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Sample records for attenuating disc wind

  1. MHD disc winds

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, J

    2006-01-01

    This is a doctorate level lecture on the physics of accretion discs driving magnetically self-confined jets, usually referred to in the literature as disc winds. I will first review the governing magnetohydrodynamic equations and then discuss their physical content. At that level, necessary conditions to drive jets from keplerian accretion discs can already be derived. These conditions are validated with self-similar calculations of accretion-ejection structures. In a second part, I will critically discuss the biases introduced when using self-similarity as well as some other questions such as: Are these systems really unstable? Can a standard accretion disc provide the conditions to launch jets in its innermost parts? What is the difference between X-winds and disc-winds? Finally, the magnetic interaction between a protostar and its circumstellar disc will be discussed with a focus on stellar spin down.

  2. Evolution of Protoplanetary Discs with Magnetically Driven Disc Winds

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Takeru K; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Crida, Aurélien; Guillot, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Aims: We investigate the evolution of protoplanetary discs (PPDs hereafter) with magnetically driven disc winds and viscous heating. Methods: We consider an initially massive disc with ~0.1 Msun to track the evolution from the early stage of PPDs. We solve the time evolution of surface density and temperature by taking into account viscous heating and the loss of the mass and the angular momentum by the disc winds within the framework of a standard alpha model for accretion discs. Our model parameters, turbulent viscosity, disc wind mass loss, and disc wind torque, which are adopted from local magnetohydrodynamical simulations and constrained by the global energetics of the gravitational accretion, largely depends on the physical condition of PPDs, particularly on the evolution of the vertical magnetic flux in weakly ionized PPDs. Results: Although there are still uncertainties concerning the evolution of the vertical magnetic flux remaining, surface densities show a large variety, depending on the combinatio...

  3. Evolution of protoplanetary discs with magnetically driven disc winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takeru K.; Ogihara, Masahiro; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Crida, Aurélien; Guillot, Tristan

    2016-12-01

    Aims: We investigate the evolution of protoplanetary discs (PPDs) with magnetically driven disc winds and viscous heating. Methods: We considered an initially massive disc with 0.1 M⊙ to track the evolution from the early stage of PPDs. We solved the time evolution of surface density and temperature by taking into account viscous heating and the loss of mass and angular momentum by the disc winds within the framework of a standard α model for accretion discs. Our model parameters, turbulent viscosity, disc wind mass-loss, and disc wind torque, which were adopted from local magnetohydrodynamical simulations and constrained by the global energetics of the gravitational accretion, largely depends on the physical condition of PPDs, particularly on the evolution of the vertical magnetic flux in weakly ionized PPDs. Results: Although there are still uncertainties concerning the evolution of the vertical magnetic flux that remains, the surface densities show a large variety, depending on the combination of these three parameters, some of which are very different from the surface density expected from the standard accretion. When a PPD is in a wind-driven accretion state with the preserved vertical magnetic field, the radial dependence of the surface density can be positive in the inner region migration of protoplanets. Conclusions: The variety of our calculated PPDs should yield a wide variety of exoplanet systems.

  4. Stellar Wind Erosion of Protoplanetary Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Schnepf, Neesha R; Romanova, Marina

    2014-01-01

    An analytic model is developed for the erosion of protoplanetary gas discs by high velocity magnetized stellar winds. The winds are centrifugally driven from the surface of rapidly rotating, strongly magnetized young stars. The presence of the magnetic field in the wind leads to Reynolds numbers sufficiently large to cause a strongly turbulent wind/disk boundary layer which entrains and carries away the disc gas. The model uses the conservation of mass and momentum in the turbulent boundary layer. The time-scale for significant erosion depends on the disc accretion speed, accretion rate and on the wind mass loss rate. The time-scale is estimated to be ~2E6 yr. The stellar wind erosion may act in conjunction with photo-evaporation of the discs.

  5. MHD Disc Winds and Linewidth Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Chajet, Laura S

    2013-01-01

    We study AGN emission line profiles combining an improved version of the accretion disc-wind model of Murray & Chiang with the magneto-hydrodynamic model of Emmering et al. We show how the shape, broadening and shift of the C IV line depend not only on the viewing angle to the object but also on the wind launching angle, especially for small launching angles. We have compared the dispersions in our model C IV linewidth distributions to observational upper limit on that dispersion, considering both smooth and clumpy torus models. As the torus half-opening angle (measured from the polar axis) increases above about 18? degrees, increasingly larger wind launching angles are required to match the observational constraints. Above a half-opening angle of about 47? degrees, no wind launch angle (within the maximum allowed by the MHD solutions) can match the observations. Considering a model that replaces the torus by a warped disc yields the same constraints obtained with the two other models.

  6. Wind interactions above accretion discs: a model for broad-line regions and collimated outflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.D.; Raine, D.J. (Leicester Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astronomy)

    1985-01-15

    The interaction of a wind from an active galactic nucleus with a Compton-heating-induced wind from an accretion disc is studied. The nuclear wind is taken as initially supersonic and spherically symmetric. The disc wind arises when the disc surface is exposed to a hard and powerful X-ray source. Three classes of interaction are identified in terms of the relation between the pressure on the disc surface and the corresponding thermal and ram pressures in the nuclear wind.

  7. A self-similar solution for thermal disc winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, C. J.; Alexander, R. D.

    2016-08-01

    We derive a self-similar description for the 2D streamline topology and flow structure of an axisymmetric, thermally driven wind originating from a disc in which the density is a power-law function of radius. Our scale-free solution is strictly only valid in the absence of gravity or centrifugal support; comparison with 2D hydrodynamic simulations of winds from Keplerian discs however demonstrates that the scale-free solution is a good approximation also in the outer regions of such discs, and can provide a reasonable description even for launch radii well within the gravitational radius of the flow. Although other authors have considered the flow properties along streamlines whose geometry has been specified in advance, this is the first isothermal calculation in which the flow geometry and variation of flow variables along streamlines is determined self-consistently. It is found that the flow trajectory is very sensitive to the power-law index of radial density variation in the disc: the steeper the density gradient, the stronger is the curvature of streamlines close to the flow base that is required in order to maintain momentum balance perpendicular to the flow. Steeper disc density profiles are also associated with more rapid acceleration, and a faster fall-off of density, with height above the disc plane. The derivation of a set of simple governing equations for the flow structure of thermal winds from the outer regions of power-law discs offers the possibility of deriving flow observables without having to resort to hydrodynamical simulation.

  8. Magnetorotationally driven wind cycles in local disc models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riols, A.; Ogilvie, G. I.; Latter, H.; Ross, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Jets, from the protostellar to the AGN context, have been extensively studied but their connection to the turbulent dynamics of the underlying accretion disc is poorly understood. Following a similar approach to Lesur, Fereira & Ogilvie, we examine the role of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in the production and acceleration of outflows from discs. Via a suite of 1D shearing-box simulations of stratified discs, we show that magnetocentrifugal winds exhibit cyclic activity with a period of 10-20 Ω-1, a few times the orbital period. The cycle seems to be more vigorous for strong vertical field; it is robust to the variation of relevant parameters and independent of numerical details. The convergence of these solutions (in particular the mass-loss rate) with vertical box size is also studied. By considering a sequence of magnetohydrostatic equilibria and their stability, the periodic activity may be understood as the succession of the following phases: (a) a dominant MRI channel mode, (b) strong magnetic field generation, (c) consequent wind launching, and ultimately (d) vertical expulsion of the excess magnetic field by the expanding and accelerating gas associated with the wind. We discuss potential connections between this behaviour and observed time-variability in disc-jet systems.

  9. The collimation of magnetic jets by disc winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, N.; Levinson, A.

    2016-09-01

    The collimation of a Poynting-flux dominated jet by a wind emanating from the surface of an accretion flow is computed using a semi-analytic model. The injection of the disc wind is treated as a boundary condition in the equatorial plane, and its evolution is followed by invoking a prescribed geometry of streamlines. Solutions are obtained for a wide range of disc wind parameters. It is found that jet collimation generally occurs when the total wind power exceeds about 10 percents of the jet power. For moderate wind powers, we find gradual collimation. For strong winds, we find rapid collimation followed by focusing of the jet, after which it remains narrow over many Alfvén crossing times before becoming conical. We estimate that in the later case, the jet's magnetic field may be dissipated by the current-driven kink instability over a distance of a few hundreds gravitational radii. We apply the model to M87 and show that the observed parabolic shape of the radio jet within the Bondi radius can be reproduced provided that the wind injection zone extends to several hundreds gravitational radii, and that its total power is about one-third of the jet power. The radio spectrum can be produced by synchrotron radiation of relativistically hot, thermal electrons in the sheath flow surrounding the inner jet.

  10. A self-similar solution for thermal disc winds

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, C J

    2016-01-01

    We derive a self-similar description for the 2D streamline topology and flow structure of an axi-symmetric, thermally driven wind originating from a disc in which the density is a power law function of radius. Our scale-free solution is strictly only valid in the absence of gravity or centrifugal support; comparison with 2D hydrodynamic simulations of winds from Keplerian discs however demonstrates that the scale-free solution is a good approximation also in the outer regions of such discs, and can provide a reasonable description even for launch radii well within the gravitational radius of the flow. Although other authors have considered the flow properties along streamlines whose geometry has been specified in advance, this is the first isothermal calculation in which the flow geometry and variation of flow variables along streamlines is determined self-consistently. It is found that the flow trajectory is very sensitive to the power-law index of radial density variation in the disc: the steeper the densit...

  11. A simple disc wind model for broad absorption line quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbottom, N.; Knigge, C.; Long, K. S.; Sim, S. A.; Matthews, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    Approximately 20 per cent of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) exhibit broad, blue-shifted absorption lines in their ultraviolet spectra. Such features provide clear evidence for significant outflows from these systems, most likely in the form of accretion disc winds. These winds may represent the `quasar' mode of feedback that is often invoked in galaxy formation/evolution models, and they are also key to unification scenarios for active galactic nuclei (AGN) and QSOs. To test these ideas, we construct a simple benchmark model of an equatorial, biconical accretion disc wind in a QSO and use a Monte Carlo ionization/radiative transfer code to calculate the ultraviolet spectra as a function of viewing angle. We find that for plausible outflow parameters, sightlines looking directly into the wind cone do produce broad, blue-shifted absorption features in the transitions typically seen in broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs. However, our benchmark model is intrinsically X-ray weak in order to prevent overionization of the outflow, and the wind does not yet produce collisionally excited line emission at the level observed in non-BAL QSOs. As a first step towards addressing these shortcomings, we discuss the sensitivity of our results to changes in the assumed X-ray luminosity and mass-loss rate, Ṁwind. In the context of our adopted geometry, Ṁwind ˜ Ṁacc is required in order to produce significant BAL features. The kinetic luminosity and momentum carried by such outflows would be sufficient to provide significant feedback.

  12. Magnetorotationally driven wind cycles in local disc models

    CERN Document Server

    Riols, A; Latter, H; Ross, J P

    2016-01-01

    Jets, from the protostellar to the AGN context, have been extensively studied but their connection to the turbulent dynamics of the underlying accretion disc is poorly understood. Following a similar approach to Lesur et al. (2013), we examine the role of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in the production and acceleration of outflows from discs. Via a suite of one-dimensional shearing-box simulations of stratified discs we show that magneto-centrifugal winds exhibit cyclic activity with a period of 10-20 Omega^{-1}, a few times the orbital period. The cycle seems to be more vigorous for strong vertical field; it is robust to the variation of relevant parameters and independent of numerical details. The convergence of these solutions (in particular the mass loss rate) with vertical box size is also studied. By considering a sequence of magnetohydrostatic equilibria and their stability, the periodic activity may be understood as the succession of the following phases: (a) a dominant MRI channel mode, (b)...

  13. Magnetohydrodynamic disc winds and line width distributions - II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chajet, L. S.; Hall, P. B.

    2017-02-01

    We study AGN emission line profiles combining an improved version of the accretion disc-wind model of Murray & Chiang with the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of Emmering et al. Here, we extend our previous work to consider central objects with different masses and/or luminosities. We have compared the dispersions in our model C IV line-width distributions to observational upper limit on that dispersion, considering both smooth and clumpy torus models. Following Fine et al., we transform that scatter in the profile line-widths into a constraint on the torus geometry and show how the half-opening angle of the obscuring structure depends on the mass of the central object and the accretion rate. We find that the results depend only mildly on the dimensionless angular momentum, one of the two integrals of motion that characterize the dynamics of the self-similar ideal MHD outflows.

  14. Experimental comparison of a wind-turbine and of an actuator-disc near wake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lignarolo, L.; Ragni, D.; Simao Ferreira, C.J.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2016-01-01

    The actuator disc (AD) model is commonly used to simplify the simulation of horizontal-axis wind-turbine aerodynamics. The limitations of this approach in reproducing the wake losses in wind farm simulations have been proven by a previous research. The present study is aimed at providing an experime

  15. Accretion disc atmospheres and winds in low-mass X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Trigo, M Díaz

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, X-ray spectroscopy has enabled a wealth of discoveries of photoionised absorbers in X-ray binaries. Studies of such accretion disc atmospheres and winds are of fundamental importance to understand accretion processes and possible feedback mechanisms to the environment. In this work, we review the current observational state and theoretical understanding of accretion disc atmospheres and winds in low-mass X-ray binaries, focusing on the wind launching mechanisms and on the dependence on accretion state. We conclude with issues that deserve particular attention.

  16. The Effects of Disc Winds on the Spectrum and Black Hole Growth Rate of Active Galactic Nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Slone, Oren; Netzer, Hagai

    2012-01-01

    Several properties of the standard alpha-disc model for active galactic nuclei (AGN) are not entirely consistent with AGN observations. As well as such discrepencies, observations show evidence for the existence of high mass outflow winds originating from the vicinity of the active black hole (BH). Such winds may originate from various parts of the disc and could change the local accretion rate which should alter the emitted spectral energy distribution (SED) and affect the global disc lumino...

  17. The formation and evolution of wind-capture discs in binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huarte-Espinosa, M.; Carroll-Nellenback, J.; Nordhaus, J.; Frank, A.; Blackman, E. G.

    2013-07-01

    We study the formation, evolution and physical properties of accretion discs formed via wind capture in binary systems. Using the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code AstroBEAR, we have carried out high-resolution 3D simulations that follow a stellar mass secondary in the corotating frame as it orbits a wind producing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) primary. We first derive a resolution criteria, based on considerations of Bondi-Hoyle flows, that must be met in order to properly resolve the formation of accretion discs around the secondary. We then compare simulations of binaries with three different orbital radii (Ro = 10, 15, 20 au). Discs are formed in all three cases, however, the size of the disc and, most importantly, its accretion rate decreases with orbital radii. In addition, the shape of the orbital motions of material within the disc becomes increasingly elliptical with increasing binary separation. The flow is mildly unsteady with `fluttering' around the bow shock observed. The discs are generally well aligned with the orbital plane after a few binary orbits. We do not observe the presence of any large-scale, violent instabilities (such as the flip-flop mode). For the first time, moreover, it is observed that the wind component that is accreted towards the secondary has a vortex tube-like structure, rather than a column-like one as it was previously thought. In the context of AGB binary systems that might be precursors to pre-planetary nebula (PPN) and planetary nebula (PN), we find that the wind accretion rates at the chosen orbital separations are generally too small to produce the most powerful outflows observed in these systems if the companions are main-sequence stars but marginally capable if the companions are white dwarfs. It is likely that many of the more powerful PPN and PN involve closer binaries than the ones considered here. The results also demonstrate principles of broad relevance to all wind-capture binary systems.

  18. Computational Actuator Disc Models for Wind and Tidal Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper details a computational fluid dynamic (CFD study of a constantly loaded actuator disc model featuring different boundary conditions; these boundary conditions were defined to represent a channel and a duct flow. The simulations were carried out using the commercially available CFD software ANSYS-CFX. The data produced were compared to the one-dimensional (1D momentum equation as well as previous numerical and experimental studies featuring porous discs in a channel flow. The actuator disc was modelled as a momentum loss using a resistance coefficient related to the thrust coefficient (CT. The model showed good agreement with the 1D momentum theory in terms of the velocity and pressure profiles. Less agreement was demonstrated when compared to previous numerical and empirical data in terms of velocity and turbulence characteristics in the far field. These models predicted a far larger velocity deficit and a turbulence peak further downstream. This study therefore demonstrates the usefulness of the duct boundary condition (for computational ease for representing open channel flow when simulating far field effects as well as the importance of turbulence definition at the inlet.

  19. Modelling accretion disc and stellar wind interactions: the case of Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, I. M.; Petropoulou, M.; Mimica, P.; Giannios, D.

    2016-07-01

    Sgr A* is an ideal target to study low-luminosity accreting systems. It has been recently proposed that properties of the accretion flow around Sgr A* can be probed through its interactions with the stellar wind of nearby massive stars belonging to the S-cluster. When a star intercepts the accretion disc, the ram and thermal pressures of the disc terminate the stellar wind leading to the formation of a bow shock structure. Here, a semi-analytical model is constructed which describes the geometry of the termination shock formed in the wind. With the employment of numerical hydrodynamic simulations, this model is both verified and extended to a region prone to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. Because the characteristic wind and stellar velocities are in ˜108 cm s-1 range, the shocked wind may produce detectable X-rays via thermal bremsstrahlung emission. The application of this model to the pericentre passage of S2, the brightest member of the S-cluster, shows that the shocked wind produces roughly a month long X-ray flare with a peak luminosity of L ≈ 4 × 1033 erg s-1 for a stellar mass-loss rate, disc number density, and thermal pressure strength of dot{M}_w= 10^{-7} M_{⊙} yr^{-1}, nd = 105 cm-3, and α = 0.1, respectively. This peak luminosity is comparable to the quiescent X-ray emission detected from Sgr A* and is within the detection capabilities of current X-ray observatories. Its detection could constrain the density and thickness of the disc at a distance of ˜3000 gravitational radii from the supermassive black hole.

  20. Density, Velocity and Ionization Structure in Accretion-Disc Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Long, Knox

    2004-01-01

    This was a project to exploit the unique capabilities of FUSE to monitor variations in the wind- formed spectral lines of the luminous, low-inclination, cataclysmic variables(CV) -- RW Sex. (The original proposal contained two additional objects but these were not approved.) These observations were intended to allow us to determine the relative roles of density and ionization state changes in the outflow and to search for spectroscopic signatures of stochastic small-scale structure and shocked gas. By monitoring the temporal behavior of blue-ward extended absorption lines with a wide range of ionization potentials and excitation energies, we proposed to track the changing physical conditions in the outflow. We planned to use a new Monte Carlo code to calculate the ionization structure of and radiative transfer through the CV wind. The analysis therefore was intended to establish the wind geometry, kinematics and ionization state, both in a time-averaged sense and as a function of time.

  1. Wind turbine and actuator disc wake: Two experimental campaigns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lignarolo, L.; Ragni, D.; Simao Ferreira, C.J.; van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper is the summary of 3 years of research on the wake aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine at Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands. In particular, the main results and the conclusions of two experimental campaigns are collected. The underlying research question is: h

  2. Magneto centrifugal winds from accretion discs around black hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Chakravorty, S; Ferreira, J; Henri, G; Belmont, R; Clavel, M; Corbel, S; Rodriguez, J; Coriat, M; Drappeau, S; Malzac, J

    2016-01-01

    We want to test if self-similar magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) accretion-ejection models can explain the observational results for accretion disk winds in BHBs. In our models, the density at the base of the outflow, from the accretion disk, is not a free parameter, but is determined by solving the full set of dynamical MHD equations without neglecting any physical term. Different MHD solutions were generated for different values of (a) the disk aspect ratio ($\\varepsilon$) and (b) the ejection efficiency ($p$). We generated two kinds of MHD solutions depending on the absence (cold solution) or presence (warm solution) of heating at the disk surface. The cold MHD solutions are found to be inadequate to account for winds due to their low ejection efficiency. The warm solutions can have sufficiently high values of $p (\\gtrsim 0.1)$ which is required to explain the observed physical quantities in the wind. The heating (required at the disk surface for the warm solutions) could be due to the illumination which would b...

  3. High Gas Surface Densities yet Low UV Attenuation in z $\\sim$ 1 Disc Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Nordon, Raanan

    2016-01-01

    The gas in galaxies is both the fuel for star formation and a medium that attenuates the light of the young stars. We study the relations between UV attenuation, spectral slope, star formation rates, and molecular gas surface densities in a sample of 28 z$\\sim$1 and a reference sample of 32 z$\\sim$0 galaxies that are detected in CO, far-infrared, and rest frame UV. The samples are dominated by disc-like galaxies close to the main SFR--mass relation. We find that the location of the z$\\sim$1 galaxies on the IRX-$\\beta$ plane is correlated with their gas-depletion time-scale $\\tau_{dep}$ and can predict $\\tau_{dep}$ with a standard deviation of 0.16 dex. We use IRX-$\\beta$ to estimate the mean total gas column densities at the locations of star formation in the galaxies, and compare them to the mean molecular gas surface densities as measured from CO. We confirm previous results regarding high $N_H/A_V$ in z$\\sim$1 galaxies. We estimate an increase in the gas filling factor by a factor of 4--6 from z$\\sim$0 to ...

  4. 3D simulations of disc-winds extending radially self-similar MHD models

    CERN Document Server

    Stute, Matthias; Vlahakis, Nektarios; Tsinganos, Kanaris; Mignone, Andrea; Massaglia, Silvano

    2014-01-01

    Disc-winds originating from the inner parts of accretion discs are considered as the basic component of magnetically collimated outflows. The only available analytical MHD solutions to describe disc-driven jets are those characterized by the symmetry of radial self-similarity. However, radially self-similar MHD jet models, in general, have three geometrical shortcomings, (i) a singularity at the jet axis, (ii) the necessary assumption of axisymmetry, and (iii) the non-existence of an intrinsic radial scale, i.e. the jets formally extend to radial infinity. Hence, numerical simulations are necessary to extend the analytical solutions towards the axis, by solving the full three-dimensional equations of MHD and impose a termination radius at finite radial distance. We focus here on studying the effects of relaxing the (ii) assumption of axisymmetry, i.e. of performing full 3D numerical simulations of a disc-wind crossing all magnetohydrodynamic critical surfaces. We compare the results of these runs with previou...

  5. Exploring accretion disc physics and black hole growth with regular monitoring of ultrafast AGN winds

    CERN Document Server

    Pounds, Ken; Nixon, Chris

    2016-01-01

    15 years of XMM-Newton observations have established that ultra-fast, highly ionized winds are common in radio-quiet AGN. A simple theory of Eddington-limited accretion correctly predicts the typical velocity (~0.1c) and high ionization of such winds, with observed flow energy capable of ejecting star-forming gas. With a recent extended XMM-Newton observation of the archetypal UFO, PG1211+143, revealing a more complex flow pattern, we suggest that targetted observations over the next decade offer unique potential for probing the inner accretion disc structure and SMBH growth.

  6. Wind Turbine Rotor Simulation via CFD Based Actuator Disc Technique Compared to Detailed Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Mahmoodi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a generalized Actuator Disc (AD is used to model the wind turbine rotor of the MEXICO experiment, a collaborative European wind turbine project. The AD model as a combination of CFD technique and User Defined Functions codes (UDF, so-called UDF/AD model is used to simulate loads and performance of the rotor in three different wind speed tests. Distributed force on the blade, thrust and power production of the rotor as important designing parameters of wind turbine rotors are focused to model. A developed Blade Element Momentum (BEM theory as a code based numerical technique as well as a full rotor simulation both from the literature are included into the results to compare and discuss. The output of all techniques is compared to detailed measurements for validation, which led us to final conclusions.

  7. Validation of the actuator disc approach in PHOENICS using small scale model wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simisiroglou, N.; Sarmast, S.; Breton, S.-P.; Ivanell, S.

    2016-09-01

    In this study two wind turbine setups are investigated numerically: (a) the flow around a single model wind turbine and (b) the wake interaction between two in-line model wind turbines. This is done by using Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and an actuator disc (ACD) technique in the computational fluid dynamics code PHOENICS. The computations are conducted for the design condition of the rotors using four different turbulence closure models. The computed axial velocity field as well as the turbulent kinetic energy are compared with PIV measurements. For the two model wind turbine setup, the thrust and power coefficient are also computed and compared with measurements. The results show that this RANS ACD method is able to predict the overall behaviour of the flow with low computational effort and that the turbulence closure model has a direct effect on the predicted wake development.

  8. A wind-driving disc model for the mm-wavelength polarization structure of HL Tau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsakos, Titos; Tzeferacos, Petros; Königl, Arieh

    2016-12-01

    The recent advent of spatially resolved mm- and cm-wavelength polarimetry in protostellar accretion discs could help clarify the role of magnetic fields in the angular momentum transport in these systems. The best case to date is that of HL Tau, where the inability to produce a good fit to the 1.25-mm data with a combination of vertical and azimuthal magnetic field components was interpreted as implying that centrifugally driven winds (CDWs) are probably not a significant transport mechanism on the ˜102 au scale probed by the observations. Using synthetic polarization maps of heuristic single-field-component discs and of a post-processed simulation of a wind-driving disc, we demonstrate that a much better fit to the data can be obtained if the radial field component, a hallmark of the CDW mechanism, dominates in the polarized emission region. A similar inference was previously made in modelling the far-infrared polarization map of the pc-scale dust ring in the Galactic Centre. To reconcile this interpretation with theoretical models of protostellar discs, which indicate that the wind is launched from a comparatively high elevation above the mid-plane, we propose that most of the polarized emission originates - with a high ( ≳ 10 per cent) intrinsic degree of polarization - in small ( ≲ 0.1 mm) grains that remain suspended above the mid-plane, and that the bulk of the mm-wavelength emission is produced - with low intrinsic polarization - by larger grains that have settled to the mid-plane.

  9. The Effects of Disc Winds on the Spectrum and Black Hole Growth Rate of Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Slone, Oren

    2012-01-01

    Several properties of the standard alpha-disc model for active galactic nuclei (AGN) are not entirely consistent with AGN observations. As well as such discrepencies, observations show evidence for the existence of high mass outflow winds originating from the vicinity of the active black hole (BH). Such winds may originate from various parts of the disc and could change the local accretion rate which should alter the emitted spectral energy distribution (SED) and affect the global disc luminosity and the BH growth rate. The new calculations presented here show the effects of several types of winds on the observed and inferred disc properties. Some wind profiles can have a profound effect on the observed SED and can perhaps explain the poorly understood deviations of AGN spectra from standard disc spectra. We show a factor ~2 possible error in estimating the disc luminosity and larger deviations in estimating L/Ledd. The BH growth rate computed without taking the effects of wind into account may be significant...

  10. A wind-driving disc model for the mm-wavelength polarization structure of HL Tau

    CERN Document Server

    Matsakos, Titos; Königl, Arieh

    2016-01-01

    The recent advent of spatially resolved mm- and cm-wavelength polarimetry in protostellar accretion discs could help clarify the role of magnetic fields in the angular momentum transport in these systems. The best case to date is that of HL~Tau, where the inability to produce a good fit to the 1.25-mm data with a combination of vertical and azimuthal magnetic field components was interpreted as implying that centrifugally driven winds (CDWs) are probably not a significant transport mechanism on the $\\sim 10^2\\,$au scale probed by the observations. Using synthetic polarization maps of heuristic single-field-component discs and of a post-processed simulation of a wind-driving disc, we demonstrate that a much better fit to the data can be obtained if the radial field component, a hallmark of the CDW mechanism, dominates in the polarized emission region. A similar inference was previously made in modelling the far-infrared polarization map of the pc-scale dust ring in the Galactic centre. To reconcile this interp...

  11. A disc wind interpretation of the strong Fe Kα features in 1H 0707-495

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagino, Kouichi; Odaka, Hirokazu; Done, Chris; Tomaru, Ryota; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2016-10-01

    1H 0707-495 is the most convincing example of a supermassive black hole with an X-ray spectrum being dominated by extremely smeared, relativistic reflection, with the additional requirement of strongly supersolar iron abundance. However, here we show that the iron features in its 2-10 keV spectrum are rather similar to the archetypal wind dominated source, PDS 456. We fit all the 2-10 keV spectra from 1H 0707-495 using the same wind model as used for PDS 456, but viewed at higher inclination so that the iron absorption line is broader but not so blueshifted. This gives a good overall fit to the data from 1H 0707-495, and an extrapolation of this model to higher energies also gives a good match to the NuSTAR data. Small remaining residuals indicate that the iron line emission is stronger than in PDS 456. This is consistent with the wider angle wind expected from a continuum-driven wind from the super-Eddington mass accretion rate in 1H 0707-495, and/or the presence of residual reflection from the underlying disc though the presence of the absorption line in the model removes the requirement for highly relativistic smearing, and highly supersolar iron abundance. We suggest that the spectrum of 1H 0707-495 is sculpted more by absorption in a wind than by extreme relativistic effects in strong gravity.

  12. Airfoil data sensitivity analysis for actuator disc simulations used in wind turbine applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Karl; Breton, Simon-Philippe; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær;

    2014-01-01

    To analyse the sensitivity of blade geometry and airfoil characteristics on the prediction of performance characteristics of wind farms, large-eddy simulations using an actuator disc (ACD) method are performed for three different blade/airfoil configurations. The aim of the study is to determine...... how the mean characteristics of wake flow, mean power production and thrust depend on the choice of airfoil data and blade geometry. In order to simulate realistic conditions, pre-generated turbulence and wind shear are imposed in the computational domain. Using three different turbulence intensities...... and varying the spacing between the turbines, the flow around 4-8 aligned turbines is simulated. The analysis is based on normalized mean streamwise velocity, turbulence intensity, relative mean power production and thrust. From the computations it can be concluded that the actual airfoil characteristics...

  13. Line-driven disc wind model for ultrafast outflows in active galactic nuclei - scaling with luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, M.; Ohsuga, K.

    2017-03-01

    In order to reveal the origin of the ultrafast outflows (UFOs) that are frequently observed in active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we perform two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations of the line-driven disc winds, which are accelerated by the radiation force due to the spectral lines. The line-driven winds are successfully launched for the range of MBH = 106-9 M⊙ and ε = 0.1-0.5, and the resulting mass outflow rate (dot{M_w}), momentum flux (dot{p_w}), and kinetic luminosity (dot{E_w}) are in the region containing 90 per cent of the posterior probability distribution in the dot{M}_w-Lbol plane, dot{p}_w-Lbol plane, and dot{E}_w-Lbol plane shown in Gofford et al., where MBH is the black hole mass, ε is the Eddington ratio, and Lbol is the bolometric luminosity. The best-fitting relations in Gofford et al., d log dot{M_w}/d log {L_bol}˜ 0.9, d log dot{p_w}/d log {L_bol}˜ 1.2, and d log dot{E_w}/d log {L_bol}˜ 1.5, are roughly consistent with our results, d log dot{M_w}/d log {L_bol}˜ 9/8, d log dot{p_w}/d log {L_bol}˜ 10/8, and d log dot{E_w}/d log {L_bol}˜ 11/8. In addition, our model predicts that no UFO features are detected for the AGNs with ε ≲ 0.01, since the winds do not appear. Also, only AGNs with MBH ≲ 108 M⊙ exhibit the UFOs when ε ∼ 0.025. These predictions nicely agree with the X-ray observations. These results support that the line-driven disc wind is the origin of the UFOs.

  14. Revisiting the extremely fast disc wind in a gravitationally lensed quasar APM 08279+5255

    CERN Document Server

    Hagino, Kouichi; Odaka, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2016-01-01

    The gravitationally lensed quasar APM 08279+5255 has the fastest claimed AGN wind, with velocities of 0.6--0.7c. This would require magnetic driving mechanism since this exceeds the radiation drag limit for any radiation driving. This conclusion derives from interpreting both the narrow and broad absorption features in the X-ray spectrum as iron absorption lines. However, the classic ultrafast outflow source PDS 456 also shows similar absorption systems, but here the higher energy, broader feature is generally interpreted as a more complex absorption edge. We reanalyse all the spectra from APM 08279+5255 using a full 3-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer disc wind model for the ionised wind at 0.1--0.2c, together with complex absorption from lower ionisation material, and find that this is a better description of the data. Thus there is no strong requirement for outflow velocities beyond 0.2c, which can be powered by radiation driving. We show that UV line driving is especially likely given the spectra...

  15. Predicted rotation signatures in MHD disc winds and comparison to DG Tau observations

    CERN Document Server

    Pesenti, N; Cabrit, S; Ferreira, J; Casse, F; García, P; O'Brien, D

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by the first detections of rotation signatures in the DG Tau jet (Bacciotti et al. 2002), we examine possible biases affecting the relation between detected rotation signatures and true azimuthal velocity for self-similar MHD disc winds, taking into account projection, convolution as well as excitation gradients effects. We find that computed velocity shifts are systematically smaller than the true underlying rotation curve. When outer slower streamlines dominate the emission, we predict observed shifts increasing with transverse distance to the jet axis, opposite to the true rotation profile. Determination of the full transverse rotation profile thus requires high angular resolution observations ( 50) are ruled out for the medium-velocity component in the DG Tau jet.

  16. Predicted rotation signatures in MHD disc winds and comparison to DG Tau observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesenti, N.; Dougados, C.; Cabrit, S.; Ferreira, J.; Casse, F.; Garcia, P.; O'Brien, D.

    2004-03-01

    Motivated by the first detections of rotation signatures in the DG Tau jet (Bacciotti et al. \\cite{bacciotti2002}), we examine possible biases affecting the relation between detected rotation signatures and true azimuthal velocity for self-similar MHD disc winds, taking into account projection, convolution as well as excitation gradients effects. We find that computed velocity shifts are systematically smaller than the true underlying rotation curve. When outer slower streamlines dominate the emission, we predict observed shifts increasing with transverse distance to the jet axis, opposite to the true rotation profile. Determination of the full transverse rotation profile thus requires high angular resolution observations ( 50) are ruled out for the medium-velocity component in the DG Tau jet.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic DiscWinds and LineWidth Distributions.II

    CERN Document Server

    Chajet, L S

    2016-01-01

    We study AGN emission line profiles combining an improved version of the accretion disc-wind model of Murray & Chiang with the magneto-hydrodynamic model of Emmering et al. (1992). Here we extend our previous work to consider central objects with different masses and/or luminosities. We have compared the dispersions in our model C IV linewidth distributions to observational upper limit on that dispersion, considering both smooth and clumpy torus models. Following Fine et al., we transform that scatter in the profile line-widths into a constraint on the torus geometry and show how the half-opening angle of the obscuring structure depends on the mass of the central object and the accretion rate. We find that the results depend only mildly on the dimensionless angular momentum, one of the two integrals of motion that characterise the dynamics of the self-similar ideal MHD outflows

  18. Attenuation law of normal disc galaxies with clumpy distributions of stars and dust

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, A K

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the attenuation law seen through an interstellar medium (ISM) with clumpy spatial distributions of stars and dust. The clumpiness of the dust distribution is introduced by a multi-phase ISM model. We solve a set of radiative transfer equations with multiple anisotropic scatterings through the clumpy ISM in a 1-D plane-parallel geometry by using the mega-grain approximation, in which dusty clumps are regarded as very large particles (i.e. mega-grains). The clumpiness of the stellar distribution is introduced by the youngest stars embedded in the clumps. We assume a smooth spatial distribution for older stars. The youngest stars are surrounded by denser dusty gas and suffer stronger attenuation than diffuse older stars (i.e. age-selective attenuation). The apparent attenuation law is a composite of the attenuation laws for the clumpy younger stars and for the diffuse older stars with a luminosity weight. In general, the stellar population dominating the luminosity changes from older stars to youn...

  19. Radio and X-ray emission from disc winds in radio-quiet quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Steenbrugge, K C; Kuncic, Z; Blundell, K M

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that the radio spectra of radio-quiet quasars is produced by free-free emission in the optically thin part of an accretion disc wind. An important observational constraint on this model is the observed X-ray luminosity. We investigate this constraint using a sample of PG radio-quiet quasars for which XMM-Newton EPIC spectra are available. Comparing the predicted and measured luminosities for 0.5, 2 and 5 keV, we conclude that all of the studied PG quasars require a large hydrogen column density absorber, requiring these quasars to be close to or Compton-thick. Such a large column density can be directly excluded for PG 0050+124, for which a high-resolution RGS spectrum exists. Further constraint on the column density for a further 19 out of the 21 studied PG quasars comes from the EPIC spectrum characteristics such as hard X-ray power-law photon index and the equivalent width of the Fe Kalpha line; and the small equivalent width of the C IV absorber present in UV spectra. For 2 sources: P...

  20. AMBER/VLTI high spectral resolution observations of the Br$\\gamma$ emitting region in HD 98922. A compact disc wind launched from the inner disc region

    CERN Document Server

    Garatti, A Caratti o; Lopez, R Garcia; Kraus, S; Schertl, D; Grinin, V P; Weigelt, G; Hofmann, K -H; Massi, F; Lagarde, S; Vannier, M; Malbet, F

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the main physical parameters and the circumstellar environment of the young Herbig Be star HD 98922. We present AMBER/VLTI high spectral resolution (R =12000) interferometric observations across the Br$\\gamma$ line, accompanied by UVES high-resolution spectroscopy and SINFONI-AO assisted near-infrared integral field spectroscopic data. To interpret our observations, we develop a magneto-centrifugally driven disc-wind model. Our analysis of the UVES spectrum shows that HD 98922 is a young (~5x10^5 yr) Herbig Be star (SpT=B9V), located at a distance of 440(+60-50) pc, with a mass accretion rate of ~9+/-3x10^(-7) M_sun yr^(-1). SINFONI K-band AO-assisted imaging shows a spatially resolved circumstellar disc-like region (~140 AU in diameter) with asymmetric brightness distribution. Our AMBER/VLTI UT observations indicate that the Br$\\gamma$ emitting region (radius ~0.31+/-0.04 AU) is smaller than the continuum emitting region (inner dust radius ~0.7+/-0.2 AU), showing significant non-zero V-shaped diff...

  1. Global dust attenuation in disc galaxies: strong variation with specific star formation and stellar mass, and the importance of sample selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devour, Brian M.; Bell, Eric F.

    2016-06-01

    We study the relative dust attenuation-inclination relation in 78 721 nearby galaxies using the axis ratio dependence of optical-near-IR colour, as measured by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the Two Micron All Sky Survey, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. In order to avoid to the greatest extent possible attenuation-driven biases, we carefully select galaxies using dust attenuation-independent near- and mid-IR luminosities and colours. Relative u-band attenuation between face-on and edge-on disc galaxies along the star-forming main sequence varies from ˜0.55 mag up to ˜1.55 mag. The strength of the relative attenuation varies strongly with both specific star formation rate and galaxy luminosity (or stellar mass). The dependence of relative attenuation on luminosity is not monotonic, but rather peaks at M3.4 μm ≈ -21.5, corresponding to M* ≈ 3 × 1010 M⊙. This behaviour stands seemingly in contrast to some older studies; we show that older works failed to reliably probe to higher luminosities, and were insensitive to the decrease in attenuation with increasing luminosity for the brightest star-forming discs. Back-of-the-envelope scaling relations predict the strong variation of dust optical depth with specific star formation rate and stellar mass. More in-depth comparisons using the scaling relations to model the relative attenuation require the inclusion of star-dust geometry to reproduce the details of these variations (especially at high luminosities), highlighting the importance of these geometrical effects.

  2. Global dust attenuation in disc galaxies: strong variation with specific star formation and stellar mass, and the importance of sample selection

    CERN Document Server

    Devour, Brian

    2016-01-01

    We study the relative dust attenuation-inclination relation in 78,721 nearby galaxies using the axis ratio dependence of optical-NIR colour, as measured by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). In order to avoid to the greatest extent possible attenuation-driven biases, we carefully select galaxies using dust attenuation-independent near- and mid-IR luminosities and colours. Relative u-band attenuation between face-on and edge-on disc galaxies along the star forming main sequence varies from ~0.55 mag up to ~1.55 mag. The strength of the relative attenuation varies strongly with both specific star formation rate and galaxy luminosity (or stellar mass). The dependence of relative attenuation on luminosity is not monotonic, but rather peaks at $M_{3.4\\mu m} \\approx -21.5$, corresponding to $M_* \\approx 3\\times 10^{10}M_{Sun}$. This behavior stands seemingly in contrast to some older studies; we show that older works failed...

  3. Dynamos in accretion discs

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenburg, A.; von Rekowski, B.

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that accretion discs in young stellar objects may have hot coronae that are heated by magnetic reconnection. This is a consequence of the magneto-rotational instability driving turbulence in the disc. Magnetic reconnection away from the midplane leads to heating of the corona which, in turn, contributes to driving disc winds.

  4. Kinetic energy entrainment in wind turbine and actuator disc wakes: an experimental analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lignarolo, L.E.M.; Ragni, D.; Simao Ferreira, C.J.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The present experimental study focuses on the comparison between the wake of a two-bladed wind turbine and the one of an actuator disk. The flow field at the middle plane of the wake is measured with a stereoscopic particle image velocimetry setup, in the low-speed Open Jet Facility wind tunnel of t

  5. Quasar emission lines as probes of orientation: implications for disc wind geometries and unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, J. H.; Knigge, C.; Long, K. S.

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of broad absorption lines (BALs) in quasar samples is often interpreted in the context of a geometric unification model consisting of an accretion disc and an associated outflow. We use the the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar sample to test this model by examining the equivalent widths (EWs) of C IV 1550 Å, Mg II 2800 Å, [O III] 5007 Å and C III] 1909 Å. We find that the emission line EW distributions in BAL and non-BAL quasars are remarkably similar - a property that is inconsistent with scenarios in which a BAL outflow rises equatorially from a geometrically thin, optically thick accretion disc. We construct simple models to predict the distributions from various geometries; these models confirm the above finding and disfavour equatorial geometries. We show that obscuration, line anisotropy and general relativistic effects on the disc continuum are unlikely to hide an EW inclination dependence. We carefully examine the radio and polarisation properties of BAL quasars. Both suggest that they are most likely viewed (on average) from intermediate inclinations, between type 1 and type 2 AGN. We also find that the low-ionization BAL quasars in our sample are not confined to one region of `Eigenvector I' parameter space. Overall, our work leads to one of the following conclusions, or some combination thereof: (i) the continuum does not emit like a geometrically thin, optically thick disc; (ii) BAL quasars are viewed from similar angles to non-BAL quasars, i.e. low inclinations; (iii) geometric unification does not explain the fraction of BALs in quasar samples.

  6. Soft-excess in ULX spectra: disc emission or wind absorption?

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, A C

    2006-01-01

    We assess the claim that Ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) host intermediate-mass black holes (BH) by comparing the cool disc-blackbody model with a range of other models, namelly a more complex physical model based on a power-law component slightly modified at various energies by smeared emission/absorption lines from highly-ionized gas. Our main conclusion is that the presence of a soft excess, or a soft deficit, depends entirely on the energy range to which we choose to fit the ``true'' power-law continuum; hence, we argue that those components should not be taken as evidence for accretion disc emission, nor used to infer BH masses. We speculate that bright ULXs could be in a spectral state similar to (or an extension of) the steep-power-law state of Galactic BH candidates, in which the disc is completely comptonized and not directly detectable, and the power-law emission may be modified by the surrounding, fast-moving, ionized gas.

  7. 3D Lagrangian VPM: simulations of the near-wake of an actuator disc and horizontal axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdowski, T.; Ferreira, C.; Walther, J.

    2016-09-01

    The application of a 3-dimensional Lagrangian vortex particle method has been assessed for modelling the near-wake of an axisymmetrical actuator disc and 3-bladed horizontal axis wind turbine with prescribed circulation from the MEXICO (Model EXperiments In COntrolled conditions) experiment. The method was developed in the framework of the open- source Parallel Particle-Mesh library for handling the efficient data-parallelism on a CPU (Central Processing Unit) cluster, and utilized a O(N log N)-type fast multipole method for computational acceleration. Simulations with the actuator disc resulted in a wake expansion, velocity deficit profile, and induction factor that showed a close agreement with theoretical, numerical, and experimental results from literature. Also the shear layer expansion was present; the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear layer was triggered due to the round-off limitations of a numerical method, but this instability was delayed to beyond 1 diameter downstream due to the particle smoothing. Simulations with the 3-bladed turbine demonstrated that a purely 3-dimensional flow representation is challenging to model with particles. The manifestation of local complex flow structures of highly stretched vortices made the simulation unstable, but this was successfully counteracted by the application of a particle strength exchange scheme. The axial and radial velocity profile over the near wake have been compared to that of the original MEXICO experiment, which showed close agreement between results.

  8. 3D Lagrangian VPM: simulations of the near-wake of an actuator disc and horizontal axis wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berdowski, T.; Ferreira, Célia Maria Dias; Walther, Jens Honore

    2016-01-01

    The application of a 3-dimensional Lagrangian vortex particle method has beenassessed for modelling the near-wake of an axisymmetrical actuator disc and 3-bladed horizontal axis wind turbine with prescribed circulation from the MEXICO (Model EXperiments InCOntrolled conditions) experiment...... in a wake expansion, velocity deficit profile, and induction factor that showed a close agreement with theoretical, numerical, and experimental results from literature. Also the shear layer expansion was present; the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear layer was triggered due to the round...... structures of highly stretched vortices made the simulation unstable, but this was successfully counteracted by the application of a particle strength exchange scheme. The axial and radial velocity profle over the near wake have been compared to that of the original MEXICO experiment, which showed close...

  9. Validation of four LES and a vortex model against stereo-PIV measurements in the near wake of an actuator disc and a wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lignarolo, Lorenzo E.M.; Mehta, Dhruv; Stevens, Richard J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry was employed to obtain the velocity field and turbulence statistics in the near wake of a two-bladed wind turbine model and of a porous disc, which mimics the numerical actuator used in the simulations. Researchers have been invited to simulate the experimental case......In this paper we report the results of a workshop organised by the Delft University of Technology in 2014, aiming at the comparison between different state-of-the-art numerical models for the simulation of wind turbine wakes. The chosen benchmark case is a wind tunnel measurement, where...... based on the disc drag coefficient and the inflow characteristics. Four large eddy simulation (LES) codes from different institutions and a vortex model are part of the comparison. The purpose of this benchmark is to validate the numerical predictions of the flow field statistics in the near wake...

  10. A New Hybrid Control Architecture to Attenuate Large Horizontal Wind Disturbance for a Small-Scale Unmanned Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorui Zhu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method to attenuate large horizontal wind disturbance for a small‐scale unmanned autonomous helicopter combining wind tunnel‐based experimental data and a backstepping algorithm. Large horizontal wind disturbance is harmful to autonomous helicopters, especially to small ones because of their low inertia and the high cross‐coupling effects among the multiple inputs. In order to achieve more accurate and faster attenuation of large wind disturbance, a new hybrid control architecture is proposed to take advantage of the direct force/moment compensation based on the wind tunnel experimental data. In this architecture, large horizontal wind disturbance is treated as an additional input to the control system instead of a small perturbation around the equilibrium state. A backstepping algorithm is then designed to guarantee the stable convergence of the helicopter to the desired position. The proposed technique is finally evaluated in simulation on the platform, HIROBO Eagle, compared with a traditional wind velocity compensation method.

  11. Study on optical attenuation performance of special stock power optical cable based on a wind induced vibration environment in laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zhao, Ziyuan

    2010-08-01

    For the purpose of 10G communication system upgrade for Guangdong Power Grid, laboratory simulation tests on dynamic and temperature cycle are performed for the reserved cables (stock optical cables) of existing 2.5G special optical cable lines that have operated for ten years, in order to verify the possibility of optical cable to be upgraded to a 10G transmission level and evaluate the degradation level of optical cables. This paper points out the necessity of laboratory test on attenuation performance in a wind-induced vibration environment, describes the test methods thereof, summarizes and analyzes a variety of optical attenuation performance data, and finds that the attenuation performance of current OPGW, ADSS, ADL optical fiber lines in wind-induced vibration environment meets the industry standards.

  12. Disc reflection and a possible disc wind during a soft X-ray state in the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary 1RXS J180408.9-342058

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenaar, N.; Altamirano, D.; Parker, M.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Miller, J. M.; Heinke, C. O.; Wijnands, R.; Ludlam, R.; Parikh, A.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Gusinskaia, N.; Deller, A. T.; Fabian, A. C.

    2016-10-01

    1RXS J180408.9-342058 is a transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary that exhibited a bright accretion outburst in 2015. We present NuSTAR, Swift, and Chandra observations obtained around the peak brightness of this outburst. The source was in a soft X-ray spectral state and displayed an X-ray luminosity of LX ≃ (2-3) × 1037(D/5.8 kpc)2 erg s-1 (0.5-10 keV). The NuSTAR data reveal a broad Fe-K emission line that we model as relativistically broadened reflection to constrain the accretion geometry. We found that the accretion disc is viewed at an inclination of i ≃ 27°-35° and extended close to the neutron star, down to Rin ≃ 5-7.5 gravitational radii (≃11-17 km). This inner disc radius suggests that the neutron star magnetic field strength is B ≲ 2 × 108 G. We find a narrow absorption line in the Chandra/HEG data at an energy of ≃7.64 keV with a significance of ≃4.8σ. This feature could correspond to blueshifted Fe XXVI and arise from an accretion disc wind, which would imply an outflow velocity of vout ≃ 0.086c (≃25 800 km s-1). However, this would be extreme for an X-ray binary and it is unclear if a disc wind should be visible at the low inclination angle that we infer from our reflection analysis. Finally, we discuss how the X-ray and optical properties of 1RXS J180408.9-342058 are consistent with a relatively small (Porb ≲ 3 h) binary orbit.

  13. MW级风力发电机组偏航制动盘强度分析%Strength Analysis for MW Wind Turbine Yaw Brake Disc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何海建; 苏凤宇; 董姝言; 齐涛; 晁贯良

    2016-01-01

    偏航制动盘是风力发电机组中受力情况较为复杂、可靠性要求较高的关键部件之一,其强度直接关系到整个机组的安全运行。基于GL规范,采用有限元方法对偏航制动盘进行静强度和疲劳强度分析,并且给出了偏航制动盘部件S N曲线的详细拟合过程,有效解决了偏航制动盘强度计算问题,为风机的安全运行提供了可靠的技术支持。%The yaw brake disc is one of the key components of wind turbines that are always bearing complex loads with a severer requirement for reliability.Its strength directly impacts the operation of whole wind turbine.In this article,the ultimate and fatigue strength of yaw brake disc are analyzed by u-sing the finite element method based on the GL specification.Meanwhile,the paper presents the detail cal-culation process of synthetic SN curve.It effectively solves the problem of yaw brake disc strength cal-culation,and provides credible technical support for the operation of wind turbines.

  14. Theory of the directionality and spatial coherence of wind-driven ambient noise in a deep ocean with attenuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Michael J

    2013-08-01

    Acoustic attenuation in seawater usually has little effect on the spatial statistics of ambient noise in the ocean. This expectation does not hold, however, at higher frequencies, above 10 kHz, and extreme depths, in excess of 6 km, an operating regime that is within the capabilities of the most recently developed acoustic instrument platforms. To quantify the effects of attenuation, theoretical models for the vertical directionality and the spatial coherence of wind-generated ambient noise are developed in this paper, based on a uniform distribution of surface sources above a semi-infinite, homogeneous ocean. Since there are no bottom reflections, all the noise is downward traveling; and the angular width of the directional density function becomes progressively narrower with increasing frequency because sound from the more distant sources experiences greater attenuation than acoustic arrivals from overhead. This narrowing of the noise lobe modifies the spatial coherence, shifting the zeros in the horizontal (vertical) coherence function to higher (lower) frequencies. In addition, the attenuation modifies the amplitudes of the higher-order oscillations in the horizontal and vertical coherence functions, tending to suppress the former and enhance the latter. These effects are large enough to be detectable with the latest deep-diving sensor technology.

  15. Effect of attenuation correction on surface amplitude distribution of wind waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    and multipeaked spectra. The unattenuated surface profiles when computed from the attenuation corrected variance spectra and the unchanged phase spectra follow the Gauss an distribution even in very wide band cases for which the recorded profiles do not follow...

  16. Simulations of an offshore wind farm using large eddy simulation and a torque-controlled actuator disc model

    CERN Document Server

    Creech, Angus; Maguire, A Eoghan

    2014-01-01

    We present here a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of Lillgrund offshore wind farm, which is located in the {\\O}resund Strait between Sweden and Denmark. The simulation combines a dynamic representation of wind turbines embedded within a Large-Eddy Simulation CFD solver, and uses hr-adaptive meshing to increase or decrease mesh resolution where required. This allows the resolution of both large scale flow structures around the wind farm, and local flow conditions at individual turbines; consequently, the response of each turbine to local conditions can be modelled, as well as the resulting evolution of the turbine wakes. This paper provides a detailed description of the turbine model which simulates interactions between the wind, turbine rotors, and turbine generators by calculating the forces on the rotor, the body forces on the air, and instantaneous power output. This model was used to investigate a selection of key wind speeds and directions, investigating cases where a row of turbines would ...

  17. Stress analysis for disc of wind turbine spindle brake%风电主轴制动器制动盘的应力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莹; 王珊; 罗院明; 殷艳飞; 胡育勇

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,wind power spindle brake discs were carried out on three-dimensional solid model by ANSYS,while mechanical stress and thermal stress field were performed for this model of emergency braking. The results showed that the brake disc mechanical stress and thermal stress field both present a symmetrical distribution. Among them,brake disc mechanical maximum stress was shown on the outermost bolt holes for 39. 79 MPa;Ther-mal stress field,the maximum thermal stress occurs when braking time 7. 89 s,located inside of the friction zone and non-friction zone at the junction to reach 289 MPa;Both less than the material yield limit of 345 MPa,and the max-imum thermal stress was greater than mechanical stress. Thus the thermal stress was the main factor that caused the failure of brake disc.%利用ANSYS软件建立了风电主轴制动器制动盘三维实体模型,分析了紧急制动工况下其机械应力场和热应力场。结果表明:制动盘机械应力场和热应力场均呈对称分布。其中,制动盘机械应力最大值出现在最外层螺栓孔处,为39.79 MPa;热应力场中,最大热应力值发生在制动时间7.89 s时,位于摩擦区域内侧与非摩擦区交界处,达到289 MPa;两者均小于材料的屈服极限345 MPa,且热应力最大值远大于机械应力最大值,由此可知热应力是引起制动盘失效的主要因素。

  18. Degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine: a prospective comparison of fast T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T1-weighted turbo spin echo MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, L. Oktay [Department of Radiology, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, 6700 Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey)]. E-mail: sunarerdem@yahoo.com; Erdem, C. Zuhal [Department of Radiology, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, 6700 Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Acikgoz, Bektas [Department of Neurosurgery, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, Zonguldak (Turkey); Gundogdu, Sadi [Department of Radiology, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, 6700 Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2005-08-01

    Objective: To compare fast T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T1-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) imaging of the degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine. Materials and methods: Thirty-five consecutive patients (19 females, 16 males; mean age 41 years, range 31-67 years) with suspected degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine were prospectively evaluated. Sagittal images of the lumbar spine were obtained using T1-weighted TSE and fast T1-weighted FLAIR sequences. Two radiologists compared these sequences both qualitatively and quantitatively. Results: On qualitative evaluation, CSF nulling, contrast at the disc-CSF interface, the disc-spinal cord (cauda equina) interface, and the spinal cord (cauda equina)-CSF interface of fast T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly higher than those for T1-weighted TSE images (P < 0.001). On quantitative evaluation of the first 15 patients, signal-to-noise ratios of cerebrospinal fluid of fast T1-weighted FLAIR imaging were significantly lower than those for T1-weighted TSE images (P < 0.05). Contrast-to-noise ratios of spinal cord/CSF and normal bone marrow/disc for fast T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly higher than those for T1-weighted TSE images (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Results in our study have shown that fast T1-weighted FLAIR imaging may be a valuable imaging modality in the armamentarium of lumbar spinal T1-weighted MR imaging, because the former technique has definite superior advantages such as CSF nulling, conspicuousness of the normal anatomic structures and changes in the lumbar spinal discogenic disease and image contrast and also almost equally acquisition times.

  19. Study of wind speed attenuation at Kavaratti Island using land-based, offshore, and satellite measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Rivankar, P.; Balakrishnan Nair, T.M.B.

    -borne sensors (QuikSCAT scatterometer and TMI microwave imager) during an 8-year period (2000-2007). It is found that round the year monthly-mean wind speed measurements from the Port Control Tower (PCT) located within the coconut palm farm at the Kavaratti...

  20. Investigations into the attenuation by screens under the influence of wind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten bo

    1996-01-01

    A simple hard screen on an absorbing ground is investigated experimentally and theoretically under upwind conditions. The experimental data are the result of model experiments in a 1:25 scale model within a wind tunnel. The sound propagation is measured using a triggered spark source and averaging...... on power basis in the frequency domain. The meteorological data representing the wind conditions have been determined by means of hot-wire anemometry in positions on both sides of the screen as well as directly over the screen. The theoretical model used for comparison is a hybrid approach. The sound field...... without a barrier is determined by means of numerical integration of a Hankel transform solution for a stratified atmosphere. This solution is used for propagation from source to screen and from screen onwards. The screen is taken into account by means of diffraction theory. Comparison of theoretical...

  1. Eclipse mapping of accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Baptista, R

    2000-01-01

    The eclipse mapping method is an inversion technique that makes use of the information contained in eclipse light curves to probe the structure, the spectrum and the time evolution of accretion discs. In this review I present the basics of the method and discuss its different implementations. I summarize the most important results obtained to date and discuss how they have helped to improve our understanding of accretion physics, from testing the theoretical radial brightness temperature distribution and measuring mass accretion rates to showing the evolution of the structure of a dwarf novae disc through its outburst cycle, from isolating the spectrum of a disc wind to revealing the geometry of disc spiral shocks. I end with an outline of the future prospects.

  2. Analysis and Improved Design of G58 Wind Turbine High-speed Shaft Brake Disc Crack%G58风电机组高速轴刹车盘裂纹分析及其改进设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成哲; 朱先勇; 刘润

    2014-01-01

    The brake disc is easy to crack during G58-850 wind turbine processing, which can make many units stop and affect the normal operation of the whole brake system. This paper analyses the cause of wind turbine brake disc crack, such as geometric shape and stress distribution. Some methods for reducing the crack are put forward, such as improving microstructure, chemical composition and heat treatment processing.%G58-850风电机组在实际运行过程中,刹车盘极易产生裂纹,造成多台机组停转,影响整套制动系统的正常运行。本文从几何外形、应力分布等方面分析了风电机组刹车盘上裂纹产生的原因,并提出了从改善金相组织、化学成分及热处理工艺等方面降低裂纹产生的方法。

  3. The inner cavity of the circumnuclear disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, M.; Morris, M. R.; Frank, A.; Carroll-Nellenback, J. J.; Duschl, W. J.

    2016-06-01

    The circumnuclear disc (CND) orbiting the Galaxy's central black hole is a reservoir of material that can ultimately provide energy through accretion, or form stars in the presence of the black hole, as evidenced by the stellar cluster that is presently located at the CND's centre. In this paper, we report the results of a computational study of the dynamics of the CND. The results lead us to question two paradigms that are prevalent in previous research on the Galactic Centre. The first is that the disc's inner cavity is maintained by the interaction of the central stellar cluster's strong winds with the disc's inner rim, and secondly, that the presence of unstable clumps in the disc implies that the CND is a transient feature. Our simulations show that, in the absence of a magnetic field, the interaction of the wind with the inner disc rim actually leads to a filling of the inner cavity within a few orbital time-scales, contrary to previous expectations. However, including the effects of magnetic fields stabilizes the inner disc rim against rapid inward migration. Furthermore, this interaction causes instabilities that continuously create clumps that are individually unstable against tidal shearing. Thus the occurrence of such unstable clumps does not necessarily mean that the disc is itself a transient phenomenon. The next steps in this investigation are to explore the effect of the magnetorotational instability on the disc evolution and to test whether the results presented here persist for longer time-scales than those considered here.

  4. Angular momentum transport in protostellar discs

    CERN Document Server

    Salmeron, Roberto Aureliano; Wardle, M; Salmeron, Raquel; Konigl, Arieh; Wardle, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Angular momentum transport in protostellar discs can take place either radially, through turbulence induced by the magnetorotational instability (MRI), or vertically, through the torque exerted by a large-scale magnetic field that threads the disc. Using semi-analytic and numerical results, we construct a model of steady-state discs that includes vertical transport by a centrifugally driven wind as well as MRI-induced turbulence. We present approximate criteria for the occurrence of either one of these mechanisms in an ambipolar diffusion-dominated disc. We derive ``strong field'' solutions in which the angular momentum transport is purely vertical and ``weak field'' solutions that are the stratified-disc analogues of the previously studied MRI channel modes; the latter are transformed into accretion solutions with predominantly radial angular-momentum transport when we implement a turbulent-stress prescription based on published results of numerical simulations. We also analyze ``intermediate field strength'...

  5. Broken discs: warp propagation in accretion discs

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, Chris; King, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We simulate the viscous evolution of an accretion disc around a spinning black hole. In general any such disc is misaligned, and warped by the Lense-Thirring effect. Unlike previous studies we use effective viscosities constrained to be consistent with the internal fluid dynamics of the disc. We find that nonlinear fluid effects, which reduce the effective viscosities in warped regions, can promote the breaking of the disc into two distinct planes. This occurs when the Shakura & Sunyaev dimen...

  6. Magnetorotational instability in protoplanetary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Salmeron, Roberto Aureliano; Salmeron, Raquel; Wardle, Mark

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the linear growth and vertical structure of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in weakly ionised, stratified accretion discs. The magnetic field is initially vertical and dust grains are assumed to have settled towards the midplane, so charges are carried by electrons and ions only. Solutions are obtained at representative radial locations from the central protostar for different choices of the initial magnetic field strength, sources of ionisation, and disc surface density. The MRI is active over a wide range of magnetic field strengths and fluid conditions in low conductivity discs. For the minimum-mass solar nebula model, incorporating cosmic ray ionisation, perturbations grow at 1 AU for B < 8 G. For a significant subset of these strengths (0.2 - 5 G), the growth rate is of order the ideal MHD rate (0.75 Omega). Similarly, when cosmic rays are assumed to be excluded from the disc by the winds emitted by the magnetically active protostar, unstable modes grow at this radius for B less...

  7. Magnetic Field Amplification via Protostellar Disc Dynamos

    CERN Document Server

    Dyda, Sergei; Ustyugova, Galina V; Koldoba, Alexander V; Wasserman, Ira

    2015-01-01

    We model the generation of a magnetic field in a protostellar disc using an \\alpha-dynamo and perform axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations of a T Tauri star. We find that for small values of the dimensionless dynamo parameter $\\alpha_d$ the poloidal field grows exponentially at a rate ${\\sigma} \\propto {\\Omega}_K \\sqrt{\\alpha_d}$ , before saturating to a value $\\propto \\sqrt{\\alpha_d}$ . The dynamo excites dipole and octupole modes, but quadrupole modes are suppressed, because of the symmetries of the seed field. Initial seed fields too weak to launch MHD outflows are found to grow sufficiently to launch winds with observationally relevant mass fluxes of order $10^{-9} M_{\\odot}/\\rm{yr}$ for T Tauri stars. For large values of $\\alpha_d$ magnetic loops are generated over the entire disc. These quickly come to dominate the disc dynamics and cause the disc to break up due to the magnetic pressure.

  8. On the maximum grain size entrained by photoevaporative winds

    CERN Document Server

    Hutchison, Mark A; Maddison, Sarah T

    2016-01-01

    We model the behaviour of dust grains entrained by photoevaporation-driven winds from protoplanetary discs assuming a non-rotating, plane-parallel disc. We obtain an analytic expression for the maximum entrainable grain size in extreme-UV radiation-driven winds, which we demonstrate to be proportional to the mass loss rate of the disc. When compared with our hydrodynamic simulations, the model reproduces almost all of the wind properties for the gas and dust. In typical turbulent discs, the entrained grain sizes in the wind are smaller than the theoretical maximum everywhere but the inner disc due to dust settling.

  9. The inner cavity of the circumnuclear disc

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, Marvin; Frank, Adam; Carroll-Nellenback, Jonathan J; Duschl, Wolfgang J

    2016-01-01

    The circumnuclear disc (CND) orbiting the Galaxy's central black hole is a reservoir of material that can ultimately provide energy through accretion, or form stars in the presence of the black hole, as evidenced by the stellar cluster that is presently located at the CND's centre. In this paper, we report the results of a computational study of the dynamics of the CND. The results lead us to question two paradigms that are prevalent in previous research on the Galactic Centre. The first is that the disc's inner cavity is maintained by the interaction of the central stellar cluster's strong winds with the disc's inner rim, and second, that the presence of unstable clumps in the disc implies that the CND is a transient feature. Our simulations show that, in the absence of a magnetic field, the interaction of the wind with the inner disc rim actually leads to a filling of the inner cavity within a few orbital time-scales, contrary to previous expectations. However, including the effects of magnetic fields stabi...

  10. Dispersal of Gaseous Circumstellar Discs around High-Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Y; Shen, Yue; Lou, Yu-Qing

    2006-01-01

    We study the dispersal of a gaseous disc surrounding a central high-mass stellar core once this circumstellar disc becomes fully ionized. If the stellar and surrounding EUV and X-ray radiations are so strong as to rapidly heat up and ionize the entire circumstellar disc as further facilitated by disc magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, a shock can be driven to travel outward in the fully ionized disc, behind which the disc expands and thins. For an extremely massive and powerful stellar core, the ionized gas pressure overwhelms the centrifugal and gravitational forces in the disc. In this limit, we construct self-similar shock solutions for such an expansion and depletion phase. As a significant amount of circumstellar gas being removed, the relic disc becomes vulnerable to strong stellar winds and fragments into clumps. We speculate that disc disappearance happens rapidly, perhaps on a timescale of $\\sim 10^3-10^4\\hbox{yr}$ once the disc becomes entirely ionized sometime after the onset of thermal nuclear ...

  11. Black hole accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Lasota, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This is an introduction to models of accretion discs around black holes. After a presentation of the non-relativistic equations describing the structure and evolution of geometrically thin accretion discs we discuss their steady-state solutions and compare them to observation. Next we describe in detail the thermal-viscous disc instability model and its application to dwarf novae for which it was designed and its X-ray irradiated-disc version which explains the soft X--ray transients, i.e. outbursting black-hole low-mass X-ray binaries. We then turn to the role of advection in accretion flow onto black holes illustrating its action and importance with a toy model describing both ADAFs and slim discs. We conclude with a presentation of the general-relativistic formalism describing accretion discs in the Kerr space-time.

  12. Black hole accretion discs

    OpenAIRE

    Lasota, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This is an introduction to models of accretion discs around black holes. After a presentation of the non-relativistic equations describing the structure and evolution of geometrically thin accretion discs we discuss their steady-state solutions and compare them to observation. Next we describe in detail the thermal-viscous disc instability model and its application to dwarf novae for which it was designed and its X-ray irradiated-disc version which explains the soft X--ray transients, i.e. ou...

  13. Blueshifted [OI] lines from protoplanetary discs: the smoking gun of X-ray photoevaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Ercolano, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Photoevaporation of protoplanetary discs by high energy radiation from the central young stellar object is currently the favourite model to explain the sudden dispersal of discs from the inside out. While several theoretical works have provided a detailed pictured of this process, the direct observational validation is still lacking. Emission lines produced in these slow moving protoplanetary disc winds may bear the imprint of the wind structure and thus provide a potential diagnostic of the underlying dispersal process. In this paper we primarily focus on the collisionally excited neutral oxygen line at 6300A. We compare our models predictions to observational data and demonstrate a thermal origin for the observed blueshifted low-velocity component of this line from protoplanetary discs. Furthermore our models show that while this line is a clear tell-tale-sign of a warm, quasi-neutral disc wind, typical of X-ray photoevaporation, its strong temperature dependence makes it unsuitable to measure detailed wind...

  14. French start-up Mc Phy stores wind and solar energy in magnesium discs; Franse start-up Mc Phy slaat wind- en zonne-energie op in magnesiumschijven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polo-Leemreis, J.

    2012-09-15

    The storage of hydrogen in liquid or compressed form is a major challenge in the search for new energy sources. For use in mobile applications hydrogen must be stored hydrogen in solid form in extremely light and compact components. The French start-up Mc Phy Energy has succeeded in doing that. The company is capable of storing hydrogen in thin disks as magnesium hydride. The concept is safer and less costly than existing solutions. In 2011 McPhy placed his first storage tank for solar and wind power in Italy for Enel [Dutch] Waterstof in vloeibare of gecomprimeerde vorm opslaan is een belangrijke uitdaging in de zoektocht naar nieuwe energiedragers. Voor gebruik in mobiele toepassingen moet waterstof in vaste vorm opgeslagen worden in extreem lichte en compacte componenten. De Franse start-up Mc Phy Energy is daarin geslaagd. Het bedrijf is in staat om waterstof in dunne schijven magnesiumhydride op te slaan. Het concept is veiliger en minder kostbaar dan bestaande oplossingen. In 2011 plaatste McPhy zijn eerste opslagreservoir voor zonne- en windenergie in Italie voor Enel.

  15. Line-driven ablation of circumstellar discs - I. Optically thin decretion discs of classical Oe/Be stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Nathaniel Dylan; Owocki, Stanley; Sundqvist, J. O.

    2016-05-01

    The extreme luminosities of massive, hot OB stars drive strong stellar winds through line-scattering of the star's UV continuum radiation. For OB stars with an orbiting circumstellar disc, we explore here the effect of such line-scattering in driving an ablation of material from the disc's surface layers, with initial focus on the marginally optically thin decretion discs of classical Oe and Be stars. For this we apply a multidimensional radiation-hydrodynamics code that assumes simple optically thin ray tracing for the stellar continuum, but uses a multiray Sobolev treatment of the line transfer; this fully accounts for the efficient driving by non-radial rays, due to desaturation of line-absorption by velocity gradients associated with the Keplerian shear in the disc. Results show a dense, intermediate-speed surface ablation, consistent with the strong, blueshifted absorption of UV wind lines seen in Be shell stars that are observed from near the disc plane. A key overall result is that, after an initial adjustment to the introduction of the disc, the asymptotic disc destruction rate is typically just an order-unity factor times the stellar wind mass-loss rate. For optically thin Be discs, this leads to a disc destruction time of order months to years, consistent with observationally inferred disc decay times. The much stronger radiative forces of O stars reduce this time to order days, making it more difficult for decretion processes to sustain a disc in earlier spectral types, and so providing a natural explanation for the relative rarity of Oe stars in the Galaxy. Moreover, the decrease in line-driving at lower metallicity implies both a reduction in the winds that help spin-down stars from near-critical rotation, and a reduction in the ablation of any decretion disc; together these provide a natural explanation for the higher fraction of classical Be stars, as well as the presence of Oe stars, in the lower metallicity Magellanic Clouds. We conclude with a

  16. Movement analysis on steel wire rope of continuous conveyor with disc-tube assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUAN Li-jun; SHI Shu-lin; REN Li-yi

    2004-01-01

    The steel wire rope of continuous conveyor with disc-tube assembly is droved by the driving wheel. When the driving wheel rotates, the gear is combined to the connection disc in turn, promoting the connection disc to move in succession. Turning the whirling torque of driving wheel into the straight-line traction force. When the steel wire rope is winded by the driving wheel some winded along the circumference, others winded along the straight line. Used motion subject law, this article analyses the change of the velocity and the acceleration of the steel wire rope in the straight movement, and observe the mathematics' model of velocity and acceleration.

  17. A Laboratory Plasma Experiment for Studying Magnetic Dynamics of Accretion Discs and Jets

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, S. C.; Bellan, P. M.

    2002-01-01

    This work describes a laboratory plasma experiment and initial results which should give insight into the magnetic dynamics of accretion discs and jets. A high-speed multiple-frame CCD camera reveals images of the formation and helical instability of a collimated plasma, similar to MHD models of disc jets, and also plasma detachment associated with spheromak formation, which may have relevance to disc winds and flares. The plasmas are produced by a planar magnetized coaxial gun. The resulting...

  18. Bay11-7082 attenuates neuropathic pain via inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B and nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome activation in dorsal root ganglions in a rat model of lumbar disc herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ailiang; Wang, Kun; Ding, Lianghua; Bao, Xinnan; Wang, Xuan; Qiu, Xubin; Liu, Jinbo

    2017-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is an important cause of radiculopathy, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Many studies suggested that local inflammation, rather than mechanical compression, results in radiculopathy induced by LDH. On the molecular and cellular level, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome have been implicated in the regulation of neuroinflammation formation and progression. In this study, the autologous nucleus pulposus (NP) was implanted in the left L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) to mimic LDH in rats. We investigated the expression of NF-κB and the components of NLRP3 inflammasome in the DRG neurons in rats. Western blotting and immunofluorescence for the related molecules, including NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing caspase-1 activator domain (ASC), caspase-1, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, IκBα, p-IκBα, p65, p-p65, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were examined. In the NP-treated group, the activations of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-18, p-IκBα, and p-p65 in DRG neurons in rats were elevated at 1 day after surgery, and the peak occurred at 7 days. Treatment with Bay11-7082, an inhibitor of the actions of IKK-β, was able to inhibit expression and activation of the molecules (NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-18, p-IκBα, and p-p65) and relieve the pain in rats. Our study shows that NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome are involved in the maintenance of NP-induced pain, and that Bay11-7082 could alleviate mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia by inhibiting NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

  19. Effect of wind-generated bubbles on fixed range acoustic attenuation in shallow water at 1-4 kHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ainslie, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Long-range acoustic propagation in isothermal conditions is considered, involving multiple reflections from the sea surface. If the sea is calm there is almost perfect reflection and hence little loss of acoustic energy or coherence. The effect of wind is to increase propagation loss due to rough su

  20. Rapid planetesimal formation in turbulent circumstellar discs

    CERN Document Server

    Johansen, Anders; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Klahr, Hubert; Henning, Thomas; Youdin, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The initial stages of planet formation in circumstellar gas discs proceed via dust grains that collide and build up larger and larger bodies (Safronov 1969). How this process continues from metre-sized boulders to kilometre-scale planetesimals is a major unsolved problem (Dominik et al. 2007): boulders stick together poorly (Benz 2000), and spiral into the protostar in a few hundred orbits due to a head wind from the slower rotating gas (Weidenschilling 1977). Gravitational collapse of the solid component has been suggested to overcome this barrier (Safronov 1969, Goldreich & Ward 1973, Youdin & Shu 2002). Even low levels of turbulence, however, inhibit sedimentation of solids to a sufficiently dense midplane layer (Weidenschilling & Cuzzi 1993, Dominik et al. 2007), but turbulence must be present to explain observed gas accretion in protostellar discs (Hartmann 1998). Here we report the discovery of efficient gravitational collapse of boulders in locally overdense regions in the midplane. The bou...

  1. Innervation of ''painful'' lumbar discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, MH; Marani, E; Thomeer, RTWM; Groen, GJ

    1997-01-01

    Study Design. The authors investigated the innervation of discographically confirmed degenerated and ''painful'' human intervertebral discs. Objective. To determine the type and distribution patterns of nerve fibers present in degenerated human intervertebral discs. Summary of Background Data. The i

  2. Spatially-resolved spectra of the accretion disc of the novalike UU Aquarii

    CERN Document Server

    Baptista, R; Steiner, J E; Horne, K; Baptista, Raymundo; Horne, Keith

    2000-01-01

    Time-resolved spectroscopy of the novalike variable UU Aquarii is analyzedwith eclipse mapping techniques to produce spatially resolved spectra of itsaccretion disc and gas stream as a function of distance from disc centre in therange 3600-6900 \\AA. The spatially-resolved spectra show that the continuumemission becomes progressively fainter and redder for increasing disc radius --reflecting the radial temperature gradient -- and reveal that the HI and HeIlines appear as deep, narrow absorption features in the inner disc regionstransitioning to emission with P Cygni profiles for intermediate and large discradii. The spectrum of the uneclipsed component has strong HI and HeI emissionlines plus a Balmer jump in emission and is explained as optically thinemission from a vertically extended disc chromosphere + wind. Most of the lineemission probably arises from the wind. The spatially-resolved spectra alsosuggest the existence of gas stream ``disk-skimming'' overflow in UU Aqr, whichcan be seen down to R \\simeq 0....

  3. Multi-stage Three Dimensional Sweeping and Annealing of Disc Galaxies in Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, S E; Schulz, Steven; Struck, Curtis

    2001-01-01

    We present new three dimensional, hydrodynamic simulations of the ram pressure stripping of disc galaxies via interaction with an hot intracluster medium (ICM). The simulations were carried with the smoothed-particle hydrodynamics, adaptive mesh 'Hydra' code (SPH-A$P^3$M), with model galaxies consisting of dark halo, and gas and stellar disc components. The simulations also include radiative cooling, which is important for keeping the warm, diffuse gas of moderate density from being unrealistically heated by the ICM. We examine the role that wind velocity, density and galaxy tilt play in gas stripping. The onset of the ICM wind has a profound effect on the disc gas that is not immediately stripped. This remnant disc is displaced relative to the halo center and compressed. This can trigger gravitational instability and the formation of numerous flocculent spirals. These waves transport angular momentum outward, resulting in further compression of the inner disc and the formation of a prominent gas ring. This '...

  4. How do accretion discs break?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Suzan

    2016-07-01

    Accretion discs are common in binary systems, and they are often found to be misaligned with respect to the binary orbit. The gravitational torque from a companion induces nodal precession in misaligned disc orbits. In this study, we first calculate whether this precession is strong enough to overcome the internal disc torques communicating angular momentum. We compare the disc precession torque with the disc viscous torque to determine whether the disc should warp or break. For typical parameters precession wins: the disc breaks into distinct planes that precess effectively independently. To check our analytical findings, we perform 3D hydrodynamical numerical simulations using the PHANTOM smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, and confirm that disc breaking is widespread and enhances accretion on to the central object. For some inclinations, the disc goes through strong Kozai cycles. Disc breaking promotes markedly enhanced and variable accretion and potentially produces high-energy particles or radiation through shocks. This would have significant implications for all binary systems: e.g. accretion outbursts in X-ray binaries and fuelling supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. The behaviour we have discussed in this work is relevant to a variety of astrophysical systems, for example X-ray binaries, where the disc plane may be tilted by radiation warping, SMBH binaries, where accretion of misaligned gas can create effectively random inclinations and protostellar binaries, where a disc may be misaligned by a variety of effects such as binary capture/exchange, accretion after binary formation.

  5. Optic disc drusen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C

    2017-01-01

    , which, in view of the small disc at risk, may seem a paradox. METHODS: This is an observational retrospective study on an eye clinic series (n = 49), focusing on visual acuity, kinetic/static perimetry, and longitudinal trends, to include the question of eventual visual incapacity. RESULTS: Forty...

  6. Tracing Planets in Circumstellar Discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Ana L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Planets are assumed to form in circumstellar discs around young stellar objects. The additional gravitational potential of a planet perturbs the disc and leads to characteristic structures, i.e. spiral waves and gaps, in the disc density profile. We perform a large-scale parameter study on the observability of these planet-induced structures in circumstellar discs in the (submm wavelength range for the Atacama Large (SubMillimeter Array (ALMA. On the basis of hydrodynamical and magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of star-disc-planet models we calculate the disc temperature structure and (submm images of these systems. These are used to derive simulated ALMA maps. Because appropriate objects are frequent in the Taurus-Auriga region, we focus on a distance of 140 pc and a declination of ≈ 20°. The explored range of star-disc-planet configurations consists of six hydrodynamical simulations (including magnetic fields and different planet masses, nine disc sizes with outer radii ranging from 9 AU to 225 AU, 15 total disc masses in the range between 2.67·10-7 M⊙ and 4.10·10-2 M⊙, six different central stars and two different grain size distributions, resulting in 10 000 disc models. At almost all scales and in particular down to a scale of a few AU, ALMA is able to trace disc structures induced by planet-disc interaction or the influence of magnetic fields in the wavelength range between 0.4...2.0 mm. In most cases, the optimum angular resolution is limited by the sensitivity of ALMA. However, within the range of typical masses of protoplane tary discs (0.1 M⊙...0.001 M⊙ the disc mass has a minor impact on the observability. At the distance of 140 pc it is possible to resolve discs down to 2.67·10-6 M⊙ and trace gaps in discs with 2.67·10-4 M⊙ with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than three. In general, it is more likely to trace planet-induced gaps in magneto-hydrodynamical disc models, because gaps are wider in the presence of

  7. Counter-Rotating Accretion Discs

    OpenAIRE

    Dyda, Sergei; Lovelace, Richard V. E.; Ustyugova, Galina V.; Romanova, Marina M.; Koldoba, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    Counter-rotating discs can arise from the accretion of a counter-rotating gas cloud onto the surface of an existing co-rotating disc or from the counter-rotating gas moving radially inward to the outer edge of an existing disc. At the interface, the two components mix to produce gas or plasma with zero net angular momentum which tends to free-fall towards the disc center. We discuss high-resolution axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of a viscous counter-rotating disc for cases where the tw...

  8. Vibration analysis of atomising discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, H; Ouyang, H, E-mail: H.Ouyang@liverpool.ac.u [Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    The centrifugal atomisation of metallic melts using a spinning disc is an important process for powder production and spray deposition. In the manufacturing process the high-temperature melt flows down to the surface of the atomising disc spinning at very high speed. It is observed that there is a hydraulic jump of the melt flow prior to atomisation. In this paper, the dynamic model of the atomising disc as a spinning Kirchhoff plate with this hydraulic jump is established. The flowing melt is modelled as moving mass and weight force in the radial direction. Using a Galerkin method, it is found that the vibration properties of the atomising disc vary with the disc clamping ratio. The amplitude of the vibration is largely raised when the clamping ratio is smaller than the critical jump radius ratio. It is also found that the disc vibration is non-stationary before becoming steady and the amplitude decreases with increasing disc speed.

  9. Discs in misaligned binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rawiraswattana, Krisada; Goodwin, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    We perform SPH simulations to study precession and changes in alignment between the circumprimary disc and the binary orbit in misaligned binary systems. We find that the precession process can be described by the rigid-disc approximation, where the disc is considered as a rigid body interacting with the binary companion only gravitationally. Precession also causes change in alignment between the rotational axis of the disc and the spin axis of the primary star. This type of alignment is of great important for explaining the origin of spin-orbit misaligned planetary systems. However, we find that the rigid-disc approximation fails to describe changes in alignment between the disc and the binary orbit. This is because the alignment process is a consequence of interactions that involve the fluidity of the disc, such as the tidal interaction and the encounter interaction. Furthermore, simulation results show that there are not only alignment processes, which bring the components towards alignment, but also anti-...

  10. Radio Monitoring of Protoplanetary Discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubach, C.; Maddison, S. T.; Wright, C. M.; Wilner, D. J.; Lommen, D. J. P.; Koribalski, B.

    2017-01-01

    Protoplanetary disc systems observed at radio wavelengths often show excess emission above that expected from a simple extrapolation of thermal dust emission observed at short millimetre wavelengths. Monitoring the emission at radio wavelengths can be used to help disentangle the physical mechanisms responsible for this excess, including free-free emission from a wind or jet, and chromospheric emission associated with stellar activity. We present new results from a radio monitoring survey conducted with Australia Telescope Compact Array over the course of several years with observation intervals spanning days, months and years, where the flux variability of 11 T Tauri stars in the Chamaeleon and Lupus star forming regions was measured at 7 and 15 mm and 3 and 6 cm. Results show that for most sources are variable to some degree at 7 mm, indicating the presence of emission mechanisms other than thermal dust in some sources. Additionally, evidence of grain growth to cm-sized pebbles was found for some sources that also have signs of variable flux at 7 mm. We conclude that multiple processes contributing to the emission are common in T Tauri stars at 7 mm and beyond, and that a detection at a single epoch at radio wavelengths should not be used to determine all processes contributing to the emission.

  11. Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc...

  12. Accretion Discs in Blazars

    OpenAIRE

    Jolley, E. J. D.; Kuncic, Z.; Bicknell, G. V.; Wagner, S.(Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117, Heidelberg, Germany)

    2009-01-01

    The characteristic properties of blazars (rapid variability, strong polarization, high brightness) are widely attributed to a powerful relativistic jet oriented close to our line of sight. Despite the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) being strongly jet-dominated, a "big blue bump" has been recently detected in sources known as flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). These new data provide a unique opportunity to observationally test coupled jet-disc accretion models in these extreme sources....

  13. Total disc replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, J-M; Boissière, L

    2014-02-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) (partial disc replacement will not be described) has been used in the lumbar spine since the 1980s, and more recently in the cervical spine. Although the biomechanical concepts are the same and both are inserted through an anterior approach, lumbar TDR is conventionally indicated for chronic low back pain, whereas cervical TDR is used for soft discal hernia resulting in cervicobrachial neuralgia. The insertion technique must be rigorous, with precise centering in the disc space, taking account of vascular anatomy, which is more complex in the lumbar region, particularly proximally to L5-S1. All of the numerous studies, including prospective randomized comparative trials, have demonstrated non-inferiority to fusion, or even short-term superiority regarding speed of improvement. The main implant-related complication is bridging heterotopic ossification with resulting loss of range of motion and increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration, although with an incidence lower than after arthrodesis. A sufficiently long follow-up, which has not yet been reached, will be necessary to establish definitively an advantage for TDR, particularly in the cervical spine.

  14. Wind Tunnel Measurements at LM Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of airfoil profiles specifically designed for wind turbine application was initiated in the late 80’s [67, 68, 30, 15]. The first attempts to reduce airfoil noise for wind turbines made use of airfoil trailing edge serration. Themodification of airfoil shapes targeted at noise...... reduction is more recent. An important effort was produced in this direction within the SIROCCO project. This latter work involved measurements on full size wind turbines and showed that trailing edge serration may proved a viable solution for mitigating wind turbine noise though it has not been implemented...... on commercial wind turbine yet. It should be mentioned here that the attenuation of turbulent inflow noise using wavy leading edge has recently been investigated [55], but this technique has still to be further validated for practical applications. In this paper, it is proposed to optimize an airfoil which...

  15. Apsidal precession, disc breaking and viscosity in warped discs

    CERN Document Server

    Nealon, Rebecca; Price, Daniel J; King, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the importance of general relativistic apsidal precession in warped black hole accretion discs by comparing three - dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations in which this effect is first neglected, and then included. If apsidal precession is neglected, we confirm the results of an earlier magnetohydrodynamic simulation which made this assumption, showing that at least in this case the $\\alpha$ viscosity model produces very similar results to those of simulations where angular momentum transport is due to the magnetorotational instability. Including apsidal precession significantly changes the predicted disc evolution. For moderately inclined discs thick enough that tilt is transported by bending waves, we find a disc tilt which is nonzero at the inner disc edge and oscillates with radius, consistent with published analytic results. For larger inclinations we find disc breaking.

  16. Mechanics of Actuated Disc Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkhoda, Sevda; Detournay, Emmanuel

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates the mechanics of an actuated disc cutter with the objective of determining the average forces acting on the disc as a function of the parameters characterizing its motion. The specific problem considered is that of a disc cutter revolving off-centrically at constant angular velocity around a secondary axis rigidly attached to a cartridge, which is moving at constant velocity and undercutting rock at a constant depth. This model represents an idealization of a technology that has been implemented in a number of hard rock mechanical excavators with the goal of reducing the average thrust force to be provided by the excavation equipment. By assuming perfect conformance of the rock with the actuated disc as well as a prescribed motion of the disc (perfectly rigid machine), the evolution of the contact surface between the disc and the rock during one actuation of the disc can be computed. Coupled with simple cutter/rock interaction models that embody either a ductile or a brittle mode of fragmentation, these kinematical considerations lead to an estimate of the average force on the cartridge and of the partitioning of the energy imparted by the disc to the rock between the actuation mechanism of the disc and the translation of the cartridge on which the actuated disc is attached.

  17. A Generalised Porosity Formalism for Isotropic and Anisotropic Effective Opacity and its Effects on X-ray Line Attenuation in Clumped O Star Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Jon O.; Owocki, Stanley P.; Cohen, David H.; Leutenegger, Maurice A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a generalised formalism for treating the porosity-associated reduction in continuum opacity that occurs when individual clumps in a stochastic medium become optically thick. As in previous work, we concentrate on developing bridging laws between the limits of optically thin and thick clumps. We consider geometries resulting in either isotropic or anisotropic effective opacity, and, in addition to an idealised model in which all clumps have the same local overdensity and scale, we also treat an ensemble of clumps with optical depths set by Markovian statistics. This formalism is then applied to the specific case of bound-free absorption of X- rays in hot star winds, a process not directly affected by clumping in the optically thin limit. We find that the Markov model gives surprisingly similar results to those found previously for the single clump model, suggesting that porous opacity is not very sensitive to details of the assumed clump distribution function. Further, an anisotropic effective opacity favours escape of X-rays emitted in the tangential direction (the venetian blind effect), resulting in a bump of higher flux close to line centre as compared to profiles computed from isotropic porosity models. We demonstrate how this characteristic line shape may be used to diagnose the clump geometry, and we confirm previous results that for optically thick clumping to significantly influence X-ray line profiles, very large porosity lengths, defined as the mean free path between clumps, are required. Moreover, we present the first X-ray line profiles computed directly from line-driven instability simulations using a 3-D patch method, and find that porosity effects from such models also are very small. This further supports the view that porosity has, at most, a marginal effect on X-ray line diagnostics in O stars, and therefore that these diagnostics do indeed provide a good clumping insensitive method for deriving O star mass-loss rates.

  18. Savonius wind motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalopoulos, G.D.

    1993-01-13

    The Savonius motor has a plurality of floor or vertical stages, each floor comprising a pair of semicylindrical blades contained between two parallel horizontal circular discs, the blades being diametrically disposed so that one blade surmounts the other by a lead of 1/8th of their diameter. The bladings in each floor are arranged at a phase difference, so that it becomes possible to exploit even weak winds independent of the direction they blow from and without the wind engine being equipped with a special orientation system. (author)

  19. Heat distribution in disc brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenda, Frantisek; Soukup, Josef; Kampo, Jan

    2016-06-01

    This article is deals by the thermal analysis of the disc brake with floating caliper. The issue is solved by numerically. The half 2D model is used for solution in program ADINA 8.8. Two brake discs without the ventilation are solved. One disc is made from cast iron and the second is made from stainless steel. Both materials are an isotropic. By acting the pressure force on the brake pads will be pressing the pads to the brake disc. Speed will be reduced (slowing down). On the contact surface generates the heat, which the disc and pads heats. In the next part of article is comparison the maximum temperature at the time of braking. The temperatures of both materials for brake disc (gray cast iron, stainless steel) are compares. The heat flux during braking for the both materials is shown.

  20. Dynamics of warped accretion discs

    OpenAIRE

    Tremaine, Scott; Davis, Shane W.

    2013-01-01

    Accretion discs are present around both stellar-mass black holes in X-ray binaries and supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei. A wide variety of circumstantial evidence implies that many of these discs are warped. The standard Bardeen--Petterson model attributes the shape of the warp to the competition between Lense--Thirring torque from the central black hole and viscous angular-momentum transport within the disc. We show that this description is incomplete, and that torques from...

  1. Numbered nasal discs for waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartonek, J.C.; Dane, C.W.

    1964-01-01

    Numbered nasal discs were successfully used in studies requiring large numbers of individually marked waterfowl. The procedure for constructing these discs is outlined. Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) with 5/8-inch discs, and canvasback (Aythya valisineria) and redhead (A. americana) with 3/4-inch discs can be individually identified up to 50 and 80 yards, respectively, with a gunstock-mounted, 20-power spotting scope. The particular value of these markers is their durability, the number of combinations possible, and the apparent absence of behavioral or mortality influence among such species as the blue-winged teal.

  2. Relativistic Disc lines

    CERN Document Server

    Fabian, A C; Parker, M L

    2014-01-01

    Broad emission lines, particularly broad iron-K lines, are now commonly seen in the X-ray spectra of luminous AGN and Galactic black hole binaries. Sensitive NuSTAR spectra over the energy range of 3-78 keV and high frequency reverberation spectra now confirm that these are relativistic disc lines produced by coronal irradiation of the innermost accretion flow around rapidly spinning black holes. General relativistic effects are essential in explaining the observations. Recent results are briefly reviewed here.

  3. The magnetorotational instability in debris-disc gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Quentin; Latter, Henrik

    2016-09-01

    Debris discs are commonly swathed in gas, which can be observed in UV, in fine structure lines in FIR, and in resolved maps of CO emission. Carbon and oxygen are overabundant in such gas, but it is severely depleted in hydrogen. As a consequence, its ionization fraction is remarkably high, suggesting that magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) processes could be important. In particular, the gas may be subject to the magnetorotational instability (MRI), and indeed, recent modelling of β Pictoris requires an anomalous viscosity to explain the gas's observed radial structure. In this paper, we explore the possibility that the MRI is active in debris-disc gas and responsible for the observed mass transport. We find that non-ideal MHD and dust-gas interactions play a subdominant role, and that linear instability is viable at certain radii. However, owing to low gas densities, the outer parts of the disc could be stabilized by a weak ambient magnetic field, though it is difficult to constrain such a field. Even if the MRI is stabilized by too strong a field, a magnetocentrifugal wind may be launched in its place, and this could lead to equivalent (non-turbulent) transport. Numerical simulations of the vertically stratified MRI in conditions appropriate to the debris-disc gas should be able to determine the nature of the characteristic behaviour at different radii, and decide on the importance of the MRI (and MHD more generally) on the evolution of these discs.

  4. On dust entrainment in photoevaporative winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Mark A.; Price, Daniel J.; Laibe, Guillaume; Maddison, Sarah T.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate dust entrainment by photoevaporative winds in protoplanetary discs using dusty smoothed particle hydrodynamics. We use unequal-mass particles to resolve more than five orders of magnitude in disc/outflow density and a one-fluid formulation to efficiently simulate an equivalent magnitude range in drag stopping time. We find that only micron-sized dust grains and smaller can be entrained in extreme-UV radiation-driven winds. The maximum grain size is set by dust settling in the disc rather than aerodynamic drag in the wind. More generally, there is a linear relationship between the base flow density and the maximum entrainable grain size in the wind. A pileup of micron-sized dust grains can occur in the upper atmosphere at critical radii in the disc as grains decouple from the low-density wind. Entrainment is a strong function of location in the disc, resulting in a size sorting of grains in the outflow - the largest grain being carried out between 10 and 20 au. The peak dust density for each grain size occurs at the inner edge of its own entrainment region.

  5. Accretion discs trapped near corotation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Angelo, C.R.; Spruit, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    We show that discs accreting on to the magnetosphere of a rotating star can end up in a trapped state, in which the inner edge of the disc stays near the corotation radius, even at low and varying accretion rates. The accretion in these trapped states can be steady or cyclic; we explore these states

  6. Intraoral micro-identification discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, R W

    1991-12-01

    Intraoral micro-identification discs have recently been utilized to provide a more permanent method of personal identification. A wafer of plastic or metal with a surface area of 2.5 to 5 mm2 and carrying identifying numbers and/or letters (indicia) is bonded to the buccal enamel surface of the posterior teeth. Personal identification can occur after the I.D. disc is identified and the indicia is read. Reading of photoreduced indicia requires the aid of a microscope subsequent to the removal of the microdisc. In situ reading of disc indicia is possible using low power handheld magnifiers if the size of the indicia approximates 0.3 mm. Computerization is an integral part of non-custom alpha/numeric type designs, but a custom disc carries a name, address, and other specific information unique to the manufacturer. The use of a computer improves access to the database and it decreases the amount of data placed on the disc. Microdisc bases may be fabricated using a mylar type plastic or they may be manufactured from a stainless steel blank. Plastic discs are constructed with an internal sandwich containing the photo-reduced indicia. Metal discs are marked with a photochemical etch or engraved with a computer driven YAG laser. Attachment of the disc to the enamel surface is accomplished by conventional etching and bonding techniques and are typically bonded to the buccal surface of the maxillary first permanent molar or the second primary molar. Clear composite bonding material covers the disc so that salivary contamination does not result in degradation of the indicia. Orthodontic style discs with a mesh back carry laser written information that may be cemented with conventional orthodontic bonding cement. Standardization of the indicia and overall design is considered to be an important aspect of patient and professional acceptance.

  7. A Laboratory Plasma Experiment for Studying Magnetic Dynamics of Accretion Discs and Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, S C

    2002-01-01

    This work describes a laboratory plasma experiment and initial results which should give insight into the magnetic dynamics of accretion discs and jets. A high-speed multiple-frame CCD camera reveals images of the formation and helical instability of a collimated plasma, similar to MHD models of disc jets, and also plasma detachment associated with spheromak formation, which may have relevance to disc winds and flares. The plasmas are produced by a planar magnetized coaxial gun. The resulting magnetic topology is dependent on the details of magnetic helicity injection, namely the force-free state eigenvalue alpha_gun imposed by the coaxial gun.

  8. Protective effects of cannabidiol on lesion-induced intervertebral disc degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João W Silveira

    Full Text Available Disc degeneration is a multifactorial process that involves hypoxia, inflammation, neoinnervation, accelerated catabolism, and reduction in water and glycosaminoglycan content. Cannabidiol is the main non-psychotropic component of the Cannabis sativa with protective and anti-inflammatory properties. However, possible therapeutic effects of cannabidiol on intervertebral disc degeneration have not been investigated yet. The present study investigated the effects of cannabidiol intradiscal injection in the coccygeal intervertebral disc degeneration induced by the needle puncture model using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and histological analyses. Disc injury was induced in the tail of male Wistar rats via a single needle puncture. The discs selected for injury were punctured percutaneously using a 21-gauge needle. MRI and histological evaluation were employed to assess the results. The effects of intradiscal injection of cannabidiol (30, 60 or 120 nmol injected immediately after lesion were analyzed acutely (2 days by MRI. The experimental group that received cannabidiol 120 nmol was resubmitted to MRI examination and then to histological analyses 15 days after lesion/cannabidiol injection. The needle puncture produced a significant disc injury detected both by MRI and histological analyses. Cannabidiol significantly attenuated the effects of disc injury induced by the needle puncture. Considering that cannabidiol presents an extremely safe profile and is currently being used clinically, these results suggest that this compound could be useful in the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration.

  9. Protective effects of cannabidiol on lesion-induced intervertebral disc degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, João W; Issy, Ana Carolina; Castania, Vitor A; Salmon, Carlos E G; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H; Guimarães, Francisco S; Defino, Helton L A; Del Bel, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Disc degeneration is a multifactorial process that involves hypoxia, inflammation, neoinnervation, accelerated catabolism, and reduction in water and glycosaminoglycan content. Cannabidiol is the main non-psychotropic component of the Cannabis sativa with protective and anti-inflammatory properties. However, possible therapeutic effects of cannabidiol on intervertebral disc degeneration have not been investigated yet. The present study investigated the effects of cannabidiol intradiscal injection in the coccygeal intervertebral disc degeneration induced by the needle puncture model using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological analyses. Disc injury was induced in the tail of male Wistar rats via a single needle puncture. The discs selected for injury were punctured percutaneously using a 21-gauge needle. MRI and histological evaluation were employed to assess the results. The effects of intradiscal injection of cannabidiol (30, 60 or 120 nmol) injected immediately after lesion were analyzed acutely (2 days) by MRI. The experimental group that received cannabidiol 120 nmol was resubmitted to MRI examination and then to histological analyses 15 days after lesion/cannabidiol injection. The needle puncture produced a significant disc injury detected both by MRI and histological analyses. Cannabidiol significantly attenuated the effects of disc injury induced by the needle puncture. Considering that cannabidiol presents an extremely safe profile and is currently being used clinically, these results suggest that this compound could be useful in the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration.

  10. Stochastic wind turbine control in multiblade coordinates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sven Creutz; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider wind turbine load attenuation through model based control. Asymmetric loads caused by the wind field can be reduced by pitching the blades individually. To this end we investigate the use of stochastic models of the wind which can be included in a model based individual ...

  11. Coevolution of Binaries and Gaseous Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, David P

    2016-01-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by $\\it Kepler$ raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disc, and how the disc and binary interact and change as a result. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disc that drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disc. To probe how these interactions impact binary eccentricity and disc structure evolution, N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of gaseous protoplanetary discs surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 were run for $10^4$ binary periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disc via a parametric instability and excite disc eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disc causing eccentricity growth for both the disc and binary. Discs around sufficiently eccentri...

  12. Blueshifted [O I] lines from protoplanetary discs: the smoking gun of X-ray photoevaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercolano, Barbara; Owen, James E.

    2016-08-01

    Photoevaporation of protoplanetary discs by high-energy radiation from the central young stellar object is currently the favourite model to explain the sudden dispersal of discs from the inside out. While several theoretical works have provided a detailed pictured of this process, the direct observational validation is still lacking. Emission lines produced in these slow-moving protoplanetary disc winds may bear the imprint of the wind structure and thus provide a potential diagnostic of the underlying dispersal process. In this paper, we primarily focus on the collisionally excited neutral oxygen line at 6300 Å. We compare our models predictions to observational data and demonstrate a thermal origin for the observed blueshifted low-velocity component of this line from protoplanetary discs. Furthermore, our models show that while this line is a clear tell-tale sign of a warm, quasi-neutral disc wind, typical of X-ray photoevaporation, its strong temperature dependence makes it unsuitable to measure detailed wind quantities like mass-loss rate.

  13. Constraints on galactic wind models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiksin, Avery

    2016-09-01

    Observational implications are derived for two standard models of supernovae-driven galactic winds: a freely expanding steady-state wind and a wind sourced by a self-similarly expanding superbubble including thermal heat conduction. It is shown that, for the steady-state wind, matching the measured correlation between the soft X-ray luminosity and star formation rate of starburst galaxies is equivalent to producing a scaled wind mass-loading factor relative to the star formation rate of 0.5-3, in agreement with the amount inferred from metal absorption line measurements. The match requires the asymptotic wind velocity v∞ to scale with the star formation rate dot{M}_{ast } (in M⊙ yr-1) approximately as v_∞ ≃ (700-1000) {{km s^{-1}}} {dot{M}_{ast }}^{1/6}. The implied mass injection rate is close to the amount naturally provided by thermal evaporation from the wall of a superbubble in a galactic disc, suggesting that thermal evaporation may be a major source of mass loading. The predicted mass-loading factors from thermal evaporation within the galactic disc alone, however, are somewhat smaller, 0.2-2, so that a further contribution from cloud ablation or evaporation within the wind may be required. Both models may account for the 1.4 GHz luminosity of unresolved radio sources within starburst galaxies for plausible parameters describing the distribution of relativistic electrons. Further observational tests to distinguish the models are suggested.

  14. Internal kinematics of modelled interacting disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kronberger, T; Schindler, S; Böhm, A; Kutdemir, E; Ziegler, B L

    2006-01-01

    We present an investigation of galaxy-galaxy interactions and their effects on the velocity fields of disc galaxies in combined N-body/hydrodynamic simulations, which include cooling, star formation with feedback, and galactic winds. Rotation curves (RCs) of the gas are extracted from these simulations in a way that follows the procedure applied in observations of distant, small, and faint galaxies as closely as possible. We show that galaxy-galaxy mergers and fly-bys significantly disturb the velocity fields and hence the RCs of the interacting galaxies, leading to asymmetries and distortions in the RCs. Typical features of disturbed kinematics are rising or falling profiles in direction to the companion galaxy and bumps in the RCs. In addition, tidal tails can leave strong imprints on the rotation curve. All these features are observable for intermediate redshift galaxies, on which we focus our investigations. The appearance of these distortions depends, however, strongly on the viewing angle. The velocity ...

  15. Accretion discs trapped near corotation

    OpenAIRE

    D'Angelo, C.R.; Spruit, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    We show that discs accreting on to the magnetosphere of a rotating star can end up in a trapped state, in which the inner edge of the disc stays near the corotation radius, even at low and varying accretion rates. The accretion in these trapped states can be steady or cyclic; we explore these states over a wide range of parameter space. We find two distinct regions of instability: one related to the buildup and release of mass in the disc outside corotation, and the other to mass storage with...

  16. Collisional modelling of the debris disc around HIP 17439

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüppler, Ch.; Löhne, T.; Krivov, A. V.; Ertel, S.; Marshall, J. P.; Eiroa, C.

    2014-07-01

    We present an analysis of the debris disc around the nearby K2 V star HIP 17439. In the context of the Herschel DUNES key programme, the disc was observed and spatially resolved in the far-IR with the Herschel PACS and SPIRE instruments. In a previous study, we assumed that the size and radial distribution of the circumstellar dust are independent power laws. There, several scenarios capable of explaining the observations were suggested after exploring a very broad range of possible model parameters. In this paper, we perform a follow-up in-depth collisional modelling of these scenarios to further distinguish between them. In our models we consider collisions, direct radiation pressure, and drag forces, which are the actual physical processes operating in debris discs. We find that all scenarios discussed in the first paper are physically reasonable and can reproduce the observed spectral energy distribution along with the PACS surface brightness profiles reasonably well. In one model, the dust is produced beyond 120 au in a narrow planetesimal belt and is transported inwards by Poynting-Robertson and stellar wind drag. Good agreement with the observed radial profiles would require stellar winds by about an order of magnitude stronger than the solar value, which is not confirmed - although not ruled out - by observations. Another model consists of two spatially separated planetesimal belts, a warm inner and a cold outer one. This scenario would probably imply the presence of planets clearing the gap between the two components. Finally, we show qualitatively that the observations can be explained by assuming the dust is produced in a single, but broad planetesimal disc with a surface density of solids rising outwards, as expected for an extended disc that experiences a natural inside-out collisional depletion. Prospects of distinguishing between the competing scenarios by future observations are discussed.

  17. Modelling Neutral Hydrogen Discs of Spiral Galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林伟鹏; 洪碧海

    2002-01-01

    We present an analytical model of a neutral hydrogen disc in a spiral galaxy. The gas disc of the spiral galaxy isassumed to have an exponential surface density profile and to be ionized by the cosmic ultraviolet background.To compare with observations, we consider the disc position angle and inclination angle for a line of sight goingthrough the galaxy disc. The HI column densities depend on the strength of ionizing field and disc position andinclination. The model was applied to NGC 3198 and the results were compared with observational data. TheHI disc profile at large disc radii can be tested by further HI observations using radio telescopes with a largeraperture than the present facilities. This HI disc model can be used to predict quasar absorption line systems bygalaxy discs if quasar lines of sight go through the discs.

  18. Debris disc formation induced by planetary growth

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Several hundred stars older than 10 million years have been observed to have infrared excesses. These observations are explained by dust grains formed by the collisional fragmentation of hidden planetesimals. Such dusty planetesimal discs are known as debris discs. In a dynamically cold planetesimal disc, collisional coagulation of planetesimals produces planetary embryos which then stir the surrounding leftover planetesimals. Thus, the collisional fragmentation of planetesimals that results from planet formation forms a debris disc. We aim to determine the properties of the underlying planetesimals in debris discs by numerically modelling the coagulation and fragmentation of planetesimal populations. The brightness and temporal evolution of debris discs depend on the radial distribution of planetesimal discs, the location of their inner and outer edges, their total mass, and the size of planetesimals in the disc. We find that a radially narrow planetesimal disc is most likely to result in a debris disc that ...

  19. Constructing a Plastic Bottle Wind Turbine as a Practical Aid for Learning about Using Wind Energy to Generate Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    A simple horizontal axis wind turbine can be easily constructed using a 1.5 l PET plastic bottle, a compact disc and a small dynamo. The turbine operates effectively at low wind speeds and has a rotational speed of 500 rpm at a wind speed of about 14 km h[superscript -1]. The wind turbine can be used to demonstrate the relationship between open…

  20. Photon Bubbles in Accretion Discs

    OpenAIRE

    Gammie, Charles F.

    1998-01-01

    We show that radiation dominated accretion discs are likely to suffer from a ``photon bubble'' instability similar to that described by Arons in the context of accretion onto neutron star polar caps. The instability requires a magnetic field for its existence. In an asymptotic regime appropriate to accretion discs, we find that the overstable modes obey the remarkably simple dispersion relation \\omega^2 = -i g k F(B,k). Here g is the vertical gravitational acceleration, B the magnetic field, ...

  1. Self-gravitating accretion discs

    OpenAIRE

    Lodato, G.

    2008-01-01

    I review recent progresses in the dynamics and the evolution of self-gravitating accretion discs. Accretion discs are a fundamental component of several astrophysical systems on very diverse scales, and can be found around supermassive black holes in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), and also in our Galaxy around stellar mass compact objects and around young stars. Notwithstanding the specific differences arising from such diversity in physical extent, all these systems share a common feature whe...

  2. Lumbar disc excision through fenestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangwan S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lumbar disc herniation often causes sciatica. Many different techniques have been advocated with the aim of least possible damage to other structures while dealing with prolapsed disc surgically in the properly selected and indicated cases. Methods : Twenty six patients with clinical symptoms and signs of prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc having radiological correlation by MRI study were subjected to disc excision by interlaminar fenestration method. Results : The assessment at follow-up showed excellent results in 17 patients, good in 6 patients, fair in 2 patients and poor in 1 patient. The mean preoperative and postoperative Visual Analogue Scores were 9.34 ±0.84 and 2.19 ±0.84 on scale of 0-10 respectively. These were statistically significant (p value< 0.001, paired t test. No significant complications were recorded. Conclusion : Procedures of interlaminar fenestration and open disc excision under direct vision offers sufficient adequate exposure for lumbar disc excision with a smaller incision, lesser morbidity, shorter convalescence, early return to work and comparable overall results in the centers where recent laser and endoscopy facilities are not available.

  3. Resonances in retrograde circumbinary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the interaction of an eccentric binary with a circular coplanar circumbinary disc that rotates in a retrograde sense with respect to the binary. In the circular binary case, no Lindblad resonances lie within the disc and no Lindblad resonant torques are produced, as was previously known. By analytic means, we show that when the binary orbit is eccentric, there exist components of the gravitational potential of the binary which rotate in a retrograde sense to the binary orbit and so rotate progradely with respect to this disc, allowing a resonant interaction to occur between the binary and the disc. The resulting resonant torques distinctly alter the disc response from the circular binary case. We describe results of three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations to explore this effect and categorise the response of the disc in terms of modes whose strengths vary as a function of binary mass ratio and eccentricity. These mode strengths are weak compared to the largest mode strengths expected in the prog...

  4. Counter-Rotating Accretion Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Dyda, Sergei; Ustyugova, Galina V; Romanova, Marina M; Koldoba, Alexander V

    2014-01-01

    Counter-rotating discs can arise from the accretion of a counter-rotating gas cloud onto the surface of an existing co-rotating disc or from the counter-rotating gas moving radially inward to the outer edge of an existing disc. At the interface, the two components mix to produce gas or plasma with zero net angular momentum which tends to free-fall towards the disc center. We discuss high-resolution axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of a viscous counter-rotating disc for cases where the two components are vertically separated and radially separated. The viscosity is described by an isotropic $\\alpha-$viscosity including all terms in the viscous stress tensor. For the vertically separated components a shear layer forms between them. The middle of this layer free-falls to the disk center. The accretion rates are increased by factors $\\sim 10^2-10^4$ over that of a conventional disc rotating in one direction with the same viscosity. The vertical width of the shear layer and the accretion rate are strongly dep...

  5. Disc piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Jirií; Půlpán, Petr; Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution, we present our study on disc-shaped and homogeneously poled piezoelectric ceramic transformers working in planar-extensional vibration modes. Transformers are designed with electrodes divided into wedge, axisymmetrical ring-dot, moonie, smile, or yin-yang segments. Transformation ratio, efficiency, and input and output impedances were measured for low-power signals. Transformer efficiency and transformation ratio were measured as a function of frequency and impedance load in the secondary circuit. Optimum impedance for the maximum efficiency has been found. Maximum efficiency and no-load transformation ratio can reach almost 100% and 52 for the fundamental resonance of ring-dot transformers and 98% and 67 for the second resonance of 2-segment wedge transformers. Maximum efficiency was reached at optimum impedance, which is in the range from 500 Ω to 10 kΩ, depending on the electrode pattern and size. Fundamental vibration mode and its overtones were further studied using frequency-modulated digital holographic interferometry and by the finite element method. Complementary information has been obtained by the infrared camera visualization of surface temperature profiles at higher driving power.

  6. Lights and shadows: multi-wavelength analysis of young stellar objects and their protoplanetary discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigon, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Stars form from the collapse of molecular clouds and evolve in an environment rich in gas and dust before becoming Main Sequence stars. During this phase, characterised by the presence of a protoplanetary disc, stars manifest changes in the structure and luminosity. This thesis performs a multi-wavelength analysis, from optical to mm range, on a sample of young stars (YSOs), mainly Classical T Tauri (CTTS). The purpose is to study optical and infrared variability and its relation with the protoplanetary disc. Longer wavelength, in the mm range, are used instead to investigate the evolution of the disc, in terms of dust growth. In optical, an F-test on a sample of 39 CTTS reveals that 67% of the stars are variable. The variability, quantified through pooled sigma, is visible both in magnitude amplitudes and changes over time. Time series analysis applied on the more variable stars finds the presence of quasi periodicity, with periods longer than two weeks, interpreted either as eclipsing material in the disc happening on a non-regular basis, or as a consequence of star-disc interaction via magnetic field lines. The variability of YSOs is confirmed also in infrared, even if with lower amplitude. No strong correlations are found between optical and infrared variability, which implies a different cause or a time shift in the two events. By using a toy model to explore their origin, I find that infrared variations are likely to stem from emissions in the inner disc. The evolution of discs in terms of dust growth is confirmed in most discs by the analysis of the slope of the spectral energy distribution (SED), after correcting for wind emission and optical depth effects. However, the comparison with a radiative transfer model highlights that a number of disc parameters, in particular disc masses and temperature, dust size distribution and composition, can also affect the slope of the SED.

  7. Prosthetic Lumbar disc replacement for degenerative disc disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Arvind

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical articulated device to replace intervertebral disc as a treatment for low back pain secondary to disc degeneration has emerged as a promising tool for selected patients. The potential advantages are prevention of adjacent segment degeneration, maintenance of mobility as well as avoidance of all the complications associated with fusion. The short-term results have been comparable to that of fusion, a few mid-term results have shown mixed outcome, but information on long-term results and performance are not available at present. The rationale for lumbar disc arthroplasty, indications, contraindications, the various artificial devices in the market and the concepts intrinsic to each of them, basic technique of insertion, complications are discussed and a brief summary of our experience with one of the devices is presented.

  8. Validation of the actuator line and disc techniques using the New MEXICO measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarmast, Sasan; Shen, Wen Z.; Zhu, Wei Jun

    2016-01-01

    Actuator line and disc techniques are employed to analyse the wake obtained in the New MEXICO wind turbine experiment. The New MEXICO measurement campaign done in 2014 is a follow-up to the MEXICO campaign, which was completed in 2006. Three flow configurations in axial flow condition are simulated...

  9. A novel method to bracket the corotation radius in galaxy discs: vertex deviation maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roca-Fàbrega, Santi; Antoja, Teresa; Figueras, Francesca; Valenzuela, Octavio; Romero-Gómez, Mercè; Pichardo, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    We map the kinematics of stars in simulated galaxy discs with spiral arms using the velocity ellipsoid vertex deviation (l_v). We use test particle simulations, and for the first time, fully self-consistent high-resolution N-body models. We compare our maps with the tight winding approximation model

  10. Black hole accretion disc impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Pihajoki, Pauli

    2015-01-01

    We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength {\\lambda} = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.

  11. Atomic gas in debris discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Antonio S.; Barlow, M. J.; Crawford, I. A.; Casassus, S.

    2017-04-01

    We have conducted a search for optical circumstellar absorption lines in the spectra of 16 debris disc host stars. None of the stars in our sample showed signs of emission line activity in either Hα, Ca II or Na I, confirming their more evolved nature. Four stars were found to exhibit narrow absorption features near the cores of the photospheric Ca II and Na I D lines (when Na I D data were available). We analyse the characteristics of these spectral features to determine whether they are of circumstellar or interstellar origins. The strongest evidence for circumstellar gas is seen in the spectrum of HD 110058, which is known to host a debris disc observed close to edge-on. This is consistent with a recent ALMA detection of molecular gas in this debris disc, which shows many similarities to the β Pictoris system.

  12. Coevolution of binaries and circumbinary gaseous discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David P.; Quinn, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by Kepler raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disc and how the disc and binary interact and change as a result. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disc which drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disc. To probe how these interactions impact binary eccentricity and disc structure evolution, N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics simulations of gaseous protoplanetary discs surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 were run for 104 binary periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disc via a parametric instability and excite disc eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disc causing eccentricity growth for both the disc and binary. Discs around sufficiently eccentric binaries which strongly couple to the disc develop an m = 1 spiral wave launched from the 1:3 eccentric outer Lindblad resonance which corresponds to an alignment of gas particle longitude of periastrons. All systems display binary semimajor axis decay due to dissipation from the viscous disc.

  13. Vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamani, I.; Syed, I.; Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Green, R.; MacSweeney, F

    2004-10-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is most commonly due to pyogenic or granulomatous infection and typically results in the combined involvement of the intervertebral disc and adjacent vertebral bodies. Non-infective causes include the related conditions of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) syndrome. Occasionally, these conditions may present purely within the vertebral body, resulting in various combinations of vertebral marrow oedema and sclerosis, destructive lesions of the vertebral body and pathological vertebral collapse, thus mimicking neoplastic disease. This review illustrates the imaging features of vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement, with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.

  14. Dead discs, unstable discs and the stars they surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Angelo Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong stellar magnetic fields significantly alter the behaviour of surrounding accretion discs. Recent work has demonstrated that at low accretion rates a large amount of mass can remain confined in the disc, contrary to the standard assumption that the magnetic field will expel the disc in an outflow (the “propeller regime”. These “dead discs” often become unstable, causing cycles of accretion onto the central star. Here I present the main predictions of this model, and argue that it provides a good explanation for the peculiar behaviour seen in several accreting sources with strong magnetic fields. I will focus in particular on three accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars: SAX J1808.4-3658, NGC 6440 X-2 and IGR J00291+5934. These sources all show low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations consistent with a variable accretion rate, as well as unusual outburst patterns that suggest gas is confined in the inner disc regions during quiescence.

  15. Radiation of accretion discs: the eclipses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.

    1984-05-01

    Light curves have been calculated for eclipses of the accretion disc in a cataclysmic binary. The Roche geometry of the cool component was taken into account and the stellar atmospheres were interpolated to provide the local spectrum of the radiation from the disc. The dependence of the light curve on the parameters of the disc is discussed.

  16. Photoevaporating transitional discs and molecular cloud cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Sui, Ning

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the evolution of photoevaporating protoplanetary discs including mass influx from molecular cloud cores. We examine the influence of cloud core properties on the formation and evolution of transitional discs. We use one-dimensional thin disc assumption and calculate the evolution of the protoplanetary disc. The effects of X-ray photoevaporation are also included. Our calculations suggest that most discs should experience the transitional disc phase within 10 Myr. The formation time of a gap and its initial location are functions of the properties of the cloud cores. In some circumstances, discs can open two gaps by photoevaporation alone. The two gaps form when the gas in the disc can expand to large radius and if the mass at large radius is sufficiently small. The surface density profile of the disc determines whether the two gaps can form. Since the structure of a disc is determined by the properties of a molecular cloud core, the core properties determine the formation of two gaps in the disc. We further find that even when the photoevaporation rate is reduced to 10 per cent of the standard value, two gaps can still form in the disc. The only difference is that the formation time is delayed.

  17. Intervertebral disc degeneration in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergknut, Niklas

    2011-01-01

    Back pain is common in both dogs and humans, and is often associated with intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. The IVDs are essential structures of the spine and degeneration can ultimately result in diseases such as IVD herniation or spinal instability. In order to design new treatments halting

  18. Electromagnetic Levitation of a Disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, R.; Neves, F.; de Andrade, R., Jr.; Stephan, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a teaching experiment that explores the levitation of a disc of ferromagnetic material in the presence of the magnetic field produced by a single electromagnet. In comparison to the classical experiment of the levitation of a sphere, the main advantage of the proposed laboratory bench is that the uniform magnetic field…

  19. Constraints on Slim Accretion Discs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Zhen-Yi; GU Wei-Min; LU Ju-Fu

    2008-01-01

    @@ We show that when the gravitational force in the vertical direction is correctly calculated, the well-known Sshaped sequence of thermal equilibrium solutions can be constructed only for small radii of black hole accretion flows, such that slim accretion discs can possibly exist only in the inner regions of these flows.

  20. Wind profiles in and over trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUJiao-jun; LIXiu-fen; GondaYutaka; MatsuzakiTakeshi

    2004-01-01

    One of the most important and frequently studied variable in forests and the most basic element in governing transport processes of airflow is wind speed. The study of wind profile, defined as the change of wind velocity with height, and wind velocity are important because of tree physiological and developmental responses. Generally, wind profiles above the ground or at a canopy surface follow classical logarithm law, but wind profiles in a single tree and in a forest stand are not logarithmic. This paper summarizes the results of wind profile studies within a single tree, in a forest stand, above the forest canopy and in a forest area from recent research in a coastal pine forest. The results demonstrate that: 1) wind profiles with in a single conifer tree crown showed an exponential function with height, 2) wind profiles in forest stands were able to be expressed by attenuation coefficient of wind, 3) wind profiles over a forest canopy could be determined using profile parameters (friction velocity, roughness length and displacement), and 4) for a forest area, the extreme wind speed could be predicted reasonably using the methods developed for the design of buildings. More research will be required to demonstrate: 1) relationships between wind profiles and tree or stand characteristics, 2) the simple methods for predicting wind profile parameters, and 3) the applications of wind profile in studies of tree physiology, forest ecology and management, and the detail ecological effects of wind on tree growth.

  1. How good are remote sensors at measuring extreme winds?

    OpenAIRE

    Sathe, A.R.; Courtney, M; Mann, J.; Wagner, R.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes some preliminary efforts within the SafeWind project, aimed to identify the possible added value of using wind lidars to detect extreme wind events. Exceptionally good performance is now regularly reported in the measurement of the mean wind speed with some wind lidars in flat terrain. For turbulence measurements, recent theoretical work has revealed that the components of the Reynolds stress tensor are subjected to significant spatial attenuation and contamination by t...

  2. Medium-term outcomes of artificial disc replacement for severe cervical disc narrowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hung Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Acceptable clinical outcome for treatment of severe cervical disc narrowing with cervical disc replacement technique has been performed in current study. Most patients maintained good postoperative mobility and no significant adjacent level degeneration were found. Cervical disc replacement may be applicable in treatment of severe cervical disc narrowing; however, longer follow-ups are required for ensuring the long-term efficacy of cervical disc replacement.

  3. Gearless wind power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederlund, L.; Ridanpaeae, P.; Vihriaelae, H.; Peraelae, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Electricity and Magnetism

    1998-10-01

    In the project a 100 kW axial flux permanent magnet wind power generator has been designed. The toroidal stator with air gap winding is placed between two rotating discs with permanent magnets. The magnet material is NdBFe due to its excellent magnetic properties compared to other materials. This type of topology enables a very large number of poles compared to conventional machine of the same size. A large number of poles is required to achieve a low rotational speed and consequently a direct driven system. The stator winding is formed by rectangular coils. The end winding is very short leading to small resistive losses. On the other hand, the absence of iron teeth causes eddy current losses in the conductors. These can be restricted to an acceptable level by keeping the wire diameter and flux density small. This means that the number of phases should be large. Several independent three phase systems may be used. The toothless stator also means that the iron losses are small and there exists no cogging torque

  4. Disc degeneration: current surgical options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Schizas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain attributed to lumbar disc degeneration poses a serious challenge to physicians. Surgery may be indicated in selected cases following failure of appropriate conservative treatment. For decades, the only surgical option has been spinal fusion, but its results have been inconsistent. Some prospective trials show superiority over usual conservative measures while others fail to demonstrate its advantages. In an effort to improve results of fusion and to decrease the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, total disc replacement techniques have been introduced and studied extensively. Short-term results have shown superiority over some fusion techniques. Mid-term results however tend to show that this approach yields results equivalent to those of spinal fusion. Nucleus replacement has gained some popularity initially, but evidence on its efficacy is scarce. Dynamic stabilisation, a technique involving less rigid implants than in spinal fusion and performed without the need for bone grafting, represents another surgical option. Evidence again is lacking on its superiority over other surgical strategies and conservative measures. Insertion of interspinous devices posteriorly, aiming at redistributing loads and relieving pain, has been used as an adjunct to disc removal surgery for disc herniation. To date however, there is no clear evidence on their efficacy. Minimally invasive intradiscal thermocoagulation techniques have also been tried, but evidence of their effectiveness is questioned. Surgery using novel biological solutions may be the future of discogenic pain treatment. Collaboration between clinicians and basic scientists in this multidisciplinary field will undoubtedly shape the future of treating symptomatic disc degeneration.

  5. Radiation from optically thin accretion discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tylenda, R. (Polska Akademia Nauk, Torun. Pracownia Astrofizyki)

    1981-01-01

    Accretion discs in cataclysmic variables with low rates of mass transfer, M < or approx. 10/sup 16/g s/sup -1/, have outer regions optically thin in continuum. A simple approach that allows one to calculate the radiation spectra from such discs is presented. A great number of disc models has been obtained in order to study the influence of various parameters (accretion rate, outer radius of the disc, inclination angle, mass of the accreting degenerate dwarf, viscosity parameter) of discs on the outgoing continuous spectra, emission lines and the UBV colours.

  6. The artificial disc: theory, design and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Q B; McCullen, G M; Higham, P A; Dumbleton, J H; Yuan, H A

    1996-06-01

    Low back pain is one of the most common medical conditions in the Western world. Disc degeneration, an inevitable process of aging, of variable rate and degree, is one of the major causes of low back pain. Currently, there are two major surgical interventions for treating conditions related to the degenerative disc: discectomy and fusion. Although discectomy and fusion produce a relatively good short-term clinical result in relieving pain, both these surgical treatments alter the biomechanics of the spine, possibly leading to further degeneration of the surrounding tissues and the discs at adjacent levels. Over the past 35 years, a tremendous effort has been made to develop an artificial disc to replace the degenerated disc. The goal is the restoration of the natural biomechanics of the segment after disc excision, thus relieving pain and preventing further degeneration at adjacent segments. However, the artificial disc faces a complex biomechanical environment which makes replication of the biomechanics difficult and long-term survival challenging to designs and materials. The purpose of this article is to examine the factors of importance in designing a disc replacement. Topics covered include the structure and function of the natural disc, the changes that occur with disc degeneration and existing methods of treatment for the degenerative spine. The progress in achieving a functional, long-lasting disc replacement is outlined.

  7. The properties of external accretion discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pringle, J.E. (Space Telescope Science Inst., Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1991-02-15

    The properties of external accretion discs (discs with a central source of angular momentum) are explored both analytically and numerically. An illustrative example of the effect of a disc of material around a binary star on the stellar separation is considered. We consider a Greens-function-type solution in which an initial ring of matter is put in orbit around the central binary. We find that the solution splits temporally into three parts. First, the disc evolves as a standard accretion disc unaware of the inner boundary condition. Secondly, the disc interacts with the inner boundary and changes its character to become, thirdly, an outflowing disc which is propelled outwards by the source of angular momentum at the centre. (author).

  8. Twisted accretion discs: Pt. 5; Viscous evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Garching (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Astrophysik)

    1990-08-15

    The time-dependence of accretion discs with orbits tilted out of the symmetry plane is studied. The effects of mass inflow modulation, and tilt variation at the disc outer edge, are examined for both circumbinary discs and for discs around compact objects. The appendices extend the numerical work to some analytic examples of tilt diffusion and external forcing effects. It is also shown that the disc must not be treated as a rigid tilted object if global angular momentum is to be conserved. These results are relevant to the problem of long-term periodicities of the light curves in Her X1 and {epsilon} Aur, the S-type symmetry of radio jets, warped gas discs in galaxies and polar rings in Neptune. Twisted discs may also arise in star-forming regions. (author).

  9. Three-level cervical disc herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St. Iencean Andrei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel cervical degenerative disc disease is well known in the cervical spine pathology, with radicular syndromes or cervical myelopathy. One or two level cervical herniated disc is common in adult and multilevel cervical degenerative disc herniation is common in the elderly, with spinal stenosis, and have the same cause: the gradual degeneration of the disc. We report the case of a patient with two level cervical disc herniation (C4 – C5 and C5 – C6 treated by anterior cervical microdiscectomy both levels and fusion at C5 – C6; after five years the patient returned with left C7 radiculopathy and MRI provided the image of a left C6 – C7 disc herniation, he underwent an anterior microsurgical discectomy with rapid relief of symptoms. Three-level cervical herniated disc are rare in adults, and the anterior microdiscectomy with or without fusion solve this pathology.

  10. Collisional modelling of the AU Microscopii debris disc

    CERN Document Server

    Schüppler, Ch; Krivov, A V; Ertel, S; Marshall, J P; Wolf, S; Wyatt, M C; Augereau, J -C; Metchev, S A

    2015-01-01

    The spatially resolved AU Mic debris disc is among the most famous and best-studied debris discs. We aim at a comprehensive understanding of the dust production and the dynamics of the disc objects with in depth collisional modelling including stellar radiative and corpuscular forces. Our models are compared to a suite of observational data for thermal and scattered light emission, ranging from the ALMA radial surface brightness profile at 1.3mm to polarisation measurements in the visible. Most of the data can be reproduced with a planetesimal belt having an outer edge at around 40au and subsequent inward transport of dust by stellar winds. A low dynamical excitation of the planetesimals with eccentricities up to 0.03 is preferred. The radial width of the planetesimal belt cannot be constrained tightly. Belts that are 5au and 17au wide, as well as a broad 44au-wide belt are consistent with observations. All models show surface density profiles increasing with distance from the star as inferred from observatio...

  11. Wakes of ram pressure stripped disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Roediger, E; Hoeft, M

    2006-01-01

    Spiral galaxies that move through the intracluster medium lose a substantial amount of their gas discs due to ram pressure stripping. The recent observations of NGC 4388 by Oosterloo & van Gorkom 2005 reveal a tail of stripped gas of ~ 100 kpc behind the source galaxy. We present first 3D hydrodynamical simulations of the evolution of such ram pressure stripped tails. We find that if the ICM wind does not vary significantly over a period of a few 100 Myr, subsonic galaxies produce a tail with regular features similar to a von-Karman vortex street. In this case, the tail widens systematically by about 45 kpc per 100 kpc distance behind the source galaxy. The widening rate is independent of the galaxy's inclination for a large range of inclinations. For supersonic galaxies, the tail is more irregular than for subsonic ones. The tail observed for NGC 4388 is narrower than the tails in our simulations. Reasons for this difference may be additional physical processes such as heat conduction or viscosity. In ad...

  12. Centrifugally exhausting discs: an inverse process of disc-like accretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaburaki, O.

    1989-03-01

    A disc-like mass-loss process from rapidly rotating, highly magnetized objects is investigated. Such a disc may be considered as an inverse-type of magnetized accretion discs. The disc plasma flows out radially with the Alfven velocity while it rotates, in the main part of the disc, with Keplerian velocity. The magnetic stress transfers angular momentum from the central spinner to the disc. A considerable fraction of the rotational energy extracted in association with the angular momentum is liberated in the disc through the (effective) Joule dissipation. An almost self-consistent set of analytic expressions is proposed as a solution to the steady-state, resistive MHD equations which are fairly simplified by the assumption of thin disc. The possibility of finding such discs around young neutron stars is briefly discussed with reference to SN 1987A.

  13. The circulation of dust in protoplanetary discs and the initial conditions of planet formation

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Bradley M S

    2014-01-01

    We examine the consequences of a model for the circulation of solids in a protoplanetary nebula in which aerodynamic drag is counterbalanced by the recycling of material to the outer disc by a protostellar outflow or a disc wind. This population of circulating dust eventually becomes unstable to the formation of planetesimals by gravitational instability, and results in the ultimate deposition of 30--50 earth masses in planetesimals on scales R< 1 AU. Such a model may provide an appropriate justification for the approximately power law initial conditions needed to reproduce observed planetary systems by in situ assembly.

  14. Grain charging in protoplanetary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Ilgner, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Recent work identified a growth barrier for dust coagulation that originates in the electric repulsion between colliding particles. Depending on its charge state, dust material may have the potential to control key processes towards planet formation such as MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) turbulence and grain growth which are coupled in a two-way process. We quantify the grain charging at different stages of disc evolution and differentiate between two very extreme cases: compact spherical grains and aggregates with fractal dimension D_f = 2. Applying a simple chemical network that accounts for collisional charging of grains, we provide a semi-analytical solution. This allowed us to calculate the equilibrium population of grain charges and the ionisation fraction efficiently. The grain charging was evaluated for different dynamical environments ranging from static to non-stationary disc configurations. The results show that the adsorption/desorption of neutral gas-phase heavy metals, such as magnesium, effects the ...

  15. Superhumps, resonances and accretion discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehurst, R.; King, A. (Leicester Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astronomy)

    1991-03-01

    The structure of accretion discs within binary systems is shown to be influenced by the excitation of resonances within the disc. Of particular importance is that near the 3:1 commensurability with the stars' orbit. This can be used to explain the superhump phenomenon of SU Ursae Majoris dwarf novae in superoutburst. This resonance can only appear for mass ratios which satisfy M{sub 2}/M{sub 1} < {approx equal} 0.25-0.33: for larger mass ratios the available resonances are weaker and of the wrong form to produce the superhump phenomenon. The mass-transfer stream is shown to be an important contributor to the growth rate of the resonance. (author).

  16. Wind turbine wake in atmospheric turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rethore, P.-E.

    2009-10-15

    This thesis describes the different steps needed to design a steady-state computational fluid dynamics (CFD) wind farm wake model. The ultimate goal of the project was to design a tool that could analyze and extrapolate systematically wind farm measurements to generate wind maps in order to calibrate faster and simpler engineering wind farm wake models. The most attractive solution was the actuator disc method with the steady state k-epsilon turbulence model. The first step to design such a tool is the treatment of the forces. This thesis presents a computationally inexpensive method to apply discrete body forces into the finite-volume flow solver with collocated variable treatment (EllipSys), which avoids the pressure-velocity decoupling issue. The second step is to distribute the body forces in the computational domain accordingly to rotor loading. This thesis presents a generic flexible method that associates any kind of shapes with the computational domain discretization. The special case of the actuator disc performs remarkably well in comparison with Conway's heavily loaded actuator disc analytical solution and a CFD full rotor computation, even with a coarse discretization. The third step is to model the atmospheric turbulence. The standard k-epsilon model is found to be unable to model at the same time the atmospheric turbulence and the actuator disc wake and performs badly in comparison with single wind turbine wake measurements. A comparison with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) shows that the problem mainly comes from the assumptions of the eddy-viscosity concept, which are deeply invalidated in the wind turbine wake region. Different models that intent to correct the k-epsilon model's issues are investigated, of which none of them is found to be adequate. The mixing of the wake in the atmosphere is a deeply non-local phenomenon that is not handled correctly by an eddy-viscosity model such as k-epsilon. (author)

  17. Eclipse mapping of accretion discs

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, Raymundo

    2000-01-01

    The eclipse mapping method is an inversion technique that makes use of the information contained in eclipse light curves to probe the structure, the spectrum and the time evolution of accretion discs. In this review I present the basics of the method and discuss its different implementations. I summarize the most important results obtained to date and discuss how they have helped to improve our understanding of accretion physics, from testing the theoretical radial brightness temperature dist...

  18. Effects of supernova feedback on the formation of galaxy discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannapieco, Cecilia; Tissera, Patricia B.; White, Simon D. M.; Springel, Volker

    2008-09-01

    We use cosmological simulations in order to study the effects of supernova (SN) feedback on the formation of a Milky Way-type galaxy of virial mass ~1012h-1Msolar. We analyse a set of simulations run with the code described by Scannapieco et al., where we have tested our star formation and feedback prescription using isolated galaxy models. Here, we extend this work by simulating the formation of a galaxy in its proper cosmological framework, focusing on the ability of the model to form a disc-like structure in rotational support. We find that SN feedback plays a fundamental role in the evolution of the simulated galaxy, efficiently regulating the star-formation activity, pressurizing the gas and generating mass-loaded galactic winds. These processes affect several galactic properties such as final stellar mass, morphology, angular momentum, chemical properties, and final gas and baryon fractions. In particular, we find that our model is able to reproduce extended disc components with high specific angular momentum and a significant fraction of young stars. The galaxies are also found to have significant spheroids composed almost entirely of stars formed at early times. We find that most combinations of the input parameters yield disc-like components, although with different sizes and thicknesses, indicating that the code can form discs without fine-tuning the implemented physics. We also show how our model scales to smaller systems. By analysing simulations of virial masses 109 and 1010h-1Msolar, we find that the smaller the galaxy, the stronger the SN feedback effects.

  19. X-ray coronae in simulations of disc galaxy formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert A.; McCarthy, Ian G.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Theuns, Tom; Schaye, Joop

    2010-09-01

    The existence of X-ray luminous gaseous coronae around massive disc galaxies is a long-standing prediction of galaxy formation theory in the cold dark matter cosmogony. This prediction has garnered little observational support, with non-detections commonplace and detections for only a relatively small number of galaxies which are much less luminous than expected. We investigate the coronal properties of a large sample of bright, disc-dominated galaxies extracted from the GIMIC suite of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations recently presented by Crain et al. Remarkably, the simulations reproduce the observed scalings of X-ray luminosity with K-band luminosity and star formation rate (SFR) and, when account is taken of the density structure of the halo, with disc rotation velocity as well. Most of the star formation in the simulated galaxies (which have realistic stellar mass fractions) is fuelled by gas cooling from a quasi-hydrostatic hot corona. However, these coronae are more diffuse, and of a lower luminosity, than predicted by the analytic models of White & Frenk because of a substantial increase in entropy at z ~ 1-3. Both the removal of low entropy gas by star formation and energy injection from supernovae contribute to this increase in entropy, but the latter is dominant for halo masses M200 <~ 1012.5Msolar. Only a small fraction of the mass of the hot gas is outflowing as a wind but, because of its high density and metallicity, it contributes disproportionally to the X-ray emission. The bulk of the X-ray emission, however, comes from the diffuse quasi-hydrostatic corona which supplies the fuel for ongoing star formation in discs today. Future deep X-ray observations with high spectral resolution (e.g. with NeXT/ASTRO-H or IXO) should be able to map the velocity structure of the hot gas and test this fundamental prediction of current galaxy formation theory.

  20. Wind Structure and Wind Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature...... of windhe interaction between wind and structures, where it is shown that wind loading depends strongly on this interaction...

  1. Photonic Crystal Fiber Attenuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joo; Beom; Eom; Hokyung; Kim; Jinchae; Kim; Un-Chul; Paek; Byeong; Ha; Lee

    2003-01-01

    We propose a novel fiber attenuator based on photonic crystal fibers. The difference in the modal field diameters of a conventional single mode fiber and a photonic crystal fiber was used. A variable optical attenuator was also achieved by applying macro-bending on the PCF part of the proposed attenuator

  2. Tracer attenuation in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    The self-purifying capacity of aquifers strongly depends on the attenuation of waterborne contaminants, i.e., irreversible loss of contaminant mass on a given scale as a result of coupled transport and transformation processes. A general formulation of tracer attenuation in groundwater is presented. Basic sensitivities of attenuation to macrodispersion and retention are illustrated for a few typical retention mechanisms. Tracer recovery is suggested as an experimental proxy for attenuation. Unique experimental data of tracer recovery in crystalline rock compare favorably with the theoretical model that is based on diffusion-controlled retention. Non-Fickian hydrodynamic transport has potentially a large impact on field-scale attenuation of dissolved contaminants.

  3. DSC Study of Collagen in Disc Disease

    OpenAIRE

    S. Skrzyński; Sionkowska, A.; Marciniak, A.

    2009-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used to estimate the effect of disc disease on the collagen helix-coil transition and morphology for tissue extracted from patients during surgical operation. Forty discs were obtained from patients with degenerative disc disease undergoing surgery for low back pain. The patients were in the age between 20 and 70 years old. The specimens were kept wet during DSC experiment. The data allow the comparison between thermal stability of collagen ti...

  4. Biomechanical study of intervertebral disc degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    González Guitiérrez, Ramiro Arturo

    2012-01-01

    Degeneration and age affect the biomechanics of the intervertebral disc, by reducing its stiffness, flexibility and shock absorption capacities against daily movement and spinal load. The biomechanical characterization of intervertebral discs is achieved by conducting mechanical testing to vertebra-disc-vertebra segments and applying axial, shear, bend and torsion loads, statically or dynamically, with load magnitudes corresponding to the physiological range. However, traditional testing does...

  5. The Roles of Discs for Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yeh, L C; Yeh, Li-Chin; Jiang, Ing-Guey

    2007-01-01

    It is known that the discs are detected for some of the extra-solar planetary systems. It is also likely that there was a disc mixing with planets and small bodies while our Solar System was forming. From our recent results, we conclude that the discs play two roles: the gravity makes planetary systems more chaotic and the drag makes planetary systems more resonant.

  6. DISC1 genetics, biology and psychiatric illness

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are highly heritable, and in many individuals likely arise from the combined effects of genes and the environment. A substantial body of evidence points towards DISC1 being one of the genes that influence risk of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, and functional studies of DISC1 consequently have the potential to reveal much about the pathways that lead to major mental illness. Here, we review the evidence that DISC1 influences disease risk through effects u...

  7. Constraints on galactic wind models

    CERN Document Server

    Meiksin, Avery

    2016-01-01

    Observational implications are derived for two standard models of supernovae-driven galactic winds: a freely expanding steady-state wind and a wind sourced by a self-similarly expanding superbubble including thermal heat conduction. It is shown that, for the steady-state wind, matching the measured correlation between the soft x-ray luminosity and star formation rate of starburst galaxies is equivalent to producing a scaled wind mass-loading factor relative to the star-formation rate of 0.5 - 3, in agreement with the amount inferred from metal absorption line measurements. The match requires the asymptotic wind velocity v_inf to scale with the star formation rate SFR (in solar masses per year) approximately as v_inf ~ (700 - 1000) km/s SFR^{1/6}. The corresponding mass injection rate is close to the amount naturally provided by thermal evaporation from the wall of a superbubble in a galactic disc, suggesting thermal evaporation may be a major source of mass-loading. The predicted mass-loading factors from the...

  8. DSC Study of Collagen in Disc Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Skrzyński

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC has been used to estimate the effect of disc disease on the collagen helix-coil transition and morphology for tissue extracted from patients during surgical operation. Forty discs were obtained from patients with degenerative disc disease undergoing surgery for low back pain. The patients were in the age between 20 and 70 years old. The specimens were kept wet during DSC experiment. The data allow the comparison between thermal stability of collagen tissue from healthy patients and from patients suffering from disc disease. In the paper the comparison between thermal helix-coil transition for collagen fibers from patients suffering from disc disease and collagen fibers from healthy organisms has been discussed. The heating rate has an influence on the position on denaturation temperatures of collagen in disc tissues. Higher helix-coil transition temperature of collagen in degenerated disc suggests that additional intermolecular cross linking of collagen fibers occurs. Denaturation temperatures of collagen in degenerated male disc possess smaller values than in female ones. Disc disease induces changes in collagen structure and leads to formation of additional crosslinks between collagen fibers.

  9. The quiescent phase of galactic disc growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumer, Michael; Binney, James; Schönrich, Ralph

    2016-07-01

    We perform a series of controlled N-body simulations of growing disc galaxies within non-growing, live dark matter haloes of varying mass and concentration. Our initial conditions include either a low-mass disc or a compact bulge. New stellar particles are continuously added on near-circular orbits to the existing disc, so spiral structure is continuously excited. To study the effect of combined spiral and giant molecular cloud (GMC) heating on the discs, we introduce massive, short-lived particles that sample a GMC mass function. An isothermal gas component is introduced for a subset of the models. We perform a resolution study and vary parameters governing the GMC population, the histories of star formation and radial scale growth. Models with GMCs and standard values for the disc mass and halo density provide the right level of self-gravity to explain the age-velocity dispersion relation of the solar neighbourhood (Snhd). GMC heating generates remarkably exponential vertical profiles with scaleheights that are radially constant and agree with observations of galactic thin discs. GMCs are also capable of significantly delaying bar formation. The amount of spiral-induced radial migration agrees with what is required for the metallicity distribution of the Snhd. However, in our standard models, the outward-migrating populations are not hot enough vertically to create thick discs. Thick discs can form in models with high baryon fractions, but the corresponding bars are too long, the young stellar populations too hot and the discs flare considerably.

  10. Accretion Discs Show Their True Colours

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Quasars are the brilliant cores of remote galaxies, at the hearts of which lie supermassive black holes that can generate enough power to outshine the Sun a trillion times. These mighty power sources are fuelled by interstellar gas, thought to be sucked into the hole from a surrounding 'accretion disc'. A paper in this week's issue of the journal Nature, partly based on observations collected with ESO's Very Large Telescope, verifies a long-standing prediction about the intensely luminous radiation emitted by these accretion discs. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 21/08 Uncovering the inner disc "Astronomers were puzzled by the fact that the best models of these discs couldn't quite be reconciled with some of the observations, in particular, with the fact that these discs did not appear as blue as they should be," explains lead-author Makoto Kishimoto. Such a discrepancy could be the signal that there was something very wrong with the models. With his colleagues, he investigated this discrepancy by studying the polarised light from six quasars. This enabled them to demonstrate that the disc spectrum is as blue as predicted. "The crucial observational difficulty here has been that the disc is surrounded by a much larger torus containing hot dust, whose light partly outshines that of the disc," says Kishimoto. "Because the light coming from the disc is scattered in the disc vicinity and thus polarised, by observing only polarised light from the quasars, one can uncover the buried light from the disc." In a similar way that a fisherman would wear polarised sunglasses to help get rid of the glare from the water surface and allow him to see more clearly under the water, the filter on the telescope allowed the astronomers to see beyond surrounding clouds of dust and gas to the blue colour of the disc in infrared light. The observations were done with the FORS and ISAAC instruments on one of the 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope, located in the Atacama

  11. Changes in the structure of the accretion disc of HS1804+67 through the outburst cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Baptista, R; Baptista, Raymundo

    1999-01-01

    We report on the analysis of high-speed photometry of the dwarf-nova HS1804+67 through its outburst cycle with eclipse mapping techniques. Eclipse maps show evidences of the formation of a spiral structure in the disc at the early stages of the outburst and reveal how the disc expands during the rise until its fills most of the primary Roche lobe at maximum light. During the decline phase, the disc becomes progressively fainter as the cooling front moves inwards from the outer regions, until only a small bright region around the white dwarf is left at minimum light. The variable part of the uneclipsed light is possibly due to emission in a wind emanating from the inner parts of the disc. The emission from this region is sensitive to the mass accretion rate.

  12. Evolution of linear warps in accretion discs and applications to protoplanetary discs in binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Foucart, Francois

    2014-01-01

    The existence of warped accretion discs is expected in a wide variety of astrophysical systems, including circumstellar discs in binaries and discs around binary protostars. A common feature of these discs is that they are perturbed by a misaligned external potential. In this paper, we study the long-term evolution of the disc warp and precession in the case of thick discs (with the dimensionless thickness $H/r$ larger than the viscosity parameter $\\alpha$) in which bending waves can propagate. For small warps, such discs undergo approximately rigid-body precession with a coherent global frequency. We derive the analytical expressions for the warp/twist profiles of the disc and the alignment timescale for a variety of disc models/parameters. Applying our results to circumbinary discs, we find that these discs align with the orbital plane of the binary on a timescale comparable to the global precession time of the disc, and typically much smaller than its viscous timescale. The development of parametric instab...

  13. Circumplanetary discs around young giant planets: a comparison between core-accretion and disc instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulágyi, J.; Mayer, L.; Quinn, T.

    2017-01-01

    Circumplanetary discs can be found around forming giant planets, regardless of whether core accretion or gravitational instability built the planet. We carried out state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations of the circumplanetary discs for both formation scenarios, using as similar initial conditions as possible to unveil possible intrinsic differences in the circumplanetary disc mass and temperature between the two formation mechanisms. We found that the circumplanetary discs' mass linearly scales with the circumstellar disc mass. Therefore, in an equally massive protoplanetary disc, the circumplanetary discs formed in the disc instability model can be only a factor of 8 more massive than their core-accretion counterparts. On the other hand, the bulk circumplanetary disc temperature differs by more than an order of magnitude between the two cases. The subdiscs around planets formed by gravitational instability have a characteristic temperature below 100 K, while the core-accretion circumplanetary discs are hot, with temperatures even greater than 1000 K when embedded in massive, optically thick protoplanetary discs. We explain how this difference can be understood as the natural result of the different formation mechanisms. We argue that the different temperatures should persist up to the point when a full-fledged gas giant forms via disc instability; hence, our result provides a convenient criterion for observations to distinguish between the two main formation scenarios by measuring the bulk temperature in the planet vicinity.

  14. Effect of Degeneration on Fluid-Solid Interaction within Intervertebral Disc under Cyclic Loading – A Meta-Model Analysis of Finite Element Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad eNikkhoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of low back pain resulted from cyclic loadings is greater than that resulted from prolonged static postures. Disc degeneration results in degradation of disc solid structures and decrease of water contents, which is caused by activation of matrix digestive enzymes. The mechanical responses resulted from internal solid-fluid interactions of degenerative discs to cyclic loadings are not well studied yet. The fluid-solid interactions in discs can be evaluated by mathematical models, especially the poroelastic finite element models. We developed a robust disc poroelastic FE model to analyze the effect of degeneration on solid-fluid interactions within disc subjected to cyclic loadings at different loading frequencies. A backward analysis combined with in-vitro experiments were used to find the elastic modulus and hydraulic permeability of intact and enzyme-induced degenerated porcine discs. The results showed that the averaged peak-to-peak disc deformations during the in-vitro cyclic tests were well fitted with limited FE simulations and a quadratic response surface regression for both disc groups. The results showed that higher loading frequency increased the intradiscal pressure, decreased the total fluid loss, and slightly increased the maximum axial stress within solid matrix. Enzyme-induced degeneration decreased the intradiscal pressure and total fluid loss, and barely changed the maximum axial stress within solid matrix. The increase of intradiscal pressure and total fluid loss with loading frequency was less sensitive after the frequency elevated to 0.1 Hz for the enzyme-induced degenerated disc. Based on this study, it is found that enzyme-induced degeneration decreases energy attenuation capability of disc, but less change the strength of disc.

  15. Vortex ring state by full-field actuator disc model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, J.N.; Shen, W.Z.; Munduate, X. [DTU, Dept. of Energy Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    One-dimensional momentum theory provides a simple analytical tool for analysing the gross flow behavior of lifting propellers and rotors. Combined with a blade-element strip-theory approach, it has for many years been the most popular model for load and performance predictions of wind turbines. The model works well at moderate and high wind velocities, but is not reliable at small wind velocities, where the expansion of the wake is large and the flow field behind the rotor dominated by turbulent mixing. This is normally referred to as the turbulent wake state or the vortex ring state. In the vortex ring state, momentum theory predicts a decrease of thrust whereas the opposite is found from experiments. The reason for the disagreement is that recirculation takes place behind the rotor with the consequence that the stream tubes past the rotor becomes effectively chocked. This represents a condition at which streamlines no longer carry fluid elements from far upstream to far downstream, hence one-dimensional momentum theory is invalid and empirical corrections have to be introduced. More sophisticated analytical or semi-analytical rotor models have been used to describe stationary flow fields for heavily loaded propellers. In recent years generalized actuator disc models have been developed, but up to now no detailed computations of the turbulent wake state or the vortex ring state have been performed. In the present work the phenomenon is simulated by direct simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, where the influence of the rotor on the flow field is modelled simply by replacing the blades by an actuator disc with a constant normal load. (EG) 13 refs.

  16. [Standardized terminology for disc disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Pérez, M; Gil Sierra, A; Sánchez Martín, A; Gallego Gómez, P; Pereira Boo, D

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the terminology used to describe morphological alterations in the intervertebral discs. Radiologists must be able to communicate information about the type, location, and severity of these alterations to medical and surgical clinicians. It is crucial to use simple, standard, and unified terminology to ensure comprehension not only among radiologists but also with professionals from the different specialties for whom the radiology reports are written (fundamentally traumatologists and neurosurgeons). This terminology will help ensure a more accurate diagnosis and better patient management.

  17. Minimum weight design of inhomogeneous rotating discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahed, Hamid [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16844 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farshi, Behrooz [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16844 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: farshi@iust.ac.ir; Bidabadi, Jalal [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16844 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-01-01

    There are numerous applications for gas turbine discs in the aerospace industry such as in turbojet engines. These discs normally work under high temperatures while subjected to high angular velocities. Minimizing the weight of such items in aerospace applications results in benefits such as low dead weights and lower costs. High speed of rotation causes large centrifugal forces in a disc and simultaneous application of high temperatures reduces disc material strength. Thus, the latter effects tend to increase deformations of the disc under the applied loads. In order to obtain a reliable disc analysis and arrive at the corresponding correct stress distribution, solutions should consider changes in material properties due to the temperature field throughout the disc. To achieve this goal, an inhomogeneous disc model with variable thickness is considered. Using the variable material properties method, stresses are obtained for the disc under rotation and a steady temperature field. In this paper this is done by modelling the rotating disc as a series of rings of different but constant properties. The optimum disc profile is arrived at by sequentially proportioning the thicknesses of each ring to satisfy the stress requirements. This method vis-a-vis a mathematical programming procedure for optimization shows several advantages. Firstly, it is simple iterative proportioning in each design cycle not requiring involved mathematical operations. Secondly, due to its simplicity it alleviates the necessity of certain simplifications that are common in so-called rigorous mathematical procedures. The results obtained, compared to those published in the literature show agreement and superiority. A further advantage of the proposed method is the independence of the end results from the initially assumed point in the iterative design routine, unlike most methods published so far.

  18. Methodology for optic disc localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Leiva-Vasconcellos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of digital images in many areas of society is an activity that has reached a remarkable growth in recent years mainly due to the great development that has occurred in technology around the world. These images have a great use in many branches of medicine because they facilitate the diagnosis by specialists and thus help patients to be diagnosed long before symptoms of the disease begin to manifest. For Ophthalmology, one of the most used images are the digital retinography, If it is used properly will allow the occurrence of eye diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. One of the main elements shown on retinal images are the optic disc, the location and detection is of vital importance for working with different parts of the structure o f the eye. This paper proposes two techniques for locating the optic disc in retinal images based on the combination of multiple filters and applying logical operators. To test the algorithms diaretDB0v11 and DRIVE database were used , as a result of the tests are correctly located the 99.091 % of the images from both repo sitories, and were successfully detected 85 % and 87.143 % of images of DRIVE database and diaretDB0v11 respectively.

  19. Post-Main Sequence Evolution of Debris Discs

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsor, Amy; Wyatt, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The population of debris discs on the main sequence is well constrained, however very little is known about debris discs around evolved stars. In this work we provide a theoretical framework that considers the effects of stellar evolution on debris discs; firstly considering the evolution of an individual disc from the main sequence through to the white dwarf phase, then extending this to the known population of debris discs around main sequence A stars. It is found that discs around evolved ...

  20. Wall Correction Model for Wind Tunnels with Open Test Section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Shen, Wen Zhong; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2004-01-01

    In th paper we present a correction model for wall interference on rotors of wind turbines or propellers in wind tunnels. The model, that is based on a onedimensional momentum approach, is validated against results from CFD computations using a generalized actuator disc principle. Generally......, the corrections from the model are in very good agreement with the CFD computaions, demonstrating that one-dimensional momentum theory is a reliable way of predicting corrections for wall interference in wind tunnels with closed as well as open cross sections. Keywords: Wind tunnel correction, momentum theory...

  1. Genetic association studies in lumbar disc degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskola, Pasi J; Lemmelä, Susanna; Kjaer, Per;

    2012-01-01

    Low back pain is associated with lumbar disc degeneration, which is mainly due to genetic predisposition. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review to evaluate genetic association studies in lumbar disc degeneration as defined on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in humans....

  2. The maximum rotation of a galactic disc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottema, R

    1997-01-01

    The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously

  3. Hygroviscoelasticity of the Human Intervertebral Disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    hernia - tion with age depends on the biochemical changes that occur in the material of the disc during its maturation process. However, a careful machanics...EFFORT One of the recurring pieces of information required in disc response is the intra- discal pressure when the spine is loaded axially. This

  4. Feature Based Control of Compact Disc Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh

    Two servo control loops are used to keep the Optical Pick-up Unit focused and radially on the information track of the Compact Disc. These control servos have problems handling surface faults on the Compact Disc. In this Ph.D thesis a method is proposed to improve the handling of these surface...

  5. Hydromagnetic Flow between Two Rotating Coaxial Discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aleem Khan

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper relates to the steady flow of an electrically incompressible viscous fluid between two parallel coaxial rotating discs with a transverse magnetic field when the discs are rotating in the same direction with the same velocity and there is a source at the centre.

  6. Twisted accretion discs: Pt. 4. Alignment in polytropic discs and low. cap alpha. limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.

    1988-07-01

    Twisted thin accretion discs are of interest in explaining long-term periodicities in X-ray binaries, the eclipse in Epsilon Aurigae, and perhaps precessing radio jets and possible warped molecular outflows in star-forming regions. Earlier results used isothermal discs to determine the alignment radius, Rsub(a). Now we see how polytropic discs effect earlier results for discs around compact objects and around close binaries. We find that Rsub(a) for polytropic discs can be up to an order of magnitude larger, depending on the polytropic index, the viscosity parameter and the precession mechanism. There is little change in the earlier conclusion that the case for alignment in Her X-1 is marginal, while there is substantial alignment in epsilon Aur. A lower limit is put on ..cap alpha.. for isothermal discs, which is expected to hold for polytropic discs as well. A bound is put on the energy of the perturbed flows.

  7. On the reliability of protostellar disc mass measurements and the existence of fragmenting discs

    CERN Document Server

    Dunham, Michael M; Arce, Héctor G

    2014-01-01

    We couple non-magnetic, hydrodynamical simulations of collapsing protostellar cores with radiative transfer evolutionary models to generate synthetic observations. We then use these synthetic observations to investigate the extent to which a simple method for measuring protostellar disc masses used in the literature recovers the intrinsic masses of the discs formed in the simulations. We evaluate the effects of contamination from the surrounding core, partially resolving out the disc, optical depth, fixed assumed dust temperatures, inclination, and the dust opacity law. We show that the combination of these effects can lead to disc mass underestimates by up to factors of 2-3 at millimeter wavelengths and up to an order of magnitude or larger at submillimeter wavelengths. The optically thin portions of protostellar discs are generally cooler in the Class I stage than the Class 0 stage since Class I discs are typically larger and more optically thick, and thus more shielded. The observed disc mass distribution ...

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of intervertebral disc degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Masao (Kitakyushu City Yahata Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan)); Kira, Hideaki; Fujiki, Hiroshi; Shimokawa, Isao; Hinoue, Kaichi

    1993-02-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate the degree of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration with findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Seventeen autopsied (from 7 patients) and 21 surgical (from 20 patients) intervertebral discs were used as specimens for histopathological examination. In addition, 21 intervertebral discs were examined on T2-weighted images. Histopathological findings from both autopsied and surgical specimens were well correlated with MRI findings. In particular, T2-weighted images reflected increased collagen fibers and rupture within the fibrous ring accurately. However, when severely degenerated intervertebral discs and hernia protruding the posterior longitudinal ligament existed, histological findings were not concordant well with T2-weighted images. Morphological appearances of autopsy specimens, divided into four on T2-weighted images, were well consistent with histological degeneration. This morphological classification, as shown on T2-weighted images, could also be used in the evaluation of intervertebral disc degeneration. (N.K.).

  9. Strongly magnetized accretion discs require poloidal flux

    CERN Document Server

    Salvesen, Greg; Simon, Jacob B; Begelman, Mitchell C

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by indirect observational evidence for strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes, and the novel theoretical properties of such solutions, we investigate how a strong magnetization state can develop and persist. To this end, we perform local simulations of accretion discs with an initially purely toroidal magnetic field of equipartition strength. We demonstrate that discs with zero net vertical magnetic flux and realistic boundary conditions cannot sustain a strong toroidal field. However, a magnetic pressure-dominated disc can form from an initial configuration with a sufficient amount of net vertical flux and realistic boundary conditions. Our results suggest that poloidal flux is a necessary prerequisite for the sustainability of strongly magnetized accretion discs.

  10. Lumbar Epidural Varix Mimicking Disc Herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursalı, Adem; Akyoldas, Goktug; Guvenal, Ahmet Burak; Yaman, Onur

    2016-07-01

    Lumbar radiculopathy is generally caused by such well-recognized entity as lumbar disc herniation in neurosurgical practice; however rare pathologies such as thrombosed epidural varix may mimic them by causing radicular symptoms. In this case report, we present a 26-year-old man with the complaint of back and right leg pain who was operated for right L4-5 disc herniation. The lesion interpreted as an extruded disc herniation preoperatively was found to be a thrombosed epidural varix compressing the nerve root preoperatively. The nerve root was decompressed by shrinking the lesion with bipolar thermocoagulation and excision. The patient's complaints disappeared in the postoperative period. Thrombosed lumbar epidural varices may mimic lumbar disc herniations both radiologically and clinically. Therefore, must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of lumbar disc herniations. Microsurgical techniques are mandatory for the treatment of these pathologies and decompression with thermocoagulation and excision is an efficient method.

  11. Lumbar disc cyst with contralateral radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Tourani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Disc cysts are uncommon intraspinal cystic lesions located in the ventrolateral epidural space. They communicate with the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc and cause symptoms by radicular compression. We report a unique case of lumbar disc cyst that was associated with disc herniation and contralateral radiculopathy. A 22 year old male presented with one month history of back-ache radiating to the left leg. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI showed L3-L4 disc herniation with annular tear and cystic lesion in the extradural space anterior to the thecal sac on right side, which increased in size over a period of 3 weeks. L3 laminectomy and bilateral discectomy and cyst excision was done with partial improvement of patients symptoms.

  12. About detection of precessing circumpulsar discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimani, Catia

    2016-08-01

    Detections of circumpulsar discs and planetary systems through electromagnetic observations appear quite rare. In the case of PSR 1931+24 and B0656+14, the hypothesis of a precessing disc penetrating the pulsar light cylinder is found consistent with radio and gamma observations from these stars. Disc self-occultation and precession may affect electromagnetic measurements. We investigate here under which conditions gravitational waves generated by circumpulsar disc precession may be detected by the proposed second-generation space interferometers DECI-hertz Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory and Big Bang Observer. The characteristics of circumpulsar detectable precessing discs are estimated as a function of distance from the Solar system. Speculations on detection rates are presented.

  13. The formation of planets by disc fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatellos Dimitris

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available I discuss the role that disc fragmentation plays in the formation of gas giant and terrestrial planets, and how this relates to the formation of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars, and ultimately to the process of star formation. Protostellar discs may fragment, if they are massive enough and can cool fast enough, but most of the objects that form by fragmentation are brown dwarfs. It may be possible that planets also form, if the mass growth of a proto-fragment is stopped (e.g. if this fragment is ejected from the disc, or suppressed and even reversed (e.g by tidal stripping. I will discuss if it is possible to distinguish whether a planet has formed by disc fragmentation or core accretion, and mention of a few examples of observed exoplanets that are suggestive of formation by disc fragmentation.

  14. Strongly magnetized accretion discs require poloidal flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvesen, Greg; Armitage, Philip J.; Simon, Jacob B.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by indirect observational evidence for strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes, and the novel theoretical properties of such solutions, we investigate how a strong magnetization state can develop and persist. To this end, we perform local simulations of accretion discs with an initially purely toroidal magnetic field of equipartition strength. We demonstrate that discs with zero net vertical magnetic flux and realistic boundary conditions cannot sustain a strong toroidal field. However, a magnetic pressure-dominated disc can form from an initial configuration with a sufficient amount of net vertical flux and realistic boundary conditions. Our results suggest that poloidal flux is a necessary prerequisite for the sustainability of strongly magnetized accretion discs.

  15. Chemistry and radiative shielding in star-forming galactic discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safranek-Shrader, Chalence; Krumholz, Mark R.; Kim, Chang-Goo; Ostriker, Eve C.; Klein, Richard I.; Li, Shule; McKee, Christopher F.; Stone, James M.

    2017-02-01

    To understand the conditions under which dense, molecular gas is able to form within a galaxy, we post-process a series of three-dimensional galactic-disc-scale simulations with ray-tracing-based radiative transfer and chemical network integration to compute the equilibrium chemical and thermal state of the gas. In performing these simulations, we vary a number of parameters, such as the interstellar radiation field strength, vertical scaleheight of stellar sources, and cosmic ray flux, to gauge the sensitivity of our results to these variations. Self-shielding permits significant molecular hydrogen (H2) abundances in dense filaments around the disc mid-plane, accounting for approximately ˜10-15 per cent of the total gas mass. Significant CO fractions only form in the densest, nH≳ 10^3 cm^{-3}, gas where a combination of dust, H2, and self-shielding attenuates the far-ultraviolet background. We additionally compare these ray-tracing-based solutions to photochemistry with complementary models where photoshielding is accounted for with locally computed prescriptions. With some exceptions, these local models for the radiative shielding length perform reasonably well at reproducing the distribution and amount of molecular gas as compared with a detailed, global ray-tracing calculation. Specifically, an approach based on the Jeans length with a T = 40 K temperature cap performs the best in regard to a number of different quantitative measures based on the H2 and CO abundances.

  16. External photoevaporation of protoplanetary discs in sparse stellar groups: the impact of dust growth

    CERN Document Server

    Facchini, Stefano; Bisbas, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the mass loss rates of photoevaporative winds launched from the outer edge of protoplanetary discs impinged by an ambient radiation field. We focus on mild/moderate environments (the number of stars in the group/cluster is N ~ 50), and explore disc sizes ranging between 20 and 250 AU. We evaluate the steady-state structures of the photoevaporative winds by coupling temperature estimates obtained with a PDR code with 1D radial hydrodynamical equations. We also consider the impact of dust dragging and grain growth on the final mass loss rates. We find that these winds are much more significant than have been appreciated hitherto when grain growth is included in the modelling: in particular, mass loss rates > 1e-8 M_sun/yr are predicted even for modest background field strengths ( ~ 30 G_0) in the case of discs that extend to R > 150 AU. Grain growth significantly affects the final mass loss rates by reducing the average cross section at FUV wavelengths, and thus allowing a much more vigorous flow. T...

  17. Wall correction model for wind tunnels with open test section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Shen, Wen Zhong; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2006-01-01

    In the paper we present a correction model for wall interference on rotors of wind turbines or propellers in wind tunnels. The model, which is based on a one-dimensional momentum approach, is validated against results from CFD computations using a generalized actuator disc principle. In the model...... the exchange of axial momentum between the tunnel and the ambient room is represented by a simple formula, derived from actuator disc computations. The correction model is validated against Navier-Stokes computations of the flow about a wind turbine rotor. Generally, the corrections from the model are in very...... good agreement with the CFD computations, demonstrating that one-dimensional momentum theory is a reliable way of predicting corrections for wall interference in wind tunnels with closed as well as open cross sections....

  18. FSO and radio link attenuation: meteorological models verified by experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazda, Vladimir; Fiser, Ondrej; Svoboda, Jaroslav

    2011-09-01

    Institute of Atmospheric Physics of Czech Academy measures atmospheric attenuation on 60 m experimental FSO link on 830 and 1550 nm for more than three years. Visibility sensors and two 3D sonic anemometers on both transmitting and receiving site, rain gauge and many sensors enabling the refractivity index computation are spaced along the optical link. Meteorological visibility, wind turbulent energy, sonic temperature, structure index and rain rate are correlated with measured attenuation. FSO link attenuation dependence on the above mentioned parameters is analyzed. The paper shows also basic statistical behavior of the long-term FSO signal level and also the simulation of hybrid link techniques.

  19. Generation of highly inclined protoplanetary discs through single stellar flybys

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang-Gruess, Meng

    2015-01-01

    We study the three-dimensional evolution of a viscous protoplanetary disc which is perturbed by a passing star on a parabolic orbit. The aim is to test whether a single stellar flyby is capable to excite significant disc inclinations which would favour the formation of so-called misaligned planets. We use smoothed particle hydrodynamics to study inclination, disc mass and angular momentum changes of the disc for passing stars with different masses. We explore different orbital configurations for the perturber's orbit to find the parameter spaces which allow significant disc inclination generation. Prograde inclined parabolic orbits are most destructive leading to significant disc mass and angular momentum loss. In the remaining disc, the final disc inclination is only below $20^\\circ$. This is due to the removal of disc particles which have experienced the strongest perturbing effects. Retrograde inclined parabolic orbits are less destructive and can generate disc inclinations up to $60^\\circ$. The final disc...

  20. Gravitoturbulence in magnetised protostellar discs

    CERN Document Server

    Riols, A

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational instability (GI) features in several aspects of protostellar disk evolution, most notably in angular momentum transport, fragmentation, and the outbursts exemplified by FU Ori and EX Lupi systems. The outer regions of protostellar discs may also be coupled to magnetic fields, which could then modify the development of GI. To understand the basic elements of their interaction, we perform local 2D ideal and resistive MHD simulations with an imposed toroidal field. In the regime of moderate plasma beta, we find that the system supports a hot gravito-turbulent state, characterised by considerable magnetic energy and stress and a surprisingly large Toomre parameter $Q~10$. This result has potential implications for disk structure, vertical thickness, ionisation, etc. Our simulations also reveal the existence of long-lived and dense `magnetic islands' or plasmoids. Lastly, we find that the presence of a magnetic field has little impact on the fragmentation criterion of the disk. Though our focus is on...

  1. A Plane-Parallel Wind Solution For Testing Numerical Simulations of Photoevaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Hutchison, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Here we derive a Parker-wind like solution for a stratified, plane-parallel atmosphere undergoing photoionisation. The difference compared to the standard Parker solar wind is that the sonic point is crossed only at infinity. The simplicity of the analytic solution makes it a convenient test problem for numerical simulations of photoevaporation in protoplanetary discs.

  2. Lumbar herniated disc: spontaneous regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Kasım Zafer

    2017-01-01

    Background Low back pain is a frequent condition that results in substantial disability and causes admission of patients to neurosurgery clinics. To evaluate and present the therapeutic outcomes in lumbar disc hernia (LDH) patients treated by means of a conservative approach, consisting of bed rest and medical therapy. Methods This retrospective cohort was carried out in the neurosurgery departments of hospitals in Kahramanmaraş city and 23 patients diagnosed with LDH at the levels of L3−L4, L4−L5 or L5−S1 were enrolled. Results The average age was 38.4 ± 8.0 and the chief complaint was low back pain and sciatica radiating to one or both lower extremities. Conservative treatment was administered. Neurological examination findings, durations of treatment and intervals until symptomatic recovery were recorded. Laségue tests and neurosensory examination revealed that mild neurological deficits existed in 16 of our patients. Previously, 5 patients had received physiotherapy and 7 patients had been on medical treatment. The number of patients with LDH at the level of L3−L4, L4−L5, and L5−S1 were 1, 13, and 9, respectively. All patients reported that they had benefit from medical treatment and bed rest, and radiologic improvement was observed simultaneously on MRI scans. The average duration until symptomatic recovery and/or regression of LDH symptoms was 13.6 ± 5.4 months (range: 5−22). Conclusions It should be kept in mind that lumbar disc hernias could regress with medical treatment and rest without surgery, and there should be an awareness that these patients could recover radiologically. This condition must be taken into account during decision making for surgical intervention in LDH patients devoid of indications for emergent surgery. PMID:28119770

  3. Wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeoman, J.C. Jr.

    1978-12-01

    This evaluation of wind turbines is part of a series of Technology Evaluations of possible components and subsystems of community energy systems. Wind turbines, ranging in size from 200 W to 10 MW, are discussed as candidates for prime movers in community systems. Estimates of performance characteristics and cost as a function of rated capacity and rated wind speed are presented. Data concerning material requirements, environmental effects, and operating procedures also are given and are represented empirically to aid computer simulation.

  4. The properties of discs around planets and brown dwarfs as evidence for disc fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatellos, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    Direct imaging searches have revealed many very low-mass objects, including a small number of planetary mass objects, as wide-orbit companions to young stars. The formation mechanism of these objects remains uncertain. In this paper we present the predictions of the disc fragmentation model regarding the properties of the discs around such low-mass objects. We find that the discs around objects that have formed by fragmentation in discs hosted by Sun-like stars (referred to as 'parent' discs and 'parent' stars) are more massive than expected from the ${M}_{\\rm disc}-M_*$ relation (which is derived for stars with masses $M_*>0.2 {\\rm M}_{\\odot}$). Accordingly, the accretion rates onto these objects are also higher than expected from the $\\dot{M}_*-M_*$ relation. Moreover there is no significant correlation between the mass of the brown dwarf or planet with the mass of its disc nor with the accretion rate from the disc onto it. The discs around objects that form by disc fragmentation have larger than expected m...

  5. Stellar irradiated discs and implications on migration of embedded planets II: accreting-discs

    CERN Document Server

    Bitsch, Bertram; Lega, Elena; Crida, Aurélien

    2014-01-01

    The strength and direction of migration of embedded low mass planets depends on the disc's structure. It has been shown that, in discs with viscous heating and radiative transport, the migration can be directed outwards. In this paper we investigate the influence of a constant dM/dt-flux through the disc, as well as the influence of the disc's metallicity on the disc's thermodynamics. We focus on dM/dt discs, which have a net mass flux through them. Utilizing the resulting disc structure, we determine the regions of outward migration in the disc. We perform numerical hydrosimulations of dM/dt discs with viscous heating, radiative cooling and stellar irradiation in 2D in the r-z-plane. We use the explicit/implicit hydrodynamical code FARGOCA that includes a full tensor viscosity and stellar irradiation, as well as a two temperature solver that includes radiation transport in the flux-limited diffusion approximation. The migration of embedded planets is studied by using torque formulae. For a disc of gas surfac...

  6. The winds from HL Tau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, P. D.; Mottram, J. C.; Maud, L. T.; Juhasz, A.

    2016-01-01

    Outflowing motions, whether a wind launched from the disc, a jet launched from the protostar, or the entrained molecular outflow, appear to be a ubiquitous feature of star formation. These outwards motions have a number of root causes, and how they manifest is intricately linked to their environment as well as the process of star formation itself. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Science Verification data of HL Tau, we investigate the high-velocity molecular gas being removed from the system as a result of the star formation process. We aim to place these motions in context with the optically detected jet, and the disc. With these high-resolution (∼1 arcsec) ALMA observations of CO (J=1−0), we quantify the outwards motions of the molecular gas. We find evidence for a bipolar outwards flow, with an opening angle, as measured in the redshifted lobe, starting off at 90°, and narrowing to 60° further from the disc, likely because of magnetic collimation. Its outwards velocity, corrected for inclination angle is of the order of 2.4 km s−1. PMID:27559304

  7. Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganley, Jason; Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2016-03-15

    Wind energy is a variable and uncertain renewable resource that has long been used to produce mechanical work, and has developed into a large producer of global electricity needs. As renewable sources of energy and feedstocks become more important globally to produce sustainable products, many different processes have started adopting wind power as an energy source. Many times this is through a conversion to hydrogen through electrolysis that allows for a more continuous process input. Other important pathways include methanol and ammonia. As the demand for sustainable products and production pathways increases, and wind power capital costs decrease, the role of wind power in chemical and energy production seems poised to increase significantly.

  8. Stem cells sources for intervertebral disc regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gianluca; Vadalà; Fabrizio; Russo; Luca; Ambrosio; Mattia; Loppini; Vincenzo; Denaro

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disc regeneration field is rapidly growing since disc disorders represent a major health problem in industrialized countries with very few possible treatments.Indeed, current available therapies are symptomatic, and surgical procedures consist in disc removal and spinal fusion, which is not immune to regardable concerns about possible comorbidities, cost-effectiveness, secondary risks and long-lasting outcomes. This review paper aims to share recent advances in stem cell therapy for the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration. In literature the potential use of different adult stem cells for intervertebral disc regeneration has already been reported. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, adipose tissue derived stem cells, synovial stem cells, muscle-derived stem cells, olfactory neural stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, disc stem cells, and embryonic stem cells have been studied for this purpose either in vitro or in vivo. Moreover, several engineered carriers(e.g., hydrogels), characterized by full biocompatibility and prompt biodegradation, have been designed and combined with different stem cell types in order to optimize the local and controlled delivery of cellular substrates in situ. The paper overviews the literature discussing the current status of our knowledge of the different stem cells types used as a cell-based therapy for disc regeneration.

  9. Have proto-planetary discs formed planets?

    CERN Document Server

    Greaves, J S

    2010-01-01

    It has recently been noted that many discs around T Tauri stars appear to comprise only a few Jupiter-masses of gas and dust. Using millimetre surveys of discs within six local star-formation regions, we confirm this result, and find that only a few percent of young stars have enough circumstellar material to build gas giant planets, in standard core accretion models. Since the frequency of observed exo-planets is greater than this, there is a `missing mass' problem. As alternatives to simply adjusting the conversion of dust-flux to disc mass, we investigate three other classes of solution. Migration of planets could hypothetically sweep up the disc mass reservoir more efficiently, but trends in multi-planet systems do not support such a model, and theoretical models suggest that the gas accretion timescale is too short for migration to sweep the disc. Enhanced inner-disc mass reservoirs are possible, agreeing with predictions of disc evolution through self-gravity, but not adding to millimetre dust-flux as t...

  10. The tidal disruption of protoplanetary accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Larwood, J D

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we revisit the problem of the tidal interaction occuring between a protostellar accretion disc and a secondary point mass following a parabolic trajectory. We model the disc response analytically and we compare our results with three-dimensional SPH simulations. Inviscid as well as viscous hydrodynamics is considered. We show that in a viscous system the response derived from inviscid considerations is predominant even for the highest estimates of an anomalous disc shear viscosity. The angular momentum lost from the disc during the encounter is derived from linear theory, for distant fly-bys, as well as the changes to the disc orientation expected in non-coplanar encounters. It is shown that the target discs can become warped and precess by a small amount during non-coplanar encounters. This small precession is shown to give rise to a relative tilt of the disc which is always more important for determining its final orientation than is the change to the orbital inclination. We discuss the implic...

  11. Stem cells sources for intervertebral disc regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadalà, Gianluca; Russo, Fabrizio; Ambrosio, Luca; Loppini, Mattia; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2016-05-26

    Intervertebral disc regeneration field is rapidly growing since disc disorders represent a major health problem in industrialized countries with very few possible treatments. Indeed, current available therapies are symptomatic, and surgical procedures consist in disc removal and spinal fusion, which is not immune to regardable concerns about possible comorbidities, cost-effectiveness, secondary risks and long-lasting outcomes. This review paper aims to share recent advances in stem cell therapy for the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration. In literature the potential use of different adult stem cells for intervertebral disc regeneration has already been reported. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, adipose tissue derived stem cells, synovial stem cells, muscle-derived stem cells, olfactory neural stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, disc stem cells, and embryonic stem cells have been studied for this purpose either in vitro or in vivo. Moreover, several engineered carriers (e.g., hydrogels), characterized by full biocompatibility and prompt biodegradation, have been designed and combined with different stem cell types in order to optimize the local and controlled delivery of cellular substrates in situ. The paper overviews the literature discussing the current status of our knowledge of the different stem cells types used as a cell-based therapy for disc regeneration.

  12. Optically-thick accretion discs with advection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈林红; 吴枚; 尚仁成

    2002-01-01

    The structures of optically-thick accretion discs with radial advection have been investigated by the iteration and integration algorithms. The advective cooling term changes mostly the inner part of disc solution, and even results in an optically-thick advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF). Three distinct branches-the outer Shakura-Sunyaev disc (SSD), the inner ADAF and the middle transition layer-are found for a super-Eddington disc. The SSD-ADAF transition radius can be estimated as 18(M/ME)RG where RG is the Schwarzschild radius, M is the mass accretion rate and ME is the Eddington accretion rate. SSD solutions calculated with the iteration and integration methods are identical, while ADAF solutions obtained by these two methods differ greatly. Detailed algorithms and their differences have been analysed. The iteration algorithm is not self-consistent, since it implies that the dimensionless advection factor ξ is invariant, but in the inner ADAF region the variation of ξ is not negligible. The integration algorithm is always effective for the whole region of an optically-thick disc if the accretion rate is no smaller than 10-4ME. For optically-thin discs, the validity of these two algorithms is different. We suggest that the integration method be employed to calculate the global solution of a disc model without assuming ξ to be a constant. We also discuss its application to the emergent continuum spectrum in order to explain observational facts.

  13. Chemical separation of disc components using RAVE

    CERN Document Server

    Wojno, Jennifer; Steinmetz, Matthias; McMillan, Paul J; Matijevič, Gal; Binney, James; Wyse, Rosemary F G; Boeche, Corrado; Just, Andreas; Grebel, Eva K; Siebert, Arnaud; Bienaymé, Olivier; Gibson, Brad K; Zwitter, Tomaž; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Navarro, Julio F; Parker, Quentin A; Reid, Warren; Seabroke, George; Watson, Fred

    2016-01-01

    We present evidence from the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) survey of chemically separated, kinematically distinct disc components in the solar neighbourhood. We apply probabilistic chemical selection criteria to separate our sample into $\\alpha$-low (`thin disc') and $\\alpha$-high (`thick disc') components. Using newly derived distances, which will be utilized in the upcoming RAVE DR5, we explore the kinematic trends as a function of metallicity for each of the disc components. For our thin disc stars, we find a negative trend in the mean rotational velocity ($V_{\\mathrm{\\phi}}$) as a function of iron abundance ([Fe/H]). We measure a positive trend in $\\partial V_{\\mathrm{\\phi}}$/$\\partial$[Fe/H] for the thick disc, consistent with results from high-resolution surveys. We also find differences between the chemical thin and thick discs in all three components of velocity dispersion. We discuss the implications of an $\\alpha$-low, metal-rich population originating from the inner Galaxy, where the orbits of ...

  14. Structure of radiation dominated gravitoturbulent quasar discs

    CERN Document Server

    Shadmehri, Mohsen; Dib, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Self-gravitating accretion discs in a gravitoturbulent state, including radiation and gas pressures, are studied using a set of new analytical solutions. While the Toomre parameter of the disc remains close to its critical value for the onset of gravitational instability, the dimensionless stress parameter is uniquely determined from the thermal energy reservoir of the disc and its cooling rate. Our solutions are applicable to the accretion discs with dynamically important radiation pressure like in the quasars discs. We show that physical quantities of a gravitoturbulent disc in the presence of radiation are significantly modified compared to solutions with only gas pressure. We show that the dimensionless stress parameter is an increasing function of the radial distance so that its steepness strongly depends on the accretion rate. In a disc without radiation its slope is 4.5, however, we show that in the presence of radiation, it varies between 2 and 4.5 depending on the accretion rate and the central mass....

  15. Endoscopic anterior decompression in cervical disc disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yad Ram Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although microscopic anterior cervical discectomy with or without fusion are common surgical procedures for treatment of cervical herniated discs, loss of disc height, pseudarthrosis, and adjacent disc degeneration are some of the problems associated with it. This study is aimed to evaluate results of endoscopic microforaminotomy in cervical disc diseases. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 50 patients of mono segmental soft or hard disc causing myeloradiculopathy was undertaken. A visual analogue scale (VAS for neck and arm pain and functional outcomes using the Nurick grading system were assessed. There were 28, 12, 8, and 2 patients at C5-6, C6-7, C4-5, and C3-4 levels disc diseases, respectively. Patients with two or more level disc, instabilities, disc extending more than half vertebral body height, and previous operation at the same segment were excluded. Results: Age ranged from 21 to 67 years. Average postoperative reduction in disc height, operating time, and blood loss was 1.1 mm, 110 minutes, and 30 ml, respectively. Average pre-operative VAS score for arm pain and Nurick grading was 7.6 and 2.7, which improved to 1.9 and 0.82, respectively. All patients improved; 1, 2, 3 grade improvement was seen in 10, 27, and 10 patients, respectively. There was no significant complication or any mortality. Conclusion: Although longer follow up of large number of patients is required, endoscopic microforaminotomy is a safe and an effective alternative to microscopic anterior discectomy with or without fusion.

  16. Modeling and Thermal Analysis of Disc

    OpenAIRE

    Brake Praveena S; Lava Kumar M

    2014-01-01

    The disc brake is a device used for slowing or stopping the rotation of the vehicle. Number of times using the brake for vehicle leads to heat generation during braking event, such that disc brake undergoes breakage due to high Temperature. Disc brake model is done by CATIA and analysis is done by using ANSYS workbench. The main purpose of this project is to study the Thermal analysis of the Materials for the Aluminum, Grey Cast Iron, HSS M42, and HSS M2. A comparison between ...

  17. Groups, cacti and framed little discs

    CERN Document Server

    Hepworth, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Let G be a topological group. Then the based loopspace of G is an algebra over the cacti operad, while the double loopspace of the classifying space of G is an algebra over the framed little discs operad. This paper shows that these two algebras are equivalent, in the sense that they are weakly equivalent E-algebras, where E is an operad weakly equivalent to both framed little discs and cacti. We recover the equivalence between cacti and framed little discs, and Menichi's isomorphism between the BV-algebras obtained by taking the homology of the loopspace of G and of the double loopspace of BG.

  18. A lumbar disc surgery predictive score card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finneson, B E

    1978-06-01

    A lumbar disc surgery predictive score card or questionnaire has been developed to assess potential candidates for excision of a herniated lumbar disc who have not previously undergone lumbar spine surgery. It is not designed to encompass patients who are being considered for other types of lumbar spine surgery, such as decompressive laminectomy or fusion. In an effort to make the "score card" usable by almost all physicians who are involved in lumbar disc surgery, only studies which have broad acceptance and are generally employed are included. Studies which have less widespread use such as electromyogram, discogram, venogram, special psychologic studies (MMPI, pain drawings) have been purposely excluded.

  19. Spectroscopic Parameters of Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terbetas, G.; Kozlovskaja, A.; Varanius, D.; Graziene, V.; Vaitkus, J.; Vaitkuviene, A.

    2009-06-01

    There are numerous methods of investigating intervertebral disc. Visualization methods are widely used in clinical practice. Histological, imunohistochemical and biochemical methods are more used in scientific research. We propose that a new spectroscopic investigation would be useful in determining intervertebral disc material, especially when no histological specimens are available. Purpose: to determine spectroscopic parameters of intervertebral disc material; to determine emission spectra common for all intervertebral discs; to create a background for further spectroscopic investigation where no histological specimen will be available. Material and Methods: 20 patients, 68 frozen sections of 20 μm thickness from operatively removed intervertebral disc hernia were excited by Nd:YAG microlaser STA-01-TH third harmonic 355 nm light throw 0, 1 mm fiber. Spectrophotometer OceanOptics USB2000 was used for spectra collection. Mathematical analysis of spectra was performed by ORIGIN multiple Gaussian peaks analysis. Results: In each specimen of disc hernia were found distinct maximal spectral peaks of 4 types supporting the histological evaluation of mixture content of the hernia. Fluorescence in the spectral regions 370-700 nm was detected in the disc hernias. The main spectral component was at 494 nm and the contribution of the components with the peak wavelength values at 388 nm, 412 nm and 435±5 nm were varying in the different groups of samples. In comparison to average spectrum of all cases, there are 4 groups of different spectral signatures in the region 400-500 nm in the patient groups, supporting a clinical data on different clinical features of the patients. Discussion and Conclusion: besides the classical open discectomy, new minimally invasive techniques of treating intervertebral disc emerge (PLDD). Intervertebral disc in these techniques is assessed by needle, no histological specimen is taken. Spectroscopic investigation via fiber optics through the

  20. Investigation of the coatings applied onto brake discs on disc-brake pad pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kiliçaslan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available While braking, according to the severity of it, thermal, metallurgical, constructive and tribological occurrences emerge on the brake disc-pad interface. In this study, NiCr was sprayed as bonding layer onto the discs, one ofwhich was coated with Al2O3-TiO2 by plasma spray and the other was coated with NiCr-Cr3C2 by High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF. In addition, the discs were tested with inertia dynamometer according to SAE’s J2522 testing procedure. The measurements showed that although the pads of the coated discs were exposed to higher braking temperatures, friction coefficient of the disc coated with NiCr- Cr3C2 was obtained 6 % higher compared to the original disc.

  1. Stellar irradiated discs and implications on migration of embedded planets I: equilibrium discs

    CERN Document Server

    Bitsch, Bertram; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Kley, Willy; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The strength and direction of migration of low mass planets depends on the disc's thermodynamics. In discs where the viscous heating is balanced by radiative transport, the migration can be directed outwards, a process which extends the lifetime of growing planetary embryos. We investigate the influence of opacity and stellar irradiation on the disc thermodynamics. Utilizing the resulting disc structure, we determine the regions of outward migration. We perform two-dimensional numerical simulations of equilibrium discs with viscous heating, radiative cooling and stellar irradiation. We use the hydrodynamical code NIRVANA that includes a full tensor viscosity and stellar irradiation, as well as a two temperature solver that includes radiation transport in the flux-limited diffusion approximation. The migration is studied by using torque formulae. In the constant opacity case, we reproduce the analytical results of a black-body disc: the stellar irradiation dominates in the outer regions -- leading to flaring -...

  2. Burned-out discs stop hurting: fact or fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Tom; Kjaer, Per; Korsholm, Lars

    2008-01-01

    ). The risk for LBP during the past year attributed to black discs was 11%. CONCLUSION: The data could not support the hypothesis that severely degenerated discs are "burned out" and become less painful. People with black discs had a higher prevalence of LBP compared to those with grey or normal discs...

  3. Harnessing Wind

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s wind power industry shifts into full gear The global oil crunch and environmental degradation have given rise to an ardent search for alternative and green energies throughout the world. For China, wind power is a choice one and its development is sizzling hot backed by

  4. Cervical disc arthroplasty with ProDisc-C artificial disc: 5-year radiographic follow-up results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yan-bin; SUN Yu; ZHOU Fei-fei; LIU ZHONG-jun

    2013-01-01

    Background Cervical disc arthroplasty is an alternative surgery to standard cervical decompression and fusion for disc degeneration.Different types of cervical disc prosthesis are used in China.The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiographic outcomes of cervical arthroplasty using the ProDisc-C prosthesis.Methods Radiographic evaluation,including static and dynamic flexion-extension lateral images,was performed at baseline and at final follow-up.Results Twenty six patients who had single-level ProDisc-C arthroplasty were followed up for a mean period of 63 months (56-76 months).The range of motion at the operated level was 9.3°±3.7° at baseline and 7.3°±3.5° at final follow-up,with a significant difference (P <0.05).Seventeen of 26 levels (65.4%) developed heterotopic ossification:three were classified as grade Ⅱ,13 were classified as grade Ⅲ,and 1 as grade Ⅳ,according to McAfee's classification.Forty nine adjacent segments were evaluated by lateral Ⅹ-ray and 18 (36.7%) segments developed adjacent segment degenerations.Conclusions ProDisc-C arthroplasty had acceptable radiographic results at 5-year follow-up.The range of motion was preserved.However,more than 60% of the patients developed heterotopic ossification.

  5. Medium-term outcomes of artificial disc replacement for severe cervical disc narrowing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-Hung Yeh; Che-Wei Hung; Cheng-Hsing Kao; Chien-Ming Chao

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine if theBryan cervical disc prosthesis could relieve objective neurological symptoms, signs, and restore mobility in patients with severe cervical disc narrowing. Methods:Clinical data of thirty-two patients underwentBryan cervical disc replacement has been collected fromApril2006 toFebruary2010.Severe cervical disc narrowing with gradeV disc degeneration were included in this study.Bryan cervical disc prostheses have been implanted through anterior approach.JapaneseOrthopedicsAssociation(JOA) score, visual analog scale, Odom’s scale, and flexion-extension radiological follow-ups were applied for evaluations. Results:A total of41Bryan disc prostheses from32 patients with an average follow-up duration of33.5 months(range23 to44 months) were evaluated.Clinical functions of patients were significantly improved.Preoperative averaged visual analog scale score of6.3±2.2 was decreased to1.3±1.2(at36 months,P<0.001), while preoperative averagedJOA score of14.4±1.2 was increased to16.3±0.9(at36 months,P<0.001).Thirty of32 patients received excellent to good outcomes inOdom’s scale.Averaged mobility was restored to(9.9±3.2)°at the last follow-up evaluation of36 months.No subsidence or migration of implant was identified. Conclusions:Acceptable clinical outcome for treatment of severe cervical disc narrowing with cervical disc replacement technique has been performed in current study.Most patients maintained good postoperative mobility and no significant adjacent level degeneration were found.Cervical disc replacement may be applicable in treatment of severe cervical disc narrowing; however, longer follow-ups are required for ensuring the long-term efficacy of cervical disc replacement.

  6. Landing gear noise attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  7. Wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithead, W E

    2007-04-15

    From its rebirth in the early 1980s, the rate of development of wind energy has been dramatic. Today, other than hydropower, it is the most important of the renewable sources of power. The UK Government and the EU Commission have adopted targets for renewable energy generation of 10 and 12% of consumption, respectively. Much of this, by necessity, must be met by wind energy. The US Department of Energy has set a goal of 6% of electricity supply from wind energy by 2020. For this potential to be fully realized, several aspects, related to public acceptance, and technical issues, related to the expected increase in penetration on the electricity network and the current drive towards larger wind turbines, need to be resolved. Nevertheless, these challenges will be met and wind energy will, very likely, become increasingly important over the next two decades. An overview of the technology is presented.

  8. Treatment of lumbar disc herniation by percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD) and modified PLDD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xiao fei; Li, Hong zhi; Wu, Ru zhou; Sui, Yun xian

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To study the micro-invasive operative method and to compare the effect of treatment of PLDD and modified PLDD for Lumbar Disc Herniation. Method: Vaporized part of the nucleus pulposus in single or multiple point after acupuncture into lumbar disc, to reach the purpose of the decompression of the lumbar disc. Result: Among the 19 cases of the regular PLDD group, the excellent and good rate was 63.2%, and among the 40 cases of the modified PLDD group, the excellent and good rate was 82.5%. Conclusion: The modified PLDD has good effect on the treatment for lumbar disc herniation.

  9. Transradicular lumbar disc herniation: An extreme variant of intraradicular disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasliwal, Manish K; Shimer, Adam L

    2015-01-01

    Intradural or intraradicular lumbar disc herniation (IDH) is a relatively rare condition often diagnosed intraoperatively. We encountered an extreme variant of IDH - a transradicular herniation as the disc material extruded through the lumbar nerve root through a split essentially transecting the nerve root. While failure to recognize intradural and intraradicular disc herniation can lead to failed back surgery, the variant described in the present case could lead to iatrogenic injury and complication if not recognized. A unique case of transradicular lumbar disc herniation in a 25-year-old patient is presented with the depiction of intraoperative images supplementing the text.

  10. Axial T2* mapping in intervertebral discs: a new technique for assessment of intervertebral disc degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Sven; Quirbach, Sebastian; Krause, Fabian G.; Benneker, Lorin M. [Inselspital, Berne University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Berne (Switzerland); Mamisch, Tallal C. [Inselspital, Berne University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Berne (Switzerland); Werlen, Stefan [Clinic Sonnenhof, Department of Radiology, Berne (Switzerland)

    2012-09-15

    To demonstrate the potential benefits of biochemical axial T2* mapping of intervertebral discs (IVDs) regarding the detection and grading of early stages of degenerative disc disease using 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a clinical setting. Ninety-three patients suffering from lumbar spine problems were examined using standard MRI protocols including an axial T2* mapping protocol. All discs were classified morphologically and grouped as ''healthy'' or ''abnormal''. Differences between groups were analysed regarding to the specific T2* pattern at different regions of interest (ROIs). Healthy intervertebral discs revealed a distinct cross-sectional T2* value profile: T2* values were significantly lower in the annulus fibrosus compared with the nucleus pulposus (P = 0.01). In abnormal IVDs, T2* values were significantly lower, especially towards the centre of the disc representing the expected decreased water content of the nucleus (P = 0.01). In herniated discs, ROIs within the nucleus pulposus and ROIs covering the annulus fibrosus showed decreased T2* values. Axial T2* mapping is effective to detect early stages of degenerative disc disease. There is a potential benefit of axial T2* mapping as a diagnostic tool, allowing the quantitative assessment of intervertebral disc degeneration. circle Axial T2* mapping effective in detecting early degenerative disc disease. (orig.)

  11. CFD Analysis Of Straight Ventilated Disc Brake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil K

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brakes are the key pieces of a vehicle that plays an active role in safety and performance of the system. The study of aerodynamic cooling of a disc brake in real working condition of vehicle is important in present situations. Brake discs get very hot quickly, so it should be dissipated properly through different modes of heat transfer. Contributions of these heat transfer modes are different in different type of problems. The cooling transfer rates are different in vane surface and frictional surface of a disc brake. Also the temperature varies in each small interval of braking time. So a transient problem simulation is important to study the cooling of a disc brake when a vehicle decelerates from a particular speed. ANSYS CFX tool is used for the simulation of this transient problem.

  12. Modeling and Thermal Analysis of Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brake Praveena S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The disc brake is a device used for slowing or stopping the rotation of the vehicle. Number of times using the brake for vehicle leads to heat generation during braking event, such that disc brake undergoes breakage due to high Temperature. Disc brake model is done by CATIA and analysis is done by using ANSYS workbench. The main purpose of this project is to study the Thermal analysis of the Materials for the Aluminum, Grey Cast Iron, HSS M42, and HSS M2. A comparison between the four materials for the Thermal values and material properties obtained from the Thermal analysis low thermal gradient material is preferred. Hence best suitable design, low thermal gradient material Grey cast iron is preferred for the Disc Brakes for better performance.

  13. Clumps and Axisymmetric Features in Debris Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Ing-Guey

    2013-01-01

    This paper studied the structures of debris discs, focusing on the conditions that can form an axisymmetric-looking outer disc from systems with inner clumps. The main conclusion was that as long as the dominated dust grains are smaller than the blowout size, it is easy to form an axisymmetric-looking outer debris disc, which is part of a quasi-steady state of the whole system. This quasi-steady state is established through the balance between grain generations and a continuous out-going grain flow. Assuming there is an event that starts planetesimal collisions and the corresponding grain generations, this balance can be approached in a few thousand years. This result suggested that a quasi-steady-state picture could solve the possible mass budget problem of Vega's outer debris disc.

  14. Spiral shocks and accretion in discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spruit, H.C.; Matsuda, T.; Inoue, M.; Sawada, K.

    1987-12-01

    Recent numerical and analytical results on disc-like accretion with shock waves as the only dissipation mechanism are compared. The global properties of the process are similar to those of the viscous (..cap alpha..) disc model, but precise values of the effective ..cap alpha.. value as a function of the accretion rate can be calculated. At low values of the ratio of specific heats (..gamma.. < 1.45) accretion is possible without radiative losses. Such adiabatic accretion can occur in practice at high accretion rates on to low mass objects and may be important in the formation of planets. Following previous authors, it is pointed out that non-axisymmetric perturbations in the outer parts of a disc increase in amplitude as they propagate in and cause spiral shocks more easily in a disc than perturbations originating in the inner parts.

  15. Eclipse Mapping: Astrotomography of Accretion Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Baptista, Raymundo

    2015-01-01

    The Eclipse Mapping Method is an indirect imaging technique that transforms the shape of the eclipse light curve into a map of the surface brightness distribution of the occulted regions. Three decades of application of this technique to the investigation of the structure, the spectrum and the time evolution of accretion discs around white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables have enriched our understanding of these accretion devices with a wealth of details such as (but not limited to) moving heating/cooling waves during outbursts in dwarf novae, tidally-induced spiral shocks of emitting gas with sub-Keplerian velocities, elliptical precessing discs associated to superhumps, and measurements of the radial run of the disc viscosity through the mapping of the disc flickering sources. This chapter reviews the principles of the method, discusses its performance, limitations, useful error propagation procedures, as well as highlights a selection of applications aimed at showing the possible scientific problems that ha...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: intervertebral disc disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ikegawa S. The genetics of common degenerative skeletal disorders: osteoarthritis and degenerative disc disease. Annu Rev Genomics Hum ... article on PubMed Central Reviewed : October 2016 Published : March 21, 2017 The resources on this site should ...

  17. [Disc electrophoresis of collagen protein (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitmayr, P; Verzár, F

    1975-01-01

    The composition of proteins extracted from tendon collagen is investigated by disc electrophoresis. No qualitative differences can be demonstrated between young and old collagen. The action of formaldehyde and methionine on the tendons has no effect on the electrophoretic picture.

  18. The Annulus Property of Simple Holomorphic Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Zehmisch, Kai

    2010-01-01

    We show that any simple holomorphic disc admits the annulus property, i.e., each interior point is surrounded by an arbitrary small annulus consisting entirely of injective points. As an application we show that interior singularities of holomorphic discs can be resolved after slight perturbation of the involved almost complex structure. Moreover, for boundary points the analogue notion, the half-annulus property, is introduced and studied in detail.

  19. The annulus property of simple holomorphic discs

    OpenAIRE

    Zehmisch, Kai

    2013-01-01

    We show that any simple holomorphic disc admits the annulus property, i.e., each interior point is surrounded by an arbitrary small annulus consisting entirely of injective points. As an application we show that interior singularities of holomorphic discs can be resolved after slight perturbation of the almost complex structure. Moreover, for boundary points the analogue notion, the half-annulus property, is introduced and studied in detail.

  20. Massive thin accretion discs. Pt. 2; Polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laor, A.; Netzer, H. (Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel)); Piran, T. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Racah Inst. of Physics)

    1990-02-15

    Thin accretion discs around massive black holes are believed to produce much of the observed optical-UV emission from AGN. Classical calculations predict that this radiation is highly polarized at large inclination angles, in contrast to observations of quasars and Seyfert galaxies. We have calculated the spectrum and polarization of such discs using an improved radiative transfer method with all the relevant opacity sources, and a full general relativistic treatment of the radiation propagation. (author).

  1. Lyman edges in AGN accretion discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerny, B. (Copernicus Astronomical Center, Warsaw (Poland)); Pojmanski, G. (Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Obserwatorium Astronomiczne)

    1990-07-01

    We show that the basic difference in the two principal approaches to predictions of the Lyman edge in an accretion disc lies in the implicit assumption about the density of the radiating gas. Independent from the details, models predict a broad range of the edge sizes, both in absorption and in emission. Observed spectra do not exhibit any strong feature at 912 A but may still be consistent with an accretion disc mechanism if more advanced theory is developed. (author).

  2. Gene expression profile analysis of human intervertebral disc degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Chen; Dajiang Wu; Xiaodong Zhu; Haijian Ni; Xianzhao Wei; Ningfang Mao; Yang Xie; Yunfei Niu; Ming Li

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used microarray analysis to investigate the biogenesis and progression of intervertebral disc degeneration. The gene expression profiles of 37 disc tissue samples obtained from patients with herniated discs and degenerative disc disease collected by the National Cancer Institute Cooperative Tissue Network were analyzed. Differentially expressed genes between more and less degenerated discs were identified by significant analysis of microarray. A total of 555 genes were signi...

  3. The Diversity of Thick Galactic Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Kasparova, Anastasia V; Chilingarian, Igor V; Silchenko, Olga K; Moiseev, Alexey V; Borisov, Svyatoslav B

    2016-01-01

    Although thick stellar discs are detected in nearly all edge-on disc galaxies, their formation scenarios still remain a matter of debate. Due to observational difficulties, there is a lack of information about their stellar populations. Using the Russian 6-m telescope BTA we collected deep spectra of thick discs in three edge-on S0-a disc galaxies located in different environments: NGC4111 in a dense group, NGC4710 in the Virgo cluster, and NGC5422 in a sparse group. We see intermediate age (4-5 Gyr) metal rich ([Fe/H] $\\sim$ -0.2 - 0.0 dex) stellar populations in NGC4111 and NGC4710. On the other hand, NGC5422 does not harbour young stars, its disc is thick and old (10 Gyr), without evidence for a second component, and its $\\alpha$-element abundance suggests a 1.5-2 Gyr long formation epoch implying its formation at high redshift. Our results suggest the diversity of thick disc formation scenarios.

  4. Turbulent drag reduction through oscillating discs

    CERN Document Server

    Wise, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    The changes of a turbulent channel flow subjected to oscillations of wall flush-mounted rigid discs are studied by means of direct numerical simulations. The Reynolds number is $R_\\tau$=$180$, based on the friction velocity of the stationary-wall case and the half channel height. The primary effect of the wall forcing is the sustained reduction of wall-shear stress, which reaches a maximum of 20%. A parametric study on the disc diameter, maximum tip velocity, and oscillation period is presented, with the aim to identify the optimal parameters which guarantee maximum drag reduction and maximum net energy saving, computed by taking into account the power spent to actuate the discs. This may be positive and reaches 6%. The Rosenblat viscous pump flow is used to predict the power spent for disc motion in the turbulent channel flow and to estimate localized and transient regions over the disc surface subjected to the turbulent regenerative braking effect, for which the wall turbulence exerts work on the discs. The...

  5. Magnetic white dwarfs with debris discs

    CERN Document Server

    Külebi, Baybars; Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo; Isern, Jordi; García-Berro, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    It has long been accepted that a possible mechanism for explaining the existence of magnetic white dwarfs is the merger of a binary white dwarf system, as there are viable mechanisms for producing sustainable magnetic fields within the merger product. However, the lack of rapid rotators in the magnetic white dwarf population has been always considered a problematic issue of this scenario. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics simulations show that in mergers in which the two white dwarfs have different masses a disc around the central compact object is formed. If the central object is magnetized it can interact with the disc through its magnetosphere. The torque applied by the disc changes the spin of the star, whereas the transferred angular momentum from the star to the disc determines the properties of the disc. In this work we build a model for the disc evolution under the effect of magnetic accretion, and for the angular momentum evolution of the star, which can be compared with the observations. Our model pre...

  6. The maximum rotation of a galactic disc

    CERN Document Server

    Bottema, R

    1997-01-01

    The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously rising rotation curve until the outermost measured radial position. That is why a general relation has been derived, giving the maximum rotation for a disc depending on the luminosity, surface brightness, and colour of the disc. As a physical basis of this relation serves an adopted fixed mass-to-light ratio as a function of colour. That functionality is consistent with results from population synthesis models and its absolute value is determined from the observed stellar velocity dispersions. The derived maximum disc rotation is compared with a number of observed maximum rotations, clearly demonstrating the need for appreciable amounts of dark matter in the disc region and even more so for LSB galaxies. Matters h...

  7. Clumpy Disc and Bulge Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, J; Tissera, P; Michel-Dansac, L

    2013-01-01

    We present a set of hydrodynamical/Nbody controlled simulations of isolated gas rich galaxies that self-consistently include SN feedback and a detailed chemical evolution model, both tested in cosmological simulations. The initial conditions are motivated by the observed star forming galaxies at z ~ 2-3. We find that the presence of a multiphase interstellar media in our models promotes the growth of disc instability favouring the formation of clumps which in general, are not easily disrupted on timescales compared to the migration time. We show that stellar clumps migrate towards the central region and contribute to form a classical-like bulge with a Sersic index, n > 2. Our physically-motivated Supernova feedback has a mild influence on clump survival and evolution, partially limiting the mass growth of clumps as the energy released per Supernova event is increased, with the consequent flattening of the bulge profile. This regulation does not prevent the building of a classical-like bulge even for the most ...

  8. The role of disc self-gravity in circumbinary planet systems - I. Disc structure and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, Matthew M.; Pierens, Arnaud; Nelson, Richard P.

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of self-gravitating circumbinary discs around binaries whose parameters match those of the circumbinary planet-hosting systems Kepler-16, Kepler-34 and Kepler-35. Previous work has shown that non-self-gravitating discs in these systems form an eccentric precessing inner cavity due to tidal truncation by the binary, and planets which form at large radii migrate until stalling at this cavity. Whilst this scenario appears to provide a natural explanation for the observed orbital locations of the circumbinary planets, previous simulations have failed to match the observed planet orbital parameters. The aim of this work is to examine the role of self-gravity in modifying circumbinary disc structure as a function of disc mass, prior to considering the evolution of embedded circumbinary planets. In agreement with previous work, we find that for disc masses between one and five times the minimum mass solar nebula (MMSN), disc self-gravity affects modest changes in the structure and evolution of circumbinary discs. Increasing the disc mass to 10 or 20 MMSN leads to two dramatic changes in disc structure. First, the scale of the inner cavity shrinks substantially, bringing its outer edge closer to the binary. Secondly, in addition to the eccentric inner cavity, additional precessing eccentric ring-like features develop in the outer regions of the discs. If planet formation starts early in the disc lifetime, these changes will have a significant impact on the formation and evolution of planets and precursor material.

  9. Dynamic, six-axis stiffness matrix characteristics of the intact intervertebral disc and a disc replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsgrove, Timothy P; Gill, Harinderjit S; Miles, Anthony W; Gheduzzi, Sabina

    2015-11-01

    Thorough pre-testing is critical in assessing the likely in vivo performance of spinal devices prior to clinical use. However, there is a lack of data available concerning the dynamic testing of lumbar (porcine model) total disc replacements in all six axes under preload conditions. The aim of this study was to provide new data comparing porcine lumbar spinal specimen stiffness between the intact state and after the implantation of an unconstrained total disc replacement, in 6 degrees of freedom. The dynamic, stiffness matrix testing of six porcine lumbar isolated disc specimens was completed using triangle waves at a test frequency of 0.1 Hz. An axial preload of 500 N was applied during all testing. Specimens were tested both in the intact condition and after the implantation of the total disc replacement. Sixteen key stiffness terms were identified for the comparison of the intact and total disc replacement specimens, comprising the 6 principal stiffness terms and 10 key off-axis stiffness terms. The total disc replacement specimens were significantly different to the intact specimens in 12 of these key terms including all six principal stiffness terms. The implantation of the total disc replacement resulted in a mean reduction in the principal stiffness terms of 100%, 91%, and 98% in lateral bending, flexion-extension, and axial rotation, respectively. The novel findings of this study have demonstrated that the unconstrained, low-friction total disc replacement does not replicate the stiffness of the intact specimens. It is likely that other low-friction total disc replacements would produce similar results due to stiffness being actively minimised as part of the design of low-friction devices, without the introduction of stiffening elements or mechanisms to more accurately replicate the mechanical properties of the natural intervertebral disc. This study has demonstrated, for the first time, a method for the quantitative comparative mechanical function

  10. Finite element based nonlinear normalization of human lumbar intervertebral disc stiffness to account for its morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquer, Ghislain; Laurent, Marc; Brandejsky, Vaclav; Pretterklieber, Michael L; Zysset, Philippe K

    2014-06-01

    Disc degeneration, usually associated with low back pain and changes of intervertebral stiffness, represents a major health issue. As the intervertebral disc (IVD) morphology influences its stiffness, the link between mechanical properties and degenerative grade is partially lost without an efficient normalization of the stiffness with respect to the morphology. Moreover, although the behavior of soft tissues is highly nonlinear, only linear normalization protocols have been defined so far for the disc stiffness. Thus, the aim of this work is to propose a nonlinear normalization based on finite elements (FE) simulations and evaluate its impact on the stiffness of human anatomical specimens of lumbar IVD. First, a parameter study involving simulations of biomechanical tests (compression, flexion/extension, bilateral torsion and bending) on 20 FE models of IVDs with various dimensions was carried out to evaluate the effect of the disc's geometry on its compliance and establish stiffness/morphology relations necessary to the nonlinear normalization. The computed stiffness was then normalized by height (H), cross-sectional area (CSA), polar moment of inertia (J) or moments of inertia (Ixx, Iyy) to quantify the effect of both linear and nonlinear normalizations. In the second part of the study, T1-weighted MRI images were acquired to determine H, CSA, J, Ixx and Iyy of 14 human lumbar IVDs. Based on the measured morphology and pre-established relation with stiffness, linear and nonlinear normalization routines were then applied to the compliance of the specimens for each quasi-static biomechanical test. The variability of the stiffness prior to and after normalization was assessed via coefficient of variation (CV). The FE study confirmed that larger and thinner IVDs were stiffer while the normalization strongly attenuated the effect of the disc geometry on its stiffness. Yet, notwithstanding the results of the FE study, the experimental stiffness showed consistently

  11. Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beurskens, H.J.M. [SET Analysis, Kievitlaan 26, 1742 AD Schagen (Netherlands); Brand, A.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Unit Wind Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Over the years, wind energy has become a major source of renewable energy worldwide. The present chapter addresses the wind resource, which is available for exploitation for large-scale electricity production, and its specific physical properties. Furthermore, the technical options available to convert the energy of the air flow into mechanical energy and electricity are described. Specific problems of large-scale integration of wind energy into the grid as well as the present and future market developments are described in this chapter. Finally, environmental aspects are discussed briefly.

  12. X-ray variability of SS433: effects of the supercritical accretion disc

    CERN Document Server

    Atapin, Kirill; Medvedev, Aleksei; Vinokurov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We study a stochastic variability of SS433 in the $10^{-4} - 5\\times 10^{-2}$ Hz frequency range based on RXTE data, and on simultaneous observations with RXTE and optical telescopes. We find that the cross-correlation functions and power spectra depend drastically on the precession phase of the supercritical accretion disc. When the wind funnel of the disc is maximally open to the observer, a flat part emerges in the power spectrum; a break is observed at the frequency $1.7\\times10^{-3}$ Hz, with a power-law index $\\beta \\approx 1.67$ at higher frequencies. The soft emission forming mostly in the jets, lags behind the hard and optical emission. When the observer does not see the funnel and jets (the `edge-on' disc), the power spectrum is described by a single power-law with $\\beta \\approx 1.34$ and no correlations between X-ray ranges are detected. We investigated two mechanisms to explain the observed variability at the open disc phase, 1) reflection of radiation at the funnel wall (X-rays and optical) and ...

  13. World Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience...

  14. A Simulation Model of Focus and Radial Servos in Compact Disc Players with Disc Surface Defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle;

    2004-01-01

    Compact Disc players have been on the market in more than two decades.As a consequence most of the control servo problems have been solved. A large remaining problem to solve is the handling of Compact Discs with severe surface defects like scratches and fingerprints. This paper introduces a method...

  15. Evolution from protoplanetary to debris discs: The transition disc around HD 166191

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, G M; Lisse, C M; Ménard, F; Sitko, M L; Wyatt, M C; Bayliss, D D R; DeMeo, F E; Crawford, K B; Kim, D L; Rudy, R J; Russell, R W; Sibthorpe, B; Skinner, M A; Zhou, G

    2013-01-01

    HD 166191 has been identified by several studies as hosting a rare and extremely bright warm debris disc with an additional outer cool disc component. However, an alternative interpretation is that the star hosts a disc that is currently in transition between a full gas disc and a largely gas-free debris disc. With the help of new optical to mid-IR spectra and Herschel imaging, we argue that the latter interpretation is supported in several ways: i) we show that HD 166191 is co-moving with the ~4 Myr-old Herbig Ae star HD 163296, suggesting that the two have the same age, ii) the disc spectrum of HD 166191 is well matched by a standard radiative transfer model of a gaseous protoplanetary disc with an inner hole, and iii) the HD 166191 mid-IR silicate feature is more consistent with similarly primordial objects. We note some potential issues with the debris disc interpretation that should be considered for such extreme objects, whose lifetime at the current brightness is mush shorter than the stellar age, or i...

  16. Stem cell horizons in intervertebral disc degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ciacci

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Ciacci1, Allen Ho1,2, Christopher P Ames3, Rahul Jandial41Division of Neurosurgery, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA; 2Del E Webb Neurosciences, Aging and Stem Cell Research Center, The Burnham Institute for Medical Research, La Jolla, California, USA; 3Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; 4Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, City of Hope Cancer Center, Duarte, CA, USAAbstract: Intervertebral disc degeneration remains a pervasive and intractable disease arising from a combination of aging and stress on the back and spine. The growing field of regenerative medicine brings the promise of stem cells in the treatment of disc disease. Scientists and physicians hope to employ stem cells not only to stop, but also reverse degeneration. However, there are many important outstanding issues, including the hostile avascular, apoptotic physiological environment of the intervertebral disc, and the difficulty of obtaining mesenchymal stem cells, and directing them towards chondrocytic differentiation and integration within the nucleus pulposus of the disc. Given the recent advances in minimally invasive spine surgery, and developing body of work on stem cell manipulation and transplantation, stem cells are uniquely poised to bring about large-scale improvements in treatment and outcomes for degenerative disc disease. In this review we will first discuss the cellular and molecular factors influencing degeneration, and then examine the efficacy and difficulties of stem cell transplantation.Keywords: intervertebral disc degeneration, stem cells, disc disease, mesenchymal stem cells, stem cell transplantation

  17. Cervical disc hernia operations through posterior laminoforaminotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun Yolas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The most common used technique for posterolateral cervical disc herniations is anterior approach. However, posterior cervical laminotoforaminomy can provide excellent results in appropriately selected patients with foraminal stenosis in either soft disc prolapse or cervical spondylosis. The purpose of this study was to present the clinical outcomes following posterior laminoforaminotomy in patients with radiculopathy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 35 patients diagnosed with posterolateral cervical disc herniation and cervical spondylosis with foraminal stenosis causing radiculopathy operated by the posterior cervical keyhole laminoforaminotomy between the years 2010 and 2015. Results: The file records and the radiographic images of the 35 patients were assessed retrospectively. The mean age was 46.4 years (range: 34-66 years. Of the patients, 19 were males and 16 were females. In all of the patients, the neurologic deficit observed was radiculopathy. The posterolaterally localized disc herniations and the osteophytic structures were on the left side in 18 cases and on the right in 17 cases. In 10 of the patients, the disc level was at C5-6, in 18 at C6-7, in 2 at C3-4, in 2 at C4-5, in 1 at C7-T1, in 1 patient at both C5-6 and C6-7, and in 1 at both C4-5 and C5-6. In 14 of these 35 patients, both osteophytic structures and protruded disc herniation were present. Intervertebral foramen stenosis was present in all of the patients with osteophytes. Postoperatively, in 31 patients the complaints were relieved completely and four patients had complaints of neck pain and paresthesia radiating to the arm (the success of operation was 88.5%. On control examinations, there was no finding of instability or cervical kyphosis. Conclusion: Posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy is an alternative appropriate choice in both cervical soft disc herniations and cervical stenosis.

  18. 78 FR 29364 - Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ...-005, QF07-257-004] Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4, LLC, Exelon Wind 5, LLC, Exelon Wind 6, LLC, Exelon Wind 7, LLC, Exelon Wind 8, LLC, Exelon Wind 9, LLC, Exelon Wind 10, LLC, Exelon Wind 11, LLC, High Plains Wind Power, LLC v. Xcel...

  19. Mitigation of Fatigue Loads Using Individual Pitch Control of Wind Turbines Based on FAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yunqian; Chen, Zhe; Cheng, Ming;

    2011-01-01

    With the increase of wind turbine dimension and capacity, the wind turbine structures are subjected to prominent loads and fatigue which would reduce the lifetime of wind turbines. Individual pitch control (IPC) is used in this paper to attenuate the blade root bending moment and the tilt and yaw...

  20. Planetary Ices Attenuation Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Christine; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    In this chapter, we review the topic of energy dissipation in the context of icy satellites experiencing tidal forcing. We describe the physics of mechanical dissipation, also known as attenuation, in polycrystalline ice and discuss the history of laboratory methods used to measure and understand it. Because many factors - such as microstructure, composition and defect state - can influence rheological behavior, we review what is known about the mechanisms responsible for attenuation in ice and what can be inferred from the properties of rocks, metals and ceramics. Since attenuation measured in the laboratory must be carefully scaled to geologic time and to planetary conditions in order to provide realistic extrapolation, we discuss various mechanical models that have been used, with varying degrees of success, to describe attenuation as a function of forcing frequency and temperature. We review the literature in which these models have been used to describe dissipation in the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Finally, we address gaps in our present knowledge of planetary ice attenuation and provide suggestions for future inquiry.

  1. Crystallization of Self-Propelled Hard Discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, G.; Dauchot, O.

    2016-08-01

    We experimentally study the crystallization of a monolayer of vibrated discs with a built-in polar asymmetry, a model system of active liquids, and contrast it with that of vibrated isotropic discs. Increasing the packing fraction ϕ , the quasicontinuous crystallization reported for isotropic discs is replaced by a transition, or a crossover, towards a "self-melting" crystal. Starting from the liquid phase and increasing the packing fraction, clusters of dense hexagonal-ordered packed discs spontaneously form, melt, split, and merge, leading to a highly intermittent and heterogeneous dynamics. For a packing fraction larger than ϕ*, a few large clusters span the system size. The cluster size distribution is monotonically decreasing for ϕ ϕ*, and is a power law at the transition. The system is, however, never dynamically arrested. The clusters permanently melt from place to place, forming droplets of an active liquid which rapidly propagate across the system. This self-melting crystalline state subsists up to the highest possible packing fraction, questioning the stability of the crystal for active discs unless it is at ordered close packing.

  2. Structures induced by companions in galactic discs

    CERN Document Server

    Kyziropoulos, P; Gravvanis, G; Patsis, P

    2016-01-01

    Using N-body simulations we study the structures induced on a galactic disc by repeated flybys of a companion in decaying eccentric orbit around the disc. Our system is composed by a stellar disc, bulge and live dark matter halo, and we study the system's dynamical response to a sequence of a companion's flybys, when we vary i) the disc's temperature (parameterized by Toomre's Q-parameter) and ii) the companion's mass and initial orbit. We use a new 3D Cartesian grid code: MAIN (Mesh-adaptive Approximate Inverse N-body solver). The main features of MAIN are reviewed, with emphasis on the use of a new Symmetric Factored Approximate Sparse Inverse (SFASI) matrix in conjunction with the multigrid method that allows the efficient solution of Poisson's equation in three space variables. We find that: i) companions need to be assigned initial masses in a rather narrow window of values in order to produce significant and more long-standing non-axisymmetric structures (bars and spirals) in the main galaxy's disc by t...

  3. Lubrication regimes in lumbar total disc arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, A; Shepherd, D E T

    2007-08-01

    A number of total disc arthroplasty devices have been developed. Some concern has been expressed that wear may be a potential failure mode for these devices, as has been seen with hip arthroplasty. The aim of this paper was to investigate the lubrication regimes that occur in lumbar total disc arthroplasty devices. The disc arthroplasty was modelled as a ball-and-socket joint. Elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory was used to calculate the minimum film thickness of the fluid between the bearing surfaces. The lubrication regime was then determined for different material combinations, size of implant, and trunk velocity. Disc arthroplasties with a metal-polymer or metal-metal material combination operate with a boundary lubrication regime. A ceramic-ceramic material combination has the potential to operate with fluid-film lubrication. Disc arthroplasties with a metal-polymer or metal-metal material combination are likely to generate wear debris. In future, it is worth considering a ceramic-ceramic material combination as this is likely to reduce wear.

  4. The quiescent phase of galactic disc growth

    CERN Document Server

    Aumer, Michael; Schönrich, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    We perform a series of controlled N-body simulations of growing disc galaxies within non-growing, live dark matter haloes of varying mass and concentration. Our initial conditions include either a low-mass disc or a compact bulge. New stellar particles are continuously added on near-circular orbits to the existing disc, so spiral structure is continuously excited. To study the effect of combined spiral and giant molecular cloud (GMC) heating on the discs we introduce massive, short-lived particles that sample a GMC mass function. An isothermal gas component is introduced for a subset of the models. We perform a resolution study and vary parameters governing the GMC population, the histories of star formation and radial scale growth. Models with GMCs and standard values for the disc mass and halo density provide the right level of self-gravity to explain the age velocity dispersion relation of the Solar neighbourhood (Snhd). GMC heating generates remarkably exponential vertical profiles with scaleheights that ...

  5. Dynamical instabilities in disc-planet interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Min-Kai

    2012-01-01

    Protoplanetary discs may become dynamically unstable due to structure induced by an embedded giant planet. In this thesis, I discuss the stability of such systems and explore the consequence of instability on planetary migration. I begin with non-self-gravitating, low viscosity discs and show that giant planets induce shocks inside its co-orbital region, leading to a profile unstable to vortex formation around a potential vorticity minimum. This instability is commonly known as the vortex or Rossby wave instability. Vortex-planet interaction lead to episodic phases of migration, which can be understood in the framework of type III migration. I then examine the effect of disc self-gravity on gap stability. The linear theory of the Rossby wave instability is extended to include disc gravity, which shows that self-gravity is effective at stabilising the vortex instability at small azimuthal wavenumber. This is consistent with the observation that more vortices develop with increasing disc mass in hydrodynamic si...

  6. Axisymmetric stability criteria for a composite system of stellar and magnetized gaseous singular isothermal discs

    CERN Document Server

    Lou, Y Q; Lou, Yu-Qing; Zou, Yue

    2006-01-01

    Using the fluid-magnetofluid formalism, we obtain axisymmetric stability criteria for a composite disc system consisting of stellar and gaseous magnetized singular isothermal discs (MSIDs). Lou & Zou recently constructed exact global stationary configurations for both axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric coplanar MHD perturbations in such a composite MSID system and proposed the MHD $D_s-$criteria for axisymmetric stability by the hydrodynamic analogy. In a different perspective, we derive and analyze here the time-dependent WKBJ dispersion relation in the low-frequency and tight-winding regime to examine axisymmetric stability properties. By introducing a rotational Mach number $D_s$ for the ratio of the stellar rotation speed $V_s$ to the stellar velocity dispersion $a_s$, one readily determines the stable range of $D_s^2$ numerically to establish the $D_s-$criteria for axisymmetric MSID stability. Those MSID systems rotating either too fast (ring ragmentation) or too slow (Jeans collapse) are unstable. Our...

  7. 3D Finite Volume Simulation of Accretion Discs with Spiral Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Makita, M; Makita, Makoto; Matsuda, Takuya

    1998-01-01

    We perform 2D and 3D numerical simulations of an accretion disc in a close binary system using the Simplified Flux vector Splitting (SFS) finite volume method. In our calculations, gas is assumed to be the ideal one, and we calculate the cases with gamma=1.01, 1.05, 1.1 and 1.2. The mass ratio of the mass losing star to the mass accreting star is unity. Our results show that spiral shocks are formed on the accretion disc in all cases. In 2D calculations we find that the smaller gamma is, the more tightly the spiral winds. We observe this trend in 3D calculations as well in somewhat weaker sense.

  8. 77 FR 29633 - Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC, Alta Wind XIII, LLC, Alta Wind XIV, LLC, Alta Wind XV, LLC, Alta Windpower Development, LLC, TGP Development... 385.207, Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind...

  9. Cellulose acetobutyrate films and beryllium oxide discs for low-level radiation monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura, S.A.; Kleinschmidt, D.E.; Mbu, J.B.

    1976-10-01

    The effect of mylar films on the attenuation of alpha particle energy and the production of etchable tracks in cellulose acetobutyrate was studied. A model developed predicts a 15-..mu.. optimum mylar film thickness, while experimental results indicated a 22.8-..mu.. optimum. The effect of alpha particle and potassium hydroxide solution interaction with CAB was reviewed and process improvements suggested. The TSEE response of BeO discs to tritium at 5.0 mCi/m/sup 3/ for up to 15-hr exposure was also investigated. An average TSEE/..beta.. ratio of 0.02 was obtained.

  10. Star formation in early-type galaxies: the role of stellar winds and kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrini, S; Ciotti, L

    2015-01-01

    Early-type galaxies (ETGs) host a hot ISM produced mainly by stellar winds, and heated by Type Ia supernovae and the thermalization of stellar motions. High resolution 2D hydrodynamical simulations showed that ordered rotation in the stellar component results in the formation of a centrifugally supported cold equatorial disc. In a recent numerical investigation we found that subsequent generations of stars are formed in this cold disc; this process consumes most of the cold gas, leaving at the present epoch cold masses comparable to those observed. Most of the new stellar mass formed a few Gyrs ago, and resides in a disc.

  11. Frequency Dependent Attenuation Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, Kowar; Xavier, Bonnefond

    2009-01-01

    The work is inspired by thermo-and photoacoustic imaging, where recent efforts are devoted to take into account attenuation and varying wave speed parameters. In this paper we study causal equations describing propagation of attenuated pressure waves. We review standard models like frequency power laws and and the thermo-viscous equation. The lack of causality of standard models in the parameter range relevant for photoacoustic imaging requires to derive novel equations. The main ingredients for deriving causal equations are the Kramers-Kronig relation and the mathematical concept of linear system theory. The theoretical results of this work are underpined by numerical experiments.

  12. Wind tunnel measurements of the power output variability and unsteady loading in a micro wind farm model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossuyt, Juliaan; Howland, Michael; Meneveau, Charles; Meyers, Johan

    2015-11-01

    To optimize wind farm layouts for a maximum power output and wind turbine lifetime, mean power output measurements in wind tunnel studies are not sufficient. Instead, detailed temporal information about the power output and unsteady loading from every single wind turbine in the wind farm is needed. A very small porous disc model with a realistic thrust coefficient of 0.75 - 0.85, was designed. The model is instrumented with a strain gage, allowing measurements of the thrust force, incoming velocity and power output with a frequency response up to the natural frequency of the model. This is shown by reproducing the -5/3 spectrum from the incoming flow. Thanks to its small size and compact instrumentation, the model allows wind tunnel studies of large wind turbine arrays with detailed temporal information from every wind turbine. Translating to field conditions with a length-scale ratio of 1:3,000 the frequencies studied from the data reach from 10-4 Hz up to about 6 .10-2 Hz. The model's capabilities are demonstrated with a large wind farm measurement consisting of close to 100 instrumented models. A high correlation is found between the power outputs of stream wise aligned wind turbines, which is in good agreement with results from prior LES simulations. Work supported by ERC (ActiveWindFarms, grant no. 306471) and by NSF (grants CBET-113380 and IIA-1243482, the WINDINSPIRE project).

  13. Signatures of massive collisions in debris discs

    CERN Document Server

    Kral, Quentin; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Boccaletti, Anthony; Charnoz, Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    Violent stochastic collisional events have been invoked as a possible explanation for some debris discs displaying pronounced asymmetries or having a great luminosity excess. So far, no thorough modelling of the consequences of such events has been carried out, mainly because of the extreme numerical challenge of coupling the dynamical and collisional evolution of dust. We perform the first fully self-consistent modelling of the aftermath of massive breakups in debris discs. We follow the collisional and dynamical evolution of dust released after the breakup of a Ceres-sized body at 6 AU from its central star. We investigate the duration, magnitude and spatial structure of the signature left by such a violent event, as well as its observational detectability. We use the recently developed LIDT-DD code (Kral et al., 2013), which handles the coupled collisional and dynamical evolution of debris discs. The main focus is placed on the complex interplay between destructive collisions, Keplerian dynamics and radiat...

  14. OPTIC DISC MELANOCYTOMA: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahiba Bedi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Melanocytoma of the optic disc is a rare ophthalmic tumour that arises from melanocytes and is a variant of the melanocytic nevus. It occurs on the optic disc and often extends into the peripapillary retina and choroid. It appears as a dark brown or black lesion, typically small and is almost always unilateral. Although traditionally believed to be a relatively stationary lesion, it is now known to exhibit minor enlargement in 10–15% of cases and can cause minor visual loss by a variety of mechanisms. 1-2% cases can transform to malignant melanoma. We present a case report of a 65-year-old female whose dilated fundus examination of the right eye revealed a circular, pigmented and elevated lesion about 1.5 mm in size covering almost whole of the optic nerve head except for the superior rim, suggestive of optic disc melanocytoma.

  15. Black hole feedback from thick accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Sadowski, Aleksander; Abramowicz, Marek A; Narayan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    We study energy flows in geometrically thick accretion discs, both optically thick and thin, using general relativistic, three-dimensional simulations of black hole accretion flows. We find that for non-rotating black holes the efficiency of the total feedback from thick accretion discs is $3\\%$ - roughly half of the thin disc efficiency. This amount of energy is ultimately distributed between outflow and radiation, the latter scaling weakly with the accretion rate for super-critical accretion rates, and returned to the interstellar medium. Accretion on to rotating black holes is more efficient because of the additional extraction of rotational energy. However, the jet component is collimated and likely to interact only weakly with the environment, whereas the outflow and radiation components cover a wide solid angle.

  16. Satellites in discs regulating the accretion luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Syer, D; Syer, Dave; Clarke, Cathie

    1995-01-01

    We demonstrate, using a simple analytic model, that the presence of a massive satellite can globally modify the structure and emission properties of an accretion disc to which it is tidally coupled. We show, using two levels of numerical approximation, that the analytic model gives reasonable results. The results are applicable to two astrophysical situations. In the case of an active galactic nucleus, we consider the case of a \\sim 10^3\\Msun compact companion to the central black-hole and show that it could modulate the emitted spectrum on a timescale of \\sim10^5 years. In the case of a T Tauri accretion disc, a satellite such as a sub-dwarf or giant planet could modify the disc spectral energy distribution over a substantial fraction of the T Tauri star lifetime.

  17. The debris disc around HIP 17439

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüppler, Christian; Löhne, Torsten; Krivov, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    In the framework of the Herschel Open Time Key Programme DUNES the debris disc around the K2 V star HIP 17439 was observed. In PACS images the disc emission is spatially clearly extended. A simultaneous analysis of photometric observations and radial brightness profiles from the resolved images provides valuable hints for the disc structure. In an analytical model we adopted power laws for the size and radial distribution of the circumstellar dust and tested two different scenarios: (1) a broad dust ring with a radial extent of about 200AU, (2) two independent dust rings separated by a gap of several tens of AU. Both models fit the spectral energy distribution and the radial profiles quite well. In case (1) the parameters found are consistent with dust stemming from an outer planetesimal belt at ~140AU and strong transport mechanisms that drag the particles inward. Model (2) would imply two planetesimal belts, producing a narrow inner and wider outer distribution of dust.

  18. Discs of Satellites: the new dwarf spheroidals

    CERN Document Server

    Metz, Manuel; Jerjen, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    The spatial distributions of the most recently discovered ultra faint dwarf satellites around the Milky Way and the Andromeda galaxy are compared to the previously reported discs-of-satellites (DoS) of their host galaxies. In our investigation we pay special attention to the selection bias introduced due to the limited sky coverage of SDSS. We find that the new Milky Way satellite galaxies follow closely the DoS defined by the more luminous dwarfs, thereby further emphasizing the statistical significance of this feature in the Galactic halo. We also notice a deficit of satellite galaxies with Galactocentric distances larger than 100 kpc that are away from the disc-of-satellites of the Milky Way. In the case of Andromeda, we obtain similar results, naturally complementing our previous finding and strengthening the notion that the discs-of-satellites are optical manifestations of a phase-space correlation of satellite galaxies.

  19. Effects of disc midplane evolution on CO snowline location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panić, O.; Min, M.

    2017-01-01

    Temperature changes in the planet forming disc midplanes carry important physico-chemical consequences, such as the effect on the locations of the condensation fronts of molecules - the snowlines. Snowlines impose major chemical gradients and possibly foster grain growth. The aim of this paper is to understand how disc midplane temperature changes with gas and dust evolution, and identify trends that may influence planet formation or allow to constrain disc evolution observationally. We calculate disc temperature, hydrostatic equilibrium and dust settling in a mutually consistent way from a grid of disc models at different stages of gas loss, grain growth and hole opening. We find that the CO snowline location depends very strongly on disc properties. The CO snowline location migrates closer to the star for increasing degrees of gas dispersal and dust growth. Around a typical A type star, the snowline can be anywhere between several tens and a few hundred au, depending on the disc properties such as gas mass and grain size. In fact, gas loss is as efficient as dust evolution in settling discs, and flat discs may be gas-poor counterparts of flared discs. Our results, in the context of different pre-main sequence evolution of the luminosity in low- and intermediate-mass stars suggests very different thermal (and hence chemical) histories in these two types of discs. Discs of T Tauri stars settle and cool down while discs of Herbig Ae stars may remain rather warm throughout the pre-main sequence.

  20. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations......Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...

  1. Effect of continuous lumbar traction on the size of herniated disc material in lumbar disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Bulent; Gunduz, Osman Hakan; Ozoran, Kursat; Bostanoglu, Sevinc

    2006-05-01

    We investigated the effects of continuous lumbar traction in patients with lumbar disc herniation on clinical findings, and size of the herniated disc measured by computed tomography (CT). In this prospective, randomized, controlled study, 46 patients with lumbar disc herniation were included, and randomized into two groups as the traction group (24 patients), and the control group (22 patients). The traction group was given a physical therapy program and continuous lumbar traction. The control group was given the same physical therapy program without traction, for the same duration of time. Data for the clinical symptoms and signs were collected before and after the treatment together with calculation of a herniation index, from the CT images that showed the size of the herniated disc material. In the traction group, most of the clinical findings significantly improved with treatment. Size of the herniated disc material in CT decreased significantly only in the traction group. In the traction group the herniation index decreased from 276.6+/-129.6 to 212.5+/-84.3 with treatment (p0.05). Patients with greater herniations tended to respond better to traction. In conclusion, lumbar traction is both effective in improving symptoms and clinical findings in patients with lumbar disc herniation and also in decreasing the size of the herniated disc material as measured by CT.

  2. Cometary ices in forming protoplanetary disc midplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdovskaya, Maria N.; Walsh, Catherine; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Furuya, Kenji; Marboeuf, Ulysse; Thiabaud, Amaury; Harsono, Daniel; Visser, Ruud

    2016-10-01

    Low-mass protostars are the extrasolar analogues of the natal Solar system. Sophisticated physicochemical models are used to simulate the formation of two protoplanetary discs from the initial prestellar phase, one dominated by viscous spreading and the other by pure infall. The results show that the volatile prestellar fingerprint is modified by the chemistry en route into the disc. This holds relatively independent of initial abundances and chemical parameters: physical conditions are more important. The amount of CO2 increases via the grain-surface reaction of OH with CO, which is enhanced by photodissociation of H2O ice. Complex organic molecules are produced during transport through the envelope at the expense of CH3OH ice. Their abundances can be comparable to that of methanol ice (few per cent of water ice) at large disc radii (R > 30 au). Current Class II disc models may be underestimating the complex organic content. Planet population synthesis models may underestimate the amount of CO2 and overestimate CH3OH ices in planetesimals by disregarding chemical processing between the cloud and disc phases. The overall C/O and C/N ratios differ between the gas and solid phases. The two ice ratios show little variation beyond the inner 10 au and both are nearly solar in the case of pure infall, but both are subsolar when viscous spreading dominates. Chemistry in the protostellar envelope en route to the protoplanetary disc sets the initial volatile and prebiotically significant content of icy planetesimals and cometary bodies. Comets are thus potentially reflecting the provenances of the midplane ices in the solar nebula.

  3. Wind Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.

  4. Natural course of lumber disc herniation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokioka, Takamitsu; Shimada, Kimio; Tanaka, Yuzo; Oshige, Toshihisa; Miyakoshi, Koichi [Okayama Rosai Hospital (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    Thirty-two cases of lumbar disc herniation were sequentially followed by MR imagings in order to ascertain its natural course. Herniation consisted of protrusion in 6 cases, extrusion in 13 cases, and sequestration in 13 cases. We analysed the durations until the herniation regressed more than 50% of its A-P diameter. The mean duration was 8.2 months for extrusion, and 5.3 months for sequestration. Only 2 cases of protrusion regressed within 12 months. Huge disc herniations with central protrusion in particular showed slight spontaneous regression. (author)

  5. Cells and Biomaterials for Intervertebral Disc Regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Grad, Sibylle

    2010-01-01

    Disorders related to the intervertebral disc (IVD) are common causes of morbidity and of severe life quality deterioration. IVD degeneration, although in many cases asymptomatic, is often the origin of painful neck and back diseases. In Western societies IVD related pain and disability account for enormous health care costs as a result of work absenteeism and thus lost production, disability benefits, medical and insurance expenses. Although only a small percentage of patients with disc disorders finally will undergo surgery, spinal surgery has been one of the fastest growing disciplines in th

  6. Disc-Capped ZnO Nanocombs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin; XU chun-xiang; ZHU Guang-Ping; YANG Yi; LIU Jin-Ping; SUN Xiao-Wei; CUI Yi-Ping

    2007-01-01

    Nanocombs with a disc cap structure of ZnO have been synthesized on si substrates by using pure Zinc powders as the source materials based on a vapour-phase transport process.The morphology and the microstructure are investigated by a scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction.Based on the transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction analysis,the growth directions of three representative parts,nanoribbon stem,nanorod branch and nanodisc cap of the nanocomb are revealed.The growth mechanism of the disc-capped nanocombs is discussed based on the self-catalyzed vapour-liquid-solid process.

  7. Be discs in binary systems I. Coplanar orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Panoglou, Despina; Vieira, Rodrigo G; Cyr, Isabelle H; Jones, Carol E; Okazaki, Atsuo T; Rivinius, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Be stars are surrounded by outflowing circumstellar matter structured in the form of decretion discs. They are often members of binary systems, where it is expected that the decretion disc interacts both radiatively and gravitationally with the companion. In this work we study how various orbital (period, mass ratio, eccentricity) and disc (viscosity) parameters affect the disc structure in coplanar systems. We simulate such binaries with the use of a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. The main effects of the secondary on the disc are its truncation and the accumulation of material inwards of truncation. In circular or nearly circular prograde orbits, the disc maintains a rotating, constant in shape, configuration, which is locked to the orbital phase. The disc is smaller in size, more elongated and more massive for low viscosity parameter, small orbital separation and/or high mass ratio. Highly eccentric orbits are more complex, with the disc structure and total mass strongly dependent on the orbital phas...

  8. ALGEBROIDAL FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVED FUNCTION IN UNIT CIRCULAR DISC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huo Yingying; Sun Daochun

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors define the derived function of an algeboidal function in the unit disc, prove it is an algabriodal function, and study the order of algebroidal function and that of its derived function in unit circular disc.

  9. Post-Main Sequence Evolution of Debris Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Bonsor, Amy

    2010-01-01

    The population of debris discs on the main sequence is well constrained, however very little is known about debris discs around evolved stars. In this work we provide a theoretical framework that considers the effects of stellar evolution on debris discs; firstly considering the evolution of an individual disc from the main sequence through to the white dwarf phase, then extending this to the known population of debris discs around main sequence A stars. It is found that discs around evolved stars are harder to detect than on the main sequence. In the context of our models discs should be detectable with Herschel or Alma on the giant branch, subject to the uncertain effect of sublimation on the discs. The best chances are for hot young white dwarfs, fitting nicely with the observations e.g the helix nebula (Su et al. 2007) and 9 systems presented by Chu & Bilikova.

  10. Relationship of condylar position to disc position and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Incesu, L.; Taskaya-Yilmaz, N. E-mail: nergizy@omu.edu.tr; Oeguetcen-Toller, M.; Uzun, E

    2004-09-01

    Introduction/objective: The purpose of this study was to assess whether condylar position, as depicted by magnetic resonance imaging, was an indicator of disc morphology and position. Methods and material: One hundred and twenty two TMJs of 61 patients with temporomandibular joint disorder were examined. Condylar position, disc deformity and degree of anterior disc displacement were evaluated by using magnetic resonance imaging. Results and discussion: Posterior condyle position was found to be the main feature of temporomandibular joints with slight and moderate anterior disc displacement. No statistical significance was found between the condylar position, and reducing and nonreducing disc positions. On the other hand, superior disc position was found to be statistically significant for centric condylar position. Conclusion: It was concluded that posterior condyle position could indicate anterior disc displacement whereas there was no relation between the position of condyle and the disc deformity.

  11. On wind turbine power performance measurements at inclined airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, T. F.

    2004-07-01

    The average airflow inclination in complex terrain may be substantial. The airflow inclination affects wind turbine performance and also affects the cup anemometer being used in power performance measurements. In this article the overall dependence of the power curve on inclined airflow is analysed for its influence on both the wind turbine and the cup anemometer. The wind turbine performance analysis is based on results of measurements and theoretical calculations with the aeroelastic code HAWC coupled to a 3D actuator disc model for varying yaw angle. The cup anemometer analysis at inclined flow is based on an averaging of measured angular characteristics in a wind tunnel with the distribution of airflow inclination angles over time. The relative difference in annual energy production in terrain with inclined airflow compared with flat terrain is simulated for cup anemometers with theoretical optimal angular characteristics for two different definitions of wind speed, as well as for five commercial cup anemometers with measured angular characteristics. Copyright

  12. An MPC approach to individual pitch control of wind turbines using uncertain LIDAR measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Soltani, Mohsen; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad;

    2013-01-01

    Spatial distribution of the wind field exerts unbalanced loads on wind turbine structures and it is shown these loads could be mitigated by controlling each blade’s angle individually (individual pitch control). In this work the problem of individual pitch control of a variable-speed variablepitch...... wind turbine in the full load region is considered. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve the problem. A new approach is proposed to simplify the optimization problem of MPC. We linearize the obtained nonlinear model for different operating points which are determined by the effective wind...... speed on the rotor disc and take the wind speed as a scheduling variable. The wind speed is measurable ahead of the turbine using LIDARs, therefore the scheduling variable is known for the entire prediction horizon. We consider uncertainty in the wind propagation, which is the traveling time of wind...

  13. Remote Sensing Wind and Wind Shear System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contents: Remote sensing of wind shear and the theory and development of acoustic doppler; Wind studies; A comparison of methods for the remote detection of winds in the airport environment; Acoustic doppler system development; System calibration; Airport operational tests.

  14. Temporomandibular joint disc; a proposed histopathological degeneration grading score system

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Summary. Aims: The purpose of this study was to draw up a TMJ disc histopathological score that is a semiquantitative transcription of the entire spectrum of TMJ disc degenerative diseases related to changes in disc tissue, and then validate the proposed grading, in order to contribute to a standardized histopathological diagnosis. Methods: Sections from sixty two temporomandibular joint disc specimens affected by tissue degenerative changes and stained with Hematox...

  15. MRI and discography in traumatic intervertebral disc lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanem, Nadir; Uhl, Markus; Elgeti, Florian; Pache, Gregor; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias [University Hospital Freiburg, Departments of Diagnostic Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Mueller, Christoph; Markmiller, Max [University Hospital Freiburg, Traumatology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    In this study we evaluated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in trauma patients for assessing traumatised adjacent discs of fractured vertebrae before dorsoventral stabilisation. In a prospective study, MRI of 54 discs was performed with a 1.5-T MRI unit. The preoperative MRI with sagittal T1-W-SE and T2-W-TSE was compared to intraoperative discography, which was carried out on both intervertebral discs adjacent to the fractured vertebrae. Signal alterations, morphological changes in the adjacent discs, fractured vertebrae and associated ligament injuries were evaluated. In 47/54 (87%) of the intervertebral discs, the results of both imaging findings were concordant. The discs adjoining vertebral fractures were normal in 18 cases. Regarding the positive concordant imaging findings, MRI and discography revealed traumatised adjacent cranial and caudal discs in 22 discs. In 7 cases, only the cranial adjacent disc was affected. Moreover, 17 cases of intradiscal bleeding, 13 intraosseous herniations into the fractured vertebrae and 20 anuluar tears were visualised in MRI. Associated ligament injuries were detected in 18 cases. Findings were discordant in eight discs. In six discs, MRI was abnormal, demonstrating signal alterations suggestive of positive imaging findings, whereas discography demonstrated no disc injury. MRI failed to detect disc injury in two discs, whereas discography was positive, showing an irregular intradiscal contrast media distribution. MRI, as a non-invasive method for assessing fractures of the thoraco-lumbar spine, may detect traumatised adjacent intervertebral discs. MRI is superior to intraoperative discography. The performance of MRI of the thoraco-lumbar spine is recommended before dorsoventral stabilisation in trauma patients, as it can reveal additional preoperative information such as fractures, disc and associated ligament injuries. (orig.)

  16. Proportional resonant individual pitch control for mitigation of wind turbines loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yunqian; Chen, Zhe; Cheng, Ming

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the mitigation of wind turbine loads and fatigue such as blade bending moments, tilt and yaw moments etc. Currently, the wind turbine blades are normally controlled to turn collectively to limit the excess of wind power above rated wind speed conditions without any load...... attenuation. The individual pitch control (IPC) is a promising way to reduce the wind turbine loads. This study presents a proportional resonant (PR) IPC, which does not need the measurement of blade azimuth angle and multiple complex Coleman transformations between rotational coordinate frame and stationary...... coordinate frame. The new strategy can attenuate the 1p and higher harmonics on the wind turbine blades as well as 3p on the hub without any filters. The wind turbine code fatigue, aerodynamics, structures and turbulence is applied to a doubly fed induction generator-based wind power generation system...

  17. Black hole winds II: Hyper-Eddington winds and feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew; Muldrew, Stuart I.

    2016-01-01

    We show that black holes supplied with mass at hyper-Eddington rates drive outflows with mildly sub-relativistic velocities. These are ˜0.1-0.2c for Eddington accretion factors {dot{m}_acc}˜ 10-100, and ˜1500 km s-1 for {dot{m}_acc}˜ 10^4. Winds like this are seen in the X-ray spectra of ultraluminous sources (ULXs), strongly supporting the view that ULXs are stellar-mass compact binaries in hyper-Eddington accretion states. SS433 appears to be an extreme ULX system ({dot{m}_acc}˜ 10^4) viewed from outside the main X-ray emission cone. For less-extreme Eddington factors {dot{m}_acc}˜ 10-100 the photospheric temperatures of the winds are ˜100 eV, consistent with the picture that the ultraluminous supersoft sources (ULSs) are ULXs seen outside the medium-energy X-ray beam, unifying the ULX/ULS populations and SS433 (actually a ULS but with photospheric emission too soft to detect). For supermassive black holes (SMBHs), feedback from hyper-Eddington accretion is significantly more powerful than the usual near-Eddington (`UFO') case, and if realized in nature would imply M - σ masses noticeably smaller than observed. We suggest that the likely warping of the accretion disc in such cases may lead to much of the disc mass being expelled, severely reducing the incidence of such strong feedback. We show that hyper-Eddington feedback from bright ULXs can have major effects on their host galaxies. This is likely to have important consequences for the formation and survival of small galaxies.

  18. Wind Energy Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

  19. Review of gas and dust in debris discs

    CERN Document Server

    Kral, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    This proceeding summarises a talk given on the state-of-the-art of debris disc modelling. We first review the basics of debris disc physics, which is followed by a short overview of the state-of-the-art in terms of modelling dust and gas in debris disc systems.

  20. Demographics of Transition Discs in Ophiuchus and Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Najita, Joan R; Muzerolle, James

    2015-01-01

    Transition disc systems are young stars that appear to be on the verge of dispersing their protoplanetary discs. We explore the nature of these systems by comparing the stellar accretion rates and disc masses of transition discs and normal T Tauri stars in Taurus and Ophiuchus. After controlling for the known dependencies of stellar accretion rate and disc mass and on age, stellar accretion rate on stellar mass, and disc mass on the presence of stellar or sub-stellar companions, we find that the normal T Tauri stars show a trend of stellar accretion rate increasing with disc mass. The transition discs tend to have higher average disc masses than normal T Tauri stars as well as lower accretion rates than normal T Tauri stars of the same disc mass. These results are most consistent with the interpretation that the transition discs have formed objects massive enough to alter the accretion flow, i.e., single or multiple giant planets. Several Ophiuchus T Tauri stars that are not known transition disc systems also...

  1. A method for quantitative measurement of lumbar intervertebral disc structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tunset, Andreas; Kjær, Per; Samir Chreiteh, Shadi;

    2013-01-01

    There is a shortage of agreement studies relevant for measuring changes over time in lumbar intervertebral disc structures. The objectives of this study were: 1) to develop a method for measurement of intervertebral disc height, anterior and posterior disc material and dural sac diameter using MRI...

  2. INJURIES IN DISC GOLF - A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Martin Amadeus; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disc golf is rapidly increasing in popularity and more than two million people are estimated to regularly participate in disc golf activities. Despite this popularity, the epidemiology of injuries in disc golf remains under reported. PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to in...

  3. Morning glory disc anomaly with Chiari type I malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlow, Tim; Arepalli, Sruthi; Flanders, Adam E; Shields, Carol L

    2014-04-30

    Morning glory disc anomaly is a rare optic nerve dysplasia associated with various neovascular abnormalities. Due to these associations, children with morning glory disc anomaly have brain imaging and angiography to detect other congenital defects. The authors report the case of an infant with morning glory disc anomaly and coexisting Chiari type I malformation.

  4. Prognosis of intervertebral disc loss from diagnosis of degenerative disc disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Lin, A.; Tay, K.; Romano, W.; Osman, Said

    2015-03-01

    Degenerative Disc Disease (DDD) is one of the most common causes of low back pain, and is a major factor in limiting the quality of life of an individual usually as they enter older stages of life, the disc degeneration reduces the shock absorption available which in turn causes pain. Disc loss is one of the central processes in the pathogenesis of DDD. In this study, we investigated whether the image texture features quantified from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be appropriate markers for diagnosis of DDD and prognosis of inter-vertebral disc loss. The main objective is to use simple image based biomarkers to perform prognosis of spinal diseases using non-invasive procedures. Our results from 65 subjects proved the higher success rates of the combination marker compared to the individual markers and in the future, we will extend the study to other spine regions to allow prognosis and diagnosis of DDD for a wider region.

  5. Spiral waves in accretion discs - observations

    CERN Document Server

    Steeghs, D

    2000-01-01

    I review the observational evidence for spiral structure in the accretion discs of cataclysmic variables (CVs). Doppler tomography is ideally suited to resolve and map such co-rotating patterns and allows a straightforward comparison with theory. The dwarf nova IP Pegasi presents the best studied case, carrying two spiral arms in a wide range of emission lines throughout its outbursts. Both arms appear at the locations where tidally driven spiral waves are expected, with the arm closest to the gas stream weaker in the lines compared to the arm closest to the companion. Eclipse data indicates sub-Keplerian velocities in the outer disc. The dramatic disc structure changes in dwarf novae on timescales of days to weeks, provide unique opportunities for our understanding of angular momentum transport and the role of density waves on the structure of accretion discs. I present an extension to the Doppler tomography technique that relaxes one of the basic assumptions of tomography, and is able to map modulated emiss...

  6. Global Structure of Magnetorotationally Turbulent Protoplanetary Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Flaig, M; Kley, W; Kissmann, R

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to investigate the spatial structure of a protoplanetary disc whose dynamics is governed by magnetorotational turbulence. We perform a series of local 3D chemo-radiative MHD simulations located at different radii of a disc which is twice as massive as the standard minimum mass solar nebula of Hayashi (1981). The ionisation state of the disc is calculated by including collisional ionisation, stellar X-rays, cosmic rays and the decay of radionuclides as ionisation sources, and by solving a simplified chemical network which includes the effect of the absorption of free charges by {\\mu}m-sized dust grains. In the region where the ionisation is too low to assure good coupling between matter and magnetic fields, a non-turbulent central "dead zone" forms, which ranges approximately from a distance of 2 AU to 4 AU from the central star. The approach taken in the present work allows for the first time to derive the global spatial structure of a protoplanetary disc from a set of physical...

  7. Frictional Torque on a Rotating Disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to motion often includes a dry frictional term independent of the speed of an object and a fluid drag term varying linearly with speed in the viscous limit. (At higher speeds, quadratic drag can also occur.) Here, measurements are performed for an aluminium disc mounted on bearings that is given an initial twist and allowed to spin…

  8. Kinematic structures in galactic disc simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roca-F� brega, S.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Figueras, F.; Antoja Castelltort, Teresa; Valenzuela, O.; Henney, W.J.; Torres-Peimbert, S.

    2011-01-01

    N-body and test particle simulations have been used to characterize the stellar streams in the galactic discs of Milky Way type galaxies. Tools such as the second and third order moments of the velocity ellipsoid and clustering methods -EM-WEKA and FoF- allow characterizing these kinematic structure

  9. Low back pain and degenerative disc disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandrić Slavica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Various clinical conditions can cause low back pain, and in most cases it is of a degenerative origin. Degenerative disc disease is a common condition which affects young to middle-aged men and women equally. Changes in the mechanical properties of the disc lead to degenerative arthritis in the intervertebral joints, osteophytes, and narrowing the intervertebral foramen or the spinal canal. Pathophysiology. Degenerative cascade, described by Kirkaldy-Willis, is the widely accepted pathophysiologic model describing the degenerative process as it affects the lumbar spine in 3 phases. Diagnosis. There are two forms of low back pain secondary to degenerative disc disease: a lumbalgia and b lumbar radiculopathy. Limitation of movement, problems with balance, pain, loss of reflexes in the extremities, muscle weakness, loss of sensation or other signs of neurological damage can be found on physical examination. For accurate diagnosis, it is often necessary to combine clinical examination and sophisticated technology. Treatment. Coservative treatment consists of rest, physical therapy, pharmacological therapy and injection therapy. Physical rehabilitation with active patient participation is a key approach to treatment of patients with discogenic pain. Physical therapy, occupational therapy and kinesitherapy are important for improving muscle strength, endurance, and flexibility. Disc surgery is performed if surgical intervention is required. .

  10. SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPY STUDIES ON OPTICAL DISC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐磊; 顾冬红; 等

    1994-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscope(STM) is used to investigate the optical dise.The areas with and without data stampers are all observedcarefully.Three-dimensional images of the disc surface clearly demonstrate the period.depth of the grooves and the shape of data stampers.Some phenomena of STM imaging are also discussed.

  11. Cometary ices in forming protoplanetary disc midplanes

    CERN Document Server

    Drozdovskaya, Maria N; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Furuya, Kenji; Marboeuf, Ulysse; Thiabaud, Amaury; Harsono, Daniel; Visser, Ruud

    2016-01-01

    Low-mass protostars are the extrasolar analogues of the natal Solar System. Sophisticated physicochemical models are used to simulate the formation of two protoplanetary discs from the initial prestellar phase, one dominated by viscous spreading and the other by pure infall. The results show that the volatile prestellar fingerprint is modified by the chemistry en route into the disc. This holds relatively independent of initial abundances and chemical parameters: physical conditions are more important. The amount of CO2 increases via the grain-surface reaction of OH with CO, which is enhanced by photodissociation of H2O ice. Complex organic molecules are produced during transport through the envelope at the expense of CH3OH ice. Their abundances can be comparable to that of methanol ice (few % of water ice) at large disc radii (R > 30 AU). Current Class II disc models may be underestimating the complex organic content. Planet population synthesis models may underestimate the amount of CO2 and overestimate CH3...

  12. Eclipse Mapping: Astrotomography of Accretion Discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Raymundo

    The Eclipse Mapping Method is an indirect imaging technique that transforms the shape of the eclipse light curve into a map of the surface brightness distribution of the occulted regions. Three decades of application of this technique to the investigation of the structure, the spectrum and the time evolution of accretion discs around white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables have enriched our understanding of these accretion devices with a wealth of details such as (but not limited to) moving heating/cooling waves during outbursts in dwarf novae, tidally-induced spiral shocks of emitting gas with sub-Keplerian velocities, elliptical precessing discs associated to superhumps, and measurements of the radial run of the disc viscosity through the mapping of the disc flickering sources. This chapter reviews the principles of the method, discusses its performance, limitations, useful error propagation procedures, as well as highlights a selection of applications aimed at showing the possible scientific problems that have been and may be addresses with it.

  13. Nonsurgical management of disc-interference disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeson, J P

    1991-01-01

    Disc-interference disorders are a group of intracapsular problems that make up one category of temporomandibular disorders. The dental profession's understanding of these disorders has changed greatly in recent years. This article reviews current concepts regarding the diagnosis and management of these disorders as revealed through recent clinical studies.

  14. Intervertebral Disc Herniation Treated by Comprehensive Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yu; HUANG Guo-qi

    2007-01-01

    In the treatment of 169 cases of the patients sick with intervertebral disc hemiation by integrated application of acupuncture therapy,Chinese massage therapy and herbal fumigation method.the results showed cure in 129 cases.improvement in 33 cases and failure in 7 cases,and the total effective rate was 95.9%.

  15. Evolution of gas in debris discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Quentin; Wyatt, Mark; Pringle, Jim

    2015-12-01

    A non negligible quantity of gas has been discovered in an increasing number of debris disc systems. ALMA high sensitivity and high resolution is changing our perception of the gaseous component of debris discs as CO is discovered in systems where it should be rapidly photodissociated. It implies that there is a replenishment mechanism and that the observed gas is secondary. Past missions such as Herschel probed the atomic part of the gas through O I and C II emission lines. Gas science in debris discs is still in its infancy, and these new observations raise a handful of questions concerning the mechanisms to create the gas and about its evolution in the planetary system when it is released. The latter question will be addressed in this talk as a self-consistent gas evolution scenario is proposed and is compared to observations for the peculiar case of β Pictoris.Our model proposes that carbon and oxygen within debris discs are created due to photodissociation of CO which is itself created from the debris disc dust (due to grain-grain collisions or photodesorption). The evolution of the carbon atoms is modelled as viscous spreading, with viscosity parameterised using an α model. The temperature, ionisation fraction and population levels of carbon are followed with a PDR model called Cloudy, which is coupled to the dynamical viscous α model. Only carbon gets ionised due to its lower ionisation potential than oxygen. The carbon gas disc can end up with a high ionisation fraction due to strong FUV radiation field. A high ionisation fraction means that the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is very active, so that α is very high. Gas density profiles can be worked out for different input parameters such as the α value, the CO input rate, the location of the input and the incoming radiation field. Observability predictions can be made for future observations, and our model is tested on β Pictoris observations. This new gas evolution model fits the carbon and CO

  16. Quality control of cast brake discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stawarz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The largest industrial application so far have the gray cast irons which are characterized by low tensile and bending strength, while at the same time they have good ultimate comprehensive strength. Additionally, the fatigue strength of gray cast irons is comparatively low and they are only to some extend sensitive for the surface waters effects. Cast iron is the material, which is comparatively easy to be processed, and for this reason – it is not expensive. Brake discs are exploited in particularly hard conditions. They must be resistant both against the thermal fatigue and abrasion wearing (at dry friction as well as against seizing, corrosion and mechanical load [1-3]. The gray cast iron, better than other materials, fulfills all the requirements necessary for making the material for the casts resistant against such tough conditions. This work reflects the researches aiming to define the quality of cast brake discs (ventilated and non-ventilated ones upon a period of their exploitation in real conditions. The following researches were performed: evaluations of the disc surface condition, measurement of disc thickness, examination of run – out flank and metallographic analysis. In order to more detailed recognition of mechanisms and reasons of brake discs wearing in real conditions, one should conduct additional examinations: computer analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition analysis, etc., as well as study of the technology of their production in foundries, where they are manufactured [4]. By obtaining the full set of the mentioned above data one can draw final conclusions and remove causes of possible defects.

  17. Scaling from discs to pleated devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglia, Sal; Yavorsky, David

    2007-01-01

    Membrane discs offer a convenient format for evaluating membrane performance in normal flow filtration. However, while pleated devices of different sizes tend to scale in close proportion to their contained areas, they do not necessarily scale in direct proportion from flat discs. The objectives of this study are to quantify differences in performance among sterilizing-grade membrane devices as a function of device type and size, to develop an understanding of the factors that affect device scalability, and to develop a mathematical model to predict a cartridge-to-disc scalability factor based on membrane properties and porous support properties and dimensions. Measured and predicted normalized water permeability scalability factors for seven types of pleated cartridges, including 0.1-micro and 0.2-micro rated PES, and 0.2-micro rated polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sterilizing-grade filters in nominal 1-inch to 5-inch lengths, were determined. The results of this study indicate that pleated cartridge performance can be closely predicted based on 47-mm disc performance provided that a number of measured device parameters are properly accounted for, most importantly parasitic pressure losses in the filter device and plumbing connections, intrinsic membrane variability, true effective device filtration area, and the hydraulic properties of all porous support materials. Throughput scalability factors (discs to devices) tend to converge towards unity, especially for highly plugging streams. As the membrane fouls, the resistance through the membrane dominates other resistances, so the flux scales more linearly with membrane area and the overall scaling factor becomes close to one. The results of throughput tests on seven different cartridge types and five different challenge streams (with widely varying fouling characteristics) show that most of the throughput scaling factors were within +/-10% of 1.0. As part of this study, the effects of pressure and temperature were

  18. Inner Disc Obscuration in GRS 1915+105 Based on Relativistic Slim Disc Model

    CERN Document Server

    Vierdayanti, K; Mineshige, S; Bursa, M

    2013-01-01

    We study the observational signatures of the relativistic slim disc of 10 M_sun black hole, in a wide range of mass accretion rate, mdot, dimensionless spin parameter, a_ast, and viewing angle, i. In general, the innermost temperature, T_in increases with the increase of i for a fixed value of mdot and a_ast, due to the Doppler effect. However, for i > 50 and mdot > mdot_turn, T_in starts to decrease with the increase of mdot. This is a result of self-obscuration -- the radiation from the innermost hot part of the disc is blocked by the surrounding cooler part. The value of mdot_turn and the corresponding luminosities depend on a_ast and i. Such obscuration effects cause an interesting behavior on the disc luminosity (L_disc) -- T_in plane for high inclinations. In addition to the standard-disc branch which appears below mdot_turn and which obeys L_disc propto T_in^4 -relation, another branch above mdot_turn, which is nearly horizontal, may be observed at luminosities close to the Eddington luminosity. We sho...

  19. The Role of Disc Self-Gravity in Circumbinary Planet Systems: I. Disc Structure and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mutter, Matthew M; Nelson, Richard P

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of 2-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of self-gravitating circumbinary discs around binaries whose parameters match those of the circumbinary planet-hosting systems Kepler-16, -34 and -35. Previous work has shown that non-self-gravitating discs in these systems form an eccentric precessing inner cavity due to tidal truncation by the binary, and planets which form at large radii migrate until stalling at this cavity. While this scenario appears to provide a natural explanation for the observed orbital locations of the circumbinary planets, previous simulations have failed to match the observed planet orbital parameters. The aim of this work is to examine the role of self-gravity in modifying circumbinary disc structure as a function of disc mass, prior to considering the evolution of embedded circumbinary planets. In agreement with previous work, we find that for disc masses between 1--5 times the minimum mass solar nebula (MMSN), disc self-gravity affects modest changes in the struc...

  20. Structure Formation in Gas-Rich Galactic Discs with Finite Thickness: From Discs to Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Behrendt, Manuel; Schartmann, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Gravitational instabilities play an important role in structure formation of gas-rich high-redshift disc galaxies. In this paper, we revisit the axisymmetric perturbation theory and the resulting growth of structure, by taking the realistic thickness of the disc into account. In the unstable regime, which corresponds for thick discs to a Toomre parameter below the critical value Q=0.696, we find a fastest growing perturbation wavelength that is always a factor 1.93 times larger than in the classical razor-thin disc approximation. This result is independent of the adopted disc scale height and by this independent of temperature and surface density. In order to test the analytical theory, we compare it with a high resolution hydrodynamical simulation of an isothermal gravitationally unstable gas disc with the typical vertical sech density profile and study its break-up into rings that subsequently fragment into dense clumps. In the first phase rings form, that organise themselves discretely, with distances corr...

  1. Differentiation of glaucomatous optic discs with different appearances using optic disc topography parameters: The Glaucoma Stereo Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanito, Masaki; Nitta, Koji; Katai, Maki; Kitaoka, Yasushi; Yokoyama, Yu; Omodaka, Kazuko; Nakazawa, Toru

    2017-01-01

    The Glaucoma Stereo Analysis Study (GSAS) is a multicenter collaborative study of the characteristics of glaucomatous optic disc morphology using a stereo fundus camera. Using GSAS dataset, the formulas for predicting different glaucomatous optic disc appearances were established. The GSAS dataset containing three-dimensionally-analyzed optic disc topographic parameters from 187 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma was assessed with discrimination analyses to obtain formulas predictive of glaucomatous optic disc appearances: focal ischemic (FI); generalized enlargement (GE), myopic glaucomatous (MY), and senile sclerotic (SS). Using 38 optic disc parameters-substituted discrimination analyses with a stepwise forward-selection method, six parameters (temporal and nasal rim-disc ratios, mean cup depth, height variation contour, disc tilt angle, and rim decentering absolute) were selected into the formulas. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves for predicting the four disc types with established formulas were 0.88, 0.91, 0.93, and 0.86 for FI, MY, SS, and GE, respectively. Age, visual acuity, refractive error, glaucoma (normal or high-tension glaucoma), and baseline intraocular pressure differed significantly among the four optic disc types, suggesting the appearances represent different clinical glaucoma phenotypes. Using six optic disc topographic parameters obtained by stereo fundus camera, the GSAS classification formulas predicted and quantified each component of different optic disc appearances in each eye and provided a novel parameter to describe glaucomatous optic disc characteristics. PMID:28178303

  2. Rocket Plume Scaling for Orion Wind Tunnel Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Greathouse, James S.; White, Molly E.

    2011-01-01

    A wind tunnel test program was undertaken to assess the jet interaction effects caused by the various solid rocket motors used on the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV). These interactions of the external flowfield and the various rocket plumes can cause localized aerodynamic disturbances yielding significant and highly non-linear control amplifications and attenuations. This paper discusses the scaling methodologies used to model the flight plumes in the wind tunnel using cold air as the simulant gas. Comparisons of predicted flight, predicted wind tunnel, and measured wind tunnel forces-and-moments and plume flowfields are made to assess the effectiveness of the selected scaling methodologies.

  3. Stochastic wind turbine modeling for individual pitch control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sven Creutz; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2009-01-01

    By pitching the blades of a wind turbine individually it is possible to attenuate the asymmetric loads caused by a non-uniform wind field - this is denoted individual pitch control. In this work we investigate how to set up a simplified stochastic and deterministic description of the wind...... and a simplified description of the aerodynamics with sufficient detail to design model-based individual pitch controllers. Combined with a simplified model of the wind turbine, we exemplify how to use the model elements to systematically design an individual pitch controller. The design is investigated...

  4. The role of cosmic rays on magnetic field diffusion and the formation of protostellar discs

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, Marco; Hennebelle, Patrick; Commerçon, Benoît; Joos, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The formation of protostellar discs is severely hampered by magnetic braking, as long as magnetic fields remain frozen in the gas. The latter condition depends on the levels of ionisation that characterise the innermost regions of a collapsing cloud. The chemistry of dense cloud cores and, in particular, the ionisation fraction is largely controlled by cosmic rays. The aim of this paper is to evaluate whether the attenuation of the flux of cosmic rays expected in the regions around a forming protostar is sufficient to decouple the field from the gas, thereby influencing the formation of centrifugally supported disc. We adopted the method developed in a former study to compute the attenuation of the cosmic-ray flux as a function of the column density and the field strength in clouds threaded by poloidal and toroidal magnetic fields. We applied this formalism to models of low- and high-mass star formation extracted from numerical simulations of gravitational collapse that include rotation and turbulence. For ea...

  5. Do observations reveal accretion discs in intermediate polars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellier, C. (University Coll., London (UK). Mullard Space Science Lab.)

    1991-08-15

    It has been proposed that intermediate polars do not accrete through discs and that they may not possess discs. Observations of eclipses and emission lines provide strong evidence that discs are present in many intermediate polars, although it is less clear whether the accretion flows through these discs. An analysis of the EXOSAT database shows that many systems have orbital and beat period modulations which are small compared to the spin-pulses, suggesting disc accretion. There are, though, exceptions, notably TX Col where dominant orbital and beat period modulations indicate discless accretion. (author).

  6. Tearing up a misaligned accretion disc with a binary companion

    CERN Document Server

    Doğan, Suzan; King, Andrew; Price, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Accretion discs are common in binary systems, and they are often found to be misaligned with respect to the binary orbit. The gravitational torque from a companion induces nodal precession in misaligned disc orbits. We calculate whether this precession is strong enough to overcome the internal disc torques communicating angular momentum. For typical parameters precession wins: the disc breaks into distinct planes that precess effectively independently. We run hydrodynamical simulations to check these results, and confirm that disc breaking is widespread and generally enhances accretion on to the central object. This applies in many cases of astrophysical accretion, e.g. supermassive black hole binaries and X--ray binaries.

  7. The Disc-Jet Relation in Strong-Lined Blazars

    OpenAIRE

    D'Elia, V.; Padovani, P.; Landt, H.

    2002-01-01

    The relation between accretion disc (thermal emission) and jet (non-thermal emission) in blazars is still a mystery as, typically, the beamed jet emission swamps the disc even in the ultraviolet band where disc emission peaks. In this paper we estimate the accretion disc component for 136 flat-spectrum radio quasars selected from the Deep X-ray Radio Blazar Survey. We do this by deriving the accretion disc spectrum from the mass and accretion rate onto the central black hole for each object, ...

  8. Attenuation of Scalar Fluxes Measured with Spatially-displaced Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, T. W.; Lenschow, D. H.

    2009-02-01

    Observations from the Horizontal Array Turbulence Study (HATS) field program are used to examine the attenuation of measured scalar fluxes caused by spatial separation between the vertical velocity and scalar sensors. The HATS data show that flux attenuation for streamwise, crosswind, and vertical sensor displacements are each a function of a dimensionless, stability-dependent parameter n m multiplied by the ratio of sensor displacement to measurement height. The scalar flux decays more rapidly with crosswind displacements than for streamwise displacements and decays more rapidly for stable stratification than for unstable stratification. The cospectral flux attenuation model of Kristensen et al. agrees well with the HATS data for streamwise sensor displacements, although it is necessary to include a neglected quadrature spectrum term to explain the observation that flux attenuation is often less with the scalar sensor downwind of the anemometer than for the opposite configuration. A simpler exponential decay model provides good estimates for crosswind sensor displacements, as well as for streamwise sensor displacements with stable stratification. A model similar to that of Lee and Black correctly predicts flux attenuation for a combination of streamwise and crosswind displacements, i.e. as a function of wind direction relative to the sensor displacement. The HATS data for vertical sensor displacements extend the near-neutral results of Kristensen et al. to diabatic stratification and confirm their finding that flux attenuation is less with the scalar sensor located below the anemometer than if the scalar sensor is displaced an equal distance either horizontally or above the anemometer.

  9. Spinning out of control: wall turbulence over rotating discs

    CERN Document Server

    Wise, Daniel J; Ricco, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The friction drag reduction in a turbulent channel flow generated by surface-mounted rotating disc actuators is investigated numerically. The wall arrangement of the discs has a complex and unexpected effect on the flow. For low disc-tip velocities, the drag reduction scales linearly with the percentage of the actuated area, whereas for higher disc-tip velocity the drag reduction can be larger than the prediction found through the linear scaling with actuated area. For medium disc-tip velocities, all the cases which display this additional drag reduction exhibit stationary-wall regions between discs along the streamwise direction. This effect is caused by the viscous boundary layer which develops over the portions of stationary wall due to the radial flow produced by the discs. For the highest disc-tip velocity, the drag reduction even increases by halving the number of discs. The power spent to activate the discs is instead independent of the disc arrangement and scales linearly with the actuated area for al...

  10. MR image assessment of disc configuration and degree of anterior disc displacement in internal derangement related to age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, Chinami; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Imanaka, Masahiro; Yuasa, Masao; Yamamoto, Akira [Tsurumi Univ., Yokohama (Japan). School of Dental Medicine

    1999-03-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the configuration of the articular disc and degree of anterior disc displacement on magnetic resonance (MR) imagings in temporomandibular joints (TMJs) with internal derangement. A total of 363 joints diagnosed as having anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADD w R) and 523 joints diagnosed as having anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADD wo R) by MR imaging were examined. These joints did not show severe osseous changes on the condylar head or glenoid fossa. We assessed the configuration of the articular disc and degree of anterior disc displacement. In the ADD w R group, 82.6% of the articular discs showed biconcave configuration; enlargement of the posterior band in 4.6%, biconvex configuration in 0.5%, and others in 10.7%. Moreover 62.5% of the discs showed a slight degree of anterior disc displacement; were 27.2% moderately displaced and were 10.2% severe displaced. The prevalence of slightly displaced discs was higher in the TMJs of cases over 50 years of age than in cases under 30 years in the ADD w R group. On the other hand, in the ADD wo R group 35.9% of the articular discs showed biconcave configuration; enlargement of the posterior band in 12.6%, biconvex configuration in 25.4%, and others in 22.3%. Furthermore, 4.4% of the discs were slightly displaced; 43.9% moderately displaced and 51.6% were severely displaced. The prevalence of severely displaced and deformed discs in joints of cases over 40 years of age was high in the ADD wo R group. The prevalence of slightly displaced biconcave discs was higher in the ADD w R group. The other hand, the prevalence of severely displaced deformed discs was higher in the ADD wo R group. MR findings of internal derangement of the TMJ were found to be significantly correlated with age. (author)

  11. Convection in axially symmetric accretion discs with microscopic transport coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Malanchev, K L; Shakura, N I

    2016-01-01

    The vertical structure of stationary thin accretion discs is calculated from the energy balance equation with heat generation due to microscopic ion viscosity {\\eta} and electron heat conductivity {\\kappa}, both depending on temperature. In the optically thin discs it is found that for the heat conductivity increasing with temperature, the vertical temperature gradient exceeds the adiabatic value at some height, suggesting convective instability in the upper disc layer. There is a critical Prandtl number, Pr = 4/9, above which a Keplerian disc become fully convective. The vertical density distribution of optically thin laminar accretion discs as found from the hydrostatic equilibrium equation cannot be generally described by a polytrope but in the case of constant viscosity and heat conductivity. In the optically thick discs with radiation heat transfer, the vertical disc structure is found to be convectively stable for both absorption dominated and scattering dominated opacities, unless a very steep dependen...

  12. Images of accretion discs. 1. The eclipse mapping method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, K.

    1985-03-01

    A method of mapping the surface brightness distributions of accretion discs in eclipsing cataclysmic binaries is described and tested with synthetic eclipse data. Accurate synthetic light curves are computed by numerical simulation of the accretion disc eclipse, and images of the disc are reconstructed by maximum entropy methods. The conventional definition of entropy leads to a distorted image of the disc. A modified form of entropy, sensitive to the aximuthal structure of the image but not to its radial profile, suppresses azimuthal structure but correctly recovers the radial structure of the accretion disc. This eclipse mapping method permits powerful tests of accretion disc theory by deriving the spatial structure of discs from observational data with a minimum of model-dependent assumptions.

  13. Vertical shear instability in accretion disc models with radiation transport

    CERN Document Server

    Stoll, Moritz H R

    2014-01-01

    The origin of turbulence in accretion discs is still not fully understood. While the magneto-rotational instability is considered to operate in sufficiently ionized discs, its role in the poorly ionized protoplanetary disc is questionable. Recently, the vertical shear instability (VSI) has been suggested as a possible alternative. Our goal is to study the characteristics of this instability and the efficiency of angular momentum transport, in extended discs, under the influence of radiative transport and irradiation from the central star. We use multi-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations to model a larger section of an accretion disc. First we study inviscid and weakly viscous discs using a fixed radial temperature profile in two and three spatial dimensions. The simulations are then extended to include radiative transport and irradiation from the central star. In agreement with previous studies we find for the isothermal disc a sustained unstable state with a weak positive angular momentum transport of the o...

  14. On the Eddington limit for relativistic accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Abolmasov, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Standard accretion disc model relies upon several assumptions, the most important of which is geometrical thinness. Whenever this condition is violated, new physical effects become important such as radial energy advection and mass loss from the disc. These effects are important, for instance, for large mass accretion rates when the disc approaches its local Eddington limit. In this work, we study the upper limits for standard accretion disc approximation and find the corrections to the standard model that should be considered in any model aiming on reproducing the transition to super-Eddington accretion regime. First, we find that for thin accretion disc, taking into account relativistic corrections allows to increase the local Eddington limit by about a factor of two due to stronger gravity in General Relativity (GR). However, violation of the local Eddington limit also means large disc thickness. To consider consequently the disc thickness effects, one should make assumptions upon the two-dimensional rotat...

  15. Accreting planets as dust dams in `transition' discs

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, James E

    2014-01-01

    We investigate under what circumstances an embedded planet in a protoplanetary disc may sculpt the dust distribution such that it observationally presents as a `transition' disc. We concern ourselves with `transition' discs that have large holes ($\\gtrsim 10$ AU) and high accretion rates ($\\sim 10^{-9}-10^{-8}$ M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$). Particularly, those discs which photoevaporative models struggle to explain. Assuming the standard picture for how massive planets sculpt their parent discs, along with the observed accretion rates in `transition' discs, we find that the accretion luminosity from the forming planet is significant, and can dominate over the stellar luminosity at the gap edge. This planetary accretion luminosity can apply a significant radiation pressure to small ($s\\lesssim 1\\mu$m) dust particles provided they are suitably decoupled from the gas. Secular evolution calculations that account for the evolution of the gas and dust components in a disc with an embedded, accreting planet, show that only ...

  16. Optimum design of inhomogeneous rotating discs under secondary creep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farshi, Behrooz [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16846 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: Farshi@iust.ac.ir; Bidabadi, Jalal [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16846 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    Rotating discs commonly used in the aerospace industry often operate under high mechanical stresses due to centrifugal forces, while subject to high temperature gradients. High stresses and temperatures lead to creep in such rotating disc applications. This problem is particularly important in turbine discs under continuous operation. Since such discs are subject to secondary creep effects during most of their useful lives, it is important that they be optimized for minimum weight for the steady-state creep stresses. In this investigation, by considering the variable physical properties of the rotating disc materials under a high temperature gradient, a procedure for weight minimization for the steady-state creep stresses is proposed. The method aims to design the disc thickness profile so as to have minimum weight while the equivalent secondary creep stresses of the rotating disc under a high temperature gradient at all points simultaneously approach but do not exceed an allowable stress. An example is given to illustrate the method.

  17. Dispersing the Gaseous Protoplanetary Disc and Halting Type II Migration

    CERN Document Server

    Lecar, M

    2003-01-01

    More than 30 extra-solar Jupiter-like planets have shorter periods than the planet Mercury. It is generally accepted that they formed further out, and migrated inwards. In order to be driven by tidal torques from the gaseous disc, the disc exterior to the planet had to contain about a planetary mass. The fact that the planets stopped migrating means that their outer disc was removed. We suggest that the outer disc was accreted by the planet. In this scenario, the endgame is a race. The planet survives if it accretes its outer disc before being accreted by the star. The winner is determined solely by the ratio of the mass of the outer disc to the local surface density of the disc.

  18. Disc heating: possible link between weak bars and superthin galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Kanak

    2014-01-01

    The extreme flatness of stellar discs in superthin galaxies is puzzling and the apparent dearth of these objects in cosmological simulation poses challenging problem to the standard cold dark matter paradigm. Irrespective of mergers or accretion that a galaxy might be going through, stars are heated as they get older while they interact with the spirals and bars which are ubiquitous in disc galaxies -- leading to a puffed up stellar disc. It remains unclear how superthin galaxies maintain their thinness through the cosmic evolution. We follow the internal evolution of a sample of 16 initially extremely thin stellar discs using collisionless N-body simulation. All of these discs eventually form a bar in their central region. Depending on the initial condition, some of these stellar discs readily form strong bars while others grow weak bars over secular evolution time scale. We show that galaxies with strong bars heat the stars very efficiently, eventually making their stellar discs thicker. On the other hand, ...

  19. Wind conditions for wind turbine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maribo Pedersen, B.

    1999-04-01

    Delegates from Europe and USA attended the meeting and discussed general aspects of wind conditions for wind turbine design. The subjects and the presented papers covered a very broad range of aspects of wind conditions and related influence on the wind turbine. (EHS)

  20. Ultrasonic attenuation in pearlitic steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hualong; Turner, Joseph A

    2014-03-01

    Expressions for the attenuation coefficients of longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic waves are developed for steel with pearlitic microstructure. This type of lamellar duplex microstructure influences attenuation because of the lamellar spacing. In addition, longitudinal attenuation measurements were conducted using an unfocused transducer with 10 MHz central frequency on the cross section of a quenched railroad wheel sample. The dependence of longitudinal attenuation on the pearlite microstructure is observed from the changes of longitudinal attenuation from the quenched tread surface to deeper locations. The results show that the attenuation value is lowest and relatively constant within the quench depth, then increases linearly. The experimental results demonstrate a reasonable agreement with results from the theoretical model. Ultrasonic attenuation provides an important non-destructive method to evaluate duplex microstructure within grains which can be implemented for quality control in conjunction with other manufacturing processes.

  1. Queixas auditivas de disc jockeys da cidade de Recife Auditory complaints in disc jockeys in Recife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Maia de Britto Macedo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar a ocorrência de queixas auditivas em disc jockeys da cidade de Recife/PE. MÉTODOS: foi realizada uma entrevista com 30 disc jockeys, com idade entre 19 e 28 anos, abordando informações ocupacionais, conhecimentos gerais sobre o ruído e queixas auditivas (diminuição da acuidade auditiva, desconforto a sons intensos, zumbido, sensação de ouvido abafado e otalgia. A análise foi realizada por meio de abordagem quantitativa, utilizando o teste estatístico t-student. RESULTADOS: dentre os dados mais relevantes, destacam-se: 46,7% dos disc jockeys apresentaram, espontaneamente, queixas auditivas, em especial, a diminuição da acuidade auditiva (relatada por todos os sujeitos; 14 disc jockeys (46,67% referiram desconforto a sons intensos e 13 (43,33% mencionaram zumbido. Todos afirmaram ter conhecimento sobre os riscos do ruído para a saúde auditiva, mas 76,7% não realizam qualquer medida preventiva de suas consequências. A perda auditiva foi referida pelos sujeitos como o principal risco da exposição a níveis intensos de pressão sonora. CONCLUSÃO: todos os disc jockeys apresentaram queixa de perda auditiva e, entre as demais queixas auditivas, destacaram-se o desconforto a sons intensos e o zumbido. Tendo em vista a irreversibilidade da perda auditiva induzida por elevados níveis de pressão sonora, os disc jockeys devem ser periodicamente avaliados a fim de que se confirme ou não a perda auditiva de que se queixaram e, caso ela exista, deve ser monitorada para que seja passível de intervenção pelo fonoaudiólogo. Desta forma, percebe-se a necessidade de atuação da Fonoaudiologia junto aos disc jockeys, uma vez que poder-se-á propiciar a otimização do exercício profissional com o mínimo de risco possível.PURPOSE: to investigate the occurrence of auditory complaints in disc jockeys from the city of Recife/PE. METHODS: an interview was carried through with 30 disc jockeys aged between 19 and 48 years

  2. Eclipse maps of spiral shocks in the accretion disc of IP Pegasi in outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Baptista, R; Steeghs, D; Baptista, Raymundo

    2000-01-01

    Eclipse lightcurves of the dwarf nova IP Peg during the November 1996outburst are analysed with eclipse mapping techniques to constrain the locationand investigate the spatial structure of the spiral shocks observed in theDoppler tomograms (Harlaftis et al. 1999). Eclipse maps in the blue continuumand in the CIII+NIII 4650 emission line show two asymmetric arcs of \\sim 90degrees in azimuth and extending from intermediate to the outer disc regions (R\\simeq 0.2 - 0.6 R_{L1}, where R_{L1} is the distance from disc centre to theinner Lagrangian point) which are interpreted as being the spiral shocks seenin the Doppler tomograms. The HeII 4686 eclipse map also shows two asymmetricarcs diluted by a central brightness source. The central source probablycorresponds to the low-velocity component seen in the Doppler tomogram and isunderstood in terms of gas outflow in a wind emanating from the inner parts ofthe disc. We estimate that the spirals contribute about 16 and 30 per cent ofthe total line flux, respectively, f...

  3. A novel method to bracket the corotation radius in galaxy discs: vertex deviation maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Fàbrega, Santi; Antoja, Teresa; Figueras, Francesca; Valenzuela, Octavio; Romero-Gómez, Mercè; Pichardo, Bárbara

    2014-05-01

    We map the kinematics of stars in simulated galaxy discs with spiral arms using the velocity ellipsoid vertex deviation (l_v). We use test particle simulations, and for the first time, fully self-consistent high-resolution N-body models. We compare our maps with the tight winding approximation model analytical predictions. We see that for all barred models, spiral arms rotate closely to a rigid body manner and the vertex deviation values correlate with the density peak's position bounded by overdense and underdense regions. In such cases, vertex deviation sign changes from negative to positive when crossing the spiral arms in the direction of disc rotation, in regions where the spiral arms are in between corotation radius (CR) and the Outer Lindblad Resonance (OLR). By contrast, when the arm sections are inside the CR and outside the OLR, l_v changes from negative to positive. We propose that measurements of the vertex deviation's pattern can be used to trace the position of the main resonances of the spiral arms. We propose that this technique might exploit future data from Gaia and APO Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) surveys. For unbarred N-body simulations with spiral arms corotating with disc material at all radii, our analysis suggests that no clear correlation exists between l_v and density structures.

  4. Multimedia Archiving: Videotape, Compact Disc (CD), Digital Versatile Disc (DVD), and Blu-Ray Disc (BD) Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    single-layer disc with a cyanine dye layer for recording. With a 4.7 GB capacity, DVD-R provides a high- end, write-once recording media for...GB 4.7 GB (single side) *available 2001-2 Recording Medium Molded Pits Cyanine Dye Phase Change High Reflectivity Phase Change Phase Change...Azo is dark blue. Cyanine can be various shades of green or blue depending on the ultraviolet (UV) stabilizers that are added. The type of

  5. Improved blade element momentum theory for wind turbine aerodynamic computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Zhenye; Chen, Jin; Shen, Wen Zhong;

    2016-01-01

    Blade element momentum (BEM) theory is widely used in aerodynamic performance predictions and design applications for wind turbines. However, the classic BEM method is not quite accurate which often tends to under-predict the aerodynamic forces near root and over-predict its performance near tip....... The reliability of the aerodynamic calculations and design optimizations is greatly reduced due to this problem. To improve the momentum theory, in this paper the influence of pressure drop due to wake rotation and the effect of radial velocity at the rotor disc in the momentum theory are considered. Thus...... the axial induction factor in far downstream is not simply twice of the induction factor at disc. To calculate the performance of wind turbine rotors, the improved momentum theory is considered together with both Glauert's tip correction and Shen's tip correction. Numerical tests have been performed...

  6. Large-eddy simulations of the Lillgrund wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Karl; Ivanell, Stefan; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose;

    2015-01-01

    The power production of the Lillgrund wind farm is determined numerically using large-eddy simulations and compared with measurements. In order to simulate realistic atmospheric conditions, pre-generated turbulence and wind shear are imposed in the computational domain. The atmospheric conditions...... are determined from data extracted from a met mast, which was erected prior to the establishment of the farm. In order to allocate most of the computational power to the simulations of the wake flow, the turbines are modeled using an actuator disc method where the discs are imposed in the computational domain...... ambient turbulence in the simulations. By introducing ambient atmospheric turbulence, the simulations compare very well with measurements at the studied inflow angles. A final study aiming at increasing the farm production by curtailing the power output of the front row turbines and thus letting more...

  7. Wind Technologies & Evolving Opportunities (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.

    2014-07-01

    This presentation covers opportunities for wind technology; wind energy market trends; an overview of the National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado; wind energy price and cost trends; wind turbine technology improvements; and wind resource characterization improvements.

  8. MR imaging of degenerative disc disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farshad-Amacker, Nadja A., E-mail: nadja.farshad@usz.ch [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Farshad, Mazda [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Balgrist University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Winklehner, Anna; Andreisek, Gustav [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • This systematic literature review summarizes the current knowledge on MR imaging in degenerative disc disease. • Different classification systems for segmental spine degeneration are summarized. • It outlines the diagnostic limitations of MR imaging. - Abstract: Magnet resonance imaging (MRI) is the most commonly used imaging modality for diagnosis of degenerative disc disease (DDD). Lack of precise observations and documentation of aspects within the complex entity of DDD might partially be the cause of poor correlation of radiographic findings to clinical symptoms. This literature review summarizes the current knowledge on MRI in DDD and outlines the diagnostic limitations. The review further sensitizes the reader toward awareness of potentially untended aspects of DDD and the interaction of DDD and endplate changes. A summary of the available classifications for DDD is provided.

  9. Diaphragm paralysis from cervical disc lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloward, R B

    1988-01-01

    An opera singer, who "made her living with her diaphragm", developed a post-traumatic unilateral radiculopathy due to cervical disc lesions, C3 to C6. During one year of severe neck and left arm pain she gradually lost the ability to sing difficult operatic passages which brought an end to her music career. Following a three level anterior cervical decompression and fusion, the neck and arm pain was immediately relieved. One week later her voice and singing ability returned to its full strength and power permitting her to resume her activities as a vocalist. The diagnosis of paresis of the left hemi-diaphragm as part of the cervical disc syndrome was implied by postoperative retrospective inference.

  10. Magnetised accretion discs in Kerr spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Ranea-Sandoval, Ignacio F

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect caused by external magnetic fields on the observed thermal spectra and iron line profiles of thin accretion discs formed around Kerr black holes and naked singularities. We aim to provide a tool that can be used to estimate the presence of magnetic fields in the neighbourhood of a compact object and to probe the cosmic censorship conjecture in these particular astrophysical environments. We developed a numerical scheme able to calculate thermal spectra of magnetised Page-Thorne accretion discs formed around rotating black holes and naked singularities as seen by an arbitrary distant observer. We incorporated two different magnetic field configurations: uniform and dipolar, using a perturbative scheme in the coupling constant between matter and magnetic field strength. Under the same assumptions, we obtained observed synthetic line profiles of the 6.4 keV fluorescent iron line. We show that an external magnetic field produces potentially observable modifications on the thermal energy spectr...

  11. Grand challenges in protoplanetary disc modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Haworth, Thomas J; Forgan, Duncan H; Facchini, Stefano; Price, Daniel J; authors, Community; Boneberg, Dominika M; Booth, Richard A; Gonzalez, Jean-François; Hutchison, Mark A; Laibe, Guillaume; Meru, Farzana; Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Panić, Olja; Rice, Ken; Walsh, Catherine; Woitke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The Protoplanetary Discussions conference --- held in Edinburgh, UK, from 7th-11th March 2016 --- included several open sessions led by participants. This paper reports on the discussions collectively concerned with the multiphysics modelling of protoplanetary discs, including the self-consistent calculation of gas and dust dynamics, radiative transfer and chemistry. After a short introduction to each of these disciplines in isolation, we identify a series of burning questions and grand challenges associated with their integration, which are not necessarily achievable in the short-to-medium term. We then discuss potential pathways towards solving these challenges, grouped by strategical, technical and collaborative developments. This paper is not intended to be a review, but rather to motivate and direct future research and collaboration across typically distinct fields based on community driven input, to encourage further progress in our understanding of circumstellar and protoplanetary discs.

  12. Slim Discs with Varying Accretion Rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Cheng-Liang; LU Ju-Fu

    2009-01-01

    @@ It was revealed in our previous studies that there exists a maximal possible accretion rate for slim discs with constant accretion rates because the correctly calculated vertical gravitational force can only gather some limited amount of accreted matter. Here we show that when the accretion rate is not constant and instead decreases with decreasing radius because of outflows, such that the amount of accreted matter is adjusted to be within the allowed limit, global slim disc solutions can be constructed even for the case that accretion rates at large radii apparently exceed the maximal possible value. This result further demonstrates that outflows seem to be unavoidable for accretion flows with large accretion rates at large radii.

  13. Grand Challenges in Protoplanetary Disc Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Thomas J.; Ilee, John D.; Forgan, Duncan H.; Facchini, Stefano; Price, Daniel J.; Boneberg, Dominika M.; Booth, Richard A.; Clarke, Cathie J.; Gonzalez, Jean-François; Hutchison, Mark A.; Kamp, Inga; Laibe, Guillaume; Lyra, Wladimir; Meru, Farzana; Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Panić, Olja; Rice, Ken; Suzuki, Takeru; Teague, Richard; Walsh, Catherine; Woitke, Peter; Community authors

    2016-10-01

    The Protoplanetary Discussions conference-held in Edinburgh, UK, from 2016 March 7th-11th-included several open sessions led by participants. This paper reports on the discussions collectively concerned with the multi-physics modelling of protoplanetary discs, including the self-consistent calculation of gas and dust dynamics, radiative transfer, and chemistry. After a short introduction to each of these disciplines in isolation, we identify a series of burning questions and grand challenges associated with their continuing development and integration. We then discuss potential pathways towards solving these challenges, grouped by strategical, technical, and collaborative developments. This paper is not intended to be a review, but rather to motivate and direct future research and collaboration across typically distinct fields based on community-driven input, to encourage further progress in our understanding of circumstellar and protoplanetary discs.

  14. Intervertebral disc calcification in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahemad Athar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Disc calcification in children is a rare condition of which only approximately 200 cases have been reported worldwide and one from India and we report one such case. A five year-old boy presented with neck pain, torticollis and limitations of cervical motions following a fall while playing 3 months back. He had low grade fever cervical lymphadenopthy, paraspinal muscle spasm. His blood counts and ESR was raised. Fine needle aspiration cytology of lymph node revealed reactive lymphadenitis. His cervical radiograph slowed calcification of C 6-7. MRI scan showed hypointense signals in C6-C7 and D5-D6 disc on both T1 and T2 W images. Cerebrospinal fluid examination was normal. He improved on analgesics, bed rest and cervical traction.

  15. On the convective overstability in protoplanetary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Latter, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the driving of low-level hydrodynamical activity in protoplanetary-disc dead zones. A small adverse radial entropy gradient, ordinarily stabilised by rotation, excites oscillatory convection (`convective overstability') when thermal diffusion, or cooling, is neither too strong nor too weak. I revisit the linear theory of the instability, discuss its prevalence in protoplanetary discs, and show that unstable modes are exact nonlinear solutions in the local Boussinesq limit. Overstable modes cannot grow indefinitely, however, as they are subject to a secondary parametric instability that limits their amplitudes to relatively low levels. If parasites set the saturation level of the ensuing turbulence then the convective overstability is probably too weak to drive significant angular momentum transport or to generate vortices. But I also discuss an alternative, and far more vigorous, saturation route that generates radial `layers' or `zonal flows' (witnessed also in semiconvection). Numerical ...

  16. Tourette's syndrome with cervical disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jainn-Jim; Wang, Huei-Shyong; Wong, Mun-Ching; Wu, Chieh-Tsai; Lin, Kuang-Lin

    2007-03-01

    Tourette's syndrome is manifested in a broad spectrum of motor, vocal, and behavioral disturbances. Movement disorders, such as tics, may contribute to the development of cervical myelopathy owing to the effects of involuntary movements on the neck. However, the association of cervical myelopathy with motor tics of the head and neck is rare. We report here a case of a violent, repetitive neck extension due to Tourette's syndrome that developed cervical myelopathy caused by cervical disc herniation.

  17. Satellites in Discs: Regulating the Accretion Luminosity

    OpenAIRE

    Syer, Dave; Clarke, Cathie

    1995-01-01

    We demonstrate, using a simple analytic model, that the presence of a massive satellite can globally modify the structure and emission properties of an accretion disc to which it is tidally coupled. We show, using two levels of numerical approximation, that the analytic model gives reasonable results. The results are applicable to two astrophysical situations. In the case of an active galactic nucleus, we consider the case of a $\\sim 10^3\\Msun$ compact companion to the central black-hole and ...

  18. Influence of degenerative changes of intervertebral disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To investigate the material properties of normal and degenerated intervertebral discs (IVDs and examine the effect of degenerative changes on IVD pathology. Methods: A computer-based online search was under-taken to identify English articles about material properties of IVDs published from January 1950 to 2011 in PubMed database. The retrieved keywords included material properties, intervertebral disc and degeneration. Based on the principles of reliability, advancement and efficiency, the obtained data were primarily examined, and the original source was retrieved to read the full-text. Repetitive articles were excluded. The data of material properties of normal and degenerated IVDs were summarized and analyzed by meta-analysis. Results: The data of Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, shear modulus, hydraulic permeability and intradiscal pres-sure of normal and degenerated IVDs were obtained. Com-pared with normal IVDs, the Young's modulus and shear modulus of annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus were higher in degenerated IVDs, the Poisson's ratio was lower while the hydraulic permeability and intradiscal pressure were higher. Besides, the degeneration-related alterations in IVDs had an influence both on itself and other spinal structures, leading to diseases such as bulging disc, discogenic pain and spinal stenosis. Meanwhile, the heavy mechanical loading and injury indicated important pathways to IVD degeneration. Conclusions: To a certain extent, the degenerative changes of IVD influence its material properties. And the degeneration-related alterations of composition can cause structural failure of IVDs, leading to injuries and diseases. Key words: Intervertebral disc; Mechanical phenomena; Degeneration; Elastic modulus; Permeability; Pathology

  19. Reconstructing the star formation history of the Milky Way disc(s) from chemical abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Snaith, O; Di Matteo, P; Lehnert, M D; Combes, F; Katz, D; Gómez, A

    2014-01-01

    We develop a chemical evolution model in order to study the star formation history of the Milky Way. Our model assumes that the Milky Way is formed from a closed box-like system in the inner regions, while the outer parts of the disc experience some accretion. Unlike the usual procedure, we do not fix the star formation prescription (e.g. Kennicutt law) in order to reproduce the chemical abundance trends. Instead, we fit the abundance trends with age in order to recover the star formation history of the Galaxy. Our method enables one to recover with unprecedented accuracy the star formation history of the Milky Way in the first Gyrs, in both the inner (R9-10kpc) discs as sampled in the solar vicinity. We show that, in the inner disc, half of the stellar mass formed during the thick disc phase, in the first 4-5 Gyr. This phase was followed by a significant dip in the star formation activity (at 8-9 Gyr) and a period of roughly constant lower level star formation for the remaining 8 Gyr. The thick disc phase ha...

  20. Chipping machines: disc and drum energy requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Facello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution and fossil fuel reserves exhaustion are increasing the importance of the biomass-derived products, in particular wood, as source of clean and renewable energy for the production of electricity or steam. In order to improve the global efficiency and the entire production chain, we have to evaluate the energetic aspects linked to the process of transformation, handling and transport of these materials. This paper reports results on a comparison between two chippers of similar size using different cutting technology: disc and drum tool respectively. During trials, fuel consumption, PTO torque and speed, processing time and weight of processed material were recorded. Power demand, fuel consumption, specific energy and productivity were computed. The machine was fed with four different feedstock types (chestnut logs, poplar logs, poplar branches, poplar sawmill residues. 15 repetitions for each combination of feedstock-tool were carried out. The results of this study show that the disc tool requires, depending on the processed material, from 12 to 18% less fuel per unit of material processed than the drum tool, and consequently, from 12 to 16% less specific energy. In particular, the highest difference between tools was found in branches processing whereas the smallest was in poplar logs. Furthermore the results of the investigation indicate, that, in testing conditions, the productivity of drum tool is higher (8% than disc tool.

  1. Testing hydrodynamics schemes in galaxy disc simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, C. G.; Dobbs, C.; Pettitt, A.; Konstandin, L.

    2016-08-01

    We examine how three fundamentally different numerical hydrodynamics codes follow the evolution of an isothermal galactic disc with an external spiral potential. We compare an adaptive mesh refinement code (RAMSES), a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (SPHNG), and a volume-discretized mesh-less code (GIZMO). Using standard refinement criteria, we find that RAMSES produces a disc that is less vertically concentrated and does not reach such high densities as the SPHNG or GIZMO runs. The gas surface density in the spiral arms increases at a lower rate for the RAMSES simulations compared to the other codes. There is also a greater degree of substructure in the SPHNG and GIZMO runs and secondary spiral arms are more pronounced. By resolving the Jeans length with a greater number of grid cells, we achieve more similar results to the Lagrangian codes used in this study. Other alterations to the refinement scheme (adding extra levels of refinement and refining based on local density gradients) are less successful in reducing the disparity between RAMSES and SPHNG/GIZMO. Although more similar, SPHNG displays different density distributions and vertical mass profiles to all modes of GIZMO (including the smoothed particle hydrodynamics version). This suggests differences also arise which are not intrinsic to the particular method but rather due to its implementation. The discrepancies between codes (in particular, the densities reached in the spiral arms) could potentially result in differences in the locations and time-scales for gravitational collapse, and therefore impact star formation activity in more complex galaxy disc simulations.

  2. Magnetically driven accretion in protoplanetary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Jacob B; Kunz, Matthew W; Armitage, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    We characterize magnetically driven accretion at radii between 1 au and 100 au in protoplanetary discs, using a series of local non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. The simulations assume a Minimum Mass Solar Nebula (MMSN) disc that is threaded by a net vertical magnetic field of specified strength. Confirming previous results, we find that the Hall effect has only a modest impact on accretion at 30 au, and essentially none at 100 au. At 1-10 au the Hall effect introduces a pronounced bi-modality in the accretion process, with vertical magnetic fields aligned to the disc rotation supporting a strong laminar Maxwell stress that is absent if the field is anti-aligned. In the anti-aligned case, we instead find evidence for bursts of turbulent stress at 5-10 au, which we tentatively identify with the non-axisymmetric Hall-shear instability. The presence or absence of these bursts depends upon the details of the adopted chemical model, which suggests that appreciable regions of actual protoplanetary di...

  3. Spinning disc atomisation process: Modelling and computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Sisoev, Grigory; Shikhmurzaev, Yulii

    2016-11-01

    The atomisation of liquids using a spinning disc (SDA), where the centrifugal force is used to generate a continuous flow, with the liquid eventually disintegrating into drops which, on solidification, become particles, is a key element in many technologies. Examples of such technologies range from powder manufacturing in metallurgy to various biomedical applications. In order to be able to control the SDA process, it is necessary to understand it as a whole, from the feeding of the liquid and the wave pattern developing on the disc to the disintegration of the liquid film into filaments and these into drops. The SDA process has been the subject of a number of experimental studies and some elements of it, notably the film on a spinning disc and the dynamics of the jets streaming out from it, have been investigated theoretically. However, to date there have been no studies of the process as a whole, including, most importantly, the transition zone where the film that has already developed a certain wave pattern disintegrates into jets that spiral out. The present work reports some results of an ongoing project aimed at producing a definitive map of regimes occurring in the SDA process and their outcome.

  4. Snap, crackle, pop: sub-grid supernova feedback in AMR simulations of disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosdahl, Joakim; Schaye, Joop; Dubois, Yohan; Kimm, Taysun; Teyssier, Romain

    2017-04-01

    We compare five sub-grid models for supernova (SN) feedback in adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulations of isolated dwarf and L-star disc galaxies with 20-40 pc resolution. The models are thermal dump, stochastic thermal, 'mechanical' (injecting energy or momentum depending on the resolution), kinetic and delayed cooling feedback. We focus on the ability of each model to suppress star formation and generate outflows. Our highest resolution runs marginally resolve the adiabatic phase of the feedback events, which correspond to 40 SN explosions, and the first three models yield nearly identical results, possibly indicating that kinetic and delayed cooling feedback converge to wrong results. At lower resolution all models differ, with thermal dump feedback becoming inefficient. Thermal dump, stochastic and mechanical feedback generate multiphase outflows with mass loading factors β ≪ 1, which is much lower than observed. For the case of stochastic feedback, we compare to published SPH simulations, and find much lower outflow rates. Kinetic feedback yields fast, hot outflows with β ∼ 1, but only if the wind is in effect hydrodynamically decoupled from the disc using a large bubble radius. Delayed cooling generates cold, dense and slow winds with β > 1, but large amounts of gas occupy regions of temperature-density space with short cooling times. We conclude that either our resolution is too low to warrant physically motivated models for SN feedback, that feedback mechanisms other than SNe are important or that other aspects of galaxy evolution, such as star formation, require better treatment.

  5. Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Landberg, Lars;

    Wind power meteorology has evolved as an applied science, firmly founded on boundary-layer meteorology, but with strong links to climatology and geography. It concerns itself with three main areas: siting of wind turbines, regional wind resource assessment, and short-term prediction of the wind...... resource. The history, status and perspectives of wind power meteorology are presented, with emphasis on physical considerations and on its practical application. Following a global view of the wind resource, the elements of boundary layer meteorology which are most important for wind energy are reviewed......: wind profiles and shear, turbulence and gust, and extreme winds. The data used in wind power meteorology stem mainly from three sources: onsite wind measurements, the synoptic networks, and the re-analysis projects. Wind climate analysis, wind resource estimation and siting further require a detailed...

  6. Time-dependence of non-planar accretion discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaloizou, J.C.B. (Queen Mary Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Applied Mathematics); Pringle, J.E. (Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Astronomical Inst.)

    1983-03-01

    Equations are derived which describe the time-dependence of a viscous, tilted accretion disc subject to external torques. A full hydrodynamical treatment is used and the equations linearized in terms of a small tilt. It is shown that previous attempts at deriving these equations are inadequate due to the inconsistency of some of the assumptions made. The behaviour of a tilted viscous disc is not simple to describe. Viscous forces tend to flatten the disc, but they also produce torques within the disc which induce local precession of disc elements. The main complication is that the horizontal motions induced in the disc by the tilt are resonantly driven so that their magnitude and phase are governed by the viscosity. This leads to the disc being smoothed on a time-scale faster than the usual viscous one. In order to obtain a simple diffusion equation governing the tilt angle ..beta.., it is necessary in a Keplerian disc that the viscosity parameter ..cap alpha.. be greater than the opening angle of the disc (H/R). If this condition is not satisfied consideration must be given to the proper dynamical modes of the disc, and the simple approach to the problem adopted here is inadequate.

  7. Wind Streaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 12 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth. Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms. Windstreaks are features caused by the interaction of wind and topographic landforms. The raised rims and bowls of impact craters causes a complex interaction such that the wind vortex in the lee of the crater can both scour away the surface dust and deposit it back in the center of the lee. If you look closely, you will see evidence of this in a darker 'rim' enclosing a brighter interior. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 6.9, Longitude 69.4 East (290.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing

  8. Prospecting for Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapp, Andy; Schreuders, Paul; Reeve, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Many people use wind to help meet their needs. Over the years, people have been able to harness or capture the wind in many different ways. More recently, people have seen the rebirth of electricity-generating wind turbines. Thus, the age-old argument about technology being either good or bad can also be applied to the wind. The wind can be a…

  9. Careers in Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew; Hamilton, James

    2011-01-01

    As a common form of renewable energy, wind power is generating more than just electricity. It is increasingly generating jobs for workers in many different occupations. Many workers are employed on wind farms: areas where groups of wind turbines produce electricity from wind power. Wind farms are frequently located in the midwestern, western, and…

  10. An aerodynamic noise propagation model for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2005-01-01

    A model based on 2-D sound ray theory for aerodynamic noise propagation from wind turbine rotating blades is introduced. The model includes attenuation factors from geometric spreading, sound directivity of source, air absorption, ground deflection and reflection, as well as effects from temperat......A model based on 2-D sound ray theory for aerodynamic noise propagation from wind turbine rotating blades is introduced. The model includes attenuation factors from geometric spreading, sound directivity of source, air absorption, ground deflection and reflection, as well as effects from...

  11. Estimation of rotor effective wind speeds using autoregressive models on Lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giyanani, A.; Bierbooms, W. A. A. M.; van Bussel, G. J. W.

    2016-09-01

    Lidars have become increasingly useful for providing accurate wind speed measurements in front of the wind turbine. The wind field measured at distant meteorological masts changes its structure or was too distorted before it reaches the turbine. Thus, one cannot simply apply Taylor's frozen turbulence for representing this distant flow field at the rotor. Wind turbine controllers can optimize the energy output and reduce the loads significantly, if the wind speed estimates were known in advance with high accuracy and low uncertainty. The current method to derive wind speed estimations from aerodynamic torque, pitch angle and tip speed ratio after the wind field flows past the turbine and have their limitations, e.g. in predicting gusts. Therefore, an estimation model coupled with the measuring capability of nacelle based Lidars was necessary for detecting extreme events and for estimating accurate wind speeds at the rotor disc. Nacelle-mounted Lidars measure the oncoming wind field from utpo 400m(5D) in front of the turbine and appropriate models could be used for deriving the rotor effective wind speed from these measurements. This article proposes an auto-regressive model combined with a method to include the blockage factor in order to estimate the wind speeds accurately using Lidar measurements. An Armax model was used to determine the transfer function that models the physical evolution of wind towards the wind turbine, incorporating the effect of surface roughness, wind shear and wind variability at the site. The model could incorporate local as well as global effects and was able to predict the rotor effective wind speeds with adequate accuracy for wind turbine control actions. A high correlation of 0.86 was achieved as the Armax modelled signal was compared to a reference signal. The model could also be extended to estimate the damage potential during high wind speeds, gusts or abrupt change in wind directions, allowing the controller to act appropriately

  12. Segmental mobility, disc height and patient-reported outcomes after surgery for degenerative disc disease: a prospective randomised trial comparing disc replacement and multidisciplinary rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, L G; Brinckmann, P; Hellum, C; Rossvoll, I; Leivseth, G

    2013-01-01

    This prospective multicentre study was undertaken to determine segmental movement, disc height and sagittal alignment after total disc replacement (TDR) in the lumbosacral spine and to assess the correlation of biomechanical properties to clinical outcomes.A total of 173 patients with degenerative disc disease and low back pain for more than one year were randomised to receive either TDR or multidisciplinary rehabilitation (MDR). Segmental movement in the sagittal plane and disc height were measured using distortion compensated roentgen analysis (DCRA) comparing radiographs in active flexion and extension. Correlation analysis between the range of movement or disc height and patient-reported outcomes was performed in both groups. After two years, no significant change in movement in the sagittal plane was found in segments with TDR or between the two treatment groups. It remained the same or increased slightly in untreated segments in the TDR group and in this group there was a significant increase in disc height in the operated segments. There was no correlation between segmental movement or disc height and patient-reported outcomes in either group.In this study, insertion of an intervertebral disc prosthesis TDR did not increase movement in the sagittal plane and segmental movement did not correlate with patient-reported outcomes. This suggests that in the lumbar spine the movement preserving properties of TDR are not major determinants of clinical outcomes.

  13. 75 FR 23263 - Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC; Alta Wind VI, LLC; Alta Wind VII, LLC; Alta Wind VIII, LLC; Alta Windpower... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 285.207 (2009), Alta Wind I, LLC, Alta Wind...

  14. Non-thermal radiation from a pulsar wind interacting with an inhomogeneous stellar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cita, V. M.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Khangulyan, D.; Perucho, M.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Binaries hosting a massive star and a non-accreting pulsar are powerful non-thermal emitters owing to the interaction of the pulsar and the stellar wind. The winds of massive stars are thought to be inhomogeneous, which could have an impact on the non-thermal emission. Aims: We study numerically the impact of the presence of inhomogeneities or clumps in the stellar wind on the high-energy non-thermal radiation of high-mass binaries hosting a non-accreting pulsar. Methods: We compute the trajectories and physical properties of the streamlines in the shocked pulsar wind without clumps, with a small clump, and with a large clump. This information is used to characterize the injection and the steady state distribution of non-thermal particles accelerated at shocks formed in the pulsar wind. The synchrotron and inverse Compton emission from these non-thermal particles is calculated, accounting also for the effect of gamma-ray absorption through pair creation. A specific study is done for PSR B1259-63/LS2883. Results: When stellar wind clumps perturb the two-wind interaction region, the associated non-thermal radiation in the X-ray band, of synchrotron origin, and in the GeV-TeV band, of inverse Compton origin, is affected by several equally important effects: (i) strong changes in the plasma velocity direction that result in Doppler boosting factor variations; (ii) strengthening of the magnetic field that mainly enhances the synchrotron radiation; (iii) strengthening of the pulsar wind kinetic energy dissipation at the shock, potentially available for particle acceleration; and (iv) changes in the rate of adiabatic losses that affect the lower energy part of the non-thermal particle population. The radiation above 100 GeV detected, presumably, during the post-periastron crossing of the Be star disc in PSR B1259-63/LS2883, can be roughly reproduced assuming that the crossing of the disc is modelled as the encounter with a large inhomogeneity. Conclusions

  15. Suspected herniated lumbar disc - computed tomography in differential diagnosis of non-disc-related sciatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, T.; Koehler, D.; Treisch, J.; Claussen, C.; Felix, R.

    1984-07-01

    The most common reason a patient is referred for spinal CT examination is to exclude a ruptured intervertebral disc. Besides nerve root entrapment due to herniated disc, a number of unusual or unexpected conditions have been encountered in the course of CT lumbar spine studies. These include spondylolisthesis, spinal dysraphism, Paget's disease, and inflammatory, neoplastic, or metastatic lesions. The application of spinal (small-circle) target imaging includes the risk of overlooking soft tissue lesions that extend beyond the reconstruction circle. Therefore, complete (large-circle) circumferential abdominal scanning is recommended in case of a suspected extraspinal cause of sciatica.

  16. Field measurements and modeling of attenuation from near-surface bubbles for frequencies 1-20 kHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Peter H; Choi, Jee Woong; Williams, Neil J; Graber, Hans C

    2008-09-01

    Measurements of excess attenuation from near-surface bubbles from the Shallow Water '06 experiment are reported. These are transmission measurements made over the frequency range 1-20 kHz, and they demonstrate a frequency, grazing angle, and wind speed dependence in attenuation. Data modeling points to bubble void fractions of order 10(-6) in effect for wind speeds 10-13 m/s. Simultaneous measures of wind speed made within 1.5 and 11 km of the open water experimental location differed by 2 m/s in their respective 30 min average; this has cautionary implications for empirical models for bubble attenuation that are a strong function of wind speed.

  17. Growth of eccentric modes in disc-planet interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Teyssandier, Jean

    2016-01-01

    We formulate a set of linear equations that describe the behaviour of small eccentricities in a protoplanetary system consisting of a gaseous disc and a planet. Eccentricity propagates through the disc by means of pressure and self-gravity, and is exchanged with the planet via secular interactions. Excitation and damping of eccentricity can occur through Lindblad and corotation resonances, as well as viscosity. We compute normal modes of the coupled disc-planet system in the case of short-period giant planets orbiting inside an inner cavity, possibly carved by the stellar magnetosphere. Three-dimensional effects allow for a mode to be trapped in the inner parts of the disc. This mode can easily grow within the disc's lifetime. An eccentric mode dominated by the planet can also grow, although less rapidly. We compute the structure and growth rates of these modes and their dependence on the assumed properties of the disc.

  18. Dynamical stability and evolution of the discs of Sc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, B

    1997-01-01

    We examine the local stability of galactic discs against axisymmetric density perturbations with special attention to the different dynamics of the stellar and gaseous components. In particular the discs of the Milky Way and of NGC 6946 are studied. The Milky Way is shown to be stable, whereas the inner parts of NGC 6946, a typical Sc galaxy from the Kennicutt (1989) sample, are dynamically unstable. The ensuing dynamical evolution of the composite disc is studied by numerical simulations. The evolution is so fierce that the stellar disc heats up dynamically on a short time scale to such a degree, which seems to contradict the morphological appearance of the galaxy. The star formation rate required to cool the disc dynamically is estimated. Even if the star formation rate in NGC 6946 is at present high enough to meet this requirement, it is argued that the discs of Sc galaxies cannot sustain such a high star formation rate for longer periods.

  19. Advances in Susceptibility Genetics of Intervertebral Degenerative Disc Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin'gang Zhang, Zhengming Sun, Jiangtao Liu, Xiong Guo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional view that the etiology of lumbar disc herniation is primarily due to age, gender, occupation, smoking and exposure to vehicular vibration dominated much of the last century. Recent research indicates that heredity may be largely responsible for the degeneration as well as herniation of intervertebral discs. Since 1998, genetic influences have been confirmed by the identification of several genes forms associated with disc degeneration. These researches are paving the way for a better understanding of the biologic mechanisms. Now, many researchers unanimously agree that lumbar disc herniation appears to be similar to other complex diseases, whose etiology has both environmental and hereditary influence, each with a part of contribution and relative risk. Then addressing the etiological of lumbar disc herniation, it is important to integrate heredity with the environment factors. For the purpose of this review, we have limited our discussion to several susceptibility genes associated with disc degeneration.

  20. Accretion disc viscosity: a limit on the anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Observations of warped discs can give insight into the nature of angular momentum transport in accretion discs. Only a few objects are known to show strong periodicity on long timescales, but when such periodicity is present it is often attributed to precession of the accretion disc. The X-ray binary Hercules X-1/HZ Herculis (Her X-1) is one of the best examples of such periodicity and has been linked to disc precession since it was first observed. By using the current best-fitting models to Her X-1, which invoke precession driven by radiation warping, I place a constraint on the effective viscosities that act in a warped disc. These effective viscosities almost certainly arise due to turbulence induced by the magneto-rotational instability. The constraints derived here are in agreement with analytical and numerical investigations into the nature of magneto-hydrodynamic disc turbulence, but at odds with some recent global simulations.

  1. Evolution of inclined planets in three-dimensional radiative discs

    CERN Document Server

    Bitsch, Bertram

    2011-01-01

    While planets in the solar system only have a low inclination with respect to the ecliptic there is mounting evidence that in extrasolar systems the inclination can be very high, at least for close-in planets. One process to alter the inclination of a planet is through planet-disc interactions. Recent simulations considering radiative transport have shown that the evolution of migration and eccentricity can strongly depend on the thermodynamic state of the disc. We extend previous studies to investigate the planet-disc interactions of fixed and moving planets on inclined and eccentric orbits. We also analyse the effect of the disc's thermodynamic properties on the orbital evolution of embedded planets in detail. The protoplanetary disc is modelled as a viscous gas where the internally produced dissipation is transported by radiation. For locally isothermal discs, we confirm previous results and find inclination damping and inward migration for planetary cores. For low inclinations i < 2 H/r, the damping is...

  2. Effects of investigations into vibrating disc use for rock fracturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauze, K.; Pawlik, J.; Pawlik, K.

    1987-06-01

    Evaluates results of laboratory investigations into feasibility of mine drivage by heading machines with vibrating discs for rock cutting. Each cutting head was equipped with 2 discs. Discs with a diameter of 200 mm, 50 mm thick and with a wedge angle of 90 degrees were used for cutting three types of rocks (2 types of sandstones with a compression strength exceeding 80 MPa). Amplitude of disc vibrations ranged from 4 to 8 mm, frequency from 12 to 20 Hz. Investigations showed vibrating discs to be an efficient tool for cutting rocks with a high compression strength. Cutting disc wear was extremely low in contrast to wear of conventional picks of the NK-4 type (which after cutting a 0.3 m long rock section were removed due to wear). Cutting energy depended on vibration frequency and amplitude. 5 refs.

  3. Tower Winds - Cape Kennedy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digitized data taken from Wind Gust Charts. Record contains hourly wind directions and speed with a peak wind recorded at the end of each day. Sorted by: station,...

  4. Wave transformation and attenuation along the west coast of India: Measurements and numerical simulations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aboobacker, V.M.; Vethamony, P.; Samiksha, S.V.; Rashmi, R.; Jyoti, K.

    swells could be conveniently contributed to the reduction in wave heights at shallow water depths (Table 2). NE monsoon winds are normally weak in the Arabian Sea. However, when these winds get intensified, they spread over the entire... involved in the short wave attenuation along this part of the coast. 12    Acknowledgements We thank Director, NIO, Goa for providing necessary facilities. We acknowledge all the project participants, for their help during the wave data collection...

  5. Wind turbines and idiopathic symptoms: The confounding effect of concurrent environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Whether or not wind turbines pose a risk to human health is a matter of heated debate. Personal reactions to other environmental exposures occurring in the same settings as wind turbines may be responsible of the reported symptoms. However, these have not been accounted for in previous studies. We investigated whether there is an association between residential proximity to wind turbines and idiopathic symptoms, after controlling for personal reactions to other environmental co-exposures. We assessed wind turbine exposures in 454 residences as the distance to the closest wind turbine (Dw) and number of wind turbines wind turbines and agricultural odor exposure, we did not observe a significant relationship between residential proximity to wind turbines and symptoms and the parameter estimates were attenuated toward zero. Wind turbines-health associations can be confounded by personal reactions to other environmental co-exposures. Isolated associations reported in the literature may be due to confounding bias.

  6. Thoracic spine disc-related abnormalities: longitudinal MR imaging assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Charles J.; Schweitzer, Mark E.; Morrison, William B.; Parellada, Joan A. [TJUH Radiology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Carrino, J.A. [Department of Radiology ASB-1, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, L1, Room 002B, 75 Francis Street, MA 02115, Boston (United States)

    2004-04-01

    To describe and characterize the temporal changes in disc-related disorders of the thoracic spine using MR imaging. A retrospective longitudinal cohort study was carried out of 40 patients with two sequential thoracic spine MR images at variable intervals. The images were assessed for baseline presence of, new incidence of and changes in disc herniation, degenerative disc disease, endplate marrow signal alteration and Schmorl nodes. The range of follow-up was 4-149 weeks. Baseline presence was: disc herniation, 10% (49/480); degenerative disc disease, 14% (66/480); endplate marrow signal alteration, 2.3% (11/480); Schmorl nodes 9.6% (46/480). Most pre-existing lesions tended to remain unchanged. Herniations showed the most change, tending to improve in 27%. New incidence was: disc herniation, 1.5% (7/480), degenerative disc disease, 2% (10/480); endplate marrow signal alteration, 1.6% (8/480); Schmorl nodes, 2.1% (10/480). Disc degeneration was first visible at an 11-week interval and once established almost never changed over many weeks to months. Endplate signal alterations (Modic changes) were uncommon. Schmorl nodes show no change from baseline for up to 2 1/2 years. All findings predominated in the lower intervertebral levels from T6 to T10. The most prevalent thoracic spine disc-related findings are degeneration and herniation. Disc herniations predominate in the lower segments and are a dynamic phenomenon. Disc degeneration can be rapidly evolving but tends to remain unchanged after occurrence. Endplate marrow signal changes were an uncommon manifestation of thoracic disc disease. Schmorl nodes showed the least change over time. (orig.)

  7. Temporomandibular joint loads in subjects with and without disc displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Laura R; Crosby, Michael J; Gonzalez, Yoly; McCall, Willard D; Marx, David B; Ohrbach, Richard; Nickel, Jeffrey C

    2009-01-01

    The likelihood of development of degenerative joint disease (DJD) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is related to the integrity of the TMJ disc. Predilection for mechanical failure of the TMJ disc may reflect inter-individual differences in TMJ loads. Nine females and eight males in each of normal TMJ disc position and bilateral disc displacement diagnostic groups consented to participate in our study. Disc position was determined by bilateral magnetic resonance images of the joints. Three-dimensional (3D) anatomical geometry of each subject was used in a validated computer-assisted numerical model to calculate ipsilateral and contralateral TMJ loads for a range of biting positions (incisor, canine, molar) and angles (1-13). Each TMJ load was a resultant vector at the anterosuperi or-most mediolateral midpoint the condyle and characterized in terms of magnitude and 3D orientation. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for effects of biting position and angle on TMJ loads. Mean TMJ loads in subjects with disc displacement were 9.5-69% higher than in subjects with normal disc position. During canine biting, TMJ loads in subjects with disc displacement were 43% (ipsilateral condyle, p=0.029) and 49% (contralateral condyle, p=0.015) higher on average than in subjects with normal disc position. Biting angle effects showed that laterally directed forces on the dentition produced ipsilateral joint loads, which on average were 69% higher (p=0.002) compared to individuals with normal TMJ disc position. The data reported here describe large differences in TMJ loads between individuals with disc displacement and normal disc position. The results support future investigations of inter-individual differences in joint mechanics as a variable in the development of DJD of the TMJ.

  8. Temporomandibular joint loads in subjects with and without disc displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rei Iwasaki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The likelihood of development of degenerative joint disease (DJD of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ is related to the integrity of the TMJ disc. Predilection for mechanical failure of the TMJ disc may reflect inter-individual differences in TMJ loads. Nine females and eight males in each of normal TMJ disc position and bilateral disc displacement diagnostic groups consented to participate in our study. Disc position was determined by bilateral magnetic resonance images of the joints. Three-dimensional (3D anatomical geometry of each subject was used in a validated computer-assisted numerical model to calculate ipsilateral and contralateral TMJ loads for a range of biting positions (incisor, canine, molar and angles (1-13. Each TMJ load was a resultant vector at the anterosuperior-most mediolateral midpoint on the condyle and characterized in terms of magnitude and 3D orientation. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to test for effects of biting position and angle on TMJ loads. Mean TMJ loads in subjects with disc displacement were 9.5-69% higher than in subjects with normal disc position. During canine biting, TMJ loads in subjects with disc displacement were 43% (ipsilateral condyle, p=0.029 and 49% (contralateral condyle, p=0.015 higher on average than in subjects with normal disc position. Biting angle effects showed that laterally directed forces on the dentition produced ipsilateral joint loads, which on average were 69% higher (p=0.002 compared to individuals with normal TMJ disc position. The data reported here describe large differences in TMJ loads between individuals with disc displacement and normal disc position. The results support future investigations of inter-individual differences in joint mechanics as a variable in the development of DJD of the TMJ.

  9. Orbital evolution of eccentric planets in radiative discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsch, B.; Kley, W.

    2010-11-01

    Context. With an average eccentricity of about 0.29, the eccentricity distribution of extrasolar planets is markedly different from the solar system. Among other scenarios considered, it has been proposed that eccentricity may grow through planet-disc interaction. Recently, it has been noticed that the thermodynamical state of the disc can significantly influence the migration properties of growing protoplanets. However, the evolution of planetary eccentricity in radiative discs has not been considered yet. Aims: In this paper we study the evolution of planets on eccentric orbits that are embedded in a three-dimensional viscous disc and analyse the disc's effect on the orbital evolution of the planet. Methods: We use the three-dimensional hydrodynamical code NIRVANA that includes full tensor viscosity and implicit radiation transport in the flux-limited diffusion approximation. The code uses the FARGO-algorithm to speed up the simulations. First we measure the torque and power exerted on the planet by the disc for fixed orbits, and then we let the planet start with initial eccentricity and evolve it in the disc. Results: For locally isothermal discs we confirm previous results and find eccentricity damping and inward migration for planetary cores. For low eccentricity (e ⪉ 2 H/r) the damping is exponential, while for higher e it follows dot{e} ∝ e-2. In the case of radiative discs, the planets experience an inward migration as long as its eccentricity lies above a certain threshold. After the damping of eccentricity cores with masses below 33 MEarth begin to migrate outward in radiative discs, while higher mass cores always migrate inward. For all planetary masses studied (up to 200 MEarth) we find eccentricity damping. Conclusions: In viscous discs the orbital eccentricity of embedded planets is damped during the evolution independent of the mass. Hence, planet-disc interaction does not seem to be a viable mechanism to explain the observed high eccentricity of

  10. Unsteady Heat Transfer From a Non Isothermal Rotating Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Krishan

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytic solution of the energy equation is obtained for a non-isothermal disc rotating in an incompressible fluid at rest neglecting the viscous dissipation. Initially the disc and the fluid are at a common temperature. Without altering the velocity, the disc temperature is then changed and maintained at temperature varying according to the power law of radial distance. Expressions for temperature distribution in the fluid for large and small times have been evaluated.

  11. A Review of a Study on Disc Brake Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With the development of the automotive industry, disc brake noise has become an issue of growing concern to the automotive industry and customers. In this paper, the types of disc brake noise have been discussed. Ajter that, the theories and models that have been proposed as an explanation of brake squeal are reviewed. On the basis of these theories and models, some example simulations of disc brake squeal which use the Finite Element method and mathematical model have been introduced.

  12. Clinical Evaluation of Disc Battery Ingestion in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Mirshemirani, Alireza; Khaleghnejad-tabari, Ahmad; Kouranloo, Jaefar; Sadeghian, Naser; Rouzrokh, Mohsen; Roshanzamir, Fatolah; Razavi, Sajad; Sayary, Ali Akbar; Imanzadeh, Farid

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics, management, and outcomes of disc battery ingestion in children. METHODS We reviewed the medical records of children admitted to Mofid Children’s Hospital due to disc battery ingestion from January 2006 to January 2010. Clear history, clinical symptoms and results of imaging studies revealed diagnosis of disc battery ingestion in suspected patients. The clinical data reviewed included age, gender, clinical manifestation,...

  13. Audiovisual Bounce-Inducing Effect: Attention Alone Does Not Explain Why the Discs Are Bouncing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Massimo; Casco, Clara

    2009-01-01

    Two discs moving from opposite points in space, overlapping and stopping at the other disc's starting point, can be seen as either bouncing or streaming through each other. With silent displays, observers report the discs as streaming, whereas if a sound is played when the discs touch each other, observers report the discs as bouncing. The origin…

  14. The impact of wind direction in atmospheric BL on interacting wakes at Horns Rev wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanell, Stefan; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2010-01-01

    coefficients. The ad- vantage of using the actuator-disc technique is that it is not necessary to resolve blade boundary layers since the computational resources are devoted to simulating the dynamics of the flow structures. In the present study approximately 13.6 million mesh points are used to resolve...... captures the main production variation within the wind farm. The result further demonstrates that levels of production correlate well with measurements. However, in some cases the variation of the measurement data is caused by variation of measurement conditions with inflow angles. The study also shows...

  15. Self-gravitating disc candidates around massive young stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgan, D. H.; Ilee, J. D.; Cyganowski, C. J.; Brogan, C. L.; Hunter, T. R.

    2016-11-01

    There have been several recent detections of candidate Keplerian discs around massive young protostars. Given the relatively large disc-to-star mass ratios in these systems, and their young ages, it is worth investigating their propensity to becoming self-gravitating. To this end, we compute self-consistent, semi-analytic models of putative self-gravitating discs for five candidate disc systems. Our aim is not to fit exactly the observations, but to demonstrate that the expected dust continuum emission from marginally unstable self-gravitating discs can be quite weak, due to high optical depth at the mid-plane even at millimetre wavelengths. In the best cases, the models produce `observable' disc masses within a factor of self-gravitating disc model compares well with observations. If these discs are self-gravitating, they satisfy the conditions for disc fragmentation in their outer regions. These systems may hence have as-yet-unresolved low-mass stellar companions, and are thus promising targets for future high angular resolution observations.

  16. The effect of radiative feedback on disc fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Anthony; Stamatellos, Dimitris

    2017-02-01

    Protostellar discs may become massive enough to fragment producing secondary low-mass objects: planets, brown dwarfs and low-mass stars. We study the effect of radiative feedback from such newly formed secondary objects using radiative hydrodynamic simulations. We compare the results of simulations without any radiative feedback from secondary objects with those where two types of radiative feedback are considered: (i) continuous and (ii) episodic. We find that (i) continuous radiative feedback stabilizes the disc and suppresses further fragmentation, reducing the number of secondary objects formed; (ii) episodic feedback from secondary objects heats and stabilizes the disc when the outburst occurs, but shortly after the outburst stops, the disc becomes unstable and fragments again. However, fewer secondary objects are formed compared to the case without radiative feedback. We also find that the mass growth of secondary objects is mildly suppressed due to the effect of their radiative feedback. However, their mass growth also depends on where they form in the disc and on their subsequent interactions, such that their final masses are not drastically different from the case without radiative feedback. We find that the masses of secondary objects formed by disc fragmentation are from a few MJ to a few 0.1 M⊙. Planets formed by fragmentation tend to be ejected from the disc. We conclude that planetary-mass objects on wide orbits (wide-orbit planets) are unlikely to form by disc fragmentation. Nevertheless, disc fragmentation may be a significant source of free-floating planets and brown dwarfs.

  17. Notochord Cells in Intervertebral Disc Development and Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. McCann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The intervertebral disc is a complex structure responsible for flexibility, multi-axial motion, and load transmission throughout the spine. Importantly, degeneration of the intervertebral disc is thought to be an initiating factor for back pain. Due to a lack of understanding of the pathways that govern disc degeneration, there are currently no disease-modifying treatments to delay or prevent degenerative disc disease. This review presents an overview of our current understanding of the developmental processes that regulate intervertebral disc formation, with particular emphasis on the role of the notochord and notochord-derived cells in disc homeostasis and how their loss can result in degeneration. We then describe the role of small animal models in understanding the development of the disc and their use to interrogate disc degeneration and associated pathologies. Finally, we highlight essential development pathways that are associated with disc degeneration and/or implicated in the reparative response of the tissue that might serve as targets for future therapeutic approaches.

  18. MECHANICAL DESIGN CRITERIA FOR INTERVERTEBRAL DISC TISSUE ENGINEERING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerurkar, Nandan L.; Elliott, Dawn M.; Mauck, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the inability of current clinical practices to restore function to degenerated intervertebral discs, the arena of disc tissue engineering has received substantial attention in recent years. Despite tremendous growth and progress in this field, translation to clinical implementation has been hindered by a lack of well-defined functional benchmarks. Because successful replacement of the disc is contingent upon replication of some or all of its complex mechanical behaviour, it is critically important that disc mechanics be well characterized in order to establish discrete functional goals for tissue engineering. In this review, the key functional signatures of the intervertebral disc are discussed and used to propose a series of native tissue benchmarks to guide the development of engineered replacement tissues. These benchmarks include measures of mechanical function under tensile, compressive and shear deformations for the disc and its substructures. In some cases, important functional measures are identified that have yet to be measured in the native tissue. Ultimately, native tissue benchmark values are compared to measurements that have been made on engineered disc tissues, identifying measures where functional equivalence was achieved, and others where there remain opportunities for advancement. Several excellent reviews exist regarding disc composition and structure, as well as recent tissue engineering strategies; therefore this review will remain focused on the functional aspects of disc tissue engineering. PMID:20080239

  19. The hunt for the Milky Way's accreted disc

    CERN Document Server

    Ruchti, Gregory R; Feltzing, Sofia; Pipino, Antonio; Bensby, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The Milky Way is expected to host an accreted disc of stars and dark matter. This forms as massive >1:10 mergers are preferentially dragged towards the disc plane by dynamical friction and then tidally shredded. The accreted disc likely contributes only a tiny fraction of the Milky Way's thin and thick stellar disc. However, it is interesting because: (i) its associated `dark disc' has important implications for experiments hoping to detect a dark matter particle in the laboratory; and (ii) the presence or absence of such a disc constrains the merger history of our Galaxy. In this work, we develop a chemo-dynamical template to hunt for the accreted disc. We apply our template to the high-resolution spectroscopic sample from Ruchti et al. (2011), finding at present no evidence for accreted stars. Our results are consistent with a quiescent Milky Way with no >1:10 mergers since the disc formed and a correspondingly light `dark disc'. However, we caution that while our method can robustly identify accreted stars...

  20. A disc-type magneto-rheologic fluid damper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝长生

    2003-01-01

    A disc-type magneto-rheological fluid damper operating in shear mode is proposed in this paper, which is based on the special characteristics of the magneto-rheological (MR) fluid with rapid, reversible and dramatic change in its rheological properties by the application of an external magnetic field. The magnetic field of the disc-type MR fluid damper is analysed by the finite element method; the controllability of the disc-type MR fluid damper on the dynamic behaviour of a rotor system; and the effectiveness of the disc-type MR fluid damper in controlling the vibration of a rotor system, are studied in a flexible rotor system with an over-hung disc. It is shown that the magnetic flux density of the disc-type MR fluid damper in the working areas can significantly change with the applied current in the coil; and that the dynamic behavior of the disc-type MR fluid damper can be varied by the application of an external magnetic field produced by a low voltage electromagnetic coil. The disc-type MR fluid damper can significantly change the dynamic characteristics of a rotor system, provided that the location of the disk-type MR fluid damper is carefully chosen. The disc-type MR fluid damper is a new actuator with good dynamic characteristics for rotating machinery.

  1. Self-gravitating disc candidates around massive young stars

    CERN Document Server

    Forgan, D H; Cyganowski, C J; Brogan, C L; Hunter, T R

    2016-01-01

    There have been several recent detections of candidate Keplerian discs around massive young protostars. Given the relatively large disc-to-star mass ratios in these systems, and their young ages, it is worth investigating their propensity to becoming self-gravitating. To this end, we compute self-consistent, semi-analytic models of putative self-gravitating discs for five candidate disc systems. Our aim is not to fit exactly the observations, but to demonstrate that the expected dust continuum emission from marginally unstable self-gravitating discs can be quite weak, due to high optical depth at the midplane even at millimetre wavelengths. In the best cases, the models produce "observable" disc masses within a factor of <1.5 of those observed, with midplane dust temperatures comparable to measured temperatures from molecular line emission. We find in two cases that a self-gravitating disc model compares well with observations. If these discs are self-gravitating, they satisfy the conditions for disc fragm...

  2. Wind energy bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1995-05-01

    This bibliography is designed to help the reader search for information on wind energy. The bibliography is intended to help several audiences, including engineers and scientists who may be unfamiliar with a particular aspect of wind energy, university researchers who are interested in this field, manufacturers who want to learn more about specific wind topics, and librarians who provide information to their clients. Topics covered range from the history of wind energy use to advanced wind turbine design. References for wind energy economics, the wind energy resource, and environmental and institutional issues related to wind energy are also included.

  3. Wind for Schools (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2010-05-01

    As the United States dramatically expands wind energy deployment, the industry is challenged with developing a skilled workforce and addressing public resistance. Wind Powering America's Wind for Schools project addresses these issues by developing Wind Application Centers (WACs) at universities; WAC students assist in implementing school wind turbines and participate in wind courses, by installing small wind turbines at community "host" schools, by implementing teacher training with interactive curricula at each host school. This poster provides an overview of the first two years of the Wind for Schools project, primarily supporting activities in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, Montana, and Idaho.

  4. Interleukin-1 inhibits Sox9 and collagen type Ⅱ expression via nuclear factor-κB in the cultured human intervertebral disc cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhan-ge; XU Ning; WANG Wen-bo; PAN Shang-ha; LI Ke-shen; LIU Jia-kun

    2009-01-01

    Background The most significant biological change in intervertebral disc degeneration is the decrease of chondrocyte specific gene and protein expression of Sox9 and collagen type Ⅱ. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is not expressed in the normal intervertebral disc tissue but increases in the degenerated intervertebral disc tissue. This suggests that IL-1 may play a role in regulation of the expression of Sox9 and collagen type Ⅱ.Methods Human intervertebral disc cells were isolated and cultured. Sox9 and collagen type Ⅱ expression during treatment with IL-1, with or without the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity inhibitor curcumin, were detected by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, and the activity of the NF-κB signaling pathway was detected by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA).Results IL-1 lowered the mRNA level and protein expression of Sox9 and collagen type Ⅱ in the cultured intervertebral disc cells in a dose dependent manner (P 0.05). IL-1 at concentrations of 0.1 ng/ml, 1 ng/ml and 10 ng/ml could stimulate the activity of NF-κB in the intervertebral disc cells in a dose dependent manner (P <0.05) that was inhibited by curcumin.Conclusions We demonstrated the previously unknown function of IL-1 in inhibiting Sox9 and collagen type II via NF-κB in the intervertebral disc cells. This inhibition can be attenuated by curcumin, which is an effective NF-κB activity inhibitor.

  5. Wake flow characteristics at high wind speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Larsen, Torben J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.;

    2016-01-01

    a variation over the profile from around 3m/s to 16m/s, which explains the high loading observed at high wind. Two models for merging wakes are tested, and one works best below rated power and another shows excellent performance around 14m/s. Finally, power measurements from the Lillgrund wind farm in a row...... power. In the present study we simulate the wake flow for a row of turbines with the wind aligned with the row using a simplified approach. The velocity deficit, being a function of the thrust coefficient, is simulated based on the BEM solution for wake expansion. An axis-symmetric boundary layer....... In the first flow regime comprising the first turbines in a row the local mean wind speed over the rotor disc is found to decrease linearly from turbine to turbine for the turbines operating at maximum power but also to some extend extend below rated power. The second flow regime is characterized by a constant...

  6. A computational study of intervertebral disc degeneration in relation to changes in regional tissue composition and disc nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Up to 85% of the world population suffers from low back pain, a clinical condition often related to the intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration (DD). Altered disc cell nutrition affects cell viability and can generate catabolic cascades that degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM). Also, a major degenerative biochemical change in the disc is the proteoglycan (PG) loss, which affects the osmotic pressure and hydration that is critical for cell nutrition. However, the relationship between biochem...

  7. Analysis of crucial molecules involved in herniated discs and degenerative disc disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Qu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Herniated discs and degenerative disc disease are major health problems worldwide. However, their pathogenesis remains obscure. This study aimed to explore the molecular mechanisms of these ailments and to identify underlying therapeutic targets. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using the GSE23130 microarray datasets downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, differentially co-expressed genes and links were identified using the differentially co-expressed gene and link method with a false discovery rate ,0.25 as a significant threshold. Subsequently, the underlying molecular mechanisms of the differential co-expression of these genes were investigated using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis. In addition, the transcriptional regulatory relationship was also investigated. RESULTS: Through the analysis of the gene expression profiles of different specimens from patients with these diseases, 539 differentially co-expressed genes were identified for these ailments. The ten most significant signaling pathways involving the differentially co-expressed genes were identified by enrichment analysis. Among these pathways, apoptosis and extracellular matrix-receptor interaction pathways have been reported to be related to these diseases. A total of 62 pairs of regulatory relationships between transcription factors and their target genes were identified as critical for the pathogenesis of these diseases. CONCLUSION: The results of our study will help to identify the mechanisms responsible for herniated discs and degenerative disc disease and provides a theoretical basis for further therapeutic study.

  8. Structure and kinematics of edge-on galaxy discs - IV. The kinematics of the stellar discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kregel, M; van der Kruit, PC

    2005-01-01

    The stellar disc kinematics in a sample of 15 intermediate- to late-type edge-on spiral galaxies are studied using a dynamical modelling technique. The sample covers a substantial range in maximum rotation velocity and deprojected face-on surface brightness and contains seven spirals with either a b

  9. Percutaneous treatment of lumbar disc herniation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonardi, M.; Resta, F.; Bettinelli, A. [Ospedale Maggiore di Milano (Italy); Lavaroni, A.; Fabris, G. [Ospedale Civile di Udine (Italy); Abelli, F. [Fondazione Clinica del Lavorno, Pavia (Italy)

    1994-12-31

    918 patients were subjected to percutaneous treatment of lumbar herniated disc. 733 of these were treated through enzymatic nucleolysis with chymopapain, for a total 883 levels. Chemonucleolysis was carried out on 733 patients (79.8%). Automated discectomy has been carried out in 185 cases (20.1%). Chemonucleolysis has led to the resolution of the symptoms in a high percentage of cases (82.2%). Nucleotomy has proved to be an effective method in 74.6% of cases. (author). 7 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab.

  10. Slim accretion discs with different viscosity prescriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szuszkiewicz, E. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Garching (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Astrophysik)

    1990-05-15

    The variability of X-ray sources powered by accretion may be connected to thermal instabilities in the innermost parts of slim discs. The time-scales of variability predicted by the theory with the standard {alpha}-viscosity prescription agree with those observed in a wide range of sources. The amplitudes (3-4 orders of magnitude in luminosity) are correctly predicted for X-ray transient sources, but in general are too big for quasars, Seyferts, galactic black hole candidates and LMXBs. We show here that a slight modification of the viscosity prescription can offer a much better agreement with observations. (author).

  11. Likelihood inference for unions of interacting discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Helisova, K.

    2010-01-01

    with respect to a given marked Poisson model (i.e. a Boolean model). We show how edge effects and other complications can be handled by considering a certain conditional likelihood. Our methodology is illustrated by analysing Peter Diggle's heather data set, where we discuss the results of simulation......This is probably the first paper which discusses likelihood inference for a random set using a germ-grain model, where the individual grains are unobservable, edge effects occur and other complications appear. We consider the case where the grains form a disc process modelled by a marked point......-based maximum likelihood inference and the effect of specifying different reference Poisson models....

  12. Offshore Wind Power Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Zeni, Lorenzo;

    2012-01-01

    , the approach used in the TradeWind project has been used. This approach considered a first aggregation level for wind power at a grid node, and then a second aggregation at wind power regions. With this approach, wind power for a country can be expressed in one or several wind power nodes and one or several...... wind power regions. For onshore wind power, the estimated installed capacity was upscaled to meet the number published by EWEA in the Pure Power report. Wind speed time series were extracted from the WRF dataset available at DTU Wind Energy and interpolated to the exact location of the wind power......Wind power development scenarios are critical when trying to assess the impact of the demonstration at national and European level. The work described in this report had several objectives. The main objective was to prepare and deliver the proper input necessary for assessing the impact of Demo 4...

  13. Evolution of accretion disc flow in cataclysmic variables. 3. Outburst properties of constant and uniform-. cap alpha. model discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, D.N.C.; Faulkner, J. (Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA (USA); California Univ., Santa Cruz (USA). Board of Studies in Astronomy and Astrophysics); Papaloizou, J. (Queen Mary Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Applied Mathematics)

    1985-01-01

    The investigation of accretion disc models relevant to cataclysmic-variable systems is continued. This paper examines the stability and evolution of some simple accretion disc models in which the viscosity is prescribed by an ad hoc uniform-..cap alpha.. model. It is primarily concerned with systems in which the mass-input rate from the secondary to the disc around the primary is assumed to be constant. However, initial calculations with variable mass-input rates are also performed. The time-dependent visual magnitude light-curves are constructed for cataclysmic binaries with a range of disc size, primary mass, mass-input rate, and magnitude of viscosity.

  14. Tribology of a Combined Yaw Bearing and Brake for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos

    A common goal among many countries worldwide is to increase the share of renewable energy in the overall energy supply. As response to such an aspiration, wind energy is becoming more and more cost effective through improved technology and increased size of wind turbines. One of the subsystems...... disc brake is typically included as an independent system. However, the increasing size of wind turbines makes roller element bearings an economically costly option. Moreover, the additional brake system increases complexity and consequently adds further production and maintenance costs. One...... that are affected by the tendency for building larger units, is the yaw system of horizontal axis wind turbines. State of the art wind turbine yaw systems consist of either a large roller element bearing or a corresponding segmented sliding bearing that connects the wind turbine nacelle and tower. An additional...

  15. File list: Pol.Lar.05.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lar.05.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 RNA polymerase Larvae Dorsal mesothoracic disc...iosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Lar.05.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  16. File list: Pol.Lar.20.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lar.20.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 RNA polymerase Larvae Dorsal mesothoracic disc...iosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Lar.20.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  17. File list: Pol.Lar.10.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lar.10.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 RNA polymerase Larvae Dorsal mesothoracic disc...iosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Lar.10.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  18. File list: Pol.Lar.50.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lar.50.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 RNA polymerase Larvae Dorsal mesothoracic disc...iosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Lar.50.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  19. Testing Hydrodynamics Schemes in Galaxy Disc Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Few, C G; Pettitt, A; Konstandin, L

    2016-01-01

    We examine how three fundamentally different numerical hydrodynamics codes follow the evolution of an isothermal galactic disc with an external spiral potential. We compare an adaptive mesh refinement code (RAMSES), a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (sphNG), and a volume-discretised meshless code (GIZMO). Using standard refinement criteria, we find that RAMSES produces a disc that is less vertically concentrated and does not reach such high densities as the sphNG or GIZMO runs. The gas surface density in the spiral arms increases at a lower rate for the RAMSES simulations compared to the other codes. There is also a greater degree of substructure in the sphNG and GIZMO runs and secondary spiral arms are more pronounced. By resolving the Jeans' length with a greater number of grid cells we achieve more similar results to the Lagrangian codes used in this study. Other alterations to the refinement scheme (adding extra levels of refinement and refining based on local density gradients) are less successful i...

  20. Decimetre dust aggregates in protoplanetary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Teiser, Jens; 10.1051/0004-6361/200912027

    2011-01-01

    The growth of planetesimals is an essential step in planet formation. Decimetre-size dust agglomerates mark a transition point in this growth process. In laboratory experiments we simulated the formation, evolution, and properties of decimetre-scale dusty bodies in protoplanetary discs. Small sub-mm size dust aggregates consisting of micron-size SiO$_2$ particles randomly interacted with dust targets of varying initial conditions in a continuous sequence of independent collisions. Impact velocities were 7.7 m/s on average and in the range expected for collisions with decimetre bodies in protoplanetary discs. The targets all evolved by forming dust \\emph{crusts} with up to several cm thickness and a unique filling factor of 31% $\\pm$3%. A part of the projectiles sticks directly. In addition, some projectile fragments slowly return to the target by gravity. All initially porous parts of the surface, i.e. built from the slowly returning fragments, are compacted and firmly attached to the underlying dust layers b...

  1. Elasticplastic discs under plane stress conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    This Volume presents a unified approach to calculate the plane stress distribution of stress and strain in thin elastic/plastic discs subject to various loading conditions. There is a vast amount of literature on analytical and semi-analytical solutions for such discs obeying Tresca’s yield criterion and its associated flow rule. On the other hand, most of analytical and semi-analytical solutions for Mises yield criterion are based on the deformation theory of plasticity. A distinguished feature of the solutions given in the present volume is that the flow theory of plasticity and Mises yield criterion are adopted. The solutions are semi-analytical in the sense that numerical methods are only necessary to evaluate ordinary integrals and solve transcendental equations. The book shows that under certain conditions solutions based on the deformation and flow theories of plasticity coincide. All the solutions are illustrated with numerical examples. The goal of the book is to provide the reader with a vision an...

  2. Cluster dynamics largely shapes protoplanetary disc sizes

    CERN Document Server

    Vincke, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    It is still on open question to what degree the cluster environment influences the sizes of protoplanetary discs surrounding young stars. Particularly so for the short-lived clusters typical for the solar neighbourhood in which the stellar density and therefore the influence of the cluster environment changes considerably over the first 10 Myr. In previous studies often the effect of the gas on the cluster dynamics has been neglected, this is remedied here. Using the code NBody6++ we study the stellar dynamics in different developmental phases - embedded, expulsion, expansion - including the gas and quantify the effect of fly-bys on the disc size. We concentrate on massive clusters ($M_{\\text{cl}} \\geq 10^3 - 6 \\cdot 10^4 M_{\\text{Sun}}$), which are representative for clusters like the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) or NGC 6611. We find that not only the stellar density but also the duration of the embedded phase matters. The densest clusters react fastest to the gas expulsion and drop quickly in density, here 98...

  3. Emergency wind erosion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    February through May is the critical time for wind erosion in Kansas, but wind erosion can happen any time when high winds occur on smooth, wide fields with low vegetation and poor soil structure. The most effective wind erosion control is to ensure a protective cover of residue or growing crop thro...

  4. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Badger, Jake

    2006-01-01

    may be employed directly for detailed wind resource assessments and siting of wind turbines and wind farms. Utilising this database together with elevation maps derived from the Space Shuttle Topography Mission and land-use maps constructed from satellite imagery, the wind resource and likely power...

  5. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    may be employed directly for detailed wind resource assessments and siting of wind turbines and wind farms. Utilising this database together with elevation maps derived from the Space Shuttle Topography Mission and land-use maps constructed from satellite imagery, the wind resource and likely power...

  6. Wind engineering in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, J.A.; Stigter, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The International Association for Wind Engineering (IAWE) has very few contacts in Africa, the second-largest continent. This paper reviews important wind-related African issues. They all require data on wind climate, which are very sparse in Africa. Wind engineering in Africa can assist in collecti

  7. The comparative analysis of rocks’ resistance to forward-slanting disc cutters and traditionally installed disc cutters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Huang Zhang; Sun Fei; Meng Liang

    2016-01-01

    At present, disc cutters of a full face rock tun-nel boring machine are mostly mounted in the traditional way. Practical use in engineering projects reveals that this installation method not only heavily affects the operation life of disc cutters, but also increases the energy consump-tion of a full face rock tunnel boring machine. To straighten out this issue, therefore, a rock-breaking model is devel-oped for disc cutters’ movement after the research on the rock breaking of forward-slanting disc cutters. Equations of its displacement are established based on the analysis of velocity vector of a disc cutter’s rock-breaking point. The functional relations then are brought forward between the displacement parameters of a rock-breaking point and its coordinate through the analysis of micro displacement of a rock-breaking point. Thus, the geometric equations of rock deformation are derived for the forward-slanting installation of disc cutters. With a linear relationship remaining between the acting force and its deformation either before or after the leap breaking, the constitutive relation of rock deformation can be expressed in the form of generalized Hooke law, hence the comparative analysis of the variation in the resistance of rock to the disc cutters mounted in the forward-slanting way with that in the traditional way. It is discovered that with the same penetration, strain of the rock in contact with forward-slanting disc cutters is apparently on the decline, in other words, the resistance of rock to disc cutters is reduced. Thus wear of disc cutters resulted from friction is lowered and energy consumption is correspondingly decreased. It will be useful for the development of installation and design theory of disc cutters, and significant for the breakthrough in the design of full face rock tunnel boring machine.

  8. Prevalence of disc cupping in non-glaucomatous eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappe, José Pablo; Nahum, Pablo; Casiraghi, Javier F; Iribarren, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed optic disc size and cupping, using a commercially available ophthalmoscope, in order to show norms of these values for clinical practice. Subjects were office-workers referred from their respective workplaces for a routine medical examination, which included eye examination. The optic disc size was classified as small, medium or large, for having a diameter 1.5 times (respectively) the diameter of the ophthalmoscope's selected light spot on the posterior pole. The cupping was classified as the ratio of the vertical cupping diameter and the vertical disc diameter on a relative decimal scale from 0.0 to 1.0.This study included 184 subjects with a mean age of 40.5 ± 9.5 years; 149 (81%) were males. Their mean ocular pressure was 12.4 ± 1.5 mmHg (range 10-17 mmHg). There was a high correlation between optic disc sizes and cupping in the right and left eyes (Pearson Correlation r = 0.866, p definition, the optic discs in these eyes comprised 27 (14.7%) small, 141 (76.6%) medium and 16 (8.7%) large. The small optic discs were rarely cupped, and the large optic discs were always cupped. Optic disc cupping greater than 0.7 was rarely found and should be suspect of glaucoma. Clinical doctors should be aware of this and refer those subjects with abnormal cupping to the specialist.

  9. Q criterion for disc stability modified by external tidal field

    CERN Document Server

    Jog, Chanda J

    2013-01-01

    The standard Q criterion (with Q > 1) describes the local stability of a disc supported by rotation and random motion. Most astrophysical discs, however, are under the influence of an external gravitational field which can affect their stability. A typical example is a galactic disc embedded in a dark matter halo. Here we do a linear perturbation analysis for a disc in an external field, and obtain a generalized dispersion relation and a modified stability criterion. An external field has two effects on the disc dynamics: first, it contributes to the unperturbed rotational field, and second, it adds a tidal field term in the stability parameter. A typical disruptive tidal field results in a higher modified Q value and hence leads to a more stable disc. We apply these results to the Milky Way, and to a low surface brightness galaxy UGC 7321. We find that in each case the stellar disc by itself is barely stable and it is the dark matter halo that stabilizes the disc against local, axisymmetric gravitational ins...

  10. Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Center (GES DISC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, Steve

    2016-01-01

    The GES DIS is one of 12 NASA Earth science data centers. The GES DISC vision is to enable researchers and educators maximize knowledge of the Earth by engaging in understanding their goals, and by leading the advancement of remote sensing information services in response to satisfying their goals. This presentation will describe the GES DISC approach, successes, challenges, and best practices.

  11. Morphological Evolution of Disc Galaxies in Binary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, R

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of several numerical simulations of disc binary galaxies. It was performed detailed numerical N-body simulations of the dynamical interaction of two disc galaxies. The disc galaxies are embedded in spherical halos of dark matter and present central bulges. The dynamical evolution of the binary galaxy is analyzed in order to study the morphological evolution of the stellar distribution of the discs. The satellite galaxy is held on fixed, coplanar or polar discs, of eccentric ($e=0.1$, $e=0.4$ or $e=0.7$) orbits. Both galaxies have the same mass and size similar to the Milk Way. We have shown that the merge of two disc galaxy, depending on the initial conditions, can result in a disc or a lenticular galaxy, instead of an elliptical one. Besides, we have demonstrated that the time of merging increases linearly with the initial apocentric distance of the galaxies and decreases with the orbit's eccentricity. We also have shown that the tidal forces and the fusion of the discs can excite tran...

  12. On the formation of planetary systems in photoevaporating transition discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terquem, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    In protoplanetary discs, planetary cores must be at least 0.1 M⊕ at 1 au for migration to be significant; this mass rises to 1 M⊕ at 5 au. Planet formation models indicate that these cores form on million year time-scales. We report here a study of the evolution of 0.1 and 1 M⊕ cores, migrating from about 2 and 5 au, respectively, in million year old photoevaporating discs. In such a disc, a gap opens up at around 2 au after a few million years. The inner region subsequently accrete on to the star on a smaller time-scale. We find that, typically, the smallest cores form systems of non-resonant planets beyond 0.5 au with masses up to about 1.5 M⊕. In low-mass discs, the same cores may evolve in situ. More massive cores form systems of a few Earth-mass planets. They migrate within the inner edge of the disc gap only in the most massive discs. Delivery of material to the inner parts of the disc ceases with opening of the gap. Interestingly, when the heavy cores do not migrate significantly, the type of systems that are produced resembles our Solar system. This study suggests that low-mm flux transition discs may not form systems of planets on short orbits but may instead harbour Earth-mass planets in the habitable zone.

  13. Spontaneous regression of lumbar herniated disc Case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intervertebral disc herniation is a common disease that usually requires surgical intervention. However, in some cases, neurological symptoms may improve with conservative treatment. In this article, we present a case with spontaneous regression of extruded lumbar herniated disc correlated with clinical improvement and documented with follow up MRI studies.

  14. Optimization of Valve Disc Using Orthogonal Array and Kriging Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xueguan; Wang, Lin; Kang, Jungho; Kim, Seung Gyu; Jo, Young Jik; Park, Youngchul

    2008-10-01

    A butterfly valve is a type of flow control device, typically used to regulate a fluid flowing. Currently, FEA is often used to predict the safety in the design of valve disc. Also, the study about the affection of butterfly valve's disc to the valve flow characteristics by using CFD has been done by many researchers. Along with the development of computer technique, design and analysis of computer experiments has becoming more and more important in engineering design and optimization. Hereinto Kriging model is one popular analysis approach for the purpose of creating a cheap "meta-model" as a surrogate to a computationally expensive simulation model. In this paper, the numerical analysis considered the strength, pressure loss coefficient and weight of valve disc simultaneously is investigated to improve the shape of a traditional butterfly valve disc. Firstly, an initial model of butterfly valve is made to evaluate the performance of the valve disc by using CFD and FEM. Then several experiments with different variables combination of the valve disc are conducted by mean of orthogonal array. Finally, the Kriging model is used to find the optimum variables combination of valve disc based on the result of computer experiments. In addition, the optimum result is verified by FEA and CFD simulation again. The result shows that compared with traditional computer experiments, optimization by using Kriging model can improve the weight of the valve disc very effectively in a short time.

  15. On the high frequency spectrum of a classical accretion disc

    CERN Document Server

    Balbus, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    We derive simple and explicit expressions for the high frequency spectrum of a classical accretion disc. Both stress-free and finite stress inner boundaries are considered. A classical accretion disc spectrum with a stress-free inner boundary departs from a Wien spectrum at large $\

  16. Twisted accretion discs. Pt. 3. Application to Epsilon Aurigae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.

    1987-04-15

    Twisting and alignment in a steady-state circumbinary accretion disc is studied. It is then used to account for observed features in the scenario of Epsilon Aurigae as a triple. The alignment depends on viscosity in the disc, but it is always substantial and leads to a tilted slab-like profile when viewed edge-on.

  17. Energetic Argument for Bimodal Black Hole Accretion discs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林一清; 卢炬甫; 顾为民

    2002-01-01

    Based on simple energetic considerations, we show that two crucial ingredients of bimodal black hole accretiondiscs, namely the sonic point and the transition radius, can be determined from the disc constant parameters.Thus, we can further justify the model of bimodal discs containing thermal instability triggered transition.

  18. Small-scale inviscid accretion discs around black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Beloborodov, A M; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Illarionov, Andrei F.

    2000-01-01

    Gas falling quasi-spherically onto a Schwarzschild black hole can form an inner thin accretion disc if its specific angular momentum, $l$, exceeds $\\lmin\\approx 0.75r_gc$, where $r_g$ is the Schwarzschild radius. The standard disc model assumes $l\\gg\\lmin$. We argue that in many black-hole sources the accretion flows can have $l\\simgt\\lmin$, and assess the mechanism of accretion in this regime. In a range $\\lmindisc forms in which gas overcomes the centrifugal barrier and spirals fast into the black hole without any help of horizontal viscous stresses. Such an ``inviscid'' disc, however, interacts inelastically with the infall feeding the disc, which leads to energy dissipation. This interaction determines the disc dynamics and luminosity. We find the radiative efficiency of this accretion regime to be comparable with the efficiency of the standard disc. The maximum radius of the fast inviscid disc is $r_{\\rm max}\\approx 2\\lcr^2/r_gc^2\\sim 14 r_g$, and the energy release peaks at...

  19. Density waves in debris discs and galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Jalali, Mir Abbas

    2011-01-01

    We study the linear perturbations of collisionless near-Keplerian discs that have a ring-like structure. Such systems are models for debris discs around stars and the stellar discs surrounding supermassive black holes at the centres of galaxies. Using a finite-element method, we solve the linearized collisionless Boltzmann equation and Poisson's equation for a wide range of disc masses and rms orbital eccentricities to obtain the eigenfrequencies and shapes of normal modes. We find that these discs can support large-scale `slow' modes, in which the frequency is proportional to the disc mass. Slow modes are present for arbitrarily small disc mass so long as the self-gravity of the disc is the dominant source of apsidal precession. We find that slow modes are of two general types: parent modes and hybrid child modes, the latter arising from resonant interactions between parent modes and singular van Kampen modes. The most prominent slow modes have azimuthal wavenumbers $m=1$ and $m=2$. We illustrate how slow mo...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3970 - Interarticular disc prosthesis (interpositional implant).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... implant). 872.3970 Section 872.3970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3970 Interarticular disc prosthesis (interpositional implant). (a) Identification. An interarticular disc...

  1. A study of Impinging Flow on a Rotating Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horia DUMITRESCU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the behavior of the boundary-layer laminar flow produced by a large radius no-thickness disc which rotates inside an axial stream. Some early solutions are only known for the upstream flow field, but the details of the flow behind the disc are still obscure. A better understanding of the mechanisms and the properties of the shear layer close to disc is sought through the development of an analytic theory and then is completed by CFD computations. This article also shows that the basic flow on the leeward side of disc is mostly rotational-inviscid and only on in the neighborhood of the disc surface there is a viscous layer which rotates drawn by disc. The viscous layer containing a thin Ekman sublayer and a thicker essentially inviscid superlayer, governed by Taylor-Proudman theorem, can carry three possible actions: centrifugal (pumping mode, neutral mode and centripetal (suction mode. The action type depends on the relative importance of effects given by translation of the fluid (W and rotation of the disc (ΩR, defined by a rotating parameter (W/ΩR. The existence of such modes is connected to the amount of angular momentum transferred outside the Ekman sublayer. A CFD analysis was used to identify the vortex structure which is responsible for the angular momentum transfer from the rotating disc to an axial stream.

  2. Delivery systems for the treatment of degenerated intervertebral discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanquer, S.B.G.; Grijpma, D.W.; Poot, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    The intervertebral disc (IVD) is the most avascular and acellular tissue in the body and therefore prone to degeneration. During IVD degeneration, the balance between anabolic and catabolic processes in the disc is deregulated, amongst others leading to alteration of extracellular matrix production,

  3. Dynamical and chemical evolution of the thin disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, A.; Rybizki, J.

    2016-09-01

    Our detailed analytic local disc model (JJ-model) quantifies the interrelation between kinematic properties (e.g. velocity dispersions and asymmetric drift), spatial parameters (scale-lengths and vertical density profiles), and properties of stellar sub-populations (age and abundance distributions). Any consistent radial extension of the disc evolution model should predict specific features in the different distribution functions and in their correlations. Large spectroscopic surveys (SEGUE, RAVE, APOGEE, Gaia-ESO) allow significant constraints on the long-term evolution of the thin disc. We discuss the qualitative difference of correlations (like the α-enhancement as function of metallicity) and distribution functions (e.g. in [Mg/H] or [Fe/H]) for the construction of a disc model. In the framework of the JJ-model we build a local chemical enrichment model and show that significant vertical gradients for main sequence and red clump stars are expected in the thin disc. A Jeans analysis of the asymmetric drift provides a link to the radial structure of the disc. The derived metallicity-dependent radial scale-lengths can be combined in the future with the abundance distributions at different Galactocentric distances to construct full disc models. We expect to be able to constrain possible scenarios of inside-out growth of the thin disc and to characterise those populations, which require significant radial migration.

  4. Orbital eccentricity as a probe of thick disc formation scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sales, Laura V.; Helmi, Amina; Abadi, Mario G.; Brook, Chris B.; Gomez, Facundo A.; Roskar, Rok; Debattista, Victor P.; House, Elisa; Steinmetz, Matthias; Villalobos, Alvaro

    2009-01-01

    We study the orbital properties of stars in four (published) simulations of thick discs formed by (i) accretion from disrupted satellites, (ii) heating of a pre-existing thin disc by a minor merger, (iii) radial migration and (iv) gas-rich mergers. We find that the distribution of orbital eccentrici

  5. Method for improved reading of a digital data disc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    Method for regulating the control signal for adjustment of the optical path between a data disc and a signal pick-up detector system in a data disc drive, where the control is regulated as a response to the deviation of the actual reading signals from expected reading signals, and wherein...... the control signal is regulated in dependence the tendency of said deviation....

  6. A disc-type magneto-rheologic fluid damper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝长生

    2003-01-01

    A disc-type magneto-rheological fluid damper operating in shear mode is proposed in this paper,which is based on the special characteristics of the magneto-rheological (MR) fluid with rapid, reversible and dramatic change in its rheological properties by the application of an external magnetic field. The magneticfield of the disc-type MR fluid damper is analysed by the finite element method ; the controllability of the disctype MR fluid damper on the dynamic behaviour of a rotor system ; and the effectiveness of the disc-type MR fluid damper in controlling the vibration of a rotor system, are studied in a flexible rotor system with an over-hung disc. It is shown that the magnetic flux density of the disc-type MR fluid damper in the working areas can significantly change with the applied current in the coil ; and that the dynamic behavior of the disc-type MR fluid damper can be varied by the application of an external magnetic field produced by a low voltage electromagnetic coil. The disc-type MR fluid damper can significantly change the dynamic characteristics of a rotor system, provided that the location of the disk-type MR fluid damper is carefully chosen. The disc-type MR fluid damper is a new actuator with good dynamic characteristics for rotating machinery.

  7. Delivery systems for the treatment of degenerated intervertebral discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanquer, S. B. G.; Grijpma, D. W.; Poot, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The intervertebral disc (ND) is the most avascular and acellular tissue in the body and therefore prone to degeneration. During IVD degeneration, the balance between anabolic and catabolic processes in the disc is deregulated, amongst others leading to alteration of extracellular matrix production,

  8. Reliability of MRI findings in candidates for lumbar disc prosthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Linda; Espeland, Ansgar [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Section for Radiology, Department of Surgical Sciences, Bergen (Norway); Neckelmann, Gesche [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); Gjertsen, Oeivind [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Oslo (Norway); Hellum, Christian [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Department of Orthopaedics, Oslo (Norway); Johnsen, Lars G. [University Hospital of Trondheim, National Centre for Diseases of the Spine, Trondheim (Norway); University Hospital of Trondheim, Orthopaedic Department, Trondheim (Norway); Eide, Geir E. [Haukeland University Hospital, Centre for Clinical Research, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, Bergen (Norway)

    2012-07-15

    Limited reliability data exist for localised magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings relevant to planning of treatment with lumbar disc prosthesis and later outcomes. We assessed the reliability of such findings in chronic low back pain patients who were accepted candidates for disc prosthesis. On pretreatment MRI of 170 patients (mean age 41 years; 88 women), three experienced radiologists independently rated Modic changes, disc findings and facet arthropathy at L3/L4, L4/L5 and L5/S1. Two radiologists rerated 126 examinations. For each MRI finding at each disc level, agreement was analysed using the kappa statistic and differences in prevalence across observers using a fixed effects model. All findings at L3/L4 and facet arthropathy at L5/S1 had a mean prevalence <10% across observers and were not further analysed, ensuring interpretable kappa values. Overall interobserver agreement was generally moderate or good (kappa 0.40-0.77) at L4-S1 for Modic changes, nucleus pulposus signal, disc height (subjective and measured), posterior high-intensity zone (HIZ) and disc contour, and fair (kappa 0.24) at L4/L5 for facet arthropathy. Posterior HIZ at L5/S1 and severely reduced subjective disc height at L4/L5 differed up to threefold in prevalence between observers (p < 0.0001). Intraobserver agreement was mostly good or very good (kappa 0.60-1.00). In candidates for disc prosthesis, mostly moderate interobserver agreement is expected for localised MRI findings. (orig.)

  9. Abnormal Shape Mould Winding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Hongya; Wang Xianfeng; Han Zhenyu; Fu Yunzhong

    2007-01-01

    A theory of composite material patch winding is proposed to determine the winding trajectory with a meshed data model. Two different conditions are considered in this study. One is Bridge condition on the concave surface and the other is Slip line condition in the process of patch winding. This paper presents the judgment principles and corresponding solutions by applying differential geometry theory and space geometry theory. To verify the feasibility of the patch winding method, the winding control code is programmed. Furthermore, the winding experiments on an airplane inlet and a vane are performed. From the experiments, it shows that the patch winding theory has the advantages of flexibility, easy design and application.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of disc space infection revisited: temporal changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Shaoyin; Xu Bingqiang; Gina Di Primio; Cheemun Lum; Mark E Schweitzer

    2014-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has advantages in showing pathologic changes of disc space infection,which is important in clinical treatment.The purpose of this study was to describe the MRI findings of disc space infections in relation to chronicity.Methods MRI of 60 patients from January 1,2002 to April 30,2012 in Ottawa Hospital were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists blindly.All patients had histological confirmation,with 55 having microbiological confirmation as well.These patients were divided into acute (n=18),subacute (n=21) and chronic (n=21) based on histological findings.The following potential signs of MRI finding were assessed:marrow edema,endplate erosions,disk fluid and height change,paraspinal mass,epidural collection,facet fluid and enhancement in the marrow,disc,paraspinal mass,and epidural involvement.Statistical analysis consisted of t-or F-tests and chi-square test.Results In the 60 patients,83 infected discs (single disc in 45 patients,2-4 discs in 15 patients) were found,including 22 discs in the acute group,30 discs in the subacute group,and 31 discs in the chronic group.There was a significant difference in the extent of marrow edema between the acute,subacute and chronic groups (P <0.05),with a gradually increasing extent from acute to chronic.The extent of endplate erosions increased with chronicity,but was not statistically significant.There were significant differences in the disc fluid,epidural collection,and disc enhancement among the acute,subacute and chronic groups,as well as the facet fluid between acute and chronic groups (P <0.05).There were no significant differences in the present probability of disc height loss,paraspinal mass,and marrow enhancement among the three groups (P >0.05).Conclusions From acute to chronic infections,the extent of marrow edema and endplate erosions appeared to gradually increase.Epidural collections and facet fluid are most frequently found in the acute group,while disc

  11. CT-discography; diagnostic accuracy in lumbar disc herniation and significance of induced pain during procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, En Hao [Yan Bian Medical College, Beijing (China); Chung, Tae Sub; Jeong, Mi Gyoung; Kim, Young Soo; Roh, Sung Woo [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness and the accuracy of CT-discography in lumbar disc disease by analyzing the findings of CT-discogram and types of evoked pain during the procedure. CT-discograms were retrospectively evaluated in 47 intervertebral discs of 20 patients with multilevel involvement of lumbar disc diseases. In 28 herniated discs confirmed at surgery, the findings of CT-discogram (28 disc levels/20 patients), MRI(23/16) and CT(21/15) were comparatively analysed. The type of pain after infusion of contrast media during CT-discography was compared with that prior to the procedure. The accuracy for determining types of the herniated lumbar disc when compared with post-operative results was 96.4%(27 discs/28 discs) in the CT-discogram, 82.6%(19 discs/23 discs) in MRI and 71.4%(15 discs/21 discs) in the CT scan. Pains encountered during discography were radiating pain in 12 discs and back pain in 24 discs. CT-discography was especially helpful in 10 patients with multilevel involvement of the lumbar disc diseases to evaluate the exact location of diseased disc(s) that provoked the pain. CT-discography is a highly accurate method in diagnosis of the herniated lumbar intervertebral discs and is very useful in determining the precise location related to the development of pain in such cases.

  12. Planet-disc interaction on a freely moving mesh

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz, Diego J; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars

    2014-01-01

    General-purpose, moving-mesh schemes for hydrodynamics have opened the possibility of combining the accuracy of grid-based numerical methods with the flexibility and automatic resolution adaptivity of particle-based methods. Due to their supersonic nature, Keplerian accretion discs are in principle a very attractive system for applying such freely moving mesh techniques. However, the high degree of symmetry of simple accretion disc models can be difficult to capture accurately by these methods, due to the generation of geometric grid noise and associated numerical diffusion, which is absent in polar grids. To explore these and other issues, in this work we study the idealized problem of two-dimensional planet-disc interaction with the moving-mesh code AREPO. We explore the hydrodynamic evolution of discs with planets through a series of numerical experiments that vary the planet mass, the disc viscosity and the mesh resolution, and compare the resulting surface density, vortensity field and tidal torque with ...

  13. Local and global dynamics of eccentric astrophysical discs

    CERN Document Server

    Ogilvie, Gordon I

    2014-01-01

    We formulate a local dynamical model of an eccentric disc in which the dominant motion consists of elliptical Keplerian orbits. The model is a generalization of the well known shearing sheet, and is suitable for both analytical and computational studies of the local dynamics of eccentric discs. It is spatially homogeneous in the horizontal dimensions but has a time-dependent geometry that oscillates at the orbital frequency. We show how certain averages of the stress tensor in the local model determine the large-scale evolution of the shape and mass distribution of the disc. The simplest solutions of the local model are laminar flows consisting of a (generally nonlinear) vertical oscillation of the disc. Eccentric discs lack vertical hydrostatic equilibrium because of the variation of the vertical gravitational acceleration around the eccentric orbit, and in some cases because of the divergence of the orbital velocity field associated with an eccentricity gradient. We discuss the properties of the laminar sol...

  14. Three-dimensional simulation of polytropic accretion discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molteni, D. (Palermo Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica); Belvedere, G.; Lanzafame, G. (Catania Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia)

    1991-04-15

    We carried out three-dimensional simulations of the formation and evolution of accretion discs in close binary systems, using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method to solve the fluid dynamic equations. Although the runs presented here refer to an ideal gas with different polytropic indexes, and constitute the first stage of more physically complex forthcoming simulations, they nevertheless give some interesting results; the disc structure and dynamics are in agreement with standard models only for small {gamma}-values; as a consequence of the z-resolution is found that disc formation is inhibited for {gamma} {ge} 1.2, which means that some 2D simulations of polytropic discs are meaningless; the disc is slightly asymmetric in the x-y plane and its profile is irregular and pulsating at the outer boundary. (Author).

  15. Temperature Profile of Black Hole Accretion Disc with Magnetic Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Wei-Hua; WANG Ding-Xiong; XIAO Kan

    2002-01-01

    Two new mapping relations between the angular coordinate on the black hole (BH) horizon and radialcoordinate on the disc are given according to the requirement of general relativity and Maxwell's equations, and theeffects of magnetic coupling (MC) on temperature of accretion disc are investigated by comparing with pure accretion.It is shown that the MC effects on the temperature profile are related intimately to the BH spin, and the influenceon the peak value of disc temperature based on the modified mapping relations is not as great as that based on thelinear mapping.The peak value and the corresponding radius of peak value ring of disc temperature do not increasemonotonically as the increasing spin of BH, each containing a maximum for the fast-spinning BH. The value ranges ofthe bolometric luminosity and color temperature of the disc are both extended by the MC effects.

  16. Feasibility of transit photometry of nearby debris discs

    CERN Document Server

    Zeegers, S T; Kalas, P

    2014-01-01

    Dust in debris discs is constantly replenished by collisions between larger objects. In this paper, we investigate a method to detect these collisions. We generate models based on recent results on the Fomalhaut debris disc, where we simulate a background star transiting behind the disc, due to the proper motion of Fomalhaut. By simulating the expanding dust clouds caused by the collisions in the debris disc, we investigate whether it is possible to observe changes in the brightness of the background star. We conclude that in the case of the Fomalhaut debris disc, changes in the optical depth can be observed, with values of the optical depth ranging from $10^{-0.5}$ for the densest dust clouds to $10^{-8}$ for the most diffuse clouds with respect to the background optical depth of $\\sim1.2\\times10^{-3}$.

  17. Design of an Annular Disc Subject to Thermomechanical Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Alexandrov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two solutions to design a thin annular disc of variable thickness subject to thermomechanical loading are proposed. It is assumed that the thickness of the disc is everywhere sufficiently small for the stresses to be averaged through the thickness. The state of stress is plane. The initiation of plastic yielding is controlled by Mises yield criterion. The design criterion for one of the solutions proposed requires that the distribution of stresses is uniform over the entire disc. In this case there is a relation between optimal values of the loading parameters at the final stage. The specific shape of the disc corresponds to each pair of such parameters. The other solution is obtained under the additional requirement that the distribution of strains is uniform. This solution exists for the disc of constant thickness at specific values of the loading parameters.

  18. Oscillations of Thick Accretion Discs Around Black Holes - II

    CERN Document Server

    Rubio-Herrera, E; Rubio-Herrera, Eduardo; Lee, William H.

    2005-01-01

    We present a numerical study of the global modes of oscillation of thick accretion discs around black holes. We have previously studied the case of constant distributions of specific angular momentum. In this second paper, we investigate (i) how the size of the disc affects the oscillation eigenfrequencies, and (ii) the effect of power-law distributions of angular momentum on the oscillations. In particular, we compare the oscillations of the disc with the epicyclic eigenfrequencies of a test particle with different angular momentum distributions orbiting around the central object. We find that there is a frequency shift away from the epicyclic eigenfrequency of the test particle to lower values as the size of the tori is increased. We have also studied the response of a thick accretion disc to a localized external perturbation using non constant specific angular momentum distributions within the disc. We find that in this case it is also possible (as reported previously for constant angular momentum distribu...

  19. Wind power. [electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  20. Wind Resource Maps (Postcard)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative provides high-resolution wind maps and estimates of the wind resource potential that would be possible from development of the available windy land areas after excluding areas unlikely to be developed. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to Wind Powering America's online wind energy resource maps.

  1. Ocean surface wind stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    The need for improved surface wind and wind stress data is discussed. The collection of wind data using ship reports, research buoys, and cloud motion vectors is examined. The need for data on surface-wind stress fields is emphasized. Accurate stress data are required for studying: (1) the normal seasonal cycle and the intraannual events; (2) wind stress curls and the forcing of ocean circulation; (3) El Nino events; and (4) the low response of the midlatitude ocean circulation.

  2. Structure of radiation-dominated gravitoturbulent quasar discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadmehri, Mohsen; Khajenabi, Fazeleh; Dib, Sami

    2017-02-01

    Self-gravitating accretion discs in a gravitoturbulent state, including radiation and gas pressures, are studied using a set of new analytical solutions. While the Toomre parameter of the disc remains close to its critical value for the onset of gravitational instability, the dimensionless stress parameter is uniquely determined from the thermal energy reservoir of the disc and its cooling rate. Our solutions are applicable to the accretion discs with dynamically important radiation pressure such as that in the quasars discs. We show that physical quantities of a gravitoturbulent disc in the presence of radiation are significantly modified compared to solutions with only gas pressure. We show that the dimensionless stress parameter is an increasing function of the radial distance so that its steepness strongly depends on the accretion rate. In a disc without radiation its slope is 4.5; however, we show that in the presence of radiation, it varies between 2 and 4.5 depending on the accretion rate and the central mass. As for the surface density, we find a shallower profile with an exponent -2 in a disc with sub-Eddington accretion rate compared to a similar disc, but without radiation, where its surface density slope is -3 independent of the accretion rate. We then investigate gravitational stability of the disc when the stress parameter reaches to its critical value. In order to self-consistently determine the fragmentation boundary, however, it is shown that the critical value of the stress parameter is a power-law function of the ratio of gas pressure and the total pressure and its exponent is around 1.7. We also estimate the maximum mass of the central black hole using our analytical solutions.

  3. An Icelandic wind atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawri, Nikolai; Nína Petersen, Gudrun; Bjornsson, Halldór; Arason, Þórður; Jónasson, Kristján

    2013-04-01

    While Iceland has ample wind, its use for energy production has been limited. Electricity in Iceland is generated from renewable hydro- and geothermal source and adding wind energy has not be considered practical or even necessary. However, adding wind into the energy mix is becoming a more viable options as opportunities for new hydro or geothermal power installation become limited. In order to obtain an estimate of the wind energy potential of Iceland a wind atlas has been developed as a part of the Nordic project "Improved Forecast of Wind, Waves and Icing" (IceWind). The atlas is based on mesoscale model runs produced with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model and high-resolution regional analyses obtained through the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). The wind atlas shows that the wind energy potential is considerable. The regions with the strongest average wind are nevertheless impractical for wind farms, due to distance from road infrastructure and power grid as well as harsh winter climate. However, even in easily accessible regions wind energy potential in Iceland, as measured by annual average power density, is among the highest in Western Europe. There is a strong seasonal cycle, with wintertime power densities throughout the island being at least a factor of two higher than during summer. Calculations show that a modest wind farm of ten medium size turbines would produce more energy throughout the year than a small hydro power plants making wind energy a viable additional option.

  4. The presence and absence of lymphatic vessels in the adult human intervertebral disc: relation to disc pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliskey, Karolina; Williams, Kelly; Yu, J.; Urban, Jill; Athanasou, Nick [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedic, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Science, Oxford (United Kingdom); Jackson, David [Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Human Immunology Unit, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    Although the normal adult human intervertebral disc is considered to be avascular, vascularised cellular fibrous tissue can be found in pathological conditions involving the disc such as disc herniation. Whether lymphatics vessels form a component of this reparative tissue is not known as the presence or absence of lymphatics in herniated and normal disc tissue is not known. We examined spinal tissues and discectomy specimens for the presence of lymphatics. The examination used immunohistochemistry to identify the specific lymphatic endothelial cell markers, podoplanin and LYVE1. Lymphatic vessels were not found in the nucleus pulposus or annulus fibrosus of intact, non-herniated lumbar and thoracic discs but were present in the surrounding ligaments. Ingrowth of fibrous tissue was seen in 73% of herniated disc specimens of which 36% contained LYVE1+/podoplanin + lymphatic vessels. Lymphatic vessels were not seen in the sacrum and coccyx or biopsies of four sacrococcygeal chordomas, but they were noted in surrounding extra-osseous fat and fibrous tissue at the edge of the infiltrating tumour. Our findings indicate that lymphatic vessels are not present in the normal adult intervertebral disc but that, when there is extrusion of disc material into surrounding soft tissue, there is ingrowth of reparative fibrous tissue containing lymphatic vessels. Our findings also indicate that chordoma, a tumour of notochordal origin, spreads to regional lymph nodes via lymphatics in para-spinal soft tissues. (orig.)

  5. On the possibility of a warped disc origin of the inclined stellar discs at the Galactic Centre

    CERN Document Server

    Ulubay-Siddiki, A; Gerhard, O

    2012-01-01

    (Abridged) The Galactic Center (GC) hosts a population of young stars some of which seem to form mutually inclined discs of clockwise and counter clockwise rotating stars. We present a warped disc origin scenario for these stars assuming that an initially flat accretion disc becomes warped due to the Pringle instability, or due to Bardeen-Petterson effect, before it fragments to stars. We show that this is plausible if the star formation efficiency $\\epsilon_{SF} \\lesssim 1$, and the viscosity parameter $\\alpha \\sim 0.1$. After fragmentation, we model the disc as a collection of concentric, circular, mutually tilted rings, and construct warped disc models for mass ratios and other parameters relevant to the GC environment, but also for more massive discs. We take into account the disc's self-gravity and the torques exerted by a surrounding star cluster. We show that a self-gravitating low-mass disc ($M_d / M_{bh} \\sim 0.001$) precesses in integrity in the life-time of the stars, but precesses freely when the ...

  6. Radiation thermo-chemical models of protoplanetary discs. IV. Modelling CO ro-vibrational emission from Herbig Ae discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thi, W. F.; Kamp, I.; Woitke, P.; van der Plas, G.; Bertelsen, R.; Wiesenfeld, L.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The carbon monoxide (CO) ro-vibrational emission from discs around Herbig Ae stars and T Tauri stars with strong ultraviolet emissions suggests that fluorescence pumping from the ground X1Σ+ to the electronic A1Π state of CO should be taken into account in disc models. Aims: We wish to unde

  7. Radiation thermo-chemical models of protoplanetary discs IV. Modelling CO ro-vibrational emission from Herbig Ae discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thi, W. F.; Kamp, I.; Woitke, P.; van der Plas, G.; Bertelsen, R.; Wiesenfeld, L.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The carbon monoxide (CO) ro-vibrational emission from discs around Herbig Ae stars and T Tauri stars with strong ultraviolet emissions suggests that fluorescence pumping from the ground X-1 Sigma(+) to the electronic A(1)Pi state of CO should be taken into account in disc models. Aims. We w

  8. Energy, momentum and mass outflows and feedback from thick accretion discs around rotating black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Sadowski, A; Penna, R; Zhu, Y

    2013-01-01

    A set of long-duration general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of radiatively inefficient accretion discs around rotating black holes are presented, and are used to estimate the energy, mass and momentum outflow rates from such systems. Outflows occur via two fairly distinct modes: a relativistic jet and a sub-relativistic wind. The jet power depends strongly on the black hole spin and on the magnetic flux at the horizon. Unless these are very small, the energy output in the jet dominates over that in the wind. In the limit of a rapidly spinning black hole accreting in the magnetically arrested limit, when the magnetic flux at the black hole is maximum, the jet power exceeds the total rate of accretion of rest mass energy. However, because of strong collimation, the jet probably does not have a significant effect on its surrounding. In the case of an accreting supermassive black hole, external feedback via a jet is likely important only on the largest galaxy cluster scales. The power in the wind ...

  9. Supercritical Accretion Discs in Ultraluminous X-ray Sources and SS 433

    CERN Document Server

    Fabrika, Sergei; Vinokurov, Alexander; Sholukhova, Olga; Shidatsu, Megumi

    2015-01-01

    The black hole mass and accretion rate in Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in external galaxies, whose X-ray luminosities exceed those of the brightest black holes in our Galaxy by hundreds and thousands of times$^{1,2}$, is an unsolved problem. Here we report that all ULXs ever spectroscopically observed have about the same optical spectra apparently of WNL type (late nitrogen Wolf-Rayet stars) or LBV (luminous blue variables) in their hot state, which are very scarce stellar objects. We show that the spectra do not originate from WNL/LBV type donors but from very hot winds from the accretion discs with nearly normal hydrogen content, which have similar physical conditions as the stellar winds from these stars. The optical spectra are similar to that of SS 433, the only known supercritical accretor in our Galaxy$^{3}$, although the ULX spectra indicate a higher wind temperature. Our results suggest that ULXs with X-ray luminosities of $\\sim 10^{40}$ erg s$^{-1}$ must constitute a homogeneous class of objec...

  10. Intraosseous disc prolapse: A diagnostic puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parasnis Rajesh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Schmorl′s node or intraosseous disc prolapse is herniation of the nucleus pulposus material through the vertebral end plates. Presence of Schmorl′s nodes as end plate lesions following trauma, tumours and osteoporosis further complicates diagnosis. The present study was done to understand diagnosis and approach to management of symptomatic Schmorl′s nodes. Methods : During a period of three years we came across 14 patients who presented with severe back pain. Conventional radiographs, CT Scans and MRI showed the presence of end plate lesions with varied radiological appearance. The first group, comprising of seven patients had lytic lesions without any sclerosis on only one side of the intervertebral disc as seen on the CT scan. The second group comprising of five patients had sclerotic lesions with new bone formation associated with disc space reduction. The two patients in the third group showed a combined lytic and sclerotic lesion without any soft tissue changes. MRI of eleven patients revealed hypointense lesion on T 1 and T 2 weighted images with surrounding zone of hyper intensity on T 2 weighted images. The remaining three patients, did not have this hyper intense zone on T 2 weighted images . In five patients multiple Schmorl′s nodes were observed. Diagnosis of symptomatic Schmorl′s nodes was mainly done by exclusion. All patients were given rest and anti-inflammatory drugs followed by exercises. Results : The first two groups of patients responded to the treatment and had complete relief of symptoms but both the patients in third group had persistent symptoms. MRI repeated after eight weeks showed an enhancing lesion with prevertebral soft tissue. A transpedicular core biopsy proved the lesion to be tuberculosis in one patient. Anti Koch′s therapy was promptly started and follow up study showed resolution of the lesions. At the end of the study period all the patients were asymptomatic and returned to their

  11. Genetic Alterations in Intervertebral Disc Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay L. Martirosyan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD is considered a multifactorial disease. The last two decades of research strongly demonstrate that genetic factors contribute about 75% of the IVDD etiology. Recent total genome sequencing studies have shed light on the various single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are associated with IVDD.Aim: This review explores and presents updated information about the diversity of genetic factors in the inflammatory, degradative, homeostatic, and structural systems involved in the IVDD.Results: SNPs in the genes coding for structural proteins linked with IVDD or disc bulging include the Sp1 polymorphism of COL1A1, Trp3 polymorphism of COL9A3, several polymorphisms of COL11A1 and COL11A2, and a variable number tandem repeat polymorphism of ACAN. The rs4148941 SNP of CHST3 coding for an aggrecan sulfation enzyme is also associated with IVDD. The FokI, TaqI, and ApaI SNPs of the vitamin D receptor gene that is involved in chondrocyte functioning are also associated with IVDD. SNPs relevant to cytokine imbalance in IVDD include 889C/T of IL1a and 15T/A, as well as other SNPs (rs1800795, rs1800796, and rs1800797, of IL6, with effects limited to certain genders and populations. SNPs in collagenase genes include -1605G/D (guanine insertion/deletion of MMP1, -1306C/T of MMP2, -1562C/T and a 5-adenosine (5A variant (in the promotor region of MMP3, -1562C/T of MMP9, and -378T/C of MMP-14. SNPs in aggrecanase genes include 1877T/U of ADAMTS-4 and rs162509 of ADAMTS-5. Among the apoptosis-mediating genes, 1595T/C of the caspase 9 gene, 1525A/G and 1595T/C of the TRAIL gene, and 626C/G of the death receptor 4 gene (DR4 are SNPs associated with IVDD. Among the growth factors involved in disc homeostasis, the rs4871857 SNP of GDF5 was associated with IVDD. VEGF SNPs -2578C/A and -634G/C could foster neovascularization observed in IVDD.Conclusion: Improved understanding of the numerous genetic variants behind various

  12. Testing quasar unification: radiative transfer in clumpy winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, J. H.; Knigge, C.; Long, K. S.; Sim, S. A.; Higginbottom, N.; Mangham, S. W.

    2016-05-01

    Various unification schemes interpret the complex phenomenology of quasars and luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) in terms of a simple picture involving a central black hole, an accretion disc and an associated outflow. Here, we continue our tests of this paradigm by comparing quasar spectra to synthetic spectra of biconical disc wind models, produced with our state-of-the-art Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. Previously, we have shown that we could produce synthetic spectra resembling those of observed broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, but only if the X-ray luminosity was limited to 1043 erg s-1. Here, we introduce a simple treatment of clumping, and find that a filling factor of ˜0.01 moderates the ionization state sufficiently for BAL features to form in the rest-frame UV at more realistic X-ray luminosities. Our fiducial model shows good agreement with AGN X-ray properties and the wind produces strong line emission in, e.g., Lyα and C IV 1550 Å at low inclinations. At high inclinations, the spectra possess prominent LoBAL features. Despite these successes, we cannot reproduce all emission lines seen in quasar spectra with the correct equivalent-width ratios, and we find an angular dependence of emission line equivalent width despite the similarities in the observed emission line properties of BAL and non-BAL quasars. Overall, our work suggests that biconical winds can reproduce much of the qualitative behaviour expected from a unified model, but we cannot yet provide quantitative matches with quasar properties at all viewing angles. Whether disc winds can successfully unify quasars is therefore still an open question.

  13. Development and demonstration of a vertical axis wind turbine POWERHOUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosburgh, P. N.

    1984-06-01

    A performance of reliable lower cost base assembly and controls was designed for the electricity generating wind energy conversion system of the VAWTPOWER 185 wind turbine. The base assembly includes low speed shaft and couplings, disc or drum brake, hydraulic or pneumatic brake control systems, speed increasing gear box, high speed shaft and couplings, induction motor/generator, bottom rotor bearings, lightning and ground fault protection, support structure, and environmental protection. VAWTPOWER 185 is a 200 kW capacity Vertical Axis Wind Turbine rated 185 kW at 37 mph. After system analysis, subsystem definition, detailed design and engineering, and development of a test plan, two versions of the powerhouse were fabricated and tested. Both appear ready for commercial production.

  14. Structure of magneto-Keplerian discs: an analytical solution for thin accretion discs threatened by stellar magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaburaki, O.

    1986-05-15

    The structure of Keplerian discs which are threaded by the magnetic field lines of each central star are considered. Under the assumptions of thin discs, stationarity and of axisymmetry, a fairly simple analytical solution is found. In such a disc, the electromagnetic force does not play any important role in the radial force balance, but it is this force that maintains the disc structure in the latitudinal direction. As suggested by previous authors, the angular momentum transfer is controlled by the global structure of the magnetic field. In contrast to their results, however, the present solution does not predict the switching of the azimuthal component of the magnetic field as a function of the radial distance in the disc.

  15. Numerical simulations of accretion discs: Pt. 1. Superhumps: a tidal phenomenon of accretion discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehurst, Robert

    1988-05-01

    Numerical simulations of the SU UMa star ZCha in outburst are presented which demonstrate the role of the secondary's tidal influence upon the accretion flow and provide explanations for the superhumps seen in SU UMa stars. They show that for a system with an extreme mass-ratio q = 0.15, the disc is tidally unstable and can become asymmetric and slowly rotate in the inertial frame of reference. The tidal stresses raised in this disc by the secondary produce a peak in the light curve of order 30 per cent which recurs with a period 3.5 per cent longer than that of the orbit. This is interpreted as the superhump. Analytic considerations show that only for systems with mass-ratios more extreme than approximately 4::1 will such behaviour occur, which is consistent with the known mass-ratio of SU UMa stars and other cataclysmic variables.

  16. Semiactive control for vibration attenuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitmann, G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Coll. of Engineering

    1994-12-31

    With the advent of materials, such as electrorheological fluids, whose material properties can be altered rapidly by means of external stimuli, employing such materials as actuators for the controlled attenuation of undesirable vibrations is now possible. Such control schemes are dubbed semiactive in that they attenuate vibrations whether applied actively or passively. The author investigates various such control schemes, allowing for both separate and joint control of the stiffness and damping characteristics of the material.

  17. The SILCC project - III. Regulation of star formation and outflows by stellar winds and supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Andrea; Walch, Stefanie; Naab, Thorsten; Girichidis, Philipp; Wünsch, Richard; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Clark, Paul C.; Peters, Thomas; Derigs, Dominik; Baczynski, Christian; Puls, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    We study the impact of stellar winds and supernovae on the multiphase interstellar medium using three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations carried out with FLASH. The selected galactic disc region has a size of (500 pc)2 × ±5 kpc and a gas surface density of 10 M⊙ pc-2. The simulations include an external stellar potential and gas self-gravity, radiative cooling and diffuse heating, sink particles representing star clusters, stellar winds from these clusters that combine the winds from individual massive stars by following their evolution tracks, and subsequent supernova explosions. Dust and gas (self-) shielding is followed to compute the chemical state of the gas with a chemical network. We find that stellar winds can regulate star (cluster) formation. Since the winds suppress the accretion of fresh gas soon after the cluster has formed, they lead to clusters that have lower average masses (102-104.3 M⊙) and form on shorter time-scales (10-3-10 Myr). In particular, we find an anticorrelation of cluster mass and accretion time-scale. Without winds, the star clusters easily grow to larger masses for ∼5 Myr until the first supernova explodes. Overall, the most massive stars provide the most wind energy input, while objects beginning their evolution as B-type stars contribute most of the supernova energy input. A significant outflow from the disc (mass loading ≳1 at 1 kpc) can be launched by thermal gas pressure if more than 50 per cent of the volume near the disc mid-plane can be heated to T > 3 × 105 K. Stellar winds alone cannot create a hot volume-filling phase. The models that are in best agreement with observed star formation rates drive either no outflows or weak outflows.

  18. GRINDING OF DOUBLE DISC GRINDING MACHINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Huiqing

    2005-01-01

    The grinding of two parallel sides of a component is accomplished with the accuracy and higher productivity by passing a blank through the truncated cone shape grinders, which are turned angles. The machine is designated by the name of double disc grinding machine (DDGM). Usually, it is used in the mass production. The relationship between these angles, the accuracy, productivity,allowance and parameters of the machine and technology is explained in detail by math, such as vector analysis, transformation of 3D space coordinates, etc. Therefore, in the aspects of qualitative and quantitative analyses, the grinding potential of DDGM is enormous increased and superior to conventional methods. Furthermore, the theoretical foundation of DDGM grinding design and technology is provided to improve, to expand and to create for future. The established machine design and practical experience of grinding technology will get great benefit by them.

  19. Development of Vibrating Disc Piezoelectric Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Singh

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an indigenously developed vibrating disc piezoelectric gyroscope, in which both excitation and detection have been done through piezoelectric, using PZT-5H material. The gyroscope has been driven to resonant state by direct piezoelectric effect, using 20 V ac signal at 93 kHz, and the output has been detected by the reverse piezoelectric effect.The performance of this gyroscope has been tested with 3 microprocessor-controlled turntable, and the output of the gyroscope has been found" to be linearly proportional to the rotationspeed within a range ± 150 °/s. The sensitivity of the gyroscope is about 0.5 mV/°/s, which is comparable to that of other gyroscopes of similar category

  20. The Research of Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhua; Qiang Shenb

    2008-01-01

    Cervical arthroplasty after anterior decompression with insertion of a prosthetic total disc replacement has been suggested as an alternate to anterior cervical fusion. It develops quickly during recent years. Currently there are several cervical arthroplasty devices. Each device varies in terms of materials, range of motion and constraint. Early studies suggest that in the short term, the complication rate and efficacy is no worse than fusion surgery. Long-term results have not yet been reported. This review examines the current prostheses as well as discussing issues regarding indications and technique. It is hoped that an improvement of cervical arthroplasty occurs in terms of materials and design as spinal surgeons enter a new dines of the management of cervical spine disease.

  1. Preliminary study of disc hydrodynamic polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Lin, Bin; Zhang, XiaoFeng; Liu, PengFei

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a developed polishing method based on elastic emission machining and Jules Verne-a variation on fluid jet polishing-is presented. This method is named disc hydrodynamic polishing (DHDP). A computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based model that consists of a CFD model and an erosion model is introduced to predict the surface roughness obtained by DHDP. The performance of DHDP is studied by experiments. The slurry used in the experiments comprises 95% deionized water and 5% cerium oxide particles. Fused-silica glass is chosen as the workpiece. After the experiments, an ultrasmooth surface without cracks is obtained. The simulation results principally coincide with the experimental results. The experimental results show that the actual roughness is slightly less than the prediction and smaller particles are more favorable for obtaining a better surface roughness.

  2. Disc instantons in linear sigma models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindarajan, Suresh E-mail: suresh@chaos.iitm.ernet.in; Jayaraman, T. E-mail: jayaram@imsc.ernet.in; Sarkar, Tapobrata E-mail: tapo@theory.tifr.res.in

    2002-12-16

    We construct a linear sigma model for open-strings ending on special Lagrangian cycles of a Calabi-Yau manifold. We illustrate the construction for the cases considered by Aganagic and Vafa (AV). This leads naturally to concrete models for the moduli space of open-string instantons. These instanton moduli spaces can be seen to be intimately related to certain auxiliary boundary toric varieties. By considering the relevant Gelfand-Kapranov-Zelevinsky (GKZ) differential equations of the boundary toric variety, we obtain the contributions to the world volume superpotential on the A-branes from open-string instantons. By using an ansatz due to Aganagic, Klemm and Vafa (AKV), we obtain the relevant change of variables from the linear sigma model to the non-linear sigma model variables--the open-string mirror map. Using this mirror map, we obtain results in agreement with those of AV and AKV for the counting of holomorphic disc instantons.

  3. Role of discs large homolog 5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frauke Friedrichs; Monika Stoll

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, an association of genetic variation in the discs large homolog 5 (DLG5) gene with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was described in two large European study samples[1]. The initial report of DLG5 as a novel IBD susceptibility gene sparked a multitude of studies investigating its effect on CD and IBD, respectively,leading to controversial findings and ongoing discussions concerning the validity of the initial association finding and its role in the aetiology of Crohn disease. This review aims to summarize the current state of knowledge and to place the reported findings in the context of current concepts of complex diseases. This includes aspects of statistical power, phenotype differences and genetic heterogeneity between different populations as well as gene-gene and gene-environment interactions.

  4. Likelihood inference for unions of interacting discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Helisová, Katarina

    is specified with respect to a given marked Poisson model (i.e. a Boolean model). We show how edge effects and other complications can be handled by considering a certain conditional likelihood. Our methodology is illustrated by analyzing Peter Diggle's heather dataset, where we discuss the results......To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper which discusses likelihood inference or a random set using a germ-grain model, where the individual grains are unobservable edge effects occur, and other complications appear. We consider the case where the grains form a disc process modelled...... of simulation-based maximum likelihood inference and the effect of specifying different reference Poisson models....

  5. Wind speed forecasting for wind energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong

    With more wind energy being integrated into our grid systems, forecasting wind energy has become a necessity for all market participants. Recognizing the market demands, a physical approach to site-specific hub-height wind speed forecasting system has been developed. This system is driven by the outputs from the Canadian Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) model. A simple interpolation approach benchmarks the forecasting accuracy inherited from GEM. Local, site specific winds are affected on a local scale by a variety of factors including representation of the land surface and local boundary-layer process over heterogeneous terrain which have been a continuing challenge in NWP models like GEM with typical horizontal resolution of order 15-km. In order to resolve these small scale effects, a wind energy industry standard model, WAsP, is coupled with GEM to improve the forecast. Coupling the WAsP model with GEM improves the overall forecasts, but remains unsatisfactory for forecasting winds with abrupt surface condition changes. Subsequently in this study, a new coupler that uses a 2-D RANS model of boundary-layer flow over surface condition changes with improved physics has been developed to further improve the forecasts when winds coming from a water surface to land experience abrupt changes in surface conditions. It has been demonstrated that using vertically averaged wind speeds to represent geostrophic winds for input into the micro-scale models could reduce forecast errors. The hub-height wind speed forecasts could be further improved using a linear MOS approach. The forecasting system has been evaluated, using a wind energy standard evaluation matrix, against data from an 80-m mast located near the north shore of Lake Erie. Coupling with GEM-LAM and a power conversion model using a theoretical power curve have also been investigated. For hub-height wind speeds GEM appears to perform better with a 15-Ian grid than the high resolution GEM-2.5Ian version at the

  6. Galactic disc warps due to intergalactic accretion flows onto the disc

    CERN Document Server

    López-Corredoira, M; Beckman, J E

    2007-01-01

    The accretion of the intergalactic medium onto the gaseous disc is used to explain the generation of galactic warps. A cup-shaped distortion is expected, due to the transmission of the linear momentum; but, this effect is small for most incident inflow angles and the predominant effect turns out to be the transmission of angular momentum, i.e. a torque giving an integral-sign shaped warp. The torque produced by a flow of velocity ~100 km/s and baryon density ~10^{-25} kg/m^3, which is within the possible values for the intergalactic medium, is enough to generate the observed warps and this mechanism offers quite a plausible explanation. The inferred rate of infall of matter, ~1 M_sun/yr, to the Galactic disc that this theory predicts agrees with the quantitative predictions of chemical evolution resolving key issues, notably the G-dwarf problem. Sanchez-Salcedo (2006) suggests that this mechanism is not plausible because it would produce a dependence of the scaleheight of the disc with the Galactocentric azim...

  7. Evidence for Magnetically Driven Protoplanetary Disk Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Molly; Pascucci, Ilaria; Edwards, Suzan; Feng, Wanda; Rigliaco, Elisabetta; Gorti, Uma; Hollenbach, David J.; Tuttle Keane, James

    2017-01-01

    We present Keck high resolution (~7km/s) optical spectra from a sample of 32 pre-main sequence T-Tauri stars in Taurus-Auriga plus TW Hya. We focus on low-excitation forbidden emission lines like the [O I] 6300 Å and 5577 Å lines, whose high-velocity component, with blueshifts between ~30 - 150 km/s, is known to trace fast outflowing material in the form of jets (e.g. Hartigan et al. 1995). The origin of the low-velocity component (LVC), with blueshifts on the order of ~5 km/s, has been long debated. We demonstrate that the LVC can be described by a combination of a broad and a narrow line emitting region. We show that the broad line emitting region is very common, arises within ~0.5 AU from the star, and shows the expected disk wind signature, i.e. larger blueshifts associated with narrower lines and lower disc inclinations. Such winds must be magnetically driven given that the emitting region is well inside the gravitational potential well of the central star. The origin of the narrow line emitting region remains difficult to assess, in particular we cannot exclude that it traces a thermally driven (photoevaporative) wind. Disk winds, both thermally and magnetically driven, might play a major role in the evolution and eventual dispersal of protoplanetary material, which has implications for solar system architectures and planet formation more generally. Hence, it is critical to determine the rate at which mass is lost via disk winds.

  8. The small observed scale of AGN--driven outflows, and inside--out disc quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Zubovas, Kastytis

    2016-01-01

    Observations of massive outflows with detectable central AGN typically find them within radii $\\lesssim 10$ kpc. We show that this apparent size restriction is a natural result of AGN driving if this process injects total energy only of order the gas binding energy to the outflow, and the AGN varies over time (`flickers') as suggested in recent work. After the end of all AGN activity the outflow continues to expand to larger radii, powered by the thermal expansion of the remnant shocked AGN wind. We suggest that on average, outflows should be detected further from the nucleus in more massive galaxies. In massive gas--rich galaxies these could be several tens of kpc in radius. We also consider the effect that pressure of such outflows has on a galaxy disc. In moderately gas--rich discs, with gas-to-baryon fraction $< 0.2$, the outflow may induce star formation significant enough to be distinguished from quiescent by an apparently different normalisation of the Kennicutt-Schmidt law. The star formation enhan...

  9. Grain growth signatures in the protoplanetary discs of Chamaeleon and Lupus

    CERN Document Server

    Ubach, Catarina; Wright, Christopher M; Wilner, David J; Lommen, Dave J P; Koribalski, Baerbel

    2012-01-01

    We present ATCA results of a 3 and 7 mm continuum survey of 20 T Tauri stars in the Chamaeleon and Lupus star forming regions. This survey aims to identify protoplanetary discs with signs of grain growth. We detected 90% of the sources at 3 and 7 mm, and determined the spectral slopes, dust opacity indices and dust disc masses. We also present temporal monitoring results of a small sub-set of sources at 7, 15 mm and 3+6 cm to investigate grain growth to cm sizes and constrain emission mechanisms in these sources. Additionally, we investigated the potential correlation between grain growth signatures in the infrared (10 \\mu m silicate feature) and millimetre (1-3 mm spectral slope, {\\alpha}). Eleven sources at 3 and 7 mm have dominant thermal dust emission up to 7 mm, with 7 of these having a 1-3 mm dust opacity index less than unity, suggesting grain growth up to at least mm sizes. The Chamaeleon sources observed at 15 mm and beyond show the presence of excess emission from an ionised wind and/or chromo- sphe...

  10. On the formation of planetary systems in photoevaporating transition discs

    CERN Document Server

    Terquem, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    In protoplanetary discs, planetary cores must be at least 0.1 earth mass at 1 au for migration to be significant; this mass rises to 1 earth mass at 5 au. Planet formation models indicate that these cores form on million year timescales. We report here a study of the evolution of 0.1 earth mass and 1 earth mass cores, migrating from about 2 and 5 au respectively, in million year old photoevaporating discs. In such a disc, a gap opens up at around 2 au after a few million years. The inner region subsequently accrete onto the star on a smaller timescale. We find that, typically, the smallest cores form systems of non-resonant planets beyond 0.5 au with masses up to about 1.5 earth mass. In low mass discs, the same cores may evolve in situ. More massive cores form systems of a few earth masses planets. They migrate within the inner edge of the disc gap only in the most massive discs. Delivery of material to the inner parts of the disc ceases with opening of the gap. Interestingly, when the heavy cores do not mig...

  11. Can giant planets form by gravitational fragmentation of discs?

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatellos, Dimitris

    2007-01-01

    Context: Disc fragmentation has been proposed as a possible mechanism for the formation of giant planets at close distances to solar-type stars. However, it is debatable whether this mechanism can function in the inner region of real discs. Aims: To investigate the thermodynamics of discs and the probability of fragmentation. Methods: We use a newly developed method to treat the energy equation and equation of state, which accounts for radiative transfer effects in SPH simulations of protostellar discs. The different chemical and internal states of hydrogen and the properties of dust at different densities and temperatures (ice coated dust grains at low temperatures, ice melting, dust sublimation) are all taken into account by the new method. Results: We present radiative hydrodynamic simulations of discs where the effects of the equation of state and energy equation are taken into account. We focus on the inner parts of discs, R<40 AU and examine 2 cases (i) a disc heated by an ambient radiation field of ...

  12. Accretion Discs with an Inner Spiral Density Wave

    CERN Document Server

    Montgomery, M M

    2010-01-01

    In Montgomery (2009a), we show that accretion discs in binary systems could retrogradely precess by tidal torques like the Moon and the Sun on a tilted, spinning, non-spherical Earth. In addition, we show that the state of matter and the geometrical shape of the celestial object could significantly affect the precessional value. For example, a Cataclysmic Variable (CV) Dwarf Novae (DN) non-magnetic system that shows negative superhumps in its light curve can be described by a retrogradely precessing, differentially rotating, tilted disc. Because the disc is a fluid and because the gas stream overflows the tilted disc and particles can migrate into inner disc annuli, coupled to the disc could be a retrogradely precessing inner ring that is located near the innermost annuli of the disc. However, numerical simulations by Bisikalo et al. (2003, 2004) and this work show that an inner spiral density wave can be generated instead of an inner ring. Therefore, we show that retrograde precession in non-magnetic, spinni...

  13. Classification of the lumbar disc degeneration using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Hirotoshi; Shinomiya, Kenichi; Okamoto, Akihiko; Muto, Naoko; Furuya, Kotaro (Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-11-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been performed in consecutive 114 patients with a chief complaint of lumbar pain. A retrospective review of MR images of a total of 570 lumbar vertebrae from these patients were done to examine lumbar disc degeneration. According to the MR intensity of nucleus pulposus on T2-wighted sagittal images, lumbar disc degeneration was graded on a scale of 0-4: 0=uniform hyperintensity; 1=slight hypointensity; 2=centrally band-like hypointensity with marginal hyperintensity; 3=irregular hypointensity in both the central and marginal sites; 4=uniform hypointensity. Lumbar disc degeneration was observed in 76%; and it was rapidly increased in frequency in the 30 or older age groups. Of 570 vertebrae, 51 (8.9%) had narrowing of intervertebral cavity. For these vertebrae, a mean score of lumbar disc degeneration was 3.1. Lumbar disc herniation was seen in 93 vertebrae, with a mean score of lumbar disc degeneration being 3.07. Changes in vertebral body marrow were seen in 14 vertebrae (2.5%), in which a mean score of intervertebral disc degeneration was 3.71. (N.K.).

  14. Percutaneous treatment of cervical and lumbar herniated disc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelekis, A., E-mail: akelekis@med.uoa.gr; Filippiadis, D.K., E-mail: dfilippiadis@yahoo.gr

    2015-05-15

    Therapeutic armamentarium for symptomatic intervertebral disc herniation includes conservative therapy, epidural infiltrations (interlaminar or trans-foraminal), percutaneous therapeutic techniques and surgical options. Percutaneous, therapeutic techniques are imaging-guided, minimally invasive treatments for intervertebral disc herniation which can be performed as outpatient procedures. They can be classified in 4 main categories: mechanical, thermal, chemical decompression and biomaterials implantation. Strict sterility measures are a prerequisite and should include extensive local sterility and antibiotic prophylaxis. Indications include the presence of a symptomatic, small to medium sized contained intervertebral disc herniation non-responding to a 4–6 weeks course of conservative therapy. Contraindications include sequestration, infection, segmental instability (spondylolisthesis), uncorrected coagulopathy or a patient unwilling to provide informed consent. Decompression techniques are feasible and reproducible, efficient (75–94% success rate) and safe (>0.5% mean complications rate) therapies for the treatment of symptomatic intervertebral disc herniation. Percutaneous, imaging guided, intervertebral disc therapeutic techniques can be proposed either as an initial treatment or as an attractive alternative prior to surgery for the therapy of symptomatic herniation in both cervical and lumbar spine. This article will describe the mechanism of action for different therapeutic techniques applied to intervertebral discs of cervical and lumbar spine, summarize the data concerning safety and effectiveness of these treatments, and provide a rational approach for the therapy of symptomatic intervertebral disc herniation in cervical and lumbar spine.

  15. Metallicity gradients of disc stars for a cosmologically simulated galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Awat; Kawata, Daisuke; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Brook, Chris B.; Gibson, Brad K.; Kiessling, Alina

    2011-08-01

    We analyse for the first time the radial abundance gradients of the disc stars of a disc galaxy simulated with our three-dimensional, fully cosmological chemodynamical galaxy evolution code GCD+. We study how [Fe/H], [N/O], [O/Fe], [Mg/Fe] and [Si/Fe] vary with galactocentric radius. For the young stars of the disc, we found a negative slope for [Fe/H] and [N/O] but a positive [O/Fe], [Mg/Fe] and [Si/Fe] slope with radius. By analysing the star formation rate at different radii, we found that the simulated disc contains a greater fraction of young stars in the outer regions, while the old stars tend to be concentrated in the inner parts of the disc. This can explain the positive [α/Fe] gradient as well as the negative [N/O] gradient with radius. This radial trend is a natural outcome of an inside-out formation of the disc, regardless of its size and can thus explain the recently observed positive [α/Fe] gradients in the Milky Way disc open clusters.

  16. Metallicity gradients of disc stars for a cosmologically simulated galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Rahimi, Awat; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Brook, Chris B; Gibson, Brad K; Kiessling, Alina

    2011-01-01

    We analyse for the first time the radial abundance gradients of the disc stars of a disc galaxy simulated with our three dimensional, fully cosmological chemodynamical galaxy evolution code GCD+. We study how [Fe/H], [N/O], [O/Fe], [Mg/Fe] and [Si/Fe] vary with galactocentric radius. For the young stars of the disc, we found a negative slope for [Fe/H] and [N/O] but a positive [O/Fe], [Mg/Fe] and [Si/Fe] slope with radius. By analysing the star formation rate (SFR) at different radii, we found that the simulated disc contains a greater fraction of young stars in the outer regions, while the old stars tend to be concentrated in the inner parts of the disc. This can explain the positive [alpha/Fe] gradient as well as the negative [N/O] gradient with radius. This radial trend is a natural outcome of an inside-out formation of the disc, regardless of its size and can thus explain the recently observed positive [alpha/Fe] gradients in the Milky Way disc open clusters.

  17. Convection in axially symmetric accretion discs with microscopic transport coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanchev, K. L.; Postnov, K. A.; Shakura, N. I.

    2017-01-01

    The vertical structure of stationary thin accretion discs is calculated from the energy balance equation with heat generation due to microscopic ion viscosity η and electron heat conductivity κ, both depending on temperature. In the optically thin discs it is found that for the heat conductivity increasing with temperature, the vertical temperature gradient exceeds the adiabatic value at some height, suggesting convective instability in the upper disc layer. There is a critical Prandtl number, Pr = 4/9, above which a Keplerian disc become fully convective. The vertical density distribution of optically thin laminar accretion discs as found from the hydrostatic equilibrium equation cannot be generally described by a polytrope but in the case of constant viscosity and heat conductivity. In the optically thick discs with radiation heat transfer, the vertical disc structure is found to be convectively stable for both absorption-dominated and scattering-dominated opacities, unless a very steep dependence of the viscosity coefficient on temperature is assumed. A polytropic-like structure in this case is found for Thomson scattering-dominated opacity.

  18. Accretion of the Moon from non-canonical discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, J; Canup, R M

    2014-09-13

    Impacts that leave the Earth-Moon system with a large excess in angular momentum have recently been advocated as a means of generating a protolunar disc with a composition that is nearly identical to that of the Earth's mantle. We here investigate the accretion of the Moon from discs generated by such 'non-canonical' impacts, which are typically more compact than discs produced by canonical impacts and have a higher fraction of their mass initially located inside the Roche limit. Our model predicts a similar overall accretional history for both canonical and non-canonical discs, with the Moon forming in three consecutive steps over hundreds of years. However, we find that, to yield a lunar-mass Moon, the more compact non-canonical discs must initially be more massive than implied by prior estimates, and only a few of the discs produced by impact simulations to date appear to meet this condition. Non-canonical impacts require that capture of the Moon into the evection resonance with the Sun reduced the Earth-Moon angular momentum by a factor of 2 or more. We find that the Moon's semi-major axis at the end of its accretion is approximately 7R⊕, which is comparable to the location of the evection resonance for a post-impact Earth with a 2.5 h rotation period in the absence of a disc. Thus, the dynamics of the Moon's assembly may directly affect its ability to be captured into the resonance.

  19. The evolution of self-gravitating accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Ken

    2016-01-01

    It is quite likely that self-gravity will play an important role in the evolution of accretion discs, in particular those around young stars, and those around supermassive black holes. We summarise, here, our current understanding of the evolution of such discs, focussing more on discs in young stellar system, than on discs in active galactic nuclei. We consider the conditions under which such discs may fragment to form bound objects, and when they might, instead, be expected to settle into a quasi-steady, self-regulated state. We also discuss how this understanding may depend on the mass of the disc relative to the mass of the central object, and how it might depend on the presence of external irradiation. Additionally, we consider whether or not fragmentation might be stochastic, where we might expect it to occur in an actual protostellar disc, and if there is any evidence for fragmentation actually playing a role in the formation of planetary-mass bodies. Although there are still a number of outstanding is...

  20. Evolution of an accretion disc in binary black hole systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shigeo S.; Takahashi, Sanemichi Z.; Toma, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    We investigate evolution of an accretion disc in binary black hole (BBH) systems and possible electromagnetic counterparts of the gravitational waves from mergers of BBHs. Perna et al. proposed a novel evolutionary scenario of an accretion disc in BBHs in which a disc eventually becomes 'dead', i.e. the magnetorotational instability (MRI) becomes inactive. In their scenario, the dead disc survives until a few seconds before the merger event. We improve the dead disc model and propose another scenario, taking account of effects of the tidal torque from the companion and the critical ionization degree for MRI activation more carefully. We find that the mass of the dead disc is much lower than that in the Perna's scenario. When the binary separation sufficiently becomes small, the mass inflow induced by the tidal torque reactivates MRI, restarting mass accretion on to the black hole. We also find that this disc 'revival' happens more than thousands of years before the merger. The mass accretion induced by the tidal torque increases as the separation decreases, and a relativistic jet could be launched before the merger. The emissions from these jets are too faint compared to gamma-ray bursts, but detectable if the merger events happen within ≲10 Mpc or if the masses of the black holes are as massive as ∼105 M⊙.