanasia" focuses on an understanding of dying, euthanasia and palliative care and their attitude to euthanasia. The work is devided into two parts - a theoretical one and an empirical one. The theoretical part describes the methodology and results of quantitative research by the use of questionaire comparing two specified groups of nurses - hospic care nurses and intensive care nurses. There are summarised findings from the investigation in the co...
Elicitation of pre-service physical education teachers' attitudes towards computer technologies seems to be of great importance to satisfy the conditions to be met for the conscious and effective use of the technologies required by the age to be used in educational settings. In this respect, the purpose of the present study is to investigate…
Tatalovic Vorkapic, Sanja; Milovanovic, Sandra
According to the relevance of teacher attitudes in the teaching process as well as to the great number of discussions among experts of pre-school education, it was interesting to examine the students of pre-school teaching about their attitudes toward the use of computer among pre-school children. The sample consisted of N = 40 students from…
Giannoukos, Georgios; Armaos, Remos
This paper is an attempt to explore educational issues in a school operating in a prison in the hope that findings will be useful in further and larger-scale research. The objective of the study was to investigate the attitudes of inmates attending the Second Chance School, Domokos prison, Greece, towards the use of computers with the help of the…
Cepni, Salih; Tas, Erol; Kose, Sacit
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a Computer-Assisted Instruction Material (CAIM) related to "photosynthesis" topic on student cognitive development, misconceptions and attitudes. The study conducted in 2002-2003 academic year and was carried out in two different classes taught by the same teacher, in which…
Tsai, Yueh-Feng; Kaufman, David
Previous research by Tsai and Kaufman (2010a, 2010b) has suggested that computer-simulated virtual pet dogs can be used as a potential medium to enhance children's development of empathy and humane attitudes toward animals. To gain a deeper understanding of how and why interacting with a virtual pet dog might influence children's social and…
Hawk, Stephen R.
Describes study that was conducted to investigate the relationship between locus of control and user attitude toward computer based information systems (CBIS) used at work. The impact of user involvement is examined, the hypotheses tested are described, and implications for introducing CBIS into organizations are discussed. (14 references) (LRW)
Beauvois, Margaret Healy; Eledge, Jean
Describes the results of a pilot study to examine the attitudes of university students toward the use of computer-mediated communication in their French conversation and composition course. Results indicate that both introvert and extrovert personality types generally perceive the use of a local area network as a beneficial experience. (15…
Ciftci, S. Koza; Karadag, Engin; Akdal, Pinar
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of statistics instruction using computer-based tools, on statistics anxiety, attitude, and achievement. This study was designed as quasi-experimental research and the pattern used was a matched pre-test/post-test with control group design. Data was collected using three scales: a Statistics…
Akcay, Husamettin; Durmaz, Asli; Tuysuz, Cengiz; Feyzioglu, Burak
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of computer-based learning and traditional method on students' attitudes and achievement towards analytical chemistry. Students from Chemistry Education Department at Dokuz Eylul University (D.E.U) were selected randomly and divided into three groups; two experimental (Eg-1 and Eg-2) and a control…
Divaris, Kimon; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Mattheos, Nikos
An accurate assessment of the computer skills of students is a pre-requisite for the success of any e-learning interventions. The aim of the present study was to assess objectively the computer literacy and attitudes in a group of Greek post-graduate students, using a task-oriented questionnaire developed and validated in the University of Malmö, Sweden. 50 post-graduate students in the Athens University School of Dentistry in April 2005 took part in the study. A total competence score of 0-49 was calculated. Socio-demographic characteristics were recorded. Attitudes towards computer use were assessed. Descriptive statistics and linear regression modeling were employed for data analysis. Total competence score was normally distributed (Shapiro-Wilk test: W = 0.99, V = 0.40, P = 0.97) and ranged from 5 to 42.5, with a mean of 22.6 (+/-8.4). Multivariate analysis revealed 'gender', 'e-mail ownership' and 'enrollment in non-clinical programs' as significant predictors of computer literacy. Conclusively, computer literacy of Greek post-graduate dental students was increased amongst males, students in non-clinical programs and those with more positive attitudes towards the implementation of computer assisted learning.
Full Text Available Computer-assisted language learning (CALL is the realization of computers in schools and universities which has potentially enhanced the language learning experience inside the classrooms. The integration of the technologies into the classroom demands that the teachers adopt a number of classroom management procedures to maintain a more learner-centered and conducive language learning environment. The current study explored the relationship between computer attitudes and behavior and instructional classroom management approaches implemented by English institute teachers. In so doing, a total of 105 male (n = 27 and female (n = 78 EFL teachers participated in this study. A computer attitude questionnaire adapted from Albirini (2006 and a Behavior and Instructional Management Scale (BIMS adopted from Martin and Sass (2010 were benefitted from for the purpose of collecting the data. The results of the Pearson Correlation Coefficient revealed that there were no significant relationships between attitude and behavior and instructional management across gender. However, it was found that the more male teachers experience tendency toward using computers in their classes, the more teacher-centered their classes become. In addition, the more female teachers are prone to use computers in their classes, the more student-centered and lenient their classes become.
Sainz, Milagros; Lopez-Saez, Mercedes
The dearth of women in technology and ICT-related fields continues to be a topic of interest for both the scientific community and decision-makers. Research on attitudes towards computers proves that women display more negative computer attitudes than men and also make less intense use of technology and computers than their male counterparts. For…
Sukums, Felix; Mensah, Nathan; Mpembeni, Rose; Kaltschmidt, Jens; Haefeli, Walter E.; Blank, Antje
Background The QUALMAT (Quality of Maternal and Prenatal Care: Bridging the Know-do Gap) project has introduced an electronic clinical decision support system (CDSS) for pre-natal and maternal care services in rural primary health facilities in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Tanzania. Objective To report an assessment of health providers’ computer knowledge, experience, and attitudes prior to the implementation of the QUALMAT electronic CDSS. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted with providers in 24 QUALMAT project sites. Information was collected using structured questionnaires. Chi-squared tests and one-way ANOVA describe the association between computer knowledge, attitudes, and other factors. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted to gain further insights. Results A total of 108 providers responded, 63% were from Tanzania and 37% from Ghana. The mean age was 37.6 years, and 79% were female. Only 40% had ever used computers, and 29% had prior computer training. About 80% were computer illiterate or beginners. Educational level, age, and years of work experience were significantly associated with computer knowledge (pcomputers – average score (±SD) of 37.2 (±4.9). Females had significantly lower scores than males. Interviews and group discussions showed that although most were lacking computer knowledge and experience, they were optimistic about overcoming challenges associated with the introduction of computers in their workplace. Conclusions Given the low levels of computer knowledge among rural health workers in Africa, it is important to provide adequate training and support to ensure the successful uptake of electronic CDSSs in these settings. The positive attitudes to computers found in this study underscore that also rural care providers are ready to use such technology. PMID:25361721
Full Text Available Rapid changes in information and information technology nowadays change the social life of the community and have become an important factor affecting the exchange and development of the institutions accordingly. The use of computer technology in all areas such as education, health, communication and banking affect business processes and methods in organizational structure and the education of technically skilled qualified individuals becoming important. The education of qualified individuals in desired qualities is closely related to their attitudes toward computer use. The target of this study was to determine among the students in health and technical programs whether there is a relationship between independent variables such as gender, area of study, use of social media tools and the attitude towards the use of computer technology.
There is substantial interest in producing energy from renewable sources given the continuing concerns regarding climate change. One attractive renewable source for power generation is the use of biomass. Cofiring biomass is one of the simplest ways of reducing GHG emissions from coal-fired power plant. When doing so, in addition to addressing technical factors, it is important to consider public attitudes, as these shape government policies. Surveys of public attitudes to energy usually include renewable sources such as wind, solar and hydro. Bioenergy is sometimes included but cofiring seldom so. When assessing public attitudes, it is instructive to consider what information is freely available to the public. Hence information provided by major national or international organisations, either in favour or against cofiring, are described. It is apparent that the public in most countries have little knowledge of bioenergy as a renewable energy source and most opinion polls do not even address the issue of the public’s attitudes towards it. The few polls that have been conducted indicate that solar, wind and hydro are much more popular than bioenergy. Bioenergy is more popular in countries such as in Northern Europe which have extensive experience in using wood products as an energy source. Opposition to cofiring biomass in coal-fired plant is mainly on the grounds of biomass availability and sustainability. The power industry publications concentrate on the technical issues for the plant when cofiring biomass rather than availability and sustainability concerns.
Fenton, Ginger D.; LaBorde, Luke F.; Radhakrishna, Rama B.; Brown, J. Lynne; Cutter, Catherine N.
Computer-based training is increasingly favored by food companies for training workers due to convenience, self-pacing ability, and ease of use. The objectives of this study were to determine if personal hygiene training, offered through a computer-based method, is as effective as a face-to-face method in knowledge acquisition and improved…
Full Text Available As one of the latest revolutions in networking technology, social networks allow users to keep connected and exchange information. Driven by the rapid wireless technology development and diffusion of mobile devices, social networks experienced a tremendous change based on mobile sensor computing. More and more mobile sensor network applications have appeared with the emergence of a huge amount of users. Therefore, an in-depth discussion on the human–computer interaction (HCI issues of mobile sensor computing is required. The target of this study is to extend the discussions on HCI by examining the relationships of users’ compound attitudes (i.e., affective attitudes, cognitive attitude, engagement and electronic word of mouth (eWOM behaviors in the context of mobile sensor computing. A conceptual model is developed, based on which, 313 valid questionnaires are collected. The research discusses the level of impact on the eWOM of mobile sensor computing by considering user-technology issues, including the compound attitude and engagement, which can bring valuable discussions on the HCI of mobile sensor computing in further study. Besides, we find that user engagement plays a mediating role between the user’s compound attitudes and eWOM. The research result can also help the mobile sensor computing industry to develop effective strategies and build strong consumer user—product (brand relationships.
Zhao, Yu; Liu, Yide; Lai, Ivan K W; Zhang, Hongfeng; Zhang, Yi
As one of the latest revolutions in networking technology, social networks allow users to keep connected and exchange information. Driven by the rapid wireless technology development and diffusion of mobile devices, social networks experienced a tremendous change based on mobile sensor computing. More and more mobile sensor network applications have appeared with the emergence of a huge amount of users. Therefore, an in-depth discussion on the human-computer interaction (HCI) issues of mobile sensor computing is required. The target of this study is to extend the discussions on HCI by examining the relationships of users' compound attitudes (i.e., affective attitudes, cognitive attitude), engagement and electronic word of mouth (eWOM) behaviors in the context of mobile sensor computing. A conceptual model is developed, based on which, 313 valid questionnaires are collected. The research discusses the level of impact on the eWOM of mobile sensor computing by considering user-technology issues, including the compound attitude and engagement, which can bring valuable discussions on the HCI of mobile sensor computing in further study. Besides, we find that user engagement plays a mediating role between the user's compound attitudes and eWOM. The research result can also help the mobile sensor computing industry to develop effective strategies and build strong consumer user-product (brand) relationships.
Lebedeva, N. M.
The results of study of interrelations between values and attitudes to innovations of Canadian and Russian students (Russians and representatives of Northern Caucasia), n = 426 per. are presented. Correlation between individuals' values and their attitudes to innovations are determined. Significant
Full Text Available Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL is still groping its way into Algerian English as a Foreign Language (EFL classroom, where Information Communications Technologies (ICTs are defined in terms of occasional use of computers and data projectors for material presentation in the classroom. Though major issues in the image of the lack of training and absence of facilities are clearly apparent, stakeholders’ attitudes are a decisive aspect that needs to be mapped out if we are to alter the current situation. Thus, the present work aims at investigating EFL university teachers’ attitudes towards CALL at Djilali Liabes University (western Algeria. The current work is a cross-sectional descriptive study that explores teachers’ attitudes across the three domains (affective, cognitive, and behavioural and investigates other related aspects that may help indicate teachers’ likelihood to adopt CALL in the future. The results are promising as the investigated population not only demonstrated a clearly positive attitude towards CALL but also manifested a number of signs that indicate their likelihood to adopt CALL in the future if circumstances are favourable.
Full Text Available Teachers’ perceptions of computers play an important role in integrating computers into education. The related literature includes studies developing or adapting a survey instrument in Turkish culture measuring teachers’ attitudes toward computers. These instruments have three to four factors (e.g., computer importance, computer enjoyment, computer confidence and 18 to 26 items under these factors. The purpose of the present study is to adapt a more detailed and stronger survey questionnaire measuring more dimensions related to teachers’ attitudes. The source instrument was developed by Christensen and Kenzek (2009 and called Teachers’ Attitudes toward Computers (TAC. It has nine factors with 51 items. Before testing the instrument, the interaction (e-mail factor was taken out because of the cultural differences. The reliability and validity testing of the translated instrument was completed with 273 teachers’ candidates in a Faculty of Education in Turkey. The results showed that the translated instrument (Cronbach’s Alpha: .94 included eight factors and consisted of 42 items under these factors, which were consistent with the original instrument. These factors were: Interest (α: .83, Comfort (α: .90, Accommodation (α: .87, Concern (α: .79, Utility (α: .90, Perception (α: .89, Absorption (α: .84, and Significance (α: .83. Additionally, the confirmatory factor analysis result for the model with eight factors was: RMSEA=0.050, χ2/df=1.69, RMR=0.075, SRMR=0.057, GFI= 0.81, AGFI= 0.78, NFI= 0.94, NNFI=0.97, CFI=0.97, IFI= 0.97. Accordingly, as a reliable, valid and stronger instrument, the adapted survey instrument can be suggested for the use in Turkish academic studies.
Jensen, Anne Kejser
as is affordability concern, which may be explained by expectations of inequity measures to come in place in parallel with increasing water prices. Overall these results support the hypothesis that lack of information and affordability concern could lead to resistance towards efficient water pricing among the general......Efficient use of the water resource requires internalization of all costs in the price of water, including environmental and resource costs. However, water resource management tends to be highly political and increasing water prices are a sensitive and complicated policy matter. Hence......, there is a need for increased understanding of the implementation process and the attitudes towards implementation among the general public. This paper explores the spatial heterogeneity in the public attitude towards internalizing environmental and resource costs in the price of water across the EU regions...
Martyn, Elaine; Voller, Peter
This paper details the results of two surveys of teacher attitudes to self-access that took place at the English Centre at the University of Hong Kong during the 1992-93 year, and relate these back to an earlier survey of teacher attitudes from the previous year. The Survey of Teacher Attitudes to Self-Access Learning is appended. (JL)
The purpose of the thesis Teachers' attitudes towards the use of didactic computer games for learning multiplication is to inform the teachers of selected didactic games for the classes of multiplication table and ascertain their views to use them in mathematics. The presence of the multiplication table in the school curriculum is presented in the theoretical part. Its introduction into the lessons and ways of refreshing are presented as well. A chapter discussing information and communica...
Full Text Available Introduction. Recent changes to primary care trusts’ Procedures of Limited Clinical Value (PLCV policy mean that otolaryngologists must now follow policy rather than exercising clinical judgment when listing patients for tonsillectomy. Objectives. To gauge perception within the general public of when tonsillectomy is acceptable and to compare this to the current policy. Method. All patients or their parents attending the adult and paediatric outpatient ENT departments were asked to anonymously complete questionnaires. Results. One hundred and twenty-five completed questionnaires were collected. Thirty-one percent of respondents thought tonsillectomy should be offered solely on patient request, 19% after one to three bouts, and 35% after four to six bouts of tonsillitis. Only 9% thought the current guidelines were reasonable. Patients who had suffered recurrent tonsillitis or had undergone previous tonsillectomy generally thought tonsillectomy advisable after more bouts of tonsillitis than those who had not. Fourteen patients fulfilled the SIGN guidelines for tonsillectomy for recurrent tonsillitis. Of these, 13 (93% felt that suffering 4–6 bouts of tonsillitis was reasonable before tonsillectomy. Conclusion. All patients we surveyed who meet the current PLCV and SIGN guidelines regarding the appropriateness of tonsillectomy for recurrent tonsillitis perceive that they are excessive, believing that 4–6 bouts of recurrent tonsillitis are adequate to justify tonsillectomy.
Many older people enjoy an active sex life although they are likely to experience problems relating to poor health or lack of understanding from healthcare professionals. Health issues include male sexual dysfunction resulting from medication and conditions such as diabetes, vascular disease or prostatic surgery. Older women may experience urogenital atrophy causing dryness, itching and pain on intercourse. Psychological problems such as depression are also associated with poor sexual function.
Florander, J.; Skov, P.
The purpose of this study is to analyze possible trends in the Danish school on an empirical basis, pointing out facts which may be of importance to the development. This has been done by examining, partly, which attitudes manifest themselves in connection with the work in school, partly, whether these attitudes set the stage for conflicts. Conflicts and prospects of conflict are seen as a possible basis for constructive action. The empirical basis consists of view and attitudes among pupils, parents, teachers, and chairmen of school boards in Denmark. The information has been gathered by means of interviews and questionnaires. Furthermore, written material from trades and professions and from different political quarters are included, as well as official descriptions of objectives, rules, and guidelines for the work in school. The results show that there is an obvious risk that school may be forced into a wrong and undesired direction, making it necessary to give a lower priority to essential fields within the work in school.
In a survey of 200 female patients attending a five-man practice in a health centre, 75 per cent of the respondents stated that they would like to be offered a chaperone at pelvic examinations. Only six per cent would accept the offer if the examination was performed by their own doctor and 17 per cent if a different doctor examined them. Patients expressing a definite wish for a chaperone were significantly younger and were less likely to have had a previous pelvic examination. Those who def...
EL-Daou, Badrie Mohammad Nour
The current study analyzes the relationship between the apparent teacher's self-efficacy and attitudes towards integrating technology into classroom teaching, self-evaluation reports and computer performance results. Pre-post measurement of the Computer Technology Integration Survey (CTIS) (Wang et al, 2004) was used to determine the confidence…
EL-Daou, Badrie Mohammad Nour
The current study analyzes the relationship between the apparent teacher's self-efficacy and attitudes towards integrating technology into classroom teaching, self-evaluation reports and computer performance results. Pre-post measurement of the Computer Technology Integration Survey (CTIS) (Wang et al, 2004) was used to determine the confidence…
Full Text Available The advent of modern technologies has had a remarkable role in revolutionizing the classroom setting. It is, therefore, incumbent on teachers to utilize strategies for effective managing of the change. The aim of the present study was to find out English as a Foreign Language (EFL teachers’ beliefs regarding classroom management. In so doing, the relationship between EFL teachers’ demographic variables (age and years of teaching experience, computer attitude, and their classroom instructional and behavior management orientations was explored. The participants of the study comprised a total of 105 male and female EFL language school teachers in Iran. The data for the current study were collected through two questionnaires. The results of the multiple linear regression analyses revealed that the independent variables of participants’ computer attitude, age, and teaching experience are not suitable predictors of both behavioral and instructional management. The results also showed that as the age and teaching experience of the participants increased their attitudes towards computers became more negative
Ng, Wan; Gunstone, Richard
As is the case with most developed countries, pressures from various sectors of society have seen computers make a big presence in Australian education systems in the last decade. In the state of Victoria, integrating learning technology (LT) into all key learning areas of every school's curriculum has been a priority policy of governments. Over the last 8-10 years, large amounts of money have been provided to set schools up with computers and associated technologies. In the area of science, a range of LT resources is available for use in the teaching and learning processes in the classroom. However, there has been limited evaluation into teachers' attitudes towards, and types of, methodology and effectiveness of usage of computer-based technologies in knowledge construction. Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, a study aimed at identifying science teachers' opinions and practices with the use of computer-based technologies in their teaching has been carried out in Victorian government schools. The focus of this paper is on the attitudes of these science teachers towards the use of computer-based technologies in their teaching. The study showed that most teachers have embraced the introduction of these technologies into the school structure well and are generally positive about their potential in the classroom. However, their use in the classrooms is infrequent and often on an ad hoc basis. A range of obstacles preventing the use of these technologies are identified and discussed in this paper.
Hahne, Amina Katharina; Benndorf, Ralf; Frey, Peter; Herzig, Stefan
Curriculum-wide implementation of computer-based learning (CBL) in undergraduate medical education remains elusive. Unlike many pilot tests of singular learning programmes, dropout rates are high and acceptance seems low in the long run. We studied the effect of a new CBL programme, suitable for curriculum-wide implementation, on Year 3 medical students' attitudes towards CBL. Students from 2 universities participating in a mandatory pharmacology course were given access to a CBL programme covering cardiovascular drug therapy in a controlled randomised study (n = 167). Learner properties and attitude towards CBL were measured using psychometric scales, and knowledge by multiple-choice questions (pre- and post-test). Attitude towards CBL worsened in the CBL group (n = 70). Individual learners' properties did not explain this effect. The perceived programme quality was rated only 'average', which may contribute to the lower post-test values of attitude towards CBL. Learning outcomes were similar between the control group (n = 97) and students using CBL (n = 44). Learning efforts were shifted from self-study towards CBL. The initial enthusiasm of students was not maintained when using a programme designed to complement or even replace traditional teaching. Curriculum-wide implementation of CBL might be hampered by the discouragement of users.
Analyzing and modeling of social platforms and media data is rather developed and still developing today. Social behaviors are analyzed and characterized with social and artificial intelligence, statistical methods, analytical approaches and evolutionary algorithms. Data mining and machine learning are used in the social computing. In this study, social computing included, two surveys used a questionnaire with 43 different questions handed over in random sample to 537 different high school st...
While the internationalisation of higher education has made learner diversity a key consideration in tertiary pedagogical practice, research into the application of computer-mediated technologies in this domain has rarely taken into account culture. This article responds to this gap in the research by comparing "Confucian-heritage" and…
Merdiana Era Safitri
Full Text Available Komputer Akuntansi MYOB merupakan hal yang penting bagi keberlangsungan siswa di SMK yang mengambil akuntansi sebagai bekal keterampilan. Hasil nilai UAS semester ganjil Komputer Akuntansi MYOB 56,23% siswa belum tuntas. Permasalahan dalam penelitian ini adalah apakah ada pengaruh motivasi belajar, computer attitude dan fasilitas laboratorium akuntansi terhadap prestasi belajar Komputer Akuntansi MYOB. Populasi dan sampel penelitian adalah seluruh siswa kelas XI Akuntansi SMK PGRI Batang tahun ajaran 2014/2015sebanyak 113 siswa. Metode pengumpulan data menggunakan dokumentasi dan kuesioner. Sedangkan metode analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis deskriptif dan analisis regresi berganda.Hasil penelitian menunjukkanbahwa ada pengaruh secara simultan maupun parsial motivasi belajar, computer attitude dan fasilitas laboratorium akuntansi terhadap prestasi belajar Komputer Akuntansi MYOB. Saran yang diberikan dalam penelitian ini adalahsiswa diharapkan lebih meningkatkan keyakinan percaya diri atas kemampuan yang dimilikinya sehingga tidak mudah terpengaruhi teman lainnya. Guru lebih sering memberikan masukan kepada siswa bagaimana pentingnya komputer khususnya Komputer Akuntansi MYOB.Bagi sekolah agar lebih meningkatkan fasilitas laboratorium akuntansi. MYOB accounting computer is essential for the sustainability of the students who take the vocational competence accounting expertise as a preparation skills. The results of the UAS MYOB Accounting Computers 56.23% of students have not been completed. So that the problem in this study is whether there is to determine whether there is the influence of learning motivation, computer attitude and accounting laboratory facilities for MYOB accounting computer learning achievement.Population and sample in this study is a class XI Accounting of State Vocational High School PGRI Batang in academic year 2014/2015rod as much as 113 students. Methods of data collection using documentation and questionnaire
Lenard, Mary Jane; Wessels, Susan; Khanlarian, Cindi
Using a model developed by Young (2000), this paper explores the relationship between performance in the Accounting Information Systems course, self-assessed computer skills, and attitudes toward computers. Results show that after taking the AIS course, students experience a change in perception about their use of computers. Females'…
Voinea, Camelia Florela
...” – of political culture modeling research. This paper reviews the research literature on the conceptual, computational and simulation modeling of political attitudes developed starting with the beginning of the 20th century until the present times...
Chang, Sung-Lu; Shieh, Ruey S.; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Yu, Pao-Ta
In the "Digital Divide" research, adult women have generally been found to be the weakest group when compared with others. There is thus a need to provide this particular group with computer literacy training, and to give them opportunities to learn about using computers. In such training, women not only need to learn computer skills,…
Full Text Available Background: As computers and internet usage is increasing rapidly in all fields more so with health care systems, an immediate attention on the computer knowledge and its application is needed for health professionals. Aim: To assess the knowledge of computer technology and their attitude towards its usage among health care students in an institution located in India. Materials & Method: A cross-sectional questionnaire based survey was conducted among dental, medical House surgeons (interns and final year nursing students of Mamata Institutions in Khammam, Andhra Pradesh, India. A pretested closed ended questionnaire was prepared and was distributed. Results: A total of 260 subjects had participated in the study (female=170, male=90. About 42% of the subjects had their own computer or laptop; 84% of the students thought that a separate subject of computers should be added to the curriculum and 87% of the students thought that computers were necessary to manage patients′ information. Conclusions: There is a need to improve the health care students′ knowledge on computer education and application of this knowledge in to their clinical practice.
Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim
The use of enzymes in food production has potential benefits for both food manufacturers and consumers. A central question is how consumers react to new ways of producing foods with enzymes. This study investigates the formation of consumer attitudes to different enzyme production methods in three...... European countries. Results show that consumers are most positive towards non-GM enzyme production methods. The enzyme production method is by far the most important factor for the formation of buying intentions compared to price and benefits. Results also show that environmental concern and attitudes...... to technological progress are the socio-political attitudes that have the highest predictive value regarding attitudes to enzyme production methods....
Describes a girls' computer club started at one elementary school as an action research project. Discusses research findings about girls and computer technology; getting started; building community and establishing communication; activities and projects; using games to build computer fluency; involving volunteers; and success of the club. Includes…
factors related to knowledge and attitudes regarding. MTCT, PMTCT (Prevention of Mother to Child. Transmission), VCT and breastfeeding. Data were entered into a computer using SPSS statistical software. Analysis including frequencies, percentages, odds ratios and bivariate analyses were used for reporting the findings.
Badrie Mohammad Nour ELDaou
Full Text Available The current study analyzesthe relationship between the apparentteacher’s Self-efficacyand attitudes towardsintegrating technology into classroom teaching, self-evaluation reportsand computer performance results. Pre-post measurement of the Computer Technology Integration Survey (CTIS (Wang et al, 2004 was used to determine theconfidence level with of 60 science teachers and 12 mixed-major teachers enrolled at the Lebanese University, Faculty of Education in the academic year 2011-2012. Pre –post measurement onteachers’attitudes towards usingtechnologywas examined using an opened and a closed questionnaire.Teachers’ performance was measured by means of their Activeinspire projects results using active boards after their third practice of training in computer skills and Activeinspire program. To accumulate data on teachers’ self-report, this study uses Robert Reasoner's five components: feeling of security, feeling of belonging, feeling of identity, feeling of goal, and self-actualization which teachers used to rate themselves (Reasoner,1983. The study acknowledged probable impacts of computer training skills on teachers ‘self-evaluation report, effectiveness of computer technology skills, and evaluations of self-efficacy attitudes toward technology integration. Pearson correlation revealed a strong relationship r= 0.99 between the perceived self-efficacy towards technology incorporation and teachers’ self-evaluation report. Also, the findings of this research revealed that 82.7% of teachers earned high computer technology scores on their Activeinspire projects and 33.3% received excellent grades on computer performance test. Recommendations and potential research were discussed
Stanisstreet, Martin; And Others
A survey of 244 British university undergraduates in biology, computer science, and English investigated attitudes about various uses of animals, including killing animals to make luxury clothing, killing of animals for food, general and medical research using animals, and captivity. Response differences by discipline, gender, and age were also…
Fildes, B. Lahausse, J. Langford, J. Keall, M. & Nes, N. van
A collaborative research study was undertaken in four Australian states to assess community attitudes towards current speed limits and to identify some of the reasons for these attitudes. An on-line web-based survey conducted in each state yielded a total of 4100 responses from mainly licensed
The present research was done to determine the basic technology competency of Turkish teachers, their attitude towards computer-assisted education, and their technology operation level in Turkish lessons, and to designate the relationship between them. 85 Turkish teachers studying in public schools in Bartin participated in the research. The…
Joshi, Ashish; Lichenstein, Richard; King, James; Arora, Mohit; Khan, Salwa
The objective of this pilot study was to assess and describe changes in knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding influenza vaccination in an inner city setting using an interactive computer-based educational program. A convenience sample of ninety participants whose children were in the age group of 6 months to 5 years was enrolled in this…
Whitley, Bernard E., Jr.
Gender differences in attitudes toward computers are examined. Subjects were 136 male and 185 female introductory psychology students. The following were assessed: self confidence; anxiety; beliefs about the impact of computers on society; general positive and negative beliefs; and effects of prior experience. (Author/AEF)
Liu, Min; Hsieh, Peggy (Pei-Hsuan); Cho, Yoonjung; Schallert, Diane
This study examined the effect of a computer-enhanced problem-based learning (PBL) environment on middle school students' learning, investigating the relationship among students' self-efficacy, attitude toward science, and achievement. As Bandura defined it (1986), self-efficacy refers to the beliefs people have about whether or not they can…
This study aims to analyze the attitudes of students studying computer programming through the distance education regarding programming, and their self-efficacy for programming and the relation between these two factors. The study is conducted with 104 students being thought with distance education in a university in the north region of Turkey in…
Kalemoglu Varol, Yaprak
The aim of research is to investigate the relationship between attitudes of prospective physical education teacher towards education technologies and their computer self-efficacy beliefs. Relational research method has been used in the study. Study group consists of 337 prospective physical education teachers ("M"[subscript age] = 21.57…
The study aims to examine the impact of social networks of a "Computer in Teaching" course on the achievement and attitudes students at the faculty of education at Najran University. The sample consists of (60) students from the third level in the special education program, (30) students represented the control group whereas the other…
Full Text Available A positive attitude is a powerful tool that fosters enthusiasm, promotes self-esteem, and creates an atmosphere conducive to learning. Achievement in a target language relies not only on intellectual capacity, but also on the learner’s attitudes towards language learning. Attitudes could be viewed as a tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain thing, idea, person, situation etc. The attitudes that the students should have are attitude towards the language, attitude towards learning the language, attitude towards the language teacher, and attitude towards school in general. This study focuses on discussing about encouraging students to have positive attitudes toward learning English.
Williams, Brett; Boyle, Malcolm; Molloy, Andrew; Brightwell, Richard; Munro, Graham; Service, Melinda; Brown, Ted
Computers and computer-assisted instruction are being used with increasing frequency in the area of undergraduate paramedic education. Paramedic students’ attitudes towards the use of e-learning technology and computer-assisted instruction have received limited attention in the empirical literature to date. The objective of this study was to determine paramedic students’ attitudes towards e-learning. A cross-sectional methodology was used in the form of a paperbased survey to elicit students’...
Wallace, Sean; Clark, Marcia; White, Jonathan
.... This study examined how medical teachers and learners are using mobile computing devices such as the iPhone in medical education and practice, and how they envision them being used in the future...
Nguemaleu, Raoul-Abelin Choumin
A concise and accessible introduction to green computing and green IT, this book addresses how computer science and the computer infrastructure affect the environment and presents the main challenges in making computing more environmentally friendly. The authors review the methodologies, designs, frameworks, and software development tools that can be used in computer science to reduce energy consumption and still compute efficiently. They also focus on Computer Aided Design (CAD) and describe what design engineers and CAD software applications can do to support new streamlined business directi
Rahimi, Mehrak; Yadollahi, Samaneh
The aim of this study was investigating Iranian female students' attitude towards CALL and its relationship with their level of education, computer ownership, and frequency of use. One hundred and forty-two female students (50 junior high-school students, 49 high-school students and 43 university students) participated in this study. They filled…
ELDaou, Badrie Mohammad Nour
The current study analyzesthe relationship between the apparentteacher’s Self-efficacyand attitudes towardsintegrating technology into classroom teaching, self-evaluation reportsand computer performance results...
Full Text Available Purpose: To study the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP towards computer vision syndrome prevalent in Indian ophthalmologists and to assess whether ′computer use by practitioners′ had any bearing on the knowledge and practices in computer vision syndrome (CVS. Materials and Methods: A random KAP survey was carried out on 300 Indian ophthalmologists using a 34-point spot-questionnaire in January 2005. Results: All the doctors who responded were aware of CVS. The chief presenting symptoms were eyestrain (97.8%, headache (82.1%, tiredness and burning sensation (79.1%, watering (66.4% and redness (61.2%. Ophthalmologists using computers reported that focusing from distance to near and vice versa ( P =0.006, χ2 test, blurred vision at a distance ( P =0.016, χ2 test and blepharospasm ( P =0.026, χ2 test formed part of the syndrome. The main mode of treatment used was tear substitutes. Half of ophthalmologists (50.7% were not prescribing any spectacles. They did not have any preference for any special type of glasses (68.7% or spectral filters. Computer-users were more likely to prescribe sedatives/ anxiolytics ( P = 0.04, χ2 test, spectacles ( P = 0.02, χ2 test and conscious frequent blinking ( P = 0.003, χ2 test than the non-computer-users. Conclusions: All respondents were aware of CVS. Confusion regarding treatment guidelines was observed in both groups. Computer-using ophthalmologists were more informed of symptoms and diagnostic signs but were misinformed about treatment modalities.
Uncu, Yeşim; Vural, Pinar; Büyükuysal, Cağatay; Alper, Züleyha; Kiliç, Emine Zinnur
We aimed to evaluate the computer usage patterns of adolescents and to determine the effects of family life and parental attitude on these patterns. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional, population-based survey that included 935 children between 11 and 16 years of age who were students in the second level of primary school and their parents as well. The following instruments were used in the survey: student and parent questionnaires on computer usage patterns and the Parental Attitude Research Instrument (PARI) to assess parental attitudes towards child-rearing and family life. Of the study population, the majority of the students had a computer in their homes and spent a lot of time on the Internet. Parental control over the amount of time spent on the Internet and the websites that were visited had sometimes limited and contradictory effects on computer usage among the students. A democratic parental attitude was the best approach. Using the computer as a reward or punishment had a negative impact on the children's computer usage patterns. Although parents are confused concerning the benefits and harms of the Internet for their children and not certain how to manage their children's use of the computer and safe navigation of the Internet, a democratic parental attitude appears to be the best approach for reaching the most beneficial computer usage patterns for students.
Razina, Natalya V
.... According to the results of this study, we distinguished the most significant characteristics of the attitudes to motherhood that influence the nature of the relationship between a mother and her unborn child...
There is a Significant Relationship Between Computer Attitudes and Library Anxiety Among African American Graduate Students. A review of: Jiao, Qun G., and Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie. “The Impact of Information Technology on Library Anxiety: The Role of Computer Attitudes.” Information Technology & Libraries 23.4 (Dec. 2004: 138 ‐44.
Full Text Available Objective – To investigate whether African American students’ computer attitudes predict levels of library anxiety. Design – A user study in which two instruments were administered to a group of graduate students to measure computer attitudes and library anxiety. Setting – The College of Education at an historically black college and university in the United States of America. Subjects – Ninety ‐four, predominantly female, African American graduate students, ranging in age from 22 ‐62 years old, and enrolled in either a statistics or a measurement course. Methods – Two instruments, the Computer Attitude Scale (CAS and the Library Anxiety Scale (LAS were administered to all the study participants. The Computer Anxiety Scale contains forty Likert ‐type items that assess individuals’ attitudes toward computers and their use. It includes four scales which can be administered separately: 1. Anxiety or fear of computers 2. Confidence in the ability to use computers 3. Liking or enjoying working with computers 4. Computer usefulnessThe LAS contains forty ‐three, 5 ‐point, Likert ‐format items that assess levels of library anxiety experienced by college students. It also has five subscales as follows: 1. Barriers with staff 2. Affective barriers 3. Comfort with the library 4. Knowledge of the library 5. Mechanical barriers Main results – There were twenty correlations between the library anxiety subscale scores and the computer attitude subscale scores. Four of these correlations were statistically significant. Liking or enjoying working with computers was statistically significantly linked to affective barriers, comfort with the library, and knowledge of the library. There was also a statistically significant association between an attitude of computer usefulness and knowledge of the library. Conclusion – These findings suggest that in this group of students there is a medium to strong relationship between computer
A positive attitude is a powerful tool that fosters enthusiasm, promotes self-esteem, and creates an atmosphere conducive to learning. Achievement in a target language relies not only on intellectual capacity, but also on the learner’s attitudes towards language learning. Attitudes could be viewed as a tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain thing, idea, person, situation etc. The attitudes that the students should have are attitude towards the language, attitude toward...
DENNISON, James; TALÒ, Teresa
Attitudes to immigration in France, as in most European countries, are highly stable and are in fact becoming slightly more favourable. • France has relatively negative attitudes to immigration when compared with other western European countries. • However, the French see immigration as a relatively unimportant issue affecting their country, considerably less so than other western European electorates. • The recent uptick in perceived importance of immigration in almost all western European c...
Houtz, Nathan; Frueh, Carolin
Knowing a spacecraft’s orientation is crucial for many vital functions. Attitude is often determined using a star tracker. Star tracker attitude determination must be fast and efficient given the limited on board computing resources. To determine its attitude, a star tracker must take an image of its environment, locate the stars in that image, recognize a pattern among those stars, match it with patterns in a catalog, and determine the rotation matrix that relates the spacecraft to the inert...
Tenjović Lazar R.
Full Text Available Two components of the attitude towards mathematics were examined on the groups of psychology and ethnology freshmen using the Attitude to Mathematics Questionnaire by L. Aiken: Enjoyments in mathematics and Value of Mathematics. The means of the psychology students on the two components of the attitude towards mathematics were almost in the middle between those of the civil engineering students on the one side, and those of the ethnology students on the other side. However, considering the markedly asymmetric result distributions on specific components of the attitude towards mathematics, with a view of more real positioning of the psychology students compared with the remaining two groups according to their relation to mathematics, all the subjects were clustered pursuant to their answers to the respective Questionnaire items. The cluster analysis results lead to the conclusion that in their attitude towards mathematics most of the psychology freshmen are closer to the students of those faculties who use mathematics as basic ''tools'' than to the students freshly enrolled in other fields traditionally not employing mathematical ''tools'' in their work. Likewise, a positive attitude towards mathematics prevails in the psychology freshmen.
Naseh, Ladan; Heidari, Mohammad
One of the most common morally controversial issues in endof-life care is euthanasia. Examining the attitudes of nursing students to this issue is important because they may encounter situations related to euthanasia during their clinical courses. The aim of our study was to examine nursing students' attitudes to euthanasia in Shahrekord city in western Iran. This was done using the Euthanasia Attitude Scale. The scale is divided into four categories, ie ethical considerations, practical considerations, treasuring life and naturalistic beliefs. Of 132 nursing students, 120 participated in the study (response rate 93.1%). According to the study's findings, 52.5%, 2.5% and 45% of the students reported a negative, neutral and positive attitude to euthanasia, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the nursing students' attitudes to euthanasia and some demographic characteristics, including sex, age and religious beliefs. Iranian Muslim nursing students participating in the study had a negative attitude to euthanasia. Further studies are recommended among nursing students from different cultures and of different religious faiths.
Avan, Cagri; Aydinli, Bahattin; Bakar, Fatma; Alboga, Yunus
The aim of this study is to introduce an attitude scale in order to define students? attitudes about environment, recycling, plastics, plastic waste. In this study, 80 attitude sentences according to 5-point Likert-type scale were prepared and applied to 492 students of 6th grade in the Kastamonu city center of Turkey. The scale consists of…
Baturay, Meltem Huri; Gökçearslan, Sahin; Sahin, Semsettin
The current study investigates the attitudes of teachers towards Computer-Assisted Education (CAE) and their knowledge of technology, pedagogy and content via TPACK model that assesses the competencies for developing and implementing successful teaching. There were 280 participants in the study. The results of the study indicate that teachers'…
), referred to as MT-assisted TM translation, and in this type of tool, translators switch between editing TM matches and post-editing MT matches. It is generally assumed that translators’ attitudes towards technology impact on this interaction with the technology. Drawing on Eagly/ Chaiken’s (1995) de nition......Today technology is part and parcel of professional translation, and translation has therefore been characterised as Translator-Computer Interaction (TCI) (O’Brien 2012). Translation is increasingly carried out using Translation Memory (TM) systems which incorporate machine translation (MT...... resistances offered by the tool. The study shows that the translators express disfavour towards MT in many respects, but also acknowledge positive aspects of the technology and expect MT to play a signi cant role in their future working lives. The translators do not make many positive or negative comments...
Badrie Mohammad Nour EL-Daou
Full Text Available The current study analyzes the relationship between the apparent teacher’s Self-efficacy and attitudes towards integrating technology into classroom teaching, self- evaluation reports and computer performance results. Pre-post measurement of the Computer Technology Integration Survey (CTIS (Wang et al,2004 was used to determine the confidence level with of 60 science teachers and 12 mixed-major teachers enrolled at the Lebanese University, Faculty of Education in the academic year 2011-2012. Pre –post measurement on teachers’ attitudes towards using technology was examined using an opened and a closed questionnaire. Teachers’ performance was measured by means of their Activeinspire projects results using active boards after their third practice of training in computer skills and Activeinspire program. To accumulate data on teachers’ self-report, this study uses Robert Reasoner's five components: feeling of security, feeling of belonging, feeling of identity, feeling of goal, and self-actualization which teachers used to rate themselves (Reasoner,1983. The study acknowledged probable impacts of computer training skills on teachers ‘self-evaluation report, effectiveness of computer technology skills, and evaluations of self-efficacy attitudes toward technology integration. Pearson correlation revealed a strong relationship r = 0.99 between the perceived self-efficacy towards technology incorporation and teachers’ self-evaluation report. Also, the findings of this research revealed that 82.7% of teachers earned high computer technology scores on their Activeinspire projects and 33.3% received excellent grades on computer performance test. Recommendations and potential research were discussed.
Williams, Brett; Boyle, Malcolm; Molloy, Andrew; Brightwell, Richard; Munro, Graham; Service, Melinda; Brown, Ted
Computers and computer-assisted instruction are being used with increasing frequency in the area of undergraduate paramedic education. Paramedic students' attitudes towards the use of e-learning technology and computer-assisted instruction have received limited attention in the empirical literature to date. The objective of this study was to…
Smith, W; Bedayse, S; Lalwah, S L; Paryag, A
The University of the West Indies (UWI) Dental School is planning to implement computer-based information systems to manage student and patient data. In order to measure the acceptance of the proposed implementation and to determine the degree of training that would be required, a survey was undertaken of the computer literacy and attitude of all staff and students. Data were collected via 230 questionnaires from all staff and students. A 78% response rate was obtained. The computer literacy of the majority of respondents was ranked as 'more than adequate' compared to other European Dental Schools. Respondents computer literacy scores than older age groups (P computer, or were members of online social networking sites had significantly higher computer literacy scores than those who did not (P computer literacy should be a part of every modern undergraduate curriculum; that computer assisted learning applications and web-based learning activity could effectively supplement the traditional undergraduate curriculum and that a suitable information system would improve the efficiency in the school's management of students, teaching and clinics. The implementation of a computer-based information system is likely to have widespread acceptance among students and staff at the UWI Dental School. The computer literacy of the students and staff are on par with those of schools in the US and Europe.
Blankenship, Strader Eric
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the following factors predict computer use by teachers in classroom instruction: attitudes of teachers toward computers in the classroom, access by teachers and students to computers, training of teachers in computer use, support of teachers in their use of computers, age of the teacher, grade level in which the teacher teaches, curriculum area in which the teacher teaches, gender of the teacher, and number of years the teacher i...
subjects and objects of attacks contribute to the uniqueness of computer-related crime. For example, as the cashless , checkless society approaches...advancing computer tech- nology and security methods, and proliferation of computers in bringing about the paperless society . The universal use of...organizations do to society . Jerry Schneider, one of the known perpetrators, said that he was motivated to perform his acts to make money, for the
Resconi, Germano; Xu, Guanglin
This book offers a concise introduction to morphogenetic computing, showing that its use makes global and local relations, defects in crystal non-Euclidean geometry databases with source and sink, genetic algorithms, and neural networks more stable and efficient. It also presents applications to database, language, nanotechnology with defects, biological genetic structure, electrical circuit, and big data structure. In Turing machines, input and output states form a system – when the system is in one state, the input is transformed into output. This computation is always deterministic and without any possible contradiction or defects. In natural computation there are defects and contradictions that have to be solved to give a coherent and effective computation. The new computation generates the morphology of the system that assumes different forms in time. Genetic process is the prototype of the morphogenetic computing. At the Boolean logic truth value, we substitute a set of truth (active sets) values with...
Perumalla, Kalyan S
Few books comprehensively cover the software and programming aspects of reversible computing. Filling this gap, Introduction to Reversible Computing offers an expanded view of the field that includes the traditional energy-motivated hardware viewpoint as well as the emerging application-motivated software approach. Collecting scattered knowledge into one coherent account, the book provides a compendium of both classical and recently developed results on reversible computing. It explores up-and-coming theories, techniques, and tools for the application of rever
Berman, Gennady P; Mainieri, Ronnie; Tsifrinovich, Vladimir I
Quantum computing promises to solve problems which are intractable on digital computers. Highly parallel quantum algorithms can decrease the computational time for some problems by many orders of magnitude. This important book explains how quantum computers can do these amazing things. Several algorithms are illustrated: the discrete Fourier transform, Shorâ€™s algorithm for prime factorization; algorithms for quantum logic gates; physical implementations of quantum logic gates in ion traps and in spin chains; the simplest schemes for quantum error correction; correction of errors caused by im
Steiner, Dasi; Mendelovitch, Miriam
The communications revolution reaches all sectors of the population and makes information accessible to all. This development presents complex challenges which require changes in the education system, teaching methods and learning environment. The integration of ICT (Information and Communications Technology) and science teaching requires…
This study attempts to analyze student-teachers' attitude towards the use of computers for classroom teaching. Four dimensions of computer attitude on a Likert-type five-point scale were used: Affect (liking), Perceived usefulness, Perceived Control, and Behaviour Intention to use computers. The effect of student-teachers' subject area, years of…
Entrepreneurship Education (EE) and undergraduates' attitude of Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Nigeria, (OAU), to self-employment were examined. Over one thousand students enrolled for the special electives in 2006/2007 academic session. These students were administered with questionnaire, pre- and post- ...
Mehmet Nuri GÖMLEKSİZ
Full Text Available This study aims at determining the effects of computer assisted mind mapping (CAMM technique on students’ academic achievement, attitudes and retention in Science and Technology course. Mixed-method research design which included both quantitative and qualitative methods was used in the study. Pretest-posttest control group experimental design, interview and observation techniques were used. The study included one experimental (N:36 one control group (N:32. The study was conducted on seventh grade students at an elementary school in 2011-2012 academic year. While experimental group used CAMM technique, control group used traditional method. The achievement test, administered as a pre-, post- and delayed post-test, included 34 questions. The mean difficulty of the test was calculated to be .54 and KR-20 reliability coefficient was measured to be .73. To determine students' attitudes towards Science and Technology course, a 20-item five-point Likert-style attitude scale (α: .89 developed by Akınoğlu (2001 was used. The results revealed that CAMM technique had a positive effect on students’ achievement and attitudes towards learning science and technology
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 1. Know Your Personal Computer Introduction to Computers. Siddhartha Kumar Ghoshal. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 48-55. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
), referred to as MT-assisted TM translation, and in this type of tool, translators switch between editing TM matches and post-editing MT matches. It is generally assumed that translators’ attitudes towards technology impact on this interaction with the technology. Drawing on Eagly/ Chaiken’s (1995) de nition...... of attitudes as evaluations of entities with favour or disfavour and on qualitative data from a workplace study of TCI, conducted as part of a PhD dissertation (Bundgaard 2017) and partly reported on in Bundgaard et al. (2016), this paper explores translator attitudes towards TCI in the form of MT-assisted TM...... about TM which might indicate that TM is a completely integrated part of their processes. The translators seem to have a exible and pragmatic attitude towards TCI, adapting to the tool’s imperfections and accommodating its resistances....
Yang, Kun-Yuan; Heh, Jia-Sheng
The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the impact of Internet Virtual Physics Laboratory (IVPL) instruction with traditional laboratory instruction in physics academic achievement, performance of science process skills, and computer attitudes of tenth grade students. One-hundred and fifty students from four classes at one private senior high school in Taoyuan Country, Taiwan, R.O.C. were sampled. All four classes contained 75 students who were equally divided into an experimental group and a control group. The pre-test results indicated that the students' entry-level physics academic achievement, science process skills, and computer attitudes were equal for both groups. On the post-test, the experimental group achieved significantly higher mean scores in physics academic achievement and science process skills. There was no significant difference in computer attitudes between the groups. We concluded that the IVPL had potential to help tenth graders improve their physics academic achievement and science process skills.
Nour EL-Daou, Badrie Mohammad
The current study analyzes the relationship between the apparent teacher’s Self-efficacy and attitudes towards integrating technology into classroom teaching, self- evaluation reports and computer performance results...
Robertazzi, Thomas G
This book gives a broad look at both fundamental networking technology and new areas that support it and use it. It is a concise introduction to the most prominent, recent technological topics in computer networking. Topics include network technology such as wired and wireless networks, enabling technologies such as data centers, software defined networking, cloud and grid computing and applications such as networks on chips, space networking and network security. The accessible writing style and non-mathematical treatment makes this a useful book for the student, network and communications engineer, computer scientist and IT professional. • Features a concise, accessible treatment of computer networking, focusing on new technological topics; • Provides non-mathematical introduction to networks in their most common forms today;< • Includes new developments in switching, optical networks, WiFi, Bluetooth, LTE, 5G, and quantum cryptography.
Medical students as future doctors may have attitudes to abortion that will affect the provision of safe abortion. Little is known about the attitudes of South African medical students to abortion. Objectives: To assess sexual practices and attitudes of medical students to induced abortion and to determine some of the factors that ...
Vicat-Blanc, Pascale; Guillier, Romaric; Soudan, Sebastien
"Computing Networks" explores the core of the new distributed computing infrastructures we are using today: the networking systems of clusters, grids and clouds. It helps network designers and distributed-application developers and users to better understand the technologies, specificities, constraints and benefits of these different infrastructures' communication systems. Cloud Computing will give the possibility for millions of users to process data anytime, anywhere, while being eco-friendly. In order to deliver this emerging traffic in a timely, cost-efficient, energy-efficient, and
Full Text Available The ecological literature deals with uncertainty primarily from the perspective of how to reduce it to acceptable levels. However, the current rapid and ubiquitous environmental changes, as well as anticipated rates of change, pose novel conditions and complex dynamics due to which many sources of uncertainty are difficult or even impossible to reduce. These include both uncertainty in knowledge (epistemic uncertainty and societal responses to it. Under these conditions, an increasing number of studies ask how one can deal with uncertainty as it is. Here, we explore the question how to adopt an overall alternative attitude to uncertainty, which accepts or even embraces it. First, we show that seeking to reduce uncertainty may be counterproductive under some circumstances. It may yield overconfidence, ignoring early warning signs, policy- and societal stagnation, or irresponsible behaviour if personal certainty is offered by externalization of environmental costs. We then demonstrate that uncertainty can have positive impacts by driving improvements in knowledge, promoting cautious action, contributing to keeping societies flexible and adaptable, enhancing awareness, support and involvement of the public in nature conservation, and enhancing cooperation and communication. We discuss the risks of employing a certainty paradigm on uncertain knowledge, the potential benefits of adopting an alternative attitude to uncertainty, and the need to implement such an attitude across scales – from adaptive management at the local scale, to the evolving Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES at the global level.
This literature review seeks to explore the factors that influence nurses' attitudes towards assisted suicide. A poll conducted by the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) showed that 49% of nurses supported assisted suicide while 40% were opposed to it. A literature review resulted in 16 articles being identified for data synthesis using a recognised critiquing framework. The articles revealed four key themes: nursing specialty, level of education, geographical location and religion. It was concluded that these four themes are key to understanding a nurse's attitude towards assisted suicide. Nursing staff need to be aware of their own influences on this topic, since they will inevitably be involved in the process in some way or another, in countries where assisted suicide has been legalised.
Full Text Available 44 Grade 3 children and 45 Grade 5 children from English primary schools were given the British abilities scales basic number skills subtest, and a Mathematics Attitude and Anxiety Questionnaire, using pictorial rating scales to record their Self-rating for maths, Liking for maths, Anxiety about maths, and Unhappiness about poor performance in mathematics. There were few year group differences in attitudes. Boys rated themselves higher than girls, but did not differ significantly in actual performance. Overall, Anxiety was not related to actual performance, but Self-rating was. This relationship between Self-rating and actual performance seemed to develop between Grade 3 and Grade 5. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Full Text Available Plagiarism is an important and frequently discussed issue, which may have severe financial impacts for higher education institutions across Europe. However, there are different attitudes to this topic in different countries. Whereas ECTS aims to provide an objective measurement of student effort allowing students to spend part of their studies at different institutions and even different countries, the penalties for plagiarism and other types of cheating may be different. Even the definition of plagiarism may be understood differently in particular European countries. One of the aims of the project IPPHEAE is to identify these differences and try to find common solutions for related problems.The aim of the paper is to present results of research focused on attitudes to plagiarism in Great Britain, Czech Republic, Poland, Lithuania, Cyprus and Bulgaria. A questionnaire survey was conducted in these countries among students and teachers. The results are interesting and inspiring and show huge differences in attitude to plagiarism between western and post-communist countries, surprisingly including the Czech Republic in the group of western countries.
van der Weyden, R
An understanding of the historical context and the psychological rationale for sunbathing is a prerequisite to designing effective health education strategies. The apparent destruction of the ozone layer, with an increase in the incidence of skin cancers, has brought this issue to the fore.
de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Grunert, Klaus G.; Zhou, Y.
In many countries consumers have shown an increasing interest to the way in which food products are being produced. This study investigates Chinese consumers’ attitudes towards different pig production systems by means of a conjoint analysis. While there has been a range of studies on Western con...... of rural and environmental development, quality aspects, and food safety measures are challenges that must be met by the stakeholders of pig production systems in China....
Newbill, Phyllis Leary
Although negative attitudes toward science are common among women and men in undergraduate introductory science classes, women's attitudes toward science tend to be more negative than men's. The reasons for women's negative attitudes toward science include lack of self-confidence, fear of association with social outcasts, lack of women role models in science, and the fundamental differences between traditional scientific and feminist values. Attitudes are psychological constructs theorized to be composed of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components. Attitudes serve functions, including social expressive, value expressive, utilitarian, and defensive functions, for the people who hold them. To change attitudes, the new attitudes must serve the same function as the old one, and all three components must be treated. Instructional designers can create instructional environments to effect attitude change. In designing instruction to improve women's attitudes toward science, instructional designers should (a) address the emotions that are associated with existing attitudes, (b) involve credible, attractive women role models, and (c) address the functions of the existing attitudes. Two experimental instructional modules were developed based on these recommendations, and two control modules were developed that were not based on these recommendations. The asynchronous, web-based modules were administered to 281 undergraduate geology and chemistry students at two universities. Attitude assessment revealed that attitudes toward scientists improved significantly more in the experimental group, although there was no significant difference in overall attitudes toward science. Women's attitudes improved significantly more than men's in both the experimental and control groups. Students whose attitudes changed wrote significantly more in journaling activities associated with the modules. Qualitative analysis of journals revealed that the guidelines worked exactly as predicted
van Goethem, Anne A. J.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Wiers, Reinout W.
The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly developed measures of implicit bullying attitudes (a…
Stewardson, D A; McHugh, E S
The aims of this study were to record patients' views of their experience of RD use in an objective manner, and to evaluate the influence of some personal and clinical factors on patients' opinion. A questionnaire was designed which was then distributed to patients receiving dental treatment under RD by (a) final-year dental students at Birmingham Dental School, and (b) general dental practitioners. Patients completed the confidential questionnaire anonymously after treatment, outside the treatment room. After 100 correctly completed forms were collected from group (a) and 106 from group (b), data were entered into a database and subsequently analyzed using SPSS. Analyses were confined to simple cross-tabulations of the patients' responses and potential associated factors, with chi-square analysis and appropriate follow-up comparisons wherever necessary. In both groups, the majority of patients said they would prefer RD to be used at their next appointment, and most had a positive opinion of the experience. No statistically significant association between age, sex, procedure, application time or duration of use and preference for rubber dam was found. Prolonged RD use showed some association with a negative opinion of the experience of RD. Compared with the dentists, students took longer to apply rubber dam and it was in place for longer. Fewer student patients preferred RD next time, and were less positive about its use than the dentists' patients. Further evidence is presented that (i) Patients generally are not averse to RD. (ii) Placement of rubber dam does not take long. (iii) Operator experience improves patient compliance.
Mkhize, Msizi Vitalis; Maistry, Suriamurthee Moonsamy
Mathematics proficiency has an acknowledged impact on students' accounting grades. Success in this core business subject is dependent on students' mathematical aptitude, attitude and type of secondary schooling. Our study investigated accounting students' attitudes to mathematics on domains of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales…
Those teachers that hold negative attitudes should work at such attitudes so that through the lessons they teach they could impact positively on the behaviour of their students. Also, teacher professional development on the job should be taken into account in the improvement of teacher attitude to teaching. Ife PsychologIA ...
This study examined the relationship between the learning style profile of students enrolled in the service module courses offered by the Computer Science department at Calvin College (Michigan) and their general attitudes toward computers. Data were gathered using the VARK (Visual, Aural, Read/write, and Kinesthetic) learning style inventory and…
Gurbuz, Tarkan; Yildirim, I. Soner; Ozden, M. Yasar
This study examined the effect of two computer literacy courses (one was offered online, and the other was offered through traditional methods) at the Middle East Technical University (Turkey). The two courses were compared in terms of their effectiveness on computer attitudes of student-teachers. The study also explored the other factors that…
Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere
This study investigated the relative effectiveness of computer-supported cooperative learning strategies on the performance, attitudes, and retention of secondary school students in physics. A purposive sampling technique was used to select four senior secondary schools from Minna, Nigeria. The students were allocated to one of four groups:…
A PHYSICS LESSON DESIGNED II …… CONTINUED Volume: 11 Number: 1 THE EFFECTS OF COMPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION DESIGNED ACCORDING TO 7E MODEL OF CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNING ON PHYSICS STUDENT TEACHERS’ ACHIEVEMENT, CONCEPT LEARNING SELF-EFFICACY PERCEPTIONS AND ATTITUDES
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a Computer-Assisted Instruction designed according to 7E model of constructivist learning(CAI7E related to ‘‘electrostatic’’ topic on physics student teachers’ cognitive development, misconceptions, self-efficacy perceptions and attitudes. The study was conducted in 2006–2007 academic year and was carried out in three different classes taught by the same teacher, in which there were 79 2nd, 3rd and 4th grade university students, in central city of Diyarbakır in Turkey. An experimental research design including the electrostatic achievement test (EAT, the electrostatic concept test (ECT, physics attitude scale (PAS and self-efficacy perception scale (SEPS was applied at the beginning and at the end of the research as pre-test and post-test. After the treatment, general achievement in EAT increased (P0.05.
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a field survey to determine the attitudes of consumers (citizens related to the use of biofuels in transport. Attitudes of citizens towards biotechnologies and renewable energy use to reduce pollutant effects on the environment are an important factor (and even decisive in political decision-making necessary to develop new investments and the practical implementation of the proposed projects in the field of renewable sources. The aim of the study was to identify the attitudes of citizens (consumers regarding follow specific issues: the identification of environmental attitudes and use of biofuels, exploring the connections between attitudes and actions declared effective environmentally taken and exploring attitudes towards authorities environmental policies. It was found that there is a favorable attitude for a massive use of biofuels in transport, even in the absence of relevant sources of information about the complexity of the effects of using biofuels in transport.
This study examined pre-service teachers' self-report on their attitude toward computer use. Participants were 285 pre-service teachers at a teacher training institution in Singapore. They completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses to five constructs which formed a research model using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as a…
Gokhale, Anu A.; Paul E. Brauchle; Kenton F. Machina
The current post-secondary graduation rates in computing disciplines suggest American universities are only training enough students to fill one third of the projected 1.4 million technology and computing jobs available (National Center for Women and Information Technology, 2011). Pursuit of information technology (IT) majors depends, to a great…
Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of computer assisted instruction on secondary school mathematics students’ spatial visualization ability, achievement and attitude in Niger State. Three (3 research questions and their corresponding hypotheses guide the study. The study adopted a quasi-experimental design using pretest posttest non-equivalent, non randomized control group. The instruments for data collection were Geometry Achievement Test (GAT, Spatial Ability Test (SAT, and Mathematics and Technology Attitude Scale (MTAS validated by six senior lecturers. The target population were all SS II mathematics students in the 150 senior Secondary Schools in three educational zones of Niger State. The sample consisted of 330 SS II (178 males and 152 females from nine secondary schools. In each school, a stream (arm of SS II class was randomly selected and used for the study. The three groups were pretested using GAT and SAT to determine their entry-level equivalence, while the post-test instruments are SAT and MTAS administered after six (6 weeks of instruction. The finding of the study revealed that the males outperform than females in spatial ability tasks and had higher positive attitude towards learning mathematics with technology. The study recommend mathematics teachers and instructors should adopt modern teaching pedagogies that are learner-centred and provides platform the development of spatial skills in children and adult a likes.
Full Text Available This study acquires the attitude dynamics of floating bodies with irregular configurations using an effective computational model, which has been validated theoretically and verified by experiments. By comparison a correlation formula was described to predict inclinations for the floating slender body imitating an excise torpedo. Thereafter a computational model was developed to account for bodies with attitudes in more general situations. For demonstration, a submersible was simulated to reveal that the inclinations vary abruptly around certain longitudinal locations of center of gravity. The property variations during water ingress assumption were presented. Similar to the virtue tank, an innovative concept of building the numerical data base for a specific floating body has been proposed, by which the position of its center of gravity can be obtained by interpolation from attitude data in tables as determined by the present computational model.
Sigurbjornsdottir, Olof Drofn; Torfadottir, Johanna Eyrun; Olafsdottir, Anna Sigridur; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey
Few studies exist on eating attitudes and well-being of adults in Iceland. In most Western societies great emphasis is placed on a lean and fit body, nevertheless the number of people gaining weigt keeps increasing. Such circumstances may cause discomfort related to food and food choice. The aim of this study was to examine attitudes towards food and eating among Icelandic adults. We used data from the Icelandic national health survey of 5,861 adults, age 18-79, conducted in 2007. A numerical assessment tool for measuring eating attitude was established, based on answers to questions on eating attitude. We used binary regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for unhealthy eating attitude according to different demographic factors. The prevalence of unhealthy eating attitude according to the measurement tool used in the study was 17% among participants, 22% for women and 11% for men. Unhealthy eating attitude was most prevalent in the age-group 18-29 years (36% of women, 15% of men), among those dissatisfied with their body weight (35% of women, 22% of men) and among those defined as obese (38% of women, 23% of men). Our data show that women are more prone to express unhealthy eating attitude compared to men. Those of younger age, with weight dissatisfaction and with high body mass index are positively associated with unhealthy eating attitude, irrespective of gender. Diet, Dietary restraint, Public Health, Eating attitude, Body weight satisfaction. Correspondence: Laufey Steingrimsdottir, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.
Mattheos, N; Nattestad, A; Schittek, M; Attström, R
A questionnaire survey was carried out to investigate the competence and attitude of dental students towards computers. The current study presents the findings deriving from 590 questionnaires collected from 16 European dental schools from 9 countries between October 1998 and October 1999. The results suggest that 60% of students use computers for their education, while 72% have access to the Internet. The overall figures, however, disguise major differences between the various universities. Students in Northern and Western Europe seem to rely mostly on university facilities to access the Internet. The same however, is not true for students in Greece and Spain, who appear to depend on home computers. Less than half the students have been exposed to some form of computer literacy education in their universities, with the great majority acquiring their competence in other ways. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) skills of the average dental student, within this limited sample of dental schools, do not facilitate full use of new media available. In addition, if the observed regional differences are valid, there may be an educational and political problem that could intensify inequalities among professionals in the future. To minimize this potential problem, closer cooperation between academic institutions, with sharing of resources and expertise, is recommended.
Raveesh, B. N.; Pathare, S.; Noorthoorn, E.O.; Gowda, G. S.; Lepping, P.; Bunders-Aelen, J. G. F.
Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess attitudes of Indian psychiatrists and caregivers toward coercion. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Department of Psychiatry, Krishna Rajendra Hospital, Mysore, India. Staff Attitude to Coercion Scale (SACS), a 15-item questionnaire, was administered to self-selected psychiatrists across India and caregivers from Mysore to measure attitudes on coercion. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and investigating d...
Laing, Gregory Kenneth; Perrin, Ronald William
This paper presents the findings of a field study conducted to ascertain the perceptions of first year accounting students concerning the integration of computer applications in the accounting curriculum. The results indicate that both student cohorts perceived the computer as a valuable educational tool. The use of computers to enhance the…
Parker, Donald E.; Harm, D. L.; Florer, Faith L.
This paper describes ongoing development of training procedures to enhance self-attitude awareness in astronaut trainees. The procedures are based on observations regarding self-attitude (perceived self-orientation and self-motion) reported by astronauts. Self-attitude awareness training is implemented on a personal computer system and consists of lesson stacks programmed using Hypertalk with Macromind Director movie imports. Training evaluation will be accomplished by an active search task using the virtual Spacelab environment produced by the Device for Orientation and Motion Environments Preflight Adaptation Trainer (DOME-PAT) as well as by assessment of astronauts' performance and sense of well-being during orbital flight. The general purpose of self-attitude awareness training is to use as efficiently as possible the limited DOME-PAT training time available to astronauts prior to a space mission. We suggest that similar training procedures may enhance the performance of virtual environment operators.
Helio Koiti Kuga
Full Text Available Attitude control of artificial satellites is dependent on information provided by its attitude determination process. This paper presents the implementation and tests of a fully self-contained algorithm for the attitude determination using magnetometers and accelerometers, for application on a satellite simulator based on frictionless air bearing tables. However, it is known that magnetometers and accelerometers need to be calibrated so as to allow that measurements are used to their ultimate accuracy. A calibration method is implemented which proves to be essential for improving attitude determination accuracy. For the stepwise real-time attitude determination, it was used the well-known QUEST algorithm which yields quick response with reduced computer resources. The algorithms are tested and qualified with actual data collected on the streets under controlled situations. For such street runaways, the experiment employs a solid-state magnetoresistive magnetometer and an IMU navigation block consisting of triads of accelerometers and gyros, with MEMS technology. A GPS receiver is used to record positional information. The collected measurements are processed through the developed algorithms, and comparisons are made for attitude determination using calibrated and noncalibrated data. The results show that the attitude accuracy reaches the requirements for real-time operation for satellite simulator platforms.
Abednego Feehi Okoe
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the drivers of consumers’ attitudes towards mobile advertisement. It also sought the relationship between consumers’ attitudes towards mobile advertisement and their willingness to accept mobile advertising. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the measurement model while structural equation was conducted to assess the goodness-fit of the overall model. The findings indicate that entertainment, credibility and personalization had positive effects on consumers’ attitudes toward mobile advertising. Furthermore, the results show that, consumers’ attitude determines their willingness to accept mobile advertising.
Yanofsky, Noson S.
Quantum Computing is a new and exciting field at the intersection of mathematics, computer science and physics. It concerns a utilization of quantum mechanics to improve the efficiency of computation. Here we present a gentle introduction to some of the ideas in quantum computing. The paper begins by motivating the central ideas of quantum mechanics and quantum computation with simple toy models. From there we move on to a formal presentation of the small fraction of (finite dimensional) quan...
Ahmed, O; Nugent, M; Cahill, R; Mulsow, J
Surgical mentorship remains important especially in an era of run-through training but can be hindered by the 'generation gap' between consultants and students. To cater for this, we established a trainee-led mentorship programme for medical students interested in surgery and herein report our initial findings. Our aim is to assess the attitudes of surgical mentors and mentees to a newly established surgical trainee-led mentorship programme to determine factors desirable for its successful delivery. Six first year surgical trainees enrolled as mentors in September 2014. Ninety students enrolled as mentees. During the second semester both mentees and mentors were surveyed by an anonymous questionnaire to assess attitudes to the programme. Data was collected from 85 respondents. Eighty-nine percent of mentees felt their participation had positively impacted their decision to pursue a surgical career. The main benefits were found to be in improving technical skills (40%), providing surgical career guidance (35%) and information about surgical training programmes (14%). Of the mentor qualities most appreciated, 89% preferred institutional proximity while 30 and 27% valued enthusiasm and approachability. Ninety-three percent felt gender is unimportant; 49% preferred a mentor in their speciality of interest. Mentors valued this responsibility drawing greater job satisfaction. Our study, the first to describe the experience and potential benefits of a surgical trainee-led mentoring programme in Ireland, demonstrates a significant appetite amongst students and surgical trainees for mentorship. Further evaluation of the importance of mentoring programmes and the role of trainees in their delivery are necessary.
Chang, Ju-Hui; Zhang, Hongxia
The online game market has been growing rapidly and has received an increasing amount of attention in recent years. The results of a survey conducted in China to explore online game players' attitude formation reveal that (a) the online game player's level of materialism positively influences the motivation for playing, (b) motivation positively influences attitude toward online games, and (c) motivation fully mediates the effects of materialism on attitude.
Broadbent, Elizabeth; Kuo, I Han; Lee, Yong In; Rabindran, Joel; Kerse, Ngaire; Stafford, Rebecca; MacDonald, Bruce A
The use of robots in healthcare is a new concept. The public's perception and acceptance is not well understood. The objective was to investigate the perceptions and emotions toward the utilization of healthcare robots among individuals over 40 years of age, investigate factors contributing to acceptance, and evaluate differences in blood pressure checks taken by a robot and a medical student. Fifty-seven (n = 57) adults aged over 40 years and recruited from local general practitioner or gerontology group lists participated in two cross-sectional studies. The first was an open-ended questionnaire assessing perceptions of robots. In the second study, participants had their blood pressure taken by a medical student and by a robot. Patient comfort with each encounter, perceived accuracy of each measurement, and the quality of the patient interaction were studied in each case. Readings were compared by independent t-tests and regression analyses were conducted to predict quality ratings. Participants' perceptions about robots were influenced by their prior exposure to robots in literature or entertainment media. Participants saw many benefits and applications for healthcare robots, including simple medical procedures and physical assistance, but had some concerns about reliability, safety, and the loss of personal care. Blood pressure readings did not differ between the medical student and robot, but participants felt more comfortable with the medical student and saw the robot as less accurate. Although age and sex were not significant predictors, individuals who held more positive initial attitudes and emotions toward robots rated the robot interaction more favorably. Many people see robots as having benefits and applications in healthcare but some have concerns. Individual attitudes and emotions regarding robots in general are likely to influence future acceptance of their introduction into healthcare processes.
Software piracy has defied punitive measures, posing threats to jobs of millions of employees and the computer industry. The study proposed an attitudinal approach to the wide-reaching problem and examines the variance explained by gender and opportunity recognition in attitude to piracy of software products. It utilized ...
This study sought to determine the effects of Reciprocal Peer Guidance (RPG) on students' attitudes to family responsibilities. ... Based on these findings, it was recommended that to enhance positive students' attitudes to family responsibilities, peer-based guidance strategies such as RPG should be adopted in addition to ...
Razina, Natalya V
The study of motherhood is a promising and relevant field of psychology. This article represents the results of a study in which a socio-psychological analysis of reproductive attitudes and demographic behaviour was conducted...
van Klink, B.M.J.; de Vries, U.
Law teachers at the university want students to develop a critical attitude. But what exactly does it mean to be critical and why is it important to be critical? How can a critical attitude be promoted? In this article we intend to elucidate the role that critical thinking may play in legal
Ahmad, Zauwiyah; Simun, Maimun; Mohammad, Junaini
Academic dishonesty is believed to have predictive ability for subsequent behaviours in the workplace. This study adds to the literature by investigating Malaysian business students' attitudes to academic dishonesty and their attitudes to ethics issues in business. This study also explores the association between these two constructs. The form of…
Barling, N R; Moore, S M
This study investigated attitudes toward AIDS precautions of 370 15- and 16-yr.-old secondary school students. Attitudes reflected levels of apathy, denial, and confusion high enough to lead to concern for this potentially high-risk group. Intention to use condoms in future sexual encounters was related to sex, conflict and confusion about AIDS precautions, plus other attitudinal variables.
Learners' attitude to learning science plays a vitally important role with respect to career choices. This study reflects on the nature of the learners' attitude towards science and the effect of gender. A total of 547 Grade 7 learners from an urban district of Gauteng Province (South Africa) were administered a questionnaire to probe their…
Beentjes, J.W.J.; Konig, R.P.
This study investigates whether exposure to music videos predicts adolescents' sexual attitudes when controlled for relevant characteristics of individuals and their social environment. Sexual attitudes are related to their music video use (i.e. exposure to music videos, peer group talk about music
Jul 26, 2012 ... major factors found to be militating against Nigerian learners of the English language, this study .... of assessment when it is. English Language Teachers‟ Attitudes to the Promotion of the Standard Nigerian English … ..... Attitudes towards Speakers, a Master of Arts in Applied Linguistics. Submitted to the ...
Barrientos, Armando; Neff, Daniel
The paper explores attitudes to chronic poverty in a cross-section of developed and developing countries contributing data to the World Values Survey Wave Three (1994-1998). The analysis finds a consistent belief among a majority of respondents that poverty is persistent. The paper also explores the factors influencing public attitudes to chronic…
A positive attitude to life or profession has been identified as a means of rapid development. It is a force that compels an individual to go extra mile in any discipline or career of his choice. The purpose of this study is to examine the attitude of undergraduate students in taking a career in Agriculture. A stratified random ...
Beentjes, J.W.J.; Konig, R.P.
This study investigates whether exposure to music videos predicts adolescents' sexual attitudes when controlled for relevant characteristics of individuals and their social environment. Sexual attitudes are related to their music video use (i.e. exposure to music videos, peer group talk about music
Beentjes, J.W.J.; Konig, R.P.
This study investigates whether exposure to music videos predicts adolescents' sexual attitudes when controlled for relevant characteristics of individuals and their social environment. Sexual attitudes are related to their music video use (i.e. exposure to music videos, peer group talk about music
To repeat the 1993 survey as far as possible and determine whether public attitudes to organ donation in some South African ... Generally attitudes to organ donation have not changed since 1993, remaining positive among the study population. ..... with field work, as well as Astellas Transplant and Roche for unrestricted.
Achor, Emmanuel E.; Shaibu, Joshua S.
This study examined attitude dimensions of secondary school social studies teachers towards computer usage in Kogi State Nigeria. Qualification and Gender influence on their use was examined. Participants were 427 (Male = 224; female = 203) social studies teachers. Sampling was purposive and random. The study adopted the survey design. Data were…
Özdemir, Özlem; Bilgili, Naile
The sociocultural structure of society, changes in attitude and behaviors, and individual and social perspectives on aging all affect the nature of services that are offered to elderly people. "Ageism" is one of the problems that has an impact on the level and quality of service that is provided to the older adults. This study was undertaken to examine the attitudes of Turkish undergraduate nursing students toward aging. A cross-sectional survey was given to 495 nursing students in four universities in Turkey. A questionnaire developed from the related literature and the Ageism Attitude Scale were used to collect data, which was analyzed using standard descriptive statistical methods. The variables of school year, age, cohabitation with an elderly person (yes/no), prior experience with the older adults (yes/no), and willingness to work with the older adults after graduation all significantly influenced the attitudes of participants toward aging (p Ageism Attitude Scale revealed that the participants held a generally positive attitude toward aging. It is of great importance to include more lessons on the older adults and the aging process and to increase activities to develop awareness of ageism, to help students develop positive attitudes and perspectives toward the care of the older adults. Because experience caring for the older adults is important in developing a positive attitude toward the older adults, arranging relevant clinical practice, especially at institutions with an elderly population, may be an effective approach to strengthening the communication and experiences of nursing students.
while the least used methods were the use of Cloud (e.g. Dropbox) and social bookmarking sites. A significant relationship was found to exist between attitude to plagiarism and personal information management behaviour. There was, however, no significant relationship between the level of study and attitude towards ...
Raveesh, B.; Pathare, S.; Noorthoorn, E.; Gowda, G.; Lepping, P.; Bunders-Aelen, J.
Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess attitudes of Indian psychiatrists and caregivers toward coercion. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Department of Psychiatry, Krishna Rajendra Hospital, Mysore, India. Staff Attitude to Coercion Scale (SACS), a 15-item
Kennamer, J. David; Honnold, Julie A.
Finds that lower attention to news about AIDS was predicted by negative attitudes toward homosexuality, conservative AIDS policy attitudes, lower perceived risk of getting AIDS, in addition to being male, older, white, and better educated. Finds that the model predicted media attention better for men than for women. (SR)
Lahausse, J. Nes, N. van Fildes, B. Langford, J. & Keall, M.
A collaborative research study was undertaken in four Australian states to assess community attitudes towards current speed limits and to identify some of the reasons for these attitudes. An on-line web-based survey conducted in each state yielded a total of 4100 responses from mainly licensed
Cheng, Judith Chen-Hsuan; Monroe, Martha C.
A connection to nature index was developed and tested to measure children's affective attitude toward the natural environment. The index was employed through a survey that investigates students' attitude toward Lagoon Quest, a mandatory environmental education program for all fourth-grade, public school students in Brevard County, Florida. Factor…
To determine the concussion knowledge and concussion-related RTP attitudes of subelite rugby union players in South Africa. Methods. ... employed to determine significant differences in concussion knowledge and RTP attitudes between previously concussed and non- .... kaans via the back-translation method..
van Goethem, A.A.J.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Wiers, R.W.
The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly
Goethem, A.A.J. van; Scholte, R.H.J.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.
The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly
Parental knowledge and attitude to children's eye care services. ... Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics ... Purpose: To find out parents knowledge and attitude towards eye examination and treatment for their children and the effect of demographic factors such as gender, age, educational status and number of children. Method: A ...
Positive attitudes to information technology (IT) among relevant stakeholders are an important precursor to the effective IT use at different levels of education. This paper presents the findings of a study that investigated the relationships between the individual characteristics of Nigerian university lecturers and their attitudes ...
Adriaensens, Stefanie; Struyf, Elke
Purpose: The study identifies teachers' beliefs about and attitudes toward stuttering and explores to what extent these beliefs and attitudes prompt specific teachers' reactions to the stuttering of a student. Method: Participants were teachers in secondary education in Flanders (Belgium), currently teaching an adolescent who stutters. They were…
Menopause, a normal midlife transition for women remains poorly understood. This study examined the attitudes of women to menopause. A total of 300 married female teachers made up the sample for the study. Data was collected using the modified Attitude Towards Menopause (ATM) checklist. The responses of the ...
In order to make the attitudes of extension workers more affirmative, the paper recommended, inter alia, staff motivation, minimizing political and administrative interference in staff work and a reasonable reduction in the work load of extension staff. Key words: attitude, extension personnel, training and visit. Journal of ...
Mass Counseling: Effective Tool to Improve Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior Regarding Blood Donation. ... Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research ... and post‑counseling knowledge, attitude, and behavior (KAB) scores regarding blood donation were assessed using a pre‑tested semi‑structured questionnaire.
This study investigated attitude and knowledge of secondary students with hearing impairment towards entrepreneurship. The main goal was to know the depth of their knowledge and attitude in becoming entrepreneurial in line with millennium development goals. A sample of 124 students with hearing impairment was ...
Croll, Paul; Attwood, Gaynor; Fuller, Carol; Last, Kathryn
The paper reports a study of children's attitudes to school based on a questionnaire survey of 845 pupils in their first year of secondary school in England, together with interviews with a sample of the children. A clearly structured set of attitudes emerged from a factor analysis which showed a distinction between instrumental and affective…
Shapiro, Mary B.
This paper postulates that having students engage in albeit limited and flawed research is a more effective way of changing attitudes than lecture or discussion. A common goal of the introductory linguistics course is to instill healthy language attitudes, but there is little extant research on the pedagogy of linguistics indicating how this may…
Lambert, Michael J.; Finley, Robert E.
The Test of Counselor Attitudes (Porter) was administered to five groups representing different levels of counselor training and experience. Significant differences were found between the groups on all five of the counselor attitudes meased: (1) evaluative; (2) interpretive; (3) understanding; (4) supportive; and (5) probing. As students receive…
Saar, Aino; Niglas, Katrin
Used Neukater and van der Kooji's parental attitude questionnaire to ask three groups of mothers (Estonian, non-Estonian in Estonia, Russians in Moscow) about their attitudes toward children's education and play. Found that Estonian mothers applied least control and that higher mother education resulted in less child control and instruction. (DLH)
Garde-Perik, E. van de; Markopoulos, P.; Ruyter, B.E.R. de; Eggen, B.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.
This article presents an experimental study of privacy-related attitudes and behaviors regarding a music recommender service based on two types of user modeling: personality traits and musical preferences. Contrary to prior expectations and attitudes reported by participants, personality traits are
Mathematics proficiency has an acknowledged impact on students' accounting grades. Success in this core business subject is dependent on students' mathematical aptitude, attitude and type of secondary schooling. Our study investigated accounting students' attitudes to mathematics on domains of the ...
Al-Modhefer, A K; Roe, S
To explore what first-year nursing students believe to be the preferred characteristics of common foundation programme biomedical science lecturers, and to investigate whether students prefer active or passive learning. Survey and interview methodologies were used to explore the attitudes of a cohort of first-year nursing students at Queen's University Belfast. Questionnaires were distributed among 300 students. Individuals were asked to select five of a list of 14 criteria that they believed characterised the qualities of an effective lecturer. Informal interviews were carried out with five participants who were randomly selected from the sample to investigate which teaching methods were most beneficial in assisting their learning. Nursing students favoured didactic teaching and found interactivity in lectures intimidating. Students preferred to learn biomedical science passively and depended heavily on their instructors. In response to the survey, the authors propose a set of recommendations to enhance the learning process in large classes. This guidance includes giving clear objectives and requirements to students, encouraging active participation, and sustaining student interest through the use of improved teaching aids and innovative techniques.
Power, B T; Lennie, S C
Communication is a core skill and a prerequisite for dietitians' clinical competence. It is generally acknowledged that communication skills can be taught and learned. There is a paucity of published work identifying dietetic students' attitudes towards learning communication skills, and understanding this is important. The present cross-sectional study aimed to address this issue using an adapted version of the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS), which was designed to capture information concerning positive and negative attitudes to learning communication skills. An online questionnaire was sent to all undergraduate and post-graduate dietetic programmes in the UK. Of the students' solicited for enrolment in the study, 33.4% (n = 300) completed the questionnaire. A one-way analysis of variance showed attitudes to learning communication skills differed significantly between years of study on both subscales of the CSAS. Subsequent analyses indicated that first-year students' attitudes to learning communication skills were significantly more positive than those of fourth-year students (P = 0.042). Third-year students had significantly more positive attitudes to learning communication skills than fourth-year students (P = 0.028). Negative attitudes were also linked to the year of study with fourth-year students having significantly more negative attitudes than third-year students (P = 0.046). Sex, practice placement experience and parental occupation did not significantly influence attitudes to learning communication skills. These findings indicate that efforts are required to maintain positive attitudes to learning communication skills. Further longitudinal studies are recommended in this respect. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Full Text Available Attitudes of students towards Physical Education were determined by Mercer’s inventory of attitudes, which was modifi ed for research in primary schools and secondary schools. With the application of this inventory of attitudes we tried to determine the infl uence of school age on forming of students’ attitudes towards Physical Education. The specimen had 140 students which were divided into four sub specimens – according to the criterion of age. With the procedures of multivariant analysis there were signifi cant statistical differences between four classes, comparing six signs, evaluation of attitude to Physical Education. By the application of Roy’s test statistically signifi cant difference was determined between four classes in fi ve from six researched signs. By the procedures of discriminative analysis there were statistically signifi cant differences and clearly defi ned limits between four classes.
Introduction to Computer Data Representation introduces readers to the representation of data within computers. Starting from basic principles of number representation in computers, the book covers the representation of both integer and floating point numbers, and characters or text. It comprehensively explains the main techniques of computer arithmetic and logical manipulation. The book also features chapters covering the less usual topics of basic checksums and 'universal' or variable length representations for integers, with additional coverage of Gray Codes, BCD codes and logarithmic repre
Ertel, Rebekka Lund; Braae, Uffe Christian; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel
Health education has been recognised as a specific intervention tool for control of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis but evaluation of the efficacy of the tool remains. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of a computer-based T. solium health education tool ‘The Vicious Worm......’ on knowledge uptake among professionals and investigate attitudes towards the program. The study was carried out between March and May 2014 in Mbeya Region, Tanzania, where T. solium is endemic. The study was a pre and post assessment of a health education tool based on questionnaire surveys and focus group...... discussions to investigate knowledge and attitudes. A total of 79 study subjects participated in the study including study subjects from both health – and agriculture sector. The health education consisted of 1½ hours individual practice with the computer program. The baseline questionnaire showed an overall...
A study of the effects of gender and different instructional media (computer-assisted instruction tutorials vs. textbook) on student attitudes and achievement in a team-taught integrated science class
Eardley, Julie Anne
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different instructional media (computer assisted instruction (CAI) tutorial vs. traditional textbook) on student attitudes toward science and computers and achievement scores in a team-taught integrated science course, ENS 1001, "The Whole Earth Course," which was offered at Florida Institute of Technology during the Fall 2000 term. The effect of gender on student attitudes toward science and computers and achievement scores was also investigated. This study employed a randomized pretest-posttest control group experimental research design with a sample of 30 students (12 males and 18 females). Students had registered for weekly lab sessions that accompanied the course and had been randomly assigned to the treatment or control group. The treatment group used a CAI tutorial for completing homework assignments and the control group used the required textbook for completing homework assignments. The Attitude toward Science and Computers Questionnaire and Achievement Test were the two instruments administered during this study to measure students' attitudes and achievement score changes. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), using hierarchical multiple regression/correlation (MRC), was employed to determine: (1) treatment versus control group attitude and achievement differences; and (2) male versus female attitude and achievement differences. The differences between the treatment group's and control group's homework averages were determined by t test analyses. The overall MANCOVA model was found to be significant at p < .05. Examining research factor set independent variables separately resulted in gender being the only variable that significantly contributed in explaining the variability in a dependent variable, attitudes toward science and computers. T test analyses of the homework averages showed no significant differences. Contradictory to the findings of this study, anecdotal information from
Students' Attitudes to Paper Consumption in Relation to Carbon Emissions global warming, climate change, carbon sinks and sustainable development. In contrast to the high levels of awareness of the concepts of greenhouse gases, carbon footprint and climate change, relatively few (29% and 36%) reported knowing a lot ...
The purpose of this study was to assess the impact, in relation to carbon emissions, of electronic course document use and attitudes to paper consumption levels among third- and fifth-year environmental engineering students (N = 78) enrolled in two courses during the 2015/2016 academic year at the. Copperbelt University ...
This study investigated the influence of adolescents' access to media resources on attitude to sexual and reproductive health. The survey research design was adopted while the questionnaire was. used as the major instrument of data collection. Sixty copies of questionnaire were administered to the adolescents that were ...
Harring, Niklas; Davies, Peter; Lundholm, Cecilia
Climate change challenges governments to reduce emissions, and to gain support for such actions from their citizens. This can be in the form of taxation or legislation, or other forms of government interventions. In previous research, several instruments have been developed to capture attitudes towards the roles of markets and governments in the…
Kaiser, Florian G; Byrka, Katarzyna
Hypocrisy-professing a general attitude without implementing corresponding attitude-relevant behavior-is, according to Ajzen and Fishbein (2005), commonly found in attitude research that aims to explain individual behavior. We conducted two studies that adopted the Campbell paradigm, an alternative to the traditional understanding of attitudes. In a laboratory experiment, we found that specific attitude-relevant cooperation in a social dilemma was a function of people's pre-existing general environmental attitude. In a quasi-experiment, we corroborated the reverse as well; engagement in attitude-relevant dietary practices was indicative of environmental attitude. When using Campbellian attitude measures, there is no room for hypocrisy: People put their general attitudes into specific attitude-relevant practices, and differences in people's general attitudes can be derived from their attitude-relevant behavior.
The Effect of In-Service Training of Computer Science Teachers on Scratch Programming Language Skills Using an Electronic Learning Platform on Programming Skills and the Attitudes towards Teaching Programming
Alkaria, Ahmed; Alhassan, Riyadh
This study was conducted to examine the effect of in-service training of computer science teachers in Scratch language using an electronic learning platform on acquiring programming skills and attitudes towards teaching programming. The sample of this study consisted of 40 middle school computer science teachers. They were assigned into two…
This paper examines judicial attitude to environmental litigation and access to environmental justice in Nigeria. The paper employs expository analysis as its methodology in discussing the theme. Essentially, the paper finds that environmental litigations in Nigeria are bedeviled by legal technicalities such that victims of ...
Hartley, P [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing, Engineering, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)
The focus of the book on computational plasticity embodies techniques of relevance not only to academic researchers, but also of interest to industrialists engaged in the production of components using bulk or sheet forming processes. Of particular interest is the guidance on how to create modules for use with the commercial system Abaqus for specific types of material behaviour. The book is in two parts, the first of which contains six chapters, starting with microplasticity, but predominantly on continuum plasticity. The first chapter on microplasticty gives a brief description of the grain structure of metals and the existence of slip systems within the grains. This provides an introduction to the concept of incompressibility during plastic deformation, the nature of plastic yield and the importance of the critically resolved shear stress on the slip planes (Schmid's law). Some knowledge of the notation commonly used to describe slip systems is assumed, which will be familiar to students of metallurgy, but anyone with a more general engineering background may need to undertake additional reading to understand the various descriptions. Chapter two introduces one of several yield criteria, that normally attributed to von Mises (though historians of mechanics might argue over who was first to develop the theory of yielding associated with strain energy density), and its two or three-dimensional representation as a yield surface. The expansion of the yield surface during plastic deformation, its translation due to kinematic hardening and the Bauschinger effect in reversed loading are described with a direct link to the material stress-strain curve. The assumption, that the increment of strain is normal to the yield surface, the normality principle, is introduced. Uniaxial loading of an elastic-plastic material is used as an example in which to develop expressions to describe increments in stress and strain. The full presentation of numerous expressions, tensors
Kfoury, A J; Arbib, Michael A
Computability theory is at the heart of theoretical computer science. Yet, ironically, many of its basic results were discovered by mathematical logicians prior to the development of the first stored-program computer. As a result, many texts on computability theory strike today's computer science students as far removed from their concerns. To remedy this, we base our approach to computability on the language of while-programs, a lean subset of PASCAL, and postpone consideration of such classic models as Turing machines, string-rewriting systems, and p. -recursive functions till the final chapter. Moreover, we balance the presentation of un solvability results such as the unsolvability of the Halting Problem with a presentation of the positive results of modern programming methodology, including the use of proof rules, and the denotational semantics of programs. Computer science seeks to provide a scientific basis for the study of information processing, the solution of problems by algorithms, and the design ...
Dykstra, DeVee E.; Tracy, Daniel L.; Wergin, Rand
Mobile computing technology has proliferated across university campuses with the goals of enhancing student learning outcomes and making courses more accessible. An increasing amount of research has been conducted about mobile computing's benefits in classroom settings. Yet, the research is still in its infancy. The purpose of this paper is to add…
Full Text Available Climate change challenges governments to reduce emissions, and to gain support for such actions from their citizens. This can be in the form of taxation or legislation, or other forms of government interventions. In previous research, several instruments have been developed to capture attitudes towards the roles of markets and governments in the economy. Some of these instruments have assumed that respondents will have the same attitude towards the role of markets and governments, regardless of the context (e.g., welfare, environment, health or the form of government intervention (law, taxation, subsidy, spending etc.. However, these studies have not examined attitudes towards, or belief in, the efficacy of government intervention in markets, through microeconomic policies on taxation (e.g., duties levied on particular products or subsidies. This paper reports on the results of taking such a specific focus, that is, investigating economics students’ knowledge of, and attitudes towards, government interventions in markets, specifically addressing the problem of climate change. We make use of unique, two-wave longitudinal data from Swedish university students. The data were collected during their initial semester at the university. The first data collection was performed at the beginning of the semester, August/September 2014, and the second wave of data collection was performed in December/January 2014/2015, at the end of the semester. We were able to match 414 students between the first and second survey. The results show that students of economics change their policy attitudes and become more knowledgeable in economics. After one semester, they are more likely to think of economic instruments/incentives (taxes and subsidies as good and efficient policy instruments, and less likely to think that other instruments (regulation and information are good and efficient policy instruments. However, further analyses show that knowledgeable students do
Chong, Mei Chan; Francis, Karen; Cooper, Simon; Abdullah, Khatijah Lim; Hmwe, Nant Thin Thin; Sohod, Salina
Continuous nursing education (CNE) courses delivered through e-learning is believed to be an effective mode of learning for nurses. Implementation of e-learning modules requires pre-assessment of infrastructure and learners' characteristics. Understanding the learners' needs and their perspectives would facilitate effective e-learning delivery by addressing the underlying issues and providing necessary support to learners. The aim of this study was to examine access to computer and Internet facilities, interest in and preferences regarding e-learning, and attitudes toward e-learning among nurses in Peninsular Malaysia. The study utilized a cross-sectional descriptive survey. Government hospitals and community clinics in four main regions of Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 300 registered nurses. Data were collected using questionnaires, which consisted of demographic and background items and questions on access to computer and Internet facilities, interest and preferences in e-learning, and attitudes toward e-learning. Descriptive analysis and a chi-squared test were used to identify associations between variables. Most Malaysian nurses had access to a personal or home computer (85.3%, n=256) and computer access at work (85.3%, n=256). The majority had Internet access at home (84%, n=252) and at work (71.8%, n=215); however, average hours of weekly computer use were low. Most nurses (83%, n=249) did not have an e-learning experience but were interested in e-learning activities. Most nurses displayed positive attitudes toward e-learning. Average weekly computer use and interest in e-learning were positively associated with attitudes toward e-learning. Study findings suggest that organizational support is needed to promote accessibility of information and communications technology (ICT) facilities for Malaysian nurses to motivate their involvement in e-learning. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Consumers have not had many possibilities yet for seeking out, buying and consuming genetically modified food products. However, for various reasons consumer attitude formation with regard to these products is likely to be complex and closely related to personal values. The paper presents a model...... for explaining consumer attitudes to genetic modification in food production which builds on modern cognitive psychology and multi-attribute attitude theory. In addition, the paper introduces the empirical research which is undertaken at present to validate and estimate the parameters of the model by means...
Hong, Samin; Kang, Sung Yong; Yoon, Jong Uk; Kang, Uicheon; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun
The purpose of this study is to assess patient attitudes towards anti-glaucoma medication and their association with adherence, visual quality of life, and personality traits. One hundred and forty-seven glaucoma patients were enrolled this study. The participants were divided into 'pharmacophobic' and 'pharmacophilic' groups according to their scores on the Modified Glaucoma Drug Attitude Inventory (MG-DAI). To establish a correlation with patient drug attitude, each group had their subjective drug adherence, visual quality of life, and personality traits examined. For personality traits, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was used to sub-classify each group. Among the patients analyzed, 91 (72.80%) patients showed a 'pharmacophobic' attitude and 34 (27.20%) patients showed a 'pharmacophilic' attitude. The pharmacophobic group tended to have worse adherence than the pharmacophilic group. Personality dichotomies from the MBTI also showed different patterns for each group. In glaucoma patients, pharmacological adherence was influenced by their attitude towards drugs; an association might exist between drug attitude and underlying personality traits.
Full Text Available The aim of the research was to establish the relationship between the attitude of consumers towards the environment and their behaviours when choosing food products taking into consideration their packaging. This relationship was established according to gender, age and the educational level of the consumers. Questionnaire study was carried out in 2010 within 548 adults from Warsaw. Participants were asked questions on attitudes towards environment and behaviours related to reduction of packaging waste. Frequency, factor and cluster analysis were used. Signifi cantly more women than men agreed that buying pro ducts in larger packages and beverages in glass bottles can reduce the amount of garbage. Over twice more people with positive attitude claimed not buying food in disposable plastic or paper packaging. Negative attitude fostered doing nothing to minimize waste packaging. Attitudes towards the environment have had signifi - cant impact on the choice of food packaging. More positive attitudes favoured the reduction of the amount of packaging waste. Thus, environmental campaigns focused on attitudes and environmentally relevant use of food packing are required.
Nkosi, Z Z; Asah, F; Pillay, P
Nurses are exposed to the changing demands in technology as they execute their patient-related duties in the workplace. Integration of Information Technology (IT) in healthcare systems improves the quality of care provided. Nursing students with prior exposure to computers tend to have a positive influence IT. A descriptive study design using a quantitative approach and structured questionnaire was used to measure the nurses' attitudes towards computer usage. A census of 45 post-basic first year nursing management students were participated in this study. The students demonstrated a positive attitude towards the use of a computer. But access to and use of a computer and IT was limited and nurses in clinics had no access to IT. A lack of computer skills was identified as a factor that hinders access to IT. Nursing students agreed that computer literacy should be included in the curriculum to allow them to become independent computer users. The Department of Health should have IT in all health-care facilities and also train all health-care workers to use IT. With the positive attitudes expressed by the students, nurse managers need to create a conducive environment to ensure such a positive attitude continues to excel. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Silliman, J. E.; Hansen, A.; McDonald, J.; Martinez, M.
The Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program is an ongoing project that is designed to strengthen geoscience education in South Texas public schools. It began in June 2003 and is funded by the National Science Foundation. This outreach program involves collaboration between Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and four independent school districts in South Texas with support from the South Texas Rural Systemic Initiative, another NSF-funded project. Additional curriculum support has been provided by various local and state organizations. Across Texas, fifth grade students are demonstrating a weakness in geoscience concepts as evidenced by their scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. As a result, fifth and sixth grade public school students from low-income school districts were selected to participate in this program. At this age students are already making decisions that will affect their high school and college years. The main purpose of this project is to encourage these students, many of whom are Hispanic, to become geoscientists. This purpose is accomplished by enhancing their geoscience knowledge, nurturing their interest in geoscience and showing them what careers are available in the geosciences. Educators and scientists collaborate to engage students in scientific discovery through hands-on laboratory exercises and exposure to state-of-the-art technology (laptop computers, weather stations, telescopes, etc.). Students' family members become involved in the geoscience learning process as they participate in Family Science Night activities. Family Science Nights constitute an effective venue to reach the public. During the course of the Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program, investigators have measured success in two ways: improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience concepts and change in students' attitudes towards geoscience. Findings include significant improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience. Students also report more positive
Full Text Available Whether alternative penalties served by offenders in the community will be successful can also largely depend on the general attitudes in the workplace where the offender will be serving his penalty. This study, conducted in Belgrade, Serbia, was aimed to determine the inclination and factor structure of attitudes towards offenders and ex-offenders, and their correlation with the respondents' age and education. The sample consisted of men from the general population (N=78, employed in companies where offenders serve community sentence. The study also considers the association between attitudes and the age and education of the respondents. The Scale for Attitudes toward Prisoners and Ex-Prisoners was used in the study. Research results showed that the respondents in general had positive attitude toward offenders. On the Scale of Attitudes, a statement 'I would socialize with a person who is on parole from prison' had the highest frequency, with which 44.90% of respondents 'mostly agree' (MOD=4. With most negatively formulated statements, the frequency of statements 'I strongly agree' is low, ranging from 7,70% to 15.60%. Factor analysis of the attitude scale indicated three respectable factors which were named: Rejection, Trust, and Perception of Penalty. The correlation between the demographic variables of age and education, and the expressed attitudes shows there was no significant correlation (p=0.93; p=0.86. The findings of the study have an important impact on practical psychosocial issues, such as that of preparing the community to accept offenders serving alternative punishments, as well as theoretical questions regarding the understanding of the structure, cause, origin, function, and form of attitudes toward offenders.
Edgington, Jeffrey Michael
Video and computer games have become an important area of study in the field of education. Games have been designed to teach mathematics, physics, raise social awareness, teach history and geography, and train soldiers in the military. Recent work has created computer games for teaching computer programming and understanding basic algorithms. We present an investigation where computer games are used to teach two fundamental computer science concepts: boolean expressions and recursion. The games are intended to teach the concepts and not how to implement them in a programming language. For this investigation, two computer games were created. One is designed to teach basic boolean expressions and operators and the other to teach fundamental concepts of recursion. We describe the design and implementation of both games. We evaluate the effectiveness of these games using before and after surveys. The surveys were designed to ascertain basic understanding, attitudes and beliefs regarding the concepts. The boolean game was evaluated with local high school students and students in a college level introductory computer science course. The recursion game was evaluated with students in a college level introductory computer science course. We present the analysis of the collected survey information for both games. This analysis shows a significant positive change in student attitude towards recursion and modest gains in student learning outcomes for both topics.
The aim of this paper is twofold. The first aim is to discuss some observations gained from teaching Psychology to Computing students, highlighting both the wide range of areas where Psychology is relevant to Computing education and the topics that are relevant at different stages of students’ education. The second aim is to consider findings from research investigating the characteristics of Computing and Psychology students. It is proposed that this information could be considered in the de...
numerical Unstructured Data Indexing and Theorizing (NUDIST) software. Knowledge about PITC services was generally low. Compared to men, women had a more positive attitude towards PITC services, because of its ability to identify and ...
Vincent, Raymond J.
Describes the construction and validity of a scale to measure student attitudes toward marihuana. The scale could be used as a means to select the best presentation for drug education in schools. (KH)
Hoffman, Richard M; Sussman, Andrew L; Getrich, Christina M; Rhyne, Robert L; Crowell, Richard E; Taylor, Kathryn L; Reifler, Ellen J; Wescott, Pamela H; Murrietta, Ambroshia M; Saeed, Ali I; Mishra, Shiraz I
On the basis of results from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), national guidelines now recommend using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) to screen high-risk smokers for lung cancer. Our study objective was to characterize the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of primary care providers about implementing LDCT screening. We conducted semistructured interviews with primary care providers practicing in New Mexico clinics for underserved minority populations. The interviews, conducted from February through September 2014, focused on providers' tobacco cessation efforts, lung cancer screening practices, perceptions of NLST and screening guidelines, and attitudes about informed decision making for cancer screening. Investigators iteratively reviewed transcripts to create a coding structure. We reached thematic saturation after interviewing 10 providers practicing in 6 urban and 4 rural settings; 8 practiced at federally qualified health centers. All 10 providers promoted smoking cessation, some screened with chest x-rays, and none screened with LDCT. Not all were aware of NLST results or current guideline recommendations. Providers viewed study results skeptically, particularly the 95% false-positive rate, the need to screen 320 patients to prevent 1 lung cancer death, and the small proportion of minority participants. Providers were uncertain whether New Mexico had the necessary infrastructure to support high-quality screening, and worried about access barriers and financial burdens for rural, underinsured populations. Providers noted the complexity of discussing benefits and harms of screening and surveillance with their patient population. Providers have several concerns about the feasibility and appropriateness of implementing LDCT screening. Effective lung cancer screening programs will need to educate providers and patients to support informed decision making and to ensure that high-quality screening can be efficiently delivered in community practice.
Botassini, Jacqueline Ortelan Maia; Universidade Estadual de Maringá
Studies related to the theme “Linguistics Beliefs and Attitudes” have shown paths to Sociolinguistics to understand issues that may be related to certain linguistic attitudes manifested by a group or by a speaking community. In the whole society, the differences of “power” existent among distinct social groups may be realized through the linguistic variation and through attitudes towards these variations. Normally, the standards of language use of the dominant group are referred to as necessa...
Brady, Corey; Orton, Kai; Weintrop, David; Anton, Gabriella; Rodriguez, Sebastian; Wilensky, Uri
Computer science (CS) is becoming an increasingly diverse domain. This paper reports on an initiative designed to introduce underrepresented populations to computing using an eclectic, multifaceted approach. As part of a yearlong computing course, students engage in Maker activities, participatory simulations, and computing projects that…
Pouchieu, Camille; Méjean, Caroline; Andreeva, Valentina A; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Fassier, Philippine; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Touvier, Mathilde
In spite of the growing literature in the field of e-epidemiology, clear evidence about computer literacy or attitudes toward respondent burden among e-cohort participants is largely lacking. We assessed the computer and Internet skills of participants in the NutriNet-Santé Web-based cohort. We then explored attitudes toward the study demands/respondent burden according to levels of computer literacy and sociodemographic status. Self-reported data from 43,028 e-cohort participants were collected in 2013 via a Web-based questionnaire. We employed unconditional logistic and linear regression analyses. Approximately one-quarter of participants (23.79%, 10,235/43,028) reported being inexperienced in terms of computer use. Regarding attitudes toward participant burden, women tended to be more favorable (eg, "The overall website use is easy") than were men (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.59-0.71, P12 years of schooling) were less likely to accept the demands associated with participation (eg, "I receive questionnaires too often") compared to their less educated counterparts (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.48-1.76, Pcomputer/Internet skills, suggesting that this does not represent a barrier to participation in Web-based cohorts. Our study also suggests that several subgroups of participants with lower computer skills (eg, women or those with lower educational level) might more readily accept the demands associated with participation in the Web cohort. These findings can help guide future Web-based research strategies.
Guiton, Gretchen; Chang, Mitchell J; Wilkerson, LuAnn
Multiple studies of undergraduate college students have demonstrated the effects of cross-cultural interaction and exposure to diverse ideas on a variety of educational outcomes. The current study was designed to extend this work into medical education, examining student body diversity and school-supported cross-cultural experiences on students' attitudes about diversity. Four-hundred forty-one rising fourth-year medical students from three schools with differing levels of student body diversity completed a 55-item questionnaire on their background, experiences, and attitudes related to cross-cultural diversity. Medical students' attitudes about culture and health and their perspectives on societal issues related to diversity were influenced by their medical school experiences. Informal instructional interactions seem to have been most influential in shaping these beliefs. The opportunity for students from diverse backgrounds to interact as part of the curriculum is an important means of promoting positive attitudes toward diversity in educational and social environments.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It is going truth globally that the medical course in medical college students are developed via computer mediated learning.1 Utilization of both the range upon online messages options must create study exciting, monetization, and likely as hired. We Hypothesized that survey will facilitate to permit us to be able to blueprint some on this necessary condition among my medical students and also to improve our study facilities a lot of automatically. A set of closed ended problems remained displayed on departmental website, to evaluate their computer skills and talents and their own assessment in computer and internet skills helping in learning. In the beginning months of 1st year MBBS college students 2014-15 batch taken up voluntarily to the study through MCQs questions provided to them in the form of departmental website. A batch of 50 college students surveyed on 3 different days. Although 80% students were confident with the operational skills of the computer, the opinion regarding the usage of computers for web based learning activities was not uniform i.e., 55% of the participants felt uncomfortable with web assisted activity in comparison to paper based activity. However, 49% were of the opinion that paper based activity might become redundant and websites will take over books in the future. Expansion on computer-assisted study requires traditional changes as well as thoughtful strategic planning, resource giving, staff benefits, Edutainment promotion by multidisciplinary working, and efficient quality control.
Ben Wadham; Grace Skrzypiec; Phillip Slee
What are young Australians’ understandings of, and attitudes to, the military and military service? This article describes a pilot study of 320 young Australian university students’ attitudes to the military and military service during a time when Australia was engaged in the Afghanistan war. The main purpose of this study was to develop a survey instrument for further work in researching civil–military relations in Au...
Assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practices related to the treatment and prevention of lymphatic filariasis among the adult residents of Bokkos local government area of Plateau state, Nigeria.
Handberg, Charlotte; Midtgaard, Julie; Nielsen, Claus Vinther
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe and interpret the attitudes and conduct of hospital healthcare professionals (HCPs) in association with male cancer survivors and their municipal rehabilitation participation. Design: Ethnographic fieldwork was conducted, consisting of participant...
Stark, Tobias; Flache, Andreas; Veenstra, René
The generalization of attitudes toward individual outgroup members into attitudes toward the outgroup as a whole can affect intergroup relations. However, little is known about the relative strengths of the generalization of negative and positive interpersonal attitudes into attitudes about the
Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy; Hardy, Louise L; King, Lesley; Farrell, Louise
To determine parents' attitudes and awareness of food marketing to children. Computer-assisted telephone interviews of a random sample of 400 parents of children aged 5-17 years and who were the main grocery buyers for that household, living in NSW, Australia. The main outcome measures included parental awareness and attitudes relating to food marketing to children, the perceived role of government versus industry in food marketing regulation and children's food purchasing requests as a result of exposure to food marketing. The majority of parents were concerned about food marketing to children, with the highest level of concern registered for the positioning of food at supermarket checkouts (83% of parents concerned). Parental awareness of certain non-broadcast media food marketing (e.g. print, radio and premium offers) to children was low. The majority of parents (91%) did not trust the industry to protect children from food marketing. Most parents (81%) believed that the government should restrict the use of non-broadcast media marketing of unhealthy food to children. Parents of younger children were more likely to report that their child asked for advertised food products, compared with parents of adolescents (65% and 48% respectively, P market food to children is important as part of building family and policy efforts to limit exposure to this otherwise relatively unregulated media environment.
George, F H
An Introduction to Digital Computing provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of digital computing. This book represents a major step towards the universal availability of programmed material.Organized into four chapters, this book begins with an overview of the fundamental workings of the computer, including the way it handles simple arithmetic problems. This text then provides a brief survey of the basic features of a typical computer that is divided into three sections, namely, the input and output system, the memory system for data storage, and a processing system. Other c
Voinea, Camelia Florela
Cognitive Dissonance Theory is considered part of the cognitive consistency theories in Social Psychology. They uncover a class of conceptual models which describe the attitude change as a cognitive consistency-seeking issue. As these conceptual models requested more complex operational expression, algebraic, mathematical and, lately, computational modeling approaches of cognitive consistency have been developed. Part 1 of this work provides an overview of the connectionist modeling of cognit...
The aim of this paper is two-fold. The first aim is to discuss some observations gained from teaching psychology to computing students, highlighting both the wide range of areas where psychology is relevant to computing education and the topics that are relevant at different stages of students' education. The second aim is to consider findings…
Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.
Developed to aid intermediate-level teachers and principals in initiating and developing computer literacy programs for their students, this document is a guide for the development of a one-semester course--Introduction to Computing--for the seventh and eighth grades. The course is designed to provide opportunities for students to develop computer…
To discuss a research method, the Implicit Association Test, for use in nursing research. The Implicit Association Test measures implicit attitudes, which may mediate health-related and caregiving behaviours. Implicit attitudes are automatic and often unconscious, but may affect the behaviours of nurses and their patients. The Implicit Association Test has been used to measure implicit attitudes in fields from health care to marketing, but has seldom appeared in nursing. The Implicit Association Test is a computer-based tool consisting of a series of categorization tasks. Implicit Association Tests are scored based on the speed of matching either words or images to categories. Assumptions of the Implicit Association Test method, its administration, psychometrics and potential use in nursing research are reviewed. Discussion paper. PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsychINFO® and Health and Psychosocial Instrument databases were searched from the Implicit Association Test's introduction in 1998-April 2013. Search terms used were 'Implicit Association Test' OR 'IAT'. Nursing theories include attitudes as mediators of behaviour and health, but measurement has been limited to explicit attitudes. A reliable, valid and flexible tool is available to measure implicit attitudes. This tool largely circumvents self-report bias related to socially sensitive topics. Nursing research is needed to investigate implicit attitudes held by nurses and patients when these may influence health-related behaviours and outcomes. The Implicit Association Test can measure implicit attitudes and is suitable for adoption in nursing research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gielen, Joris; van den Branden, Stef; Broeckaert, Bert
In this review of empirical studies we aimed to assess the influence of religion and world view on nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia and physician assisted suicide. We searched PubMed for articles published before August 2008 using combinations of search terms. Most identified studies showed a clear relationship between religion or world view and nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia or physician assisted suicide. Differences in attitude were found to be influenced by religious or ideological affiliation, observance of religious practices, religious doctrines, and personal importance attributed to religion or world view. Nevertheless, a coherent comparative interpretation of the results of the identified studies was difficult. We concluded that no study has so far exhaustively investigated the relationship between religion or world view and nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia or physician assisted suicide and that further research is required.
A Alao, Kayode; F Adebowale, Olusegun
The purpose of this paper was to examine the attitudes of prison inmates and warders (prison staff) to rehabilitative counselling and its relationship to their prison status on one hand and their educational attainment on the other. The study adopts a descriptive survey research design. In all 123 prison inmates and 110 warders were selected by stratified random sampling from Osogbo prison headquarters, as well as Ilesa and Ile-Ife prisons in southwestern Nigeria. Data were collected through a self-constructed questionnaire titled "inmate and prison staff attitude to rehabilitation counselling". Data collected were analysed using percentages and χ2 statistics. The results showed that the prison inmates and staff possessed positive attitude to rehabilitative counselling. No significant difference was found between the attitudes of prison inmates and staff members or on the basis of their prison statuses. However, the study found a significant relationship between the prison inmates' attitude to rehabilitative counselling and their educational attainment. Research LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Statutory provision needs be made for professional rehabilitative counselling in Nigerian prisons in contrast to the religious instructions currently being allowed prisoners. Educational opportunities should be provided to ensure that the knowledge so obtained complements the rehabilitative counselling. Originality/value - This paper fulfils an identified need to study the attitude towards rehabilitative counselling.
Full Text Available Despite continued acceleration of computer access in elementary and secondary schools, computer integration is not necessarily given as an everyday learning tool. A heterogeneous sample of 185 elementary and 204 secondary teachers was asked to respond to open-ended survey questions in order to understand why integration of computer-based technologies does or does not fit with their teaching philosophy, what factors impact planning to use computer technologies in the classroom, and what characteristics define excellent teachers who integrate technology. Qualitative analysis of open-ended questions indicated that, overall, educators are supportive of computer integration describing the potential of technology using constructivist language, such as “authentic tasks” and “self-regulated learning.” Responses from “high” and “low” integrating teachers were compared across themes. The diversity of the themes and the emerging patterns of those themes from “high and low integrators” indicate that the integration of computer technology is a complex concern that requires sensitivity to individual and contextual variables.
Palmer, David H.
Previous research has shown that elementary education majors often dislike science and lack confidence in their ability to teach it. This is an important problem because students who hold these attitudes are likely to avoid teaching science, or teach it poorly, when they become teachers. It is therefore necessary to identify preservice elementary teachers who hold negative attitudes towards science, and attempt to convert these attitudes to positive before they become teachers. This study was designed to identify students whose attitudes had changed from negative to positive (i.e., attitude exchange had occurred) after participating in a one-semester elementary science education course, and to identify the course factors that were responsible. Four participants were individually interviewed. The transcripts indicated that attitude exchange had occurred for each of the four students. Each student described several features of the course that had a positive influence. These were of three main types: personal attributes of the tutor, specific teaching strategies, and external validation. It was proposed that many of the individual factors were effective because they represented either performance accomplishments or vicarious experience as defined by Bandura (Psychological Review, 84, 1977, 191-215).
Full Text Available Numerous questionnaire studies on attitudes towards euthanasia produced conflicting results, precluding any general conclusion. This might be due to the fact that human behavior can be influenced by automatically triggered attitudes, which represent ingrained associations in memory and cannot be assessed by standard questionnaires, but require indirect measures such as reaction times (RT or electroencephalographic recording (EEG. Event related potentials (ERPs of the EEG and RT during an affective priming task were assessed to investigate the impact of automatically triggered attitudes and were compared to results of an explicit questionnaire. Explicit attitudes were ambivalent. Reaction time data showed neither positive nor negative associations towards euthanasia. ERP analyses revealed an N400 priming effect with lower mean amplitudes when euthanasia was associated with negative words. The euthanasia-related modulation of the N400 component shows an integration of the euthanasia object in negatively valenced associative neural networks. The integration of all measures suggests a bottom-up process of attitude activation, where automatically triggered negative euthanasia-relevant associations can become more ambiguous with increasing time in order to regulate the bias arising from automatic processes. These data suggest that implicit measures may make an important contribution to the understanding of euthanasia-related attitudes.
Enke, Martin; Meyer, Patric; Flor, Herta
Numerous questionnaire studies on attitudes towards euthanasia produced conflicting results, precluding any general conclusion. This might be due to the fact that human behavior can be influenced by automatically triggered attitudes, which represent ingrained associations in memory and cannot be assessed by standard questionnaires, but require indirect measures such as reaction times (RT) or electroencephalographic recording (EEG). Event related potentials (ERPs) of the EEG and RT during an affective priming task were assessed to investigate the impact of automatically triggered attitudes and were compared to results of an explicit questionnaire. Explicit attitudes were ambivalent. Reaction time data showed neither positive nor negative associations towards euthanasia. ERP analyses revealed an N400 priming effect with lower mean amplitudes when euthanasia was associated with negative words. The euthanasia-related modulation of the N400 component shows an integration of the euthanasia object in negatively valenced associative neural networks. The integration of all measures suggests a bottom-up process of attitude activation, where automatically triggered negative euthanasia-relevant associations can become more ambiguous with increasing time in order to regulate the bias arising from automatic processes. These data suggest that implicit measures may make an important contribution to the understanding of euthanasia-related attitudes.
Enke, Martin; Meyer, Patric; Flor, Herta
Numerous questionnaire studies on attitudes towards euthanasia produced conflicting results, precluding any general conclusion. This might be due to the fact that human behavior can be influenced by automatically triggered attitudes, which represent ingrained associations in memory and cannot be assessed by standard questionnaires, but require indirect measures such as reaction times (RT) or electroencephalographic recording (EEG). Event related potentials (ERPs) of the EEG and RT during an affective priming task were assessed to investigate the impact of automatically triggered attitudes and were compared to results of an explicit questionnaire. Explicit attitudes were ambivalent. Reaction time data showed neither positive nor negative associations towards euthanasia. ERP analyses revealed an N400 priming effect with lower mean amplitudes when euthanasia was associated with negative words. The euthanasia-related modulation of the N400 component shows an integration of the euthanasia object in negatively valenced associative neural networks. The integration of all measures suggests a bottom-up process of attitude activation, where automatically triggered negative euthanasia-relevant associations can become more ambiguous with increasing time in order to regulate the bias arising from automatic processes. These data suggest that implicit measures may make an important contribution to the understanding of euthanasia-related attitudes. PMID:27088244
Filkowski, Megan M; Anderson, Ian W; Haas, Brian W
Interpersonal trust and distrust are important components of human social interaction. Although several studies have shown that brain function is associated with either trusting or distrusting others, very little is known regarding brain function during the control of social attitudes, including trust and distrust. This study was designed to investigate the neural mechanisms involved when people attempt to control their attitudes of trust or distrust toward another person. We used a novel control-of-attitudes fMRI task, which involved explicit instructions to control attitudes of interpersonal trust and distrust. Control of trust or distrust was operationally defined as changes in trustworthiness evaluations of neutral faces before and after the control-of-attitudes fMRI task. Overall, participants (n = 60) evaluated faces paired with the distrust instruction as being less trustworthy than faces paired with the trust instruction following the control-of-distrust task. Within the brain, both the control-of-trust and control-of-distrust conditions were associated with increased temporoparietal junction, precuneus (PrC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and medial prefrontal cortex activity. Individual differences in the control of trust were associated with PrC activity, and individual differences in the control of distrust were associated with IFG activity. Together, these findings identify a brain network involved in the explicit control of distrust and trust and indicate that the PrC and IFG may serve to consolidate interpersonal social attitudes.
Lee, Allan; Martin, Robin; Thomas, Geoff; Guillaume, Yves; Maio, Greg
Leadership is one of the most examined factors in relation to understanding employee well-being and performance. While there are disparate approaches to studying leadership, they share a common assumption that perceptions of a leaderâ€™s behavior determine reactions to the leader. The concept of leadership perception is poorly understood in most theoretical approaches. To address this, we propose that there are many benefits from examining leadership perceptions as an attitude towards the lea...
To maximize the contributions of nanotechnology to this society, at least 60 countries have put efforts into this field. In Taiwan, a government-funded K-12 Nanotechnology Programme was established to train K-12 teachers with adequate nanotechnology literacy to foster the next generation of Taiwanese people with sufficient knowledge in nanotechnology. In the present study, the Nanotechnology Attitude Scale for K-12 teachers (NAS-T) was developed to assess K-12 teachers' attitudes toward nanotechnology. The NAS-T included 23 Likert-scale items that can be grouped into three components: importance of nanotechnology, affective tendencies in science teaching, and behavioural tendencies to teach nanotechnology. A sample of 233 K-12 teachers who have participated in the K-12 Nanotechnology Programme was included in the present study to investigate the psychometric properties of the NAS-T. The exploratory factor analysis of this teacher sample suggested that the NAS-T was a three-factor model that explained 64.11% of the total variances. This model was also confirmed by the confirmatory factor analysis to validate the factor structure of the NAS-T. The Cronbach's alpha values of three NAS-T subscales ranged from 0.89 to 0.95. Moderate to strong correlations among teachers' NAS-T domain scores, self-perception of own nanoscience knowledge, and their science-teaching efficacy demonstrated good convergent validity of the NAS-T. As a whole, psychometric properties of the NAS-T indicated that this instrument is an effective instrument for assessing K-12 teachers' attitudes toward nanotechnology. The NAS-T will serve as a valuable tool to evaluate teachers' attitude changes after participating in the K-12 Nanotechnology Programme.
Full Text Available Increasing the computational efficiency of attitude estimation is a critical problem related to modern spacecraft, especially for those with limited computing resources. In this paper, a computationally efficient nonlinear attitude estimation strategy based on the vector observations is proposed. The Rodrigues parameter is chosen as the local error attitude parameter, to maintain the normalization constraint for the quaternion in the global estimator. The proposed attitude estimator is performed in four stages. First, the local attitude estimation error system is described by a polytopic linear model. Then the local error attitude estimator is designed with constant coefficients based on the robust H2 filtering algorithm. Subsequently, the attitude predictions and the local error attitude estimations are calculated by a gyro based model and the local error attitude estimator. Finally, the attitude estimations are updated by the predicted attitude with the local error attitude estimations. Since the local error attitude estimator is with constant coefficients, it does not need to calculate the matrix inversion for the filter gain matrix or update the Jacobian matrixes online to obtain the local error attitude estimations. As a result, the computational complexity of the proposed attitude estimator reduces significantly. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed attitude estimation strategy.
The ``Introduction to Computers`` program establishes formal partnerships with local school districts and community-based organizations, introduces computer literacy to precollege students and their parents, and encourages students to pursue Scientific, Mathematical, Engineering, and Technical careers (SET). Hands-on assignments are given in each class, reinforcing the lesson taught. In addition, the program is designed to broaden the knowledge base of teachers in scientific/technical concepts, and Brookhaven National Laboratory continues to act as a liaison, offering educational outreach to diverse community organizations and groups. This manual contains the teacher`s lesson plans and the student documentation to this introduction to computer course.
Nanobiotechnology, which resulted from the convergence of biotechnology and nanotechnology, is a new field of research, and it has an increasing impact on peoples' everyday lives. Thus, it is important to measure peoples' attitudes towards nanobiotechnology, in particular, those who are specifically involved in biology and science education. However, despite the existence of an adequate number of instruments on biotechnology or nanotechnology, for nanobiotechnology, there is no instrument that has been rigorously validated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a nanobiotechnology scale for assessing the undergraduate students' attitudes. The data were gathered from 236 student teachers enrolled in the departments of biology education and elementary science education. The findings from exploratory factor analysis (EFA) provided evidence for the validity and reliability of the final form of the scale. At total of 36 items were identified and contained within the following four factors, nanobiotechnology awareness, interest in nanobiotechnology, nanobiotechnology education, and the applications of nanobiotechnology. The total variance was 53.021%, and the Cronbach's alpha for the overall scale was 0.93. The scale was later given to 203 student teachers, the results of which were presented in this study. The results indicated significant differences in gender and department in some of the subscales of the scale. As a result, it is believed that the instrument will be a valuable tool for both instructors and researchers in science education to assess the student teachers' attitudes about nanobiotechnology.
Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T; Murray, Renee A
Accessibility is one of the most basic structural properties of an attitude and an important factor to consider in attitude strength. Despite its importance, relatively little work has examined the role of attitude accessibility in an inter-attitudinal context, particularly as it relates to the strength of related attitudes in the network. The present research examines accessibility as a property of one attitude (toward an abstract goal or end-state, that is, a value) that might influence the strength of a different but related attitude (toward a social policy conceptually related to the value). In Study 1, a highly accessible evaluative component of a value increased resistance to change of attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a social policy related to that value. Similarly, a manipulation of value accessibility (Studies 2 and 3) led to increased resistance of attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a social policy related to that value. Implications for the role of accessibility in inter-attitudinal strength are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Rees, Charlotte; Sheard, Charlotte; Davies, Susie
There is little research identifying medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning. This pilot study outlines the development of a new scale to measure attitudes towards communication skills learning. First- and second-year medical students (n = 490) completed the 26-item Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) and 39 students completed the CSAS on a second occasion. Factor analysis was conducted to determine the factors underpinning the scale. The internal consistency of the subscales was determined using alpha coefficients. The test-retest reliability of the individual scale items were determined using weighted kappa coefficients and the test-retest reliability of the subscales were established using intraclass correlation coefficients. Maximum likelihood extraction with direct oblimin rotation resulted in a 2-factor scale with 13 items on each subscale. Factor I represented positive attitudes towards communication skills learning and factor II represented negative attitudes. Subscale I had an internal consistency of alpha=0.873 and an intraclass correlation of 0.646 (P attitude subscales (n=8, 61.5%) possessed moderate test-retest reliability. The development of a new and reliable scale to identify medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning will enable researchers to explore the relationships between medical students' attitudes and their demographic and education-related characteristics. Further work is needed to validate this scale among a broader population of medical students.
Young, Julia M.; Shepardson, Daniel P.
Undergraduate students have different attitudes toward the geosciences, but few studies have investigated these attitudes using Q methodology. Q methodology allows the researcher to identify more detailed reasons for students' attitudes toward geology than Likert methodology. Thus this study used Q methodology to investigate the attitudes that 15…
Catlow, Richard; Walsh, Aron
The development of materials for clean and efficient energy generation and storage is one of the most rapidly developing, multi-disciplinary areas of contemporary science, driven primarily by concerns over global warming, diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, the need for energy security, and increasing consumer demand for portable electronics. Computational methods are now an integral and indispensable part of the materials characterisation and development process. Computational Approaches to Energy Materials presents a detailed survey of current computational techniques for the
Cahill, Kevin C; Ettarh, Rajunor R
There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this topic, there has been none in Ireland. Anatomy dissection can be a stressor to medical students-we investigate the attitudes of Irish students to organ donation and how they change with exposure to anatomy dissection. A questionnaire was administered to first year students in the School of Medicine in University College Dublin, Ireland, three times over a nine-week period at the commencement of classes in an academic year. The attitudes of the students were positive throughout regarding organ donation by a stranger, a family member, or themselves. There was, however, a significant decrease in support for the donation of a family member's organs in a minority of students. Irish students' attitudes to postmortem organ donation are positive and are not changed by exposure to the dissecting room. There is support for the donation of organs, and willingness among students to donate their own organs and support donation by family members. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.
Cahill, Kevin C
There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this topic, there has been none in Ireland. Anatomy dissection can be a stressor to medical students-we investigate the attitudes of Irish students to organ donation and how they change with exposure to anatomy dissection. A questionnaire was administered to first year students in the School of Medicine in University College Dublin, Ireland, three times over a nine-week period at the commencement of classes in an academic year. The attitudes of the students were positive throughout regarding organ donation by a stranger, a family member, or themselves. There was, however, a significant decrease in support for the donation of a family member\\'s organs in a minority of students. Irish students\\' attitudes to postmortem organ donation are positive and are not changed by exposure to the dissecting room. There is support for the donation of organs, and willingness among students to donate their own organs and support donation by family members.
Peavler, J. (ed.)
This publication gives details about hardware, software, procedures, and services of the Central Computing Facility, as well as information about how to become an authorized user. Languages, compilers' libraries, and applications packages available are described. 17 tables. (RWR)
Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Gravesen, Jens; Anton, François
be processed before it is useful. This Guide to Computational Geometry Processing reviews the algorithms for processing geometric data, with a practical focus on important techniques not covered by traditional courses on computer vision and computer graphics. This is balanced with an introduction...... to the theoretical and mathematical underpinnings of each technique, enabling the reader to not only implement a given method, but also to understand the ideas behind it, its limitations and its advantages. Topics and features: Presents an overview of the underlying mathematical theory, covering vector spaces......, metric space, affine spaces, differential geometry, and finite difference methods for derivatives and differential equations Reviews geometry representations, including polygonal meshes, splines, and subdivision surfaces Examines techniques for computing curvature from polygonal meshes Describes...
Explores Bedouin student backgrounds to determine attitude transformations that enabled family and clan approval for their participation in an Israeli teacher-training program. Results show the existence of transformations within the tribe toward education, especially for women. Student attitudes toward becoming instruments of educational…
Amin, Latifah; Jahi, Jamaluddin Md; Nor, Abd Rahim Md
Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil) and GM medicine (GM insulin). A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n = 1017) were stratified according to stakeholders' groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders' groups.
Full Text Available Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil and GM medicine (GM insulin. A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n=1017 were stratified according to stakeholders’ groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders’ groups.
This book is revised and expanded version of the original German text. The arrangement of the material and the structure are essentially unchanged. All remarks in the Preface to the German Edition regarding naming conventions for formulas, theorems, lemmas, and definitions are still valid as are those concerning the arrangement and choice of material.
Bonney, Andrew; Phillipson, Lyn; Jones, Sandra C; Iverson, Don
Research suggests that older patients may be reluctant to engage general practice registrars (GPRs) in their care. The authors undertook a qualitative study of the attitudes of older patients to GPRs to investigate this issue. Thirty-eight patients aged 60 years and over from three training practices participated in semistructured telephone interviews, which explored patients responses to GPRs. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using a template analysis approach. Analysis of the interviews produced five major themes concerning patients' attitudes to GPRs: 'desire for continuity', 'desire for access', 'openness', 'trust' and a 'desire for meaningful communication'. Older patients' attitudes to GPRs cannot be viewed in isolation from their relationship with their usual general practitioner, and this needs to be taken into account when engaging GPRs in the care of older patients. Systems need to be developed to maintain relational and informational continuity with older patients' 'regular' GP.
Alavi, Seyed Mohammad; Borzabadi, Davood; Dashtestani, Reza
This study aimed to analyze perceptions of Iranian English for Academic Purposes (EAP) students on their computer literacy levels. A total of 641 undergraduate students of civil engineering and 34 EAP instructors participated in the study. Data collection instruments included questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Findings confirmed that…
Shegog, Ross; Lazarus, Melanie M.; Murray, Nancy G.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Sessions, Nathalie; Zsigmond, Eva
The transgenic mouse model is useful for studying the causes and potential cures for human genetic diseases. Exposing high school biology students to laboratory experience in developing transgenic animal models is logistically prohibitive. Computer-based simulation, however, offers this potential in addition to advantages of fidelity and reach. This study describes and evaluates a computer-based simulation to train advanced placement high school science students in laboratory protocols, a transgenic mouse model was produced. A simulation module on preparing a gene construct in the molecular biology lab was evaluated using a randomized clinical control design with advanced placement high school biology students in Mercedes, Texas ( n = 44). Pre-post tests assessed procedural and declarative knowledge, time on task, attitudes toward computers for learning and towards science careers. Students who used the simulation increased their procedural and declarative knowledge regarding molecular biology compared to those in the control condition (both p < 0.005). Significant increases continued to occur with additional use of the simulation ( p < 0.001). Students in the treatment group became more positive toward using computers for learning ( p < 0.001). The simulation did not significantly affect attitudes toward science in general. Computer simulation of complex transgenic protocols have potential to provide a "virtual" laboratory experience as an adjunct to conventional educational approaches.
Full Text Available During a time of intensifying competition for land, Protected Areas (PAs are coming under increasing pressure to justify their status. Positive local attitudes to a PA are a potentially important component of any such justification, especially in the developing world where human pressure on natural resources is often high. However, despite numerous studies our understanding of what drives positive attitudes to PAs is still exceedingly limited. Here, we review the literature on local attitudes towards PAs in developing countries. Our survey reveals a highly fragmented research area where studies typically lack an explicit conceptual basis, and where there is wide variation in choice of statistical approach, explanatory and response variables, and incorporation of contextual information. Nevertheless, there is a relatively high degree of concordance between studies, with certain variables showing strong associations with attitudes. We recommend that PA attitude researchers in developing countries adopt a more rigorous model building approach based on a clear conceptual framework and drawing on the extensive empirical literature. Such an approach would improve the quality of research, increase comparability, and provide a stronger basis to support conservation decision-making.
Kreutzer, Christine P; Bowers, Clint A
Based on preliminary research, game-based treatments appear to be a promising approach to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, attitudes toward this novel approach must be better understood. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine if video game self-efficacy mediates the relationship between expectations and reactions to a game-based treatment for PTSD. Participants played the serious game "Walk in My Shoes" (Novonics Corp., Orlando, FL) and completed a series of scales to measure attitudes toward the intervention. Video game self-efficacy was found to be a partial mediator of expectancies and reactions. These results suggest that enhancing attitudes via self-efficacy in a clinical setting may maximize treatment effectiveness.
Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Sepúlveda, Wilmer S; Villarroel, Morris; María, Gustavo A
This study analyzes retailer attitude towards animal welfare in Spain, and how this attitude has changed over recent years (2006-2011). Retailers were concerned about animal welfare issues but a declining trend is observed recently, probably due to the financial crisis. The concern about animal welfare was affected by sex, with women retailers expressing a more positive attitude towards animal welfare issues than men. Retailers, based on their experience, perceive a low level of willingness to pay more for welfare friendly products (WFP) on behalf of their customers. This fact is reflected in the sales of the WFP, which declined from 2006 to 2011. The main reason for consumers to buy WFP, according to retailer perception, is organoleptic quality, with improved welfare being second. The results obtained provide a pessimistic picture in relation to the current market positioning of WFP, which is probably a consequence of market contraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The European bison (Bison bonasus) is no longer present in the wild fauna of Sweden. Reintroduction, an attempt to reestablish a viable population of a species in an area to which it is native, has been discussed. To make such an operation successful it is essential to know the attitudes of the stakeholders involved. This study has sensed the attitudes toward reintroducing E. bison to Sweden. It was done through a survey sent to the Wildlife Management Boards (Boards) and to landowners/farmer...
Full Text Available It is widely recognised that the built environment can dramatically impact the participation and engagement of people with disability and diverse needs. It has therefore become necessary for architects and designers to consider these needs when working within their profession. The implementation of universal design teaching into architecture and design curriculum has been recognised as an important step in facilitating and enhancing the uptake of universal design during the design process. Using a quantitative approach, this study aimed to compare, contrast and explore the attitudes of two groups of architecture students to the universal design of built environments. One group had received education relating to diversity and universal design as part of a prior project while the other group had not received this content. Findings from this comparison demonstrated that overall, no significant differences between groups existed. However further investigation provided interesting insight and perspectives into student attitudes to universal design and potential influencers of these attitudes.
Asila Zahiri binti Zahari
Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the top ten chronic diseases in the world and the prevalence of this disease will increase in the future including in Indonesia. Treatment of DM needs collaboration between the patients and the providers to prevent multiorgan complications and increase the compliance to treatment. The correlation among the level of knowledge (K, attitude (A and practice (P plays an important role of patients towards compliance to treatment. The objectives of this study was to identify the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of DMT2 patient towards compliance to treatment at a primary care facility. Methods: This study was carried out by using cross sectional descriptive study from August until November 2013 in Public Health Center (Pusat Kesehatan Masyarakat/Puskesmas Tanjungsari, Sumedang, West Java. There were 49 respondents and the sampling method used was non-probability sampling. The data was collected through face to face interview using questionnaire which consist of 27 questions about knowledge, attitude and practice. The collected data was anayzed using computer and was presented in the form of tables and a figure. Results: This study discovered that 22 patients had moderate knowledge, 17 patients had good knowledge and 10 patients had poor knowledge. As for attitude, there were 32 patients had good attitude and 17 patients had moderate attitude. Whereas, for practice, 44 patients were good and 5 patients were moderate. Conclusions: Majority of respondent had moderate knowledge, good attitude and practices.
To test changes in adherence to nurses' falls prevention work resulting from improving attitudes and ownership of practice. Workforce surveys indicate that nurses leave nursing because they cannot deliver the care they value. When challenged why, nurses claim no power of decision-making or authority to change their work with dissatisfaction and disengagement with work ensuing. Nurses espouse 'caring' but are observed taking risks with patients' safety reflecting poor congruence between values and behaviours. Attitudes and decision-making involvement are factors that influence work behaviours. Hence, increased adherence should be achieved by improving nurses' attitudes through active decision-making surrounding practice. Mixed methods study. Mixed methods were employed during 2004 by surveying attitudes (self-esteem, professional values and work satisfaction) before and after re-engineering nurses' work using practice development (PD) to gain time to spend in prevention work. Practice behaviour was observed and measured at intervals during the study. Initially, nurses had good self-esteem and professional values but were not satisfied with their work. Following the PD, self-esteem and professional values were unaffected; however, nurses expressed increased sense of ownership and greater satisfaction. Nurses were observed to engage in more prevention work. More effective ways of assessing and communicating risk and monitoring nurses' performance of prevention work were created and evaluated. Patients' environments were made safer and more patient-centred. Manipulation of attitudes and values is not warranted if attitudes and values are good. However, participation in work-related decision-making engages practitioners and leads to greater congruence between values and behaviour. Recommendations include promoting reflection and action to achieve cultural change and person-centred care. This study is relevant to international readership as adds to what is known about
Mohd Danish Kirmani
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship of environmental concern of consumers with their attitude towards green products and also to identify the predictors of environmental concern. The data was generated from a researcher controlled sample of graduate and post-graduate students enrolled in educational institutions located in the national capital of India (New Delhi and surrounding areas popularly known as National Capital Region (NCR. The data generated was analysed employing Structural Equation Modelling (SEM. The study findings indicate that environmental concern has a significant and positive influence on attitude towards green products. Collectivism and eco-literacy emerged as predictors of the environmental concern of consumers. The findings of this study are expected to enhance the understanding of marketers of the role played by variables such as religiosity, collectivism, eco-literacy, and environmental concern in formation of attitude of consumers towards green products.
Flynn, Marilyn L.
Describes study that examined the general patterns of computer use and response to computer-assisted instruction by older adults age 45 to 70 in programs for jobless men and women to learn skills for labor market re-entry. Socioeconomic characteristics are examined, and the instructor's role in determining student attitudes is explored. (23…
The study examines the factors affecting Greek pre-service teachers' intention to use computers when they become practicing teachers. Four variables (perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, self-efficacy, and attitude toward use) as well as behavioral intention to use computers were used so as to build a research model that extended the…
James, Bawo Onesirosan; Omoaregba, Joyce O; Olotu, Osasu S
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective and affordable form of treatment for a range of psychiatric disorders. Historical antecedents, the media, and movies have generated myths about its continued use and relevance. We explored medical students' knowledge of and attitude to ECT on completion of an 8-week clinical rotation (clerkship) in psychiatry. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among final-year medical students at the end of a clerkship in psychiatry using a self-administered questionnaire adapted from previously published work, to assess their attitudes to and knowledge of unmodified ECT. Knowledge of medicine, psychiatry, and ECT were self-rated as average by most students. Most had an interest in pursuing psychiatry as a profession and would receive ECT if judged clinically appropriate. Most students had positive attitudes toward ECT; the vast majority thought it was a relevant form of treatment and did not think that ECT was used to control violent or used by government to torture opponents. Although an overwhelming majority did not think ECT was outmoded or causes permanent brain damage, answers about pain associated with ECT and about the dangers associated with the procedure seem to be more evenly split. A minority thought that ECT was used only in the poor and should not be given to the elderly or children. A substantial majority thought that ECT was the treatment of last resort. Respondents who were likely to choose psychiatry as a profession agreed that ECT causes pain, but disagreed that it was used by governments to torture political opponents or that it causes permanent brain damage. Students with minimal knowledge of ECT showed more negative attitudes toward the myth that ECT is misused and should be a treatment of last resort. The similarity of the attitudes of students exposed to unmodified ECT with attitudes of students exposed to modified ECT suggests that modification has made little impact on the attitudes of health
Teusner, Dana N; Brennan, David S; Spencer, A John
Dental insurance status is strongly associated with service use. In models of dental visiting, insurance is typically included as an enabling factor. However, in Australia, people self-select into health insurance (privately purchased) and levels of cover for dental services are modest. Rather than enabling access, insurance status may be a "marker" for unmeasured predisposing attitudes. This study aims to explore associations between dental insurance status and visiting while adjusting for dental care attitudes. Participants (South Australians aged 45-54 years) of a 2-year prospective cohort study (2005-2007) investigating dental service use were surveyed on their attitudes to dental care and insurance status. Six attitudinal factors were assessed using a 23-item Likert scale. Bivariate associations between insurance, attitudes, visiting, and other known covariates (age, sex, and household income) were explored. A series of regression models assessed whether prevalence ratios of visiting were attenuated after controlling for attitudinal factors. Response rate was 85.0 percent. Analysis was limited to dentate adults with known dental insurance status (n=529). The majority had dental insurance (75.2%) and made regular visits (63.7%). Insurance status, visiting, and attitudinal factors were significantly associated. Controlling for covariates, insured adults, compared with the uninsured, were 57 percent more likely to make regular visits. After adjusting for attitudinal factors, the significant association between insurance and visiting persisted. Dental care attitudes did not confound the association between dental insurance and visiting, indicating that dental insurance status was not a "marker" for predisposing attitudes. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Sturgis, Patrick; Brunton-Smith, Ian; Fife-Schaw, Chris
We use an experimental panel study design to investigate the effect of providing "value-neutral" information about genomic science in the form of a short film to a random sample of the British public. We find little evidence of attitude change as a function of information provision. However, our results show that information provision significantly increased dropout from the study amongst less educated respondents. Our findings have implications both for our understanding of the knowledge-attitude relationship in public opinion toward genomic science and for science communication more generally.
Shook, Natalie J; Fazio, Russell H; Vasey, Michael W
Negativity biases, i.e., tendencies for negative features and interpretations to predominate over positive, are known to play a role in the etiology and maintenance of emotional disorders. Both depression and anxiety have been associated with such negative cognitive styles. Recently, Fazio, R.H., Eiser, J.R., and Shook, N.J. [(2004). Attitude formation through exploration: Valence asymmetries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 293-311] have observed similar valence asymmetries in the domain of attitude formation and generalization. The present research examined the possibility that the extent to which individuals display a learning bias in attitude formation is related to negative cognitive style and emotional disorder symptoms. Participants played a computer game that required learning whether novel stimuli produced positive or negative outcomes. Poorer learning was associated with more negative cognitive style, greater depression, and a tendency toward greater anxiety. Interestingly, these relations were most evident with respect to the learning of the positive stimuli, suggesting that an under-appreciation of positive objects and events may underlie vulnerability to emotional disorders. The potential value of various indices of negativity bias that can be assessed when examining attitude formation and generalization is discussed.
Background Knowing and, if necessary, altering competitive athletes’ real attitudes towards the use of banned performance-enhancing substances is an important goal of worldwide doping prevention efforts. However athletes will not always be willing to reporting their real opinions. Reaction time-based attitude tests help conceal the ultimate goal of measurement from the participant and impede strategic answering. This study investigated how well a reaction time-based attitude test discriminated between athletes who were doping and those who were not. We investigated whether athletes whose urine samples were positive for at least one banned substance (dopers) evaluated doping more favorably than clean athletes (non-dopers). Methods We approached a group of 61 male competitive bodybuilders and collected urine samples for biochemical testing. The pictorial doping Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT) was used for attitude measurement. This test quantifies the difference in response latencies (in milliseconds) to stimuli representing related concepts (i.e. doping–dislike/like–[health food]). Results Prohibited substances were found in 43% of all tested urine samples. Dopers had more lenient attitudes to doping than non-dopers (Hedges’s g = -0.76). D-scores greater than -0.57 (CI95 = -0.72 to -0.46) might be indicative of a rather lenient attitude to doping. In urine samples evidence of administration of combinations of substances, complementary administration of substances to treat side effects and use of stimulants to promote loss of body fat was common. Conclusion This study demonstrates that athletes’ attitudes to doping can be assessed indirectly with a reaction time-based test, and that their attitudes are related to their behavior. Although bodybuilders may be more willing to reveal their attitude to doping than other athletes, these results still provide evidence that the pictorial doping BIAT may be useful in athletes from other sports
Brand, Ralf; Wolff, Wanja; Thieme, Detlef
Knowing and, if necessary, altering competitive athletes' real attitudes towards the use of banned performance-enhancing substances is an important goal of worldwide doping prevention efforts. However athletes will not always be willing to reporting their real opinions. Reaction time-based attitude tests help conceal the ultimate goal of measurement from the participant and impede strategic answering. This study investigated how well a reaction time-based attitude test discriminated between athletes who were doping and those who were not. We investigated whether athletes whose urine samples were positive for at least one banned substance (dopers) evaluated doping more favorably than clean athletes (non-dopers). We approached a group of 61 male competitive bodybuilders and collected urine samples for biochemical testing. The pictorial doping Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT) was used for attitude measurement. This test quantifies the difference in response latencies (in milliseconds) to stimuli representing related concepts (i.e. doping-dislike/like-[health food]). Prohibited substances were found in 43% of all tested urine samples. Dopers had more lenient attitudes to doping than non-dopers (Hedges's g = -0.76). D-scores greater than -0.57 (CI95 = -0.72 to -0.46) might be indicative of a rather lenient attitude to doping. In urine samples evidence of administration of combinations of substances, complementary administration of substances to treat side effects and use of stimulants to promote loss of body fat was common. This study demonstrates that athletes' attitudes to doping can be assessed indirectly with a reaction time-based test, and that their attitudes are related to their behavior. Although bodybuilders may be more willing to reveal their attitude to doping than other athletes, these results still provide evidence that the pictorial doping BIAT may be useful in athletes from other sports, perhaps as a complementary measure in evaluations of
Death and cadavers: knowledge, skills and attitudes will have to change. *Walsh K. Dear Editor,. Charlier et al are to be praised for bringing to light the beliefs of medical students from Parakou about death and cadavers1. Greater insight into such ... respected opinion leaders to deliver education should help – especially in ...
Objective: This study aimed to discover the emotional reactions, attitudes and beliefs of undergraduate medical students of University of Jos medical school to 1st time encounter with human cadaver. Materials and Methods: A structured pretested and validated questionnaire was administered to 450 students of 200 to 500 ...
[1,3] Focusing on male adolescents, who are tomorrow's fathers, will indicate what interventions are necessary to transform them into advocates of eradication of FGM/C. Objective. To evaluate knowledge about and attitudes to FGM/C among male adolescents, and their preparedness to protect their future daughters from it.
Liew, Tze Wei; Tan, Su-Mae; Seydali, Rouzbeh
In this article, the effects of personalized narration in multimedia learning on learners' computer perceptions and task-related attitudes were examined. Twenty-six field independent and 22 field dependent participants studied the computer-based multimedia lessons on C-Programming, either with personalized narration or non-personalized narration.…
This correlational study examined the relationship between gender and the students' attitude and prior knowledge of using one of the mathematical software programs (MATLAB). Participants were selected from one community college, one state university and one private college. Students were volunteers from three Calculus I classrooms (one class from…
Plant, E. Ashby; Baylor, Amy L.; Doerr, Celeste E.; Rosenberg-Kima, Rinat B.
Women's under-representation in fields such as engineering may result in part from female students' negative beliefs regarding these fields and their low self-efficacy for these fields. In this experiment, we investigated the use of animated interface agents as social models for changing male and female middle-school students' attitudes toward…
Ercan, Orhan; Bilen, Kadir; Ural, Evrim
This study investigated the impact of a web-based teaching method on students' academic achievement and attitudes in the elementary education fifth grade Science and Technology unit, "System of Earth, Sun and Moon". The study was a quasi-experimental study with experimental and control groups comprising 54 fifth grade students attending…
Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chu, Cordia M.; Chen, Li-Mei
Background: There is little information available related to the reproductive health of people with intellectual disability (ID). The aims of the present study are to describe caregiver attitudes and to examine determinants of gynaecological health for women with ID. Method: We recruited 1152 caregivers (response rate = 71.87%) and analysed their…
Sickle cell disease has remained a public health problem in Nigeria. This study was carried out to determine the knowledge and attitudes of unmarried NYSC members in Lagos State to sickle cell disease and screening. This study was a cross sectional study. Multistage sampling technique was used to select the ...
ISAAC E. ILEVBAOJE. ABSTRACT. This study was undertaken to ﬁnd out the attitudes of extension workers to the training and visit (T&V) extension system as a complimentary step to specify if this extension approach is on course in Nigeria. Results obtained indicate that about 10. 8, 65.8 and 23.3% of the extension ...
This was an intervention study to assess the effects of health education on the knowledge and attitudes to emergency contraception (EC) by female students of University of Nigeria in southeast Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 337 female students of a tertiary educational institution (150 in ...
Background: South Africa is a multicultural, multiracial and multilingual nation with many different values, traditions and cultural practices. Different belief systems may give rise to different attitudes and practices relating to disability, which may impact on rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ...
Objective: This qualitative study was conducted to assess and compare the attitude of teachers in two geopolitical zones of Nigeria to family life education. Methods: Multi stage sample selection was used to pick 6 public secondary schools (3 junior, 3 senior) in each zone. All teachers (221) in the selected schools were ...
Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad; Nageen, Tabassum; Pell, Anthony William
Attitudes to science scales developed earlier in England have been used in and around a Pakistan city with children in Primary/Elementary Grades 4-8. The limitations of a "transferred scale" in a culturally different context are apparent in a failure to reproduce the English factor patterns, but items are identified to serve as a base…
Wynn, Rolf; Kvalvik, Ann-Mari; Hynnekleiv, Torfinn
Many countries allow for the use of restraint and seclusion in emergencies with psychiatric inpatients. Authors have suggested that the attitudes of staff are of importance to the use of restraint and seclusion. To examine the attitudes to coercion at two Norwegian psychiatric units. In contrast to the idea that attitudes to coercion vary much within and between institutions, we hypothesized that staff's attitudes would be quite similar. We distributed a questionnaire to staff at two psychiatric units in two Norwegian counties. Eight wards were included. The questionnaire contained fictitious case histories with one patient that was violent and one patient that was self-harming, and staff were asked to describe how they would intervene in each emergency. Emergency strategies were sorted according to degree of restrictiveness, from the highly restrictive (restraint, seclusion) to the unrestrictive (talking, offering medication). Data were analysed with regression analyses. There was only a limited degree of variance in how staff at the different units and various groups of staff responded. Staff were more likely to favour a highly restrictive intervention when the patients were physically violent. Male staff and unskilled staff were significantly more prone to choosing a highly restrictive intervention. Our hypothesis was confirmed, as there was a limited degree of variance in staff's responses with respect to degree of restrictiveness. The study supported the idea that a range of different interventions are used in emergency situations.
Study objective. To ascertain the attitudes of clinical geneticists and genetic counsellors practising in South Africa to the current Abortion and Sterilisation Act of 1975 (the Act). Design. Postal questionnaire. Main results. Ninety-two per cent of the questionnaires were returned, and the responses were comparable to those of ...
We evaluated the knowledge and attitude of doctors to prostate cancer screening in the middle belt region of Nigeria. Methods: Self-administeredquestionnaires were distributed to all physicians at a continuing medical education (CME) workshop organized by the Benue State Chapter of the Nigerian Medical Association in ...
This was a cross-sectional study carried out on 372 clients receiving antenatal care at a rural, suburban and urban centres, in order to assess the acceptance of caesarean delivery amongst them and the factors influencing their attitude. Caesarean section was acceptable to 65.7%. Many respondents will refuse the surgery, ...
Access to voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services has become an important tool in the treatment and prevention of HIV infection. A cross-sectional knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) study was conducted with 50 nursing students in Zambia. All students were aware of where to go for VCT, and 80% had ...
Background: Infant malnutrition is a public health problem in developing countries. Objective: To determine the knowledge and attitude of women to exclusive breastfeeding in Ikosi district of Ikosi/Isheri Local Government Area. Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study which employed a multistage sampling ...
"Nature-rich mentoring" is a method aimed at changing attitudes and behavior toward the environment. In this method, a small group with members from diverse backgrounds participates in an outdoor expedition with opportunities for daily reflection and discussion. Expeditions should be planned according to participant ability to allow…
This study surveyed 254 journalists from the seven media organisations in Ibadan, Nigeria, to assess their knowledge of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), attitude to persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA) and reports of AIDS-related issues. The journalists\\' overall mean AIDS knowledge score was 10.6 out of 14 ...
Background: Uncorrected refractive error is a common cause of preventable visual impairment. Glasses are the cheapest and commonest form of correction of refractive errors. To achieve this, patients must exhibit good compliance to spectacle wear. Patients' attitude and perception of glasses and eye health could affect ...
Aims: A study was carried out among 136 final year medical students of University of Nigeria Enugu Campus, to verify their attitude to Community Medicine as well as selection of the course for future specialization. Methods: The study was a cross sectional descriptive one involving all final year medical students of the ...
The problems associated with youth behaviours in the Niger Delta region necessitated the study. The specific objectives were to collate the current agricultural development intervention programmes; compare the attitude of youth leaders and non-leaders to agricultural development intervention programmes, and examine ...
A self-constructed questionnaire titled “Librarians Attitudes to Computerised Information Systems (LACIS)” was administered to evaluate the perception of Librarians at the Kenneth Dike Library, University of Ibadan on the use of computerised information system. Based on a four-point Lickert scale, descriptive and inferential ...
Knowledge and attitude of nurses to Community Psychiatry services in Edo state, Nigeria. ... The research instrument for this study was self developed structured questionnaire design in line with the variables to be measured. Descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages, independent t–test and Pearson Moment ...
Preponderance of stray dogs at the study site necessitated assessment of awareness on rabies and associated factors, attitude to dog bite and knowledge on rabies among students and staff members in a University community. We reviewed hospital records for dog bite cases from 2005 to 2010 and administered structured ...
Background: This cross-sectional study sought to establish the level of knowledge of diabetes among community members in rural and urban setups in Kenya and determine how this impacts on their attitude and practices towards diabetes. Methods: A face-to-face interview was done for selected respondents using a ...
There is a serious concern about the spate of indiscipline among youths in recent times, especially those in secondary schools. This study sets out to assess how the leadership style of principals and teachers' attitude to works influence discipline among secondary schools students in Akamkpa Local Government Area ...
Eisenberg, N.; And Others
Results of surveying 299 professionals concerning their knowledge and attitudes about child sexual abuse and incest showed that the type of sexual activity involved influenced responses; the type of relationship between adult and child, less so. Estimates of incest were low but incest was considered to be harmful to the victim. (Author/DB)
Brandt, Jeanette A.; Olson, Geraldine I.
A method to measure homeowners' housing consumption and investment attitudes was developed. Dimensions in the consumption scale were space, tenure, structure, quality, and neighborhood. The investment scale included tax benefits, equity, rate of return, leverage, and risk. Personal variables were hypothesized to have an effect on overall…
Houkamau, C.A.; Boxall, P.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the “other-group orientation” (OGO) of New Zealand (NZ) workers as a way of measuring their attitudes to the growing ethnic diversity in the contemporary workplace. Design/methodology/approach In all, 500 randomly selected NZ employees were surveyed
Seefeldt, Carol; And Others
Drawings of one man at four ages, 20, 40, 60, 80 were presented to 180 children (preschool-sixth grade) in a structured interview situation in order to assess knowledge of and attitudes toward age and the elderly. Development of the concept of old follows a cognitive-developmental sequence. (Author)
This paper investigates the attitudes of some university and tertiary institution students to codeswitching. Respondents were drawn from four tertiary institutions located in the Southwestern part of Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was administered to the informants whose ages ranged between sixteen and fifty-five years.
Attitude of health care workers to patients and colleagues infected with human immunodeficiency virus. ... HCWs were unwilling to accept that medical procedures be carried out on them by HIV-infected doctors and nurses, with almost 80% refusing surgery or assistance at surgery on them by an HIV-infected doctor or nurse.
... attitude to reading research articles and their utilization in nursing practice was conducted in University College Hospital (UCH) and Adeoyo Maternity Teaching Hospital (AMTH) both in the city of Ibadan, Nigeria. Data were collected through a 50-item-structured questionnaire using purposive sampling technique to select ...
February 2002 to October 2003 showed that the most common animals involved in ... Keywords: Addis Ababa, Attitude, Dog ownership, Knowledge, Rabies ... Therefore this study was designed to generate preliminary information on dog population, dog ownership patterns and socioeconomic status of the community in ...
Abstract Public attitudes to organ donation may be influ- enced by cultural beliefs as .... Language group. English. 656. 0. 0. Afrikaans. 643. 0. 0. Zulu. 0. 356. 211. Xhosa. 0. 316. 141. Tswana. 0. 58*. 197. Sotho (N and S). 0. 96. 76. Area. PWV. 791. 258*. Transvaal ..... ence black opinions to a large extent (T. Marala - per-.
Wass, C A A
Introduction to Electronic Analogue Computers, Second Revised Edition is based on the ideas and experience of a group of workers at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, Hants. This edition is almost entirely the work of Mr. K. C. Garner, of the College of Aeronautics, Cranfield. As various advances have been made in the technology involving electronic analogue computers, this book presents discussions on the said progress, including some acquaintance with the capabilities of electronic circuits and equipment. This text also provides a mathematical background including simple differen
Cam, Sefika Sumeyye; Yarar, Gokhan; Toraman, Cetin; Erdamar, Gurcu Koc
The idea that gender factor creates a difference on computer usage and computer-assisted instruction is based upon previous years. At that time, it was thought that some areas like engineering, science and mathematics were for males so it created a difference on the computer usage. Nevertheless, developing technology and females becoming more…
McMahon, Sarah; Allen, Christopher T.; Postmus, Judy L.; McMahon, Sheila M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Lowe Hoffman, Melanie
Objective: The purpose of this study is to further investigate the factor structure and strength of the Bystander Attitude Scale-Revised and Bystander Behavior Scale-Revised (BAS-R and BBS-R). Participants: First-year students (N = 4,054) at a large public university in the Northeast completed a survey in 2010 as part of a larger longitudinal…
Tick-borne Relapsing Fever (TBRF) is a vector-borne disease of humans which causes serious illness, primarily for children under five years old and pregnant women. Understanding people's knowledge, attitude and practices on the disease is important in designing appropriate interventions. This study was conducted to ...
The study was conducted from May 2003 to August 2003 in Addis Ababa with the objective of understanding the distribution of stray and owned dogs, dog ownership patterns and attitudes of people towards rabies and its prevention and control methods. A total of 2390 households were selected from 6 Sub Cities of Addis ...
Context: The knowledge, attitude and practice of the post partum IUD among staff in the obstetrics and gynaecological unit of the Jos University Teaching Hospital has been in doubt all along. Clients were not forth coming for this method of contraception despite the fact that it was readily available in the facility. Objective: To ...
The study assessed the attitude of teachers in Lagos State to inspectors and inspection. The study took the form of a survey. Two hundred and fifty teachers from public secondary schools were selected as samples for the study using stratified random sampling technique. The instruments used for the data collection was the ...
This study investigated the relationships between adolescent religiosity and attitudes to HIV/AIDS based on two major techniques of analysis, factor and regression analysis towards informing preventive school education strategies. Using cross-sectional data of 448 adolescents in junior high school, the study incorporated ...
This study investigated test anxiety, attitude to schooling, parental influence, and peer pressure as predictors of cheating ... Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. Using stratified random ... B. A. Bassey, Department of Educational Foundations, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River. State, Nigeria.
attitude to mental illness in. Ogun State, Nigeria. NC Aghukwa. Department of Psychiatry, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria. Abstract. Objective: Teachers as role models stand in a unique position in the formation of their pupils' set values about mental health issues. The aim of this study ...
Townsend, Alfred S.
"Introduction to Effective Music Teaching: Artistry and Attitude" provides the prospective teacher with front-line tested strategies and approaches that are based on current research and the author's three decades of service as a public school music educator, department chairman, and public school district music administrator. Starting with a…
Efficient use of the water resource requires internalization of all costs in the price of water, including environmental and resource costs. However, water resource management tends to be highly political and increasing water prices are a sensitive and complicated policy matter. Hence, there is a need for increased understanding of the implementation process and the attitudes towards implementation among the general public. This paper explores the spatial heterogeneity in the public attitude towards internalizing environmental and resource costs in the price of water across the EU regions. Within an extensive spatial dataset constructed for the purpose, we estimate the effect of individual information levels and affordability concerns on the attitude towards environmental water pricing. Information about water problems is found to have a significant and positive effect on attitudes as is affordability concern, which may be explained by expectations of inequity measures to come in place in parallel with increasing water prices. Overall these results support the hypothesis that lack of information and affordability concern could lead to resistance towards efficient water pricing among the general public. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Barandiaran-Galdos, Marta; Barrenetxea-Ayesta, Miren; Cardona-Rodriguez, Antonio; Mijangos-Del-Campo, Juan Jose; Olaskoaga-Larrauri, Jon
This article sets out to investigate the notions Spanish university teaching staff have of quality in education, on the assumption that those notions give a reliable picture of the attitudes of teaching staff towards education policy design and university management. The paper takes an empirical approach, collecting opinions telematically via a…
Achugwo DC. Abah I. Parental knowledge and attitude to children's eye care services. Accepted: 17th December 2015. Onyekachukwu MA. Abah I. Department of optometry,. Faculty of Life Sciences .... sary, 10 lack of funds,11, 12 distance from eye clinic, time, reliance on pediatricians, general practitioners and visual.
Background Mental retardation is a chronic and permanent disorder occurring during developmental period of life. The uncertainty of the future and independent existence result in negative attitudes toward the affected children. An increased burden of care leading to emotional and psychological distress among parents.
This study explored the attitudes of young people in Brittany towards Breton and French, including questions of identity and perceptions of the future of the Breton language. Combined several different techniques within the same project to gain different insights into the issues and established techniques for gathering data on language attitudes…
Attitude and Perceptions of Clinicians in Lagos to Autopsy Practice. ... The reasons for this delay include relegation of autopsy pathology as a surbodinate of research or surgical pathology and lack of motivation for the pathologist who is no longer compensated in any way that would encourage his effort. The study shows ...
Assessing Attitude to and Knowledge of. Entrepreneurship among Students with Hearing. Impairment in Nigeria. Oyewumi, A. - Department of Special Education, University of Ibadan. E-mail: email@example.com. &. Adeniyi, Sam Olufemi - Department of Educational Psychology,. Federal College of Education (Tech) ...
Using responses of 90 undergraduate and graduate students, developed a model in which action-control belief variables have only an indirect effect on students' attitudes to writing a thesis mediated through two academic orientation variables. The model accounted for a large proportion of the repeatable variance in the two academic orientation…
Kofi Nyame Amoako-Agyeman
Abstract. This study investigated the relationships between adolescent religiosity and attitudes to HIV/AIDS based on two major techniques of analysis, factor and regression analysis towards informing preventive school education strategies. Using cross-sectional data of 448 adolescents in junior high school, the study ...
This study investigated test anxiety, attitude to schooling, parental influence, and peer pressure as predictors of cheating tendencies in examination among secondary school students in Edo State, Nigeria. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. Using stratified random sampling technique, 1200 senior ...
Nov 11, 2003 ... adolescent sexual behaviour, including contraceptive use is important. The attitude of teachers to school-based adolescent reproductive health services was assessed among two hundred and twenty three teachers in Sagamu. Forty seven percent of them were trained family life educators while 52.9% had ...
Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and use of the female condom among undergraduates of Kigali Health Institute. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out between May and June 2010. The sample was randomly selected from the students of Kigali Health Institute. A questionnaire based study was ...
This study reports the perceptions and attitudes of geography teachers towards biotechnology and genetically-modified (GM) foods in Turkey. A survey was conducted with secondary school geography teachers attending teacher workshops in various parts of the country in 2008 and was responded to by 78 teachers from ...
Engelhardt, Douglas B.; Mohan, Srinivas N.
The pitch and yaw attitude control thrusters of the Magellan spacecraft generate uncoupled moments about the spacecraft center of mass, perturbing the spacecraft's orbit. A strategy to model these perturbing forces in the spacecraft equations of motion is presented. This strategy can model the thruster forces occurring in the nominal and contingency modes of attitude control operation. In the nominal mode, the thrusters fire only to balance the daily unloading of the momentum wheels. The contingency case will occur if a pitch or yaw axis momentum wheel fails, and the thrusters could fire up to 1200 times around the orbit to replace the failed wheel's momentum contribution. Deterministic errors are computed and shown to be under specified error requirements.
Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah
The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country. PMID:24489695
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country.
Cahill, Kevin C; Ettarh, Raj R
Many studies around the world have looked at the stresses placed on medical students by cadaveric dissection. Although these studies have linked the use of cadavers in medical teaching to stress, some investigations have suggested an association with severe psychological stress and even post-traumatic stress disorder. This study assessed the attitudes of medical and biomedical sciences students in an Irish medical school towards cadaveric dissection by recording, through a questionnaire, their perceptions and experience before initial exposure to dissection and subsequently examining their attitudes after the first dissection and after 9 weeks. Student attitudes towards the dissecting room remained consistently positive for the duration of the study with only a minority of respondents reporting negative symptoms. Pre-existing attitudes to the idea of dissection were unaffected by exposure and subsequent continuous experience of dissection. The majority of students in this study did not find the dissecting room experience stressful, and considered time spent in the dissecting room valuable. However, the proportion of students with negative experiences in the dissecting room was higher than has been reported in previous studies. Many respondents felt they could be better prepared for the dissecting room experience, indicating an increasing requirement for effective preparatory programmes. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, Antinus; Nijholt, A.
Like its predecessors in 1996 (University of Twente, the Netherlands) and 2002 (ITC-irst, Trento, Italy), this Third International Workshop on Computational Humor (IWCH 2012) focusses on the possibility to find algorithms that allow understanding and generation of humor. There is the general aim of
McCabe, Marita P; Hardman, Lisa
The authors investigated how individual factors (age, gender, gender role, past experiences of sexual harassment) and organizational factors (gender ratio, sexual harassment policies, the role of employers) related to workers' attitudes toward and perceptions of sexual harassment. In Study 1, participants were 176 workers from a large, white-collar organization. In Study 2, participants were 75 workers from a smaller, blue-collar organization. Individuals from Study 2 experienced more sexual harassment, were more tolerant of sexual harassment, and perceived less behavior as sexual harassment than did individuals from Study 1. For both samples, organizational and individual factors predicted workers' attitudes toward and experiences of sexual harassment. Individual factors-such as age, gender, gender role, past experiences of sexual harassment, and perceptions of management's tolerance of sexual harassment-predicted attitudes toward sexual harassment. Workers' attitudes, the behavioral context, and the gender of the victim and perpetrator predicted perceptions of sexual harassment. The authors discussed the broader implications of these findings and suggested recommendations for future research.
Many disciplines and scientific fields have undergone a computational turn in the past several decades. This paper analyzes this sort of turn by investigating the case of computational quantum chemistry. The main claim is that the transformation from quantum to computational quantum chemistry involved changes in three dimensions. First, on the side of instrumentation, small computers and a networked infrastructure took over the lead from centralized mainframe architecture. Second, a new conception of computational modeling became feasible and assumed a crucial role. And third, the field of computa- tional quantum chemistry became organized in a market-like fashion and this market is much bigger than the number of quantum theory experts. These claims will be substantiated by an investigation of the so-called density functional theory (DFT), the arguably pivotal theory in the turn to computational quantum chemistry around 1990.
Rosseel, Laura; Geeraerts, Dirk; Speelman, Dirk
Since the introduction of the matched guise technique in the 1960s (Lambert et al. 1960), there has been little methodological innovation in the field of language attitude research (Speelman et al. 2013). In social psychology, by contrast, a considerable number of new methods to measure implicit attitudes has been developed in the past two decades (Gawronski & De Houwer 2014). It is only recently that sociolinguistics has started to explore the potential of some of these social psychological ...
Willis, Jerry W.; And Others
Intended as an action guide, this book focuses on the issues, concepts, and facts relevant to the educator who wants to consider using computers to accomplish learning objectives. A short history of computers emphasizing microcomputers and their use in education is followed by a discussion of current educational uses which includes a more detailed…
Full Text Available This research is to study the attitudes of English students from English as a Second Language (ESL and English as a Foreign Language (EFL country in English and Foreign Languages University (EFL University, Hyderabad to English. This is a descriptive-quantitative research with a survey method. The attitudes researched include those to listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The data was taken through questionnaire consisting of 20 questions. The findings of this study showed that the English students in EFL University have neutral-to-positive attitudes to Listening, positive attitudes to Speaking, positive attitudes to Reading, and poor attitudes to Writing. In addition, the English students from ESL country have better attitudes to Reading (positive and Writing (neutral and those from EFL country have better attitudes to Speaking (neutral-to-positive and Listening (neutral-to-positive.
Full Text Available This research is to study the attitudes of English students from English as a Second Language (ESL and English as a Foreign Language (EFL country in English and Foreign Languages University (EFL University, Hyderabad to English. This is a descriptive-quantitative research with a survey method. The attitudes researched include those to listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The data was taken through questionnaire consisting of 20 questions. The findings of this study showed that the English students in EFL University have neutral-to-positive attitudes to Listening, positive attitudes to Speaking, positive attitudes to Reading, and poor attitudes to Writing. In addition, the English students from ESL country have better attitudes to Reading (positive and Writing (neutral and those from EFL country have better attitudes to Speaking (neutral-to-positive and Listening (neutral-to-positive.
The article explores contradictions in teachers' perceptions regarding the place of computer technologies in education. The research population included 47 teachers who have incorporated computers in the classroom for several years. The teachers expressed positive attitudes regarding the decisive importance of computer technologies in furthering…
Akhmanov, Sergei A., Jr.; Rakhimov, Alexander T.; Persianttsev, Igor G.; Roy, Nikolaj N.; Skurikhin, Alexander V.
The BOOK: This book is the user's guid for the begginers. We start with the detailed information about preparing of the Korvet to work. We consider the main functions of the operating system CP/M-80. In this book we carefully describe the Basic language. We use a lot of examples of the Basic language programs as an illustration of the Korvet's possiblities. CONTENTS: What is the personal computer? The possibilities of the PC Korvet. Installing PC Korvet. Magnetic Tape and diskettes. Preparing diskettes for ussing. Operating system PC Korvet. Languages. Start with BASIC. Introduction to BASIC. More about BASIC. Program's editor. Arithmetic statements and functions. Loops and soubroutines. Arrays. Logical statements. How to be an artist with BASIC. String variables. Print statement and graphycs. Memory addressing Peripherial devices. Text redactors and data bases. Examples of programs. READERSHIP: Students of secondary schools and higher schools, scientists and all other peoples which start working with personal computers.
The findings showed that parental attitude to equal access to and the participation of the girl-child to education is still negative and unsupportive. Some 83.3% of the parents preferred to educate the boys rather than the girls as only 29.0% agreed that girls are useful to their family of origin when they are married while 77.1% ...
Е V Esakova
Full Text Available In the article the author considers the reasons of East Timor problem, the factors which conditioned the Australian government attitude to the issue as well as the attitude of Indonesian government to this conflict resolution.
M. A. Kuznetsov
Manifestation of academic procrastination in the emotional attitude to learning activity is connected with students’ academic progress. High academic progress students’ emotional attitude to learning activity is broken by procrastination more than that of low academic progress students.
Bouchefra, Miloud; Baghoussi, Meriem
Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) is still groping its way into Algerian English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom, where Information Communications Technologies (ICTs) are defined in terms of occasional use of computers and data projectors for material presentation in the classroom. Though major issues in the image of the lack of…
Scott, D J; Philip, A E
A sample of 208 psychiatric nurses and nursing assistants completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes to treatment and patients. Significant attitudinal differences between groups were found in relation to professional grade, age and sex. Staff with more professional training were less authoritarian and impersonal than staff more junior in the hierarchy. Younger males with Registered Mental Nurse training were found to be significantly less inclined towards physical methods of nursing and treatment. Male nurses tended to favour therapeutic techniques which emphasized independent nurse action and psychological proximity to patients. Female nurses were more favourably inclined to physical methods of treatment and were significantly more authoritarian and formal towards patients in line with the traditional stereotype of the general hospital nurse. Results are discussed in relation to the setting up of new treatment regimes within psychiatric hospitals and the influence that staff attitudes have on their functioning.
Zohdi, Tarek I; Zohdi, Tarek I
In this, its second corrected printing, Zohdi and Wriggers' illuminating text presents a comprehensive introduction to the subject. The authors include in their scope basic homogenization theory, microstructural optimization and multifield analysis of heterogeneous materials. This volume is ideal for researchers and engineers, and can be used in a first-year course for graduate students with an interest in the computational micromechanical analysis of new materials.
Galina Kavaliauskienė; Ligija Kaminskienė
Students’ perceptions of difficulties in speaking on professional issues are in the focus of the present article. It is generally assumed that the skill of speaking a foreign language is very difficult to master, while speaking on professional topics involves such difficulties as the usage of specific vocabulary and ability to deal with listeners’ oncoming arguments. The aims of the current research are to investigate learners’ attitudes to the level of difficulty in speaking activi - ties on...
Johnston, Ron; Deeming, Christopher
The UK is committed to a sharp reduction of greenhouse gases. Progress towards its goal will depend on whether the public can be persuaded to change their travel behaviour. Using British Social Attitudes 2011 survey data, analyses show that the majority of adults – especially the young and better-educated – believe that climate change is occurring but even concerned believers appear reluctant to modify their behaviour. Policies designed to alter transport habits and induce behaviour change ne...
Full Text Available Cataract is the leading cause of 51% blindness case in the world. Cataract can only be cured trough surgery, but most people with cataract in Indonesia is not in undergoing surgery due to several factors. The increasing number of cataract victim whose not undergoing any treatment to cure them will resulting in increasing number of blindness case, so blindness cause by cataracts can be a public health problem. This research was conducted to determine the relationship of age, attitudes, knowledge and the cost of the action to perform cataract surgery. This research was an observational analytic study with cross sectional design. The samples were cataract patients in Undaan Eye Hospital Surabaya who were randomly selected using a simple random sampling based on medical records of 60 people. Data collection was done by taking secondary data and interviews to patients. Those variables was analyzed with chi square or Fisher’s exact with significancy level at 95%. The result showed that there were correlation between knowledge (p = 0.017, operating costs (p = 0.001 and attitude (0.000 while age was not related (p = 1.000, the actions to perform cataract surgery. The conclusion from this research was the attitude, knowledge and operating costs related to the actions to perform cataract surgery, while age was not related to the actions to perform cataract surgery. It is recommended to give through leaflets or other media in the lobby for improving patient education, counseling to the patient family, the doctor’s advice to convince patient for surgery. Keywords: practice, surgery, cataract, attitudes, costs
Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; With-Nielsen, Ninna; Lenneis, Verena
messages about a healthy and active lifestyle. Based on five focus-group interviews and a survey among 784 female students aged 16-20, we explored their attitudes and practices with regard to physical activity and health. The analysis of the material is theoretically informed by the work of Foucauldian...... scholars who have used the concepts of governmentality and disciplinary power to explore current public health policies and young people’s health-related attitudes and practices. We found that for the participants in our study ‘health’ was inextricably intertwined with slimness and fitness, to which......Studies conducted in Denmark reveal that many young women drop out of sport and exercise in their teenage years even though they possess good knowledge about health recommendations and the benefits of physical activity. This raises the question as to how they interpret and make use of the current...
Lund, Thomas Bøker; Sandøe, Peter; Lassen, Jesper
The aim of this study was to investigate the Danish public’s support for publicly funded obesity treatment and prevention. It was also examined whether levels of support could be explained by dislike of obese people and / or the belief that those who are obese are personally responsible...... for their condition. A representative survey of members of the Danish public (N=1,141) was conducted using a web-based questionnaire. The survey was designed to assess attitudes to public funding for obesityrelated health care, and to investigate the impact, on those attitudes, of dislike of obese people......, the perceived controllability of obesity, self-reported BMI, and additional attitudinal and sociodemographic characteristics. Public funding of some obesity treatments, such as weight-loss surgery, attracted only limited public support. A majority of the Danish public did support ‘softer’ treatment...
Elffers, L.; Oort, F.J.
In this study, we examine students’ educational attitudes upon the transition to Dutch senior vocational education (SVE), a transition associated with high dropout rates in the first year. Prior studies have identified differences in educational attitudes between sociodemographic groups. However,
Full Text Available This study, which used a sample of 137,346 students from thirty three countries that participated in the TIMSS 2003 project in the eighth grade, examined the features of the individual and collective relations of three dimensions of mathematics attitude to mathematics achievement (MA, searching for the dimension mostly related to that achievement. The three dimensions of mathematics attitude were self-confidence in learning mathematics (SCLM, liking mathematics (LM and usefulness of mathematics (UM. By utilizing psychometrically valid and reliable measures of the three dimensions, it was found that: (1 each dimension of mathematics attitude alone was positively related to MA for almost all thirty three countries; (2 SCLM was primarily related to MA for thirty one countries; (3 when the two other dimensions were held constant, SCLM was positively related to MA for thirty three countries, LM was negatively related to MA for thirty countries, whereas UM was not related to MA for twenty one countries; (4 positive collective relationships of SCLM, LM and UM to MA considerably varied from country to country. Implications for research and practice are included.
Gibson, F L; Ungerer, J A; Tennant, C C; Saunders, D M
To examine the psychosocial and parenthood-specific adjustment and attitudes to parenting at 1 year postpartum of IVF parents. Prospective, controlled study. Volunteers in a teaching hospital environment. Sixty-five primiparous women with singleton IVF pregnancies and their partners, and a control group of 61 similarly aged primiparous women with no history of infertility and their partners. Completion of questionnaires and interviews. Parent reports of general and parenthood-specific adjustment and attitudes to parenting. The IVF mothers tended to report lower self-esteem and less parenting competence than control mothers. Although there were no group differences on protectiveness, IVF mothers saw their children as significantly more vulnerable and "special" compared with controls. The IVF fathers reported significantly lower self-esteem and marital satisfaction, although not less competence in parenting. Both IVF mothers and fathers did not differ from control parents on other measures of general adjustment (mood) or those more specific to parenthood (e.g., attachment to the child and attitudes to child rearing). The IVF parents' adjustment to parenthood is similar to naturally conceiving comparison families. Nonetheless, there are minor IVF differences that reflect heightened child-focused concern and less confidence in parenting for mothers, less satisfaction with the marriage for the fathers, and vulnerable self-esteem for both parents.
Tepehan, Selma; Ozkara, Erdem; Yavuz, M Fatih
The aim of this study was to reveal doctors' and nurses' attitudes to euthanasia in intensive care units and surgical, internal medicine and paediatric units in Turkey. A total of 205 doctors and 206 nurses working in several hospitals in Istanbul participated. Data were collected by questionnaire and analysed using SPSS v. 12.0. Significantly higher percentages of doctors (35.3%) and nurses (26.6%) working in intensive care units encountered euthanasia requests than those working in other units. Doctors and nurses caring for terminally ill patients in intensive care units differed considerably in their attitudes to euthanasia and patient rights from other health care staff. Euthanasia should be investigated and put on the agenda for discussion in Turkey.
Macneill, P U; Kerridge, I H; Newby, D; Stokes, B J; Doran, E; Henry, D A
Few studies have reported the attitudes of both individual doctors and members of the public toward the appropriateness of 'gifts' from pharmaceutical companies. To investigate the attitudes of both doctors and members of the public toward the appropriateness of receiving particular 'gifts' from pharmaceutical companies, and to consider whether public acceptability is a suitable criterion for determining the ethical appropriateness of 'gifts'. A survey questionnaire of medical specialists in Australia and a survey questionnaire of members of the public itemized 23 'gifts' (valued between AU$10 and AU$2500) and asked whether or not each was appropriate. Both medical specialists and members of the public believe certain 'gifts' from pharmaceutical companies are appropriate but not others. There was a tendency for members of the public to be more permissive than medical specialists. Although some professional guidelines place importance on the attitudes of the general public to 'gift' giving, and other guidelines give importance to a need for transparency and public accountability, we question whether public acceptability is a suitable criterion for determining the ethical appropriateness of 'gifts'. We suggest that more weight be given to the need for independence of clinical decision making, with empirical evidence indicating that even small 'gifts' can bias clinicians' judgments, and to important values such as the primacy of patient welfare, autonomy and social justice. We conclude that it is time to eliminate giving and receiving of promotional items between the pharmaceutical industry and members of health professions.
Tarabah, Asma; Badr, Lina Kurdahi; Usta, Jinan; Doyle, John
Children exposed to multiple sources of violence may become desensitized, increasing the possibility of them imitating the aggressive behaviors they watch and considering such behavior as normal. The purpose of this article is to assess the association between exposure to various types of violence (including war) and desensitization in Lebanese children. A cross-sectional design with 207 school-aged children assessed exposure to violence using three surveys: (a) violence in the media (the Media Preference survey), (b) exposure to violence (the KID-SAVE survey), and (c) desensitization attitudes (the Attitude Toward Violence-Child Version). Children were between 8 and 12 years old, 56% were males, and 70%were from middle socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Seventy-six percent of children reported being exposed to violence, with more exposure in males and in the lower SES group. Impact, however, was greater on girls. The predictors of attitude toward violence were "Frequency" of exposure, "Impact" of exposure, and the amount of violence viewed on television. Children are massively exposed to violence in Lebanon resulting in desensitization, which may habituate them to accept violence as normal and put them at risk for imitating violent behaviors. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Over the past years, the role of physical education and sports in youth health improvement has deteriorated, the public status of physical training for purposes of health improvement and promotion has fallen. The article outlines the results of a study of attitudes to physical education and sports among 310 senior grades in secondary schools of the town of Zhukovsky in Moscow region under the program of research into health-saving behaviours in adolescents. Along with a low sports activity most adolescents of both sexes do not do morning exercises at all. At the same time, their overall motor performance is also at a very low level. The sedentary life style becomes a dominant feature in the development of younger generation.Key words: adolescents, attitude to sports, motor performance.
Sørensen, Jens Fyhn Lykke
Context: Rural communities tend to be underserved by medical services. Low access to medical services affects quality of life and may also affect settlement decisions. The use of telehealth has often been mentioned as an alternative way to provide health care services in remote, underserved areas...
Ünal, Hakan; Mengütay, Sami
The aim of this study is to develop, apply and assess an attitude scale to investigate the social marketing of sport, its effects on the public attitude and the attitude of the society towards sport. The sample scale consists of 55 attitude statements including 5 dimensions (habit of doing sport regularly, society and sport, media-advertisement and sport, the effect of state and private sectors on sport, sportive education of families and children). The pilot study was carried out with 150 pe...
Full Text Available In Science teaching laboratory work is recognized as one of the cornerstones. In school science laboratory work computers can be used as computer supported laboratory (real and as virtual laboratory. In the first case “real” laboratories involve bench top experiments utilizing data acquisition systems while “virtual” laboratory entails interactive simulations and animations. Lower secondary school students in age between 11 and 15 performed three laboratory exercises (Activity of yeast, Gas exchange in breathing, Heart rate as classic, computer-supported and virtual laboratory. As a result of testing we know that all three methods are suitable even for younger students. When they were asked which method they liked the most, their first choice was computer-supported laboratory, followed by classic laboratory, and virtual laboratory at the end. Additionally recognized weak and strong sides of used methods are discussed.
Silha, J.; Schildknecht, T.; Pittet, J.; Bodenmann, D.; Kanzler, R.; Karrang, P.; Krag, H.
The Astronomic Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) in cooperation with other three partners is involved in an ESA study dedicated to the attitude determination of large spacecraft and upper stages. Two major goals are defined. First is the long term prediction of tumbling rates (e.g. 10 years) for selected targets for the future Active Debris Removal (ADR) missions. Second goal is the attitude state determination in case of contingencies, when a short response time is required between the observations themselves and the attitude determination. One of the project consortium partners, Hypersonic Technology Goettingen (HTG), is developing a highly modular software tool ιOTA to perform short- (days) to long-term (years) propagations of the orbit and the attitude motion of spacecraft in space. Furthermore, ιOTA's post-processing modules will generate synthetic measurements, e.g. light curves, SLR residuals and Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) images that can be compared with the real measurements. In our work we will present the first attempt to compare real measurements with synthetic measurements in order to estimate the attitude state of tumbling satellite ENVISAT from observations performed by AIUB. We will shortly discuss the ESA project and ιOTA software tool. We will present AIUB's ENVISAT attitude state determined from the SLR ranges acquired by the Zimmerwald SLR station. This state was used as the initial conditions within the ιOTA software. Consequently the attitude of satellite was predicted by using ιOTA and compared with the real SLR residuals, as well with the high frame-rate light curves acquired by the Zimmerwald 1-m telescope.
Olukayode Abayomi; Emmanuel Babalola
Desai and Patel highlighted in a recent review that and ldquo;there are several issues related to medical marijuana, which concern public health such as its medical use, harmful effects, laws and physicians role. and rdquo; Certainly, physician's perspectives and position on the relative harm and benefits of marijuana contribute to the growing controversy over its legalization in western countries. Interestingly, the seeming resistance of physicians in western countries to marijuana prescrip...
This work is focused on the point of the secondary school youth attitude on the issue of the rational nutrition. Using the questionnaire investigation that is divided into several research areas I am trying to prove or disconfirm the existence of the mutual relationship between the branch of study and the preferences of healthy nutrition and healthy lifestyle for youth. My thesis deals with the question of a provable relationship in knowledge achieved in the field of healthy nutrition and hea...
Taylor, Florentina; Marsden, Emma J.
The declining interest in foreign languages in English-speaking countries has been attributed to negative societal attitudes and specific pupil attitudes and perceptions. While various initiatives have aimed to encourage language study, little research has systematically documented the relationship among perceptions, attitudes, and actually opting…
Aug 4, 2011 ... the law in order deliver justice to victims of environmental problems in Nigeria. It argues that the current .... The NESREA Act provides the oil and gas sector additional exceptions in sections 24, 29, and ... Nigerian environment and shall enforce the application of best clean-up technology currently available ...
Terkla, Dawn Geronimo; O'Leary, Lisa S.; Wilson, Nancy E.; Diaz, Ande
Recently, higher education has witnessed a renewed commitment to the mission of preparing students for lives of active citizenship. Under the leadership of President Lawrence S. Bacow, Tufts University (Medford, Massachusetts) has articulated an institutional mission that embraces three areas of focus: active citizenship, internationalism, and…
Mathematics teachers are constantly looking for real-world applications of mathematics. Aerospace education provides an incredible context for teaching and learning important STEM concepts, inspiring young people to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Teaching mathematics within the context of aerospace generates…
The purpose of this paper was to clarify the features of teachers' image on normalisation and inclusive education. The participants of the study were both mainstream teachers and special teachers. One hundred and thirty-eight questionnaires were analysed. (1) Teachers completed the questionnaire of SD (semantic differential) images on…
Carl F. Hallencreutz
Full Text Available How Læstadianism became the "religion of the Saamis" is a process of church and religious history which has not been fully explained. It is a comprehensive development which includes most of Læstadius' entire ministry. In this work he did not regard the Saami religion as something exclusively out of date. Instead, he put his message in a more concrete form by making use of Saami ideas. A central question is how Læstadius took account of—or afforded expression to motives from traditional Saami mythology when he formulated and adapted his own interpretation of Christianity to the Saami environment. For instance, the existence of the mother goddess (Madder-akka and other female deities was something extremely concrete in Saami pre-Christian. In Læstadius' time conceptions and the worship of these deities had ceased. Despite this, Læstadius may have found it of value, in a living Saami interpretation of Christianity, to give a more rounded picture of the deity that was expressed in Christian usage by the old Saami god of thunder and sky, Jubmela by keeping alive the mother aspect of "the heavenly parent". Therefore he may have consciously chosen to use mother symbolism when talking of the secret of atonement.
Campbell, Charles E. (Inventor)
In the absence of a gyroscope, the attitude and attitude rate of a receiver can be determined using signals received by antennae on the receiver. Based on the signals received by the antennae, the Doppler difference between the signals is calculated. The Doppler difference may then be used to determine the attitude rate. With signals received from two signal sources by three antennae pairs, the three-dimensional attitude rate is determined.
Davie, Neil; Hilber, Tobias
This project examines mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) and in particular the attitudes of undergraduate engineering students at the South Westphalia University of Applied Sciences towards the use of the smartphone app Quizlet to learn English vocabulary. Initial data on attitudes to learning languages and to the use of mobile devices to do…
Hou, Shu-Ying; Pan, Shung-Mei; Ko, Nai-Ying; Liu, Hsiu-Chin; Wu, Shu-Jung; Yang, Wen-Chiung; Yang, Hsing-Hu; Shieh, Shiu-Fen; Chuang, Li-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang
.... Their attitudes toward homosexual people as recorded on the Attitudes Toward Homosexuality Questionnaire, intention to provide care to homosexual individuals, and related factors were examined...
Bhugra, D; King, M
A controlled analysis of the attitudes of doctors and homosexual men to male homosexuality is reported. Not surprisingly the homosexual men held the most liberal attitudes which served as a yard-stick against which the doctors' attitudes could be assessed. The implications of these data, collected before the AIDS era, are discussed in terms of the current needs of homosexual patients. PMID:2810298
Lytton, William W
Biology undergraduates, medical students and life-science graduate students often have limited mathematical skills. Similarly, physics, math and engineering students have little patience for the detailed facts that make up much of biological knowledge. Teaching computational neuroscience as an integrated discipline requires that both groups be brought forward onto common ground. This book does this by making ancillary material available in an appendix and providing basic explanations without becoming bogged down in unnecessary details. The book will be suitable for undergraduates and beginning graduate students taking a computational neuroscience course and also to anyone with an interest in the uses of the computer in modeling the nervous system.
Full Text Available Purpose and/or objectives: This paper presents a framework to investigate money attitudes and materialistic values. The conceptualization of the framework is guided by a critical review of literature. The intention is to provide a framework that will be useful to examine how various childhood family experiences influence later-life consumption orientations. Problem investigated: The differences in family resources represent one of the biggest distinctions between an intact and a disrupted family. The underlining question is whether children raised in disrupted families will experience lower levels of family resources (economic and emotional and find the experience stressful. If so, will these experiences influence them to adopt conservative money attitudes and be less materialistic or will they symbolically value money and be more materialistic? Design/methodology/approach: The development of a framework requires a critical review of secondary sources. The literature review is based on theories that provide an explanation of how childhood family experiences can affect the development of materialistic values and money attitudes. The secondary sources require careful scrutiny of journal articles, dissertations and essays in a number of libraries to provide more scholarly insight into the concepts and to assist in the conceptualisation of the framework. Findings and/or implications: Four main theories were found useful in conceptualizing the framework. They are Ryan and Deci's (2000 self-determination theory, Maslow's (1943 human need theory, Wicklund and Gollwitzer's (1982 symbolic self-completion theory and the life course theory contextualized by Moschis (2007. However, in line with Moschis' (2007 realization, the perspectives of the life course theory were found to be multi-disciplinary, multi-theoretical and thus innovative. They would therefore form the main theoretical guide for the design of the framework. Originality and/or value of the
Lau, May; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn
To identify factors associated with a positive pregnancy attitude among sexually active US teen females. Secondary database analysis of the National Survey of Family Growth. Adolescent females 15-19 years old. Nationally representative sample. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed of the 2002 and 2006-08 cycles to examine whether sociodemographic factors, contraceptive history, sexual education and behavior history, medical services history, and family and sexual attitudes were associated with a positive pregnancy attitude among sexually active teen females. Among the 975 sexually active US adolescent females surveyed, 15% reported a positive pregnancy attitude. Compared with adolescent females with a negative pregnancy attitude, those females with a positive pregnancy attitude were significantly (P double the odds, of a positive pregnancy attitude. Older age of menarche and higher family income were associated with reduced odds of a positive pregnancy attitude. One in 7 sexually active US adolescent females had a positive pregnancy attitude. Minority race/ethnicity was associated with greater odds of a positive pregnancy attitude, whereas older age of menarche and a higher family income were associated with lower odds of a positive pregnancy attitude. Assessing pregnancy attitudes for these groups of adolescent females might prove useful to decrease adolescent pregnancy rates. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hatten, Noble; Russell, Ryan P.
A variable-step Gauss-Legendre implicit Runge-Kutta (GLIRK) propagator is applied to coupled orbit/attitude propagation. Concepts previously shown to improve efficiency in 3DOF propagation are modified and extended to the 6DOF problem, including the use of variable-fidelity dynamics models. The impact of computing the stage dynamics of a single step in parallel is examined using up to 23 threads and 22 associated GLIRK stages; one thread is reserved for an extra dynamics function evaluation used in the estimation of the local truncation error. Efficiency is found to peak for typical examples when using approximately 8 to 12 stages for both serial and parallel implementations. Accuracy and efficiency compare favorably to explicit Runge-Kutta and linear-multistep solvers for representative scenarios. However, linear-multistep methods are found to be more efficient for some applications, particularly in a serial computing environment, or when parallelism can be applied across multiple trajectories.
Brown, Stephen; White, Sue; Bowmar, Alex; Power, Nicola
The attitude toward a subject contributes to both academic engagement and success at university, yet it is not routinely measured in undergraduate students. Therefore, in two consecutive introductory courses in Human anatomy and physiology (HAP 1, n = 239, and HAP 2, n = 329), an instrument to quantify undergraduate students' attitude to the…
An interview with Seymour Papert, an advocate of computer instruction for children and colleague of Jean Piaget, focused on questions concerning: (1) schools' use of computers; (2) teacher preparation for computer technology in the classroom; (3) importance of students and teachers learning to program; and (4) methods of computer assistance in…
Nguyen, ThuyUyen H.; Charity, Ian; Robson, Andrew
This study investigates students' perceptions of computer-based learning environments, their attitude towards business statistics, and their academic achievement in higher education. Guided by learning environments concepts and attitudinal theory, a theoretical model was proposed with two instruments, one for measuring the learning environment and…
Klopfer, Frederick J.; Price, William F.
Information on euthanasia attitudes was obtained from fixed-schedule interviews gathered from 331 respondents. It was found that a favorable attitude toward euthanasia coincided with (1) belief in an afterlife; (2) a less favorable attitude toward euthanasia if relatives make the decision; and (3) younger respondents. (Author)
Stuart W. Flint
Full Text Available This study examined the effect of anti-fat attitude counter-conditioning using positive images of obese individuals participants completed implicit and explicit measures of attitudes towards fatness on three occasions: no intervention; following exposure to positive images of obese members of the general public; and to images of obese celebrities. Contrary to expectations, positive images of obese individuals did not result in more positive attitudes towards fatness as expected and, in some cases, indices of these attitudes worsened. Results suggest that attitudes towards obesity and fatness may be somewhat robust and resistant to change, possibly suggesting a central and not peripheral processing route for their formation.
MOHAMMED, M. A. SI; BOUSSADIA, H.; BELLAR, A.; ADNANE, A.
This paper presents a brief synthesis and useful performance analysis of different attitude filtering algorithms (attitude determination algorithms, attitude estimation algorithms, and nonlinear observers) applied to Low Earth Orbit Satellite in terms of accuracy, convergence time, amount of memory, and computation time. This latter is calculated in two ways, using a personal computer and also using On-board computer 750 (OBC 750) that is being used in many SSTL Earth observation missions. The use of this comparative study could be an aided design tool to the designer to choose from an attitude determination or attitude estimation or attitude observer algorithms. The simulation results clearly indicate that the nonlinear Observer is the more logical choice.
Ogden, U; Kinnison, T; May, S A
Several reasons have been suggested for the elevated risk of suicide experienced by those in the veterinary profession. The current study aimed to investigate possible links between veterinarians' attitudes to 'convenience' or non-justified animal euthanasia and attitudes towards human euthanasia and suicide. Veterinary students and graduates had a negative attitude towards convenience animal euthanasia, but their attitudes changed over time (pre-clinical studies, clinical studies and recently graduated). A greater tolerance to euthanasia was displayed in the later years of study and post qualification - primarily by males. Attitudes towards both human euthanasia and suicide, however, remained stable over time and indicated on average a neutral stance. No correlations were found between attitudes to convenience euthanasia and either human euthanasia or suicide, suggesting a tolerance to convenience euthanasia of animals does not lead to desensitisation in valuing human life and a changed attitude to human euthanasia or suicide, or vice versa. Attitudes to human euthanasia and suicide were predictably correlated, perhaps suggesting an overarching attitude towards control over human death. The results of the current study throw into question the argument that it is the changes in attitudes to animal life that affect veterinarian's attitudes to human life and contribute to the high suicide rate.
Full Text Available In today’s job market, computer skills are part of the prerequisites for many jobs. In this paper, we report on a study of readiness to work with computers (the dependent variable among unemployed women (N=54 after participating in a unique, web-supported training focused on computer skills and empowerment. Overall, the level of participants’ readiness to work with computers was much higher at the end of the course than it was at its begin-ning. During the analysis, we explored associations between this variable and variables from four categories: log-based (describing the online activity; computer literacy and experience; job-seeking motivation and practice; and training satisfaction. Only two variables were associated with the dependent variable: knowledge post-test duration and satisfaction with content. After building a prediction model for the dependent variable, another log-based variable was highlighted: total number of actions in the course website along the course. Overall, our analyses shed light on the predominance of log-based variables over variables from other categories. These findings might hint at the need of developing new assessment tools for learners and trainees that take into consideration human-computer interaction when measuring self-efficacy variables.
Waddell, Linda; Taylor, Mark
The attitudes of staff and patients have been demonstrated to influence the acceptance of long-acting injections (LAIs) or depot antipsychotics. To examine the attitudes of patients and staff to LAIs. A systematic review was carried out. Studies included contained quantitative data for attitudes of patients or staff to LAIs. Twelve studies published subsequent to the systematic review reported in 2001 were identified. Five studies conveyed an overall positive attitude. The most positive attitudes among patients were seen in those already prescribed an LAI. Positive attitudes of staff correlated closely with the extent of their knowledge of LAIs. Long-acting injections continue to have an image problem, arguably perpetuated by manufacturers of oral second-generation antipsychotic drugs, and exacerbated by the predominant use of these medications as a ;last resort' often for the most stigmatized individuals. The introduction of better-tolerated LAIs and better education of both staff and patients may encourage individuals to re-examine their attitudes.
Choi, Namkee G; Dinitto, Diana M
Internet technology can provide a diverse array of online resources for low-income disabled and homebound older adults to manage their health and mental health problems and maintain social connections. Despite many previous studies of older adults' Internet use, none focused on these most vulnerable older adults. This study examined Internet use patterns, reasons for discontinued use, eHealth literacy, and attitudes toward computer/Internet use among low-income homebound individuals aged 60 and older in comparison to their younger counterparts-homebound adults under age 60. Face-to-face or telephone surveys were conducted with 980 recipients of home-delivered meals in central Texas (78% were age 60 years and older and 22% under age 60). The eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) and the efficacy and interest subscales of the Attitudes Toward Computer/Internet Questionnaire (ATC/IQ) were used to measure the respective constructs. Age groups were compared with chi-square tests and t tests. Correlates of Internet use were analyzed with multinomial logistic regression, and correlates of eHEALS and ATC/IQ scores were analyzed with OLS regression models. Only 34% of the under-60 group and 17% of the 60 years and older group currently used the Internet, and 35% and 16% of the respective group members reported discontinuing Internet use due to cost and disability. In addition to being older, never users were more likely to be black (OR 4.41; 95% CI 2.82-6.91, Pdigital divide among these individuals are provided.
Full Text Available "nObjective: Bad news disclosure is one of the most complex tasks of physicians. Recent evidences indicate that patients' and physicians' attitude toward breaking bad news has been changed since few years ago. The evidence of breaking bad news is different across cultures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the attitude of medical staff toward breaking bad news to provide a clinical guideline in Iran."nMethods: A descriptive study was conducted during 2008-2009 on a sample of 100 medical staff (50 physicians and 50 nurses at Cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini hospital. The subjects' demographic characteristics and their attitudes toward the manner of revealing the diagnosis were registered in a questionnaire."nResults: The majority of the physicians (86%, n=43 and nurses (74%, n=37 , mostly the older and more experienced, tended to reveal the diagnosis to patients . Only a few physicians (8%, n=4 had been trained how to disclose bad news, which discloused diagnosis more than non trained ones."nPhysicians and nurses preferred to inform the patients about the diagnosis when either the patients were alone or in the presence of their spouse respectively .Only a few physicians (14% and nurses (24% agreed to explain life expectancy to patients."nConclusion: Compared to past, physicians and nurses are more willing to share cancer diagnosis with patients. However, lack of adequate communication skills in caregivers, and their concerns about managing patients' emotional reactions reduce their tendency to disclose bad news to the patients. Therefore, training physicians and nurses to expose bad news to the patients seems to be necessary.
Dutta, Era; Sharma, Payal; Shah, Nilesh; Bharati, Anup; Sonavane, Sushma; Desousa, Avinash
The recent and rapidly popularized social phenomenon of selfie taking has been showing an increasing trend. It is thus imperative to assess the knowledge, attitude, and perception of the groups toward this phenomenon. Selfie taking is associated with younger age groups and hence, we aimed to explore the attitudes toward selfie taking and its relation toward body image and narcissism in medical college students. This was cross-sectional study and had two groups with Group A comprising 92 first year medical students and Group B including 103 postgraduate (PG) medical students from various specialties. They were interviewed in a single session using the scale of attitude toward selfie-taking questionnaire, Body Image Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (BIAAQ), and the narcissistic personality inventory. Scores obtained were computed using basic descriptive statistics and t -test where appropriate. A strong positive favorable trend toward selfie taking was noticed among both groups (A = 56.5%, B = 45.6%). There was no difference in attitude between the two groups, or difference in the gender between those clicking their own selfies regularly within each group. BIAAQ reflected a significant difference among male subjects of the two groups with PG students was more concerned about body image ( P = 0.001), whereas female subjects of both groups showed no such difference. The narcissism traits also showed a significant difference, only when males of both groups were compared again in favor of PG medical students ( P = 0.022). This study revealed that selfie-taking is popular among medical students both in their undergraduate and PG period. Further research in diverse clinical and nonclinical populations is warranted to explore the relation between this phenomenon and body image acceptance or narcissistic traits.
DiNitto, Diana M
Background Internet technology can provide a diverse array of online resources for low-income disabled and homebound older adults to manage their health and mental health problems and maintain social connections. Despite many previous studies of older adults’ Internet use, none focused on these most vulnerable older adults. Objective This study examined Internet use patterns, reasons for discontinued use, eHealth literacy, and attitudes toward computer/Internet use among low-income homebound individuals aged 60 and older in comparison to their younger counterparts—homebound adults under age 60. Methods Face-to-face or telephone surveys were conducted with 980 recipients of home-delivered meals in central Texas (78% were age 60 years and older and 22% under age 60). The eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) and the efficacy and interest subscales of the Attitudes Toward Computer/Internet Questionnaire (ATC/IQ) were used to measure the respective constructs. Age groups were compared with chi-square tests and t tests. Correlates of Internet use were analyzed with multinomial logistic regression, and correlates of eHEALS and ATC/IQ scores were analyzed with OLS regression models. Results Only 34% of the under-60 group and 17% of the 60 years and older group currently used the Internet, and 35% and 16% of the respective group members reported discontinuing Internet use due to cost and disability. In addition to being older, never users were more likely to be black (OR 4.41; 95% CI 2.82-6.91, PInternet every day or every few days, and their eHEALS scores were negatively associated with age and positively associated with frequency of use. Among the 60 and older group, a depression diagnosis was also negatively associated with eHEALS scores. ATC/IQ efficacy among never users of all ages and among older adults was positively associated with living alone, income, and the number of medical conditions and inversely associated with age, Hispanic ethnicity, and Spanish as the
as the use of micro-computer, mobile phones and guns to intimidate those concerned with the ... According to the Annual Publication of Examination Ethics. Project (2007), when compared with 36 states and Federal .... students cheating tendencies by computing the coefficient of determination, prediction model parameters ...
Demaio, Alessandro R; Dugee, Otgontuya; de Courten, Maximilian
The leading cause of mortality in Mongolia is Non-Communicable Disease. Alcohol is recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the four major disease drivers and so, in order to better understand and triangulate recent national burden-of-disease surveys and to inform policy responses to...... to alcohol consumption in Mongolia, a national Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey was conducted. Focusing on Non-Communicable Diseases and their risk factors, this publication explores the alcohol-related findings of this national survey....
Raveesh, B N; Pathare, S; Noorthoorn, E O; Gowda, G S; Lepping, P; Bunders-Aelen, J G F
The objective of this study was to assess attitudes of Indian psychiatrists and caregivers toward coercion. Methods: The study was conducted at the Department of Psychiatry, Krishna Rajendra Hospital, Mysore, India. Staff Attitude to Coercion Scale (SACS), a 15-item questionnaire, was administered to self-selected psychiatrists across India and caregivers from Mysore to measure attitudes on coercion. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and investigating differences in subgroups by means of Chi-square test, Student's t-test, and analysis of variance. Reliability of the SACS was tested in this Indian sample. A total of 210 psychiatrists and 210 caregivers participated in the study. Both groups agreed that coercion was related to scarce resources, security concerns, and harm reduction. Both groups agreed that coercion is necessary, but not as treatment. Older caregivers and male experienced psychiatrists considered coercion related to scarce resources to violate patient integrity. All participants considered coercion necessary for protection in dangerous situations. Professionals and caregivers significantly disagreed on most items. The reliability of the SACS was reasonable to good among the psychiatrists group, but not in the caregiver group (alpha 0.58 vs. 0.07). Caregivers and psychiatrists felt that the lack of resources is one of the reasons for coercion. Furthermore, they felt that the need on early identification of aggressive behavior, interventions to reduce aggressiveness, empowering patients, improving hospital resources, staff training in verbal de-escalation techniques is essential. There is an urgent need in the standardized operating procedure in the use of coercive measure in Indian mental health setting.
Boulton, M J
Teachers play a crucial role in preventing and managing the widespread problem of bullying. Despite this, scant attention has been paid to their views on this type of problem. To determine (i) what behaviours teachers regard as bullying; (ii) teachers' attitudes towards bullying, bullies and victims; (iii) teachers' self-beliefs about their ability to deal with bullying and their need for training; (iv) teachers' views of their responsibility for bullying in various locations; (v) the impact of length of service on attitudes and perceived ability to cope with bullying. Pre-, infant, junior, and secondary school teachers (N = 138) from schools selected on a convenience basis. Age range 19 to 57 years (mean = 35.8), length of teaching experience range one to 38 years (mean = 12.2 years). Standardised questionnaire completed and returned within a one-week period. Teachers viewed a wide range of behaviours as bullying, but significantly more agreed that some items (e.g., 'Threatening people verbally') were bullying than agreed others were (e.g., 'Leaving people out'). Teachers expressed generally negative attitudes towards bullying and bullies, and were generally sympathetic towards victims, although sympathy diminished with increasing length of service. Teachers, regardless of length of service, were not confident in their ability to deal with bullying and 87 per cent wanted more training. Significantly more teachers felt responsible for preventing bullying in the classroom and playground than outside of school. School psychologists must consider teachers' views about many aspects of the problem of bullying if they are to devise optimum strategies for tackling it.
Understanding instructor attitudes and approaches to teaching quantum mechanics can be helpful in developing research-based learning tools. Here we discuss the findings from a survey in which 13 instructors reflected on issues related to quantum mechanics teaching. Topics included opinions about the goals of a quantum mechanics course, general challenges in teaching the subject, student preparation for the course, comparison between their own learning of quantum mechanics vs. how they teach it and the extent to which contemporary topics are incorporated into the syllabus.
The Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Achievement, Problem-Solving Skills, Computer Skills, and Attitude. A Study of an Experimental Program at Marrs Elementary School, Mount Vernon, Indiana.
Gilman, David A.; Brantley, Tamara
Two self-contained fourth grade classrooms were compared during a 1-year study conducted in a small rural community in Indiana. Pre-test measures consisted of the previous year's third grade scores on the Cognitive Abilities test and a self-developed inventory of attitude toward school and computers. The control group (n=28) received instruction…
Lyon, Ellen Beth
This research project investigated the influence of homogeneous (like-ability) review pairs coupled with heterogeneous (mixed-ability) cooperative learning groups using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on academic achievement and attitude toward science in eighth grade Earth science students. Subjects were placed into academic quartiles (Hi, Med-Hi, Med-Lo, and Lo) based on achievement. Cooperative learning groups of four (one student from each academic quartile) were formed in all classes, within which students completed CAI through a software package entitled Geoscience Education Through Interactive Technology, or GETITspTM. Each day, when computer activities were completed, students in the experimental classes were divided into homogeneous review pairs to review their work. The students in the control classes were divided into heterogeneous review pairs to review their work. The effects of the experimental treatment were measured by pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest measures, by pre- and post-student attitude scales, and by evaluation of amendments students made to their work during the time spent in review pairs. Results showed that student achievement was not significantly influenced by placement in homogeneous or heterogeneous review pairs, regardless of academic quartile assignment. Student attitude toward science as a school subject did not change significantly due to experimental treatment. Achievement retention of students in experimental and control groups within each quartile showed no significant difference. Notebook amendment patterns showed some significant differences in a few categories. For the Hi quartile, there were significant differences in numbers of deletion amendments and substitution amendments between the experimental and the control group. In both cases, subjects in the experimental group (homogeneous review pairs) made greater number of amendments then those in the control group (heterogeneous review pairs). For the Lo quartile
Castillo, Alan F.
The purpose of this quantitative correlational cross-sectional research study was to examine a theoretical model consisting of leadership practice, attitudes of business process outsourcing, and strategic intentions of leaders to use cloud computing and to examine the relationships between each of the variables respectively. This study…
Manohar, Uttara; Appiah, Osei
Undergraduate students negatively evaluate international TAs in universities across the U.S. Using the social identity framework a perspective-taking intervention is proposed to improve undergraduate students' attitudes towards International TAs. Students (n?=?143) were randomly assigned to receive target-focused or self-focused perspective-taking…
Though HIV prevention campaigns in Zimbabwe have increased public awareness of HIV, they have not meaningfully changed sexual behaviour. Possibly these campaigns are based on wrong assumptions about sexual behaviour. By means of 111 structured interviews with hospital patients, secondary school students and teachers, and 11 focus group discussions with traditional healers, midwives, village community workers, secondary school students and teachers, and commercial sex workers in a rural district of Matabeleland in Zimbabwe, this low-budget study explores attitudes towards sex and sexual behaviour in order to define more appropriate health education messages. Results indicate that traditional sex education no longer takes place and that communication between sexual partners is limited. The almost ubiquitous expectation of women to get rewards for sex outside marriage motivates mostly single women out of economic necessity to meet the male demand for sexual partners, which is created by large scale migrant labour and men's professed 'biological' need for multiple partners. Types of sexual behaviour other than penetrative vaginal sex are uncommon and considered deviant. Safe sex messages from the West therefore are inappropriate in the Zimbabwean context. Recommendations are given to restore traditional communication about sexual matters across generations and to urge sexual partners to discuss sex. Women who, for economic reasons, engage in casual sex should at least learn to negotiate the use of condoms. Men seriously need to reconsider their attitudes to sex and sexual practices in view of the high HIV sero-prevalence. Faithfulness, rather than multiple sexual contacts, should become a reason to boast.
Adriaensens, Stefanie; Struyf, Elke
The study identifies teachers' beliefs about and attitudes toward stuttering and explores to what extent these beliefs and attitudes prompt specific teachers' reactions to the stuttering of a student. Participants were teachers in secondary education in Flanders (Belgium), currently teaching an adolescent who stutters. They were the student's class teacher or instructed a course in which communication is important. Ten semistructured interviews were conducted and analyzed thematically. Teachers believed that (a) when peers do not react to the stuttering, the lesson is not disrupted by it, and the student who stutters participates in the lesson, stuttering is not necessarily a problem; (b) when attention is paid to it, stuttering can become a problem; (c) they try to react as little as possible to the stuttering; and (d) they seldom talk about the stuttering. Although teachers reported that they feel confident in how to deal with stuttering, and although it is possible that students who stutter do not feel the need to talk about their stuttering, teachers could consult their students on this matter. This way, they would acknowledge the stuttering and likely encourage the students to approach them when they feel the need.
Judge, Timothy A; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D
Job attitudes research is arguably the most venerable and popular topic in organizational psychology. This article surveys the field as it has been constituted in the past several years. Definitional issues are addressed first, in an attempt to clarify the nature, scope, and structure of job attitudes. The distinction between cognitive and affective bases of job attitudes has been an issue of debate, and recent research using within-persons designs has done much to inform this discussion. Recent research has also begun to reformulate the question of dispositional or situational influences on employee attitudes by addressing how these factors might work together to influence attitudes. Finally, there has also been a continual growth in research investigating how employee attitudes are related to a variety of behaviors at both the individual and aggregated level of analysis.
Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to present the results obtained during the survey of Lithuanian consumers in order to identify their attitudes towards food with genetically modified organisms (GMO. Investigating the consumers approach to genetically modified (GM food, the following were considered: consumers’ opinions on GMO were analyzed, their knowledge about the presence of food containing GMO on the Lithuanian market, the mandatory GM food labelling, the behavior to a transgenic product while shopping, as well as consumers’ willingness to purchase such products. Data were gathered through a survey of 1000 Lithuanian residents. The empirical results indicated that the majority of the respondents’ attitudes towards food containing GMO are negative. The older consumers with less income are more against GM food compared to younger, wealthier households. 72% of consumers know that if the food contains GMO it must be indicated on the label. However, many consumers who oppose GMO do not try to avoid paying attention to the components of the product listed on its label. Only about a quarter of consumers while buying a product look for such information. This indicates that consumers are not really interested in whether or not the product contains GMO
Alf Inge Wang
Full Text Available The paper presents results of a quasiexperiment where the three social classroom applications Post-It, WordCloud, and Categorizer were used in software architecture lectures. Post-It and WordCloud are applications that allow students to brainstorm or give comments related to a given topic. Categorizer is a puzzle game where the students are asked to place a number of terms in one of two correct categories. The three applications are multimodal HTML5 applications that enable students to interact in a classroom using their own digital devices, and the teacher’s laptop is used to display progress and results on the large screen. The focus of this study was to evaluate how the difference of these applications and how their integration into the lecture affected the students’ motivation, engagement, thinking, activity level, social interaction, creativity, enjoyment, attention, and learning. In addition, the study evaluated the usability and the technical quality of the applications. The results of the experiment show that the way such applications are integrated into a lecture highly affects the students’ attitude. The experiment also showed that the game-based application was on average better received among the students and that the students’ attitude was highly sensitive to the difficulty level of the game.
Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the attitude of Omani nursing students towards writing-to-learn (WTL and its relationship to demographic variables, self-efficacy and the writing process. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used to evaluate attitudes towards WTL by Sultan Qaboos University nursing students. A convenience sample of 106 students was used and data collected between October 2009 and March 2010. A modified version of the WTL attitude scale developed by Dobie and Poirrier was used to collect the data. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for analysis. Results: Senior and junior students had more positive attitudes to WTL than mid-level students who tended to have negative attitudes towards writing. Although 52.8% students had negative attitudes towards the writing process, the median was higher for attitudes to the writing process compared to the median for self-efficacy. There was a positive correlation between self-efficacy and writing process scores. Conclusion: Overall, students had negative attitudes towards WTL. Attitudes are learnt or formed through previous experiences. The incorporation of WTL strategies into teaching can transform students’ negative attitudes towards writing into positive ones.
Burke, Christopher J; Soutschek, Alexander; Weber, Susanna; Beharelle, Anjali R; Fehr, Ernst; Haker, Helene; Tobler, Philippe N
Dopamine is thought to play a crucial role in value-based decision making. However, the specific contributions of different dopamine receptor subtypes to the computation of subjective value remain unknown. Here we demonstrate how the balance between D1 and D2 dopamine receptor subtypes shapes subjective value computation during risky decision-making. We administered the D2 receptor antagonist amisulpride or placebo before participants made choices between risky options. Compared to placebo, D2 receptor blockade resulted in more frequent choice of higher risk and higher expected value options. Using a novel model fitting procedure, we concurrently estimated the three parameters that define individual risk attitude according to an influential theoretical account of risky decision making. This analysis revealed that the observed reduction in risk aversion under amisulpride was driven by increased sensitivity to reward magnitude and decreased distortion of outcome probability, resulting in more linear value coding. Our data suggest that different components that govern individual risk attitude are under dopaminergic control, such that D2 receptor blockade facilitates risk taking and expected value processing.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 18 December 2017. doi:10.1038/npp.2017.302.
Greer, Mary; Lin, Lijia; Atkinson, Robert K.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether playing "Quest for the Code"™, a computer game designed to teach children about asthma, would help healthy children acquire knowledge about and attitudes towards asthma and whether the beneficial effects would be maintained over time. The sample consisted of 155 children from four middle…
M.ª del Carmen PEGALAJAR PALOMINO
Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the attitudes and perceptions towards inclusive education teacher that practices in special education centers in Andalusia. The paper has used a descriptive methodology, a total of 428 participating teachers and using data collection a semi structured questionnaire developed ad hoc. The results show how teachers of special education centers in Andalusia consider inclusive education as a pillar in education, while defining the mode of schooling in special education institutions as an educational response to students aimed at improving their quality of life and achieve greater personal independence and function in daily life activities. They also consider that the students enrolled in these schools has higher educational needs in the field of health, cognitive and social. It stands out even the existence of statistically significant differences in attitudes and perceptions of teachers as they have developed or no practical training related to the field of inclusive education during their initial training, being more favorable in the case of those without such training. Thus, we want to know the perceptions of these teachers on inclusive education to establish proposals for improvement in teacher education that lead to the development of a process of quality teaching and learning for pupils with severe and permanent disabilities.
Torella, F; Haynes, S L; Lardi, A; O'Dwyer, S T; McCollum, C N
Our aim was to assess changes in attitudes to autologous transfusion amongst surgeons over a 10-year period in response to scientific evidence, public awareness, published guidelines, management and the increasing cost of blood products. Surgeons across the north-west of England completed questionnaires on knowledge, experience and attitude towards autologous transfusion in 1990, 1994 and 1999. Main outcome measures were changes in knowledge, experience and utilization of autologous transfusion; perceived advantages of autologous transfusion, obstacles to its implementation in surgical practice and preferences for specific techniques (preoperative autologous donation, acute normovolaemic haemodilution, intraoperative and postoperative cell salvage). There has been little change in practice over 10 years. Many more surgeons were keen to employ autologous transfusion than were using it. Autologous transfusion was only used in general, orthopaedic and cardiothoracic surgery. Safety and patient preference were the main arguments for implementation and logistics the main obstacles. Autologous transfusion was used sporadically in surgical practice. Clinical trials are needed to guide clinicians in the choice of transfusion techniques.
Fujikawa, S; Cunningham, J K
Executives were surveyed about their hearing health-care practices and attitudes toward hearing loss (N = 140, mean age = 49, number of males = 133). In regard to hearing health-care practices, about one-third of the executives had not had a hearing test during the past 5 years. Fifty-one percent of the executives reported that a hearing test was conducted or recommended during their annual physical examinations. Twenty (14%) of the executives rated their hearing as fair or poor, but only two of them wore hearing aids. Executives who reported poorer hearing were less likely to have had recent hearing tests. When seeking a hearing evaluation, the executives indicated a two-to-one preference for medical doctors over audiologists--none preferred hearing aid dispensers. Regarding attitudes, approximately 90% of the executives felt that hearing aids were effective, but only two-thirds disagreed with the stereotype that hearing aids connote old age. Executives who tended to equate hearing aids with old age were less likely to be aware of hearing-impaired employees in their companies. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Heloma, A; Reijula, K; Tikkanen, J; Nykyri, E
Attitudes of occupational health care professionals toward smoking and their activity to address smoking issues were investigated by a questionnaire survey. Data were also collected on employees' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and on smoking policies that existed in workplaces. Questionnaires were mailed to all occupational health care centers (n = 1,004) in Finland. The prevalence of daily smokers was 9.6% among physicians and 3.6% among nurses; 15% and 11%, respectively smoked occasionally. Smoking restrictions were enforced in more than 70% of all workplaces, but only 3.6% of them had a total smoking ban. Nonsmoking professionals were in favor of smoke-fee workplaces and smoking restrictions significantly more often than their smoking colleagues. Nonsmokers also regarded smoking as a serious problem to the organizational climate of workplaces. Almost half of nonsmoking respondents, but only 11% of daily smokers, would totally ban smoking in workplaces. Although the personal smoking status of the respondent had a strong effect on attitudes to smoking regulations, it did not have a clear influence on interest in discussing smoking issues when seeing patients. Nurses were more active in addressing smoking issues than physicians. Occupational health professionals of large companies reported stricter smoking policies at work than those who represented small enterprises
María Laura Lupano Perugini
Full Text Available The main objective of the investigation consisted in designing a test to evaluate unfavorable attitudes towards women leaders. Based on Peters, Terborg and Taylor test –WAMS-, it was designed the instrument ACT-ML. This one contains 7 items and presents two dimensions, one evaluates the level that people consider if women display characteristics associate with leadership (Instrumental characteristics; and the other evaluates the level of acceptance of women like leaders (Acceptance Feminine Leadership. 789 subjects participated, 419 male (53,1% and 370 female (46,9% (Age average = 36,52; SD = 11,7. 45,8% (n = 361 of the participants occupied directive position and the 54,2% (n = 428 were subordinates. Results indicated good psychometric properties (reliability and validity. In addition, it was tried to verify the existence of significant differences according to sex and position (leader-subordinate, finding differences in favor of men and followers in a greater level of unfavorable attitudes to women leaders.
Scientists in San Jose, Californina, have performed the most complex calculation ever using a quantum computer - factoring the number 15. In contast to the switches in conventional computers, which although tiny consist of billions of atoms, quantum computations are carried out by manipulating single atoms. The laws of quantum mechanics which govern these actions in fact mean that multiple computations could be done in parallel, this would drastically cut down the time needed to carry out very complex calculations.
This book is a contribution of translational and allied research to the proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing. It explains how various computational intelligence techniques can be applied to investigate various biological problems. It is a good read for Research Scholars, Engineers, Medical Doctors and Bioinformatics researchers.
Jones, Steven; Krishna, Murali; Rajendra, Raj Gopal; Keenan, Paul
There is growing global interest into the attitudes and clinical management of persons who have attempted suicide. The principal purpose was to determine senior nursing staff attitudes towards patients who had attempted suicide from a professional and cultural perspective, which might influence care following hospital admission. The focus concerned nursing staff interactions at a psychological level that compete with physical tasks on general hospital wards. A qualitative methodology was employed with audio-taped interviews utilising four level data coding. This article reports on a group of 15 nursing staff from a large general hospital in Mysore, Southern India. Findings suggested that patient care and treatment is directly influenced by the nurse's religious beliefs within a general hospital setting with physical duties prioritised over psychological support, which was underdeveloped throughout the participant group. The results allow a series of recommendations for educational and skills initiatives before progressing to patient assessment and treatment projects and cross-cultural comparison studies. In addition, interventions must focus on current resources and context to move the evidence-based suicide prevention forward.
R. A. Rogozhnikova
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of development of humane attitude to a person in medical students. Despite all declarations everyday medical practice shows a lot of examples of soulless attitude to patients. There is an acute necessity to elaborate the problem of development of humane attitude to a person in future doctors who deal with the sick requiring special care and attention. The work presents a theoretical model of the educational process aimed at the development of humane attitude to a person in students of a higher medical school. The model supposes a gradual process including curricular and extracurricular work of students taking into account their level of humane attitude to a person. Every stage of the educational process has special purposes, syllabus, methods and forms. Realization of every stage leads to a higher level of humane attitude to a person in future doctors.
Raisa Anatolyevna Rogozhnikova
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of development of humane attitude to a person in medical students. Despite all declarations everyday medical practice shows a lot of examples of soulless attitude to patients. There is an acute necessity to elaborate the problem of development of humane attitude to a person in future doctors who deal with the sick requiring special care and attention. The work presents a theoretical model of the educational process aimed at the development of humane attitude to a person in students of a higher medical school. The model supposes a gradual process including curricular and extracurricular work of students taking into account their level of humane attitude to a person. Every stage of the educational process has special purposes, syllabus, methods and forms. Realization of every stage leads to a higher level of humane attitude to a person in future doctors.
Sunday O. E. Ewah; Patrick M. Igbaji; Christian I. Umeh
This is an empirical study of the interplay between consumers' attitude toward marketers’ products and marketers; wish to elicit favourable buying behaviour from the consumer. According to the study the process of this transformation of consumer’s attitude is not quite easy. The marketers have to put their acts together by producing products to match consumers attitude or build a gradual change that will result to favourable buying decision from the consumer.
The aim of the study is to reveal employees’ attitudes to management style in International equitable association Limited, Aba, Nigeria (IEA). IEA is a soap and detergent manufacturing company. The company uses modern management styles to drive employee performance. This study set out to investigate employee attitudes to the various management styles in use at IEA. The study used a framework which shows that employee attitude is driven by the employee’s awareness, the employee’s application o...
Herzog, Raúl; Álvarez-Pasquin, María José; Díaz, Camino; Del Barrio, José Luis; Estrada, José Manuel; Gil, Ángel
The Summit of Independent European Vaccination Experts (SIEVE) recommended in 2007 that efforts be made to improve healthcare workers' knowledge and beliefs about vaccines, and their attitudes towards them, to increase vaccination coverage...
Dixon, Gaynelle O.
A practicum described a strategy involving the integration of computer software reading games with traditional printed texts to improve student reading scores and attitudes toward reading. A target group of five seventh-grade remedial reading students participated in the study. The two computer software programs, "Super Solvers Midnight…
Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone; Scholderer, Joachim
Four questions on European consumers' attitudes to the use of genetic modification (GM) in food production are posed and answered: (1) how negative are consumer attitudes to GM applications in food production? (2) How do these attitudes affect perception of and preference for products involving GM...... guide the perception of food products involving the use of GM and lead to a range of sweeping negative associations which overshadow potential benefits perceived, that these negative attitudes are embedded in a system of more general attitudes, especially attitude to nature, to technology......, and alienation from the marketplace, implying that they are deeply rooted, and that they will not easily be changed by information. They may change, however, due to own experience with products produced using GM and involving clear consumer benefits....
Abbas Mark R; Quince Thelma A; Wood Diana F; Benson John A
Abstract Background There is a growing acknowledgement that doctors need to develop leadership and management competences to become more actively involved in the planning, delivery and transformation of patient services. We undertook a systematic review of what is known concerning the knowledge, skills and attitudes of medical students regarding leadership and management. Here we report the results pertaining to the attitudes of students to provide evidence to inform curriculum development in...
Full Text Available The increase in demand for university education remains unmet especially in developing countries; this has made adoption of distance education imperative in our educational system. Information and Communications Technology (ICT has been identified as a tool for improving education quality especially in developing countries. The study examined attitudes and perceptions of nursing students toward using Information and Communications Technology supports in distance education. A researchers‐designed and validated questionnaire with alpha coefficient of .82 was administered to 396 students of the Department of Nursing Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile‐Ife, Nigeria out of which 305 (70% were returned. Findings of the study revealed that the majority of the nurses (83.3% had never attended any online computer based training program, a majority (63.9% had no formal computer training and do not possess personal computers, while 74.4% reported positive perception and attitudes toward using ICT supports in distance education. Lack of constant internet access was rated by the respondents (29.8% as a major challenge to e‐learning support. Gender and years of working experience had no significant influence on respondents’ attitudes and perceptions toward ICT supports.
Full Text Available Students’ perceptions of difficulties in speaking on professional issues are in the focus of the present article. It is generally assumed that the skill of speaking a foreign language is very difficult to master, while speaking on professional topics involves such difficulties as the usage of specific vocabulary and ability to deal with listeners’ oncoming arguments. The aims of the current research are to investigate learners’ attitudes to the level of difficulty in speaking activi - ties on a subject matter at university and apply an innovative approach to improving their speaking skills. The methodology applied was focused on guided individual learning (GIL, with gradually increasing amount of spontaneity in public talks on the subject matter, starting with prepared short talks on an ESP issue leading to group discussions; moving on to Power Point presentations, involving spontaneous deviations from the subject and followed by question time; further, adding some complex subject matter, such as a discussion on a problematic professional subject suggested by learning materials; and, eventually, speaking impromptu on an issue, with a high level of control of one’s speaking skills. The research method of the learners’ attitudes employed the survey on learner attitudes to four different speaking activities in the classroom, which included short talks, Power Point Presentations, discussions and speaking impromptu. The questionnaire was administered to students of two different specializations by the end of the semester. The respondents were students who studied Psychology and Social Work at the Faculty of Social Policy, at Mykolas Romeris University in Vilnius, Lithuania. The respondents were asked to indicate the degree of difficulty they had with the various speaking activities on the Likert’s scale ranging from “very difficult” (1 to “very easy” (5. The results indicated that perceptions of difficulties to developing speaking
Washington Luna Encalada
Full Text Available In recent years, we have seen a significant number of new technological ideas appearing in literature discussing the future of education. For example, E-learning, cloud computing, social networking, virtual laboratories, virtual realities, virtual worlds, massive open online courses (MOOCs, and bring your own device (BYOD are all new concepts of immersive and global education that have emerged in educational literature. One of the greatest challenges presented to e-learning solutions is the reproduction of the benefits of an educational institution’s physical laboratory. For a university without a computing lab, to obtain hands-on IT training with software, operating systems, networks, servers, storage, and cloud computing similar to that which could be received on a university campus computing lab, it is necessary to use a combination of technological tools. Such teaching tools must promote the transmission of knowledge, encourage interaction and collaboration, and ensure students obtain valuable hands-on experience. That, in turn, allows the universities to focus more on teaching and research activities than on the implementation and configuration of complex physical systems. In this article, we present a model for implementing ecosystems which allow universities to teach practical Information Technology (IT skills. The model utilizes what is called a “social cloud”, which utilizes all cloud computing services, such as Software as a Service (SaaS, Platform as a Service (PaaS, and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS. Additionally, it integrates the cloud learning aspects of a MOOC and several aspects of social networking and support. Social clouds have striking benefits such as centrality, ease of use, scalability, and ubiquity, providing a superior learning environment when compared to that of a simple physical lab. The proposed model allows students to foster all the educational pillars such as learning to know, learning to be, learning
Schmidt, Lee A
The Writing-To-Learn Attitude Survey (WTLAS) was developed to measure the effects of using writing-to-learn activities in the classroom, but adequate psychometric data have not been reported for the measure. Using the pretest scores from 149 basic and RN-to-BSN nursing students enrolled in a Nursing Management and Leadership course, the reliability and validity of the WTLAS were evaluated. The initial 30-item measure demonstrated acceptable reliability, but the item intercorrelations suggested revision of the subscales was appropriate. After exploratory factor analyses, the WTLAS was revised to 21 items and consists of two factors: Apprehensions about Writing Abilities and Perceived Benefits of Writing-To-Learn Activities. Both subscales possess acceptable internal consistency reliability and conceptually sound, significant correlations with a separate measure of writing apprehension. The revised WTLAS appears to have adequate psychometric properties for further use in the evaluation of students' perceptions of writing-to-learn activities.
Cahill, Kevin C.; Ettarh, Rajunor R.
There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this…
Frewer, L.J.; Gupta, N.; George, S.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Giles, E.L.; Coles, D.G.
The literature on public perceptions of, and attitudes towards, nanotechnology used in the agrifood sector is reviewed. Research into consumer perceptions and attitudes has focused on general applications of nanotechnology, rather than within the agrifood sector. Perceptions of risk and benefit
Dijst, M.J.; Farag, S.; Schwanen, T.
In this study, we investigated whether our understanding of adoption of e-shopping and instore shopping could be advanced through the application of attitude theory. A shortcoming of the analytical frameworks and models featured in attitude theory is that they do not address the issue of what
Eichinger, Joanne; And Others
A survey of 162 adult members of the general public evaluated their attitudes toward people with disabilities. Among results was that the number of movies viewed about people with disabilities was positively associated with number of discussions and with positive attitudes toward people with disabilities. Gender was also significantly related to…
The purpose of this study is to determine the attitude of in-service science teachers towards information communication technology (ICT) in education. The study explores the relationship between in-service teachers and four independent variables: their attitudes toward computers; their cultural perception of computers; their perceived computer…
Verpoort, Charlotte; Gastmans, Chris; De Bal, Nele; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette
This article provides an overview of the scarce international literature concerning nurses' attitudes to euthanasia. Studies show large differences with respect to the percentage of nurses who are (not) in favour of euthanasia. Characteristics such as age, religion and nursing specialty have a significant influence on a nurse's opinion. The arguments for euthanasia have to do with quality of life, respect for autonomy and dissatisfaction with the current situation. Arguments against euthanasia are the right to a good death, belief in the possibilities offered by palliative care, religious objections and the fear of abuse. Nurses mention the need for more palliative care training, their difficulties in taking a specific position, and their desire to express their ideas about euthanasia. There is a need to include nurses' voices in the end-of-life discourse because they offer a contextual understanding of euthanasia and requests to die, which is borne out of real experience with people facing death.
Hammarberg, Karin; Collins, Veronica; Holden, Carol; Young, Kate; McLachlan, Robert
The increasingly common practice in high-income countries to delay childbearing to the fourth and fifth decades of life increases the risk of involuntary childlessness or having fewer children than desired. Older age also increases the risk of age-related infertility, the need for ART to conceive, and obstetric and neonatal complications. Existing research relating to childbearing focusses almost exclusively on women, and in public discourse declining fertility rates are often assumed to be the result of women delaying childbearing to pursue other life goals such as a career and travel. However, evidence suggests that the lack of a partner or a partner willing to commit to parenthood is the main reason for later childbearing. To better understand men's contributions to childbearing decisions and outcomes, the literature pertaining to men's fertility-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours was reviewed. The electronic databases of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO were searched to identify investigations of men's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating to fertility, infertility, reproductive health or childbearing using relevant fertility keyword search terms. Studies were included if they had investigated factors associated with men's fertility-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours, had been conducted in a high-income country and were published in an English language peer-reviewed journal between January 2005 and August 2016. The search yielded 1349 citations. Of these, 47 papers representing 43 unique studies were included in the review. Where response rate was reported, it ranged between 13 and 94%. Studies varied in terms of research design; inclusion and exclusion criteria; recruitment strategies; adequacy of sample size; recruitment and retention rates and data collection tools. However, findings were consistent and indicate that men almost universally value parenthood, want and expect to become fathers, and aspire to have at least two children. Yet
A combination of the concepts subjective – or Bayesian – statistics and scientific computing, the book provides an integrated view across numerical linear algebra and computational statistics. Inverse problems act as the bridge between these two fields where the goal is to estimate an unknown parameter that is not directly observable by using measured data and a mathematical model linking the observed and the unknown. Inverse problems are closely related to statistical inference problems, where the observations are used to infer on an underlying probability distribution. This connection between statistical inference and inverse problems is a central topic of the book. Inverse problems are typically ill-posed: small uncertainties in data may propagate in huge uncertainties in the estimates of the unknowns. To cope with such problems, efficient regularization techniques are developed in the framework of numerical analysis. The counterpart of regularization in the framework of statistical inference is the us...