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Sample records for attending family planning

  1. STDS in women attending family planning clinics: a case study in Addis Ababa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, M E; Tibaux, G; Kloos, H; Pelzer, A; Mehari, L; Perine, P L; Peutherer, J; Young, H; Jamil, Y; Darougar, S; Lind, I; Reimann, K; Piot, P; Roggen, E

    1997-02-01

    For cultural reasons modern contraception has been slow to gain acceptance in Ethiopia. Knowledge about contraception and abortion is still limited in many family and community settings in which it is socially disapproved. By 1990 only 4% of Ethiopian females aged 15-49 used contraception. Little is known of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevalence in family planning (FP) attenders in Africa in general and Ethiopia in particular, even though attenders of family planning clinics (FPCs) are appropriate target groups for epidemiological studies and control programmes. A study of 2111 women of whom 542 (25.7%) attended FPCs in Addis Ababa showed utilisation rates to be highest in women who were: Tigre (33%) or Amhara (31%), aged 20-34 years (30%), age 16 or older at first marriage/coitus (28%:38% in those first married after 25 years); who had a monthly family income of 10 Ethiopian Birr (EB) or more (33%:36% for those with income 100-500 EB), three or more children (37%), more than five lifetime husbands/sexual partners (39%); or were bargirls (73%) or prostitutes (43%). The seroprevalence rates for all STDs, higher in FPC attenders compared with other women, were syphilis (TPHA) 39%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae 66%, genital chlamydia 64%, HSV-2 41%, HBV 40% and Haemophilus ducreyi 20%. Only 4% of FPC attenders had no serological evidence of STD: 64% were seropositive for 3 or more different STD. Clinical evidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) was also more common in the FPC attenders (54%), 37% having evidence of salpingitis. The FPC provides a favourable setting for screening women likely to have high seroprevalence of STD, who for lack of symptoms will not attend either an STD clinic nor a hospital for routine check up. We recommend that measures be taken to adequately screen, treat and educate FPC attenders, their partners, and as appropriate and when possible their clients, in an attempt to control STDs and ultimately HIV in the community. Social, economic

  2. Predictors of consistent condom use among Portuguese women attending family planning clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Eleonora C V; Oliveira, Rosa; Ferreira, Domingos; Pereira, M Graça

    2016-01-01

    Women account for 30% of all AIDS cases reported to the Health Ministry in Portugal and most infections are acquired through unprotected heterosexual sex with infected partners. This study analyzed socio-demographic and psychosocial predictors of consistent condom use and the role of education as a moderator variable among Portuguese women attending family planning clinics. A cross-sectional study using interviewer-administered fully structured questionnaires was conducted among 767 sexually active women (ages 18-65). Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the association between consistent condom use and the predictor variables. Overall, 78.7% of the women were inconsistent condom users. The results showed that consistent condom use was predicted by marital status (being not married), having greater perceptions of condom negotiation self-efficacy, having preparatory safer sexual behaviors, and not using condoms only when practicing abstinence. Living with a partner and having lack of risk perception significantly predicted inconsistent condom use. Less educated women were less likely to use condoms even when they perceive being at risk. The full model explained 53% of the variance in consistent condom use. This study emphasizes the need for implementing effective prevention interventions in this population showing the importance of taking education into consideration. PMID:26277905

  3. Attitudes toward consequences of pregnancy in young women attending a family planning clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paikoff, R L

    1990-10-01

    This study examines the relationship between young women's knowledge and attitude concerning pregnancy and their sexual behavior. The study involved 78 young women (14-20 years of age) who had attended a midwestern family planning clinic. Primarily from a larger socioeconomic status, 70% of the participants said that they had never been pregnant. Adapting the testing methods of previous investigations, the study presented the participants with various exams intended to measure the following: 1) knowledge concerning "how babies are made"; 2) knowledge regarding intercourse and pregnancy; 3) anticipation of future consequences of adolescent childbirth; 4) anticipation of immediate consequences or fears of adolescent pregnancy. The study also examined the participants' contraceptive behavior and pregnancy history. The findings indicate that knowledge concerning understanding "how babies are made" does not influence sexual behavior, with no significant difference found between contraceptive users and non-contraceptive users. Also, the participants generally had accurate knowledge concerning intercourse and pregnancy. But the study did reveal significant differences in the evaluation of the consequences of pregnancy and childbirth. Those women who had previously been pregnant -- including those who had terminated their pregnancies -- showed a less negative attitude towards the consequences of pregnancy and childbirth than those who had never been pregnant. Furthermore, as the age of the women increased, the attitude became more positive. However, the study found that the attitude towards the consequences of pregnancy and childbirth had no impact on contraceptive behavior. PMID:12283995

  4. Contraception matters: indicators of poor usage of contraception in sexually active women attending family planning clinics in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Jason

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unintended pregnancy (mistimed or unwanted remains an important health issue for women. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with risk of unintended pregnancy in a sample of Victorian women attending family planning clinics. Methods This cross-sectional survey of three Family Planning Victoria Clinics from April to July 2011 recruited women aged 16-50 years with a male sexual partner in the last 3 months, and not intending to conceive. The questionnaire asked about contraceptive behaviours and important factors that influence contraception use (identified from a systematic literature review. Univariate analysis was calculated for the variables of interest for associations with contraceptive use. An overall multivariate model for being at risk for unintended pregnancy (due to inconsistent or ineffective contraceptive use or non-use was calculated through backward elimination with statistical significance set at Results 1006 surveys were analyzed with 96% of women reporting contraception use in the last 3 months. 37% of women were at risk for unintended pregnancy due to imperfect use (61% inconsistent users; 31% ineffective methods or never using contraception (8%. On multivariate analysis, women at risk for unintended pregnancy compared with women not at risk were 1 partner in the last 3 months (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.3-4.6. These women were dissatisfied with current contraception (OR 2.5, 95% 1.8-3.5; felt “vulnerable” to pregnancy (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.6-3.0; were not confident in contraceptive knowledge (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.5-4.8; were unable to stop to use contraception when aroused (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-2.9 but were comfortable in speaking to a doctor about contraception (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.1. Conclusion Despite reported high contraceptive usage, nearly 40% of women were at risk for unintended pregnancy primarily due to inconsistent contraceptive use and use of ineffective

  5. Pulmonary tuberculosis among women with cough attending clinics for family planning and maternal and child health in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Wandwalo Eliud R

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB case detection in women has remained low in developing world. This study was conducted to determine the proportion of smear positive TB among women with cough regardless of the duration attending family Planning (FP and Maternal and child health (MCH clinics in Dar es Salaam. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in all three municipal hospitals of Dar es Salaam, between October 2007 and June 2008. All women with cough attending FP and MCH clinics were screened for TB by smear microscopy. Pearson chi-square was used to compare group difference for categorical variables. Risk factors for smear positive were estimated by logistics regression with 95% confidence intervals (CI given for odds ratios indicating statistically significant relationship if the CI did not include one. Results We enrolled a total of 749 TB suspects. Five hundred and twenty nine patients (70.6% were from MCH clinics. Mean (SD age was 27.6 (5.2 years. A total of 616 (82.2% patients were coughing for less than two weeks as compared to 133 (17.8%, who coughed for two or more weeks. Among 616 TB suspects, 14 (2.3% were smear positive TB patients, and of the 133 who had coughed for two or more weeks, 13 (9.8% were smear positive TB patients. Risk factors associated with smear positive results were having attended more than one visit to any facility prior to diagnosis (OR = 6.8; 95%CI 2.57–18.0 and having HIV/AIDS (OR = 4.4; 95%CI 1.65–11.96. Long duration of cough was not a risk factor for being smear positive (OR = 1.6; 95%CI 0.59–4.49. Conclusion The proportion of smear positive TB patients among women with cough attending MCH and FP was 3.8%. Visits to any health facility prior to Diagnosis and HIV infection were risk for having a smear positive TB.

  6. Family Income, School Attendance, and Academic Achievement in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Taryn W.; Hutchison, Lindsey; Winsler, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Low family income is associated with poor academic achievement among children. Higher rates of school absence and tardiness may be one mechanism through which low family income impacts children's academic success. This study examines relations between family income, as measured by receipt of free or reduced-price lunch, school attendance, and…

  7. Family planning costs and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Government sponsored family planning programs have had major success in declining birth rates in Barbados, China, Cuba, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Mexico, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, and Thailand. Non- government programs have had similar success in Brazil and Colombia. These programs have been estimated as preventing over 100 million births in China and 80 million in India. Research indicates that family planning programs can produce a 30-50% drop in fertility. Family planning information and some contraceptives can be best distributed through community organizations. Research also indicates male opposition has been a major factor in wider acceptance of family planning. Surveys indicate that 50% of the woman who want no additional children are not using any birth control. Many governments do not have the resource and money to implement programs. In the developing countries if those who were able to prevent the unwanted births had birth control, the population increases in those countries would have been 1.3% versus 2.2%. In earlier family planning programs foreign assistance paid over 80% of the cost, and national governments 20%; today this is reversed. The World Bank estimates that for major improvements in population growth and women's health, $7 billion will be needed yearly by the year 2000. The countries that have had the similar goals in development of human resources, social services, health, and education. They have attended to the status of women, female employment, and maternal and child health. Estimates are that 1.3 billion couples and individuals will need family planning services by the year 2000, and this will be a formidable task. This key elements of successful family planning programs are community participation, decentralization, and training.

  8. Family Planning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱耀华

    1994-01-01

    China is a developing country with vast territory, numerous population and relatively poor economic foundation. The basic features of China's population are of great quantity and considerable annual increase of population as well as its uneven distribution in different regions. For improvement of living standard of the people,Chinese Government began to advocate family planning throughout this country in the beginning of the 1970s while a strenuous effort was made to develop economy.

  9. Family Planning Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米国庆

    1994-01-01

    According to the China national programme of economic and social development, by 2000 the standard of living of Chinese people will have been fairly welloff. In order to accomplish the goal, the government has comprised the population development in the national social economic development programme. Family planning (FP) work will contribute to the general goal of social economy and development. Reform and open policy and establishment of socialist market economy sys

  10. Why family planning matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2011-06-01

    Family planning is one of the principle tools of human development. Ensuring that all babies are wanted and planned reduces health care and social costs. Human numbers will increase to 11 billion by the end of this century, and human activities are the leading cause of environmental change that threaten our health and happiness. Therefore, the provision of highly effective contraceptive methods represents an important priority of primary medical care. Since women and men with complicated medical problems remain interested in sex, medical and surgical specialists need to understand how contraception and pregnancy will interact with the underlying condition. This paper discusses the interaction between population growth and the environment, and reviews modern methods of contraception.

  11. Iran rebuilds family planning services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butta, P

    1993-07-01

    After the revolution, the Islamic Republic of Iran instituted pronatalist policies which included lowering the minimum marriage age for girls to 9 years, abolishing some laws securing women's rights, and limiting availability of family planning (FP) services. By 1983, Iran's population growth rate was 3.9% which was among the highest worldwide. Before the revolution, Iran had 37 million people. About 2 million more people were added each year, resulting in a population size of 60 million by 1992. By the mid-1980s, economic development stood idle, there were not enough houses, children attended schools on 3 shifts, and malnutrition was spreading. In 1989, the government formed a population council and reestablished FP services. It also increased the minimum age of marriage for girls to 13 years, slightly improved women status, and eliminated fertility incentives for couples with at least 4 children. It also significantly increased funding for FP (from 560 million to 13 billion rials between 1990 and 1992). Government spending for FP will likely increase 2% annually until 2011. The government initiated a promotion of FP mass media campaign, emphasizing a 2-child family. Some posters showed a family with 2 girls. The mass media campaign promoted specific contraceptive methods (even tubal occlusion and vasectomy), a practice other Middle Eastern countries not do. 80% of sterilization acceptors claimed to learn about sterilization from the radio or newspapers. The Ministry of Health has invited the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) to help with its campaign to update sterilization techniques, including the non scalpel vasectomy technique. AVSC hopes to become even more involved in helping Iran update its national FP program. PMID:12318289

  12. Prevalência de cândida na flora vaginal de mulheres atendidas num serviço de planejamento familiar Prevalence of candida in the vagina of women attended at a family planning service

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    Antônio Aleixo Neto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a prevalência de Candida sp. e a distribuição de suas espécies na flora vaginal de mulheres numa clínica de planejamento familiar. Método: estudo transversal no qual se avaliaram prospectivamente 72 mulheres não-grávidas, com ou sem queixas específicas, sendo coletadas amostras de secreção vaginal para cultura de leveduras, efetuada a medição do pH vaginal e anotados dados de achados do exame ginecológico. Resultados: leveduras pertencentes ao gênero Candida foram encontradas em 18 casos (25%. A C. albicans foi a espécie mais prevalente (77,8% e conseqüentemente 22,2% foram não-albicans. Entre as não-albicans a espécie mais prevalente foi a C. glabrata (16,7% seguida pela C. parapsilosis (5,6%. Prurido e ardor foram os únicos sintomas relacionados significativamente com a presença de cândida. Foi observado que a C. glabrata, ao contrário da C. albicans, não causa corrimento clinicamente verificável ao exame ginecológico. Não foram verificadas associações de alguns fatores predisponentes (idade, escolaridade e uso de contraceptivos com a presença ou não de cândida. Conclusões: nossos resultados sugerem: a uma alta prevalência de Candida sp. entre as mulheres (25%; b que as espécies não-albicans desempenham um papel importante no meio vaginal; c que prurido e ardor são os sintomas mais comuns na presença de cândida e d que a C. glabrata não costuma causar corrimento vaginal ao exame ginecológico. Finalmente, é importante observar que nossos resultados são consistentes com o que a literatura internacional tem mostrado nos últimos anos.SUMMARY Purpose: to estimate the prevalence of Candida sp. and the distribution of its species in the vagina of women attended at a family planning Service. Methods: a cross-sectional study evaluating prospectively 72 nonpregnant women, with or without specific complaints. Samples were checked for the presence of yeast and vaginal pH. Data obtained

  13. Natural Family Planning: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Derzko, Christine M.

    1986-01-01

    Natural Family Planning (NFP) is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as “methods for planning or avoiding pregnancies by observation of the natural signs and symptoms of the fertile and infertile phase of the menstrual cycle. It is implicit in the definition of natural family planning, when used to avoid conception that drugs, devices and surgical procedures are not used, there is abstinence from sexual intercourse during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle, and the act of int...

  14. Assessing the Impact of a Family Planning Nurse Training Program in Egypt.

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    Halawa, M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a study of the impact of a nurse training program for family planning that stresses the development of nurses' counseling skills. Found an association between improved family planning training for nurses and positive changes in family planning knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among women attending Egyptian Ministry of Health clinics.…

  15. Family planning and the Malawian male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishindo, P

    1994-01-01

    To curb the deleterious socioeconomic effects of rapid population growth, the Government of Malawi has adopted a National Child Spacing Program. Women who attend maternal health centers are counseled about the harmful effects of closely spaced childbearing, informed of contraceptive options, and urged to discuss family planning with their husband. This strategy fails to consider the control by Malawian men over women's reproductive capacities and family size decision making. If Malawi's child spacing program is to be successful in reducing fertility, the emphasis must be shifted to men. Needed is an educational campaign to convince men that large family size--currently considered a sign of virility--adversely affects the family's standard of living. Malawian men are more likely to be convinced by arguments based on economics than concerns about maternal-child health. For example, educational messages could focus on the inability of malnourished children to perform farm work, the higher incomes and ability to provide old age support of well-educated children, the high price of a large dwelling, and the debts incurred by providing food and clothing for many children. Specific target groups in need of such interventions include low-income skilled and semi-skilled urban workers, smallholder farmers, and small-scale businessmen. In rural areas, family planning messages can be incorporated into existing agricultural extension and functional literacy programs.

  16. Effect of a reorganized after-hours family practice service on frequent attenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    1999-01-01

    of this reorganization on the use of services by frequent attenders (FAs). METHODS: From 1990 to 1994, methods of contact and annual costs per attender were analyzed in an ecological time-trend study based on aggregated administrative data collected from the database of the Public Health Insurance, Aarhus County......, Denmark (600,000 inhabitants). The study only included attenders ages 18 and over. FAs were defined as the group that, within each calendar year (12 months), had 4 or more contacts with the after-hours family practice service. RESULTS: FAs made up 9.5% of the attenders and accounted for more than 40......% of the contacts and the aggregate costs. The effect of the reorganization was a 12% decrease in the number of attenders, a 16% decrease in the number of contacts, and a 29% decrease in the costs. Reorganization had a significantly bigger effect on FA attendance than on non-FA attendance, and more than half...

  17. 76 FR 15307 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Strategic Planning Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Strategic Planning... attend the meeting of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) Strategic Planning Committee (SPC), as...

  18. The impact of family size on children’s school attendance in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Kezia C. Bansagan; Hazel Joyce C. Panganiban

    2008-01-01

    Much empirical work has been done to determine the effects of family size on the education of children. Using a sample from the October 2006 Labor Force Survey, this paper attempts to determine the impact of family size on children’s education as measured by school attendance while considering socioeconomic factors. Results have shown that family size is significantly and negatively correlated with children’s school enrollment. Even after controlling for family size and birth-order effect, th...

  19. Service Locator - Family Planning Title X

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This locator tool will help you find Title X family planning centers that provide high quality and cost-effective family planning and related preventive health...

  20. On the efficiency of multiple media family planning promotion campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the result of a study conducted by Miriam N. Jato on the impact of multimedia family planning communication campaigns on contraceptive use. The study was conducted in Tanzania, where a government program integrated family planning into maternal and child health care services in 1988, while in 1992 a private-sector condom-marketing program begun and a national population policy for wider distribution of family planning information was adopted by the government. In less than 3 years, contraceptive use was found to have doubled to a level of 11.3% and the total fertility rate declined from an average of 6.3 to 5.8 live births. The result of the study indicates that exposure to media sources of family planning messages was directly associated with increased contraceptive use. Moreover, the use of modern methods increased among women who were exposed to a greater number of media sources, as did discussion of family planning with spouses and attendance of health facilities. The programmatic implications of the results confirm that utilization of multiple media channels in the promotion of family planning and other reproductive issues must be continued, with emphasis on media sources that reach large audiences. PMID:12349449

  1. Psychological distress as a predictor of frequent attendance in family practice: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Fink, Per; Olesen, Frede;

    2001-01-01

    . In 1990, 185 consecutive adults who consulted their primary care physician (PCP) about an illness were rated on two psychometric scales (Hopkins Symptom Check List [SCL-8] and Whiteley-7), and their annual number of face-to-face contacts with a family practice was followed until 1996. Frequent attenders...

  2. Prospective study on the determinants of repeat attendance and attendance patterns in breast cancer screening using the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drossaert, C.H.C.; Boer, H.; Seydel, E.R.

    2003-01-01

    This prospective study, using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) as a theoretical framework, was carried out to identify the determinants of repeat attendance and attendance patterns in organised breast screening. A group of 2657 women filled out a baseline questionnaire, approximately 8 weeks af

  3. Forecasting daily attendances at an emergency department to aid resource planning

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    Seow Yian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate forecasting of emergency department (ED attendances can be a valuable tool for micro and macro level planning. Methods Data for analysis was the counts of daily patient attendances at the ED of an acute care regional general hospital from July 2005 to Mar 2008. Patients were stratified into three acuity categories; i.e. P1, P2 and P3, with P1 being the most acute and P3 being the least acute. The autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA method was separately applied to each of the three acuity categories and total patient attendances. Independent variables included in the model were public holiday (yes or no, ambient air quality measured by pollution standard index (PSI, daily ambient average temperature and daily relative humidity. The seasonal components of weekly and yearly periodicities in the time series of daily attendances were also studied. Univariate analysis by t-tests and multivariate time series analysis were carried out in SPSS version 15. Results By time series analyses, P1 attendances did not show any weekly or yearly periodicity and was only predicted by ambient air quality of PSI > 50. P2 and total attendances showed weekly periodicities, and were also significantly predicted by public holiday. P3 attendances were significantly correlated with day of the week, month of the year, public holiday, and ambient air quality of PSI > 50. After applying the developed models to validate the forecast, the MAPE of prediction by the models were 16.8%, 6.7%, 8.6% and 4.8% for P1, P2, P3 and total attendances, respectively. The models were able to account for most of the significant autocorrelations present in the data. Conclusion Time series analysis has been shown to provide a useful, readily available tool for predicting emergency department workload that can be used to plan staff roster and resource planning.

  4. Natural family planning: point, counterpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, M

    1991-01-01

    The Humanae Vitae posits that periodic abstinence from sexual intercourse enriches one with spiritual values. The discipline required in natural family planning brings peace and serenity to the family, helps solve other problems, helps both spouses to be less selfish, and deepens one's sense of responsibility. Parents acquire the capacity to have a deeper influence in the education of their children, and the children grow up with a sound appraisal of human values. The case study of a married couple, however, suggests that only frustration and resentment will result from periodic abstinence. The couple was advised by their physician to use the basal temperature method combined with the calendar method. Repeated pregnancies and births ensued. The couple eventually had to resort to three-week periods of abstinence from sexual intercourse. While pregnancy has been avoided for three years, the practice of periodic abstinence from sexual intercourse for such long periods is very difficult for both the husband and wife. The relationship has become tense and mutually damaging. The husband argues that the rhythm method transforms sexual intercourse from a spontaneous expression of spiritual and physical love into a simple release of bodily energy. He is obsessed with sex throughout the long period of abstinence, his marital fidelity is at risk, his disposition toward his wife and children is adversely affected, and he must avoid all affection toward his wife for three weeks at a time. The husband sees periodic abstinence as a diabolical, immoral, and deeply unnatural method of fertility control. The wife is sullen and resentful toward her husband when the time for sexual relations finally arrives. She finds it difficult to respond to her husband's advances after the three-week periods during which he reserves his affection. The wife's dreams and unguarded thoughts are invariably sexual. Periodic abstinence and the Roman Catholic Church are discussed. PMID:12178862

  5. Combined Edition of Family Planning Library Manual and Family Planning Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    This edition combines two previous publications of the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library into one volume: the Family Planning Library Manual, a guide for starting a family planning and population library or information center, and the Family Planning Classification, a coding system for organizing book and non-book materials so that they can be…

  6. Family Planning Associations Educate by Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    LI Zuomin has been engaged in family planning for 26 years. During the first 16 years, she was a cadre with the public health department in Chongqing, Sichuan Province. There she worked to teach the masses how to carry out the state family planning policy. For the past ten years, after

  7. Linking Intentions and Behavior: Australian Students' College Plans and College Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Peter G; Fleishman, John A.

    1987-01-01

    Examines factors that influence Australian high school seniors' plans to attend college and their actual entry into college. Uses the Fishbein-Ajzen model of attitude-behavior relations to link intentions to continue school with the realization of those intentions. (RB)

  8. CONSUMERS' INTENTION TO ATTEND SOCCER EVENTS: APPLICATION AND EXTENSION OF THE THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddosary, Melfy; Ko, Yong Jae; Sagas, Michael; Kim, Hee Youn

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify important factors of consumers' intention to attend professional soccer events among Saudi Arabian soccer fans. To explore the decision-making process of this relatively understudied population, the theory of planned behavior was used as theoretical background. Particularly, this study measured the effect of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control (time and money), and game importance on intention to attend, and examined the moderating role of commitment. Structural equation modeling (SEM) using 231 Saudi university students (M = 21.9 yr., SD = 1.21) indicate that attitude and game importance were significantly related to attendance intention. The effect of subjective norms was significant only for the low commitment group and game importance was more important for the low than the high commitment group. PMID:26241095

  9. Family Planning Policy Resultsin Lower Population Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金营

    2007-01-01

    The family planning policy was introduced in the 1970s.In retrospect of thirty years of implementation,people have different views regarding its results.In this article,Wang Jinying determines,through comparison of population scenarios,that the family planning policy has not merely reduced China’s birth rate and rate of natural increase,but has also exerted a profound impact upon China’s economic and social development.

  10. Brainstorming: an application for programme planning in family welfare planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, T V

    1985-01-01

    There have been many participatory devices developed and applied for programme planning in a variety of fields by the social scientists in the recent past, of which brainstorming is one. This device has been widely used in interpretive structural modelling to higher education programme planning, programme planning for housing in urban development, etc. Following these studies, application of brainstorming to develop a preliminary operational value system as a structural model for programme planning in Family planning was attempted. The products of a sequence of three sessions of approximately 5 hours each generated 39 needs, 28 alterables, and 22 constraints, all of which were used to set Family Planning objectives /34/. The objectives thus derived were used in building an intent structure to understand their priorities in plan formulation and eventual implementation.

  11. Population policy and family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The secret of success of India's population policy is the multipronged approach. Conflicts between public beliefs, customs, and public interests in regard to family size must be resolved through effective educational measures. The state should avoid legal compulsion and rely on volumtary choice by married couples influenced by logical judgment, information, and persuasion. Instead of using coercion, research in specific regions, sub-regions, and local areas should assess feasibility in light of knowledge, attitude, and practice of birth control, and rational goals should be set. Health conditions, particularly of mother and child, are an important approach to fertility and family size. As long as the morbidity of infants is high, the motivation for small family size will be low. Women's education generally should be improved. Later age at marriage also contributed to small family size. Present population policy should be expanded to include a broad-based socioeconomic approach with a social security program. Development through improved agricultural and marketing conditions will distribute the economic benefits for and improve the welfare of the most backward people. Voluntary organizations must be involved in population programs because a wholly state-sponsored program will meet with apathy and disinterest.

  12. Human papillomavirus detection in cervical scrapes from women attended in the Family Health Program

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    Everton Faccini Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to survey the prevalence of human papillomavirus, associated risk factors and genotype distribution in women who were referred to cervical cancer screening when attended in a Family Health Program. METHOD: we conducted a cross-sectional survey, investigating 351 women. Polymerase chain reaction for DNA amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis were used to detect and typify the papillomavirus. RESULTS: virus infection was detected in 8.8% of the samples. Among the 21 different genotypes identified in this study, 14 were high risk for cervical cancer, and the type 16 was the most prevalent type. The infection was associated with women who had non-stable sexual partners. Low risk types were associated with younger women, while the high risk group was linked to altered cytology. CONCLUSION: in this sample attended a Family Health Program, we found a low rate of papillomavirus infection. Virus frequency was associated to sexual behavior. However, the broad range of genotypes detected deserves attention regarding the vaccine coverage, which includes only HPV prevalent types.

  13. STD services in family planning programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, L; Finger, W R

    1994-12-01

    Few family planning programs provide sexually transmitted disease (STD) services. Yet, more and more policymakers and program managers are thinking of ways that family planning programs can address reproductive health needs, including STDs. Family planning programs that have already added STD services now operate in Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, India, Sri Lanka, Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, and Jamaica. Most of them concentrate on STD/AIDS preventive services: providing information, counseling, and promoting condom use. Some programs also provide STD management services. A family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, gradually integrated STD services into its program. It first provided clients with information about STDs, then nurses were trained to diagnose and treat STDs, and last the clinic began receiving STD drugs. This clinic targets low-income workers and groups at high risk for HIV infection. It has 60 outreach volunteers working in bars, brothels, and small shops. During September 1991-March 1994, 57% of clients used condoms. The nurses use a syndromic approach to decide on what treatment to use for STD patients. Since some women do not have obvious STD symptoms, laboratories and microscopes are used to make an accurate diagnosis. A considerable outlay of funds is needed for extensive training in STD diagnosis and treatment, but ending the cycle of infection saves money. Concerns about contraceptive effectiveness of barrier methods keep family planning programs from promoting condom use. Another obstacle to integrating STD services into family planning programs is that most programs focus on women. Clinics should encourage couples to be together for family planning and STD counseling. They can also direct educational materials to men. Other challenges include the difficulty of diagnosing STDs in women, expensive and often unavailable STD drugs, reinfection by partners who do not receive treatment, and lack of power to insist on condom use.

  14. High ANC coverage and low skilled attendance in a rural Tanzanian district: a case for implementing a birth plan intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousens Simon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, more than 90% of all pregnant women attend antenatal care at least once and approximately 62% four times or more, yet less than five in ten receive skilled delivery care at available health units. We conducted a qualitative study in Ngorongoro district, Northern Tanzania, in order to gain an understanding of the health systems and socio-cultural factors underlying this divergent pattern of high use of antenatal services and low use of skilled delivery care. Specifically, the study examined beliefs and behaviors related to antenatal, labor, delivery and postnatal care among the Maasai and Watemi ethnic groups. The perspectives of health care providers and traditional birth attendants on childbirth and the factors determining where women deliver were also investigated. Methods Twelve key informant interviews and fifteen focus group discussions were held with Maasai and Watemi women, traditional birth attendants, health care providers, and community members. Principles of the grounded theory approach were used to elicit and assess the various perspectives of each group of participants interviewed. Results The Maasai and Watemi women's preferences for a home birth and lack of planning for delivery are reinforced by the failure of health care providers to consistently communicate the importance of skilled delivery and immediate post-partum care for all women during routine antenatal visits. Husbands typically serve as gatekeepers of women's reproductive health in the two groups - including decisions about where they will deliver- yet they are rarely encouraged to attend antenatal sessions. While husbands are encouraged to participate in programs to prevent maternal-to-child transmission of HIV, messages about the importance of skilled delivery care for all women are not given emphasis. Conclusions Increasing coverage of skilled delivery care and achieving the full implementation of Tanzania's Focused Antenatal Care

  15. Integrating family planning education: the realistic alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-17

    In the past few years, it has begun to be understood that family planning involves more than making supplies available. It is important to build family planning concepts into an access network. The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), in its effort to have a new concept accepted by rural societies, has begun to use more modern methods of communication - agricultural extension agents, maternal and child health personnel, nutrition specialists, radios, and advertising. It is also recognized that an educational experience is often essential in that for many people acceptance of family planning concepts and subsequent behavior change is also a process that inherently involves problem solving. Part of the present task is to legitimize a new approzch to a very old need. Family planning is not primarily a medical problem, but rather a personal, social, and educational issue, and information and services need to be brought to the people where they live, work, and gather for social and leisure time activities. Along with new community communication approaches, there needs to be new initiatives in the field of distribution. Linking family planning to other developmental programs is both a logical and a necessary step for the IPPF. There is no 1 approach for integrating family planning into the whole process of social change and development. Many associations have, however, taken action to link their activities to those of others. 1 of the secondary effects of the integrated approach is the opening up of new horizons for the associations. The opportunity arises for a recommitment to social reform. Although in the short term, it is expected that the linking of activies will prove expensive in terms of developing manpower resources, in the long run it is anticipated that the results will prove to be cost-effective. PMID:12334591

  16. Observations concerning family planning education in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburg, M V

    1981-11-01

    In China, raising the age at marriage is an integral part of the family planning program. The new marriage law sets the minimum age at 22 for men and 20 for women. Marriage is a universal practice, and an unmarried person over 28 is a rarity. For economic purposes, the Central Committee of the People's Republic adopted the 1-child family policy in 1980. Childlessness is not encouraged. An extensive organizational network at the national, provincial, and local governmental levels conducts the family planning program. The media is widely used to publicize the message. Billboards, posters, state-run television, and other media tools regularly promote the virtues of the 1-child family, regardless of the sex of the child. Premarital sex is rare, and sex education, if any, is limited to adults--those about to be married. In Shanghai, physiology education in the middle school does include sex education and reproduction. All hospitals have family planning offices, and services include excellent maternal/child health care and family planning counseling. Family planning services are also found in the workplace. Permission must be obtained from the Production Brigade to marry and to have a child. Inspite of this, the family planning program is not viewed as coercive. When certain segments of the working population want to have more children than have been allocated, adjustments (e.g., delays in marriage or in pregnancy) are made. A unique feature of the program is its use of reward and punishment which varies from province to province, and between rural and urban populations. Economic incentives (monetary subsidies, free education for the children, housing priorities, and pension benefits) are given to those who have 1 child and withheld from those who have 2 children. In some areas, additional economic penalties (payment to state) are required from families with 2 children. Another unique feature is the trend toward later marriage, with 25 or 26 becoming the norm. It appears

  17. Family planning for women with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G; Pearson, J; Cook, H

    An outreach program developed in England by the Merton and Sutton Community and Family Planning Services is effectively addressing the unmet reproductive health needs of women with learning disabilities. A specially trained community health nurse visits prospective clients at their residence and, through use of teaching aids, demonstrates breast self-examination and condom use and explains what will take place at the upcoming clinic visit. Of the 125 learning disabled women who used this program during its first 18 months of operation, only three had previously accessed the community's family planning services. 50% of services provided to this population were annual well-woman checks, 20% related to contraception, and 30% were for counseling on concerns such as domestic violence. Most of these women required a specialized approach that would not have been forthcoming from a generic family planning service or a general practitioner.

  18. [Is family planning beneficial for our society?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noudjalbaye, K

    1988-09-01

    Family planning comprises a group of activities that permit couples to decide freely the spacing and number of their children. Its other goals are to identify high risk pregnancies and treat infertility. Family planning improves the health of mothers, children, and entire families. Women understanding the benefits of family planning can space pregnancies at least 2 years apart to allow time to care for the new baby and to recuperate after the birth. Women and children in Chad and throughout Africa are the most vulnerable population groups with the greatest need for high quality nutrition, but they usually are relegated the food left over after men and other family members have eaten. Too frequent and too numerous pregnancies are likely to lead to maternal death from hemorrhage, toxemia, or septicemia. Chronic malnutrition reduces the defenses of the woman's body. Couples who plan their births for the times when the mother is best prepared avoid high risk pregnancies. Young infants whose mothers become pregnant too soon are subjected to abrupt weaning and sometimes physically separated from their mothers. The baby is at risk of infection and malnutrition because of its lack of adjustment to its new diet, and high rates of mortality are 1 result. The 2nd baby often is low birth weight and receives less milk because his malnourished, anemic, and chronically fatigued mother is unable to produce more. The infant is prey to infections, which his undernourished body is less able to fight. Traditional African societies recognized the importance of spacing and achieved it by abstinence until the child would walk. Family planning programs provide contraception, treatment and advice on sexually transmitted diseases, and alternatives to illegal abortion. Adolescents in particular should be provided with information on the consequences of too early sexual activity.

  19. [What can be expected of family planning?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallon, F

    1989-04-01

    Growing concern over Rwanda's rapid demographic growth and the development of a family planning program beginning around 1981 have so far had little practical effect on the number of births. Significant mortality reductions resulting from vaccination programs and other development projects may mean that population growth has actually accelerated instead of slowing. Most Rwandans still have the strongly pronatalist attitudes appropriate to an environment with high infant and general mortality rates, small populations, abundant land resources, and a need for manpower and old age security. Lack of services, fear of side effects, and rumors have also hampered acceptance of family planning. Rwanda is 95% rural, but rapid population growth is outstripping agricultural resources. Already in 1984 the average family plot was only .88 hectare, and by the year 2000 it will be half that size. Young people denied employment in agriculture will seek jobs in industry and commerce, but there too the possibilities of absorption are limited. The best employment opportunities will probably be available to the best educated. Between 1962-85, the rate of school enrollment of children aged 7-14 increased from 55-60%, but the total enrollment increased by 150% because of the increased number of children. Acceptance of family planning by substantial numbers of couples will mean significant savings in education. The savings in primary education alone would significantly offset expenditures for family planning. A large part of the funding for family planning in Rwanda is contributed as foreign aid, which could not easily be converted to other development projects, as some critics demand. A more moderate rate of population growth would also mean less expenditure on imports of food and other goods, on health care, on housing, and in all areas where population size is a factor in determining needs. Less reliance on imported food will enable Rwanda to preserve its autonomy. The rising pregnancy

  20. Career and Family Plans of College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Susan B.

    Factors which mediate the life decisions of college men and women were examined. Undergraduates (N=107) completed questionnaires about career and family plans, notions of success and failure, integration of two potentially conflicting roles, and the relationship between personal values, life goals, and choices. Results indicated that: (1) women…

  1. Nursing 572: Principles of Family Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Marsha

    A description is provided of "Principles of Family Planning," a course designed for graduate nursing students or practicing nurses seeking continuing education credit. The first sections of the course description provide a rationale for the course, information on its curricular placement, scheduling information, and statements of long-range and…

  2. Current Literature in Family Planning, Number 54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    As a monthly classified review of literature, this annotated bibliography offers a selection of books and articles recently received by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library relative to family planning in the United States. Divided into two parts, the first contains book reviews from a variety of sources. They cover the subjects fund raising,…

  3. [The challenges of the family planning program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, F; Mojarro, O

    1991-01-01

    Mexican family planning officials used date from the 1990 population census to revise population growth estimates and determine program needs for different family planning institutions during 1990-94. Total fertility rates were used to estimate fertility, using information from sociodemographic surveys taken over the past 10 years. Total fertility rates were estimated at 3.29 in 1987, 2.8 in 1990, and projected at 2.5 in 1994. These rates correspond to a crude birth rate of 24-25/1000 in 1990 and 22-23 in 1994 and natural increase rates of 1.87% and 1.67%. In obtaining these estimates, the structure of fertility of the 1987 National Survey of Fertility and Health and the program projections of women by ages of the National Population Council and the National Institute of Statistics, Geography, and were considered. The TARGET model was used to estimate the numbers of women in union using different modern methods who would need to be served by family planning programs in order to meet the proposed total fertility rates. The prevalence of sterilization, IUDS, and oral contraceptives (OCs) in women in union would be 59% in 1990 and 62% in 1994, or in absolute terms 7.8 million women in 1990 and 9.3 million in 1994. The public sector has replaced the private as the major source of family planning services. The Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) share is expected to increase from 48.3% of users in 1990 to 56.5% in 1994. The other 3 public sector institutions will maintain their current level of coverage. The private sector has played a smaller role in family planning in Mexico than in many other countries, and the state will thus have the major responsibility for service provision, including family planning education, promotion, and counseling of prospective clients. Existing services should be made more accessible as far as physical access and hours of operation, and the methods available should be increased beyond OCs and condoms. Traditional midwives in rural

  4. Is family planning an economic decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderink, S R

    1995-09-01

    This study examines economic models of household choice and the role of economic factors in determining the timing of births. A static economic model is presented and tested with data from the Netherlands. After the availability of contraceptives, the family size variable shifted from being an exogenous to an endogenous one, because births could be regulated. Costs of childbearing were construed to have maintenance costs for parents and society, attendance costs of care, and intangible costs such as anxiety or personal freedom. Benefits were intangible ones, such as joy and happiness; income; public benefits; and attendance benefits. Intangible benefits enlarged the utility of children, but maintenance costs diminished resources available for consumption. Child quality was a product of market goods purchased by parents and others and household labor. Household time allocation varied with child's age. Private responsibility for children varied by country. Quality of child care varied between countries and over time. Quality was dependent upon economies of scale, variable costs by the age of the child, variable time commitments by age of the child, and market substitutes for private child care. Higher income families spent more money but less time on children. It is pointed out that Becker's model explained number of children, but not timing of births. Postponement of birth was unlikely for those with a limited education, an unpleasant job, and low wages. When the advantages and disadvantages of having a baby were positive, spouses or single women with a high subjective preference were expected to bear a child as soon as possible. Government policy can affect the average family size by increasing or decreasing the financial and/or time burden of children. Postponement may be chosen based on long term analysis of a couple's future, the formation and use of capital, and/or high subjective time preference. Before and after first birth are different frames of reference

  5. Product Family Modelling for Manufacturing Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld;

    2011-01-01

    of the product family model, however, the model should be enriched with data for planning and execution of the manufacturing processes. The idea is that, when any individual product is specified using the product configurator, a product model can be extracted with all data necessary for planning...... of the manufacturing processes. Obviously, data for identification of all used modules and components are included in the product model but also for instance data for processing and assembly operations must be available. These data are not always related entirely to the modules and components but are sometimes also...... dependent on the specific assembly structure of the configured product, i.e. the combination of modules. In this paper, issues of how to create manufacturing structures and related planning data in product family models are presented. Primarily, the more complicated multi-level manufacturing structures...

  6. Private sector joins family planning effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from

  7. China's first family planning publicity month.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, G

    1983-05-01

    China conducted its 1st nationwide Family Planning Publicity Month in 1983, from New Year's Day to Spring Festival (February 13). The campaign emphasized the rural areas and focused on explaining why family planning is a state policy. The most noticeable achievements of this campaign were that every household became familiar with the fact that family planning is a basic state policy. The majority of the population take this policy seriously, realizing that strict control of population growth is both a good and imperative policy. More than 1,830,000 propaganda columns and photo exhibitions were displayed, 5,900,000 radio and television programs broadcast, 2,010,000 theatrical performances, movie and slide showings presented, and 97,000,000 copies of materials published for public dissemination. The activities were varied and interesting, vivid and lively, and purposeful and persuasive. 1 of the most effective methods of publicizing population control has been the presentation of comparative statistics. This aspect of the campaign was a specific and lively form of education in population theory and practice. The presentation of statistics that show the relationship among population, land use, grain produce, and income enabled the population to reason out why population growth needs to match economic and social development. Another important accomplishment of the publicity month was that a large number of couples of reproductive age became convinced of the need to use contraception. According to the incomplete statistics, 8,860,000 people had surgical operations for birth control. The universal promotion of ligations by either partner of a reproductive couple who already had given birth to a 2nd child was an important development of family planning technique promoted simultaneously with the promotion of IUDs. The increase in the number of people doing family planning work was another achievement of the publicity month. More than 15,240,000 publicity personnel and 760

  8. 76 FR 49764 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy ICT Transmission Planning Summit and Entegry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy ICT Transmission Planning... Commission's ongoing outreach efforts. Entergy ICT Transmission Planning Summit August 23, 2011 (8 a.m.-5...

  9. Thai midwives brought into family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-03-01

    In Thailand "granny" midwives are being tested and trained to take part in modern family planning and public health programs. In Malaysia a survey of conditions relating to an increase in induced early termination or abortion of pregnancies is in progress. The International Development Research Centre (IDRC) supports these projects as well as others in Asia. Local paramedical workers, like the "barefoot doctors" in China, are being trained. In Thailand a growth plan is attempting to reduce the annual rate of population increase from about 3.3% to 2.5%. Many granny midwives have been contacted. Several methods of incentive and training are being tried and will be evaluated. Eventually granny midwives in all of Thailand's 60,000 villages will be enlisted in the national planning program. Of Thailand's 6 million married women of reproductive age less than half use modern birth control methods. Abortion is illegal in Thailand which is a predominantly Buddhist country. The project in Malaysia is being carried out by the University of Malaysia and the Federation of Family Planning Associations. Abortion is also illegal in Islamic Malaysia, although there are illegal abortion clinics. Trends so far reported to IDRC indicate that 1) lower class women are more cooperative interviewees than others, 2) most couples use some method of birth control, 3) many wish to interrupt their pregnancies, 4) poorer families have more children than wealthier ones, 5) the Chinese and Indian people show a greater tendency to limit families than do the Malays, and 6) most couples want 3 or 4 children. PMID:12333530

  10. ROLE OF LACTATION IN FAMILY PLANNING

    OpenAIRE

    Surekha Kishore; B S Garg; P R Deshmukh; Pradeep Aggarwal

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: 1. To evaluate the role of Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM) as a spacing method. 2. To assess knowledge attitude and practices regarding breastfeeding. 3. To bring awareness regarding importance of breastfeeding on child health and as a method of family planning so that exclusive breast feeding is promoted. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: In rural village of district Wardha. Study Universe : All the lactating mothers who had2 children (one of which was less than 3...

  11. The medical profession and family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkal, M

    1968-11-01

    The medical profession has played an important role in family planning. The program includes education for family life, marriage-guidance, marriage counseling, treatment of sterility, and control of fertility. A happy family needs children, but an excess of them causes many problems and collectively becomes a national problem. In socialist countries, where abortions have been permitted more liberally, a large number of women have sought aid from doctors who have actively participated in the programs. These doctors have developed better techniques. In developed countries, churches and governments have been forced to fall in line with the prevailing trend of thought even against the Papal edict in Catholic countries and among Catholic people elsewhere. In the still underdeveloped countries, only methods that do not require repetitive and sustained motivation can achieve the desired result in fertility reduction. The Government of India was the 1st to launch a nationwide family planning program. A major handicap to the central Government has been its inability to utilize general practitioners for this purpose. However, they need to be trained in the techniques. The government should enlist their services and keep them informed of developments in this field. The whole medical profession must be included. PMID:12254323

  12. Parent attendance and homework adherence predict response to a family-school intervention for children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Angela T; Marshall, Stephen A; Mautone, Jennifer A; Soffer, Stephen L; Jones, Heather A; Costigan, Tracy E; Patterson, Anwar; Jawad, Abbas F; Power, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relative contribution of two dimensions of parent engagement, attendance and homework adherence, to parent and child treatment response and explored whether early engagement was a stronger predictor of outcomes than later engagement. The sample consisted of parents of participants (n = 92; M age = 9.4 years, SD = 1.27; 67% male, 69% White) in a 12-session evidence-based family-school intervention for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Attendance was assessed using clinician records, and homework adherence was measured by rating permanent products. Outcomes included parent and teacher ratings of family involvement in education, parenting practices, and child functioning. Accounting for the contributions of baseline scores and attendance, homework adherence was a significant predictor of parental self-efficacy, the parent-teacher relationship, parenting through positive involvement, and the child's inattention to homework and homework productivity. Accounting for the contribution of baseline scores and homework adherence, attendance was a significant predictor of one outcome, the child's academic productivity. Early homework adherence appeared to be more predictive of outcomes than later adherence, whereas attendance did not predict outcomes during either half of treatment. These results indicate that, even in the context of evidence-based practice, it is the extent to which parents actively engage with treatment, rather than the number of sessions they attend, that is most important in predicting intervention response. Because attendance is limited as an index of engagement and a predictor of outcomes, increased efforts to develop interventions to promote parent adherence to behavioral interventions for children are warranted. PMID:23688140

  13. Tay Sachs and Related Storage Diseases: Family Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)

  14. Why some family planning program fail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    40 experts representing Nepal, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Korea, and the Philippines participated in a 3-day workshop in Manila in March 1976 for the purpose of discussing and proposing ways of dealing with the financial problems confronting the population programs of the individual countries. The Inter-Governmental Coordinating Committee for Southeast Asia Family/Population Planning sponsored the workshop. The recommendations made at the meeting were: 1) standardization of financing reporting procedures by the region's country programs on family planning; 2) closer coordination between donor agencies and policy-making bodies of country programs in the disbursement of funds; 3) frequent exchanges of experiences, ideas, technicaL knowledge, and other matters pertaining to the financial management of such programs; and 4) inclusion of applicable financial management topics in the training of clinical staffs and those involved in follow-up operations. Additionally, a proposal was made that national population organizations or committees develop research and evaluation units. Workshop discussion sessions focused on financial planning and management, accounting and disbursement of funds, use and control of foreign aid, cost of effectiveness and benefit analysis, and financial reporting. PMID:12309355

  15. The Palliative Treatment Plan as a Bone of Contention between Attending Physicians and Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Lederer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute vital crisis in end-of-life situations may result in hospitalization and intensive care without recognizable benefit in many cases. Advance directives regarding indications for resuscitation, hospitalization, and symptomatic treatment help ensure that acute complications can be managed quickly and satisfactorily in the patient’s customary surroundings. A plan was designed and implemented in Austrian nursing homes to provide emergency physicians with rapidly obtainable information on the patient’s current situation, and whether resuscitation attempts and hospitalization are advised or not. This palliative treatment plan is arranged by a physician together with caregivers, close relatives, and the patient or his court-appointed health care guardian or holder of power of attorney. Four years after implementation of the plan, a user satisfaction survey was carried out. The majority of participating nurses, emergency physicians and family doctors judged application and design of the palliative treatment plan positively. However, the low response rate of family doctors indicates nonconformity. In particular, the delegation of symptomatic treatment to nurses proved to be controversial. There is still a need to provide up-to-date information and training for health professionals in order for them to understand advance directives as extended autonomy for patients who have lost their ability to make their own decisions.

  16. ROLE OF LACTATION IN FAMILY PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kishore

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1. To evaluate the role of Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM as a spacing method. 2. To assess knowledge attitude and practices regarding breastfeeding. 3. To bring awareness regarding importance of breastfeeding on child health and as a method of family planning so that exclusive breast feeding is promoted. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: In rural village of district Wardha. Study Universe : All the lactating mothers who had2 children (one of which was less than 3 years. Study Variables: Duration of Breast Feeding, LAM, Importance of Breast Feeding. Knowledge of Colostrum, Awareness of Breast Feeding, etc. Statistical analysis used: Percentages and proportions. Result: A total 42 families were included in the survey of which 26 (61.9% belongs to nuclear families with majority of the women 19(45.2% in the age group of 20-25 yrs, 20 (47.6% were illiterate and 18(42.8% families were of lower Socio Economic Status. A directly proportional relationship was found between duration of Breastfeeding & LAM and period of LAM & age of youngest child when the mother delivered again. Only 31% knew about the importance of breastfeeding. 16.6% of woman initiated Breast Feeding within 1/2 hr.

  17. Li Xiuying’s Family Planning Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    PEOPLE in Yinan County refer to Li Xiuying, a doctor highly respected for her gynecological and obstetrics surgical skills, as "Magic Scalpel Li." Li Xiuying assumed the post as vice director of the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in the People’s Hospital in Yinan County at the young age of 27. She held the post for 12 years until 1988 when she was became director of the county’s Family Planning Service Center. Li had never pursued the new position, and was unable to accept the unexpected transfer, preferring instead to continue working in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics throughout her career.

  18. Sewing machines and bank loans, farming and family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, F A; Nsarkoh, J D

    1980-03-01

    Half of a $10,000 grant was given by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) to finance the rural development project activities of Danfa, a village of about 835 people in Ghana. In this community the women are hard working but doubly disadvantaged. Along with a high illiteracy rate, the women are limited by inadequate income due to underemployment, under productivity, unfavorable farming conditions, and a lack of resources. Large families, frequent pregnancies, poor mother and child health, and high infant mortality all make matters worse for both the rural farm wife and her family. The project began with a nucleus of women that soon grew to between 24-30. Members soon formed small groups according to their occupational interests. The women grasped the self-help idea immediately. Once or twice a month there were demonstrations and the group worked together in such activities as making soap and pomade, preparing meals, and sewing. Meetings generally ended with a general group brainstorming and then members gathered in smaller groups to review their activities and plan for the future. During the 1st year of the project the men in the group rarely attended meetings. The group gave priority attention to their community's urgent need for working capital. 15 women farmers who met the criteria determined by the group received loans in the 1st round; only 8 satisfied the criteria in the 2nd round. At the beginning of the small loans scheme, the group decided to seek bigger loans from the bank if members proved credit worthy. This requirement was satisfied, and the group began negotiations for a loan with the Agricultural Development Bank. The group received the total group loan. The Ghana Home Science Association considers the project to be successful in several respects. Team spirit has developed the group, and the women play important and respected roles. Family planning problems are regularly presented for discussion, but it is difficult to correlate

  19. Self-esteem, stress and self-rated health in family planning clinic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Young Rodney; Rohrer James E

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background The independent effects of stress on the health of primary care patients might be different for different types of clinic populations. This study examines these relationships in a low-income female population of patients attending a family planning clinic. Methods This study investigated the relevance of different sources of personal stress and social support to self-rated health, adjusting for mental health, health behavior and demographic characteristics of subjects. Fiv...

  20. Li Xiuzhen Recalls the History of Family Planning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    FAMILY planning and population control has been the basic State policy of China since 1972. The 25th Article of the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China promulgated in 1978 stipulates, "The state promotes family planning so that population growth may fit the plans for economic and social development." The 49th Article stipulates, "Both husband and wife have the duty to practice family planning."

  1. Marketing family planning services in New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, J T; Proffitt, B J; Bartlett, T L

    1987-01-01

    The health care profession is witnessing a shift in focus from the interests and needs of the service provider to those of the potential consumer in an effort to attract and maintain clients. This study illustrates the role that marketing research can play in the development of program strategies, even for relatively small organizations. The study was conducted for Planned Parenthood of Louisiana, a recently organized affiliate that began offering clinical services in May 1984, to provide information on the four Ps of marketing: product, price, place, and promotion. Data from telephone interviews among a random sample of 1,000 women 15-35 years old in New Orleans before the clinic opened confirmed that the need for family planning services was not entirely satisfied by existing service providers. Moreover, it indicated that clinic hours and the cost of services were in line with client interests. The most useful findings for developing the promotional strategy were the relatively low name recognition of Planned Parenthood and a higher-than-expected level of interest that young, low income blacks expressed in using the service.

  2. Quality of Care in Family Planning Program in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-ming XIE; Hong-yan LIU

    2006-01-01

    Objective To sum up the theory of quality care according to the experience of F.P. program in China.Methods The author summarized the QOC theory and draw on its experiences and strength in family planning program in China.Results The theory facilitated the earnest program of the population and family planning program during the tenth five-year plan period, benefited the realization of the innovation of system and mechanism in population and family planning work, and the creation of a nice population environment for the healthy social and economic development in China.Conclusion The development of QOC has displayed a conspicuous theory in China's family planning program.

  3. Association of common mental disorders and quality of life with the frequency of attendance in Slovenian family medicine practices: longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Rifel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most research on frequent attendance has been cross-sectional and restricted to one year attendance rates. A few longitudinal studies suggest that frequent attendance is self-limiting. Frequent attenders are more likely to have social and psychiatric problems, medically unexplained physical symptoms, chronic somatic diseases (especially diabetes and are prescribed more psychotropic medication and analgesics. RESEARCH QUESTION: To describe the attendance rates in a longitudinal study and to test if depression, panic syndrome, other anxiety syndrome, alcohol misuse and general quality of life are associated with frequent attendance in next two consecutive years. METHODS: 1118 consecutive family practice attendees, aged 18 to 75 years from randomly selected family medicine practices were recruited at baseline and followed up at 12 and 24 months. We identified frequent attenders in the top 10 centile within one year. Using a multivariate model, we ascertained if presence of common mental disorders and quality of life assessed at baseline in 2003 predict frequent attendance in 2004 and 2005. RESULTS: 40% of frequent attenders continue to be frequent attenders in the following year and 20% of the frequent attenders were so for the 24 month period. Lower physical scores on the SF-12 questionnaire were strongly associated with future frequent attendance at 12 and 24 months. There was a trend for people with greater than elementary school education to be less likely to become frequent attenders at both 12 and 24 months. For other variables these effects were less consistent. Presence of major depression, panic syndrome, other anxiety syndrome and alcohol misuse were not predictive of frequent attendance in the following two years. CONCLUSION: Low physical quality of life is strongly predictive of higher frequent attendance and similar finding was observed for people with lower educational level but further confirmatory research is required to

  4. Theoretical Foundation of Family Health Promotion—the Orientation of Family Planning Development in Urban Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Er-sheng GAO; Jie YANG; Li-feng ZHOU; Mao-hua MIAO

    2006-01-01

    Objective To make a theoretical exploration of the function of family-based health promotion in family planning development.Methods Given the notion of reproductive health and the function of family in society,the author bring forward a new mode of family planning service, that was "healthy,happy household promotion" based on the principle of health education and health promotion.Results The mode of "healthy, happy household promotion" reflected the new F.P.service mode, and was the direction of family planning service. It might benefit both service provider and clients to make the family as the entrance point of quality care of reproductive health in communities, to develop health education and health promotion,and promote family health and family happiness.Conclusion Family health and family happiness should be the final goal of family planning.

  5. Work-Family Planning Attitudes among Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…

  6. Predicting attendance at peer-assisted study sessions for statistics: role identity and the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M; Thomas, Ian; Johnston, Kim L; Hyde, Melissa K

    2008-08-01

    Using a prospective study of 77 1st-year psychology students' voluntary attendance at peer-assisted study sessions for statistics, the authors tested the addition of role identity to the theory of planned behavior. The authors used a revised set of role-identity items to capture the personal and social aspects of role identity within a specific behavioral context. At the commencement of the semester, the authors assessed the students' attitudes, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, role identity, and intention. The authors examined the students' class attendance records 3 months later. Attitudes and perceived behavioral control predicted intention, with intention as the sole predictor of attendance. Role identity also predicted intention, reflecting the importance of the student role identity in influencing decision making related to supplementary academic activities. PMID:18807422

  7. Strategic Planning with Family Physicians: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fried, Bruce; Nelson, Wendy

    1987-01-01

    Family physicians at Sunnybrook Medical Centre were engaged in a strategic planning process to develop a practice philosophy, mission statement, short-term goals, and plan for future programming. Numerous issues were identified in relation to the need for planning, the successful involvement of family physicians in the planning process, and the traditional relationship between physicians and managers which, in the past, has inhibited productive collaboration. Strategies were developed to over...

  8. Unmet need of contraception: a critical juncture toward family planning goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Dibakar; Saha, Indranil; Paul, Bobby; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Ray, Tapobrata Guha

    2013-01-01

    India is the first country in the world to implement a family planning program, and this program has succeeded in generating universal knowledge about family planning methods. In spite of this, there exists a wide gap between knowledge and acceptance of family planning methods reflecting an unmet need for contraception. Different communication channels used to disseminate knowledge like television, radio, and newspapers aim to change the family planning methods. Being a didactic method, these have the least potential to change the attitudes of the people. This article represents the tip of the iceberg of the fate arising out of incomplete information provided through mass media not supported by a formal family planning program. One primipara woman after getting pregnant took an emergency contraceptive pill and attended a clinic with vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, and pallor. Ultimately she underwent suction evacuation and survived. This indicates that mass media should not be a substitute, but rather a supplement to the routine program of the health worker to promote contraception.

  9. Neonatal Mortality of Planned Home Birth in the United States in Relation to Professional Certification of Birth Attendants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Grünebaum

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, planned home births in the United States (US have increased, and have been associated with increased neonatal mortality and other morbidities. In a previous study we reported that neonatal mortality is increased in planned home births but we did not perform an analysis for the presence of professional certification status.The objective of this study therefore was to undertake an analysis to determine whether the professional certification status of midwives or the home birth setting are more closely associated with the increased neonatal mortality of planned midwife-attended home births in the United States.This study is a secondary analysis of our prior study. The 2006-2009 period linked birth/infant deaths data set was analyzed to examine total neonatal deaths (deaths less than 28 days of life in term singleton births (37+ weeks and newborn weight ≥ 2,500 grams without documented congenital malformations by certification status of the midwife: certified nurse midwives (CNM, nurse midwives certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board, and "other" or uncertified midwives who are not certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board.Neonatal mortality rates in hospital births attended by certified midwives were significantly lower (3.2/10,000, RR 0.33 95% CI 0.21-0.53 than home births attended by certified midwives (NNM: 10.0/10,000; RR 1 and uncertified midwives (13.7/10,000; RR 1.41 [95% CI, 0.83-2.38]. The difference in neonatal mortality between certified and uncertified midwives at home births did not reach statistical levels (10.0/10,000 births versus 13.7/10,000 births p = 0.2.This study confirms that when compared to midwife-attended hospital births, neonatal mortality rates at home births are significantly increased. While NNM was increased in planned homebirths attended by uncertified midwives when compared to certified midwives, this difference was not statistically significant. Neonatal

  10. Family influences in a cross-sectional survey of higher child attendance.

    OpenAIRE

    Little, P; Somerville, J; Williamson, I; Warner, G; Moore, M; Wiles, R; George, S.; Smith, A.; Peveler, R.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A quarter of all consultations are for children, but there is little quantitative evidence documenting what parental factors are important in the decision to consult. AIM: To assess parental factors in higher child attendance (three or more times per year)--the 32% responsible for most (69%) general practice consultations with children. DESIGN OF STUDY: A random sample of 4000 individuals (one per household), including 670 children. SETTING: Six general practices within a 30-mile ...

  11. Family planning in Latin America's barriadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    In Latin America, many rural people build dwellings in settlements on the cities' fringes without permission from the authorities. The authorities make several unsuccessful attempts to drive them away, but eventually ignore them. In the 1960s, family planning (FP) associations were concerned about how they can serve the shantytowns, which needed their services but had no social services at all, e.g., water supply and sanitation. In the early 1970s, PROFAMILIA Colombia began a new form of FP service delivery in rural areas by training someone from the community who believed in FP to distribution (CBD) programs provided more FP than all of PROFAMILIA's 60 clinics. In 1973, PROFAMILIA started its URBAN CBD program in the slums of Bogota and learned that the people wanted FP. The CBD movement spread throughout urban and rural Latin America. Brazil's BEMFAM developed the world's largest CBD program. By 1985, 10,365 distribution posts operated in Latin America and, by 1991, there were 26,423. In urban slums in the 1980s, Mexico's MEXFAM began using community doctors, who tend to be new medical graduates. Often the community and the doctors respect each other so much that many doctors remain in the shantytowns beyond their required time. The residents' acceptance of FP provided by people who understand the community shows how they want to plan their lives and better themselves. In addition, they have taken the chance to seek a better life by leaving hopeless situations in rural areas and by building dwellings for themselves, even though they had no money, land, or even basic necessities. In Peru, shantytown residents were moved to the desert and supplied with basic construction materials. They built a community, Villa El Salvador, now complete with tree-lined streets, shops, schools, and movies. Shantytown dwellers may have the solution to Latin America's problems. PMID:12179848

  12. The influence of contraception, abortion, and natural family planning on divorce rates as found in the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehring, Richard J

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of contraception, abortion, and natural family planning (NFP) on divorce rates of US women of reproductive age. The variables of importance of religion and frequency of church attendance were also included in the analysis. The study involved 5,530 reproductive age women in the (2006-2010) National Survey of Family Growth who indicate that they were ever married. Among the women who ever used NFP only 9.6 percent were currently divorced compared with the 14.4 percent who were currently divorced among the women who never used NFP (x (2) = 5.34, P divorce - up to two times. Frequency of church attendance decreased the risk of divorce. Although there is less divorce among NFP users the reason might be due to their religiosity. Lay summary: Providers of natural family planning (NFP) frequently mention that couples who practice NFP have fewer divorces compared to couples who use contraception. Evidence for this comment is weak. This study utilized a large data set of 5,530 reproductive age women to determine the influence that contraception, sterilization, abortion, and NFP has on divorce rates. Among the women participants who ever used NFP only 9.6 percent were currently divorced compared with the 14.4 percent who used methods of contraception, sterilization or abortion as a family planning method. Frequency of church attendance also reduced the likelihood of divorce.

  13. Achievements of the Iranian family planning programmes 1956-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbar, M

    2012-03-01

    Family planning programmes initiated in the Islamic Republic of Iran from 1966 met with limited success. Following the 1986 census family planning was considered a priority and was supported by the country's leaders. Appropriate strategies based on the principles of health promotion led to an increase in the contraceptive prevalence rate among married women from 49.0% in 1989 to 73.8% in 2006. This paper reviews the family planning programmes in the Islamic Republic of Iran and their achievements during the last 4 decades and discusses the principles of health promotion and theories of behaviour change which may explain these achievements. Successful strategies included: creation of a supportive environment, reorientation of family planning services, expanding of coverage of family planning services, training skilled personnel, providing free contraceptives as well as vasectomy and tubectomy services, involvement of volunteers and nongovernmental organizations and promotion of male participation.

  14. A family planning program that pays for itself.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Y

    1986-11-01

    Most family planning programs are characterized by the objective of controlling population growth to enable people to have a fair share of the fruits of national development and they are usually partly or even entirely dependent on government or on international funding agencies. The program conducted by the Japan Family Planning Association (JFPA) has always paid for itself. Since its establishment in 1954, the JFPA has adopted a self-support policy. 94% of its income comes largely from its business activities, 89% from the distribution of information, education and communication (IEC) materials and contraceptives. Subsidies from the government and other sources make up the remaining 6% of the total income. At present, there are 4 private organizations that promote family planning in Japan. Of these, the major ones are the Family Planning Federation of Japan (FPFJ) and the Japan Family Planning Association. The JFPA's policy of self-reliance stems from the belief of its president that financial independence is indispensable in promoting the association's movement to promote family planning in the country. JFPA's 4 basic strategies are: the development and promotion of the concept of family planning; training and upgrading the quality of family planning workers; development and dissemination of effective IEC materials; and community-based distribution of contraceptives. These strategies are implemented by the following activities: generating support and cooperation for programs of family planning and maternal and child health at the grassroots; education and training of family planning workers; publication and distribution of a monthly health newsletter; development, production and distribution of educational materials; supplying contraceptives; promoting and supporting MCH centers; running a health consultation center and clinics for adolescents; and managing a genetic counseling service.

  15. Barriers to Effective Intercultural Communication in Family Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalay, Rina; Caldiz, Laura

    The document addresses communication problems between Anglo-American family planning counselors and Latin-American clients. Cultural differences in attitudes toward family, work, and sexuality are examined. The extended family provides the Latin-American woman with positive self-identity and serves as a source of social relations; it also favors…

  16. PROFAM expands Mexican family planning clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Mexico's private, nonprofit social marketing company, known as PROFAM, intends to expand its family planning clinics to marginal urban areas. The clinics are part of PROFAM's push to diversify social marketing outlets for contraceptive products and other birth control methods. PROFAM expects to establish 3 new clinics, possibly including a pregnancy test laboratory, a small 1-doctor clinic, and a large clinic housing an operating room. 1 clinic will be located outside the Mexico City area, the program's traditional boundaries. The company currently runs 2 small clinics and a pregnancy testing laboratory in Ciudad Netzahualcoyti, a community of 3.5 million on Mexico City's outskirts. PROFAM recently obtaine d government approval to sell condoms in food stores, which should increase distribtuion and sales. Currently, the company sells over 1 million high quality, lubricated condoms each month, accounting for over half of the Mexican market. Distribution covers 85% of the country's drugstore. Program setbacks occurred in 1981, when the Mexican government cancelled PROFAM's sales permits for all contraceptive products except condoms. Cancelled products included an oral contraceptive and 3 vaginal spermicides. These 4 products had provided nearly 100,000 couple years of protection in 1979 and an estimated 120,000 CYP 1980. During 1979 and 1980, condoms provided about 27,000 and 60,000 CYP, respectively. PROFAM had relied heavily on the pill and spermicides because its early studies showed condoms had a negative image in Mexico, due largely to the product's association with extramarital affairs. To counter this, PROFAM launched a widespread, free product sampling program in 1979, along with a continuing educational and advertising drive. Subsequent consumer surveys revealed a marked increase in product acceptance, with PROFAM's condom becoming the most widely known brand available in Mexico. PMID:12267250

  17. The relationship between treatment attendance, adherence, and outcome in a caregiver-mediated intervention for low-resourced families of young children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Themba; Shih, Wendy; Lawton, Kathy; Lord, Catherine; King, Bryan; Kasari, Connie

    2016-08-01

    Rates of participation in intervention research have not been extensively studied within autism spectrum disorder. Such research is important given the benefit of early intervention on long-term prognosis for children with autism spectrum disorder. The goals of this study were to examine how family demographic factors predicted treatment attendance and adherence in a caregiver-mediated randomized controlled trial targeting core deficits of autism spectrum disorder, and whether treatment attendance and adherence predicted outcome. In all, 147 caregiver-child dyads from a low-resourced population were randomized to in-home caregiver-mediated module or group-based caregiver education module treatment. Treatment attendance, adherence, and outcome (time spent in joint engagement) were the primary outcome variables. The majority of families who entered treatment (N = 87) maintained good attendance. Attendance was significantly predicted by socioeconomic status, site, and treatment condition. Families in caregiver-mediated module reported lower levels of treatment adherence, which was significantly predicted by site, condition, caregiver stress, and child nonverbal intelligence quotient. Dyads in caregiver-mediated module had significantly longer interactions of joint engagement, which was significantly predicted by an interaction between treatment attendance and condition. Overall, the results from this study stress the importance of considering demographic variables in research design when considering barriers to treatment attendance and adherence. PMID:26290524

  18. Understanding Personal and Family Financial Planning Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Council of Life Insurance, Washington, DC. Education and Community Services.

    This publication for teachers focuses on one specific content area of consumer education--financial planning. The first major section begins by identifying eight competencies in financial planning education. It describes the financial planning process used to anticipate changes in moving from one stage of life to another, choosing the options, and…

  19. The Filipino male as a target audience in family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitug, W

    1986-01-01

    Since the official launching of the Philippine Population Program in 1970, family planning campaigns have substantially addressed themselves to women. The suggestion to devote equal, if not more, attention to men as family planning targets had been raised by Dr. Mercado as early as 1971. It was not until 1978, that the deliberate inclusion of males as a target audience in family planning became a matter of policy. The Population Center Foundation (PCF), from 1979 to 1982, carried out research projects to determine the most suitable approaches and strategies to reach Filipino men. The objectives of the PCF's Male Specific Program are: 1) to test alternative schemes in promoting male family planning methods through pilot-testing of family planning clinics for men, 2) to develop teaching materials geared toward specific segments of the male population, 3) to undertake skills training in male-specific motivational approaches for program professionals, and 4) to assess the extent of the husband's role in family planning. An important finding of 1 study was that most outreach workers were female stood in the way of the motivation process, thus hampering the campaign. While the consultative motivational skills training improved knowledge, attitudes, and skills of outreach workers with regard to vasectomy and the motivation process, there were certain predispositions that were hindering the fieldworkers' effectiveness in motivating target clients. Overall, in-depth, 1-to-1 motivation in dealing with men is needed to strengthen internalization of family planning values. PMID:12280740

  20. Family planning in the reorganized N.H.S. (e) Community family planning services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macqueen, I A

    1974-06-01

    Recommendations on community family planning services are made by an Aberdeen Medical Health Officer. It is noted that: 1) both GPs and clinics have their value in contraceptive treatment; 2) clinics should be conveniently located and might be set up in buildings which are used for other health purposes at other times; 3) most women work so there should be evening sessions; 4) arrangements should be made which include both an appointments system and emergency visits; 5) reception at the clinic should be courteous and without moral judgements; 6) domiciliary services should be used only as a last resort; and 7) payment of prescription charges is now required, but there might be advantages in changing this to a free service. The ideal person for motivating people to use the service is the health visitor. More health visitors are needed, salaries and promotions must be raised, and enrolled nurses should be recruited to act as assistants to health visitors. Benefits of the Aberdeen community family planning services are described. Such services increase the happiness of the community and save the community a considerable amount of money. PMID:4428028

  1. Family carers’ experiences of attending a multicomponent psychosocial intervention program for carers and persons with dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannessen A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aud Johannessen,1 Frøydis Kristine Bruvik,1,3,4 Solveig Hauge2 1Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Ageing and Health, Vestfold Hospital Trust, Tønsberg, 2Norway Faculty of Health and Social Studies and Centre of Caring Research – Southern Norway, Telemark University College, Porsgrunn, 3Kavli Centre, Haraldsplass Deaconess Hospital, Bergen, 4Haraldsplass Deaconess University College, Bergen, Norway Background: Psychosocial interventions for persons with dementia and their primary family carers are promising approaches to reducing the challenges associated with care, but, obtaining significant outcomes may be difficult. Even though carers in general are satisfied with such interventions, few studies have evaluated the interventions by means of qualitative methods. Aim: The objective of the study reported here was to investigate family carers’ experiences of a multicomponent psychosocial intervention program, and also to offer advice on how to develop the intervention program. Methods: Content analyses were taken from individual qualitative interviews conducted in 2012 with 20 carers (aged 50–82 years who participated in a psychosocial intervention program that included education, individual and family counseling, and parallel group sessions for carers and persons with dementia. Results: Two main categories emerged: 1 benefits of the intervention program, which sets out the informants’ experiences for the benefits of participation, described in the subcategories “importance of content and group organization” and “importance of social support”; and 2 missing content in the intervention program, which details the informants’ suggestions for future interventions, contained in the subcategories “need for extended content” and “need for new group organization”. Conclusion: The carers found the interventions useful. The importance of even earlier and more flexible interventions for the family carers, the extended family, and

  2. A STUDY OF KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE & PRACTICE OF FAMILY PLANNING METHODS AMONG ANTENATAL WOMEN OF ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge and attitude regarding family planning and the practice of contraceptives among Antenatal women attending OPD and to determine the prevalence of unintended pregnancy among them. METHOD: A cross sectional descriptive study was done in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Andhra Medical College Visakhapatnam which is a tertiary center for three districts Visakhapatnam , Vijayanagaram , and Srika kulam. 499 antenatal women attending the OPD were included in the study. Their knowledge , attitude and practice on contraceptives were evaluated with the help of a predesigned questionnaire. RESULTS: Overall awareness of permanent methods of family plannin g 96.3% and that of temporary methods is only 62.9% (314. 69.9% of women became aware of contraceptive method , by obtaining information from relatives and friends and 23.2% from media (television. 42.1% are of the opinion that these contraceptive methods are available in the medical shops and only 13% know that they are available in the government hospitals. 99.8% are aware of female sterilization , and 92.8% are aware of vasectomy. But awareness of temporary methods is very poor. CONCLUSION: The study hig hlights that knowledge and awareness doesn’t always lead to the use of contraceptives. There is still a need to educate and motivate the couples and improve family planning services to achieve more effective and appropriate use of contraceptives and to arr est the trend towards increase in population

  3. Shiftworking families: parents' working schedule and sleep patterns of adolescents attending school in two shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biserka Radoševic-Vidacek

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore whether parents' engagement in shift work affects the sleep habits of their adolescent children who attend school in two shifts. METHODS: The data were drawn from an extensive survey of sleep and daytime functioning of adolescents attending school one week in the morning and the other in the afternoon. The participants were 1,386 elementary and high school students (11-18 years old whose parents were both employed. The data were analyzed using MANOVA, with parents' work schedule, adolescents' gender and type of school as between-subject factors. RESULTS: Parents' working schedule significantly affected the sleep patterns of high school adolescents. When attending school in the morning, adolescents whose parents were both day workers woke up somewhat later than adolescents with one shiftworking parent. In addition, they slept longer than adolescents whose parents were both shift workers. On weekends, adolescents whose parents both worked during the day went to bed earlier than adolescents whose parents were both shiftworkers. They also had smaller bedtime delay on weekends with respect to both morning and afternoon shifts than adolescents for whom one or both parents worked shifts. A significant interaction between parents' working schedule, adolescents' gender and type of school was found for sleep extension on weekends after afternoon shift school. CONCLUSIONS: Parental involvement in shift work has negative effects on the sleep of high school adolescents. It contributes to earlier wake-up time and shorter sleep in a week when adolescents attend school in the morning, as well as to greater bedtime irregularity.OBJETIVO: Investigar se a ocupação de pais com o trabalho em turnos interfere nos hábitos de sono dos filhos adolescentes que freqüentam a escola em dois períodos distintos. MÉTODOS: Os dados foram coletados em uma extensa pesquisa sobre sono e atividades diurnas de adolescentes que freqüentavam a escola no

  4. Car safety seat usage and selection among families attending University Hospital Limerick

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Scully, P

    2016-05-01

    The safest way for children to travel within a car is by provision of a weight-appropriate safety-seat. To investigate this, we conducted a cross-sectional study of adult parents who had children under 12 years, and collected information related to: car use, safety-seat legislation, and type of safety-seat employed. Data were reviewed on 120 children from 60 respondents. Ninety-eight (81.7%) children were transported daily by car. Forty-eight (81.4%) respondents were aware that current safety-seat legislation is based on the weight of the child. One hundred and seven (89.9%) children were restrained during travel using a car safety-seat. One hundred and two (96.2%) safety seats were newly purchased, installed in 82.3% (88) cases by family members with installation instructions fully read in 58 (55.2%) cases. Ninety-nine (83.2%) children were restrained using an appropriate safety-seat for their weight. The results show that four out of five families are employing the most appropriate safety-seat for their child, so providing an effective mechanism to reduce car-related injury. However, the majority of safety-seats are installed by family members, which may have child safety consequences.

  5. Culture and the management of family planning programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, D P

    1988-01-01

    Integrating family planning programs with local cultures can increase or undermine their effectiveness. Program design and organization will be influenced by kinship and reproductive decision-making, which varies across regions, racial and communal divisions, and religions. Program implementation depends on four aspects of culture: (1) the understanding, acceptance, and continued practice of family planning by clients; (2) the climate in the organizations responsible for fieldwork, which affects the disposition to work and the tasks to be done; (3) the ability and willingness of field implementers to do their work; and (4) the communities in which clients live, including collective attitudes toward family planning and local pressures put on clients to participate. The Indonesian family planning program is a case in which these elements of culture are often positive. Other programs, such as that in Kenya, have a more negative environment for action. PMID:3284022

  6. Contraception. Family planning: by whom and for whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemerding, B

    1992-01-01

    Many people consider family planning to be the cure for population growth and its consequences (poverty, child mortality, morbidity, depletion of natural resources, and environmental degradation). International organizations support family planning programs and population-political strategies control their operations. Other key players in family planning are the pharmaceutical industry, the churches, and governments. Women tend not be involved in developing population and family planning policies, however, but instead implement the policies. Population planners are generally not interested in family planning methods which give women control over their own bodies, e.g., female-controlled barrier methods. In fact, they distrust them because the planners consider women to be unreliable. Besides, the low effectiveness of these methods means women need to rely on abortion, which is a problem in many developing countries, e.g., Latin America. Further, family planning programs must meet predetermined goals, so their service is lacking, e.g., limited supply of contraceptives and not enough time to provide information to clients. Family planning revolves around women. For example, they encourage them to talk their partners into approving the women's use of contraception, but this is almost always difficult for women in developing countries. Provision of family planning cannot be successful without society accepting and treating women as full citizens. In addition, society needs to realize that women have a sexuality separate from men. Political will is needed for these changes in attitude. The international women's movement does not agree on the degree which women can control contraceptives themselves. Women's groups are working to improve the position and independence of women and contraception is just 1 factor which can help them achieve this goal. The Women's Sexuality and Health Feminist Collective in Sao Paulo, Brazil, is an example of a coalition of women's health

  7. Making family planning accessible in resource-poor settings

    OpenAIRE

    Prata, Ndola

    2009-01-01

    It is imperative to make family planning more accessible in low resource settings. The poorest couples have the highest fertility, the lowest contraceptive use and the highest unmet need for contraception. It is also in the low resource settings where maternal and child mortality is the highest. Family planning can contribute to improvements in maternal and child health, especially in low resource settings where overall access to health services is limited. Four critical steps should be taken...

  8. Study of Families of Curves in the Euclidian Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belaib Lekhmissi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-standard analysis techniques are more considered in approaching complex mathematical domains. By using some concepts of non-standard analysis methods such as regionalization method, we deal with a family of curves in an Euclidian plan. The solutions of the algebraic equations representing these curves in a plan have an hyperbolic forms.

  9. Current Literature in Family Planning, November 1972, No. 51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are contained in this monthly acquisitions list of the Katherine Dexter McCormick Library, Planned Parenthood, New York. Organized in two parts, Part 1 contains an annotated list of the books most recently acquired by the Library, marked with its Library call number,…

  10. Health Seeking Behavior and Family Planning Services Accessibility in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niniek Lely Pratiwi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The MDG target to increase maternal health will be achieved when 50% of maternal deaths can be prevented through improvment the coverage of K1, K4, to make sure that midwife stay in the village improve the delivery by health workers in health facilities, increase coverage long-term contraceptive methods participant as well as family and community empowerment in health. Methods: This study is a further analysis of Riskesdas in 2010 to assess how big the accessibility of services in family planning in Indonesia. Results: Women of 3–4 children in rural greater and prevalence (27.1% compared to women who live in urban areas (25.0%. The main reason of not using contraception mostly because they want to have children 27.0% in urban, 28.2% rural whereas, the second reason is the fear of side effects 23.1% in urban, 16.5% rural. There is 10% of respondent did not use contraceptives, because they did not need it. Health seeking behavior of pregnant women with family planning work status has a significant relationship (prevalence ratio 1.073. The jobless mothers has better access to family planning services compared to working mother. Conclusions: Accessibility of family planning services is inadequate, because not all rural ‘Poskesdes’ equipped with infrastructure and family planning devices, a lack of knowledge of family planning in rural areas. Health seeking behavior of family planning services is mostly to the midwives, the scond is to community health centers and than polindes, ‘poskesdes’ as the ranks third.

  11. Costs of Planned Home vs. Hospital Birth in British Columbia Attended by Registered Midwives and Physicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A Janssen

    Full Text Available Home birth is available to women in Canada who meet eligibility requirements for low risk status after assessment by regulated midwives. While UK researchers have reported lower costs associated with planned home birth, there have been no published studies of the costs of home versus hospital birth in Canada.Costs for all women planning home birth with a regulated midwife in British Columbia, Canada were compared with those of all women who met eligibility requirements for home birth and were planning to deliver in hospital with a registered midwife, and with a sample of women of similar low risk status planning birth in the hospital with a physician. We calculated costs of physician service billings, midwifery fees, hospital in-patient costs, pharmaceuticals, home birth supplies, and transport. We compared costs among study groups using the Kruskall Wallis test for independent groups.In the first 28 days postpartum, we report a $2,338 average savings per birth among women planning home birth compared to hospital birth with a midwife and $2,541 compared to hospital birth planned with a physician. In longer term outcomes, similar reductions were observed, with cost savings per birth at $1,683 compared to the planned hospital birth with a midwife, and $1,100 compared to the physician group during the first eight weeks postpartum. During the first year of life, costs for infants of mothers planning home birth were reduced overall. Cost savings compared to planned hospital births with a midwife were $810 and with a physician $1,146. Costs were similarly reduced when findings were stratified by parity.Planned home birth in British Columbia with a registered midwife compared to planned hospital birth is less expensive for our health care system up to 8 weeks postpartum and to one year of age for the infant.

  12. Family planning and family vision in mothers after diagnosis of a child with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navot, Noa; Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Vander Stoep, Ann; Toth, Karen; Webb, Sara Jane

    2016-07-01

    The diagnosis of a child with autism has short- and long-term impacts on family functioning. With early diagnosis, the diagnostic process is likely to co-occur with family planning decisions, yet little is known about how parents navigate this process. This study explores family planning decision making process among mothers of young children with autism spectrum disorder in the United States, by understanding the transformation in family vision before and after the diagnosis. A total of 22 mothers of first born children, diagnosed with autism between 2 and 4 years of age, were interviewed about family vision prior to and after their child's diagnosis. Grounded Theory method was used for data analysis. Findings indicated that coherence of early family vision, maternal cognitive flexibility, and maternal responses to diagnosis were highly influential in future family planning decisions. The decision to have additional children reflected a high level of adaptability built upon a solid internalized family model and a flexible approach to life. Decision to stop childrearing reflected a relatively less coherent family model and more rigid cognitive style followed by ongoing hardship managing life after the diagnosis. This report may be useful for health-care providers in enhancing therapeutic alliance and guiding family planning counseling.

  13. Developing a business plan for a Family Logistics Company

    OpenAIRE

    Zyrina, Daria

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a business plan for a family logistics company in Finland. The work investigated the logistics business in Finland, and created the business plan according to the needs of the industry. The information was gathered from literature, newspapers and Internet. The empirical study contains the business plan. The survey was made using the qualitative method. It discusses the opinion of other logistics companies on today’s situation on the market. The st...

  14. Self-esteem, stress and self-rated health in family planning clinic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, James E; Young, Rodney

    2004-01-01

    Background The independent effects of stress on the health of primary care patients might be different for different types of clinic populations. This study examines these relationships in a low-income female population of patients attending a family planning clinic. Methods This study investigated the relevance of different sources of personal stress and social support to self-rated health, adjusting for mental health, health behavior and demographic characteristics of subjects. Five hundred women who attended family planning clinics were surveyed and 345 completed the form for a response rate of 72 percent. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that liking oneself was related to good self-rated health (Odds ratio = 7.11), but stress or support from children, parents, friends, churches or spouses were not significant. White non-Hispanic and non-white non-Hispanic respondents had lower odds of reporting good self-rated health than Hispanic respondents (odds ratios were 2.87 and 2.81, respectively). Exercising five or more days per week also was related to good self-rated health. Smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day, and obese III were negatively related to good self-rated health (odds ratios were .19 and .22, respectively with corresponding p-values equal to .0043 and .0332). Conclusions Among younger low-income women, addressing low self-esteem might improve health status. PMID:15176984

  15. Self-esteem, stress and self-rated health in family planning clinic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Rodney

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The independent effects of stress on the health of primary care patients might be different for different types of clinic populations. This study examines these relationships in a low-income female population of patients attending a family planning clinic. Methods This study investigated the relevance of different sources of personal stress and social support to self-rated health, adjusting for mental health, health behavior and demographic characteristics of subjects. Five hundred women who attended family planning clinics were surveyed and 345 completed the form for a response rate of 72 percent. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that liking oneself was related to good self-rated health (Odds ratio = 7.11, but stress or support from children, parents, friends, churches or spouses were not significant. White non-Hispanic and non-white non-Hispanic respondents had lower odds of reporting good self-rated health than Hispanic respondents (odds ratios were 2.87 and 2.81, respectively. Exercising five or more days per week also was related to good self-rated health. Smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day, and obese III were negatively related to good self-rated health (odds ratios were .19 and .22, respectively with corresponding p-values equal to .0043 and .0332. Conclusions Among younger low-income women, addressing low self-esteem might improve health status.

  16. The feminist position on family planning in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, M V

    1984-04-01

    The Spanish feminist movement had its origins in the early 1970; in 1975 the first offical feminist conference made the following demands on the public authorities; 1) to abolish all sections of the Criminal Code which restrict women's freedom to control of their own bodies through making illegal information on and the purchase of contraceptives, 2) to decriminalize abortion, 3) to create family planning centers and to legalize contraceptives and provide them through the social security system, and 4) to include sex information in study courses. The distribution and sale of contraceptives was not legalized until 1978 and induced abortion is still a criminal offense. Nevertheless, after the 1975 meetins, a Coordinating Organization was established for the family planning committees that were functioning in the different feminist organizations. The problem of where to obtain contraceptives was solved by a group of feminist women which opened the 1st family planning center in Spain in 19779 This center was managed directly by members of the group. This and similar efforts culminated in the origin of the Movement for Movement for Family Planning that demanded in 1978; 1) the provision of sex information confronting the dominant sexual ideology and which is made a ccompulsory subject from school age, for both sexes; 2) free access to contraception for everyone; 3) the legalization of abortion, 4) the development of extensive information campaign on the problems of conception and contraception; and 5) the creation of independent, self-managed, family planning centers. There is now a Coordinating Organization of Family Planning Centers that was established in 1982. The socialist government is determined to create a public network of family planning centers.

  17. Family Planning: Implications for Marital Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Frank C.; Johnson, May R.

    1980-01-01

    In the past two decades, several fertility variables have been shown to have an effect on marital stability: presence or absence of children, child spacing, birth timing, and total number of children. This paper studies the effect on marital stability of the planning of fertility. (Author)

  18. Protocol for process evaluation of a randomised controlled trial of family-led rehabilitation post stroke (ATTEND) in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hueiming; Lindley, Richard; Alim, Mohammed; Felix, Cynthia; Gandhi, Dorcas B C; Verma, Shweta J; Tugnawat, Deepak Kumar; Syrigapu, Anuradha; Ramamurthy, Ramaprabhu Krishnappa; Pandian, Jeyaraj D; Walker, Marion; Forster, Anne; Anderson, Craig S; Langhorne, Peter; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana; Shamanna, Bindiganavale Ramaswamy; Hackett, Maree L; Maulik, Pallab K; Harvey, Lisa A; Jan, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We are undertaking a randomised controlled trial (fAmily led rehabiliTaTion aftEr stroke in INDia, ATTEND) evaluating training a family carer to enable maximal rehabilitation of patients with stroke-related disability; as a potentially affordable, culturally acceptable and effective intervention for use in India. A process evaluation is needed to understand how and why this complex intervention may be effective, and to capture important barriers and facilitators to its implementation. We describe the protocol for our process evaluation to encourage the development of in-process evaluation methodology and transparency in reporting. Methods and analysis The realist and RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance) frameworks informed the design. Mixed methods include semistructured interviews with health providers, patients and their carers, analysis of quantitative process data describing fidelity and dose of intervention, observations of trial set up and implementation, and the analysis of the cost data from the patients and their families perspective and programme budgets. These qualitative and quantitative data will be analysed iteratively prior to knowing the quantitative outcomes of the trial, and then triangulated with the results from the primary outcome evaluation. Ethics and dissemination The process evaluation has received ethical approval for all sites in India. In low-income and middle-income countries, the available human capital can form an approach to reducing the evidence practice gap, compared with the high cost alternatives available in established market economies. This process evaluation will provide insights into how such a programme can be implemented in practice and brought to scale. Through local stakeholder engagement and dissemination of findings globally we hope to build on patient-centred, cost-effective and sustainable models of stroke rehabilitation. Trial registration number CTRI/2013

  19. Unconventional conceptions : family planning in lesbian-headed families created by donor insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Lisa Katherine

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to systematically describe the decision-making phase of family formation in German lesbians planning to parent via donor insemination, to assess the issues pertinent to each mother role and those involved in donor type choice using a retrospective, structured questionnaire. Data was collected from 105 self-identified lesbian women, 55 of whom were birthmothers and 50 of whom were social mothers. The process of planning a lesbian-headed family created by donor insemination ...

  20. Need for focus on men's perspective in family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, B A

    1995-03-01

    An April 1994 workshop involving 13 men associated with European Family Planning Associations emphasized the need for greater male involvement in family planning and sex education. The redefinition of traditional sex roles currently underway in Europe provides a basis for men to discuss sexuality more openly and assume a more active part in family planning activities. This will not occur under existing family planning clinic models, however. Family planning associations must train male educators to train their counterparts and consider the establishment of special facilities to reach and meet the needs of men. In countries such as Sweden, Denmark, Holland, and Ireland, where male-specific services (e.g., sex education clinics for boys, courses on male sexuality for teachers and other role models, special educational materials) have been made available, the response has been overwhelming. Other suggested programs include peer-led boys' discussion groups, educational programs at sites such as sports clubs and army barracks, and open discussions of sensitive issues such as homosexuality, masturbation, and pornography. Also in need of revision is condom information. Such training should include advice to first try to masturbate with a condom and the experience of condom purchase. Realistic information on the difficulties of condom use should be offered, and young men should be given suggested phrases to use in situations when condom use is being negotiated with a partner. PMID:12289090

  1. How well do the theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behaviour predict intentions and attendance at screening programmes? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Richard; French, David P

    2008-01-01

    Meta-analysis was used to quantify how well the Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behaviour have predicted intentions to attend screening programmes and actual attendance behaviour. Systematic literature searches identified 33 studies that were included in the review. Across the studies as a whole, attitudes had a large-sized relationship with intention, while subjective norms and perceived behavioural control (PBC) possessed medium-sized relationships with intention. Intention had a medium-sized relationship with attendance, whereas the PBC-attendance relationship was small sized. Due to heterogeneity in results between studies, moderator analyses were conducted. The moderator variables were (a) type of screening test, (b) location of recruitment, (c) screening cost and (d) invitation to screen. All moderators affected theory of planned behaviour relationships. Suggestions for future research emerging from these results include targeting attitudes to promote intention to screen, a greater use of implementation intentions in screening information and examining the credibility of different screening providers.

  2. A family planning program that pays for itself.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    In Japan, the condom is the method of choice of 82% of all contraceptive users. The Japan Family Planning Association covers about 3% of the total condom market through a well-organized social marketing scheme. Mobile guidance teams, equipped with a vehicle, supply contraceptives to health centers, independent midwives, and maternity hospitals in 17 prefectures and collect payment for condoms distributed after their previous visit. As an incentive, organizations and health institutions receive a commission for the condoms they supply. Japan's largest condom manufacturer provides supplies to the Family Planning Association at a very low price. The contraceptive social marketing program pays for its own promotion, and the Family Planning Association is able to support its other activities from the income it earns. The program was designed to complement rather than compete with commercial marketing channels such as pharmacies, which supply 60% of the 660 million condoms purchased in Japan each year. PMID:12341264

  3. [A sanitation plan for a food distributor attending children and the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna-Cock, Liliana; Correa-Gómez, Maria D C; Ayala-Aponte, Alfredo A

    2009-10-01

    The responsibility for providing healthy food involves all members of the production chain from input supplier to the distributor and consumer of food. Children and older adults represent the most vulnerable consumers for acquiring food-borne illness (FBI), meaning that the risk factors produced in food-processing targeted for this population group must be reduced. A clean-up plan was thus designed and implemented following the guideline laid down in decree 3075/1997 to reduce FBI risk factors in a population of children and older adults. A training plan was also conducted for handling staff involved in receiving, storing, packaging and distributing raw materials in a food distributor. The clean-up plan and training led to a 40 % to 70 % increase in compliance with best manufacturing practices (BPM). These results represent a solid basis for ensuring food safety and reducing the risk of acquiring FBI in the study population. This article also provides an outline for easily acquiring the necessary methodology for implementing a clean-up plan in a food industry.

  4. Improving the quality of care in Chinese family planning programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Geng, Q; Haffey, J; Douglas, E

    1994-10-01

    The Chinese State Family Planning Commission (SFPC) is the government department responsible for coordinating and implementing the national population and family planning programs. The commission includes about 300,000 family planning workers and 50 million volunteers. Community workers provide IEC and technical services to couples of reproductive age. In July 1991, SFPC began a five year project to train rural family planning workers in contraceptive technology and interpersonal communication and counseling. These workers were important because of their service to a population of 800 million or 75% of total population. The training program was part of an effort to standardize training and institutionalize it throughout the country. The project involved 20 pilot training stations in 19 provinces. The primary task was to train family planning workers at the grassroots level. 80,000 persons were expected to be trained during the five years. Activities included a training needs assessment, development of training curricula and programs, training of workers, and monitoring and evaluation. Training techniques and topics will include participatory training methods, interpersonal communication and counseling, development of audience based training methods, issues of contraceptive choice and quality of care, and counseling issues such as sexually transmitted disease and HIV infection prevention. About 40,000 family planning workers and volunteers were trained by 1992 in counties, townships, and villages. Trainees learned about "informed choice" and the importance of counseling. Feedback from training activities focused on the appreciation for the participatory training methods such as brainstorming, case study, and role play. Workers appreciated the process involved in training as well as the information received. Evaluation showed that clients improved their knowledge and had positive interactions with workers.

  5. [Family intervention according to Roy. Planning, execution and evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montigny, F

    1992-10-01

    Last month, the author presented the first two steps necessary in the development of a nursing care plan. This care plan utilized Sister Callista Roy's conceptual model and was designed to evaluate the family system. The readers became familiar with the Joly family, whose family system was evaluated (this included Diane and Jessie). Analysis of the collected data identified two nursing diagnoses and the author explained the way that nursing diagnosis is derived. The first identified nursing diagnosis revealed a threat to the beneficiary, the second diagnosis revealed a threat to the family system. This second article is devoted to the three other steps involved in the development of a nursing care plan that will assist the nurse in developing a systematic strategy in caring for this type of family. The planning step consists of the identification of objectives for care. These objectives must be specific, measurable and realistic as well as able to answer the question: "What changes are intended for this family?" Suggestions are offered for objective development. Once the objectives are finalized, the nurse chooses pertinent and realistic interventions that permit her/him, as well as Diane, to attain the identified objectives. The nurse's interventions are centred around stimuli that are increased, decreased or maintained by the goal of modifying or reinforcing observed behaviors. In the care plan example developed for the Joly family, the identified interventions are not all inclusive and serve as suggestions. During the course of the interventions the nurse must constantly readjust and adapt the interventions to fit with changing needs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Planning for the succession process among Galician family businesses. Brief comparison with Portuguese family businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Barbeito Roibal; Gerardo Domínguez Feijoó

    2006-01-01

    A research project on Galician family owned businesses, financed by the University of A Coruña from 2004 to 2005, analyzed results from 57 of these companies that earned a profit of more than 5 million euro in 2003. One of the aspects examined in this project, which is the aim of this article, shows the importance that Galician family business owners pay to the planning for the succession process. Literature on family owned businesses emphasizes the importance of planning in successful occurr...

  7. Relationship between Social Media for Social Marketing in Family Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Ardiansyah .

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to examine the influence of marketing mix carried out media performance social media portal on attitude towards a social marketing program,and its relationship with source credibility of the portal. This study was focused on "Generasi Berencana" Program (Generation with Plan Program, a program aimed at educating the youth on family planning) The Research employed Structural Equations Modeling (SEM). Based on data from 150 respondents it can be concluded that in social marke...

  8. Planning Development for a Family Planning Centre in Nursing Unit of the General Hospital of Argolida

    OpenAIRE

    Koukoufilippou J; Koinis A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The family planning centres must be upgraded to a cornerstone of primary health care, and prevent, advise and protect the citizen's health while reducing hospitalization costs for hospitals. Aim: The purpose of this literature review is the family planning centre development in general hospital of Argolida that has a similar clinic. Material and Methods: Literature review was conducted of published English and Greek Articles from bibliographic databases Medline, Goog...

  9. Dr. Haryono Suyono, National Family Planning Coordinating Board, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    The goal of the Indonesian family planning program has been to institutionalize both the concept and the norm of a small, happy and prosperous family in a manner that is acceptable to all. To this end, a larger role for the private sector in family planning (FP) has been promoted. While the government program has been very effective in the villages, it was not as effective in the urban areas where there are more diverse populations. Several meetings were held to develop a strategy for FP programs in the urban areas involving both the nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and commercial enterprises. It was agreed that several model programs would be developed through the NGOs with funds coming from both international health organizations and the National Family Planning Coordinating Board. It was hoped that the NGOs would develop into self-sufficient organizations. 1 urban activity that has just started is a specially designed social marketing project aimed at increasing the involvement and commitment of males through a condom distribution scheme. Another promising development is the shifting of the management and implementation of FP programs from the government to the community itself. A primary emphasis is to activate the private sector to expand its role in providing FP information and services. The overall strategy is to create a climate that will make it easier for people to increase their role in family planning service delivery and acceptance through mobilization of resources, funds, facilities and infrastructure so that acceptors will gradually pay for family planning services by themselves according to their needs. PMID:12314467

  10. Dr. Haryono Suyono, National Family Planning Coordinating Board, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    The goal of the Indonesian family planning program has been to institutionalize both the concept and the norm of a small, happy and prosperous family in a manner that is acceptable to all. To this end, a larger role for the private sector in family planning (FP) has been promoted. While the government program has been very effective in the villages, it was not as effective in the urban areas where there are more diverse populations. Several meetings were held to develop a strategy for FP programs in the urban areas involving both the nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and commercial enterprises. It was agreed that several model programs would be developed through the NGOs with funds coming from both international health organizations and the National Family Planning Coordinating Board. It was hoped that the NGOs would develop into self-sufficient organizations. 1 urban activity that has just started is a specially designed social marketing project aimed at increasing the involvement and commitment of males through a condom distribution scheme. Another promising development is the shifting of the management and implementation of FP programs from the government to the community itself. A primary emphasis is to activate the private sector to expand its role in providing FP information and services. The overall strategy is to create a climate that will make it easier for people to increase their role in family planning service delivery and acceptance through mobilization of resources, funds, facilities and infrastructure so that acceptors will gradually pay for family planning services by themselves according to their needs.

  11. [Family planning with different contraceptive methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrache, F; Gheorghiţă, E

    1991-01-01

    Female hormonal contraceptives, introduced commercially in 1959, contained 10 mg of norethynodrel and .15 mg of mestranol. The estrogen and progesterone doses were progressively reduced over time. In 1989, approximately 60 million couples used oral contraceptives (OCs) ranging from 1% in Japan to 40% in the Netherlands. The monophasic pill contains .01 - .04 mg of ethinyl estradiol (EE), and the biphasic pill contains increasing doses of progesterone and estroprogesterone in the course of the menstrual cycle. Triphasic combined pills contain an initially dominant estrogen dose. In oral sequential pills, estrogen is given on days 14-16 followed by a estroprogesterone for 5-7 days. Micropills with progesterone, injectables with medroxyprogesterone, and 3rd-generation OCs such as gestoden with a low progesterone dose of .04 mg/day and reduced androgenic activity are among other OCs. The OCs are administered in 21-22 day packets. Absolute contraindications include history of venous thrombosis, atherogenic lipid profile, hormone-dependent cancer, and allergy. Relative contraindications include arterial ailments, smoking, hypertension, older age, obesity, and familial history of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular accidents. Interactions with antibiotics (ampicillin and tetracycline) occur as the modified intestinal flora reduces the level of deconjugated EE. Most frequent side effects are depression, modification of libido, ocular disorders, headache, and urinary infection. Benefits include favorable modification of menstrual cycle, and reduction of endometriosis and endometrial and ovarian cancer. Systemic risks such as cardiovascular and blood coagulation effects occur mainly with high-dose OCs. Further topics addressed are the cancer risk and protective effect of OCs, postcoital OCs, traditional contraception, the IUD, RU-486, implants, vaccination with the human antigonadotropine, and the vaginal ring. PMID:1823414

  12. Federal Republic of Germany: family planning, family policy and demographic policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhlke, W

    1989-01-01

    Decades of social change in West Germany and the emergence of an ideology that stresses individualism have altered dramatically procreative behavioral patterns. At present, West Germany is characterized by a low marriage rate (6.1/1000 in 1986), declining fertility (10.3 birth/1000), rising divorce rates (20.1/1000), and increases in the proportion of single-person households (34%). The relationship between family planning, family policy, and demographic policy is unclear and changing. Family planning practice is viewed as a part of comprehensive life planning and is based on factors such as partnership or marital status, sex roles, the conflict between working in the home and having a career, consumer aspirations, and housing conditions. The Government's family policy includes the following components: child benefits, tax relief on children, tax splitting arrangements for married couples, childcare allowance, parental leave, student grants, tax deductions for domiciliary professional help and nursing assistance, and the provision of daycare. Thus, West Germany's family policy is directed more at encouraging and facilitating parenthood and family life than at a setting demographic goals. There is no evidence, however, that such measures will be successful and divergent influences of other policy areas are often more compelling. Nor is there any way to quantify the fertility-costing impact of individual family policy measures. The indistinct nature of family planning policy in West Germany mirrors political differences between the current coalition government, which maintains a traditional view of the family, and the opposition Social-Democratic and Green Parties, which question whether the equality of men and women can be achieved in the context of old family structures. PMID:12316308

  13. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300.24 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  14. A Natural Method for Family Planning: Lactational Amenorrhea Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten Senturk Erenel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Use of an family planning method during the postpartum period is important both to space births, and to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Under-utilization of family planning services during this period not only leads to adverse conditions caused by excessive fertility, but also has negative effects on both maternal and infant health. Women are in close contact with health care providers before, during, and after childbirth, when they are most likely to be impressed by the services they receive. Effective provision of health care services in these periods is therefore of great importance. Literature indicates high rates of success and compliance with family planning services provided during these periods. Many women neglect to use a modern contraceptive method in the postpartum period believing that breastfeeding alone ensures sufficient protection against pregnancy. Indeed, breastfeeding can be 98% effective as a contraceptive method; however, this is only true if certain criteria are observed. There are three basic criteria for the lactational amenorrhea method to be effective: the baby must be less than six months old, must be exclusively or almost exclusively breast-fed, and the mother must not be menstruating. In a conference held in Bellago in August 1988 by the World Health Organization and other international agencies, a consensus was developed for effective use of lactational amenorrhea method, and it was agreed to adopt breastfeeding as a potential family planning method in maternal and child health programs. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(4.000: 383-390

  15. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 2 Number 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    This paper presents the findings of a study of K. C. Chan, Research Officer of the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong, whose purpose was to determine whether IUD retention rates could be increased by home visits to acceptors. Concern with this problem has mounted in many countries where the IUD is the main contraceptive method offered and…

  16. Family Planning for Inner-City Adolescent Males: Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Janet; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes a pilot family planning program in an inner-city pediatric practice. Male adolescents were more likely to accept contraceptives if the provider first raised the topic of birth control to them. Identified a desire for anonymity/confidentiality and embarrassment or discomfort as the key reasons for not seeking contraceptives. Emphasizes…

  17. Planning for the succession process among Galician family businesses. Brief comparison with Portuguese family businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Barbeito Roibal

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A research project on Galician family owned businesses, financed by the University of A Coruña from 2004 to 2005, analyzed results from 57 of these companies that earned a profit of more than 5 million euro in 2003. One of the aspects examined in this project, which is the aim of this article, shows the importance that Galician family business owners pay to the planning for the succession process. Literature on family owned businesses emphasizes the importance of planning in successful occurrences. The obtained results increasingly show changes in the significance that the Galician family business owners give to our focus of study, almost reaching the level of importance that literature has given to the succession process in the last decade.

  18. [Encouragement of the national family planning program in Rwanda].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, P

    1987-12-01

    Pronatalist attitudes are traditional in Rwanda, a country in which more than 90% of the population lives by peasant agriculture and the Catholic church is strong. A rapid change in thinking will be inevitable if the country is to attain its goal of food self-sufficiency and to improve the health of its mothers and infants. Population densities were already high in Rwanda in the early 20th century, and they have become much higher. The total population increased from an estimated 2 million around 1940 to 4 million in 1970 and about 6 million in 1984. If the current rate of growth of 3.7% is maintained, the population will exceed 10 million before the year 2000. Already the size of the average farm is only .4 hectare. The health situation is equally alarming. Infant and child mortality rates are each about 125/1000 live births. The high death rate among mothers is partly due to too many births, too closely spaced. At age 49 a Rwandan woman will have given birth to an average of 8.5 children. Prematurity, malnutrition, and diarrhea and other diseases take their toll on the children of chronically exhausted mothers. Family planning alone will not solve the problems; better prenatal care, medical surveillance of infants and young children, improved obstetrical facilities, vaccination programs, oral rehydration programs and a range of other services are needed. The government of Rwanda created the Scientific Consultative Council for Sociodemographic Problems in 1974 and the National Office of Population (ONAPO) in 1981. ONAPO is responsible for promotion and provision of family planning services. A project to increase acceptance of family planning in the 2 prefectures of Butare and Gikongoro and to integrate family planning into maternal-child health services has received support from the German government since 1986. The 1st phase of the project, in 1986-87, involved informing the population and political-administrative authorities of Gikongoro of the benefits of

  19. Planning parenthood: Health care providers' perspectives on pregnancy intention, readiness, and family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Lindsay M

    2015-08-01

    A major health care goal in the United States is increasing the proportion of pregnancies that are planned. While many studies examine family planning from the perspective of individual women or couples, few investigate the perceptions and practices of health care providers, who are gatekeepers to medicalized fertility control. In this paper, I draw on 24 in-depth interviews with providers to investigate how they interpret and enact the objective to "plan parenthood" and analyze their perspectives in the context of broader discourses about reproduction, family planning, and motherhood. Interviews reveal two central discourses: one defines pregnancy planning as an individual choice, that is as patients setting their own pregnancy intentions; the second incorporates normative expectations about what it means to be ready to have a baby that exclude poor, single, and young women. In the latter discourse, planning is a broader process of achieving middle-class life markers like a long-term relationship, a good job, and financial stability, before having children. Especially illuminating are cases where a patient's pregnancy intention and the normative expectations of "readiness" do not align. With these, I demonstrate that providers may prioritize normative notions of readiness over a patient's own intentions. I argue that these negotiations of intention and readiness reflect broader tensions in family planning and demonstrate that at times the seemingly neutral notion of "planned parenthood" can mask a source of stratification in reproductive health care. PMID:26151389

  20. The politics of Latin American family-planning policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J L

    1978-07-01

    In population planning in Latin America the programs are as successful as the government's support of family planning. Colombia is one of the few Latin American countries which has actively exhorted its populace to birth control. If the propensity for large families reflects a belief in the economic or social utility of children, instead of machismo, birthrates will fall with expanded social security and economic welfare programs. If birthrates are the result of machismo, new gender models stressing the positive rewards and social esteem to be gained through responsible parenthood would have to be taught to both adults and children. The position profamily planning in most Latin American countries is generally supported by the ministers, technocrats, corporations, businessmen, middle-class women, doctors, mass media, protestant congregations, and working-class women. Family planning is usually opposed by members of the armed forces, Catholic hierarchy, Catholic lay organizations, oligarchy, university students, leftist intellectuals, Marxist insurgents, Indian communities, and peasants. The portion of the total national populations encompassed by the groups composing the core combination, ideological bias, and stability group ranges from 50-60% in Argentina, Uruguay, and Venezuela to 10-20% in Central America, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay. Most groups are outside the policy-making process.

  1. The nurse practitioner in family planning services: law and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, R

    1977-06-01

    Before 1971, when Idaho became the 1st state to authorize expanded scope of functions for registered nurses, nearly all states made it illegal for any nurse to perform diagnosis or prescribe treatment, creating an ambiguity as more and more nurses were equipped by education and technology to perform new tasks. Today 30 states have liberalized the scope of nursing functions, making it possible for nurses and nurse-midwives to assume, among other tasks, family planning functions. A table gives the status of legislation and regulations governing nurse practitioners and nurse-midwives in each state. The area of greatest controversy is the prescription of oral contraceptives. In some states it is allowed under doctor's supervision or in rural areas or in areas where clear need exists for a nurse to dispense such medication. Usually this dispensing is limited to a single course of treatment. Nurse-midwives are rapidly being accepted as extensions of scarce medical facilities. Generally nurse-midwives are authorized to provide prenatal and postpartum care, to handle normal deliveries, and do family planning work including fitting diaphragms and inserting and removing IUDs. An innovation is the family planning nurse practitioner. Several courses for such practitioners have been set up across the U.S. Graduates may, with medical direction, perform bimanual pelvic examinations and breast examinations, take blood pressure, prescribe contraception, fit diaphragms, insert IUDs, examine vaginal secretions microscopically, and refer patients with problems to physicians. In a California program both registered and nonregistered nurses are being trained as women's health specialists who may make routine examinations in both pregnant and nonpregnant women and give family planning advice. Non-RN family planning specialists being trained include licensed vocational nurses, baccalaureate degree holders in nonnursing fields, and qualified persons with less formal education. The 24-week

  2. China Population and Development——National Population and Family Planning Commission of China September 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    An International Forum on Population and Development was held during, September 7-9 in Wuhan, capital city of central China's Hubei Province, to mark the lOth anniversary of both the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and the Partners in Population and Development (PPD). Jointly organized by PPD, the National Population and Family Planning, Commission of China and the Population, Resources and Environment Committee and Foreign Affairs Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, the forum was attended by about 400 participants front member countries of the Partners, international organizations, NGOs and donor institutions. Following is a full text of the cottntry report submitted by China to the conference.

  3. Career Planning in Harmony with Family Values and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Archana

    2008-03-01

    Balancing career and family! Balancing what you love and who you love!! It is such an attention getting topic. And yet, if you really think about it, people have been doing it for ages. What makes it challenging in today's world is the dual income families that throw off-balance of traditional style of balancing family and profession. Balancing family and career is not as difficult. The question is more meaningful when you ask how do you find the right balance, and in fact, what is the right balance? How do you know you are there? Happiness at home and self esteem due to work is genderless issue however, it is essentially talked more in the context of women. Some of the things that could be helpful in achieving the right balance, are time management, proper prioritization, asking for help, a caring family, friends, and most importantly colleagues. In the portfolio of professional passions, it is important to identify the areas that are conducive to possibilities of changing family needs, international families, spouse's career and job relocation, etc. So, the bottom line question is whether it is possible to find a right balance between family and career? I would submit to you that with passion, courage, open- mindedness, and proper career planning, it is definitely possible. We just need to utilize the same techniques in choosing and sustaining the right balance that we use in identifying research topics and executing it. This discussion will look into further details of the challenges of balancing family and career from the perspective of also an immigrant, and possible ways of overcoming them.

  4. The economic consequences of reproductive health and family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, David; Schultz, T Paul

    2012-07-14

    We consider the evidence for the effect of access to reproductive health services on the achievement of Millennium Development Goals 1, 2, and 3, which aim to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, and promote gender equality and empower women. At the household level, controlled trials in Matlab, Bangladesh, and Navrongo, Ghana, have shown that increasing access to family planning services reduces fertility and improves birth spacing. In the Matlab study, findings from long-term follow-up showed that women's earnings, assets, and body-mass indexes, and children's schooling and body-mass indexes, substantially improved in areas with improved access to family planning services compared with outcomes in control areas. At the macroeconomic level, reductions in fertility enhance economic growth as a result of reduced youth dependency and an increased number of women participating in paid labour. PMID:22784535

  5. An Evaluation of Family Planning Services in Southwest Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Lukyanova, Valentina Vladimirovna

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study is to assess the quality of family planning services in rural areas of Virginia. Through interviews with the public and not-for profit clinics, I collected various facts and through client survey, I obtained women's perceptions and feeling about the services provided to them. The goal was to reconcile responses wherever possible, and furthermore, identify differences between facts provided by the clinics and perceptions of clients. From the client surveys, I found th...

  6. Family Planning Policy in China: Measurement and Impact on Fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Fei

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which China's family planning policy has driven its fertility transition over the past decades is debatable. The disagreement is partly sourced from the different ways of measuring the policy. Most existing measures, constructed on the policy history, generally, do not include complete secular and cross-sectional policy variations, fail to heterogeneously reflect people's exposure to the policy, and often suffer from endogeneity. This paper reviews the entire history of China's ...

  7. Family planning:what do adolescents know about this matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Alexandre Bié; Maria Albertina Rocha Diógenes; Escolástica Rejane Ferreira Moura

    2006-01-01

    Pregnancy during adolescence occurs almost always unexpectedly,and it might be related to the lack of information about contraceptive methods.The aim of this study was to identify the knowledge of adolescents about family planning and contraceptive methods,to describe the sources of information about the matter and verify the benefits of sexual education for adolescents.It was a descriptive research,with a qualitative approach,carried out from March through April 2005,with ten adolescents fro...

  8. Publicity and education are fundamental to China's family planning programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, P

    1987-04-01

    This article summarizes and discusses the documents concerning family planning promulgated by the Communist Party, National People's Congress and the Government of China since the start of China's family planning program. In 1955 a document was issued entitled the Directive Concerning Population Control pointing out that the public should be made aware of birth control. In 1965 the summary of the 2nd Conference on Urban Work discussed ways of explaining the significance of family planning, to make it a voluntary action of the people. In 1980 the necessity of 1 child per couple was pointed out and policies were formulated regarding ideological and political education. During the 80's several documents were issued which stressed the voluntariness and initiative of the people in practicing birth control, and that any type of coercion was prohibited. For 30 years the fundamental practice of strengthening publicity and education and opposing coercion has remained unchanged no matter how birth policies have been scored in population control since 1979. PMID:12341203

  9. The supermarket for women's reproductive health: the burden of genital infections in a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmerman, M.; Kidula, N.; Tyndall, M.; Rukaria-Kaumbutho, R.; Muchiri, L.; Ndinya-Achola, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the burden of disease of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and cervical dysplasia in women attending a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, and to assess the acceptability of integrating reproductive healthcare services into existing family planning facilities. METHODS: In a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, 520 women were enrolled in a study on RTI and cervical dysplasia. RESULTS: RTI pathogens were detected in over 20% of women, the majority being asymptomatic. HIV-1 testing was positive in 10.2%. The diagnosis of cervical dysplasia was made on 12% of the cytology smears (mild in 5.8%, moderate in 3.5%, severe in 1.2%), and 1.5% had invasive cervical cancer. The intervention of case detection of RTI and Papanicolaou smear taking was well received by clients and considered feasible by the staff. CONCLUSIONS: Early detection and treatment of potentially curable cervical lesions and RTI provide a unique opportunity to improve women's health. In Kenya, where the current contraceptive prevalence rate is 33%, family planning clinics are excellent sites to introduce health interventions. 


 PMID:9849556

  10. World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, J

    1995-01-01

    The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of

  11. Psychosocial risk factors for obesity among women in a family planning clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohland Barbara M

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiology of obesity in primary care populations has not been thoroughly explored. This study contributes to filling this gap by investigating the relationship between obesity and different sources of personal stress, mental health, exercise, and demographic characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional survey using a convenience sample. Five hundred women who attended family planning clinics were surveyed and 274 provided completed answers to all of the questions analyzed in this study. Exercise, self-rated mental health, stress, social support, and demographic variables were included in the survey. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. Results After adjusting for mental health, exercise, and demographic characteristics of subjects, analysis of the data indicated that that being having a large family and receiving no support from parents were related to obesity in this relatively young low-income primary care sample, but self-reported stress and most types of social support were not significant. Conclusion Obesity control programs in primary care centers directed at low-income women should target women who have large families and who are not receiving support from their parents.

  12. Planning Development for a Family Planning Centre in Nursing Unit of the General Hospital of Argolida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koukoufilippou J

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The family planning centres must be upgraded to a cornerstone of primary health care, and prevent, advise and protect the citizen's health while reducing hospitalization costs for hospitals. Aim: The purpose of this literature review is the family planning centre development in general hospital of Argolida that has a similar clinic. Material and Methods: Literature review was conducted of published English and Greek Articles from bibliographic databases Medline, Google Scholar and Scopus for the period 2001-2014, using keywords like: "Family Planning», «SWOT analysis", "functional design" "prevention", "health promotion", "economic cost". The option of creating inpatient center was made after analysis SWOT, by defining objectives, performance indicators and existing alternatives. Also the timing of implementation and functional design, provide the springboard effort for effective operation. Conclusions: The development of family planning centres in the country and abroad is designed to address very important problems in the bud, in order to improve the quality of citizens' health, then reduce the financial burden on the health system as a result of prevention, and contribute indirectly to the mental balance of citizens.

  13. Language, videos and family planning in the South Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, M; Lucas, D

    1993-12-01

    In 1984, women in Fiji, Kiribati, the Solomon Islands, and Tonga wanted culture-specific, educational resources on sexuality, family planning, contraception, reproduction, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Family Planning Australia [FPA] found video to be the most appropriate means to present information on these topics, since video continues the story-telling tradition of the Pacific. Women worked with FPA to produce videos addressing these topics. They were filmed in Fiji, which has a broad cross-section of South Pacific people. FPA took into account women's concerns and cultural and religious sensitivities. The English language videos were Better Safe, a story about STDs, condom use, and male sexual responsibility; Taboo Talk, a documentary about women's attitudes on menstruation, sex education, and family planning; AIDS and the South Pacific, about AIDS transmission and prevention; a d Down There, an animated documentary on reproduction and contraceptive methods. A project evaluation revealed that the videos would have received wider acceptance had they been in local languages. Local men and women debated each work of a translation of the list of reproductive health terms, eventually resulting in 20 culturally and linguistically appropriate video translations. A cross section of national language speakers modified and improved the draft translation of the 4 scripts. This whole process resulted in incorporation of the 88 reproductive health terms into the Booklet of South Pacific Reproductive Health Words and Phrases. The project showed that Pacific women were able to compile a booklet of culturally and linguistically acceptable terms and to successfully translate the scripts of health videos. In conclusions, people tend to be more willing to accept sexuality information and frank and explicit material than is usually believed if they are allowed to determine the context in which they receive it. PMID:12318840

  14. Cycle Monitors and Devices in Natural Family Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Freundl G; Frank-Herrmann P; Gnoth C

    2010-01-01

    For fertility awareness based methods- (FAB-) users charting and checking of menstrual cycle symptoms may be supported by different instruments and devices. These cycle monitors promise to detect the fertile and infertile days by using direct and indirect markers of fertility in a woman´s menstrual cycle. In this article we use data of our own studies, data out of the literature research in Medline and PubMed and from our own German NFP (natural family planning) database. We tried to rate ...

  15. Birth control, population control, and family planning: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchlow, D T

    1995-01-01

    This overview of the US birth control movement reflects on the emergence of family planning policy due to the efforts of Margaret Sanger, feminists, and the civil rights movement, the eugenics motive to limit "deviant" populations, and the population control movement, which aims to solve social and economic problems through fertility control. Population control moved through three stages: from the cause of "voluntary motherhood" to advance suffrage and women's political and social status, to the concept of "birth control" promoted by socialist feminists to help empower women and the working class, to, from 1920 on, a liberal movement for civil rights and population control. Physicians such as Dr. Robert Latou Dickinson legitimized the movement in the formation of the Committee on Maternal Health in 1925, but the movement remained divided until 1939, when Sanger's group merged with the American Birth Control League, the predecessor of the present Planned Parenthood Federation of America. A key legal decision in 1939 in the United States v. One Package amended the Comstock Act and allowed for the distribution of birth control devices by mail to physicians. Sanger, after a brief retirement, formed the International Planned Parenthood Federation and supported research into the pill. Eugenicists through the Committee on Maternal Health supported Christopher Tietze and others developing the pill. Final constitutional access to contraception based on the right to privacy was granted in Griswold v. Connecticut. The ruling in Eisenstadt v. Baird in 1972 extended this right to unmarried persons. The right to privacy was further extended in the Roe v. Wade decision in 1973 on legal abortion. The argument for improving the quality of the population remained from the formation of the Population Reference Bureau in 1929 through the 1960s. Under the leadership of Rockefeller, population control was defined as justified on a scientific and humanitarian basis. US government support

  16. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE REGARDING FAMILY PLANNING METHODS AND INTENDED FAMILY SIZE AMONG MEN OF URBAN SLUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Mohan Dixit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge of contraceptive methods and intended family size among the men of urban slum.Material and Method: Present study conducted in urban slum area of Jaipur. Information from 400 married men of age group 18-49 years collected on semi structured schedule during June to October 2012.House to house survey conducted to achieve defined sample size. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 12 soft ware. Chi square, t test and ANOVA were used for interpretation.Result and Conclusion: Most commonly known methods of family planning were female sterilization (95.2%, condom (94.7% and Male sterilization (93.5%.  IUCD (57% was still not popularly known method of contraception. Emergency contraceptive pills (12.2% and Injectables (25.7% were least known methods among men. Knowledge of different contraceptive differs according to educational status and caste of men.  TV and radio were main source of information. Only 16% men said that they got information from health personnel. On analysis present family size was 3.125 while desired family size was 2.63, it shows that two child norm is not ideal to all. Men who had already two children 53 % of them still want to expand their family. Approximately half of the men feel that they have larger family size and the main reasons were inappropriate knowledge (37% and ignorance (21%. Those men who want to expand their family size, son preference was the major reason. Only 3% men show the intention of one child as ideal in family, which indicate that one child norm is too far to reach.

  17. Family Planning in the 1980's: Challenges and Opportunities. Report of the International Conference on Family Planning in the 1980's (Jakarta, Indonesia, April 26-30, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    Strategic and operational issues throughout the world formed the focus of the International Conference on Family Planning. The objectives of the conference were to review the accomplishments of family planning over the past decade, assess the challenges and opportunities for the 1980's, and identify means to strengthen commitment to family…

  18. Experimental plan for the Single-Family Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, L.G.; Brown, M.A.; Wright, T.; White, D.L.

    1991-09-01

    The national evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) consists of five separate studies. The Single-Family Study is one of three studies that will estimate program energy savings and cost effectiveness in principal WAP submarkets. This report presents the experimental plan for the Single-Family Study, which will be implemented over the next three years (1991--1993). The Single-Family Study will directly estimate energy savings for a nationally representative sample of single-family and small multifamily homes weatherized in the 1989 program year. Savings will be estimated from gas and electric utility billing records using the Princeton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM). The study will also assess nonenergy impacts (e.g., health, comfort, safety, and housing affordability), estimate cost effectiveness, and analyze factors influencing these outcomes. For homes using fuels such as wood, coal, fuel oil, kerosene, and propane as the primary source of space conditioning, energy savings will be studied indirectly. The study will assemble a large nationally representative data base. A cluster sampling approach will be used, in which about 400 subgrantees are selected in a first stage and weatherized homes are selected in a second range. To ensure that the Single-Family Study is able to identify promising opportunities for future program development, two purposively selected groups of subgrantees will be included: (1) subgrantees that install cooling measures (such as more efficient air conditioning equipment or radiant barriers), and (2) exemplary subgrantees that use state-of-the-art technologies and service delivery procedures (such as advanced audit techniques, blower door tests, infrared scanners, extensive client education, etc.). These two groups of subgrantees will be analyzed to identify the most effective program elements in specific circumstances. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Observing principles of medical ethics during family planning services at Tehran urban healthcare centers in 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Motevallizadeh; Hossein Malek Afzali; Bagher Larijani

    2011-01-01

    Background: Family planning has been defined in the framework of mothers and children plan as one of Primary Healthcare (PHC) details. Besides quantity, the quality of services, particularly in terms of ethics, such as observing individuals’ privacy, is of great importance in offering family planning services. Objective: A preliminary study to gather information about the degree of medical ethics offered during family planning services at Tehran urban healthcare centers. Materials and Methods...

  20. Reproductive desires of men and women living with HIV: implications for family planning counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Cornelia; Visser, Maretha J

    2015-09-01

    The reproductive desires of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) of low socioeconomic standing attending public health facilities in South Africa were studied. HIV-positive men, pregnant and non-pregnant women were recruited from two clinics at a large public hospital in Tshwane, South Africa. Individual interviews were used to explore the reproductive desires of HIV-positive participants. HIV counsellors' perceptions of their clients' reproductive desires were explored during focus group discussions. Parenthood proved to be an important factor to all participants in continuation of the family and establishing their gender identities, despite the possible risk of HIV transmission and community stigmatization. Different cultural procreation rules for men and women and stigmatizing attitudes towards PLHIV affected their reproductive decision making. Women had the dilemma of choosing which community expectations they wanted to fulfil. Community stigmatization towards PLHIV was visible in the negative attitudes of some HIV counsellors regarding HIV and procreation. Because the reproductive desires of PLHIV are currently not given high priority in HIV prevention and family planning in the public health sector in South Africa, the prevention of HIV transmission may be jeopardized. These results necessitate the integration of HIV and sexual and reproductive health counselling on a primary health care level.

  1. "Family planning and population programs" a book review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, P M

    1967-03-01

    RESUMEN: El volumen Planeamiento Familiar y Programas de Poblacion es un libro indispensable tanto para demógrafos como para otras personas interesadas en el control de población. Tiene sus limitaciones dodo su caracter heterogéneo, su falta de autocrítica, el no tratar sobre la validez y confiabilidad de las encuestas de conocimientos, attitudes y prácticas (KAP), su injustificado tono optimista, y su fracaso al no explorar y considerar alternativas para las presunciones y premisas sobre las cuales se basan los actuates programas de planeamiento familiar. Es sin embargo un importante hito que resume las contribuciones de las ciencias sociales y biomédicas al campo de la demografía.SummaryThe volume Family Planning and Population Programs is an indispensable book to demographers as well as to others concerned with population control. It is not without limitations because of its heterogeneous character, its lack of self-criticism, its failure to deal with the reliability and validity of KAP surveys, its unwarranted optimistic aura, and its failure to explore and consider alternatives to the basic assumptions and premises on which present family planning programs are based. It is, nevertheless, a landmark in its summarization of the contribution of the social and biomedical sciences to demographic engineering. PMID:21279790

  2. "Family planning and population programs" a book review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, P M

    1967-03-01

    RESUMEN: El volumen Planeamiento Familiar y Programas de Poblacion es un libro indispensable tanto para demógrafos como para otras personas interesadas en el control de población. Tiene sus limitaciones dodo su caracter heterogéneo, su falta de autocrítica, el no tratar sobre la validez y confiabilidad de las encuestas de conocimientos, attitudes y prácticas (KAP), su injustificado tono optimista, y su fracaso al no explorar y considerar alternativas para las presunciones y premisas sobre las cuales se basan los actuates programas de planeamiento familiar. Es sin embargo un importante hito que resume las contribuciones de las ciencias sociales y biomédicas al campo de la demografía.SummaryThe volume Family Planning and Population Programs is an indispensable book to demographers as well as to others concerned with population control. It is not without limitations because of its heterogeneous character, its lack of self-criticism, its failure to deal with the reliability and validity of KAP surveys, its unwarranted optimistic aura, and its failure to explore and consider alternatives to the basic assumptions and premises on which present family planning programs are based. It is, nevertheless, a landmark in its summarization of the contribution of the social and biomedical sciences to demographic engineering.

  3. Postpartum family planning: current evidence on successful interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blazer C

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cassandra Blazer, Ndola Prata Bixby Center for Population, Health, and Sustainability, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA Abstract: We reviewed existing evidence of the efficacy of postpartum family planning interventions targeting women in the 12 months postpartum period in low- and middle-income countries. We searched for studies from January 1, 2004 to September 19, 2015, using the US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations to assess evidence quality. Our search resulted in 26 studies: 11 based in sub-Saharan Africa, six in the Middle East and North Africa, and nine in Asia. Twenty of the included studies assessed health facility-based interventions. Three were focused on community interventions, two had community and facility components, and one was a workplace program. Overall quality of the evidence was moderate, including evidence for counseling interventions. Male partner involvement, integration with other service delivery platforms, such as prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and immunization, and innovative product delivery programs may increase knowledge and use during the postpartum period. Community-based and workplace strategies need a much stronger base of evidence to prompt recommendations. Keywords: postpartum period, family planning, birth spacing, interventions, systematic review, contraception, less developed countries

  4. Priority strategies for India′s family planning programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Pachauri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategies to accelerate progress of India′s family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG s0 tates which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these s0 tates. a0 rationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women′s autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users′ needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients.

  5. Male Involvement in Family Planning: Challenges and Way Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola Adelekan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Public health officials have advocated the involvement of men as a strategy for addressing the dismal performance of family planning (FP programmes. This study was therefore designed to explore the challenges and determine way forward to male involvement in FP in Olorunda Local Government Area, Osogbo, Nigeria. This cross-sectional study involved the use of a four-stage sampling technique to select 500 married men and interviewed them using semistructured questionnaire. In addition, four focus group discussions (FGDs were also conducted. Mean age of respondents was 28.5 ± 10.3 years. Some (37.9% of the respondents’ spouse had ever used FP and out of which 19.0% were currently using FP. Only 4.8% of the respondents had ever been involved in FP. Identified barriers to male involvement included the perception that FP is woman’s activity and was not their custom to participate in FP programme. More than half of the FGD discussants were of the view that men should provide their wives with transport fare and other resources they may need for FP. The majority of the respondents had never been involved in family planning with their wives. Community sensitization programmes aimed at improving male involvement in FP should be provided by government and nongovernmental agencies.

  6. On financial management of population and family planning programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    In the 3 day workshop of the Southeast Asian Region on the Financial Management of Population/Family Planning Programs held from March 15 to 17 it was recommended that there by standardization of financial reporting procedures by country programs for population planning. Related to this recommendation was the proposal that measurement of cost benefit and cost effective analysis of country programs be undertaken by the Research and Evaluation Units of the respective population organizations in close coordination with the financial managers. Other major recommendations included: 1) closer coordination between donor agencies and policy making bodies of country programs in the disbursement of funds; 2) more exchange of experiences, ideas, technical knowledge on the financial management of country programs in the Inter G overnmental Coordinating Committee for Southeast Asian countries; and 3) inclusion of applicable financial management topics in the training of clinical staff and followup in actual operation. The priority areas identified for the Inter Governmental Coordinating Committee countries (Nepal, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, and the Philippines) are financial planning; generation of resources and budgeting and allocation of funds; accounting and disbursement of funds; financial management at the clinic level; use of and control of foreign aid; and cost effectiveness, benefit analysis and financial reporting. PMID:12334205

  7. Capturing Complexities of Relationship-Level Family Planning Trajectories in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnas, Hannah E

    2016-09-01

    In a transitioning fertility climate, preferences and decisions surrounding family planning are constantly in flux. Malawi provides an ideal case study of family planning complexities as fertility preferences are flexible, the relationship context is unstable, and childbearing begins early. I use intensive longitudinal data from Tsogolo la Thanzi-a research project in Malawi that follows young adults in romantic partnerships through the course of their relationship. I examine two questions: (1) What are the typical patterns of family planning as young adults transition through a relationship? (2) How are family planning trajectories related to individual and relationship-level characteristics? I use sequence analysis to order family planning across time and to contextualize it within each relationship. I generate and cluster the family planning trajectories and find six distinct groups of young adults who engage in family planning in similar ways. I find that family planning is complex, dynamic, and unique to each relationship. I argue that (a) family planning research should use the relationship as the unit of analysis and (b) family planning behaviors and preferences should be sequenced over time for a better understanding of key concepts, such as unmet need. PMID:27517867

  8. Advertising family planning in the press: direct response results from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, P D

    1984-01-01

    In 1977 and again in 1982, a series of couponed ads were run in three major Bangladeshi newspapers to test the relative effectiveness of different family planning themes. The ads offered a free booklet about methods of family planning (1977) or "detailed information on contraceptives" (1982) in the context of family health, the wife's happiness, the children's future, and family economics. The most effective ads, by a highly significant margin, were those stressing the importance of family economics (food and shelter) and the children's (sons') future. The least effective ads stressed the benefits of family planning for the wife. PMID:6701954

  9. The Serbian family act from 2005 in the context of family planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovaček-Stanić Gordana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, Serbia enacted a new Family Act, which is also applied in Vojvodina Regarding family planning, the Family Act has introduced a reform of the provisions on parentage in cases of medically assisted conception. Regarding motherhood, the basic rule is that the mother is considered to be the woman that gave birth to the child, regardless of whether she is the genetic mother or whether the genetic material of another woman has been used. As for fatherhood, the basic rule is that the father is considered to be the husband or cohabiting partner of the mother, if he has given his written consent to artificial insemination. This rule applies both in cases of AIH (artificial insemination with husband/cohabiting partner sperm and AID (artificial insemination with donor sperm. This paper deals with the issue of surrogate motherhood in European countries, as well. The regulation of the Family Act on parentage in cases of medically assisted conception presupposes the application of certain techniques of medical conception. These are the donation of the egg cell, embryo, AIH and AID. Furthermore, this regulation stipulates that subjects of medically assisted conception can be, besides spouses, heterosexual cohabiting partners. These issues, however, should be addressed by another law that would fully govern the area of medically assisted conception. Unfortunately, in contrast to the majority of European countries, such a law still does not exist in Serbia.

  10. Partnerships for Policy Development: A Case Study From Uganda's Costed Implementation Plan for Family Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Alyson B; Gribble, James N; Cahaelen, Linda; Sharma, Suneeta

    2016-06-20

    In global health, partnerships between practitioners and policy makers facilitate stakeholders in jointly addressing those issues that require multiple perspectives for developing, implementing, and evaluating plans, strategies, and programs. For family planning, costed implementation plans (CIPs) are developed through a strategic government-led consultative process that results in a detailed plan for program activities and an estimate of the funding required to achieve an established set of goals. Since 2009, many countries have developed CIPs. Conventionally, the CIP approach has not been defined with partnerships as a focal point; nevertheless, cooperation between key stakeholders is vital to CIP development and execution. Uganda launched a CIP in November 2014, thus providing an opportunity to examine the process through a partnership lens. This article describes Uganda's CIP development process in detail, grounded in a framework for assessing partnerships, and provides the findings from 22 key informant interviews. Findings reveal strengths in Uganda's CIP development process, such as willingness to adapt and strong senior management support. However, the evaluation also highlighted challenges, including district health officers (DHOs), who are a key group of implementers, feeling excluded from the development process. There was also a lack of planning around long-term partnership practices that could help address anticipated execution challenges. The authors recommend that future CIP development efforts use a long-term partnership strategy that fosters accountability by encompassing both the short-term goal of developing the CIP and the longer-term goal of achieving the CIP objectives. Although this study focused on Uganda's CIP for family planning, its lessons have implications for any policy or strategy development efforts that require multiple stakeholders to ensure successful execution.

  11. Partnerships for Policy Development: A Case Study From Uganda's Costed Implementation Plan for Family Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Alyson B; Gribble, James N; Cahaelen, Linda; Sharma, Suneeta

    2016-06-20

    In global health, partnerships between practitioners and policy makers facilitate stakeholders in jointly addressing those issues that require multiple perspectives for developing, implementing, and evaluating plans, strategies, and programs. For family planning, costed implementation plans (CIPs) are developed through a strategic government-led consultative process that results in a detailed plan for program activities and an estimate of the funding required to achieve an established set of goals. Since 2009, many countries have developed CIPs. Conventionally, the CIP approach has not been defined with partnerships as a focal point; nevertheless, cooperation between key stakeholders is vital to CIP development and execution. Uganda launched a CIP in November 2014, thus providing an opportunity to examine the process through a partnership lens. This article describes Uganda's CIP development process in detail, grounded in a framework for assessing partnerships, and provides the findings from 22 key informant interviews. Findings reveal strengths in Uganda's CIP development process, such as willingness to adapt and strong senior management support. However, the evaluation also highlighted challenges, including district health officers (DHOs), who are a key group of implementers, feeling excluded from the development process. There was also a lack of planning around long-term partnership practices that could help address anticipated execution challenges. The authors recommend that future CIP development efforts use a long-term partnership strategy that fosters accountability by encompassing both the short-term goal of developing the CIP and the longer-term goal of achieving the CIP objectives. Although this study focused on Uganda's CIP for family planning, its lessons have implications for any policy or strategy development efforts that require multiple stakeholders to ensure successful execution. PMID:27353621

  12. Measuring Access to Family Planning: Conceptual Frameworks and DHS Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonjoung; Fabic, Madeleine Short; Adetunji, Jacob

    2016-06-01

    Expanding access to family planning (FP) is a driving aim of global and national FP efforts. The definition and measurement of access, however, remain nebulous, largely due to complexity. This article aims to bring clarity to the measurement of FP access. First, we synthesize key access elements for measurement by reviewing three well-known frameworks. We then assess the extent to which the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS)-a widely used data source for FP programs and research-has information to measure these elements. We finally examine barriers to access by element, using the latest DHS data from four countries in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss opportunities and limitations in the measurement of access, the importance of careful interpretation of data from population-based surveys, and recommendations for collecting and using data to better measure access. PMID:27285425

  13. China's Experience of Quality Care in Family Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Er-sheng GAO; Wei YUAN; Ning LIU

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and overview the experience of quality care of family planning of China.Methods The framework of quality care of China was summarized and analyzed, that was clients, technology and management triangle program system.Results The 8 fundamental elements of quality care in China were presented:1) policy environment of QoC, 2) comprehensive services, 3) choice of method, 4) IEC to policy-makers and providers, 5) technical competence, 6) interpersonal communications, 7) institutional guideline and regulation, 8) appropriate constellation of service.Conclusion FP sectors should prepare different constellations of service to meet their individual reproductive health need for different clients and develop institutional guideline and regulation for FP service to follow up in practice. QoC should be a kind of standardized service process.

  14. Evaluation of knowledge, attitude and behavior of Turkish university students regarding family planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Fidan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Research conducted to define general knowledge of university students’ attitudes and behaviors about family planning. The sample consisted of 755 Sakarya University students. Data were collected from an open-ended questionnaire form and faceto-face interviews. The data analysis process was conducted using specific software. Most participants (59.7% were over 22 years old and female, and 1.2 % of the females were married. Women in the study had a positive outlook regarding the positive effects of family planning on sexual health and stated that family planning is important to both society and our economy. The awareness and knowledge regarding family planning was found to be strongest among older participants. The family planning concept was understood correctly by about half of the students. Finally, young people did not have sufficient knowledge about family planning, its methods or where to obtain information on the topic.

  15. High School Teachers visit CERN to attend a series of seminars aimed towards promoting science in highschool. The teachers also participated in helping to plan outreach activities for the experiments at the LHC.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jordan Juras

    2009-01-01

    High School Teachers visit CERN to attend a series of seminars aimed towards promoting science in highschool. The teachers also participated in helping to plan outreach activities for the experiments at the LHC.

  16. Women’s experience regarding the role of health centers in empowering them for family planning

    OpenAIRE

    Kohan, Shahnaz; Simbar, Masoumeh; Taleghani, Fariba

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, the concept of family planning has been detached from the population control and it is expressed as an essential element in women’s reproductive rights, empowering them and promoting their status in society. Family planning services have an important role in fertility decisions using contraception methods in women. This study was carried out to explore the experience of women from the role of health centers in empowering them for family planning. Materials and Methods: T...

  17. An ounce of prevention. Is family planning disappearing from the healthcare picture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshbein, N

    1992-04-01

    Despite family planning's enormous health and social benefits, US support for family planning is dwindling. Not only does family planning improve the health quality of life of children and their parents, it is also a cost-effective measure, saving an average of $4.40 in health and social services costs for each public dollar invested in the program. But over the past few years, political and financial neglect have brought the public family planning infrastructure near collapse. Combined federal and state spending on family planning amounts to less than 1% of public health care funds. In 1990, Medicaid represented the largest source of funds for family planning. But since Medicaid is tied to welfare eligibility, a woman must already have a child in order to qualify for Medicaid and its family planning benefits. Direct state funding for family planning services was the 2nd largest source. Several states, however, provided no funding whatsoever for family planning. The 3rd largest source was the Title X program, a federal program devoted exclusively to family planning. It provides services to some 4 million teens and low-income women nationwide. Over the past decade, Title X has received no significant increase in funding, and inflation has reduced its purchasing power by 2/3. As a result, Title X serves less women. Meanwhile, the number of unintended pregnancies continues to increase. The US already has the highest rate of unintended pregnancies in the developed world. This is partly a result of society's ambivalence towards sex, which makes it difficult to discuss -- much less promote -- family planning. Lack of support for family planning can also be traced to the vigorous efforts of the anti-birth control lobby, which has successfully defeated attempts to increase funding. PMID:12285223

  18. Motivations and Constraints to Family Planning: A Qualitative Study in Rwanda's Southern Kayonza District.

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, DB; Berman, L.; Ryan, G.; Habumugisha, L; Basinga, P.; Nutt, C; Kamali, F.; Ngizwenayo, E; Fleur, JS; Niyigena, P; Ngabo, F; Farmer, PE; Rich, ML

    2015-01-01

    Background: While Rwanda has achieved impressive gains in contraceptive coverage, unmet need for family planning is high, and barriers to accessing quality reproductive health services remain. Few studies in Rwanda have qualitatively investigated factors that contribute to family planning use, barriers to care, and quality of services from the community perspective. Methods: We undertook a qualitative study of community perceptions of reproductive health and family planning in Rwanda’s southe...

  19. Motivations and Constraints to Family Planning: A Qualitative Study in Rwanda’s Southern Kayonza District

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Didi Bertrand; Berman, Leslie; Ryan, Grace; Habumugisha, Lameck; Basinga, Paulin; Nutt, Cameron; Kamali, Francois; Ngizwenayo, Elias; Fleur, Jacklin St; Niyigena, Peter; Ngabo, Fidele; Farmer, Paul E.; Rich, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: While Rwanda has achieved impressive gains in contraceptive coverage, unmet need for family planning is high, and barriers to accessing quality reproductive health services remain. Few studies in Rwanda have qualitatively investigated factors that contribute to family planning use, barriers to care, and quality of services from the community perspective. Methods: We undertook a qualitative study of community perceptions of reproductive health and family planning in Rwanda’s southe...

  20. Myths, misinformation, and communication about family planning and contraceptive use in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankomah A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Augustine Ankomah1, Jennifer Anyanti1, Muyiwa Oladosu21Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 2MiraMonitor Consulting Ltd, Abuja, NigeriaBackground: This paper examines myths, misinformation, factual information, and communication about family planning and their effects on contraceptive use in Nigeria.Methods: A nationally representative sample of 20,171 respondents from two waves of a multiround survey (one in 2003 and the other in 2005, was analyzed at the bivariate level using Chi-square tests and at the multivariate level using logistic regression.Results: Key myths and misinformation about family planning having significant negative effects on contraceptive use included: “contraception makes women become promiscuous”, “it is expensive to practice family planning”, and “family planning causes cancer”. Factual information having significant positive effects on contraceptive use includes the messages that family planning methods are effective and not against religious teaching. The type of people with whom respondents discussed family planning had a significant effect on use of contraception. Respondents who discussed family planning with their spouse, friends, and health workers were more likely to use contraception than those who discussed it with religious leaders. Other significant predictors of contraceptive use were region of residence, gender, and socioeconomic status.Conclusion: Family planning programs should focus on eliminating myths and misinformation, while strengthening factual information. Contraception programs should factor in the role of significant others, particularly spouses and friends.Keywords: contraceptive use, family planning, logistic regression, misconceptions, myths

  1. Determinants of Unmet Need for Family Planning In a Developing Country: An Observational Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Nazir, Anshu Mittal, Bhupinder K Anand, RKD Goel, Jagjeet Singh, Arshad Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Education, income, occupation, knowledge about contraception, communication with partner regarding family planning, media accessibility, gender preference were identified as the contributing factors for Unmet Need."

  2. High ANC Coverage and Low Skilled Attendance in a Rural Tanzanian district: A Case for Implementing a Birth Plan Intervention.

    OpenAIRE

    Cousens Simon; Campbell Oona; Requejo Jennifer; Magoma Moke; Filippi Veronique

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In Tanzania, more than 90% of all pregnant women attend antenatal care at least once and approximately 62% four times or more, yet less than five in ten receive skilled delivery care at available health units. We conducted a qualitative study in Ngorongoro district, Northern Tanzania, in order to gain an understanding of the health systems and socio-cultural factors underlying this divergent pattern of high use of antenatal services and low use of skilled delivery care. Sp...

  3. Brazilian public policies for reproductive health: family planning, abortion and prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhem, Dirce; Azevedo, Anamaria Ferreira

    2007-08-01

    This study is an ethical reflection on the formulation and application of public policies regarding reproductive health in Brazil. The Integral Assistance Program for Women's Health (PAISM) can be considered advanced for a country in development. Universal access for family planning is foreseen in the Brazilian legislation, but the services do not offer contraceptive methods for the population in a regular and consistent manner. Abortion is restricted by law to two cases: risk to the woman's life and rape. This reality favors the practice of unsafe abortion, which is the third largest cause of maternal death in Brazil. Legal abortion is regulated by the State and the procedure is performed in public health centers. However, there is resistance on the part of professionals to attend these women. Prenatal care is a priority strategy for promoting the quality of life of these women and of future generations. Nonetheless, it is still difficult for these women to access the prenatal care services and to have the required number of consultations. Moreover, managers and health professionals need to be made aware of the importance of implementing the actions indicated by the public policies in the area of sexual and reproductive health, favoring respect for autonomy in a context of personal freedom. PMID:17614992

  4. Invisible and Visible Language Planning: Ideological Factors in the Family Language Policy of Chinese Immigrant Families in Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan

    2009-01-01

    This ethnographic inquiry examines how family languages policies are planned and developed in ten Chinese immigrant families in Quebec, Canada, with regard to their children's language and literacy education in three languages, Chinese, English, and French. The focus is on how multilingualism is perceived and valued, and how these three languages…

  5. Family planning impact evaluation: the evolution of techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermalin, Albert I.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a slightly revised version of a paper prepared for the seminar on methods for inpact evaluation of family planning programs held in Jaco, Costa Rica, May 14-16, 1997. The seminar was sponsored by the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID, the Carolina Population Center of the University of North Carolina, and the Central American Population Program of the University of Costa Rica. The goal of the seminar was to look at current methodological problems facing careful evaluation of the impact of programs, to examine some of the new methods that have been developed to address persistent issues, and to assess the methodological challenges posed by the expanded goals of many programs following the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development. This paper was designed to serve as the background to discussions of current methodologies and issues by tracing the development and nature of methods for assessing impact that started soon after the first programs were initiated in the 1950s. The techniques discussed include standardization and trend analysis, the analyses of acceptor data, experimental designs, multivariate areal analysis, population-based surveys, and multilevel strategies. The intent of the program sponsors and coordinators was to publish the collected papers but various contingencies intervened to make this infeasible. A description of the seminar and many of the papers are maintained on the University of Costa Rica website:http://ccp.ucr.ac.cr/noticias/plani/iusspi.htm. As a background chapter, the original version contained references to many of the other chapters planned for the volume. As many of these papers appear on the website, relevant references are given to the authors and this website throughout the paper.

  6. Emergency contraception in Nairobi, Kenya: knowledge, attitudes and practices among policymakers, family planning providers and clients, and university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muia, E; Ellertson, C; Lukhando, M; Flul, B; Clark, S; Olenja, J

    1999-10-01

    To gauge knowledge, attitudes, and practices about emergency contraception in Nairobi, Kenya, we conducted a five-part study. We searched government and professional association policy documents, and clinic guidelines and service records for references to emergency contraception. We conducted in-depth interviews with five key policymakers, and with 93 family planning providers randomly selected to represent both the public and private sectors. We also surveyed 282 family planning clients attending 10 clinics, again representing both sectors. Finally, we conducted four focus groups with university students. Although one specially packaged emergency contraceptive (Postinor levonorgestrel tablets) is registered in Kenya, the method is scarcely known or used. No extant policy or service guidelines address the method specifically, although revisions to several documents were planned. Yet policymakers felt that expanding access to emergency contraception would require few overt policy changes, as much of the guidance for oral contraception is already broad enough to cover this alternative use of those same commodities. Participants in all parts of the study generally supported expanded access to emergency contraception in Kenya. They did, however, want additional, detailed information, particularly about health effects. They also differed over exactly who should have access to emergency contraception and how it should be provided. PMID:10640169

  7. Family planning and sex education: the Chinese approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, S E

    1977-03-01

    The limitation of population growth in China to about 1.7% annually is, in large part, the result of changing sexual norms which have been brought about by community-wide sexual education. These changes include elevating the status of women, dismissing the traditional striving for male children as "old fashioned," and emphasizing responsible parenthood. About 6% of China's population is made up of minority peoples, some 54 distinctive groups including a few such as the Khalkhas and Sibos who have virtually been saved from extinction during the past 25 years. For these groups the growth rate is 6% and the central government in Peking stresses to visitors that for minorities there is no limitation of family size but that health of the mother is stressed. Conversations with Chinese health workers indicate that rural women are much more in favor of family planning than their husbands and are much more willing to be sterilized when the acceptable family size of 2 or 3 children is reached. However, men are becoming more willing to use condoms which are available without cost from village health workers. There is little sex education in the schools. Physiology is included as a minor part of general biology. Young people are cautioned not to "fall in love" at too early an age or else they will not keep their minds on their studies and will get married too early. Emphasis is on late marriage, 25 for women and 27 for men. Only a modest glance at population or sexually oriented topics are encouraged until marriage is contemplated. Then sex education is given in great variety and detail. It is the opinion of doctors and health workers that sex education is a matter for the married, not the single. Chinese society has little external sexual stimuli, nudity or seminudity is not acceptable except at the beach or the swimming pool, and the young people are generally taught to be circumspect. There is none of the advertising which permeates Western culture. It is understandable

  8. A methodology integrating Petri nets and knowledge-based systems to support process family planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Linda L.; Xu, Qianli; Helo, Petri

    2012-01-01

    Planning production processes for product families have been well recognised as an effective means of achieving successful product family development. However, most existing approaches do not lend themselves to planning production processes with focus on the optimality of the cohort of a product fam

  9. Grandmother and household viability in Botswana: family planning, child care and survival in changing tswana society.

    OpenAIRE

    Ingstad B

    1989-01-01

    Examines the roles and influence of grandmothers with respect to nutrition, breastfeeding, quality of child care and family planning usage; the maternal grandmother is much more involved with grandchildren than the paternal grandmother. Accordingly this category may be a target for programmes and activities to promote child welfare and family planning.

  10. Satisfaction with family planning services - interpersonal and organisational dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Westaway

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, client satisfaction with the quality of health care has received minimal attention; probably due to the lack of locally developed and tested measures. Therefore, we developed and tested a 20-item attitude scale to determine satisfaction with Family Planning (FP services. The objectives of this study were to: ascertain reliability of the scale and confirm, through factor analysis, that satisfaction with the FP service was based on interpersonal and organisational dimensions. The sample comprised 199 black adult interviewees (158 women and 41 men, who had previously used or were currently using contraception, from an informal settlement in Gauteng, South Africa. Three items were removed from the scale due to unacceptable communality estimates. The reliability coefficient of 0.76 for the 17-item scale was satisfactory. The principal components analysis, with orthogonal and oblique rotations, extracted two factors; accounting for 51.8% of the variance. The highest loadings on Factor I involved an interpersonal dimension (friendly, encouraging, competent, informative and communicative. Factor II tended to focus on the organisational elements of the system, such as different methods, choice of methods, service availability and length of waiting time. It was concluded that this scale was a reliable, easily administered and scored measure of satisfaction, with underlying interpersonal and organisational dimensions.

  11. Cycle Monitors and Devices in Natural Family Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freundl G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For fertility awareness based methods- (FAB- users charting and checking of menstrual cycle symptoms may be supported by different instruments and devices. These cycle monitors promise to detect the fertile and infertile days by using direct and indirect markers of fertility in a woman´s menstrual cycle. In this article we use data of our own studies, data out of the literature research in Medline and PubMed and from our own German NFP (natural family planning database. We tried to rate the efficacy of the tested monitors. We figured out that only for one hormone- and for one temperature-computer reasonable prospective studies exist. To get more comparable results we have performed in 2000 a small pilot study on 6 devices and the symptothermal method of NFP (NFP-DAG together with “Stiftung Warentest”. The efficacy of the various devices differed significantly. We therefore urgently need more clinical studies on menstrual cycle monitors for reliable information of users.

  12. Knowledge, attitude and practice of epilepsy among patients and family members attending urban health and training centre, Shahganj, Aurangabad, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixit J V

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims And Objective: To study knowledge, attitude and practice of epilepsy among patients and family members residing in urban slum.METHODOLGY: Study Design- Hospital based cross-sectional study. Study Place- UHTC, Shahganj, Aurangabad. Study Period- 1st to 29th Feb 2012(one month. Sample-KAP study was conducted by face to face interview of 100 persons including patients and family members of epilepsy using a predesigned and pretested questionnaire. Results: A large majority (95% of PWE had heard about epilepsy and (53% knew that epilepsy is an organic brain problem. Only 4% consider epilepsy as contagious. Negative attitude was observed with respect to not allowing a child with epilepsy to study in only (18%, objecting children to play with a child with epilepsy (12%, and unsuccessful marriage (19% Negative attitude was reflected in the belief that epilepsy is due previous life sins (5% About 73% people believed that allopath is a better option than ayurvedic (25%. A very small proportion, i.e. only 2% believed that holy treatment with worship is effective to treatment of epilepsy. About 40% felt that epilepsy can be cured, but almost 60% thought that a person with epilepsy has to take lifelong treatment. In response to first aid measures in response to epileptic fits, 60% preferred that they would take the person to a hospital, 23% felt that they would put a shoe or onion on nose, 15% would splash water over the face, and 2% would make the person hold a bunch of keys. Discussion. Analysis of Indian data revealed regional differences in KAP which could be attributed to local factors, such as literacy, awareness about epilepsy, and practice of different systems of medicine. Some of the differences can also be attributed to category of study population whether it included patients or non epilepsy individuals, since the former are likely to have less negative attitudes than the public. There is a need to create awareness about epilepsy on a nation

  13. An exploratory study of some of the determinants of managements succession planning in family businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Susanna M Ellis; Van der Merwe, Stephan; Venter, Elmarie

    2009-01-01

    This study highlights the importance of management succession planning in small and medium-sized family businesses. The primary objective of this study is twofold : firstly to identify the potential influence of selected variables (determinants) on the management succession planning process in small and medium-sized family businesses, and secondly to make practical recommendations for actions that families can take to improve their chances of a successful succession and thereby ensure the sus...

  14. The Individual Family Support Plan: A Tool to Assist Special Populations of Gifted Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Victoria B.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes Project Mandela, a federally funded enrichment and family support program for special populations (such as culturally diverse and economically disadvantaged) of gifted learners. Eighty-seven families participated in development of Individual Family Support Plans to enhance children's educational progress. The project found…

  15. Family planning knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru indigenous women in Bangladesh: a multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam MR

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available M Rakibul Islam1, Gunnar Thorvaldsen21Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh; 2Norwegian Historical Data Centre, University of Tromsø, NorwayBackground: This article aims to understand the family planning (FP knowledge and current use of contraception and its predictors among women of the Mru people – the most underprivileged indigenous community in Bangladesh.Methods: In this study, 374 currently married Mru women were interviewed and selected purposively from three upazilas (administrative subdistricts of the Bandarban area, where most of the Mru people live. The association between the variables was assessed in bivariate analysis using the Chi-square test and binary logistic regression models were employed to explore the predictors of FP knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru women.Results: Only about 40% of respondents had ever heard FP messages or about FP methods – two-fifths of the national figure (99.9%. The current use of contraception was much lower (25.1% among the Mru people than at the national level (55.8%. Among both modern and traditional methods, the contraceptive pill ranked first. About two-thirds (66.0% of married women used this method – more than two times than the national figure (28.5%. On the other hand, the prevalence of male methods was comparatively lower than at the national level. Logistic regression models revealed that place of residence, religion, age, school attendance, husband's school attendance, service provided in the community, distance to the service center, and exposure to mass media had significant effects on knowledge of FP and on use of contraception.Conclusion: Education for mothers and vernacular language-based doorstep FP programs with special emphasis on awareness are suggested for the community.Keywords: family planning, contraceptive use, the Mru, logistic regression, Bangladesh

  16. Family Perceptions of Participation in Educational Planning for Children Receiving Mental Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivanjee, Pauline; Kruzich, Jean M.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Robinson, Adjoa

    2007-01-01

    Family participation in educational planning for children with disabilities is believed to result in plans that are more responsive to the child's needs and that lead to better social, emotional, and educational outcomes. Participation in educational planning is also a fundamental right of parents and a cornerstone of special education…

  17. Linking population, fertility, and family planning with adaptation to climate change: perspectives from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovin, Kimberly; Hardee, Karen; Kidanu, Aklilu

    2013-09-01

    Global climate change is felt disproportionately in the world's most economically disadvantaged countries. As adaption to an evolving climate becomes increasingly salient on national and global scales, it is important to assess how people at the local-level are already coping with changes. Understanding local responses to climate change is essential for helping countries to construct strategies to bolster resilience to current and future effects. This qualitative research investigated responses to climate change in Ethiopia; specifically, how communities react to and cope with climate variation, which groups are most vulnerable, and the role of family planning in increasing resilience. Participants were highly aware of changing climate effects, impacts of rapid population growth, and the need for increased access to voluntary family planning. Identification of family planning as an important adaptation strategy supports the inclusion of rights-based voluntary family planning and reproductive health into local and national climate change adaptation plans.

  18. Can the Theory of Planned Behavior predict dietary intention and future dieting in an ethnically diverse sample of overweight and obese veterans attending medical clinics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Denise N; Smith, Jane Ellen; Rinehart, Jenny K

    2016-04-01

    Obesity has become a world-wide epidemic; in the United States (U.S.) approximately two-thirds of adults are classified as overweight or obese. Military veterans' numbers are even higher, with 77% of retired or discharged U.S. veterans falling in these weight categories. One of the most common methods of changing one's weight is through dieting, yet little is known regarding the factors that facilitate successful dieting behavior. The current investigation tested the Theory of Planned Behavior's (TPB) ability to predict dietary intention and future dieting in a sample of 84 overweight and obese patients attending medical clinics at a Veterans Affairs Hospital in the southwestern part of the U.S. Participants primarily were male (92%) and ethnic/racial minorities (58%). Perceived need and anticipated regret were added to the standard TPB model. While the TPB predicted dietary intention, it did not significantly account for improved dietary behaviors. Anticipated regret significantly enhanced the basic TPB's ability to predict intention to diet, while perceived need did not. These findings highlight the difficulty in predicting sustained change in a complex behavior such as dieting to lose weight. The need for more work with older, overweight/obese medical patients attending veterans' facilities is stressed, as is the need for such work with male patients and ethnic minorities in particular. PMID:26792774

  19. Family support plan for Middle Eastern countries following aircraft accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Alahdal, Alhosain Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen increasing acknowledgment that aircraft accidents affect not only those who are killed or injured, but also the families and friends of victims. Survivors, victims and their families require sensitive treatment in order to help them cope with what has occurred. Following high profile accidents including USAir 427 and TWA 800, the United State of America started a new program which they call it Family Assistance after Air Disaster. After that a several ...

  20. [How to expand and improve the coverage of family planning services: a Latin American viewpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trias, M

    1992-12-01

    It is probably not possible to implant a family planning program that will have a reasonable demographic impact in areas lacking awareness of the disadvantages of overly high fertility. Rural-urban migration, increasing educational levels, women's labor force participation, and declining infant mortality are all factors that have been found to correlate with demand for family planning services. It has been recognized since the Bucharest World Population Conference in 1974 that development and family planning are both required for the fertility transition to begin. Where these conditions exist, a family planning program appropriate to the needs, limitations, preferences, and expectations of the target population has an excellent chance of success. Expanded and improved coverage results from tailoring programs to the specific groups served. Most programs are directed toward women. It has been found most effective to provide services for men in separate sessions. It is also useful to distinguish between services for adolescents, who require more information and fewer services, for mature women who require more services than information, and for premenopausal women whose needs for information and services are both declining. Contraceptive preferences vary with social class, but family planning programs in developing countries should concentrate on the lower middle and lower classes which comprise 80% of the population. Rural areas and marginal urban areas require special attention. In order to provide services that will attract all potential users, the maximum possible variety of methods should be available. A family planning program offering a variety of methods throughout the country and financially accessible to the population should be successful. Family planning programs, whether public or private, require adequate financial resources and the support or at least tolerance of the government. Knowledge of contraception is now almost universal. A major challenge of

  1. Induced abortion in China and the advances of post abortion family planning service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Cheng Yi-ming; Huang Na; Guo Xin; Wang Xian-mi

    2004-01-01

    This is a review of current situation of induced abortion and post abortion family planning service in China. Induced abortion is an important issue in reproductive health. This article reviewed the distribution of induced abortion in various time, areas, and population in China, and explored the character, reason, and harm to reproductive health of induced abortion.Furthermore, this article introduces the concept of Quality of Care Program in Family Planning,and discusses how important and necessary it is to introduce Quality of Care Program in Family Planning to China.

  2. An Important Opportunity for Family Planning Education: Mothers with Children Hospitalized in Children Governmental Hospital, Diyarbakir-2004.

    OpenAIRE

    Alpay Çakmak; Melikşah Ertem

    2005-01-01

    Family planning is an important tool to avoid maternal deaths. But unfortunately women have no chance to reach family planning services particularly in developing countries. All contacts with health professionals of women should be evaluate a opportunity for family planning education. In this study we aimed to show the fact that children hospital is also an important opportunity for family planning education. We interviewed 352 women with a child hospitalized in Children Governmental Hospita...

  3. Assessing the effect of introducing a new method into family planning programs in India, Peru, and Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgren Rebecka; Sinai Irit; Jha Priya; Mukabatsinda Marie; Sacieta Luisa; León Federico R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Introducing a new method into family planning programs requires careful attention to ensure it meets an actual need and has a positive effect on program goals. The Standard Days Method® is a fertility awareness-based method of family planning that is being introduced into family planning programs in countries around the world. It is different from other methods offered by programs, and may bring new couples into family planning, and increase contraceptive prevalence. The s...

  4. Demographic study of port wine stain patients attending a laser clinic: family history, prevalence of naevus anaemicus and results of prior treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, C M; Lanigan, S W; Hughes, J; Anstey, A V

    1997-07-01

    All patients with port wine stains (PWS) attending a tunable dye laser clinic were examined by one author (SWL), forming a large group which has allowed study of the demographic data of such patients. Two hundred and eighty-three patients, 217 females (median age 24 years, range 0.5-73) and 66 males (median age 20 years, range 0.75-72), were examined. The PWS were on the face in 226, neck in 69, trunk in 36, upper limb in 35 and lower limb in 29. The commonest lesional colour was purple (63 patients), while 39 naevi were pink/red, 35 pink/ purple and 35 pink. The naevus was flat in 255 patients, cobblestoned in 28, associated with hypertrophy in 31 and with scarring in 22. Seventy-two patients (25.4%) had a positive family history of birthmarks, 20 strawberry haemangiomas and 22 PWS, the family history of PWS being higher than expected for the prevalence of this naevus in the population. One hundred and forty-six patients were also examined for naevus anaemicus which was noted in 12 (8.2%), confirming an association between these two naevi. Ninety-four patients had received previous treatment, most commonly with the argon laser (56 patients), of whom only five reported a good result, and 17 of 22 patients with treatment-related scarring had been treated with this laser. Cosmetic camouflage was used in 109 (38.5%) of patients, who usually had PWS on the face (94%), of whom only 46 (16%) had received advice of its use. PMID:9499604

  5. Predicting College Women's Career Plans: Instrumentality, Work, and Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savela, Alexandra E.; O'Brien, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how college women's instrumentality and expectations about combining work and family predicted early career development variables. Specifically, 177 undergraduate women completed measures of instrumentality (i.e., traits such as ambition, assertiveness, and risk taking), willingness to compromise career for family, anticipated…

  6. Family planning in conflict: results of cross-sectional baseline surveys in three African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Jones Louise

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the serious consequences of conflict for reproductive health, populations affected by conflict and its aftermath face tremendous barriers to accessing reproductive health services, due to insecurity, inadequate numbers of trained personnel and lack of supplies. Family planning is often particularly neglected. Methods In six conflict-affected areas in Sudan, northern Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, household surveys of married or in-union women of reproductive age were conducted to determine baseline measures of family planning knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding contraception. Health facility assessments were carried out to assess baseline measures of family planning services availability. Data were double-entered into CSPro 3.2 and exported to SAS 9.2, which was used to calculate descriptive statistics. The studies' purposes were to guide program activities and to serve as a baseline against which program accomplishments could be measured. Results Knowledge of modern contraceptive methods was low relative to other sub-Saharan African countries, and use of modern methods was under 4% in four sites; in two sites with prior family planning services it was 12% and 16.2%. From 30% to 40% of women reported they did not want a child within two years, however, and an additional 12% to 35% wanted no additional children, suggesting a clear need for family planning services. The health facilities assessment showed that at most only one-third of the facilities mandated to provide family planning had the necessary staff, equipment and supplies to do so adequately; in some areas, none of the facilities were prepared to offer such services. Conclusions Family planning services are desired by women living in crisis situations when offered in a manner appropriate to their needs, yet services are rarely adequate to meet these needs. Refugee and internally displaced women must be included in national and donors

  7. Knowledge and attitude towards family planning practices among non-acceptors in a rural area in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemavarneshwari S.

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Most common reason for non-acceptance of family planning was male child preference (26.8%. There is a need for behaviour change communication for eligible couples regarding family planning adoption among the non-acceptors highlighting the importance of small family, happy family. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3611-3613

  8. A Pilot Study of a 6-Week Parenting Program for Mothers of Pre-school Children Attending Family Health Centers in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Khowaja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Recently, parenting programs to address behavioural and emotional problems associated with child maltreatment in developing countries have received much attention. There is a paucity of literature on effective parent education interventions in the local context of Pakistan. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of offering a 6-week parenting program for mothers of pre-school children attending family health centres (FHCs in Karachi, the largest metropolitan city of Pakistan. Methods A pilot quasi-experimental trial was conducted. Two FHCs were selected, one as the intervention and the second as the control. A total of 57 mothers of pre-school children (n = 30 intervention; n = 27 control participated in this study. Mothers in the intervention group received SOS Help for parents module, while mothers in the control group received information about routine childcare. A parenting scale (PS was administered before the program was implemented and repeated 2 weeks after the program was completed in both groups. Statistical analysis was performed to compare participants’ attributes. Descriptive analysis was conducted to compare pre- and post-test mean scores along with standard deviation for parenting subscales in the intervention and control groups. Results A total of 50 mothers (n = 25 intervention; n = 25 control completed the 6-week program. Attrition was observed as 5/30 (17% in the intervention arm and 2/27 (2% in the control arm. Mothers commonly reported the burden of daily domestic and social responsibilities as the main reason for dropping out. Furthermore, the majority of participants in the control group recommended increasing the duration of weekly sessions from 1 to 1.5 hours, thereby decreasing the program period from 6 to 4 weeks. Mothers in intervention group reported substantial improvement in parenting skills as indicated by mean difference in their pre- and post-test scores for laxness and over

  9. Determinants of Quality of Family Planning Counseling among Private Health Facilities in Lagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Doug; Ugaz, Jorge

    2016-09-01

    We use a unique dataset that includes an objective measure of the quality of family planning counseling from 927 private health facilities in Lagos State, Nigeria, to determine which variables at the facility and provider levels are most closely correlated with the quality of family planning counseling. Our data on quality come from mystery client surveys in which the clients posed as women seeking family planning counseling. We find that quality is strongly associated with the cadre of provider, with doctors delivering substantially higher-quality counselling than nurses. Doctors not only outperform nurses overall, but also perform better on each category of quality and spend nearly three minutes longer on average counseling the mystery client. Location, fees charged for the service, and facility type are also strongly correlated with quality. The degree to which a facility specializes in family planning and facility size are only weakly predictive of quality.

  10. The power of information and contraceptive choice in a family planning setting in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce, E.; Sloan, N; Winikoff, B.; Langer, A; Coggins, C; Heimburger, A.; Conde-Glez, C.; Salmeron, J

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: This study measured the effect of information about family planning methods and STD risk factors and prevention, together with personal choice on the selection of intrauterine devices (IUDs) by clients with cervical infection.

  11. Community Dialogue to Shift Social Norms and Enable Family Planning: An Evaluation of the Family Planning Results Initiative in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creanga, Andreea A.; Galavotti, Christine; Wamalwa, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Use of family planning (FP) is powerfully shaped by social and gender norms, including the perceived acceptability of FP and gender roles that limit women’s autonomy and restrict communication and decision-making between men and women. This study evaluated an intervention that catalyzed ongoing community dialogues about gender and FP in Siaya county, Nyanza Province, Kenya. Specifically, we explored the changes in perceived acceptability of FP, gender norms and use of FP. Methods We used a mixed-method approach. Information on married men and women’s socio-demographic characteristics, pregnancy intentions, gender-related beliefs, FP knowledge, attitudes, and use were collected during county-representative, cross-sectional household surveys at baseline (2009; n11 = 650 women; n12 = 305 men) and endline (2012; n21 = 617 women; n22 = 317 men); exposure to the intervention was measured at endline. We assessed changes in FP use at endline vs. baseline, and fitted multivariate logistic regression models for FP use to examine its association with intervention exposure and explore other predictors of use at endline. In-depth, qualitative interviews with 10 couples at endline further explored enablers and barriers to FP use. Results At baseline, 34.0% of women and 27.9% of men used a modern FP method compared to 51.2% and 52.2%, respectively, at endline (p<0.05). Exposure to FP dialogues was associated with 1.78 (95% CI: 1.20–2.63) times higher odds of using a modern FP method at endline for women, but this association was not significant for men. Women’s use of modern FP was significantly associated with higher spousal communication, control over own cash earnings, and FP self-efficacy. Men who reported high approval of FP were significantly more likely to use modern FP if reporting high approval of FP and more equitable gender beliefs. FP dialogues addressed persistent myths and misconceptions, normalized FP discussions, and increased its

  12. The construction of community participation: village family planning groups and the Indonesian state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Jeremy

    2002-04-01

    Indonesia's family planning program has been one of the most effective in the developing world in promoting contraceptive use and contributing to fertility transition. In evaluating why the program has worked, analysts have given much credit to a network of village family planning groups that developed from the 1970s to the 1990s and that blanketed the archipelago. These groups, composed primarily of female volunteers, made contraception available to women in even the most remote parts of the country, and acted as agents of family planning motivation. They have been labeled by the Indonesian state family planning agency as an example of effective community participation on a national scale. In this paper, I investigate this claim and find it to be simplistic. I provide extensive evidence that the creation of this network was orchestrated by the Indonesian state. On the other hand, I show that these groups are not fully state entities, as they have several characteristics that mark them as socially embedded institutions. They are best labeled as unusual state-society hybrids. In my investigation I draw on one of the newest paradigms in the discipline of political science--the state-society approach--to uncover the odd nature of this family planning network. More deeply, I argue that the state-society approach ought to be adopted in family planning analysis on a comprehensive basis. The traditional organizational and social-demographic approaches that have dominated the field offer only limited understanding of the nature of family planning programs in developing countries. The state-society approach is ideally suited to identifying how family planning programs are institutions of a political nature, embedded in states and societies, and transformed by and transformative of each. PMID:11989957

  13. Family planning for teens: strategies for improving outreach and service delivery in public health settings.

    OpenAIRE

    Herz, E J; Olson, L M; Reis, J S

    1988-01-01

    The persistent underuse of family planning services by inner-city, low-income, sexually active youth underscores the importance of testing innovative programs that maximize participation. Presented in this paper is an analysis of a Chicago public health clinic's special program for adolescents that originated from the staff's observations of the scheduling, educational, and support needs of teens seeking family planning services from a traditionally managed public health facility. Between Dec...

  14. Family planning services quality as a determinant of use of IUD in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montana Livia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both availability and quality of family planning services are believed to have contributed to increasing contraceptive use and declining fertility rates in developing countries. Yet, there is limited empirical evidence to show the relationship between the quality of family planning services and the population based prevalence of contraceptive methods. This study examined the relationship between quality of family planning services and use of intrauterine devices (IUD in Egypt. Methods The analysis used data from the 2003 Egypt Interim Demographic and Health Survey (EIDHS that included 8,445 married women aged 15–49, and the 2002 Egypt Service Provision Assessment (ESPA survey that included 602 facilities offering family planning services. The EIDHS collected latitude and longitude coordinates of all sampled clusters, and the ESPA collected these coordinates for all sampled facilities. Using Geographic Information System (GIS methods, individual women were linked to a facility located within 10 km of their community. A facility-level index was constructed to reflect the quality of family planning services. Four dimensions of quality of care were examined: counseling, examination room, supply of contraceptive methods, and management. Effects of quality of family planning services on the use of IUD and other contraceptive methods were estimated using multinomial logistic regression. Results are presented as relative risk ratios (RRR with significance levels (p-values. Results IUD use among women who obtained their method from public sources was significantly positively associated with quality of family planning services (RRR = 1.36, p Conclusion This study is one among the few that used geographic information to link data from a population-based survey with an independently sampled health facility survey. The findings demonstrate that service quality is an important determinant of use of clinical contraceptive methods in Egypt

  15. Does Family Planning Reduce Infant Mortality? Evidence from Surveillance Data in Matlab, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    van Soest, A.H.O.; Saha, U.R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Analyzing the effect of family planning on child survival remains an important issue but is not straightforward because of several mechanisms linking family planning, birth intervals, total fertility, and child survival. This study uses a dynamic model jointly explaining infant mortality, whether contraceptives are used after each birth, and birth intervals. Infant mortality is determined by the preceding birth interval and other covariates (such as socio-economic status). The decis...

  16. Improving Access to Quality Care in Family Planning: WHO's Four Cornerstones of Evidence-based Guidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang-chun WU; Yan ZOU; K Church; O Meirik

    2007-01-01

    The four cornerstones of guidance in technique service of family planning are established by WHO based on high quality evidences. They have been updated according to the appearing new evidences, and the consensuses were reached by the international experts in this field. The four documents include Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, Decision-making Tool for Family Planning Clients and Providers and The Global Handbook for Family Planning Providers. The first two documents mainlyface to the policy-makers and programme managers and were treated as the important references for creating the local guideline. The other two documents were developed for the front-line health-care and family planning providers at different levels, which include plenty of essential technical information to help providers improve their ability in service delivery and counselling. China paid great attention to the introduction and application of WHO guidelines. As soon as the newer editions of these documents were available, the Chinese version would be followed. WHO guidelines have been primarily adapted with the newly issued national guideline, The Clinical Practical Skill Guidelines- Family Planning Part, which was established by China Medical Association. At the same time, the WHO guidelines have been introduced to some of the linicians and family planning providers at different levels. In the future, more special training courses will be introduced to the township level based on the needs of grassroot providers.

  17. Using Radio To Promote Family Planning in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kathleen

    Family planning programs in sub-Saharan Africa (42 countries and 450 million population), the fastest growing and poorest region in the world, need effective communications campaigns to educate people about the benefits of contraception, help change attitudes about fertility control and family size, and provide information about available…

  18. Family participation in care plan meetings : Promoting a collaborative organizational culture in nursing homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Ate

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the author evaluated a project in The Netherlands that aimed to promote family members' participation in care plan meetings at a psychogeriatric nursing home. The small-scale pilot project, which was conducted in four wards of the nursing home, was designed to involve families in heal

  19. Counseling a Client Whose Family Member Is Planning a Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Discusses planned suicide as a topic that receives much attention both in the popular press and the scholarly literature. Provides a case scenario followed with a discussion of pertinent legal and ethical issues for counselors. (Author/GCP)

  20. Variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior Are Associated with Family Meal Frequency among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Kumi; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel R.; Adachi, Miyuki

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between Theory of Planned Behavior variables and the family meal frequency. Methods: Fifth-through seventh-grade students (n = 236) completed a self-administered questionnaire in their classrooms. The relationships between Theory of Planned Behavior variables (intention, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived…

  1. "Leaving before she leaves": considering future family when making career plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganginis Del Pino, Heather V; O'Brien, Karen M; Mereish, Ethan; Miller, Matthew J

    2013-07-01

    An instrument was developed to measure the extent to which people consider future children and romantic partners when planning for a career (i.e., the PLAN scale). Two independent factor-analytic studies of a total of 726 college women were conducted to assess the factor structure and psychometric properties of this measure. Results suggested that the PLAN represents a general Considering Future Family When Making Career Plans factor and 2 domain-specific factors: Considering Children and Prioritizing and Compromising for Partner. Suggestions for future research and practice using the PLAN scale are provided.

  2. 77 FR 37665 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meeting related to the transmission planning activities of the North Carolina Transmission Planning...

  3. Measurement and evaluation of national family planning programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, W P

    1967-03-01

    ) segura de traducir las estadísticas de servicio en práticas y tal vez aún datos sobre suministro comercial en datos sabre tasas de natalidad. Esto incluye, par ejemplo, los esfuerzos para consolidar observaciones coma "cinco años-mujer de usa de IUD, a 400 condones equivalen a la prevención de un nacimiento," y esfuerzos como los de Pakistán de calcular tasas coma "años de protección de una pareja contra el embarazo."In the belief that a decrease in the rate of population growth will increase economic development, more than ten countries have inaugurated family planning programs in the past fifteen years. To provide a model for measuring the immediate, intermediate, and long-term effects of any such program, the authors use the Taiwan evaluation.The model suggests that a good system of evaluation should include monthly statistics on (1) participants, who are grouped by characteristics; (2) the distribution of supplies, reported at first by the characteristics of recipients, but after by gross volume only; (3) family planning activities of private physicians to measure the catalytic effect on the private sector; (4) new contacts and amount of advertising in mass media; (5) costs broken down by areas and by cost categories; and (6) distribution of commercial supplies. In addition, the program should conduct 300-400 interviews every 6-12 months to learn the rates of continuation and the rates and reasons for discontinuation. Finally, a KAP survey should be conducted every two years.The administration of the evaluation should be close to the director for policy decisions and for the ultimate work of evaluation-the finding of new ways to measure the main goal of change in fertility by the translation of statistics on Services provided and commercial supplies into birth rate data.

  4. Measurement and evaluation of national family planning programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, W P

    1967-03-01

    ) segura de traducir las estadísticas de servicio en práticas y tal vez aún datos sobre suministro comercial en datos sabre tasas de natalidad. Esto incluye, par ejemplo, los esfuerzos para consolidar observaciones coma "cinco años-mujer de usa de IUD, a 400 condones equivalen a la prevención de un nacimiento," y esfuerzos como los de Pakistán de calcular tasas coma "años de protección de una pareja contra el embarazo."In the belief that a decrease in the rate of population growth will increase economic development, more than ten countries have inaugurated family planning programs in the past fifteen years. To provide a model for measuring the immediate, intermediate, and long-term effects of any such program, the authors use the Taiwan evaluation.The model suggests that a good system of evaluation should include monthly statistics on (1) participants, who are grouped by characteristics; (2) the distribution of supplies, reported at first by the characteristics of recipients, but after by gross volume only; (3) family planning activities of private physicians to measure the catalytic effect on the private sector; (4) new contacts and amount of advertising in mass media; (5) costs broken down by areas and by cost categories; and (6) distribution of commercial supplies. In addition, the program should conduct 300-400 interviews every 6-12 months to learn the rates of continuation and the rates and reasons for discontinuation. Finally, a KAP survey should be conducted every two years.The administration of the evaluation should be close to the director for policy decisions and for the ultimate work of evaluation-the finding of new ways to measure the main goal of change in fertility by the translation of statistics on Services provided and commercial supplies into birth rate data. PMID:21279762

  5. Cost Efficiency of the Family Physician Plan in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Hatam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years use of family physicians has been determined as a start point of health system reform to achieve more productive health services. In this study we aimed to assess the cost-efficiency of the implementation of this plan in Fars province, southern Iran.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was done in 2007 in 18 provincial health centers as well as 224 rural health centers in Fars province. Data were collected using forms, statistics, and available evidence and analyzed by expert opinion and ratio techniques, control of process statistics, and multi indicator decision model.Results: Although in the family physician plan more attention is paid to patients and the level of health training, availability, and equity has improved and the best services are presented, it has not only decreased the costs, but also increased the referrals to pharmacies, laboratories, and radiology clinics and the costs of healthcare.Conclusion: Although the family physician plan has led to more regular service delivery, it has increased the patients’ referral to pharmacies, laboratories, and radiology centers and more referrals to family physicians. It seems that the possibility of setting regularity in health system can be gained in the following years of the family physician program mainly via planning, appropriate management and organizing correct health plans according to need assessments, and continual supervision on activities, which would happen according to current experiences in this plan.

  6. Obesity and Family Systems: A Family FIRO Approach to Assessment and Treatment Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, William J.; Harkaway, Jill Elka

    1990-01-01

    Presents model for conceptualizing interactional patterns in families presenting for treatment of obesity and method for organizing assessment and for prioritizing treatment strategies. Uses the Family FIRO Model as a framework to organize complex assessment issues, to assign priorities for treatment of issues, and to select appropriate treatment…

  7. Contraceptive uptake among women attending family planning clinic in a Nigerian tertiary health facility: a 6 year review

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    Adebimpe O. Ijarotimi

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: IUCD is the most popular method of contraception in Ife-Ijesha area of Nigeria. Contraceptive uptake is relatively low among the women. Age and parity are key influences on the uptake and choice of contraception practiced by the women, while the influence of marital status is not statistically significant. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(3.000: 721-724

  8. Family planning education: working with target groups in the South Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, M

    1992-07-01

    Family planning education programs are commonly designed by expert educators who are far removed, in location and experience, from their target audiences. Educators operate on the premise that their job is simply to develop strategies to successfully transfer their knowledge to the target audience. Judgements are often colored by a determination not to offend local sensibilities, which can lead educators to uncritically adopt the local wisdom about what is and is not culturally acceptable. A proper exploration of sexuality is absent from most family planning programs. Usual features of expert-designed family planning programs are an admonishment about people having too many children (the stick), a clear rationale for having fewer children (the carrot), the provision of detailed contraceptive information (the means), and the encouragement of individuals to exercise some personal control over their fertility (the ends). This standard model, although widely used throughout the Pacific, was not adopted by the Family Planning Federation of Australia in its regional family planning education work. The Federation, in conjunction with the independent Family Planning Association in the South Pacific, has taken a more participatory, learner-focused approach that values the contribution of the audience in all phases of the program. There is a huge need to target men, particularly young, unmarried men. The Federation found that not only did Pacific men want to view and discuss the women's documentary video Taboo Talk about family planning issues, they wanted their own men's version. The Federation soon discovered that attempts to meet the requests can easily flounder on the issue of language. The Federation has worked with the target audience to develop a lexicon of acceptable words for reproductive health education.

  9. Empowering Families during the Early Intervention Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byington, Teresa A.; Whitby, Peggy J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Parents play important roles as advocates for their child with a disability. Advocacy is the process of striving to improve the quality of life for someone else. The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires parents and professionals to work together to design a service delivery plan for children with disabilities. An…

  10. Health Seeking Behavior and Family Planning Services Accessibility in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Niniek Lely Pratiwi; Hari Basuki

    2014-01-01

    Background: The MDG target to increase maternal health will be achieved when 50% of maternal deaths can be prevented through improvment the coverage of K1, K4, to make sure that midwife stay in the village improve the delivery by health workers in health facilities, increase coverage long-term contraceptive methods participant as well as family and community empowerment in health. Methods: This study is a further analysis of Riskesdas in 2010 to assess how big the accessibility of services in...

  11. Children in planned lesbian families: a cross-cultural comparison between the United States and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M.W. Bos; N.K. Gartrell; F. van Balen; H. Peyser; T.G.M. Sandfort

    2008-01-01

    A total of 78 planned lesbian families in the United States were compared with 74 planned lesbian families in the Netherlands. Children were interviewed about disclosure to peers about living in a lesbian family and about their experiences of homophobia; mothers filled out the Child Behavior Checkli

  12. Prediction of attendance at fitness center: a comparison between theory of planned behavior, social cognitive theory, and physical activity maintenance theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko eJekauc

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the processes of physical activity (PA maintenance specific predictors are effective, which differ from other stages of PA development. Recently, Physical Activity Maintenance Theory (PAMT was specifically developed for prediction of PA maintenance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictability of the future behavior by the PAMT and compare it with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT. Participation rate in a fitness center was observed for 101 college students (53 female aged between 19 and 32 years (M = 23.6; SD = 2.9 over 20 weeks using a magnetic card. In order to predict the pattern of participation TPB, SCT and PAMT were used. A latent class zero-inflated Poisson growth curve analysis identified two participation patterns: regular attenders and intermittent exercisers. SCT showed the highest predictive power followed by PAMT and TPB. Impeding aspects as life stress and barriers were the strongest predictors suggesting that overcoming barriers might be an important aspect for exercise maintenance. Self-efficacy, perceived behavioral control, and social support could also significantly differentiate between the participation patterns.

  13. Prediction of attendance at fitness center: a comparison between the theory of planned behavior, the social cognitive theory, and the physical activity maintenance theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekauc, Darko; Völkle, Manuel; Wagner, Matthias O; Mess, Filip; Reiner, Miriam; Renner, Britta

    2015-01-01

    In the processes of physical activity (PA) maintenance specific predictors are effective, which differ from other stages of PA development. Recently, Physical Activity Maintenance Theory (PAMT) was specifically developed for prediction of PA maintenance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictability of the future behavior by the PAMT and compare it with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Participation rate in a fitness center was observed for 101 college students (53 female) aged between 19 and 32 years (M = 23.6; SD = 2.9) over 20 weeks using a magnetic card. In order to predict the pattern of participation TPB, SCT and PAMT were used. A latent class zero-inflated Poisson growth curve analysis identified two participation patterns: regular attenders and intermittent exercisers. SCT showed the highest predictive power followed by PAMT and TPB. Impeding aspects as life stress and barriers were the strongest predictors suggesting that overcoming barriers might be an important aspect for working out on a regular basis. Self-efficacy, perceived behavioral control, and social support could also significantly differentiate between the participation patterns.

  14. Translating the Social-Ecological Perspective Into Multilevel Interventions for Family Planning: How Far Are We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schölmerich, Vera L N; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-06-01

    Scholars and practitioners frequently make recommendations to develop family planning interventions that are "multilevel." Such interventions take explicit account of the role of environments by incorporating multilevel or social-ecological frameworks into their design and implementation. However, research on how interventions have translated these concepts into practice in the field of family planning-and generally in public health-remains scarce. This article seeks to review the current definitions of multilevel interventions and their operationalization in the field of family planning. First, we highlight the divergent definitions of multilevel interventions and show the persistent ambiguity around this term. We argue that interventions involving activities at several levels but lacking targets (i.e., objectives) to create change on more than one level have not incorporated a social-ecological framework and should therefore not be considered as "multilevel." In a second step, we assess the extent to which family planning interventions have successfully incorporated a social-ecological framework. To this end, the 63 studies featured in Mwaikambo et al.'s systematic review on family planning interventions were reexamined. This assessment indicates that the multilevel or social-ecological perspective has seldom been translated into interventions. Specifically, the majority of interventions involved some form of activity at the community and/or organizational level, yet targeted and measured intrapersonal change as opposed to explicitly targeting/measuring environmental modification. PMID:27105643

  15. Family planning management of the floating population in Xi'an city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    This article describes the population of migrants living in Xincheng District of Xi'an City, China. Xincheng district is a commercial center that includes the largest wholesale market in northwest China, Kangfulu Market in Sanfuwan village. The resident population of the district amounts to about 450,000 people. 72,000 additional population are the floating population of migrants, of whom about 50% are women of childbearing age. The district established stringent family planning policies in order to limit unplanned childbearing. Family planning policies were the collaborative work among staff members from departments of industry and commerce, labor, education, finance, public health, civil affairs, family planning, and other related agencies. Management of family planning is based on subdistrict committees, resident committees, and local permanent population. These individuals and groups provide registration for temporary residence, verify birth certificates, establish contraceptive status, and encourage landlords to disseminate birth control information among their tenants. The population around Kangfulu Market includes about 800 permanent residents and about 3000- 6000 migrants. The village authorities provide family planning and medical services free of charge to migrants. Villagers register migrant children in schools and offer business help to the newcomers. These efforts have contributed to fewer births among migrants. PMID:12320649

  16. Men's perceptions of and participation in family planning in Aqaba and Ma'an governorates, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan-Mansour, A M; Malkawi, A O; Sato, T; Hamaideh, S H; Hanouneh, S I

    2016-02-01

    Men's participation in family planning has become a cornerstone in women's reproductive health. The aim of this study was to examine knowledge, attitudes and practice towards family planning of Jordanian men in southern Jordan. In a cross-sectional descriptive study in 2012, structured interviews were made with 104 married men in Aqaba and Ma'an governorates. Although 93.5% of the men had heard about family planning-most commonly the intrauterine device (IUD) and oral contraceptives-only 45.1% reported that they and their wife currently used it. Most men agreed about a minimum 2 years' child spacing (93.3%) and starting contraception after childbirth (71.2%) and that husband and wife should share decisions about family planning (90.2%) and the number of children (89.5%). Level of education significantly affected current use of contraception, while number of children significantly affected previous use of contraception. Although married men had positive attitudes and good knowledge about family planning, this did not translate into practice of contraceptive use. PMID:27180740

  17. Watch out for the blue circle: a breakthrough in family planning promotional strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarsono

    1989-07-01

    Realizing the potential of commercial marketing in changing the attitude and behavior of the target audience in the early years of the 4th 5-year development plan, the National Family Planning Program tried to develop new ventures in communicating the concept of the small family norm to the people. The condom was chosen as the 1st product to be sold through the social marketing project because male awareness about family planning was still low. Based on audience research, the pricing, packaging, and branding of the product was developed. The most accepted brand name was Dua Lima because it has a neutral meaning, is easily remembered, and can be described in sign language. The last reason is very important because most consumers have difficulty communicating about condoms in the sales outlet. Social marketing has proved effective because of strong public relations activities and the involvement of formal and informal leaders. This experiment has convinced family planning management that social marketing is workable for promoting the small family norm. In 1987, under the new program of self-sufficiency in family planning, the private sector is invited to participate by providing family planning services for target audiences, using the principles of self-sufficiency and self-support. There are 2 principal activities; 1) the IEC campaign, and 2) product (contraceptive) selling. IEC activities include a media campaign public relations work. Product selling is done through commercial channels such as pharmaceutical firms, drug stores, private doctors, and midwives. It was decided that the campaign would be aided by a name and logo. The blue circle was chosen because it is unique, communicative, and simple. The social marketing of contraceptives in Indonesia can be considered a breakthrough in communication strategy for a national development program.

  18. Watch out for the blue circle: a breakthrough in family planning promotional strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarsono

    1989-07-01

    Realizing the potential of commercial marketing in changing the attitude and behavior of the target audience in the early years of the 4th 5-year development plan, the National Family Planning Program tried to develop new ventures in communicating the concept of the small family norm to the people. The condom was chosen as the 1st product to be sold through the social marketing project because male awareness about family planning was still low. Based on audience research, the pricing, packaging, and branding of the product was developed. The most accepted brand name was Dua Lima because it has a neutral meaning, is easily remembered, and can be described in sign language. The last reason is very important because most consumers have difficulty communicating about condoms in the sales outlet. Social marketing has proved effective because of strong public relations activities and the involvement of formal and informal leaders. This experiment has convinced family planning management that social marketing is workable for promoting the small family norm. In 1987, under the new program of self-sufficiency in family planning, the private sector is invited to participate by providing family planning services for target audiences, using the principles of self-sufficiency and self-support. There are 2 principal activities; 1) the IEC campaign, and 2) product (contraceptive) selling. IEC activities include a media campaign public relations work. Product selling is done through commercial channels such as pharmaceutical firms, drug stores, private doctors, and midwives. It was decided that the campaign would be aided by a name and logo. The blue circle was chosen because it is unique, communicative, and simple. The social marketing of contraceptives in Indonesia can be considered a breakthrough in communication strategy for a national development program. PMID:12282138

  19. [Thinking about several problems of the research of our family planning strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H

    1989-03-01

    On the basis of 1982 census data, it is estimated that from 1987-1997 13 million women will enter the age of marriage and child-bearing each year. The tasks of keeping the population size around 1.2 billion by the year 2000 is arduous. Great efforts have to be made to continue encouraging one child/couple, and to pursue the current plans and policies and maintain strict control over fertility. Keeping population growth in pace with economic growth, environment, ecological balance, availability of per capita resources, education programs, employment capability, health services, maternal and child care, social welfare and social security should be a component of the long term development strategy of the country. Family planning is a comprehensive program which involves long cycles and complicated factors, viewpoints of expediency in guiding policy and program formulation for short term benefits are inappropriate. The emphasis of family planning program strategy should be placed on the rural areas where the majority of population reside. Specifically, the major aspects of strategic thrusts should be the linkage between policy implementation and reception, between family planning publicity and changes of ideation on fertility; the integrated urban and rural program management relating to migration and differentiation of policy towards minority population and areas in different economic development stages. In order to achieve the above strategies, several measures are proposed. (1) strengthening family planning program and organization structure; (2) providing information on population and contraception; (3) establishing family planning program network for infiltration effects; (4) using government financing, taxation, loan, social welfare and penalty to regulate fertility motivations; (5) improving the system of target allocation and data reporting to facilitate program implementation; (6) strengthening population projection and policy research; (7) and strengthening

  20. Family planning among women in urban and rural areas in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antić Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Family planning is an important aspect of population policy at the state level, because the demographic trends in Serbia are very unfavorable. Objective. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in family planning between the women in rural and urban areas of Serbia. Methods. This study represents the secondary analysis of the National Health Survey of the population in Serbia from 2006, which was conducted as a cross sectional study, on a representative sample of the population. Results. The respondents who used condoms as a method of contraception, were often younger, better educated, had better financial status, lived in Vojvodina, and had no children. Conclusion. Our study showed that there were differences in terms of family planning between the women of urban and rural areas, however, these differences could be explained by differences in age and education. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175025: National Health Survey of the Population of Serbia

  1. The psychological well-being of women of Menoufiya, Egypt. Relationships with family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severy, Lawrence J; Waszak, Cynthia; Badawi, Isis; Kafafi, Laila

    2003-03-01

    Researchers surveyed the psychological well-being of 795 women of reproductive age from Menoufiya, Egypt. Five years earlier, these women had provided data relevant to their family planning behavior. This analysis links these data sets to investigate the impact of family planning on women's sense of well-being, within the context of beliefs about appropriate gender-related behaviors. Well-being measures are derived for trait and state dimensions. Use of family planning and number of children born within the preceding 5 years predicted state ratings of happiness, and number of children predicted anxious pride. Neither are related to any of the trait ratings. Further, 3 different gender-role attitudes are vital to the explanation of how women define and feel good about themselves.

  2. Counseling Women and Couples on Family Planning: A Randomized Study in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khoury, Marianne; Thornton, Rebecca; Chatterji, Minki; Kamhawi, Sarah; Sloane, Phoebe; Halassa, Mays

    2016-09-01

    This article evaluates the effects of involving men in family planning counseling in Jordan using a randomized experiment. We randomly assigned a sample of 1,247 married women to receive women-only counseling, couples counseling, or no counseling. We measured the effects of each type of counseling on family planning use, knowledge, attitudes, and spousal communication about family planning. Compared to no counseling, couples counseling led to a 54 percent increase in uptake of modern methods. This effect is not significantly different from the 46 percent increase in modern method uptake as a result of women-only counseling. This outcome may be due, in part, to lower rates of compliance with the intervention among those assigned to couples counseling compared to women-only counseling. To realize the possible added benefits of involving men, more tailored approaches may be needed to increase men's participation.

  3. Ethnic Disparities in Contraceptive Use and Its Impact on Family Planning Program in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Mishra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Regardless of three decades of implementation of family planning program in Nepal, need offamily planning services is largely unmet. Systematic studies, evaluating the impact of family program onseveral ethnic groups of Nepal has not been carried out in large scale. This study sheds light on theinvestigation of, whether the use of contraceptives varies among different ethnic groups in Nepal andwhat are the predictors of contraceptive variance in ethnic groups in Nepal.Materials and methods: The study is based on data collected from Nepal Demographic Health Survey(NDHS 2006. Multilevel logistic regression analyses of 10793 married women of reproductive agenested within 264 clusters from the surveys were considered as the sample size. Individual, household,and program variables were set and a multilevel logistic regression model was fitted to analyze thevariables, using GLLAMM command in STATA-9.Results: Multilevel logistic regression analysis indicated that Muslims, Dalits and Terai madheshi womenwere significantly less likely to use modern contraceptives compared to the Brahmins and Chhetries(Higher Castes. Women who were exposed to family planning information in radio were more likely touse modern contraceptives than women not exposed to radio information (OR=1.22, P> 0.01. An odd ofusing contraceptives by Newar was (OR 1.09, P>0.05, the highest among all ethnic groups. Exposure ofwomen to family planning messages through health facilities, family planning workers, and means ofcommunication, increased the odds of using modern contraceptives. However, impact of the familyplanning information on contraceptive use varied among ethnicity.Conclusion: Special attention need to be paid, in particular to the ethnicity, while formulating familyplanning policies in Nepal, for better success rate of family planning intervention programs.

  4. Family planning knowledge, attitude and practice among married couples in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tizta Tilahun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding why people do not use family planning is critical to address unmet needs and to increase contraceptive use. According to the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2011, most women and men had knowledge on some family planning methods but only about 29% of married women were using contraceptives. 20% women had an unmet need for family planning. We examined knowledge, attitudes and contraceptive practice as well as factors related to contraceptive use in Jimma zone, Ethiopia. METHODS: Data were collected from March to May 2010 among 854 married couples using a multi-stage sampling design. Quantitative data based on semi-structured questionnaires was triangulated with qualitative data collected during focus group discussions. We compared proportions and performed logistic regression analysis. RESULT: The concept of family planning was well known in the studied population. Sex-stratified analysis showed pills and injectables were commonly known by both sexes, while long-term contraceptive methods were better known by women, and traditional methods as well as emergency contraception by men. Formal education was the most important factor associated with better knowledge about contraceptive methods (aOR = 2.07, p<0.001, in particular among women (aOR(women = 2.77 vs. aOR(men = 1.49; p<0.001. In general only 4 out of 811 men ever used contraception, while 64% and 43% females ever used and were currently using contraception respectively. CONCLUSION: The high knowledge on contraceptives did not match with the high contraceptive practice in the study area. The study demonstrates that mere physical access (proximity to clinics for family planning and awareness of contraceptives are not sufficient to ensure that contraceptive needs are met. Thus, projects aiming at increasing contraceptive use should contemplate and establish better counseling about contraceptive side effects and method switch. Furthermore in all family planning

  5. Postabortion Care: 20 Years of Strong Evidence on Emergency Treatment, Family Planning, and Other Programming Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Douglas; Curtis, Carolyn; Irani, Laili; Pappa, Sara; Arrington, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Worldwide 75 million women need postabortion care (PAC) services each year following safe or unsafe induced abortions and miscarriages. We reviewed more than 550 studies on PAC published between 1994 and 2013 in the peer-reviewed and gray literature, covering emergency treatment, postabortion family planning, organization of services, and related topics that impact practices and health outcomes, particularly in the Global South. In this article, we present findings from studies with strong evidence that have major implications for programs and practice. For example, vacuum aspiration reduced morbidity, costs, and time in comparison to sharp curettage. Misoprostol 400 mcg sublingually or 600 mcg orally achieved 89% to 99% complete evacuation rates within 2 weeks in multiple studies and was comparable in effectiveness, safety, and acceptability to manual vacuum aspiration. Misoprostol was safely introduced in several PAC programs through mid-level providers, extending services to secondary hospitals and primary health centers. In multiple studies, postabortion family planning uptake before discharge increased by 30–70 percentage points within 1–3 years of strengthening postabortion family planning services; in some cases, increases up to 60 percentage points in 4 months were achieved. Immediate postabortion contraceptive acceptance increased on average from 32% before the interventions to 69% post-intervention. Several studies found that women receiving immediate postabortion intrauterine devices and implants had fewer unintended pregnancies and repeat abortions than those who were offered delayed insertions. Postabortion family planning is endorsed by the professional organizations of obstetricians/gynecologists, midwives, and nurses as a standard of practice; major donors agree, and governments should be encouraged to provide universal access to postabortion family planning. Important program recommendations include offering all postabortion women

  6. Postabortion Care: 20 Years of Strong Evidence on Emergency Treatment, Family Planning, and Other Programming Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Douglas; Curtis, Carolyn; Irani, Laili; Pappa, Sara; Arrington, Lauren

    2016-09-28

    Worldwide 75 million women need postabortion care (PAC) services each year following safe or unsafe induced abortions and miscarriages. We reviewed more than 550 studies on PAC published between 1994 and 2013 in the peer-reviewed and gray literature, covering emergency treatment, postabortion family planning, organization of services, and related topics that impact practices and health outcomes, particularly in the Global South. In this article, we present findings from studies with strong evidence that have major implications for programs and practice. For example, vacuum aspiration reduced morbidity, costs, and time in comparison to sharp curettage. Misoprostol 400 mcg sublingually or 600 mcg orally achieved 89% to 99% complete evacuation rates within 2 weeks in multiple studies and was comparable in effectiveness, safety, and acceptability to manual vacuum aspiration. Misoprostol was safely introduced in several PAC programs through mid-level providers, extending services to secondary hospitals and primary health centers. In multiple studies, postabortion family planning uptake before discharge increased by 30-70 percentage points within 1-3 years of strengthening postabortion family planning services; in some cases, increases up to 60 percentage points in 4 months were achieved. Immediate postabortion contraceptive acceptance increased on average from 32% before the interventions to 69% post-intervention. Several studies found that women receiving immediate postabortion intrauterine devices and implants had fewer unintended pregnancies and repeat abortions than those who were offered delayed insertions. Postabortion family planning is endorsed by the professional organizations of obstetricians/gynecologists, midwives, and nurses as a standard of practice; major donors agree, and governments should be encouraged to provide universal access to postabortion family planning. Important program recommendations include offering all postabortion women family planning

  7. Male involvement in family planning decision making in sub-Saharan Africa- what the evidence suggests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouking, Marius Zambou; Evina, Christine Danielle; Tadenfok, Carine Nouboudem

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated in 2012 that 287,000 maternal deaths occurred in 2010; sub-Saharan Africa (56%) and Southern Asia (29%) accounted for the global burden of maternal deaths. Men are also recognized to be responsible for the large proportion of ill reproductive health suffered by their female partners. Male involvement helps not only in accepting a contraceptive but also in its effective use and continuation. The objectives were to assess men's knowledge, attitude, and practice of modern contraceptive methods; determine the level of spousal communication about family planning decision making; and investigate the correlates of men's opinion about their roles in family planning decision making. We searched the following electronic databases from January 1995 to December 2013: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, LILAS, International Bibliography of Social Sciences, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts. Along with MeSH terms and relevant keywords, we used the Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategy for identifying reports of articles in PubMed. There were no restrictions to language or publication status. Of 137 hits, 7 papers met the inclusion criteria. The concept of family planning was well known to men. In the Nigerian study, almost (99%) men were aware of the existence of modern contraceptives, and most of them were aware of at least two modern methods. Awareness of the condom was highest (98%). In the Malawi study, all of the participants reported that they were not using contraception before the intervention. In Ethiopia, above 90% of male respondents have supported and approved using and choosing family planning methods, but none of them practiced terminal methods. Generally, more male respondents disagreed than agreed that men should make decisions about selected family planning issues in the family. Decision-making dynamics around method choice followed a slightly different pattern. According to female participants

  8. NO SCALPEL VASECTOMY: AN EMERGING OPTION IN FAMILY PLANNING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both spacing and permanent birth control methods are the need of the hour. The popularity of male sterilization i.e. vasectomy is low compared to female sterilization ( T ubectomy. However, being safe, effective, cheap, and having less surgical complicatio ns no scalpel vasectomy (NSV is emerging as good option. AIMS: To study the various demographic and behavioural factors of NSV acceptors. SETTING & DESIGN: This is institution based retrospective study conducted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medical College, Kolkata during the time period of 1 st April ‘ 2009 to 31 st March’ 2015. METHODS AND MATERIAL: The patients who accepted NSV for family pla nning were analysed with respect to their age, residence, occupation, literacy, number of issues and complications. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Data were represented as simple proportions or percentages and graphs by using micro soft excel . RESULTS: Out of 13, 0 48 sterilization operations, there were 3737(28.64% vasectomies and 9311(71.36% tubectomies. 67.08% of the couples selected sterilization for contraception. Tubectomies accounted for 2.5 times the vasectomies. The number of NSVs as a percentage of total sterilizations were 28.78% in 2009, rising to 36.96% in 2011 and gradually falling to 21.36% in 2015. Most of the clients (84% were ≥30 years of age. In 2009 - 10, only educated (71%, primary education accepted NSV. However, 74% were illiterate acceptors i n 2014 - 15 and 83% were labourers. In last 2 years the trend is NSV after the 3 rd child. CONCLUSION: NSV is emerging as a socially and culturally acceptable method of contraception in our society.

  9. Summary of the discussions held at a conference of the behavioral sciences and family planning programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synder, M

    1966-01-01

    A conference was called in the hope that by applying the knowledge science can give, family planners can improve the form and efficiency of their programs. A summary of the major points made by the participants is presented. Philip Huaser urger employing a full battery of social scientists to do basic research into the theory and methodology of surveys. Michael Young proposed shifting the focus from individual use of contraception to social policies designed to reduce birthrates. Le Bogart commented on the ignorance about the psychological relationship between sexuality and procreation. Brewster Smith suggested a psychological perspective from which to examine questions involved in family planning. Orville Brim, Jr., argued that sociological theorists must learn to work with technologists to develop contraceptive devices and other tools of family planning programs. Richard Bell reported on the physical and mental impairments in children from large families with short birth intervals. Reuben Hill focused on family studies which see man as an initiator in the social process, as opposed to the passive picture painted by demographers. A lively discussion on the use of mass communications in the spread of family planning was ushered in by Daniel Lerner. Dr. Freedman wondered if family planning communications should be designed primarily for education or persuasion, seeing greater numbers of recruits in the former. Cultural innovations from an anthropological point of view were discussed by George Foster, who suggested that people are so pragmatic that they will accept any innovation that meets a need in their lives. Everett Rogers reported on research in the diffusion of agricultural innovations. A discussion on barriers to effective organization was introduced by Nicholas Demarath. PMID:12255222

  10. Philippines. Church vs. state: Fidel Ramos and family planning face "Catholic Power".

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-24

    Catholic groups and individuals united in a public rally in Manila's Rizal Park to decry a "cultural dictatorship," which promotes abortion, homosexuality, lesbianism, sexual perversion, condoms, and artificial contraception. Government spokesmen responded that condoms and contraception were part of government policy to spread family planning knowledge and informed choices among the population. Cardinal Jaime Sin and former president Corazon Aquino joined forces to lead the movement against the national family planning program in the largest demonstration since the ouster of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986. Also criticized was the 85-page draft action plan for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) scheduled for September 1994. Cardinal Sin accused President Clinton of using the action plan to promote worldwide abortion. Under the administration of President Fidel Ramos, family planning funding has quintupled and the number of family planning workers has increased from 200 to 8000. President Ramos has gone the farthest of any administration in opposing the Church's positions on contraception and abortion, although years ago Fidel Ramos and Cardinal Sin were allies in the effort to push out Ferdinand Marcos. The population of the Philippines is 85% Catholic, and laws reflect the Church's doctrine against divorce and abortion. The current growth rate is 2.3%, and the goal is to reduce growth to 2.0% by 1998, the end of Ramos's term in office. The population target is in accord with demographic goals proposed in the UN draft action plan. The Vatican has opposed the language in the plan and may have encouraged other religious leaders to join those opposed to the "war against our babies and children." Sin said that contraceptive distribution was "intrinsically evil" and should be stopped now. Ramos's administration stated that their policies and programs are not "in the hands of the devil" and there is support for the Church on family values and

  11. System Thinking Scales and Learning Environment of Family Planning Field Workers in East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listyawardani, Dwi; Hariastuti, Iswari

    2016-01-01

    Systems thinking is needed due to the growing complexity of the problems faced family planning field workers in the external environment that is constantly changing. System thinking ability could not be separated from efforts to develop learning for the workers, both learning at the individual, group, or organization level. The design of the study…

  12. The Esfahan Seminar: Report of a Regional Seminar on Functional Literacy and Family Planning Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Linda, Comp.

    This report summarizes the discussion emerging from the issues raised at the Esfahan Seminar on Functional Literacy and Family Planning Education. It is divided into six chapters. Chapter I describes the seminar design, pointing out that it was structured to fulfill the major purposes of the Seminar, one of which was to help each participating…

  13. Basic Reference Sources in Population/Family Planning: An Annotated Bibliography, Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Richard L.

    This "Bibliography Series" is a project of the Carolina Population Center Library/Technical Information Service, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. It is intended as a vehicle for the dissemination of quality bibliographies on topics of current interest to librarians, researchers and students in the population/family planning field.…

  14. Translating the Social-Ecological Perspective into Multilevel Interventions for Family Planning: How Far Are We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schölmerich, Vera L. N.; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Scholars and practitioners frequently make recommendations to develop family planning interventions that are "multilevel." Such interventions take explicit account of the role of environments by incorporating multilevel or social-ecological frameworks into their design and implementation. However, research on how interventions have…

  15. Does early childbearing and a sterilization-focused family planning programme in India fuel population growth?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, Zoe; Padmadas, Sabu S.; Hutter, Inge; McEachran, Juliet; Brown, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent stagnation in the reduction of infant mortality in India can arguably be attributed to early child bearing practices and the lack of progress in lengthening birth intervals. Meanwhile, family planning efforts have been particularly successful in the southern states such as Andhra Pradesh, alt

  16. Using COPE To Improve Quality of Care: The Experience of the Family Planning Association of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Janet

    1998-01-01

    COPE (Client-Oriented, Provider-Efficient) methodology, a self-assessment tool that has been used in 35 countries around the world, was used to improve the quality of care in family planning clinics in Kenya. COPE involves a process that legitimately invests power with providers and clinic-level staff. It gives providers more control over their…

  17. Family planning decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples in Mwanza, Tanzania: A qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosha, I.H.; Ruben, R.; Kakoko, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Contraceptive use is low in developing countries which are still largely driven by male dominated culture and patriarchal values. This study explored family planning (FP) decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples in Mwanza region of Tanzania. Methods: Twelve focus group di

  18. Mothers- and Fathers-to-Be: The Next Generation of Planning and Career-Family Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Ruth; Mentzer, Danielle R.; Grisaffi, Danielle; Richter, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Newspaper reports of female college seniors modifying their career plans to opt out of work before they enter the workforce challenge the assumption that because many recent college graduates were raised in dual-income families, they would expect to have a substantial workforce role. Using a questionnaire format, this study examines postgraduation…

  19. Individual and Familial Factors Influencing the Educational and Career Plans of Chinese Immigrant Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Yeh, Christine J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explore how individual and familial factors predict educational and career aspirations, plans, and vocational outcome expectations of urban, Chinese immigrant youths. Participants were 265 Chinese immigrant high school students in New York City. The results indicated that higher self-reported English language fluency and career-related…

  20. School syllabus on family planning and population education. The role of teachers. Teaching methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abisheganaden, E

    1975-07-01

    The essential task of family life education is to harmonize the conflict between natural drives and society's restrictions and to direct the individual nature so that it may contribute to personal happiness and advance the society. The reason for introducing sex education in the primary schools is because at that age children are not interested in the emotional or abstract idea of love but how or why sex is necessary to produce a family. This paper, presented to the Family Planning and Population Education Seminar for Teachers, describes a population education syllabus and explains the intentions of the program. For separate boys' and girls' programs 3 topics are covered: 1) puberty changes, 2) emotional and social implications arising out of the changes, and 3) parenthood and family planning. The lessons are intended to provide the young with a healthy approach to sex and enable them to control their emotions and have socially acceptable behavior. In the area of human reproduction, the approach should deal with the biological and psychological aspects, with parenthood and family planning as the central focus. Some approaches which are suggested are: 1) films, 2) relating sex to science lessons, 3) using a story angle, 4) cassette tapes, 5) questionnaires, and 6) news articles. PMID:12338649

  1. Women Knowledge, Attitude, Approval of Family Planning and Contraceptive Use in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidul Islam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempted to examine the effects of women knowledge on attitude and family planning approval on contraceptive use of married women. The primary data was collected from Narsingdi municipality and the cluster sampling techniques had been adopted for collecting the data. Path analysis was used to determine the effects of factors that haveinfluence on contraceptive use. The result showed that the attitude and knowledge on contraception, and family planningapproval has significant effects on the use of contraceptive. The study also revealed that media exposure significantly effects on family planning approval, increase the positive attitude on contraceptive, and significantly increase the knowledge on contraception and STDs diseases. Women education and mass media can also be considered as potential factors to influence the contraceptive use.

  2. Knowledge attitude and practices of family planning methods among postnatal mothers-A hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Udgiri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: All the couple have the basic rights to decide freely and responsibly on the number and spacing of their children and to have the information, education and means to do so. In developing countries, especially in India where deep rooted belief, customs and superstition regarding pregnancy, child birth, are still widely prevalent and women with poor socioeconomic background are more vulnerable to the health risks associated with child bearing in quick succession. Hence the present study provides excellent opportunities to educate the mother in postnatal ward regarding family planning method and help them to adopt birth spacing in the face of changing circumstances. Objectives: a To assess the knowledge, attitude & practices regarding family planning methods among postnatal mothers. b To educate them to use one of the family planning method. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out for a period of one month. A total of 162 postnatal mother who were admitted in postnatal general ward of OBG Dept., Shri.BM.Patil medical college constitutes the sample size. After obtaining ethical clearance from the institute, the mothers were interviewed after taking verbal consent. The data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires. Statistical test like percentage, chi-square test was applied to know the association. Result: In the present study 65.4% of mothers knew about family planning methods. Significant association was found in relation to education (p= 0.000, religion (p= 0.055 and parity (p= 0.01. Conclusion: The literacy level will definitely help to gain the information regarding family planning.

  3. Family Information Guide to Assistive Technology and Transition Planning: Planned Transitions Are Smooth Transitions!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Jacqueline; Gutierrez, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to help families prepare for those times during which their child moves from one environment to another and from one developmental stage to another. The focus of the guide is on the role of assistive technology (AT) during those times--how to consider a child's evolving AT needs, how to identify and address the AT…

  4. The value of family planning user profiles in better targeting of family planning: the case of Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, D

    1993-07-01

    Modern reversible contraceptive methods currently approved in Vanuatu are: oral hormonal contraceptives (OCs), the intrauterine device (IUD), and condoms. These are used by about 9% of all women in childbearing age. A study was undertaken to determine profiles of average current modern FP users in order to identify some of the factors influencing FP use and facilitate better program management. FP records from 3 hospitals were reviewed in 1992, and user profiles were constructed in terms of age, parity, and length of use for the OC and the IUD (used nationally by 60% and 3)% of all modern methods users, respectively). The results involving 513 current OC and 438 IUD users showed that 61% of OC and 6% of IUD user groups were aged 22-30 years and had 2 or 3 children. The 1st finding was that few women with just 1 child use either OCs or the IUD; they represent a potentially under-served target group for the FP programs. Service providers could specifically counsel such women and their partner on planned parenthood and through targeted health education material. The 2nd finding was that the average length of use of the IUD was significantly longer than that of OCs. In a country where access to FP services is frequently difficult and having children (even for single women) socially acceptable, the decision to discontinue OCs is often made by default. In contrast, discontinuation of an IUD requires a more active decision to be made, usually to have another child or because of unacceptable side effects. Hence, the significantly shorter length of use of OCs compared to IUDs by FP users. This finding underlines the importance of promoting IUDs among parous women in Vanuatu. The FP user profiles can be valuable for program planners by identifying groups using FP services, and any significant differences in the pattern of use among acceptors. PMID:8356742

  5. Improving Demand-oriented Quality Care in Family Planning--A Review of Practice and Experience in Family Planning Programme of Qianjiang, Hubei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-yuan LIAO; Meng-ye PENG; Er-sheng GAO

    2003-01-01

    @@ With the mainstreaming being the demand from the people at reproductive age, we systematically analyzed the ideas and ways to implement quality care (QC) in family planning (FP) in Qianjiang, including advocating the conception of quality care, carrying out health education and counseling, strengthening capacity building of service system and reforming measurement of the evaluation and other aspects. The demand-oriented QC in FP has met personalized and verified demands from people of reproductive age satisfactorily, and kept the fertility rate at a lower level while uplifting satisfaction of the public. The demand-oriented QC in FP in Qianjiang county proved to be a successful and great worth practice.

  6. Overcoming Barriers to Family Planning through Integration: Perspectives of HIV-Positive Men in Nyanza Province, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Steinfeld

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored barriers to and facilitators of using family planning services among HIV-positive men in Nyanza Province, Kenya. From May to June 2010, in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 men receiving care at 15 HIV clinics. The key barriers to the use of family planning included concerns about side effects of contraceptives, lack of knowledge about contraceptive methods, myths and misconceptions including fear of infertility, structural barriers such as staffing shortages at HIV clinics, and a lack of male focus in family planning methods and service delivery. The integration of family planning into HIV clinics including family planning counseling and education was cited as an important strategy to improve family planning receptivity among men. Integrating family planning into HIV services is a promising strategy to facilitate male involvement in family planning. Integration needs to be rigorously evaluated in order to measure its impact on unmet need for contraception among HIV-positive women and their partners and assure that it is implemented in a manner that engages both men and women.

  7. Impact of an in-built monitoring system on family planning performance in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Ali

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During 1982–1992, the Maternal and Child Health Family Planning (MCH-FP Extension Project (Rural of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B, in partnership with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW of the Government of Bangladesh (GoB, implemented a series of interventions in Sirajganj Sadar sub-district of Sirajganj district. These interventions were aimed at improving the planning mechanisms and for reviewing the problem-solving processes to build an effective monitoring system of the interventions at the local level of the overall system of the MOHFW, GoB. Methods The interventions included development and testing of innovative solutions in service-delivery, provision of door-step injectables, and strengthening of the management information system (MIS. The impact of an in-built monitoring system on the overall performance was assessed during the period from June 1995 to December 1996, after the withdrawal of the interventions in 1992. Results The results of the assessment showed that Family Welfare Assistants (FWAs increased household-visits within the last two months, and there was a higher use of service-delivery points even after the withdrawal of the interventions. The results of the cluster surveys, conducted in 1996, showed that the selected indicators of health and family-planning services were higher than those reported by the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS 1996–1997. During June 1995-December, 1996, the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR increased by 13 percentage points (i.e. from 40% to 53%. Compared to the national CPR (49%, this increase was statistically significant (p Conclusion The in-built monitoring systems, including effective MIS, accompanied by rapid assessments and review of performance by the programme managers, have potentials to improve family planning performance in low-performing areas.

  8. [Quality planning of Family Health Units using Quality Function Deployment (QFD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Luciana Fernandes; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi

    2010-08-01

    Quality is an indispensible requirement in the health field, and its pursuit is necessary in order to meet demands by a population that is aware of its rights, as part of the essence of good work relations, and to decrease technological costs. Quality thus involves all parties to the process (users and professionals), and is no longer merely an attribute of the health service. This study aimed to verify the possibility of quality planning in the Family Health Units, using Quality Function Deployment (QFD). QFD plans quality according to user satisfaction, involving staff professionals and identifying new approaches to improve work processes. Development of the array, called the House of Quality, is this method's most important characteristics. The results show a similarity between the quality demanded by users and the quality planned by professionals. The current study showed that QFD is an efficient tool for quality planning in public health services.

  9. [Quality planning of Family Health Units using Quality Function Deployment (QFD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Luciana Fernandes; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi

    2010-08-01

    Quality is an indispensible requirement in the health field, and its pursuit is necessary in order to meet demands by a population that is aware of its rights, as part of the essence of good work relations, and to decrease technological costs. Quality thus involves all parties to the process (users and professionals), and is no longer merely an attribute of the health service. This study aimed to verify the possibility of quality planning in the Family Health Units, using Quality Function Deployment (QFD). QFD plans quality according to user satisfaction, involving staff professionals and identifying new approaches to improve work processes. Development of the array, called the House of Quality, is this method's most important characteristics. The results show a similarity between the quality demanded by users and the quality planned by professionals. The current study showed that QFD is an efficient tool for quality planning in public health services. PMID:21229215

  10. Achievements and challenges: Minister Peng on China's population situation and family planning programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, P

    1996-04-01

    This article summarizes two speeches made by Minister Peng Peiyun of the China State Family Planning Commission. The Minister discussed the achievements and the challenges during 1991-95 and expected goals for the Ninth Five-Year Plan (1996-2000). The Minister indicated that all provinces fulfilled their population plans. 67.88 million births were added during 1991-95, but this number was 15.79 million lower than expected. The total fertility rate declined to under 2.0 children/woman in 1994. The rate of high-parity births declined from 19.32% in 1990 to 9.5% in 1994. The average age at first marriage increased from 22.12 years in 1990 to 22.73 years in 1994. Valuable lessons were learned and reported during the early 1990s. The most important lesson was that an integrated approach that linked services to improve productivity with family planning services was successful. The Integrated Approach that was practiced in the provinces of Jilin, Jiangsu, and Sichuan was successful in improving women's status, increasing family income, and developing the rural economy. These quality of life improvements helped to change traditional ideas about childbearing. This approach and the dissemination of positive outcomes was the subject of a conference held in October 1995. The challenges ahead for China include reducing the absolute size of a population that is increasing at the rate of 13 million annually. Present low fertility may be unstable due to the strong administrative constraints. Family planning effectiveness varies between more and less developed provinces. Seven less developed provinces still have a high birth rate: Guangxi, Hainan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Tibet, Ningxia, and Xinjiang. New problems will appear with the shift to a market economy. Before the year 2000 China must limit population size to under 1.3 billion, stabilize low fertility, shift the focus to the populous central west, target the floating population, and secure more funding. PMID:12347492

  11. Indonesia. B. The building of a successful population-family planning programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyono, H

    1984-01-01

    Indonesia's population and family planning program is one of the most successful in the world, but much work must be done to meet the reduction in fertility targets set by the government. The goal is a birthrate of 22/1000 by the year 1990, a 50% decrease from the 1970 birthrate. With eligible couples entering the program at a rate of 600,000-750,000, a hard job lies ahead. The basic tenets which have made the Indonesia program strong will be used to meet the goals for 1990. The first of these is political commitment, meaning that all government leaders, from the President to the village chief, back the program and work actively for its success. Along with political commitment is the use of cultural values. The javanese society is feudal, in the sense that people try to respect elders, both leaders in the village and beyond. Thus, when the President speaks in favor of family planning, it carries considerable weight and significance. The village chief speaks favorably of family planning and that means the villagers are receptive to trying it. Another important cultural tenet is that of mutual help, or what is termed "gotong royong." This system goes back for centuries and forms the basis of village interaction. It is simply that people help each other for the common good. The National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN), with the help of the formal and informal leaders, has defined family planning as something which is for the mutual benefit of the entire community. A 3rd tenet of the program is flexibility. The BKKBN has continually experimented with various approaches. With flexibility comes some risk. The BKKBN has managed to maintain a system whereby it is possible to take risks, and this element of flexibility has benefitted the program greatly. Ownership is another important tenet of the program. The community feels that the program is theirs and that they can decide the activities of the acceptor groups and that they are responsible for maintaining and

  12. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings I: program implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Nzau, Jean Jose; Giri, Kamlesh

    2015-02-04

    In 2012, about 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict. Provision of basic sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, is a recognized right and need of refugees and internally displaced people, but funding and services for family planning have been inadequate. This article describes lessons learned during the first 2.5 years of implementing the ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, which supports government health systems to deliver family planning services in 5 crisis-affected settings (Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan). SAFPAC's strategy focuses on 4 broad interventions drawn from public health best practices in more stable settings: competency-based training for providers, improved supply chain management, regular supervision, and community mobilization to influence attitudes and norms related to family planning. Between July 2011 and December 2013, the initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries (catchment population of 698,053 women of reproductive age), 61% of whom chose long-acting methods of implants or intrauterine devices. Prudent use of data to inform decision making has been an underpinning to the project's approach. A key approach to ensuring sustained ability to train and supervise new providers has been to build capacity in clinical skills training and supervision by establishing in-country training centers. In addition, monthly supervision using simple checklists has improved program and service quality, particularly with infection prevention procedures and stock management. We have generally instituted a "pull" system to manage commodities and other supplies, whereby health facilities place resupply orders as needed based on actual consumption patterns and stock-alert thresholds. Finally, reaching the community with mobilization

  13. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings I: program implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Nzau, Jean Jose; Giri, Kamlesh

    2015-03-01

    In 2012, about 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict. Provision of basic sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, is a recognized right and need of refugees and internally displaced people, but funding and services for family planning have been inadequate. This article describes lessons learned during the first 2.5 years of implementing the ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, which supports government health systems to deliver family planning services in 5 crisis-affected settings (Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan). SAFPAC's strategy focuses on 4 broad interventions drawn from public health best practices in more stable settings: competency-based training for providers, improved supply chain management, regular supervision, and community mobilization to influence attitudes and norms related to family planning. Between July 2011 and December 2013, the initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries (catchment population of 698,053 women of reproductive age), 61% of whom chose long-acting methods of implants or intrauterine devices. Prudent use of data to inform decision making has been an underpinning to the project's approach. A key approach to ensuring sustained ability to train and supervise new providers has been to build capacity in clinical skills training and supervision by establishing in-country training centers. In addition, monthly supervision using simple checklists has improved program and service quality, particularly with infection prevention procedures and stock management. We have generally instituted a "pull" system to manage commodities and other supplies, whereby health facilities place resupply orders as needed based on actual consumption patterns and stock-alert thresholds. Finally, reaching the community with mobilization

  14. Family Planning Counseling in Your Pocket: A Mobile Job Aid for Community Health Workers in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Smisha; Lasway, Christine; L'Engle, Kelly; Homan, Rick; Layer, Erica; Ollis, Steve; Braun, Rebecca; Silas, Lucy; Mwakibete, Anna; Kudrati, Mustafa

    2016-06-20

    To address low contraceptive use in Tanzania, a pilot intervention using a mobile job aid was developed to guide community health workers (CHWs) to deliver integrated counseling on family planning, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this article, we describe the process of developing the family planning algorithms and implementation of the mobile job aid, discuss how the job aid supported collection of real-time data for decision making, and present the cost of the overall system based on an evaluation of the pilot. The family planning algorithm was developed, beginning in June 2011, in partnership with the Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare based on a combination of evidence-based tools such as the Balanced Counseling Strategy Plus Toolkit. The pilot intervention and study was implemented with 25 CHWs in 3 wards in Ilala district in Dar es Salaam between January 2013 and July 2013. A total of 710 family planning users (455 continuing users and 255 new users) were registered and counseled using the mobile job aid over the 6-month intervention period. All users were screened for current pregnancy, questioned on partner support for contraceptive use, counseled on a range of contraceptives, and screened for HIV/STI risk. Most new and continuing family planning users chose pills and male condoms (59% and 73%, respectively). Pills and condoms were provided by the CHW at the community level. Referrals were made to the health facility for pregnancy confirmation, injectable contraceptives, long-acting reversible contraceptives and HIV/STI testing. Follow-up visits with clients were planned to confirm completion of the health facility referral. The financial cost of implementing this intervention with 25 CHWs and 3 supervisors are estimated to be US$26,000 for the first year. For subsequent years, the financial costs are estimated to be 73% lower at $7,100. Challenges such as limited client follow-up by CHWs and use of data by supervisors

  15. Family Planning Counseling in Your Pocket: A Mobile Job Aid for Community Health Workers in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Smisha; Lasway, Christine; L'Engle, Kelly; Homan, Rick; Layer, Erica; Ollis, Steve; Braun, Rebecca; Silas, Lucy; Mwakibete, Anna; Kudrati, Mustafa

    2016-06-20

    To address low contraceptive use in Tanzania, a pilot intervention using a mobile job aid was developed to guide community health workers (CHWs) to deliver integrated counseling on family planning, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this article, we describe the process of developing the family planning algorithms and implementation of the mobile job aid, discuss how the job aid supported collection of real-time data for decision making, and present the cost of the overall system based on an evaluation of the pilot. The family planning algorithm was developed, beginning in June 2011, in partnership with the Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare based on a combination of evidence-based tools such as the Balanced Counseling Strategy Plus Toolkit. The pilot intervention and study was implemented with 25 CHWs in 3 wards in Ilala district in Dar es Salaam between January 2013 and July 2013. A total of 710 family planning users (455 continuing users and 255 new users) were registered and counseled using the mobile job aid over the 6-month intervention period. All users were screened for current pregnancy, questioned on partner support for contraceptive use, counseled on a range of contraceptives, and screened for HIV/STI risk. Most new and continuing family planning users chose pills and male condoms (59% and 73%, respectively). Pills and condoms were provided by the CHW at the community level. Referrals were made to the health facility for pregnancy confirmation, injectable contraceptives, long-acting reversible contraceptives and HIV/STI testing. Follow-up visits with clients were planned to confirm completion of the health facility referral. The financial cost of implementing this intervention with 25 CHWs and 3 supervisors are estimated to be US$26,000 for the first year. For subsequent years, the financial costs are estimated to be 73% lower at $7,100. Challenges such as limited client follow-up by CHWs and use of data by supervisors

  16. Family Planning Counseling in Your Pocket: A Mobile Job Aid for Community Health Workers in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Smisha; Lasway, Christine; L’Engle, Kelly; Homan, Rick; Layer, Erica; Ollis, Steve; Braun, Rebecca; Silas, Lucy; Mwakibete, Anna; Kudrati, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To address low contraceptive use in Tanzania, a pilot intervention using a mobile job aid was developed to guide community health workers (CHWs) to deliver integrated counseling on family planning, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this article, we describe the process of developing the family planning algorithms and implementation of the mobile job aid, discuss how the job aid supported collection of real-time data for decision making, and present the cost of the overall system based on an evaluation of the pilot. The family planning algorithm was developed, beginning in June 2011, in partnership with the Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare based on a combination of evidence-based tools such as the Balanced Counseling Strategy Plus Toolkit. The pilot intervention and study was implemented with 25 CHWs in 3 wards in Ilala district in Dar es Salaam between January 2013 and July 2013. A total of 710 family planning users (455 continuing users and 255 new users) were registered and counseled using the mobile job aid over the 6-month intervention period. All users were screened for current pregnancy, questioned on partner support for contraceptive use, counseled on a range of contraceptives, and screened for HIV/STI risk. Most new and continuing family planning users chose pills and male condoms (59% and 73%, respectively). Pills and condoms were provided by the CHW at the community level. Referrals were made to the health facility for pregnancy confirmation, injectable contraceptives, long-acting reversible contraceptives and HIV/STI testing. Follow-up visits with clients were planned to confirm completion of the health facility referral. The financial cost of implementing this intervention with 25 CHWs and 3 supervisors are estimated to be US$26,000 for the first year. For subsequent years, the financial costs are estimated to be 73% lower at $7,100. Challenges such as limited client follow-up by CHWs and use of data by

  17. Using Behavioral Science to Design a Peer Comparison Intervention for Postabortion Family Planning in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Hannah; Datta, Saugato; Sapkota, Sabitri

    2016-01-01

    Despite the provision of free and subsidized family planning services and clients' demonstrated intentions to delay pregnancies, family planning uptake among women who receive abortion and postabortion services at Sunaulo Parivar Nepal (SPN), one of Nepal's largest non-governmental sexual and reproductive health (SRH) providers, remains low. Through meetings, interviews, and observations with SPN's stakeholders, service providers, and clients at its 36 SRH centers, we developed hypotheses about client- and provider-side barriers that may inhibit postabortion family planning (PAFP) uptake. On the provider side, we found that the lack of benchmarks (such as the performance of other facilities) against which providers could compare their own performance and the lack of feedback on the performance were important barriers to PAFP uptake. We designed several variants of three interventions to address these barriers. Through conversations with team members at SPN's centralized support office and service providers at SPN centers, we prioritized a peer-comparison tool that allows providers at one center to compare their performance with that of other similar centers. We used feedback from the community of providers on the tools' usability and features to select a variant of the tool that also leverages and reinforces providers' strong intrinsic motivation to provide quality PAFP services. In this paper, we detail the process of identifying barriers and creating an intervention to overcome those barriers. The intervention's effectiveness will be tested with a center-level, stepped-wedge randomized control trial in which SPN's 36 centers will be randomly assigned to receive the intervention at 1-month intervals over a 6-month period. Existing medical record data will be used to monitor family planning uptake.

  18. Succession planning for small and medium-sized family advertising agencies in Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    Flourentzou, Evangelia

    2014-01-01

    Leadership succession is not a single measure, but rather a complex process (Sharma et al., 2001) that is necessary to ensure continuity of effective managerial control and engagement in a business entity (Charan et al., 2001). Thus, the aim of this work-based project involves addressing and examining the question of succession planning in family-owned and managed small and medium-size Cypriot advertising agencies, as well as developing a feasible model of leadership succession for such agenc...

  19. Using Behavioral Science to Design a Peer Comparison Intervention for Postabortion Family Planning in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Hannah; Datta, Saugato; Sapkota, Sabitri

    2016-01-01

    Despite the provision of free and subsidized family planning services and clients' demonstrated intentions to delay pregnancies, family planning uptake among women who receive abortion and postabortion services at Sunaulo Parivar Nepal (SPN), one of Nepal's largest non-governmental sexual and reproductive health (SRH) providers, remains low. Through meetings, interviews, and observations with SPN's stakeholders, service providers, and clients at its 36 SRH centers, we developed hypotheses about client- and provider-side barriers that may inhibit postabortion family planning (PAFP) uptake. On the provider side, we found that the lack of benchmarks (such as the performance of other facilities) against which providers could compare their own performance and the lack of feedback on the performance were important barriers to PAFP uptake. We designed several variants of three interventions to address these barriers. Through conversations with team members at SPN's centralized support office and service providers at SPN centers, we prioritized a peer-comparison tool that allows providers at one center to compare their performance with that of other similar centers. We used feedback from the community of providers on the tools' usability and features to select a variant of the tool that also leverages and reinforces providers' strong intrinsic motivation to provide quality PAFP services. In this paper, we detail the process of identifying barriers and creating an intervention to overcome those barriers. The intervention's effectiveness will be tested with a center-level, stepped-wedge randomized control trial in which SPN's 36 centers will be randomly assigned to receive the intervention at 1-month intervals over a 6-month period. Existing medical record data will be used to monitor family planning uptake. PMID:27446891

  20. Aligning goals, intents, and performance indicators in family planning service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RamaRao, Saumya; Jain, Anrudh K

    2015-03-01

    A flurry of policy initiatives in the fields of both population and development and reproductive health, many addressing the provision of family planning services, are currently underway: FP2020, the ICPD Beyond 2014, and the post-2015 development agenda, among others. This is an opportune time, therefore, to reflect upon and take into consideration what five decades of family planning programs can teach us about ensuring that policies and programs integrate their underlying intents, concrete goals, and performance indicators. The family planning field has encountered instances in its history when inconsistencies between goals, intents, and indicators arose and adversely affected the delivery of services. This commentary presents our observations concerning potential misalignments that may arise within the many promising initiatives underway. We examine the relationship between the intent, goal, and indicators of FP2020 as a case study highlighting the need for ensuring a tight alignment. We offer suggestions for ensuring that this and other initiatives use carefully calibrated indicators to guide the achievement of explicit program goals without undermining their underlying intent--namely, promoting well-being and reproductive rights.

  1. Are Latin American and Caribbean men irresponsible with regard to family planning? A surprising male view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiso, R

    1988-04-01

    The viewpoint expressed in this article by the executive director of family planning in Guatemala is that Latin American men are interested in family planning. The "machismo" of the past is declining rapidly. Reference is made to studies since the 1970s that show that men are open to family planning and will permit their wives to use contraceptives. Men also, if properly informed and if their fears are dealt with, would accept vasectomy or other male methods. In fact, over 40 million Latin American men may be using condoms, and another 15 million practice periodic abstinence. The experiences of APROFAM in Guatemala have shown that males will accept vasectomy. The APROFAM program provides for presentations made to men in factories and in social groups. Announcements are made during football games. The program was successful in part because men's fears about the quality of services were removed. When services were provided in private by dedicated personnel, the acceptance of vasectomy increased. The program was also successful in bringing couples in together to discuss contraceptive services. The percentage of men who supported the use of contraceptives was greater than expected. It is argued that communication campaigns will continue to play an important role increasing male participation by increasing men's knowledge of methods, reducing men's fears about vasectomy, and reducing men's fears about female methods of contraception. PMID:12179851

  2. "Wait a while, my love" -- an Indonesian popular song with a family planning message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekerti, R; Musa, R

    1989-10-01

    "Wait a While, My Love," recorded by pop singer Irianti Emingpraja, was the first Indonesian rock sock to contain a family planning message. The album including the song has sold over 100,000 copies. The song has also been packaged as a 60-second video that can be used as an opening theme for radio and television programs. The song, aimed at encouraging Indonesian youth to postpone marriage, has the following lyrics: "Flying free like a seagull/I'll cover many places 'round the world/Give me time for study and reflection, to grow as a mature wise woman/Oh, wait a while, my love/Don't buy me a ring, reflection of your inner love/I'll climb my way up to the top of the world/And reaching our rainbow of hope." The song was produced with support from the United Nations Fund for Population Activities and the Indonesian National Family Planning Coordinating Board. Key factors to be examined in producing a popular song with a family planning message include the specific message desired, the target audience, type of music, the singer, the producer, marketing, a multimedia campaign strategy, and distribution outlets. PMID:12315970

  3. Nationalism, race, and gender: the politics of family planning in Zimbabwe, 1957-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M O

    1994-12-01

    In line with a general tendency of nationalists to hold pro-natalist views, African nationalists in Zimbabwe took a hostile position to family planning upon its introduction in 1957, arguing that it was part of a conspiracy to control the black population. However, it was only after the unilateral declaration of independence in 1965 by the white settlers under Ian Smith that an official policy aimed at reducing African fertility emerged. The African nationalists waged a consistent propaganda campaign against this policy, and the facilities that were established under it, as well as their personnel, became military targets during the guerrilla war in the late 1970s. After independence in 1980, the triumphant nationalists tried to maintain their pro-natalist position. But, with a postwar 'baby boom' pushing the birth rate close to four per cent by the mid-1980s, the officials in charge of economic and social development concluded that society could not sustain such a high fertility rate. Consequently, there was a reversal of policy, and by 1990 Zimbabwe had become an internationally recognized leader of family planning among developing countries. For the most part, however, these changes have taken place without any real input by African women, who remained largely excluded from the male-dominated circles in which decisions about family planning were made. PMID:11639476

  4. Nationalism, race, and gender: the politics of family planning in Zimbabwe, 1957-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M O

    1994-12-01

    In line with a general tendency of nationalists to hold pro-natalist views, African nationalists in Zimbabwe took a hostile position to family planning upon its introduction in 1957, arguing that it was part of a conspiracy to control the black population. However, it was only after the unilateral declaration of independence in 1965 by the white settlers under Ian Smith that an official policy aimed at reducing African fertility emerged. The African nationalists waged a consistent propaganda campaign against this policy, and the facilities that were established under it, as well as their personnel, became military targets during the guerrilla war in the late 1970s. After independence in 1980, the triumphant nationalists tried to maintain their pro-natalist position. But, with a postwar 'baby boom' pushing the birth rate close to four per cent by the mid-1980s, the officials in charge of economic and social development concluded that society could not sustain such a high fertility rate. Consequently, there was a reversal of policy, and by 1990 Zimbabwe had become an internationally recognized leader of family planning among developing countries. For the most part, however, these changes have taken place without any real input by African women, who remained largely excluded from the male-dominated circles in which decisions about family planning were made.

  5. A study of socioeconomic determinants of family planning practice based on cross cultural regressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, V V; Yuan, T

    1980-01-01

    It has been traditional in demographic research to undertake studies based on cross country regression analyses of crude birth rate (CBR), its correlates, or even marital fertility rates (MFR), on various socioeconomic indicators. The general conclusion to emerge from these studies has been that there exists a relationship between fertility and certain significant socioeconomic correlates. This conclusion does not go much beyond observations based on demographic transition theory or differential fertility studies. These multiple regression studies do not come close to the dynamics and underlying processes that generate the actual observations. It seems that cross country regression analyses of the prevalence of family planning may be more useful for policy purposes. Certain correlates of the level of family planning practice have been identified: foremost among these are per capita income, adult literacy, and the period of family planning advocacy. From a policy standpoint, the literacy of the population seems to be the most amenable to intervention by policy making bodies interested in achieving optimal demographic and socioeconomic conditions within a society.

  6. Protecting the mother's and child's health. Indonesia. Moslems and Islamic organizations participate in the family planning movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapie, K H

    1996-01-01

    The lack of united legal opinion has become a characteristic of Islam. The Islamic community's views on family planning are therefore diverse, ranging from those who strongly resist it to those who enthusiastically support and promote it. However, in order to smoothly introduce family planning into Indonesia, religious legal support was and remains crucial. Religion, especially Islam, is very important in the lives of Indonesian people. The need for religious support was stated explicitly in the guidelines of the First Five-Year Development Plan, as one of the considerations in carrying out the National Family Planning Program. That program, the first of its kind, was provided by the Legal Affairs Committee of Muhammadiyah in 1968. The major characteristics of the four formal religious decisions on family planning are described, followed by discussion of the current views of some ulama. PMID:12347301

  7. AN ECONOMIC RELIABILITY EFFICIENT GROUP ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING PLANS FOR FAMILY PARETO DISTRIBUTIONS

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    Muhammad Ismail

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research article deals with an economic reliability efficient group acceptance sampling plan for time truncated tests which are based on the total number of failures assuming that the life time of a product follows the family for Pareto distribution. This research is proposed when a multiple number of products as a group can be observed simultaneously in a tester. The minimum termination time required for a given group size and acceptance number is determined such that the producer and consumer risks are satisfied for specific standard of quality level, while the number of groups and the number of testers are pre-assumed. Comparison studies are made between the proposed plan and the existing plan on the basis of minimum termination time. Two real examples are also discussed.

  8. Choices on contraceptive methods in post-abortion family planning clinic in the northeast Brazil

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    Braga Cynthia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Brazil, a Ministry of Health report revealed women who underwent an abortion were predominantly in the use of contraceptive methods, but mentioned inconsistent or erroneously contraceptive use. Promoting the use of contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies is one of the most effective strategies to reduce abortion rates and maternal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, providing post-abortion family planning services that include structured contraceptive counseling with free and easy access to contraceptive methods can be suitable. So the objective of this study is to determine the acceptance and selection of contraceptive methods followed by a post-abortion family planning counseling. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out from July to October 2008, enrolling 150 low income women to receive post-abortion care at a family planning clinic in a public hospital located in Recife, Brazil. The subjects were invited to take part of the study before receiving hospital leave from five different public maternities. An appointment was made for them at a family planning clinic at IMIP from the 8th to the 15th day after they had undergone an abortion. Every woman received information on contraceptive methods, side effects and fertility. Counseling was individualized and addressed them about feelings, expectations and motivations regarding contraception as well as pregnancy intention. Results Of all women enrolled in this study, 97.4% accepted at least one contraceptive method. Most of them (73.4% had no previous abortion history. Forty of the women who had undergone a previous abortion, 47.5% reported undergoing unsafe abortion. Slightly more than half of the pregnancies (52% were unwanted. All women had knowledge of the use of condoms, oral contraceptives and injectables. The most chosen method was injectables, followed by oral contraceptives and condoms. Only one woman chose an intrauterine device. Conclusion The

  9. Social class and family size as determinants of attributed machismo, femininity, and family planning: a field study in two South American communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicassio, P M

    1977-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the way in which stereotypes of machismo and femininity are associated with family size and perceptions of family planning. A total of 144 adults, male and female, from a lower class and an upper middle class urban area in Colombia were asked to respond to photographs of Colombian families varying in size and state of completeness. The study illustrated the critical role of sex-role identity and sex-role organization as variables having an effect on fertility. The lower-class respondents described parents in the photographs as significantly more macho or feminine because of their children than the upper-middle-class subjects did. Future research should attempt to measure when this drive to sex-role identity is strongest, i.e., when men and women are most driven to reproduce in order to "prove" themselves. Both lower- and upper-middle-class male groups considered male dominance in marriage to be directly linked with family size. Perceptions of the use of family planning decreased linearly with family size for both social groups, although the lower-class females attributed more family planning to spouses of large families than upper-middle-class females. It is suggested that further research deal with the ways in which constructs of machismo and male dominance vary between the sexes and among socioeconomic groups and the ways in which they impact on fertility.

  10. Programming the body, planning reproduction, governing life: the '(ir-) rationality' of family planning and the embodiment of social inequalities in Salvador da Bahia (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zordo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines family planning in Brazil as biopolitics and explores how the democratization of the State and of reproductive health services after two decades of military dictatorship (1964-1984) has influenced health professionals' and family planning users' discourses and practices. Do health professionals envisage family planning as a 'right' or do they conceive it, following the old neo-Malthusian rationale, as a 'moral duty' of poor people, whose 'irrational' reproduction jeopardizes the family's and the nation's well being? And how do their patients conceptualize and embody family planning? To answer these questions, this paper draws on 13 months of multi-sited ethnographic research undertaken between 2003 and 2005 in two public family planning services in Salvador da Bahia, where participant observation was undertaken and unstructured interviews were conducted with 11 health professionals and 70 family planning users, mostly low income black women. The paper examines how different bio-political rationalities operate in these services and argues that the old neo-Malthusian rationale and the current, dominant discourse on reproductive rights, gender equality and citizenship coexist. The coalescence of different biopolitical rationalities leads to the double stigmatization of family planning users as 'victims' of social and gender inequalities and as 'irrational' patients, 'irresponsible' mothers and 'bad' citizens if they do not embody the neo-Malthusian and biomedical rationales shaping medical practice. However, these women do not behave as 'docile bodies': they tactically use medical and non-medical contraceptives not only to be good mothers and citizens, but also to enhance themselves and to attain their own goals.

  11. Family Planning and Preconception Health Among Men in Their Mid-30s: Developing Indicators and Describing Need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Frances E; Sonenstein, Freya L; Astone, Nan M; Pleck, Joseph H; Dariotis, Jacinda K; Marcell, Arik V

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Healthy People 2020 call for improvements in meeting men's reproductive health needs but little is known about the proportion of men in need. This study describes men aged 35 to 39 in need of family planning and preconception care, demographic correlates of these needs, and contraception use among men in need of family planning. Using data from Wave 4 (2008-2010) of the National Survey of Adolescent Males, men were classified in need of family planning and preconception care if they reported sex with a female in the last year and believed that they and their partner were fecund; the former included men who were neither intentionally pregnant nor intending future children and the latter included men intending future children. Men were classified as being in need of both if they reported multiple sex partners in the past year. About 40% of men aged 35 to 39 were in need of family planning and about 33% in need of preconception care with 12% in need of both. Current partner's age, current union type, and sexually transmitted infection health risk differentiated men in need of family planning and preconception care (all ps planning reported none of the time current partner hormonal use (55%) or condom use (52%) during the past year. This study identified that many men in their mid-30s are in need of family planning or preconception care.

  12. Observing principles of medical ethics during family planning services at Tehran urban healthcare centers in 2007

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    Saeed Motevallizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family planning has been defined in the framework of mothers and children plan as one of Primary Healthcare (PHC details. Besides quantity, the quality of services, particularly in terms of ethics, such as observing individuals’ privacy, is of great importance in offering family planning services.Objective: A preliminary study to gather information about the degree of medical ethics offered during family planning services at Tehran urban healthcare centers.Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was designed for study. In the first question regarding informed consent, 47 clients who were advised about various contraception methods were asked whether advantages and disadvantages of the contraceptive methods have been discussed by the service provider. Then a certain rank was measured for either client or method in 2007. Finally, average value of advantage and disadvantage for each method was measured. In questions about autonomy, justice and beneficence, yes/no answers have been expected and measured accordingly.Results: Health care providers have stressed more on the advantages of pills and disadvantages of tubectomy and have paid less attention to advantages of injection ampoules and disadvantages of pills in first time clients. While they have stressed more on the advantages and disadvantages of tubectomy and less attention to advantages of condom and disadvantages of vasectomy in second time clients. Clients divulged their 100% satisfaction in terms of observing turns and free charges services.Observance degree of autonomy was 64.7% and 77.3% for first time and second- time clients respectively.Conclusion: Applying the consultant’s personal viewpoint for selecting a method will breach an informed consent for first and second time clients. System has good consideration to justice and no malfeasance

  13. Contraception and family planning among HIV-seroconcordant and -serodiscordant couples in the US and Zambia

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    Deborah L Jones

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Deborah L Jones1, Olga Villar-Loubet1, Chipepo Kankasa2, Ndashi Chitalu2, Miriam Mumbi2, Stephen M Weiss11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Paediatrics, University of Zambia School of Medicine, Lusaka, ZambiaAbstract: With the advent of antiretroviral therapy, remarkable progress has been made in the reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. As a result, in both the developed and developing world, reproductive decision-making and family planning has re-emerged as an important health issue among HIV-seroconcordant and -serodiscordant couples. This study sought to explore contraceptive attitudes and practices among HIV-seropositive and -serodiscordant couples in the US and Zambia and to compare contraceptive decision-making between seroconcordant and discordant couples. Study results suggest that while most participants expressed a willingness to use protection to prevent pregnancy, the majority were not using protection consistently. Similarly, among seropositive younger men in both the US and Zambia, more men expressed a desire to have children than women of either serostatus group. Study outcomes also suggest that male and female condom use to reduce HIV transmission within couples is limited. Thus, as males are largely the sexual decision makers regarding condom use, women’s attitudes or plans regarding child bearing may be eclipsed by those of their male partners, and recent reductions in provision of female condoms in the developing world may further reduce women’s options to protect themselves and prevent pregnancy. Education and counseling on vertical and horizontal transmission of HIV among both seropositive and serodiscordant couples should be an element of family planning efforts. Conversely, family planning should be a critical element of HIV counseling and testing strategies to

  14. "Fewer children, better life" or "as many as God wants"? Family planning among low-income Iranian and Afghan refugee families in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tober, Diane M; Taghdisi, Mohammad-Hossein; Jalali, Mohammad

    2006-03-01

    In the West it is often assumed that religion (esp. Islam) and contraception are mutually exclusive. Yet, the Islamic Republic of Iran has one of the most successful family-planning programs in the developing world, and is often looked to as a potential model for other Muslim countries. Although Iran's family-planning program has been extremely successful among Iranians, it has been far less successful among Afghan refugees and other ethnic groups. Afghans and Iranians both seek services in Iran's public health sector for family health care, treatment of infectious disease, and childhood vaccinations. On these occasions, all adult married patients are strongly encouraged to use family planning to reduce the number of offspring. In this article, we explore how Iran's family-planning program is differentially perceived and utilized among low-income Iranian and Afghan refugee families in rural and urban locations. Particular attention is given to how different interpretations of Islam may or may not influence reproductive health-related behaviors and how cultural factors influence reproductive strategies.

  15. Meeting demand for family planning within a generation: prospects and implications at country level

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    Yoonjoung Choi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to track progress towards the target of universal access to sexual and reproductive health care services of the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, a measure (demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods and a benchmark (at least 75% by 2030 in all countries have been recommended. Objectives: The goal of this study was to assess the prospects of reaching the benchmark at the country level. Such information can facilitate strategic planning, including resource allocation at global and country levels. Design: We selected 63 countries based on their status as least developed according to the United Nations or as a priority country in global family planning initiatives. Using United Nations estimates and projections of family planning indicators between 1970 and 2030, we calculated percent demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods for each year and country. We then calculated the annual percentage point changes between 2014 and 2030 required to meet the benchmark. The required rates of change were compared to current projections as well as estimates between 1970 and 2010. Results: To reach the benchmark on average across the 63 countries, demand satisfied with modern methods must increase by 2.2 percentage points per year between 2014 and 2030 – more than double current projections. Between 1970 and 2010, such rapid progress was observed in 24 study countries but typically spanning 5–10 years. At currently projected rates, only 9 of the 63 study countries will reach the benchmark. Meanwhile, the gap between projected and required changes is largest in the Central and West African regions, 0.9 and 3.0 percentage points per year, respectively. If the benchmark is achieved, 334 million women across the study countries will use a modern contraceptive method in 2030, compared to 226 million women in 2014. Conclusions: In order to achieve the component of the SDGs

  16. Reproductive health/family planning and the health of infants, girls and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadik, N

    1997-01-01

    The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development developed international consensus amongst health providers, policy makers, and group representing the whole of civil society regarding the concept of reproductive health and its definition. In line with this definition, reproductive health care is defined as the constellation of methods, techniques and services that contribute to reproductive health and well-being by preventing and solving reproductive health problems. Reproductive health care saves lives and prevents significant levels of morbidity through family planning programmes, antenatal, delivery and post-natal services, prevention and management programmes for reproductive tract infections (including sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS), prevention of abortion and management of its complications, cancers of the reproductive system, and harmful practices that impact on reproductive function. Reproductive health care needs are evident at all stages of the life cycle and account for a greater proportion of disability adjusted life years (DALYS) in girls and women than in boys and men. Reproductive health protects infant health by enabling birth spacing and birth limitation to be practiced through family planning. The prevention and early detection of reproductive tract infections, including sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, through the integration of preventive measures in family planning service delivery not only improves the quality of care provided but is also directly responsible for improvement in survival and health of infants. Addressing harmful practices such as son preference, sex selection, sexual violence and female genital mutilation complements the positive impact of planned and spaced children through family planning services on infant mortality and the reproductive health of young girls and women. They are also in addition to prenatal, delivery and postnatal services, positive determinants of low maternal mortality and

  17. Does early childbearing and a sterilization-focused family planning programme in India fuel population growth?

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    Zoë Matthews

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent stagnation in the reduction of infant mortality in India can arguably be attributed to early child bearing practices and the lack of progress in lengthening birth intervals. Meanwhile, family planning efforts have been particularly successful in the southern states such as Andhra Pradesh, although family limitation is almost exclusively by means of sterilisation at increasingly younger ages. This paper examines the population impact of the unprecedented convergence of early childbearing trajectories in India and quantifies the potential implications stemming from the neglect of strategies that encourage delaying and spacing of births. The effects of adopting a 'later, longer and fewer' family planning strategy are compared with the continuation of fertility concentrated in the younger age groups. Results from the cohort component population projections suggest that a policy encouraging later marriage and birth spacing would achieve a future total population which is about 52 million less in 2050 than if the current early fertility trajectory is continued.

  18. Determinants of family planning acceptance and changing social norms among the tribes of Tamil Nadu – A qualitative exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Niranjan Yadav; Patil, Rajan R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are very few studies done among tribes that explore the contribution of changing social norms which influences the acceptance of family planning methods. Objective: To discover various changing traditional social norms that influence tribal people to accept contraceptive methods. Methodology: Ten in-depth interviews were conducted among Toda and Irula tribes of Nilagiri district, Tamil Nadu. Family planning acceptors were interviewed and sampling was purposive to get data ri...

  19. Family planning, STD services fare well under Kennedy health reform proposal. But abortion debate yet to come.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The US Senate Labor and Human Resources Committee has advanced a health care reform plan that includes stronger and more complete coverage of reproductive health care than any other major proposal. It is likely to spark debates over coverage of abortion services, however. The Labor and Human Resources' health care reform plan (the Kennedy plan) expands the definition of family planning services to include counseling and education and coverage of contraceptive drugs and devices. The lack of specificity of coverage of prescription drugs in the Clinton plan worried reproductive health advocates. The Kennedy plan addresses contraceptive drugs and devices under the category family planning services, which, in essence, does not make them subject to the separate deductible. It also exempts all family planning services from any deductibles or copayments. The Kennedy plan refers to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) rather than calling them fertility related infectious illnesses as the Clinton plan does. The Kennedy plan would include syphilis. Both plans cover annual exams for women at risk of STDs. The Kennedy plan covers pap smears or pelvic exam every two years, while the interval of the Clinton plan is three years. No one challenged any of the above provisions during the first round of committee markups. There is likely to be no challenges after the 1994 Memorial Day recess. One was surprised that no challenges materialized over the provision for school-related health education and services. The committee approved this provision by a vote of 17-0. Even the antiabortion supporter did not object to it. The major challenge awaiting the committee after the Memorial Day recess is abortion. The Kennedy plan does not specifically include abortion but is intimated under the category of services for pregnant women. Antiabortion amendments are expected. It is unlikely this committee or any other committee will reach a consensus over the overall shape of a reform plan. PMID

  20. Level of information about gynaecological prevention in teenagers at risk from social exclusion, referred by family court rulings to juvenile attendance centres – a pilot study

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    Marcin Bobiński

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. The objective of the study was to present preliminary results of a pilot study concerning the level of knowledge of gynaecological prevention, conducted in teenagers referred by court rulings to a juvenile attendance centre. Materials and method. The instrument was an anonymous survey questionnaire completed by participants in health prevention classes in late 2010 and early 2011. The studied group consisted of teenagers aged 15–17 years (mean age: 15.72 years, median = 16 years, SD = 0.679 who were under probation officers’ supervision in the Zamość region of south-eastern Poland. The sample size was 101 persons – 51 boys (50.50%, 50 girls (49.5%. Results. According to the respondents, the most important reasons for seeing a gynaecologist were: menstrual disorders (70.30%, suspicion of pregnancy (63.37% and pain or burning sensations while urinating (58.42%. The following were regarded as prevalent cancers in women: cancers of the breast (99.01%, cervix (89.1%, and ovaries (62.38%. Over 92% of subjects stated that it was possible to protect oneself from cervical cancer, but only 41.5% of respondents indicated the correct definition of the term ‘cytology’. Statistical analysis focused on differences between genders. A higher self-assessment of mental health was shown in boys. Conclusions. Teenagers of similar background may find it more difficult to gain access to knowledge about health prophylaxis, including gynaecological prevention. Efforts should be intensified in order to ‘equalize health opportunities’ through appropriate preparation of teaching curricula (including health education and philosophy of medicine.

  1. Adolescents in planned lesbian families in the U.S. and the Netherlands: Stigmatization, psychological adjustment, and resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Gelderen

    2012-01-01

    From the studies in this dissertation, it can be concluded that adolescents in planned lesbian families do not differ in terms of their perceived quality of life and exhibit less problem behavior than adolescents in matched heterosexual families. Some adolescents experienced negative reactions from

  2. Family planning knowledge and practice among people living with HIV in Nepal.

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    Shiva Raj Mishra

    Full Text Available Unsafe sexual behavior is common among the HIV infected. This exposes them to the risks of unintended pregnancy, HIV transmission to uninfected partners and super-infection. Studies on the use of family planning measures among People Living with HIV (PLHIV are scarce in Nepal. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and practice of family planning (FP in PLHIV. A cross sectional survey was conducted during July-December 2012 in Kaski district of Nepal. A total of 120 PLHIVs were recruited using snowball sampling from three HIV clinics within the Pokhara sub-metropolitan city area. This study found that nine in ten PLHIV had heard about family planning. Two thirds of respondents were using at least one FP method. The majority (65.8% used condoms and had received FP counseling (67.5%. Less than one percent used condoms in addition to another contraceptive. Being single, being female and having received the counselling sessions were associated with the use of FP. The individuals who received FP counseling were more likely [OR 4.522; 95% CI (1.410-14.504] to use FP. Females were more likely [OR 4.808; 95% CI (1.396-16.556] to use FP than males. The individuals who were single/de-facto widowed were more likely [OR 7.330; 95% CI (2.064-26.028] to use FP than the married individuals. Our findings suggest that there is a need to focus on FP counseling if the HIV prevention program is to increase FP use among the PLHIV population. Use of dual contraceptives need to be promoted through counseling sessions and other health promotion programs focusing in HIV prevention.

  3. Attitudes of Family Planning Workers toward Setting Up Special Counseling Stations for Unmarried Young Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂晓雯; 刘英惠; 楼超华; 高尔生

    2001-01-01

    Objective To understand attitudes of family planning workers to setting up special counseling stations for unmarried young adults and to identify the acceptable and feasible ways to provide the services for unmarried young adults in eight provinces/cities in ChinaMethods From May 1998to December 1998, 1 927family planning workers including 965 contraceptive providers and 962 contraceptive distributors were recruited for questionnaire survey in eight provinces/cities in China.Results Except the subjects from Hebei Province, over 70% of all the subjects from other provinces/cities thought it was necessary to have a special counseling station set up for unmarried young adults, while 10~ 20% of them opposed to it. Result of Multivariable Logistic regression analysis showed that where the subjects came from, were contraceptive distributors, have higher education level, younger than 50, expressed tolerance for premarital sex, perceived that unmarried young adults had no or inadequate knowledge about sexuality and considered it was difficult for unmarried young adults to obtain contraceptive methods, were more likely to support the establishment of special counseling stations for unmarried youth. The acceptable and feasible ways to provide contraceptive services varied from one province/city to another. Generally,family planning counseling stations and hospital were the most acceptable place to provide counseling services for unmarried young adults in eight provinces/cities. Specially trained persons were recommended as the suitable persons for providing the services for unmarried young adults. Conclusion It is acceptable and feasible to set up special counseling stations for unmarried young adults.

  4. Estimating family planning coverage from contraceptive prevalence using national household surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Aluisio J. D.; Boerma, Ties; Hosseinpoor, Ahmad R.; Restrepo-Méndez, María C.; Wong, Kerry L. M.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Contraception is one of the most important health interventions currently available and yet, many women and couples still do not have reliable access to modern contraceptives. The best indicator for monitoring family planning is the proportion of women using contraception among those who need it. This indicator is frequently called demand for family planning satisfied and we argue that it should be called family planning coverage (FPC). This indicator is complex to calculate and requires a considerable number of questions to be included in a household survey. Objectives We propose a model that can predict FPC from a much simpler indicator – contraceptive use prevalence – for situations where it cannot be derived directly. Design Using 197 Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys from 82 countries, we explored least-squares regression models that could be used to predict FPC. Non-linearity was expected in this situation and we used a fractional polynomial approach to find the best fitting model. We also explored the effect of calendar time and of wealth on the models explored. Results Given the high correlation between the variables involved in FPC, we managed to derive a relatively simple model that depends only on contraceptive use prevalence but explains 95% of the variability of the outcome, with high precision for the estimated regression line. We also show that the relationship between the two variables has not changed with time. A concordance analysis showed agreement between observed and fitted results within a range of ±9 percentage points. Conclusions We show that it is possible to obtain fairly good estimates of FPC using only contraceptive prevalence as a predictor, a strategy that is useful in situations where it is not possible to estimate FPC directly. PMID:26562141

  5. A recipe for success: ingredients for a successful family planning program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, J

    1992-09-01

    The basic elements of a successful family planning (FP) program are variable between countries. Providing better access to modern contraceptives, access to general and reproductive health care, and increasing economic and educational opportunities contribute to reducing fertility rates. Effective distribution is constrained by rural, isolated populations and cultural attitudes. Indonesia has used floating clinics located on boats to reach inaccessible areas; Norplant and hormonal injection availability also contribute to the 53% contraceptive prevalence rate. The Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning has shipped bicycles to developing countries. The result has been improved status among peers and greater program success. Contraceptive social marketing programs (CSM) have been successful in some countries to distribute contraceptives through local channels such as shops and stalls; people seem willing to pay also. CSM has been successful in Egypt in increasing condom sales. IUD use increased from 11% to 42% between 1975-88 with CSM. Multimedia promotion that is carefully researched and targeted is another way to increase contraceptive prevalence (CP) rates. A Brazilian multimedia vasectomy campaign led to an 80% monthly increase in Pro-Pater male health clinics. 240,000 women in Turkey were encouraged through multimedia efforts to switch to modern methods. In Zimbabwe, men have been the target of efforts to educate them about the advantages of small families. Women are recruited to implement FP services in INdia and in poor neighborhoods; an increase from 12% to 61% was achieved. Highly motivated workers with a respect for the community's values is essential to any successful FP program as is government support. China's policy has drawn criticism; China has welcomed a UN program which provides financial motivation. Thailand has been successful due to the commitment between public and private sectors; in 17 years CP rose from 10% to

  6. Beyond denomination: The relationship between religion and family planning in rural Malawi

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    Jenny Trinitapoli

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the centrality of religion and fertility to life in rural Africa, the relationship between the two remains poorly understood. The study presented here uses unique integrated individual- and congregational-level data from rural Malawi to examine religious influences on contraceptive use. In this religiously diverse population, we find evidence that the particular characteristics of a congregation-leader's positive attitudes toward family planning and discussion of sexual morality, which do not fall along broad denominational lines-are more relevant than denominational categories for predicting women's contraceptive use. We further find evidence for a relationship between religious socialization and contraceptive behavior.

  7. Beyond Denomination: The Relationship between Religion and Family Planning in Rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Sara E; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2008-10-24

    Despite the centrality of religion and fertility to life in rural Africa, the relationship between the two remains poorly understood. The study presented here uses unique integrated individual and congregational level data from rural Malawi to examine religious influences on contraceptive use. In this religiously diverse population, we find evidence that the particular characteristics of a congregation-leader's positive attitudes toward family planning and discussion of sexual morality, which do not fall along broad denominational lines-are more relevant than denominational categories for predicting women's contraceptive use. We further find evidence for a relationship between religious socialization and contraceptive behavior.

  8. "Natural family planning": effective birth control supported by the Catholic Church.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, R E

    1993-01-01

    During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and co...

  9. Unmet Need for Family Planning: Implication for Under-five Mortality in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adedini, Sunday Adepoju; Odimegwu, Clifford; Imasiku, Eunice Ntwala; Ononokpono, Dorothy Ngozi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT There are gaps in evidence on whether unmet need for family planning has any implication for under-five mortality in Nigeria. This study utilized 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data to examine the effect of unmet need on under-five mortality. Cox regression analysis was performed on 28,647 children born by a nationally-representative sample of 18,028 women within the five years preceding the survey. Findings indicated elevated risks of under-five death for children whose ...

  10. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings II: results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Huang, Shuyuan; Noznesky, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    An estimated 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict in 2012. Already vulnerable from the insecurity of the emergency, women must also face the continuing risk of unwanted pregnancy but often are unable to obtain family planning services. The ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, has provided contraceptives, including long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), to refugees, internally displaced persons, and conflict-affected resident populations in Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan. The project works through the Ministry of Health in 4 key areas: (1) competency-based training, (2) supply chain management, (3) systematic supervision, and (4) community mobilization to raise awareness and shift norms related to family planning. This article presents data on program results from July 2011 to December 2013 from the 5 countries. Project staff summarized monthly data from client registers using hard-copy forms and recorded the data electronically in Microsoft Excel for compilation and analysis. The initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries, ranging from 575 in Djibouti to 21,191 in Chad. LARCs have predominated overall, representing 61% of new modern method users. The percentage of new users choosing LARCs varied by country: 78% in the DRC, 72% in Chad, and 51% in Mali, but only 29% in Pakistan. In Djibouti, those methods were not offered in the country through SAFPAC during the period discussed here. In Chad, the DRC, and Mali, implants have been the most popular LARC method, while in Pakistan the IUD has been more popular. Use of IUDs, however, has comprised a larger share of the method mix over time in all 4 of these countries. These results to date suggest that it is feasible to work with the public sector in fragile, crisis-affected states to deliver a wide range of quality

  11. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings II: results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Huang, Shuyuan; Noznesky, Elizabeth

    2015-02-04

    An estimated 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict in 2012. Already vulnerable from the insecurity of the emergency, women must also face the continuing risk of unwanted pregnancy but often are unable to obtain family planning services. The ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, has provided contraceptives, including long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), to refugees, internally displaced persons, and conflict-affected resident populations in Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan. The project works through the Ministry of Health in 4 key areas: (1) competency-based training, (2) supply chain management, (3) systematic supervision, and (4) community mobilization to raise awareness and shift norms related to family planning. This article presents data on program results from July 2011 to December 2013 from the 5 countries. Project staff summarized monthly data from client registers using hard-copy forms and recorded the data electronically in Microsoft Excel for compilation and analysis. The initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries, ranging from 575 in Djibouti to 21,191 in Chad. LARCs have predominated overall, representing 61% of new modern method users. The percentage of new users choosing LARCs varied by country: 78% in the DRC, 72% in Chad, and 51% in Mali, but only 29% in Pakistan. In Djibouti, those methods were not offered in the country through SAFPAC during the period discussed here. In Chad, the DRC, and Mali, implants have been the most popular LARC method, while in Pakistan the IUD has been more popular. Use of IUDs, however, has comprised a larger share of the method mix over time in all 4 of these countries. These results to date suggest that it is feasible to work with the public sector in fragile, crisis-affected states to deliver a wide range of quality

  12. The effects of lian gong in hypertensives attended a family healthcare unit in the city of Parnaíba, Piauí

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    Elce de Seixas Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the effects of Lian Gong in hypertensive users of Family Health Unity. Methods: A descriptive qualitative study, involving 20 volunteers, regardless of gender, aged 45 to 70 years residing in the city of Parnaíba-PI, Brazil. The intervention was performed in quiet and noise-free environment, from August to September 2011, three times per week, with a total of 30 sessions. We used the tool Focus Group at the beginning and end of the intervention. We applied the technique of thematic analysis of the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD using three methodological approaches: main idea, key expressions and CSD. Basic statistics operations were used (percentages to quantify the lines. Results: Before the intervention, the group reported having hypertension perceived by the manifestation of physical symptoms and / or psychic symptoms based on the diagnosis and treatment rejection, revealing a superficial level of knowledge or misinformation about the disease. After the intervention, improvement in physical and emotional symptoms, social relationships and family was reported, as well as the difficulty of changing habits, which can be alleviated with the interdisciplinary support and continuation of exercise. Final Thoughts: The practice of Lian Gong was effective for improving the physical and emotional state of hypertensive patients and may be an adjuvant therapy to control hypertension in primary health care.

  13. Assessment of Family Planning Services at Community Pharmacies in San Diego, California

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    Sally Rafie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Levonorgestrel emergency contraception and other contraceptive methods are available over-the-counter (OTC; however youth continue to face a number of barriers in accessing healthcare services, including lack of knowledge of the method, fear of loss of privacy, difficulties in finding a provider, and cost. A descriptive, nonexperimental, cross-sectional study of a sample of 112 community pharmacies in San Diego, California was conducted between December 2009 and January 2010 to assess community pharmacy practices related to the availability and accessibility of family planning health pharmacy services and products, particularly to youth. A majority (n = 79/112, 70.5% of the pharmacies carried a wide selection of male condoms; however, the other OTC nonhormonal contraceptive products were either not available or available with limited selection. A majority of the pharmacies sold emergency contraception (n = 88/111, 78.6%. Most patient counseling areas consisted of either a public or a semi-private area. A majority of the pharmacy sites did not provide materials or services targeting youth. Significant gaps exist in providing family planning products and services in the majority of community pharmacies in San Diego, California. Education and outreach efforts are needed to promote provision of products and services, particularly to the adolescent population.

  14. Treatment planning for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: treatment utilization and family preferences

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    William B Brinkman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available William B Brinkman, Jeffery N EpsteinDepartment of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USABackground: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common condition that often results in child and family functional impairments. Although there are evidence-based treatment modalities available, implementation of and persistence with treatment plans vary with patients. Family preferences also vary and may contribute to variability in treatment utilization.Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the evidence-based treatments available for ADHD, identify patterns of use for each modality, and examine patient and parent treatment preferences.Method: Literature review.Results: Treatment options differ on benefits and risks/costs. Therefore, treatment decisions are preference sensitive and depend on how an informed patient/parent values the tradeoffs between options. Literature on patient and parent ADHD treatment preferences is based on quantitative research assessing the construct of treatment acceptability and qualitative and quantitative research that assesses preferences from a broader perspective. After a child is diagnosed with ADHD, a variety of factors influence the initial selection of treatment modalities that are utilized. Initial parent and child preferences are shaped by their beliefs about the nature of the child's problems and by information (and misinformation received from a variety of sources, including social networks, the media, and health care providers. Subsequently, preferences become further informed by personal experience with various treatment modalities. Over time, treatment plans are revisited and revised as families work with their health care team to establish a treatment plan that helps their child achieve goals while minimizing harms and costs.Conclusions: Studies have not been able to determine the extent to which

  15. Family Planning Practice Among Rural Reproductive-Age Married Women in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapongsuwan, Ann; Latt, Kyaw Thu; Siri, Sukhontha; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai

    2016-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate family planning (FP) practices and associated factors among reproductive-age married women. Data were collected by interviewing the 300 married women living in a rural area of Myanmar. The questionnaire had reliability coefficients ranging from .8 to .9. Results indicated that 73.3% of women performed FP, and contraceptive injection was the most common method. Significant associations were found with age 21 to 35 years (adjusted odds ratio [adj OR] = 3.748, 95% CI = 2.179-6.445), adequacy of income (adj OR = 2.520, 95% CI = 1.477-4.290), good attitude toward FP (adj OR = 0.386, 95% CI = 0.228-0.656), good support from health care providers (adj OR = 0.129, 95% CI = 0.054-0.313), good support from family (adj OR = 0.304, 95% CI = 0.163-0.565), good support from friends (adj OR = 0.344, 95% CI = 0.193-0.613), and FP practice. It is recommended that designing FP programs with peers and family involvement could increase the practice of FP among rural Myanmar women. PMID:27122625

  16. Demand for modern family planning among married women living with HIV in western Ethiopia.

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    Tesfaye Regassa Feyissa

    Full Text Available People living with HIV (PLHIV have diverse family planning (FP needs. Little is reported on FP needs among women living with HIV in Ethiopia. Thus, the objective of the study was to assess the demand for modern FP among married women living with HIV in western Ethiopia.A facility-based cross-sectional survey was conducted on 401 married women living with HIV selected from Nekemte Referral Hospital and Health Center, Nekemte, Oromia, Ethiopia. Convenience sampling of every other eligible patient was used to recruit respondents. Data were collected using a pretested, structured questionnaire. We first calculated frequency and percentage of unmet need, met need and total demand by each explanatory variable, and performed chi-squared testing to assess for differences in groups. We then fitted logistic regression models to identify correlates of unmet need for modern FP at 95% CL.The proportion of respondents with met need for modern FP among married women living with HIV was 61.6% (30.7% for spacing and 30.9% for limiting. Demand for family planning was reported in 77.0% (38.2% for spacing and 38.8% for limiting, making unmet need for modern FP prevalent in 15.4% (7.5% for spacing and 7.9% for limiting. Whereas age 25-34 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR (95% confidence interval (CI = .397 (.204-.771] was protective against unmet need for modern FP, not having knowledge of MTCT [AOR (95% CI = 2.531 (1.689-9.290] and not discussing FP with a partner [AOR (95% CI = 3.616(1.869-6.996] were associated with increased odds of unmet need for modern FP.There is high unmet need for modern FP in HIV-positive married women in western Ethiopia. Health care providers and program managers at a local and international level should work to satisfy the unmet need for modern family planning.

  17. WORKERS" OPINIONS ABOUT FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAMS: FACTORIES WITH MORE THAN 1000 WORKERS- ISFAHAN 1997

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    Maryam NASR ISFAHANI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Population growth and its difficulties is one of the most important health problems in the world especially in developing countries. so the studies in this field are necessary and useful in IRAN. This study was done to find out the workers population specificities and their opinion about family planning programs. Methods: This descriptive study was held in the factories with more than 1000 workers in 1375. nearly 10 percent of the workers were chosen from 7 factories through the systematic random sampling The sample was about 1096 workers. They answered to multiple choise questionnaire during 3 months and the data were analysed by the descriptive statistical methods and also x2 and pierson correlation tests. Results: Most of workers (80 percent were under 40 years old and 0.5 percent were single and others were married. The illiterates were 6 percent and about 82 percent were studied 8 grades and less. The mean of the number of their children was 3.7 and 33 percent had 5 children or more. The family planning methods were used by them as follows: Tubal ligation and Vasectomy 32 percent, Natural methods 22.3 percent, OCP 19.8 percent, Candom 11.1 percent, IUD 10 percent and Lactation as a method 0.53 percent. About 4.2 percent had used more than one birth control method. Disussion: Result showed that there was a reverse correlation between the age of marriage and number of existing children (P < 0.001 and also between the literacy status and the opinion about the number of children (P < 0.001 there was relation between the age of the workers and the opinion about the number of children (P < 0.01. the reverse correlation between the literacy status and the number of existing children was stables even after the control of the age rariable as a confonder. Study of birth control methods shows that the use of family planning method is different between the groups with different literacy levels.

  18. ANALYTIC STUDY OF ADOLESCENT GIRLS ATTENDING SULTANIA ZANANA HOSPITAL, BHOPAL

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    Umesh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Aim of our study was to analyze the reasons for which adolescent girls attend Sultania Zanana Hospital, Bhopal, which is a tertiary care Centre holding the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal. OBJECTIVE: To know what percentage of patients belong to adolescent age group and there a sons they come, to SZH, Bhopal. MATERIAL AND METHODS: After prior approval of Review Board and Institute Ethics Committtee. This hospital based analytical study was carried out from 1st June ‘12 to 30th May’ 13 in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Gandhi Medical College and associated Sultania Zanana Hospital, Bhopal. All adolescent girls attending OPD, Antenatal Clinic, Family planning Clinic, and Integrated Counseling Testing Centre or admitted in Sultania Zanana Hospital, Bhopal in the age group of 10 – 19 years during the study duration was analysed. RESULT: Analysis revealed that during the study period, a total of 455 adolescent girls attended indoor of Sultania Zanana Hospital Bhopal which constitutes 2.7% of total indoor patient load. CONCLUSION: It was concluded from study that early age at menarche, early age at marriage, low education, and high incidence of genitourinary infection, lack of awareness about contraception and reproduction health issues, and non-consensual sex are major health issues of adolescent years. This is still an "unmet need" in reproductive and sexual health care of this age group. This unmet need varies among married and unmarried adolescents.

  19. Effects of rural-urban return migration on women's family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behavior in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiajian; Liu, Hongyan; Xie, Zhenming

    2010-03-01

    This study examines the effects of rural-urban return migration on women's family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behavior in the sending areas of rural China. Based on data from a survey of rural women aged 16-40 in Sichuan and Anhui Provinces in 2000, our study finds that migrant women returning from cities to the countryside, especially those who have been living in a large city, are more likely than nonmigrant women to adopt positive family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behavior in their rural communities of origin. We find, moreover, that living in a rural community where the prevalence of such return migrant women is higher is positively associated with new fertility and gender attitudes and with knowledge of self-controllable contraceptives. The findings of significant rural-urban return-migration effects have important policy implications for shaping family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behaviors in rural China.

  20. Effects of state welfare, abortion and family planning policies on premarital childbearing among white adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, S; Plotnick, R D

    1990-01-01

    This study develops an empirical model that measures the influence of state welfare, abortion and family planning policies on decisions concerning premarital pregnancy, abortion and single parenthood. Data are based on the fertility and marital experiences of white females from the three youngest cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, for 1979-1986. The results show that laws restricting contraceptive availability are associated with a higher risk of pregnancy. Restrictive policies on public funding of abortions reduce the likelihood of abortion, while greater availability of abortion services is associated with a higher likelihood that adolescents will obtain abortions. Finally, the estimates indicate that higher welfare benefits reduce the probability that pregnant adolescents will marry before bearing their children. PMID:2289541

  1. Prediction of attendance at fitness center : a comparison between the theory of planned behavior, the social cognitive theory, and the physical activity maintenance theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jekauc, Darko; Völkle, Manuel; Wagner, Matthias O.; Mess, Filip; Reiner, Miriam; Renner, Britta

    2015-01-01

    In the processes of physical activity (PA) maintenance specific predictors are effective, which differ from other stages of PA development. Recently, Physical Activity Maintenance Theory (PAMT) was specifically developed for prediction of PA maintenance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictability of the future behavior by the PAMT and compare it with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Participation rate in a fitness center was observed...

  2. Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center Pap Smear Clinics of Information, Evaluation of Applicants

    OpenAIRE

    Sebahat Gucuk; Servet Alkan; Secil Arica; Aysegul Ates

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In this study of women admitted to our center with information on pap smear test, to evaluate the attitudes and behavior. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study of Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center on a voluntary basis, women aged 15-49 were admitted to the control. The education level of participants, age at first marriage, before the presence of vaginal infection, the story, and motivations pap smear level of information availability, and a family history ...

  3. Succession Planning As an Economic Education to Improve Family Business Performance in East Java Province of Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sentot Imam Wahjono; Wahjoedi; Syafei Idrus; J.G. Nirbito

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the role of succession planning as part of economic education in improving family business performance. Research carried out by using qualitative approach with in-depth interview and outside observation as a technique. The data source is owner of 3 family businesses (6 peoples) as key informants and 6 experts as expertise informants. The data were processed using content analysis. The finding of this research is business start-up from own money and saving...

  4. The value of spatial analysis for tracking supply for family planning: the case of Kinshasa, DRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Julie H; Akilimali, Pierre; Kayembe, Patrick; Dikamba, Nelly; Bertrand, Jane

    2016-10-01

    While geographic information systems (GIS) are frequently used to research accessibility issues for healthcare services around the world, sophisticated spatial analysis protocols and outputs often prove inappropriate and unsustainable to support evidence-based programme strategies in resource-constrained environments. This article examines how simple, open-source and interactive GIS tools have been used to locate family planning (FP) services delivery points in Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo) and to identify underserved areas, determining the potential location of new service points, and to support advocacy for FP programmes. Using smartphone-based data collection applications (OpenDataKit), we conducted two surveys of FP facilities supported by partner organizations in 2012 and 2013 and used the results to assess gaps in FP services coverage, using both ratio of facilities per population and distance-based accessibility criteria. The cartographic outputs included both static analysis maps and interactive Google Earth displays, and sought to support advocacy and evidence-based planning for the placement of new service points. These maps, at the scale of Kinshasa or for each of the 35 health zones that cover the city, garnered a wide interest from the operational level of the health zones' Chief Medical Officers, who were consulted to contribute field knowledge on potential new service delivery points, to the FP programmes officers at the Ministry of Health, who could use the map to inform resources allocation decisions throughout the city.

  5. The value of spatial analysis for tracking supply for family planning: the case of Kinshasa, DRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Julie H; Akilimali, Pierre; Kayembe, Patrick; Dikamba, Nelly; Bertrand, Jane

    2016-10-01

    While geographic information systems (GIS) are frequently used to research accessibility issues for healthcare services around the world, sophisticated spatial analysis protocols and outputs often prove inappropriate and unsustainable to support evidence-based programme strategies in resource-constrained environments. This article examines how simple, open-source and interactive GIS tools have been used to locate family planning (FP) services delivery points in Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo) and to identify underserved areas, determining the potential location of new service points, and to support advocacy for FP programmes. Using smartphone-based data collection applications (OpenDataKit), we conducted two surveys of FP facilities supported by partner organizations in 2012 and 2013 and used the results to assess gaps in FP services coverage, using both ratio of facilities per population and distance-based accessibility criteria. The cartographic outputs included both static analysis maps and interactive Google Earth displays, and sought to support advocacy and evidence-based planning for the placement of new service points. These maps, at the scale of Kinshasa or for each of the 35 health zones that cover the city, garnered a wide interest from the operational level of the health zones' Chief Medical Officers, who were consulted to contribute field knowledge on potential new service delivery points, to the FP programmes officers at the Ministry of Health, who could use the map to inform resources allocation decisions throughout the city. PMID:27084735

  6. Paramedic insertion of intrauterine device in a Malaysian family planning clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwa Siew Kim; Arshat, H; Abdul Jalil, A H; Ang Eng Suan; Suhaimi, A

    1987-06-01

    A study was done by the Malaysian family planning clinic to check the feasibility in using paramedical personnel to insert IUDs. There were 250 insertions by trained senior nurses and 369 insertions by doctors. In the follow-up, no differences were found in terminations due to IUD complications, and also none in terminations for pregnancy, bleeding, pain, expulsion and pelvic infections. Studies in Turkey, Philippines, Korea, Iran, and Thailand showed similar results in that paramedical personnel are just as effective as doctors in the insertion of IUDs. The follow-up was done in this study by nurses at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months and from then, on a yearly basis. There was a large unexplained loss of follow-up in the nurses group, 12.7% and only 6% in the doctors. There was a 8.9% rate for removal for a planned pregnancy, and both groups had a high continuation rate: 63.3% for nurses and 70.5% for doctors. The conclusion of the study indicates that trained paramedical people can perform insertion of IUD's as effectively as doctors when there are no medical or gynecological problems in the patients. It is also noted that in some areas women prefer to have nurses do the insertion because of their conservative nature.

  7. Scale up use of family planning services to prevent maternal transmission of HIV among discordant couples: a cross-sectional study within a resource-limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuete M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Martin Kuete,1,2 HongFang Yuan,1 Aude Laure Tchoua Kemayou,2 Emmanuel Ancel Songo,2 Fan Yang,1 XiuLan Ma,1 ChengLiang Xiong,1 HuiPing Zhang1 1Obstetrics and Gynecology, Reproductive Center, Family Planning and Research Institute, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China; 2Main Maternity of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yaounde Central Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Yaounde, Cameroon Background: Integration of family planning services (FPS into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV care for HIV-infected women is an important aspect of the global prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT strategy. We assessed the integration of FPS into routine care of HIV-infected mothers by evaluating the uptake and barriers of contraception and PMTCT services. Methods: We conducted an interventional study using the interrupted time series approach in the health care facilities located in Yaounde, Cameroon. First, structured questionnaires related to family planning use, PMTCT services use, and infection risk of the sexual partner were administered to the first trimester pregnant women who were HIV infected and living with uninfected partners. Second, 2 weeks before the delivery date, the women were interviewed according to the prior counseling interventions received, in order to assess their behavior on FPS, antiretroviral therapy (ART use, delivery option, and infant nourishment to be adopted. P-values below 0.05 were considered statistically significant in the statistical analyses. Results: Of 94 HIV-infected women, 69% were stable couples. Only 13% of women had attended FPS before conception. Although the vast majority were knowledgeable about modern and traditional contraception methods, only 19% had experienced effective contraceptive methods. However, 66% preferred condom use, 45% having three children still expressed a desire to conceive, while 44% reported

  8. Quality of reproductive health services at primary health centres in an urban area of Iran : Emphasis on family planning

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad-Alizadeh Charandabi, Sakineh

    2009-01-01

    Background: Detailed knowledge of the present situation is needed in order to design and implement quality improvement programmes to achieve the national goal of planned and safe fertility for all in Iran. An understanding of the perspectives and views of clients and providers are also much needed. When this study was initiated there was a lack of studies on the quality of family planning and other primary reproductive health services in the country. Aim: To describe a...

  9. Applying lessons learned from the USAID family planning graduation experience to the GAVI graduation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Angela K; Farrell, Marguerite M; Vandenbroucke, Mary F; Fox, Elizabeth; Pablos-Mendez, Ariel

    2015-07-01

    As low income countries experience economic transition, characterized by rapid economic growth and increased government spending potential in health, they have increased fiscal space to support and sustain more of their own health programmes, decreasing need for donor development assistance. Phase out of external funds should be systematic and efforts towards this end should concentrate on government commitments towards country ownership and self-sustainability. The 2006 US Agency for International Development (USAID) family planning (FP) graduation strategy is one such example of a systematic phase-out approach. Triggers for graduation were based on pre-determined criteria and programme indicators. In 2011 the GAVI Alliance (formerly the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations) which primarily supports financing of new vaccines, established a graduation policy process. Countries whose gross national income per capita exceeds $1570 incrementally increase their co-financing of new vaccines over a 5-year period until they are no longer eligible to apply for new GAVI funding, although previously awarded support will continue. This article compares and contrasts the USAID and GAVI processes to apply lessons learned from the USAID FP graduation experience to the GAVI process. The findings of the review are 3-fold: (1) FP graduation plans served an important purpose by focusing on strategic needs across six graduation plan foci, facilitating graduation with pre-determined financial and technical benchmarks, (2) USAID sought to assure contraceptive security prior to graduation, phasing out of contraceptive donations first before phasing out from technical assistance in other programme areas and (3) USAID sought to sustain political support to assure financing of products and programmes continue after graduation. Improving sustainability more broadly beyond vaccine financing provides a more comprehensive approach to graduation. The USAID FP experience provides a

  10. Monitoring Student Attendance Using Dashboard

    OpenAIRE

    Hasniza Yahya; Rina Md. Anwar

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that student attendance has positive relationship with academic achievement. However, the manual process of taking attendance using paper does not allow the teacher to easily view and monitor individual attendance. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the use of dashboard in managing and monitoring student attendance. By using the attendance dashboard, teacher can easily track the attendance of a student and take necessary actions when needed.

  11. Rastreamento da depressão pós-parto em mulheres atendidas pelo Programa de Saúde da Família Post-partum depression screening among women attended by the Family Health Program

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    Eliane Bezerra da Silva Cruz

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: estimar a prevalência de depressão puerperal (DP sua associação com transtorno mental comum (TMC nas mulheres atendidas por duas unidades do Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF da cidade de São Paulo e identificar os fatores de risco associados à DP. MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal com 70 puérperas atendidas nas Unidades do PSF, Fazenda da Juta II e Jardim Sinhá, entre outubro de 2003 e fevereiro de 2004. Como instrumentos utilizaram-se: questionário com informações sociodemográficas econômicas e dados obstétricos e perinatais; Self-Report Questionnaire 20 (SRQ-20, para rastreamento de TMC e a Edinburgh Post-Natal Depression Scale (EPDS, para avaliação de DP. Para testar as associações entre variáveis explicativas (fatores de risco e a presença de DP foram utilizados os testes t de Student, chi2 e chi2 de tendência linear, quando indicados. Para avaliar a concordância entre a EPDS e o SRQ foi utilizado o coeficiente de concordância kappa (kapa. RESULTADOS: a prevalência de TMC e de DP foi de 37,1%. As escalas apresentaram boa concordância (kapa = 0,75. As variáveis explicativas idade materna, cor, escolaridade, ocupação e estado civil, além de idade, ocupação e instrução do companheiro, renda familiar, número de gestações, paridade, abortamentos, filhos vivos, partos prematuros, idade gestacional, tipo do parto, planejamento da gestação, Apgar de 1º e 5º minuto, sexo e peso do recém-nascido e aleitamento materno não apresentaram significância estatística. Quanto maior a percepção de suporte social do marido, menor a prevalência de DP (p=0,03. CONCLUSÃO: devido à alta prevalência e impacto negativo sobre a mãe e seu filho, é valioso sensibilizar o profissional de saúde para a importância da DP.PURPOSE: to estimate the prevalence of Family Health Program postpartum depression (PPD and its association with minor mental disorders (MMD among women attended in two (FHP PSF units

  12. Patterns and trends of postpartum family planning in Ethiopia, Malawi, and Nigeria: evidence of missed opportunities for integration

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    Sennen Hounton

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The first 12 months following childbirth are a period when a subsequent pregnancy holds the greatest risk for mother and baby, but also when there are numerous contacts with the healthcare system for postnatal care for mother and baby (immunisation, nutrition, etc.. The benefits and importance of postpartum family planning are well documented. They include a reduction in risk of miscarriage, as well as mitigation of (or protection against low birth weight, neonatal and maternal death, preterm birth, and anaemia. Objectives: The objectives of this paper are to assess patterns and trends in the use of postpartum family planning at the country level, to determine whether postpartum family planning is associated with birth interval and parity, and to identify the health services most closely associated with postpartum family planning after adjusting for socio-economic characteristics. Design: Data were used from Demographic and Health Surveys that contain a reproductive calendar, carried out within the last 10 years, from Ethiopia, Malawi, and Nigeria. All women for whom the calendar was completed and who gave birth between 57 and 60 months prior to data collection were included in the analysis. For each of the births, we merged the reproductive calendar with the birth record into a survey for each country reflecting the previous 60 months. The definition of the postpartum period in this paper is based on a period of 3 months postpartum. We used this definition to assess early adoption of postpartum family planning. We assessed variations in postpartum family planning according to demographic and socio-economic variables, as well as its association with various contact opportunities with the health system [antenatal care (ANC, childbirth in facilities, immunisation, etc.]. We did simple descriptive analysis with tabular, graphic, and ‘equiplot’ displays and a logistic regression controlling for important background characteristics

  13. Individualized Healthcare Plans (IHP). Position Statement. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of School Nurses (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that students whose healthcare needs affect or have the potential to affect safe and optimal school attendance and academic performance require the professional school nurse to write an Individualized Healthcare Plan (IHP), in collaboration with the student, family, educators,…

  14. College Attendance, Tutition and Family Income

    OpenAIRE

    Olive Sweetman

    2002-01-01

    in this paper I examine the effects of the abolition of collge tutuion on education levels by social class.the empirical analysis shows that this policy has had little effect on the distribution of edcation across classes. I present a number of possible exp0lanations for this finding.

  15. Impact of Attendance Policies on Course Attendance among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenneville, Tiffany; Jordan, Cary

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to investigate whether having a graded attendance policy would have an effect on course attendance among college students, and (b) to examine beliefs about education and attendance policies among college students. Results support the utility of graded attendance policies for increasing class attendance…

  16. Сost assessment of HIV prophylaxis of mother to child transmission and family planning program among HIV infected women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Samarina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The manuscript provides comparative cost assessment of HIV PMTCT and family planning program among HIV infected women.Materials and Methods: calculation is based on the state healthcare system costs of complex/combined 3-stage perinatal HIV prophylaxis, follow up antiretroviral therapy and social costs related to rehabilitation and education HIV infected children. Cost benefit analysis is conducted on utility per 1 RUB of budget investment.Results and discussion: HIV PMTCT cost benefit is 3,33 per 1 RUB of investment in long-term perspective. Analysis stated average family planning expenditure will be 3,69 K RUB despite 21,72 K RUB per patient without family planning service. As result cost benefit family planning program among HIV infected women is 4,89 RUB per 1 RUB of investment.Conclusion. Broad access to reproductive health service is key milestone of quality of life among HIV infected patients and it would be positioning as economically reasonable HIV prevention and cost containment measure.

  17. Knowledge and practice of family planning methods among married women of reproductive age of Kakani VDC, Nuwakot district, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sushmita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family Planning is a way of thinking and living that is adopted voluntarily to contribute effectively to the social development of a country. CPR of Nuwakot district is less than that of National level. The Objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and practice on family planning methods among married women of Kakani VDC. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study design was done with quantitative methods. Likewise, PPS sampling procedure was used and sample size was 109. Structured questionnaires as a tool and Interview technique was used to obtain necessary information. Data was entered and analysed through SPSS, and computed mean, standard deviation, tables, cross tabulation and chi – square. Results: The study shows that more than one fifth of the respondents (23.9% were of age group 28-32 years and more than half of the respondents (51.4% had marriage at the age of 15-19 years. Depo-Provera was the device known by all respondents and Implant was the least known device. However, more than half (56.9% MWRAs had good knowledge on family planning and 51.38% of respondents were currently using FP devices. Despite more good knowledge towards family planning use of FP devices is low. Conclusion: The study population had good knowledge towards FP devices; however the use of FP devices was low. It was mainly due to husband being abroad and side effects of the devices.

  18. Barriers to accessing and using contraception in highland Guatemala: the development of a family planning self-efficacy scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson E

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Emma Richardson,1 Kenneth R Allison,1,2 Dionne Gesink,1 Albert Berry3 1Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 2Public Health Ontario, 3Department of Economics, Munk Centre for International Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: Understanding the persistent inequalities in the prevalence rates of family planning and unmet need for family planning between indigenous and nonindigenous women in Guatemala requires localized explorations of the specific barriers faced by indigenous women. Based on social cognitive theory, elicitation interviews were carried out with a purposive sample of 16 young women, aged 20–24 years, married or in union, from the rural districts of Patzún, Chimaltenango, Guatemala. Content analysis was carried out using the constant-comparison method to identify the major themes. Based on this qualitative study, the following barriers are incorporated into the development of a self-efficacy scale: lack of knowledge about and availability of methods, fear of side effects and infertility, husbands being against family planning (and related fears of marital problems and abandonment, pressure from in-laws and the community, and the belief that using contraception is a sin. This is the first evidence-informed self-efficacy scale developed with young adult, indigenous women that addresses the issue of family planning in Latin America. Keywords: indigenous, marginalized populations, elicitation interviews, social cognitive theory

  19. A thought on the integration of poverty relief with family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, K

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between population growth and poverty in China, the issue of overpopulation in poor areas, and the need for programs that integrate population control with economic development. The number of Chinese living in poverty declined from about 250 million in 1978 to 80 million in 1993. In March 1994, the government initiated a poverty relief program that aimed to eliminate all poverty by 2001. By 1995, the number of poor declined to 65 million. The causes of poverty are numerous, but include overpopulation. Over the decades, demographic trends in poor areas reveal higher fertility, lower mortality, and higher growth. Poverty appears to be concentrated in 18 provinces and autonomous regions. Poor areas have higher rates of early marriage, early childbirth, and multiple children. Poor areas also have higher rates of disabilities and disease and lower levels of education. Poor areas have double the national percentage of illiterates. Many people living in poor areas are disadvantaged by poor transportation, remote locations, backward production methods, and a lack of a social security system. Scientific knowledge about contraception and quality child care are difficult to diffuse in poor areas. The size of the population denominator directly affects per capita income and per capita grain production. Increases in population put pressure on investment resources for production and development. A larger work force adds to the problem of unemployment. A large population size puts pressure on arable land. Poor areas need a better educated population. Sustainable development requires fertility decline. Integrated family planning programs popularize slogans such as "stabilize grain yield, increase income, and control population growth." Integrated programs have had variable success. Countermeasures must be taken to prevent the association of large families with wealth. Leadership is essential.

  20. Unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group in urban Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malini M Bhattathiry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Unmet need for family planning (FP, which refers to the condition in which there is the desire to avoid or post-pone child bearing, without the use of any means of contraception, has been a core concept in the field of international population for more than three decades. Objectives: The very objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of "unmet need for FP" and its socio-demographic determinants among married reproductive age group women in Chidambaram. Materials and Methods: The study was a community-based cross-sectional study of married women of the reproductive age group, between 15 and 49 years. The sample size required was 700. The cluster sampling method was adopted. Unmarried, separated, divorced and widows were excluded. Results: The prevalence of unmet need for FP was 39%, with spacing as 12% and limiting as 27%. The major reason for unmet need for FP among the married group was 18%, for low perceived risk of pregnancy, 9%, feared the side effects of contraception 5% lacked information on contraceptives, 4% had husbands who opposed it and 3% gave medical reasons. Higher education, late marriage, more than the desired family size, poor knowledge of FP, poor informed choice in FP and poor male participation were found to be associated with high unmet need for FP. Conclusion: Unmet need for younger women was spacing of births, whereas for older women, it was a limitation of births. Efforts should be made to identify the issues in a case by case approach. Male participation in reproductive issues should be addressed.

  1. [Unite recognition, strengthen measurement and initiate new prospect of the family planning work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, D

    1991-02-01

    In 1990, Jilin province in China strengthened its family planning (FP) program in the rural communities. Population growth rate was reduced by 1.32/1000 in the 1st 6 months of 1990 compared with the same period of 1989. During the remaining months of the year, the following aspects of the FP program will be emphasized: 1) Attention will be paid to the FP program in the rural villages. In strengthening the program activities, the leadership role of the FP commission at various levels would need to be brought into full play; FP workers should be employed and trained; offices need to be equipped; FP publicity and education activities should be conducted in rural villages; birth quotas should be assigned to individuals; the accuracy of vital registration reporting should be enhanced; and birth control contracts should be enforced. Communities should be evaluated on the major criteria of FP program effectiveness which include the birth quota, compliance, birth rate, natural increase rate, 1st parity rate, prevalence of IUD use and sterilization, pregnancy outside of the plan, and birth/abortion ratio. 2)Emphasis should be given to rural communities where FP work lagged behind. The status of FP program implementation of these communities should be known. Help should be given to them to improve the situation. The communities that fulfilled their contracts should be rewarded and those that remain consistently behind should be penalized. Through checking birth control practices of eligible women regularly and by bringing publicity and education to people's door steps, it is hoped that the objectives of FP programs can be achieved. PMID:12317516

  2. [To develop the family planning work deeply through following the working method of "taking three as the keys"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-29

    In recent years family planning work in China's Rongcheng County has been accomplished through "sudden attacks" on the problem, and although these concentrated work efforts have been successful, nevertheless there have been deleterious effects, e.g., a drain on the leadership such that work is affected, overburdened hospital workloads that lead to surgical mistakes, and pressure on the people's spirits. In order to ameliorate the situation, longterm planning was proposed in 1981 "to take three as the keys," i.e., to take propaganda education as the key in its relationship to economic measures, to take birth control as the key in its relationship to abortion, and to take longterm work as the key in its relationship to shortterm work. In 1981 Roncheng County increased its propaganda education efforts by making family planning the subject of numerous meetings, radio broadcasts, recordings, posters, and drama. It also emphasized positive education (i.e., teaching the good qualities of life conduct) and commended good people and good deeds. Family planning work also strengthened political education, making people aware of the policy of 1 child per family. Due to a sudden rise in unplanned 2nd pregnancies in Roncheng County, the number of abortions was high, so scientific knowledge of contraceptive use was widely disseminated to all fertile women. In order to make family planning function on a continous basis, one must grasp surely and carefully the primary work of organizations at all levels and be systematic in follow-ups. The results of "taking three as the keys" include: for the first 6 months of 1982 the single child rate was 95.63%; contraceptive use was more effective, causing the abortion rate to drop 10.3% from a comparable period in 1981; and 99.52% of 1-child-couples applied for Single Child Certificates. PMID:12159366

  3. Attending IBM & SAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马洁

    2007-01-01

    The delegation of China Acrobats Association, twelve people with Lin Jian, Vice President of China Acrobats Association as a director, went to America to attend the 79th Annual Convention of International Brotherhood of Magic (IBM) and the Magic Convention of Society of American Magicians 2007 from June 26th, 2007 to July 8th, 2007.

  4. Challenges Addressing Unmet Need for Contraception: Voices of Family Planning Service Providers in Rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraka, Jitihada; Rusibamayila, Asinath; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Baynes, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Provider perspectives have been overlooked in efforts to address the challenges of unmet need for family planning (FP). This qualitative study was undertaken in Tanzania, using 22 key informant interviews and 4 focus group discussions. The research documents perceptions of healthcare managers and providers in a rural district on the barriers to meeting latent demand for contraception. Social-ecological theory is used to interpret the findings, illustrating how service capability is determined by the social, structural and organizational environment. Providers' efforts to address unmet need for FP services are constrained by unstable reproductive preferences, low educational attainment, and misconceptions about contraceptive side effects. Societal and organizational factors--such as gender dynamics, economic conditions, religious and cultural norms, and supply chain bottlenecks, respectively--also contribute to an adverse environment for meeting needs for care. Challenges that healthcare providers face interact and produce an effect which hinders efforts to address unmet need. Interventions to address this are not sufficient unless the supply of services is combined with systems strengthening and social engagement strategies in a way that reflects the multi-layered, social institutional problems.

  5. Family planning and sexual health organizations: management lessons for health system reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambegaokar, Maia; Lush, Louisiana

    2004-10-01

    Advocates of health system reform are calling for, among other things, decentralized, autonomous managerial and financial control, use of contracting and incentives, and a greater reliance on market mechanisms in the delivery of health services. The family planning and sexual health (FP&SH) sector already has experience of these. In this paper, we set forth three typical means of service provision within the FP&SH sector since the mid-1900s: independent not-for-profit providers, vertical government programmes and social marketing programmes. In each case, we present the context within which the service delivery mechanism evolved, the management techniques that characterize it and the lessons learned in FP&SH that are applicable to the wider debate about improving health sector management. We conclude that the FP&SH sector can provide both positive and negative lessons in the areas of autonomous management, use of incentives to providers and acceptors, balancing of centralization against decentralization, and employing private sector marketing and distribution techniques for delivering health services. This experience has not been adequately acknowledged in the debates about how to improve the quality and quantity of health services for the poor in developing countries. Health sector reform advocates and FP&SH advocates should collaborate within countries and regions to apply these management lessons.

  6. A lost family-planning regime in eighteenth-century Ceylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drixler, Fabian F; Kok, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Based on Dutch colonial registers (thombos), this paper reconstructs fertility for two districts in Ceylon, 1756-68. It overcomes challenges in data quality by establishing the outer bounds of plausible estimates in a series of scenarios. Among these, total fertility rates (TFRs) averaged 5.5 in one district, but only 2.7 in the other. These figures exclude the victims of infanticide, a custom noted in European travelogues between about 1660 and 1820. Sex ratios among children differed depending on the number of older siblings, and overall, 27 per cent of girls are missing in one district and 57 per cent in the other. There was little significant variation either in the TFR or the sex ratio by socio-economic status, suggesting that poverty was not a key factor in motivating infanticides. Instead, we argue that at least parts of Ceylon had a forward-looking culture of family planning in the eighteenth century, which was lost in subsequent decades. PMID:26988626

  7. Catholics using contraceptives: religion, family planning, and interpretive agency in rural Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2008-06-01

    Research on how religion shapes contraceptive practices and fertility has paid insufficient attention to how people interpret religious teachings. This study draws on ethnographic fieldwork in Degollado, Mexico, to describe generational and social-contextual differences in how women interpret and use religious doctrine to achieve their fertility desires without jeopardizing their standing as devout Catholics. Contrasting the family planning beliefs and practices of young Mexican women with those of older women (many of whom are the younger women's parents and in-laws), in a rural town in which the religious regulation of everyday life is pervasive, reveals how a common set of religious teachings and principles can be used to guide two different generational strategies for fertility regulation. The ethnographic data presented here highlight the creativity with which people use religious frameworks to justify their behavior. Research exploring how religion--and culture more broadly--influences fertility and contraceptive use should give greater attention to the dynamic interplay between cultural beliefs and institutions, social context, and interpretive agency. (STUDIES

  8. [Impressions of the 1977 National Conference on Maternal and Child Welfare and Family Planning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, M

    1977-09-01

    The 1977 National Conference on Maternal and Child Welfare and Family Planning was held on July 19th and 20th, with a theme on "A worth-while life for mothers, who have dreams for their children", in Tokushima, Japan. 3 basic maternal and child welfare policies were concluded in the first day's discussion: 1) a prevention from the occurrence of the mental and physical disorder in children; 2) a protection of the motherhood; and 3) a promotion of maternal and child health care in cities, townships and villages. An active participation of men is also expected. In professor Baba's lecture, the perinatal medical care was explained under the theme of "The progress of new-born medicine and the prevention from the occurrence of mental and physical disorder in children". The second day's discussion was held byT. Kobayashi, with a theme of "The women's life and health". A necessity of premarital sex education, the women's life circles, health guidance for working women, a mother's group in farmers, were the main topics. PMID:21979

  9. Challenges Addressing Unmet Need for Contraception: Voices of Family Planning Service Providers in Rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraka, Jitihada; Rusibamayila, Asinath; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Baynes, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Provider perspectives have been overlooked in efforts to address the challenges of unmet need for family planning (FP). This qualitative study was undertaken in Tanzania, using 22 key informant interviews and 4 focus group discussions. The research documents perceptions of healthcare managers and providers in a rural district on the barriers to meeting latent demand for contraception. Social-ecological theory is used to interpret the findings, illustrating how service capability is determined by the social, structural and organizational environment. Providers' efforts to address unmet need for FP services are constrained by unstable reproductive preferences, low educational attainment, and misconceptions about contraceptive side effects. Societal and organizational factors--such as gender dynamics, economic conditions, religious and cultural norms, and supply chain bottlenecks, respectively--also contribute to an adverse environment for meeting needs for care. Challenges that healthcare providers face interact and produce an effect which hinders efforts to address unmet need. Interventions to address this are not sufficient unless the supply of services is combined with systems strengthening and social engagement strategies in a way that reflects the multi-layered, social institutional problems. PMID:27337850

  10. General Secretary Jiang Zemin and Premier Li Peng on family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z; Li, P

    1991-06-01

    Speeches given by General Secretary Jiang Zemin and Premier Li Peng to the forum on Family Planning (FP) Work in April 1991 are summarized. Jiang stated that the highest levels of communist party and governmental officials should be in charge of controlling population growth in China. There is great urgency to do so. The problems to be faced are a hugh population, scarce arable land, a poor economic foundation, and low per capita resources. Human resources are an asset for the socialist construction of China, but a rapid growth rate will retard economic and social development and affect the improvement in living standards and the quality of life. The strategy to place FP within state policy and place strict controls over population growth must be carried out resolutely. The future of socialism and the Chinese nation is at stake. Modernization cannot be accomplished with out controlling population growths. The 8th 5 year Plan and the 10 Year Program requirements will still contribute to 1.3 billion population by 2000 and 1.2 billion by 1995. There is historical responsibility, an urgency to strictly control population growth. Adherence to the 4 cardinal principles of socialism (the people's democratic dictatorship, the Communist Party leadership, and Marxist Leninist and Mao Zedong thought) must coexist with social development and family planning. All must be motivated. The provincial Party Secretary personally must oversee problems. The success or failure of FP should be used to evaluate the achievements of party committees and governments. The education on basic national conditions and the basic state policy on FP needs to be publicized through all organizations. There should be confidence in the masses. People must make FP their own cause voluntarily. Premier Li Peng stressed effective implementation and giving it high priority in order to achieve the 2nd step strategic goal of socialist modernization. Per capita output is low, and grain output will not increase

  11. Making the 2007-2010 Action Plan work for women in family medicine in the Asia Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coles Jan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Wonca Working Party for Women and Family Medicine (WWPWFM was organized in 2001 with the following objectives: to identify the key issues for women doctors; to review Wonca policies and procedures for equity and transparency; to provide opportunities to network at meetings and through the group's listserve and website; and to promote women doctors' participation in Wonca initiatives. In October 2008, at the Asia Pacific Regional conference, the Wonca Working Party on Women in Family Medicine (WWPWFM held a preconference day and conference workshops, building on the success and commitment to initiatives which enhance women's participation in Wonca developed in Ontario, Canada (2006 and at the Singapore World Congress (2007. At this meeting fifty women workshopped issues for women in Family Medicine in the Asia Pacific. Using the Action Plan formulated in Singapore (2007 the participants identified key regional issues and worked towards a solution. Key issues identified were professional issues, training in family medicine and women's health. Solutions were to extend the understanding of women's contributions to family medicine, improved career pathways for women in family medicine and improving women's participation in practices, family medicine organizations and academic meetings.

  12. An investigation of the impact of succession planning on the success of small and medium-sized family businesses / Hilton Edwin Nell

    OpenAIRE

    Nell, Hilton Edwin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the role that succession planning plays in family businesses in the Sedibeng region of the Gauteng province in South Africa. According to Netsiande (2008:1) family businesses should anticipate, recognise, understand and work pro-actively on issues, learn from other businesses and find their own unique solution.to ensure sustainability. Management succession and succession planning is very important and it has a significant impact on family member...

  13. Intermittent attendance at breast cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padraic Fleming

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. To determine why women skip rounds and factors influencing return of previous non attenders (PNAs to breast screening. Design and methods. Retrospective, quantitative, structured questionnaire posted to 2500 women. First PNAs did not attend their first screening appointment in 2007/2008 but then attended in 2010; First Controls first attended in 2010 without missed previous appointments. Women who attended screening in 2006 or earlier then skipped a round but returned in 2010 were Subsequent PNAs; Subsequent Controls attended all appointments.Results. More First Controls than First PNAs had family history of cancer (72.7% vs 63.2%; P=0.003; breast cancer (31.3% vs 24.8%; P=0.04. More PNAs lived rurally; more First PNAs had 3rd level education (33.2% vs 23.6%; P=0.002 and fewer had private insurance than First Controls (57.7% vs 64.8%; P=0.04. Excellent/good health was reported in First PNAs and First Controls (82.9% vs 83.2%, but fewer Subsequent PNAs than Subsequent Controls (72.7% vs 84.9%; P=0.000. Common considerations at time of missed appointment were had mammogram elsewhere (33% First PNA and postponed to next round (16% First PNA, 18.8% Subsequent PNA. Considerations when returning to screening were similar for First PNAs and Subsequent PNAs: I am older (35.4%, 29.6%, I made sure I remembered (29%, 23.6%, could reschedule (17.6%, 20.6%, illness of more concern (16.5%, 19%. More First PNAs stated my family/friends advised (22.3% vs 15.2% or my GP (12.6% vs 4.6% advised me to attend, heard good things about BreastCheck (28.8% vs 13.6%.Conclusions. Intermittent attenders do not fit socio-demographic patterns of non-attenders; GP recommendation and word of mouth were important in women’s return to screening. Fear and anxiety seem to act as a screening facilitator rather than an inhibitor.

  14. The 5-Point Plan: Fostering Successful Partnerships with Families of Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Caitlin C.; Da Fonte, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Family-teacher collaboration is an important factor in the success of students with disabilities. Through partnering with families as help-givers, teachers have the unique chance to support students with disabilities and their families by collaborating and providing an open communication environment that will better support and enhance the…

  15. Reproductive intentions and family planning practices of pregnant HIV-infected Malawian women on antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Michele S; Rosenberg, Nora E; Tang, Jennifer H; Mukuzunga, Cornelius; Kaliti, Stephen; Mwale, Mwawi; Hosseinipour, Mina C

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the pregnancy intentions of pregnant HIV-infected Malawian women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for at least 6 months prior to the current pregnancy, and to assess whether time on ART was associated with pregnancy intention. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of HIV-infected Malawian women receiving antenatal care at a government hospital with a survey assessing ART history, reproductive history, and family planning use at conception. We used Pearson's chi-square tests and Fisher's exact tests to compare these parameters between women on ART greater than 24 months with those on ART less than 24 months. Modified Poisson regression was performed to assess the association between time on ART and pregnancy intention. Most women (75%) reported that their current pregnancy was unintended, defined as either Mistimed (21%) or Unwanted (79%). Women on ART for longer than 2 years were more likely to report an unintended pregnancy (79% versus 65%, p = .03), though there was no significant association between time on ART and pregnancy intention in multivariate analysis. Most women (79%) were using contraception at the time of conception, with condoms being most popular (91%), followed by injectables (9%) and the implant (9%). HIV-infected women on ART continue to experience high rates of unintended pregnancy in the Option B+ era. As Option B+ continues to be implemented in Malawi and increasing numbers of HIV-infected women initiate lifelong ART, ensuring that the most effective forms of contraception are accessible is necessary to decrease unintended pregnancy. PMID:26877194

  16. Increasingly artful. Applying commercial marketing communication techniques to family planning communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J R

    1992-08-01

    Family planning (FP) and social marketing messages must utilize the rules concerning artfulness developed in the private sector for effective communication in the mass media around the world. They have to compete for the attention of television program viewers accustomed to receiving hundreds of 30-second messages. There are some rules essential to any effective communication program: 1) Command attention. In the US over 1350 different mass media messages vie for attention every single day. FP messages are sensitive, but dullness and passivity is not a requisite. 2) Clarify the message, and keep it simple and direct. Mixed messages equal less effective communication. 3) Communicate a benefit. Consumers do not only buy products, they buy expectations of benefits. 4) Consistency counts. The central message should remain consistent to allow the evaluation of its effectiveness, but execution should vary from time to time and medium to medium. 5) Cater to the heart and the head. Effective communication offers real emotional values. 6) Create trust. Words, graphics, sounds, and casting in the campaign should support 1 central key promise to a single prime prospect. 7) Call for action. Both commercial and social marketing campaigns can calculate results by quantifiable measurement of sales (of condoms) transactions (the number of IUD insertions), floor traffic (clinic visits), attitude shifts, and behavior change. The PRO-PATER Vasectomy Campaign of 1988 in Sao Paulo, Brazil successfully used the above rules for effective communication. During the 1st 2 months of the campaign, phone calls increased by over 300%, new clients by 97%, and actual vasectomies performed by 79%.

  17. Father attendance in nurse home visitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, John R; Olds, David L

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to examine the rates and predictors of father attendance at nurse home visits in replication sites of the Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP). Early childhood programs can facilitate father involvement in the lives of their children, but program improvements require an understanding of factors that predict father involvement. The sample consisted of 29,109 low-income, first-time mothers who received services from 694 nurses from 80 sites. We conducted mixed-model multiple regression analyses to identify population, implementation, site, and nurse influences on father attendance. Predictors of father attendance included a count of maternal visits (B = 0.12, SE = 0.01, F = 3101.77), frequent contact between parents (B = 0.61, SE = 0.02, F = 708.02), cohabitation (B = 1.41, SE = 0.07, F = 631.51), White maternal race (B = 0.77, SE = 0.06, F = 190.12), and marriage (B = 0.42, SE = 0.08, F = 30.08). Random effects for sites and nurses predicted father-visit participation (2.7 & 6.7% of the variance, respectively), even after controlling for population sociodemographic characteristics. These findings suggest that factors operating at the levels of sites and nurses influence father attendance at home visits, even after controlling for differences in populations served. Further inquiry about these influences on father visit attendance is likely to inform program-improvement efforts. PMID:25521707

  18. The Relationship between Intimate Partner Violence and Family Planning among Girls and Young Women in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Laura Cordisco; Cappa, Claudia; Petrowski, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and family planning among adolescent girls and young women in formal unions in the Philippines. Analyzing a sample (n =1,566) from the 2013 Philippines Demographic and Health Survey, logistic regression models were separately run for current contraception use and unmet need for family planning on recent physical violence (yes/no), recent sexual violence (yes/no), and recent emotional (yes/no). Findings revealed that the odds of using contraception were significantly higher among girls and young women who reported recent physical IPV (OR=1.84; 95% CI=1.13, 2.99; pwomen in response to the recent passage of landmark legislation pertaining to reproductive health in the Philippines, the Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Act.

  19. Role Of Family Planning Practices In The Control And Prevention of Uterine Cervical Cancer- A Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma S

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Does acceptance of family planning reduce the risk of uterine cervical cancer? Objective: To study the association between usage of contraceptive methods and cervical carcinogenesis. Study design: Case control study. Settings: Urban Area â€" Hospital Based. Participants: 160 women having different degrees of dysplasia and 173 women having normal pap smears. Statistical Analysis: Multivariate Analysis. Results: None of the three widely prevalent Family Planning practices viz. IUD condoms and tubectomy turned out to be significant in the development of dysplasia, however, age at consummation of marriage before 18 years and illiteracy were significant. Use of IUD offered protection against carcinoma in situ (CIS and disease of invasive nature. Non- users of condoms were also at risk marginally failing to attain statistical significance.

  20. Role of Advance Care Planning in Proxy Decision Making Among Individuals With Dementia and Their Family Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jung; De Larwelle, Jessica A; Valuch, Katharine O'Connell; Kesler, Toni

    2016-01-01

    Health care proxies make important end-of-life decisions for individuals with dementia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine the role of advance care planning in proxy decision making for 141 individuals with cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, or other types of dementia. Proxies who did not know the preferences of individuals with dementia for life support treatments reported greater understanding of their values. Proxies of individuals with dementia who did not want life support treatments anticipated receiving less support and were more uncertain in decision making. The greater knowledge proxies had about dementia trajectory, family support, and trust of physicians, the more informed, clearer, and less uncertain they were in decision making. In addition to advance care planning, multiple factors influence proxy decision making, which should be considered in developing interventions and future research to support informed decision making for individuals with dementia and their families.

  1. Analysis on the Attitude of the Family Planning staff toward the Contraception Service Delivery to the Unmarried Youth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周利锋; 王炳顺; 涂晓雯; 高尔生

    2001-01-01

    Objective To analyze the attitude of family planning staff on providing contracep tives to unmarried youthcontraceptives providers or deliverymen in 3 cities and 3 countries chosen form 8 provinces of China, were enrolled into this study. The Methods of structural questionnaire, focus group discussion and in-depth interview were used to investigate their attitude.Results Those who agree,who disagree and who were uncertain to the matter account for 69. 64%, 27. 14% and 3. 22% of total respectively. The influencing factors included the length of working years, area of household register, their awareness and attitude to premarital sexual behavior and so on.Conclusion The staff of family planning should take a positive attitude and pay enough attention to reproductive health needs of unmarried youth.

  2. Developing Strategies to Improve Advance Care Planning in Long Term Care Homes: Giving Voice to Residents and Their Family Members

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberly Ramsbottom; Mary Lou Kelley

    2014-01-01

    Long term care (LTC) homes, also known as residential care homes, commonly care for residents until death, making palliative care and advance care planning (ACP) important elements of care. However, limited research exists on ACP in LTC. In particular, research giving voice to family members and substitute decision makers is lacking. The objective of this research was to understand experiences, perspectives, and preferences to guide quality improvement of ACP in LTC. This qualitative descript...

  3. Unintended Pregnancy among HIV Positive Couples Receiving Integrated HIV Counseling, Testing, and Family Planning Services in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, Kristin M.; Lisa Haddad; Bellington Vwalika; Naw Htee Khu; Ilene Brill; William Kilembe; Rob Stephenson; Elwyn Chomba; Cheswa Vwalika; Amanda Tichacek; Susan Allen

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We describe rates of unintended pregnancy among HIV positive couples in Lusaka, Zambia. We also identify factors associated with unintended pregnancy among oral contraceptive pill (OCP) using couples in this cohort. DESIGN: Data were analyzed from couples randomized in a factorial design to two family planning intervention videos. METHODS: Rates of unintended pregnancy were stratified by contraceptive method used at time of pregnancy. Predictors of time to unintended pregnancy amon...

  4. Using behavior change communication to lead a comprehensive family planning program: the Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Krenn, Susan; Cobb, Lisa; Babalola, Stella; Odeku, Mojisola; Kusemiju, Bola

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (NURHI), a 6-year comprehensive family planning program (2009–2015) in 4 cities, intentionally applies communication theories to all program elements, not just the demand generation ones, relying mainly on a theory called ideation—the concept that contraceptive use is influenced by people's beliefs, ideas, and feelings and that changing these ideational factors can change people's behavior. Program Description: The project...

  5. [Parliament and the demographic question: a study of the debate over birth control and family planning in the National Congress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rocha, M I

    1987-12-01

    The author explores the involvement of Brazil's Chamber of Deputies and Federal Senate in issues of population policy, family planning, and birth control. The focus is on the period 1960-1985, with special attention to actions taken by the Parliamentary Inquiry Commission. The debate within the National Congress on these issues is described, and the opinions of members of Parliament are outlined. Data are from official and other published sources. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  6. THE KNOWLEDGE LEVEL OF A GROUP OF STUDENTS IN CELAL BAYAR UNIVERSITY ABOUT FAMILY PLANNING AND SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    Pinar ERBAY DUNDAR; Mujde SERIFHAN ILGUN; Yakup Gokhan DOÐRAMACI; Akin DALCI; Gokhan GURGEN

    2005-01-01

    Young adulthood is a period when concepts like family planning (FP) and sexually transmitted diseases (STD?s) become important. This cross-sectional study was performed to measure the knowledge level of Biology and Turkish Language / Literature students of Manisa Celal Bayar University about FP and STD?s. The questionnaire measures knowledge level of FP-STD?s and sociodemographic variables was performed to 299 students (73 % of the population) undar observation. The data is evaluated by chi s...

  7. Effects of ethnic attributes on the quality of family planning services in Lima, Peru: a randomized crossover trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Elena Planas

    Full Text Available Most studies reporting ethnic disparities in the quality of healthcare come from developed countries and rely on observational methods. We conducted the first experimental study to evaluate whether health providers in Peru provide differential quality of care for family planning services, based on the indigenous or mestizo (mixed ethnoracial ancestry profile of the patient. In a crossover randomized controlled trial conducted in 2012, a sample of 351 out of the 408 public health establishments in Metropolitan Lima, Peru were randomly assigned to receive unannounced simulated patients enacting indigenous and mestizo profiles (sequence-1 or mestizo and then indigenous profiles (sequence-2, with a five week wash-out period. Both ethnic profiles used the same scripted scenario for seeking contraceptive advice but had distinctive cultural attributes such as clothing, styling of hair, make-up, accessories, posture and patterns of movement and speech. Our primary outcome measure of quality of care is the proportion of technical tasks performed by providers, as established by Peruvian family planning clinical guidelines. Providers and data analysts were kept blinded to the allocation. We found a non-significant mean difference of -0.7% (p = 0.23 between ethnic profiles in the percentage of technical tasks performed by providers. However we report large deficiencies in the compliance with quality standards of care for both profiles. Differential provider behaviour based on the patient's ethnic profiles compared in the study did not contribute to deficiencies in family planning outcomes observed. The study highlights the need to explore other determinants for poor compliance with quality standards, including demand and supply side factors, and calls for interventions to improve the quality of care for family planning services in Metropolitan Lima.

  8. Effects of ethnic attributes on the quality of family planning services in Lima, Peru: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, Maria-Elena; García, Patricia J; Bustelo, Monserrat; Carcamo, Cesar P; Martinez, Sebastian; Nopo, Hugo; Rodriguez, Julio; Merino, Maria-Fernanda; Morrison, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Most studies reporting ethnic disparities in the quality of healthcare come from developed countries and rely on observational methods. We conducted the first experimental study to evaluate whether health providers in Peru provide differential quality of care for family planning services, based on the indigenous or mestizo (mixed ethnoracial ancestry) profile of the patient. In a crossover randomized controlled trial conducted in 2012, a sample of 351 out of the 408 public health establishments in Metropolitan Lima, Peru were randomly assigned to receive unannounced simulated patients enacting indigenous and mestizo profiles (sequence-1) or mestizo and then indigenous profiles (sequence-2), with a five week wash-out period. Both ethnic profiles used the same scripted scenario for seeking contraceptive advice but had distinctive cultural attributes such as clothing, styling of hair, make-up, accessories, posture and patterns of movement and speech. Our primary outcome measure of quality of care is the proportion of technical tasks performed by providers, as established by Peruvian family planning clinical guidelines. Providers and data analysts were kept blinded to the allocation. We found a non-significant mean difference of -0.7% (p = 0.23) between ethnic profiles in the percentage of technical tasks performed by providers. However we report large deficiencies in the compliance with quality standards of care for both profiles. Differential provider behaviour based on the patient's ethnic profiles compared in the study did not contribute to deficiencies in family planning outcomes observed. The study highlights the need to explore other determinants for poor compliance with quality standards, including demand and supply side factors, and calls for interventions to improve the quality of care for family planning services in Metropolitan Lima.

  9. Scale up use of family planning services to prevent maternal transmission of HIV among discordant couples: a cross-sectional study within a resource-limited setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuete, Martin; Yuan, HongFang; Tchoua Kemayou, Aude Laure; Songo, Emmanuel Ancel; Yang, Fan; Ma, XiuLan; Xiong, ChengLiang; Zhang, HuiPing

    2016-01-01

    Background Integration of family planning services (FPS) into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care for HIV-infected women is an important aspect of the global prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) strategy. We assessed the integration of FPS into routine care of HIV-infected mothers by evaluating the uptake and barriers of contraception and PMTCT services. Methods We conducted an interventional study using the interrupted time series approach in the health care facilities located in Yaounde, Cameroon. First, structured questionnaires related to family planning use, PMTCT services use, and infection risk of the sexual partner were administered to the first trimester pregnant women who were HIV infected and living with uninfected partners. Second, 2 weeks before the delivery date, the women were interviewed according to the prior counseling interventions received, in order to assess their behavior on FPS, antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, delivery option, and infant nourishment to be adopted. P-values below 0.05 were considered statistically significant in the statistical analyses. Results Of 94 HIV-infected women, 69% were stable couples. Only 13% of women had attended FPS before conception. Although the vast majority were knowledgeable about modern and traditional contraception methods, only 19% had experienced effective contraceptive methods. However, 66% preferred condom use, 45% having three children still expressed a desire to conceive, while 44% reported abortions, 65% had tried to avoid the current pregnancy, and 12% of women were ART naïve. Several predictors such as education, abortion rate, unplanned pregnancies, and partners’ decision were associated with the nonuse of effective contraceptive methods. Moreover, barriers including sex inequity, lack of partner support, ART shortages, and lack of HIV viral load monitoring were prevalent among the participants (P=0.001). However FPS use, ART compliance, and safe options to PMTCT

  10. Plans for Work Careers among College Women Who Expect to Have Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granrose, Cheryln Skromme

    1985-01-01

    Examines the extent to which college women have specific career plans and the influence of fertility plans and future partners. Results indicate majority expect to have several jobs, but only half have a career plan. Modification in child rearing to fit career was likely. No spouse compliance differences were found. (BL)

  11. Context-specific, evidence-based planning for scale-up of family planning services to increase progress to MDG 5: health systems research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byrne Abbey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unmet need for family planning is responsible for 7.4 million disability-adjusted life years and 30% of the maternity-related disease burden. An estimated 35% of births are unintended and some 200 million couples state a desire to delay pregnancy or cease fertility but are not using contraception. Unmet need is higher among the poorest, lesser educated, rural residents and women under 19 years. The barriers to, and successful strategies for, satisfying all demand for modern contraceptives are heavily influenced by context. Successfully overcoming this to increase the uptake of family planning is estimated to reduce the risk of maternal death by up to 58% as well as contribute to poverty reduction, women’s empowerment and educational, social and economic participation, national development and environmental protection. Methods To strengthen health systems for delivery of context-specific, equity-focused reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health services (RMNCH, the Investment Case study was applied in the Asia-Pacific region. Staff of local and central government and non-government organisations analysed data indicative of health service delivery through a supply–demand oriented framework to identify constraints to RMNCH scale-up. Planners developed contextualised strategies and the projected coverage increases were modelled for estimates of marginal impact on maternal mortality and costs over a five year period. Results In Indonesia, Philippines and Nepal the constraints behind incomplete coverage of family planning services included: weaknesses in commodities logistic management; geographical inaccessibility; limitations in health worker skills and numbers; legislation; and religious and cultural ideologies. Planned activities included: streamlining supply systems; establishment of Community Health Teams for integrated RMNCH services; local recruitment of staff and refresher training; task-shifting; and follow

  12. Log Linear Models for Religious and Social Factors affecting the practice of Family Planning Methods in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This is cross sectional study based on 304 households (couples with wives age less than 48 years, chosen from urban locality (city Lahore. Fourteen religious, demographic and socio-economic factors of categorical nature like husband education, wife education, husband’s monthly income, occupation of husband, household size, husband-wife discussion, number of living children, desire for more children, duration of marriage, present age of wife, age of wife at marriage, offering of prayers, political view, and religiously decisions were taken to understand acceptance of family planning. Multivariate log-linear analysis was applied to identify association pattern and interrelationship among factors. The logit model was applied to explore the relationship between predictor factors and dependent factor, and to explore which are the factors upon which acceptance of family planning is highly depending. Log-linear analysis demonstrate that preference of contraceptive use was found to be consistently associated with factors Husband-Wife discussion, Desire for more children, No. of children, Political view and Duration of married life. While Husband’s monthly income, Occupation of husband, Age of wife at marriage and Offering of prayers resulted in no statistical explanation of adoption of family planning methods.

  13. Pregnancy prevention and condom use practices among HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy seeking family planning in Lilongwe, Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa B Haddad

    Full Text Available Programs for integration of family planning into HIV care must recognize current practices and desires among clients to appropriately target and tailor interventions. We sought to evaluate fertility intentions, unintended pregnancy, contraceptive and condom use among a cohort of HIV-infected women seeking family planning services within an antiretroviral therapy (ART clinic.200 women completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire during enrollment into a prospective contraceptive study at the Lighthouse Clinic, an HIV/ART clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, between August and December 2010.Most women (95% did not desire future pregnancy. Prior reported unintended pregnancy rates were high (69% unplanned and 61% unhappy with timing of last pregnancy. Condom use was inconsistent, even among couples with discordant HIV status, with lack of use often attributed to partner's refusal. Higher education, older age, lower parity and having an HIV negative partner were factors associated with consistent condom usage.High rates of unintended pregnancy among these women underscore the need for integ rating family planning, sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention, and HIV services. Contraceptive access and use, including condoms, must be improved with specific efforts to enlist partner support. Messages regarding the importance of condom usage in conjunction with more effective modern contraceptive methods for both infection and pregnancy prevention must continue to be reinforced over the course of ongoing ART treatment.

  14. Providers’ Perspectives on Provision of Family Planning to HIV-Positive Individuals in HIV Care in Nyanza Province, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara J. Newmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To inform an intervention integrating family planning into HIV care, family planning (FP knowledge, attitudes and practices, and perspectives on integrating FP into HIV care were assessed among healthcare providers in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Methods. Thirty-one mixed-method, structured interviews were conducted among a purposive sample of healthcare workers (HCWs from 13 government HIV care facilities in Nyanza Province. Structured questions and case scenarios assessed contraceptive knowledge, training, and FP provision experience. Open-ended questions explored perspectives on integration. Data were analyzed descriptively and qualitatively. Results. Of the 31 HCWs interviewed, 45% reported previous FP training. Few providers thought long-acting methods were safe for HIV-positive women (19% viewed depot medroxyprogesterone acetate as safe and 36% viewed implants and intrauterine contraceptives as safe; fewer felt comfortable recommending them to HIV-positive women. Overall, providers supported HIV and family planning integration, yet several potential barriers were identified including misunderstandings about contraceptive safety, gendered power differentials relating to fertility decisions, staff shortages, lack of FP training, and contraceptive shortages. Conclusions. These findings suggest the importance of considering issues such as patient flow, provider burden, commodity supply, gender and cultural issues affecting FP use, and provider training in FP/HIV when designing integrated FP/HIV services in high HIV prevalence areas.

  15. Lab Attendance and Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk Adair; Swinton, Omari H

    2012-01-01

    The benefits from attendance of lectures have been established in the literature. This paper focuses on attendance not of the lecture, but of smaller labs. These labs are 50 minutes one-day-a-week sessions to emphasis material covered during lecture. Using a 200-student Principles of Economics class that covers microeconomics with six different labs, we investigate the effect of lab attendance on exam performance by taking into account individual characteristics. We find that lab attendance b...

  16. Use of Modern Family Planning Methods in Fishing Communities of Lake Victoria, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annet Nanvubya

    Full Text Available Fishing communities (FCs in Uganda have high HIV infection rates but poor access to health services including family planning (FP. Although FP is a cost-effective public health intervention, there is a paucity of data on knowledge and use of modern FP in FCs. This study determined knowledge and use of modern FP methods in FCs of Uganda.Data were accrued from a 12-month follow up of 1,688 HIV-uninfected individuals, 18-49 years from 8 FCs along Lake Victoria, between September 2011 and March 2013. Data on knowledge and use of modern FP were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire. Prevalence Risk Ratios with corresponding 95% CIs were used to determine factors associated with Modern FP knowledge and use.The mean age was 31.4 years, with nearly half (48.8% being females while more than half (58.6% had attained up to primary education level. Knowledge of modern FP was high, 87.5% (1477/1688; significantly higher among females [adj. PRR = 4.84 (95% CI; 3.08, 7.61], among older respondents (25-29 years [adj. PRR = 1.83 (95% CI; 1.12, 2.99] compared to younger ones (18-24 years and among those conducting business [adj. PRR = 2.42(95% CI; 1.02, 5.74] relative to those primarily in fishing. Just over a third (35.2%, 595/1688 reported use of at least one modern FP method. Use of modern FP methods was significantly higher among females [adj. PRR = 2.04 (95% CI; 1.56, 2.65, and among those reporting multiple sexual partnerships [adj. PRR = 2.12, 95% CI; 1.63, 2.76]. Nonuse of modern methods was mostly due to desire for more children (30.6%, fear of side effects (12.2% and partner refusal (5.2%.Despite their high knowledge of FP, FCs have low use of modern FP methods. Key barriers to use of modern FP methods were high fertility desires, fear of perceived side effects and partner refusal of methods.

  17. The Vicious Circle of Illiteracy, Over Population and Poverty--Functional Literacy and Family Life Planning Education Approach to Tackle It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajapeer, M.

    1976-01-01

    The interrelated nature of the problems of illiteracy, overpopulation, and poverty in developing countries is explored and an integrated approach to solving these problems in India, the Functional Literacy and Family Life Planning Education program, is described. (MS)

  18. A Little Bit of Sugar Helps the Pill Go Down: Resilience, Peace, and Family Planning: Comment on "The Pill Is Mightier Than the Sword".

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Roger-Mark

    2016-02-01

    The article by Potts et al, "The Pill is Mightier than the Sword," points out that family planning has an important role to play in building peace by increasing women's empowerment and their agency, ultimately helping peacebuilding efforts. Evidence has demonstrated that family planning programs are cost effective, produce quick results, help women and couples meet their desired fertility levels, and produce a multitude of benefits around economic productivity, community engagement, conservation, resilience, and peacebuilding. In order for policy audiences from a variety of sectors, including conflict and peacebuilding, to appreciate these benefits, it is important to find common ground and articulate co-benefits that will help them appreciate and value the role of family planning, as it were, give them sugar to help the pill go down. This commentary examines how resilience, peacebuilding and family planning efforts need to focus on co-benefits in order to build on the successful interventions and opportunities that Potts et al highlight. PMID:26927398

  19. Access to Money and Relation to Women's Use of Family Planning Methods Among Young Married Women in Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Donta, Balaiah; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay; Jadhav, Arun; Palaye, Prajakta; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The social positioning (i.e. social status and autonomy) of women in the household facilitates women's access to and decision-making power related to family planning (FP). Women's access to spending money, which may be an indicator of greater social positioning in the household, may also be greater among women who engage in income generating activities for their families, regardless of women's status in the household. However, in both scenarios, access to money may independently afford greater opportunity to obtain family planning services among women. This study seeks to assess whether access to money is associated with FP outcomes independently of women's social positioning in their households. Methods Using survey data from married couples in rural Maharashtra, India (n = 855), crude and adjusted regression was used to assess women's access to their own spending money in relation to past 3 month use of condoms and other forms of contraceptives (pills, injectables, intrauterine device). Results Access to money (59 %) was associated with condom and other contraceptive use (AORs ranged 1.5-1.8). These findings remained significant after adjusting for women's FP decision-making power in the household and mobility to seek FP services. Conclusion While preliminary, findings suggest that access to money may increase women's ability to obtain FP methods, even in contexts where social norms to support women's power in FP decision-making may not be readily adopted.

  20. Prevalência e caracterização da anemia em idosos do Programa de Saúde da Família Prevalence and characteristics of anemia in an elderly population attending a Health Family Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L. Barbosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A anemia é considerada um problema de saúde pública em escala mundial e é o distúrbio hematológico de maior prevalência que acomete a população idosa. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a prevalência e características da anemia em idosos do Programa de Saúde da Família de Camaragibe, PE. O delineamento foi transversal, com amostra aleatória sistemática de 284 idosos > 60 anos, de ambos os sexos, realizado em novembro/dezembro-2003. A anemia foi avaliada pela hemoglobina (Hb, concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM, volume corpuscular médio (VCM e amplitude de distribuição eritrocitária (RDW. A prevalência de anemia foi, em média, de 11,0%. A morfologia eritrocitária não mostrou associação com as concentrações de Hb. A grande maioria dos idosos apresentou anemia normocrômica, normocítica, sem anisocitose, sugestivo de anemia por doença crônica. A ínfima prevalência de microcitose e macrocitose com anisocitoseminimiza a gênese da deficiência de ferro, bem como da deficiência de vitamina B12 e ácido fólico na etiologia da anemia em idosos. Concluímos que o uso de indicadores que reflitam o grau de anisocitose eritrocitária associados àqueles que avaliam o estado nutricional do ferro é extremamente recomendado para o diagnóstico das anemias em idosos.Anemia is a serious public health problem worldwide that mainly affects children and women of childbearing age. However, data about anemia in elderly individuals are still scarce in developing countries. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence and characteristics of anemia among an elderly population attending the Health Family Program in Camaragibe, northeast Brazil. Following a systematic sampling procedure, a cross-sectional study was carried out in November and December 2003 involving 284 subjects of both genders with ages grater than or equal to 60 years old. Anemia was estimated by the measurement of hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin

  1. Family planning use among women living with HIV: knowing HIV positive status helps - results from a national survey

    OpenAIRE

    Habte, Dereje; Namasasu, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Background Women living with HIV continues to encounter unintended pregnancies with a concomitant risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection. Preventing unintended pregnancy among HIV-infected women is one of the strategies in the prevention of new HIV infections among children. The aim of this analysis was to assess the practice of family planning (FP) among HIV-infected women and the influence of women’s awareness of HIV positive status in the practice of FP. Methods The analysis...

  2. Title IV-B Child and Family Services Plans: An Evaluation of Specific Measures Taken by States To Comply with the Indian Child Welfare Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eddie F.; Limb, Gordon E.; Munoz, Ric; Clifford, Chey A.

    This study responds to the lack of research on Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA) compliance by examining a nationwide sample of the ICWA section within state Title IV-B Child and Family Services Plans (CFSP) and Annual Progress and Services Reports (APSR). These plans and reports address the administration of state child welfare systems. The…

  3. Attendance Policies, Student Attendance, and Instructor Verbal Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jason; Forbus, Robert; Cistulli, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The authors utilized an experimental design across six sections of a managerial communications course (N = 173) to test the impact of instructor verbal aggressiveness and class attendance policies on student class attendance. The experimental group received a policy based on the principle of social proof (R. B. Cialdini, 2001), which indicated…

  4. Family Hotel Businesses: Strategic Planning and the Need for Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Mike; Buhalis, Dimitrios

    2004-01-01

    Small businesses dominate the tourism and hospitality industry worldwide and are of critical importance for the competitiveness of destinations. Small family hotel businesses are characterised by a number of specific business processes which generate particular training and educational needs. It is increasingly clear that small businesses are not…

  5. Are Latin American and Caribbean men irresponsible with regard to family planning? It is the couple who gets pregnant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, D

    1988-04-01

    The executive director of the Family Planning Association of Argentina views men's role in fertility regulation in a historical context. Fertility regulation in the past involved coitus interruptus and condom use, both male-dominated methods. The introduction of the diaphragm drew attention to women's control over fertility. Feminism spread the view that it was women's right to control fertility because of their biological role in creation. Men were secondary in contraceptive decision making. The introduction of the hormonal methods and IUDs confirmed the dominant role of women in controlling fertility. The current view is that couples have a joint responsibility in fertility regulation as defined by the relationship. It is suggested that education should be directed to men and for increasing men's responsibility to their partners and their sexual life. Men should be committed to helping a partner with a lower level of knowledge about family planning. Sex education should begin in early childhood and continue throughout life. Sex education must be premised on the view that males share responsibility with their partner for fertility. PMID:12179854

  6. SOCIO - DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS AND PREVALENCE OF UNMET NEED FOR FAMILY PLANNING IN URBAN AND RURAL FIELD PRACTICE AREAS OF M . R . MEDICAL COLLEGE , KALABURAGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Waseem Faraz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Millions of women in developing countries would prefer to avoid a pregnancy by not using any form of contraception. Hence unmet need can be powerful concept for family planning programmes. Today, more than 220 million women in developing countries report having an unmet need for family planning at different stages of their reproductive lives. “Unmet need can be powerful concept for family planning programmes. First, it is based on women’s own statements, an answer to survey question. Second, it identifies the group most likely to be interested in contraception. Third, it poses a clear challenge to reach and serve these women”. OBJECTIVES : 1 To assess the magnitude of Unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group (15 – 44 years. 2 To identify the socio - demographic factors associated with unmet need for family planning. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A cross - sectional study was carried out in the Urban and Rural health training Centers of Department of Community Medicine. The study population included 563 married women from rural and 924 married women from urban area aged 15 - 44 years. The data was collected using pre tested proforma and was analyzed using percentages and Chi - Square test. RESULTS : The unmet need for family planning was 28.9% in urban and 40.5% in rural study populations. The overall unmet need is low at the beginning of reproductive age, but it increased and reached a peak in the mid - twenties & then declined. CONCLUSION : Despite a fair knowledge about the family planning methods, various socio - cultural and problems were responsible for the gap between a woman’s expressed need and utilization of contraceptives. Addressing these problems and barriers would help in the long run to reduce the unmet need. KEYWORDS : Unmet needs; Contraception; Spacing; Limiting.

  7. 高收入家庭的理财规划方案%The Financial Planning of High Income Mr.Liu Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    只井杰

    2012-01-01

    刘先生家庭年度结余77万余元,为典型的421型高收入家庭.刘先生是做磷矿生意的,收入高风险也大,刘太太是农行柜员,收入较稳定,家有女儿读幼儿园,还有四老需要赡养.本理财规划方案在介绍刘先生家庭成员及资产情况基础上,编制家庭资产负债表和收入支出表,分析各项资产比率,指出刘先生家庭现阶段资产配置的不合理之处,旨在对该家庭进行现金规划、教育规划、住房规划、保险规划和投资规划.通过规划,该家庭的理财目标得以实现.%For Mr. Liu family is a typical 421 type of high income family. Its annual balance is more than 770000 yuan. Mr. Liu is doing phosphate rock business, and his income is high with high risk; his wife is an agriculture bank clerk, and her income is stable. His family members are a daughter who is in kindergarten, mother and father, mother in law and father in law. Based on introduction of Mr. Liu' s family and his asset, the paper works out the family balance sheet and income expenditure table, analyzes the assets ratio, and points out the unreasonable place in asset allocation of Mr. Liu's family, aiming to make cash planning, education planning, housing planning, insurance planning and investment planning for the family. Through the planning, the family's financial management target can be realized.

  8. Capturing What Matters Most: Engaging Students and Their Families in Educational Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espiner, Deborah; Guild, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Many authors in the self-determination literature purport that students must be given every opportunity to be part of decision-making that impacts on their lives. Students with high support needs are often not afforded this opportunity. This article describes a student-centred educational planning strategy called the 3EPlan. The 3 E's of the…

  9. Developing Strategies to Improve Advance Care Planning in Long Term Care Homes: Giving Voice to Residents and Their Family Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Ramsbottom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Long term care (LTC homes, also known as residential care homes, commonly care for residents until death, making palliative care and advance care planning (ACP important elements of care. However, limited research exists on ACP in LTC. In particular, research giving voice to family members and substitute decision makers is lacking. The objective of this research was to understand experiences, perspectives, and preferences to guide quality improvement of ACP in LTC. This qualitative descriptive study conducted 34 individual semistructured interviews in two LTC homes, located in Canada. The participants were 31 family members and three staff, consisting of a front line care worker, a registered nurse, and a nurse practitioner. All participants perceived ACP conversations as valuable to provide “resident-centred care”; however, none of the participants had a good understanding of ACP, limiting its effectiveness. Strategies generated through the research to improve ACP were as follows: educating families and staff on ACP and end-of-life care options; better preparing staff for ACP conversations; providing staff skills training and guidelines; and LTC staff initiating systematic, proactive conversations using careful timing. These strategies can guide quality improvement of palliative care and development of ACP tools and resources specific to the LTC home sector.

  10. Expanding HIV testing and counselling into communities: Feasibility, acceptability, and effects of an integrated family planning/HTC service delivery model by Village Health Teams in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunie, Aurélie; Wamala-Mucheri, Patricia; Akol, Angela; Mercer, Sarah; Chen, Mario

    2016-10-01

    Improving HIV testing and counselling (HTC) requires a range of strategies. This article reports on HTC service delivery by Village Health Teams (VHTs) in Uganda in the context of a model integrating this new component into pre-existing family planning services. Eight health centres from matched pairs were randomly allocated to intervention or control. After being trained, 36 VHTs reporting to selected facilities in the intervention group started offering HTC along with family planning, while VHTs in the control group provided family planning only. Proficiency testing was conducted as external quality assurance. A survey of all 36 VHTs and 137 family planning clients in the intervention group and 119 clients in the control group and a review of record data were conducted after 10 months. Survey responses by VHTs and their clients in the intervention group demonstrate knowledge of counselling messages and safe testing. External quality assessment results provide additional evidence of competency. Eighty per cent of the family planning clients surveyed in the intervention group received an HIV test during the intervention; 27% of those were first-time testers. More clients had ever tested for HIV in the intervention group compared with the control; clients also retested more often. Findings indicate that this model is feasible and acceptable for expanding quality HTC into communities. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number [NCT02244398].

  11. Succession Planning in Malaysian Family Owned Business– Case Studies in Malaysian Chinese Owned Business

    OpenAIRE

    Jade Li, Chong

    2009-01-01

    Transferring a business to the next generation can pose serious challenges, especially in the SMEs sector. In many cases, the owner of the SMEs is the pillar of the company and he/she is responsible for most of the functions in the business. Some are near irreplaceable, thus, making succession even more difficult. According to research, about two-thirds of all family businesses fail to make it from the first generation to the second, and even less make it to the third. Researchers believe tha...

  12. Evaluation on the Effectiveness and Feasibility of Integrating STI/HIV Counseling with Existing Family Planning Service in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鹏飞; 周颖燕; 高尔生

    2000-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of pamphlet distribution and counseling on STI/HIV/condom knowledge, attitudes towards STI / AIDS patients and condom use intention of married couples in Shanghai and explore the effective way of integrating STI/HIV prevention with family planning services.Methods Four hundred and five married women aged 20~39 and their husbands were recruited from 14 family planning stations at 7 administrative districts of Shanghai. They were randomly divided into two groups, the counseling intervention (CI) group with 199 couples and the pamphlet distribution (PD) group with 206 couples. For the PD group, only pamphlets containing information on STI/AIDS/ condom were distributed and condoms given free of charge, whereas for the CI group,they were provided with not only full counseling on STI /AIDS /condom and free condoms, but also followed by demonstration of correct condom use. The two modes of interventions were conducted following the baseline survey, and the follow-up data were collected one month later.Results 1. There was no statistical difference between the two groups on STI/AIDS/condom knowledge level, attitudes towards STI /AIDS patients and condom use intention at the baseline. 2. The follow-up findings indicated that: ① A significant enhancement in knowledge level was observed in the CI group, with 20% increase for husbands and 24% for wives. While for the PD group, only slight increase was observed : 2% for husbands and 3% for wives ; ② 93% husbands and 76% wives of the CI group changed their discriminatory attitudes towards STI patients, and towards AIDS patients, the percentages were 73% and 78%, respectively; ③ 68% husbands and 64% wives of the CI group expressed their intention for condom use; ④ For the PD group, however, there was no difference in attitudes towards STI/AIDS patients and condom use intention at the baseline and follow-up. 3. The knowledge scores and attitudes towards STI/AIDS patients were mainly

  13. Motives for attending the Cultivaria Arts Festival

    OpenAIRE

    Saayman, Melville

    2011-01-01

    Festivals are becoming a key feature on the tourism calendar of many towns and cities. Cultivaria is one of South Africa’s newest arts festivals and is held at Paarl annually. The festival is one combining the arts, wine and food. The purpose of this research is to determine the reasons (motives) for visitors attending the festival. This information is needed so that a marketing plan can be developed, as well as to be able to ensure that visitors’ needs are fulfilled. In order to do this, the...

  14. Son Preference and Family Planning Practices among Married Men in Mumbai, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study son preferences and the contraceptive knowledge, attitude and practices of Indian Male Subjects & Methods The data was obtained through a semi-structured interview schedule caried out in 2 687 married men at Mumbai City, India in 1999.Results About 80% of men felt two children as their ideal family size, while 82%desired two children i.e. one son and one daughter. 8. 2% of men had strong prefer ence for two or more sons because of family lineage, old age support and to support each other.23. 1% of the couples had used contraceptives in the past, 48% of couples were not using any contraceptive method at the time of survey. Male participation in spacing contraceptive methods was 23% i.e. condom 21.9% and withdrawal 1.1%. Though awareness (99. 9% ) and knowledge (95. 2% ) of condom was high, only 42. 8% of subjects knew use the correct of the method. Only 2. 4% of them thought about accept ing vasectomy, while others reported various misconception.Conclusion This study suggests a pressing need for effective intervention strategies,both at the community level and the clinic level, backed with efficient motivation, coun seling and provision of quality services in urban areas.

  15. Reform of the Evaluation Indicator System and Reproductive Health and Family Planning Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhengZhenzhen

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation indicators, used for assessing work in a specific time period, play a guiding role in every area and are vital for making work plans. GDP, an important economic indicator, is often used to measure the strength of a country. It is also an indicator used in China to evaluate the performance of local governments This practice has proven to be effective in stimulating economic growth within a certain time period.However, the consequences of focusing only on economic indicators are beginning to loom large as time passes. It comes at the cost of social and public interest and sustainability of economic development.

  16. Strengthening Postabortion Family Planning Services in Ethiopia: Expanding Contraceptive Choice and Improving Access to Long-Acting Reversible Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Melaku; Fetters, Tamara; Desta, Demeke

    2016-08-11

    Where unmet need for the safest, most effective, and long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) is very high, the health system and partners need to implement problem-solving, locally feasible, and comprehensive family planning delivery strategies. Because young and unmarried women are most at risk for unintended pregnancy and repeat abortion due to poor access to contraceptive services, postabortion family planning (PAFP) is a key component in such strategies. In Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region, Ethiopia, Ipas implemented health system strengthening efforts from fiscal year (FY) 2010 (July 2009 to June 2010) to FY 2014 (July 2013 to June 2014) to improve the quality of PAFP services and expand method choice in 101 public facilities. The intervention significantly improved PAFP uptake at the project sites. Specifically, the proportion of abortion clients receiving LARCs progressively improved during the intervention period. The proportion of abortion clients who left the facilities with a contraceptive method increased from 58% in FY 2010 to 83% in FY 2014. The share of method mix for LARCs rose from 2% in FY 2010 to 55% in FY 2014, while the share for condoms, injectables, and oral contraceptives declined from 98% to 45%. Implant use rose from 2% in FY 2010 to 43% in FY 2014, while the use of intrauterine devices increased from 0.1% in FY 2010 to 12% in FY 2014. A larger proportion of PAFP users received LARCs at health centers, where midwives and nurses are the primary providers, than at hospitals (59% versus 37%, respectively). A broader method mix can satisfy clients with a variety of needs, a key factor for higher uptake of more effective methods and program success. Further evidence-based interventions need to be implemented to improve the quality of PAFP in a feasible and replicable strategy that addresses unmet need for modern contraceptive methods. PMID:27540126

  17. Estimating causal effects from family planning health communication campaigns using panel data: the "your health, your wealth" campaign in Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L Hutchinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health communication campaigns - involving mass media and interpersonal communication - have long been utilized by national family planning programs to create awareness about contraceptive methods, to shift social norms related to fertility control, and to promote specific behaviors, such as the use of condoms, injectable methods or permanent sterilization. However, demonstrating the effectiveness of these campaigns is often complicated because the infeasibility of experimental designs generally yields statistically non-equivalent samples of campaign-exposed and unexposed individuals. METHODS: Using data from a panel survey of reproductive age women in Egypt, we estimate the effects of the multimedia health communication campaign "Your Health, Your Wealth" ("Sahatek Sarwetek" on precursors to contraceptive use (e.g., spousal communication, birth spacing attitudes and on modern contraceptive use. Difference-in-differences and fixed effects estimators that exploit the panel nature of the data are employed to control for both observed and unobserved heterogeneity in the sample of women who self-report recall of the messages, thereby potentially improving upon methods that make no such controls or that rely solely on cross-sectional data. FINDINGS: All of the estimators find positive effects of the "Your Health, Your Wealth" campaign on reproductive health outcomes, though the magnitudes of those effects diverge, often considerably. Difference-in-differences estimators find that exposure to the campaign increases the likelihood of spousal discussions by 14.4 percentage points (pp. (SE= .039, p<0.001 but has no effect on contraceptive use. In contrast, the fixed effects, instrumental variables estimator, controlling for unobserved heterogeneity, finds a large, statistically significant effect on modern contraceptive use (27.4 pp., SE=0.135, p=0.043. CONCLUSIONS: The difficulties of evaluating family planning communication programs may

  18. THE RATE OF FAMILY PLANNING METHODS USAGE OF 15-49 YEARS OLD WOMEN LIVING IN DUZCE PERMANENT RESIDENCES AND THE CAUSES OF PREFERING METHODS

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    Atilla Senih MAYDA

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this cross-sectional and descriptive study is to learn the level of knowledge and source of knowledge about family planing, the rate of women using family planning methods and the causes of prefering the used methods of 15-49 years old women living in Duzce Permanent Residences. The population of the study ise 4394 women 15-49 years old. Cluster sampling is used and 280 women included to the study. A questionnaire containg 41 questions about family planning methods usage and the causes of prefer them was applied to women with face to face interview. The rate of 232 married women using effective planning method is 53.4%, traditional methods 24.6%and not using any method 22%. The rate of effective method usage of all 280 women included to the study is 45.7%, traditional 21.1% and not using any method 33.2%. The causes to prefer the methods are 72 women (25.7% ?reliable?, 33 women (11.8% ?side effects are less?, and 19 women (6.4% ?cheap?. All the women who began to use family planing methot by consulting with Health Center has used effective methods. Considering ?cheap? as a cause of prefer the method make us to think that the family planning methods could not be supported to the population unpaid. Using effective methods of all the women who began to use family planing methods by consulting with Health Center puts forward that Health Centers have an effective role in family planning activities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(5.000: 265-279

  19. Class attendance and university performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Anna-Lena; Lerche, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Using survey data collected at Göttingen University, Germany, this paper evaluates the effect of attending the lecture and/or tutorial on the grade achieved in two basic courses in business administration and economics. The analysis shows that going to class has no significant impact on student performance in most specifications. Although the identification of a causal effect may not be possible with the data at hand, the results suggest that, in the given framework, attending class and study...

  20. School attendance 1880-1939

    OpenAIRE

    Sheldon, Nicola; Professor Jane Humphries; Janet Howarth

    2008-01-01

    The thesis covers two sides of the truancy problem in the period following compulsory school attendance - the truanting children and their parents, and the local authorities charged with enforcing the law. The introduction covers current concerns about truancy and school attendance, which have increased in prominence since the 1980s. Chapter 2 reviews the historiography, which has mainly debated working-class attitudes towards compulsory schooling in the nineteenth century. Th...

  1. School attendance and parental disability

    OpenAIRE

    Raccanello, Kristiano; Garñudo Estrada, León; Herrera Escalante, Andrea; Uribe Cruz, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Socio economic problems exacerbate school drop-out that harms youths by limiting their knowledge and future development. Scholars have investigated both the variables linked to school attendance and the problems faced by impaired children. However, it has not yet been considered whether school attendance is harmed when parents are impaired. In order to partially fill this gap, we test the hypothesis that parental disability increases school drop-out through a sample of 598 youths between 14 a...

  2. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour and implementation intentions to predict and facilitate upward family communication about mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, J L; Chan, A Y C

    2012-01-01

    Regular mammography facilitates early detection of breast cancer, and thus increases the chances of survival from this disease. Daughter-initiated (i.e. upward) communication about mammography within mother-daughter dyads may promote mammography to women of screening age. The current study examined this communication behaviour within the context of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), and aimed to bridge the intention-behaviour gap by trialling an implementation intention (II) intervention that aimed to facilitate upward family communication about mammography. Young women aged 18-39 (N=116) were assigned to either a control or experimental condition, and the latter group formed IIs about initiating a conversation with an older female family member about mammography. Overall, those who formed IIs were more likely to engage in the target communication behaviour, however the intervention was most effective for those who reported low levels of intention at baseline. Perceived behavioural control emerged as the most important variable in predicting the target behaviour. The altruistic nature of this behaviour, and the fact that it is not wholly under volitional control, may have contributed to this finding. Future studies that systematically explore the relative roles of intention and perceived behavioural control in behaviours of this nature are warranted. PMID:21981385

  3. Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center Pap Smear Clinics of Information, Evaluation of Applicants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebahat Gucuk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study of women admitted to our center with information on pap smear test, to evaluate the attitudes and behavior. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study of Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center on a voluntary basis, women aged 15-49 were admitted to the control. The education level of participants, age at first marriage, before the presence of vaginal infection, the story, and motivations pap smear level of information availability, and a family history of cancer, administered a questionnaire asking the state to have a regular income. Results: The study included 362 women with age and hear the pap smear test was significantly increased (p = 0.01. Working women and pap smear level of knowledge (p = 0.04 and pap smears than women not working for International rates significantly higher (p = 0.02. Treatment of vaginal infection at least once before to get there was a significant relationship between the pap smear motivations (p>0.05. Family history of gynecologic cancer or non-gynecologic cancer smears have significantly increased the level of motivations (p = 0.0001. Pap smear information, regular the economic income of those levels, significantly higher than those without regular income (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: We serve the region, with low socio-economic characteristics that are considered, gynecological examination by health workers or women from the home visits, pap smear test for what purpose and how often you get the work done and the importance of explaining and giving more space to this issue suggest that the written and visual media. Keywords: Pap smears, health care, education [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(5.000: 527-532

  4. REAL NECESSITIES OF A CONTRACEPTION ALGORITHM IN CASES OF WOMEN SUFFERING FROM SCHIZOPHRENIA. SPECIAL NEEDS FOR FAMILY PLANNING

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    Madalina Ciuhodaru

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia has a devastating effect on patient lives all together with their families, changing dramatically the day by day life, affecting thinking, feelings, knowledge and modifying the patient’s ability to adapt to society – establishing “boundaries” and “stigma” cause of desasperation, confusion or other symptoms. Objectives: This study wanted to the established an algorithm that concerns contraceptive methods specifically made for schizophrenic female patients according to their needs and to reality in which they live. Material and method: the study included 6200 patients at reproductive age that had been hospitalized in Socola Psychiatric unit during 2005 - 2010 and have been investigated by inquiry about age, provenience, marital status, education, number of children, knowledge and attitudes towards methods of contraception failure. Results The majority of the ones that knew about the contraception were from the urban area, age 30-35 having medium education, in a relationship or married. Unfortunately the help providers tend to neglect this “delicate subject” the fertility of schizophrenic patients being a real problem not only for the health care specialist but also costing highly the social assistance, their families, and their own children. Conclusions. While the Royal College of Obstetricians from Great Britain affirms that as a criteria for medical eligibility in using contraception in female schizophrenic patients it can be used any method as there are no longer contraindications for each specific case and under a correct counseling the best way is to solve ethical problems offering those patients the right access to family planning

  5. Using Attendance Worksheets to Improve Student Attendance, Participation, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Edward

    2013-06-01

    As science instructors we are faced with two main barriers with respect to student learning. The first is motivating our students to attend class and the second is to make them active participants in the learning process once we have gotten them to class. As we head further into the internet age this problem only gets exacerbated as students have replaced newspapers with cell phones which can surf the web, check their emails, and play games. Quizzes can motivated the students to attend class but do not necessarily motivate them to pay attention. Active learning techniques work but we as instructors have been bombarded by the active learning message to the point that we either do it already or refuse to. I present another option which in my classroom has doubled the rate at which students learn my material. By using attendance worksheets instead of end of class quizzes I hold students accountable for not just their attendance but for when they show up and when they leave the class. In addition it makes the students an active participant in the class even without using active learning techniques as they are writing notes and answering the questions you have posed while the class is in progress. Therefore using attendance worksheets is an effective tool to use in order to guide student learning.

  6. The methodology for developing a prospective meta-analysis in the family planning community

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    Jacobson Janet C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective meta-analysis (PMA is a collaborative research design in which individual sites perform randomized controlled trials (RCTs and pool the data for meta-analysis. Members of the PMA collaboration agree upon specific research interventions and outcome measures, ideally before initiation but at least prior to any individual trial publishing results. This allows for uniform reporting of primary and secondary outcomes. With this approach, heterogeneity among trials contributing data for the final meta-analysis is minimized while each site maintains the freedom to design a specific trial. This paper describes the process of creating a PMA collaboration to evaluate the impact of misoprostol on ease of intrauterine device (IUD insertion in nulliparous women. Methods After the principal investigator developed a preliminary PMA protocol, he identified potential collaborating investigators at other sites. One site already had a trial underway and another site was in the planning stages of a trial meeting PMA requirements. Investigators at six sites joined the PMA collaborative. Each site committed to enroll subjects to meet a pre-determined total sample size. A final common research plan and site responsibilities were developed and agreed upon through email and face-to-face meetings. Each site committed to contribute individual patient data to the PMA collaboration, and these data will be analyzed and prepared as a multi-site publication. Individual sites retain the ability to analyze and publish their site's independent findings. Results All six sites have obtained Institutional Review Board approval and each has obtained individual funding to meet the needs of that site's study. Sites have shared resources including study protocols and consents to decrease costs and improve study flow. This PMA protocol is registered with the Cochrane Collaboration and data will be analyzed according to Cochrane standards for meta

  7. Perceptual analysis of women on tubectomy and other family planning services: a qualitative study

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    Ruchi Kalra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In our country India, Population explosion has become a major concern to all. As per NHFS 3 report, in MP 44.3%, adopted the female sterilization other methods like male sterilization 1.3%, Intrauterine devices 0.7% and pills users were 1.7%, condom 4.8%. The study probed into the reasons of female sterilization as the method of choice and to know ideas of other temporary contraceptives and male sterilization. Methods: In the study qualitative technique was adopted to understand the perception of participants. FGD's and in-depth interviews were conducted with residents of Ratua village between Nov 2011 - April 2012 to explore the gaps. 52 women participated in the study. They were between 20-40 years, married and had children. Results: The interview transcripts were thematically analysed. All the participants knew tubectomy operation either through health care workers, friends, relatives or media. They thought it as a better and safer way to prevent unwanted pregnancy as compared to temporary ways and male sterilization. Economic incentives were looked up as insufficient motivation for undergoing the procedure. The decision was combined and women had less freedom in decision making. All felt strongly need of having at least one son for the family progression and care provider to them during the old age. They were hesitant to use temporary methods as they had misconceptions about the adverse effects. The male sterilization was unacceptable to all the participant as they thought it causes weakness and would adversely affect the physical work performance of their husband Conclusions: Participants in the study were hesitant to use temporary contraceptive methods for the fear of adverse effects. Multiple approaches to educate and transform their misconceptions of contraceptive methods and male sterilization should be adopted. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(1.000: 94-99

  8. Northern settlement family-style: labor planning and population policy in Noril'sk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, A R

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews labor planning and population policies in Noril'sk, a mining and metallurgical settlement in northern Siberia. When the settlement was established in 1935, planners were lacking in ideas about how to recruit workers to staff the mines and smelters and how to retain the labor force once it was in place. From 1935-79, planners followed a forced labor policy dependent upon the labor of prisoners. However, this solution was not adequate for meeting the manpower needs of an economy undergoing rapid technological sophistication. Northern wage increments were introduced after 1945 to recruit skilled workers from other regions. These increments built up over a 4-year period to a maximum of 80% of base pay. A special cost of living bonus was also awarded. Although these inducements facilitated labor recruitment, labor retention remained a major problem. Surveys indicated that workers would prefer improvements in housing and social services to further wage increases. Thus, policy was directed at the housing shortages, poor medical care, and inadequate child care facilities in Noril'sk. Such improvements facilitated labor retention but also contributed to overpopulation. The population doubled between 1956-80, exceeding 180,000 in the latter year. In the early 1980s, selective measures toward population control were implemented to ensure maintenance of living standards (e.g., encouragement of older workers to leave the area upon retirement, more careful screening of recruits). The goal is to stabilize city size at around 250,000. The Noril'sk case illustrates that quality of life investments can alleviate labor retention problems even in the harshest physical environments. Recent policies have advocated productivity-enriching technologies that do not require increments in the labor force.

  9. Advance Care Planning in Dementia: Do Family Carers Know the Treatment Preferences of People with Early Dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael; Jones, Louise; Vickestaff, Victoria; Sampson, Elizabeth L.

    2016-01-01

    = -0.52; CPR, k = -0.07; PABAK = -0.45; tube feeding; k = 0.20; PABAK = -0.22). However, both PWD and carers showed marked uncertainty about their preferences for end of life treatment choices. Relationship quality, carer distress and burden had no influence on agreement. Conclusions This study is the first to have used the LSPQ with PWD in the UK to consider treatment options in hypothetical illness scenarios. Key finding are that family carers had a low to moderate agreement with PWD on preferences for end of life treatment. This underscores how planning for care at the end of life is beset with uncertainty, even when the carer and PWD perceive the care-giving/receiving relationship is good. Families affected by dementia may benefit from early and ongoing practical and emotional support to prepare for potential changes and aid decision making in the context of the realities of care towards the end of life. PMID:27410259

  10. A Little Bit of Sugar Helps the Pill Go Down: Resilience, Peace, and Family Planning; Comment on “The Pill Is Mightier Than the Sword”

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    Roger-Mark De Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article by Potts et al, “The Pill is Mightier than the Sword,” points out that family planning has an important role to play in building peace by increasing women’s empowerment and their agency, ultimately helping peacebuilding efforts. Evidence has demonstrated that family planning programs are cost effective, produce quick results, help women and couples meet their desired fertility levels, and produce a multitude of benefits around economic productivity, community engagement, conservation, resilience, and peacebuilding. In order for policy audiences from a variety of sectors, including conflict and peacebuilding, to appreciate these benefits, it is important to find common ground and articulate co-benefits that will help them appreciate and value the role of family planning, as it were, give them sugar to help the pill go down. This commentary examines how resilience, peacebuilding and family planning efforts need to focus on co-benefits in order to build on the successful interventions and opportunities that Potts et al highlight.

  11. Swimming pool attendance is related to asthma among atopic school children: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Martin; Hedman, Linnéa; Nordberg, Gunnar; Forsberg, Bertil; Eriksson, Kåre; Rönmark, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background: By-products of water disinfectants have been suggested to cause asthma, especially in atopic children. However, studies on indoor swimming pool attendance and asthma in children have presented conflicting results. The present study examined the relationship between indoor swimming pool attendance and asthma among sensitized and non-sensitized children aged 11-12 years. Methods: An extended ISAAC questionnaire was sent to the families of all children attending fifth or sixth grade,...

  12. COOPERATION OF THE SCHOOL WITH PARENTS OF CHILDREN WHO ARE BEGINNING SCHOOL ATTENDANCE

    OpenAIRE

    SLEPIČKOVÁ, Jana

    2011-01-01

    This thesis ?Cooperation of the school with parents of children who are begginning school attendance? describes concrete forms of communicatoin and coopertion of the school with parents of children who are begginning school attendance. The theoretical part is focused on scholar of freshman class, focused on school maturity and readiness, school immaturity, initiation of school attendance and affimnity of family with school. The practical part is focused on concrete forms of communicatoin and ...

  13. Student perceptions of reproductive health education in US medical schools: a qualitative analysis of students taking family planning electives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Veazey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abortion services will be sought by an estimated one in three US women before they reach age 45. Despite the importance of family planning (FP care, many medical schools do not currently offer formal education in this area, and students are unable to meet associated competency standards prior to graduation. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore students’ motivations in pursuing FP electives throughout the United States, their experiences during these courses, and any impact of these rotations on their plans for future practice. Method: We conducted a qualitative study consisting of semi-structured interviews with medical students upon completing fourth-year FP electives at US medical schools. Thirty-seven LCME-accredited US medical schools offered fourth-year FP electives. Course directors at 21 of these institutions recruited study participants between June 2012 and June 2013. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed with ATLAS/ti software to identify salient themes. Results: We interviewed 29 students representing 14 institutions from all regions of the United States (East Coast, Midwest, South, and West Coast. Five central themes emerged. Medical students are using FP electives to fill gaps in the standard curriculum. Elective participation did not change students’ pre-elective stance on abortion. Many students intend to provide abortion in the future but identified possible limiting factors. Proficiency in contraception and options counseling were top competencies desired and gained. Students reported excellent satisfaction with FP electives and would recommend it to their peers, regardless of their personal beliefs. Conclusions: Interview data revealed that students are using FP electives to fill gaps within preclinical and clinical medical school curriculum. Future physicians will be unable to provide comprehensive care for their female patients if they are not provided with this education. Research

  14. Encontrando-se em casa: uma proposta de atendimento domiciliar para famílias de idosos dependentes Encontrándose en casa: una propuesta de atención en el domicilio para las familias de ancianos dependientes Meeting at home: a proposal of home attendance for families of dependent seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Silva

    2007-12-01

    , elogiar las fuerzas familiares y asegurar la atención rápida. CONCLUSIONES: Con la atención a la familia bajo el enfoque sistémico fue posible proponer las intervenciones de ayuda para la mejoría de la calidad de la vida familiar, de manera que ella también vislumbre sus propias soluciones para el enfrentamiento de las adversidades.OBJECTIVE: This qualitative study intends to identify how a family system reacts before the situation of dependence of a senior family member, which resources it uses to maintain the stability and the nursing attendance made available in this context. METHODS: The approach of the family systems was used as the theoretical reference, and action-research as the method. The data were collected in the period from November/2004 to January/2005, through the construction of a genogram, an ecomap and problem definition. RESULTS: Main family demands: anticipated mourning, overload on the role of caregiver, lack of knowledge regarding the disease and family maladjustment before the crisis. Main interventions: motivating the family to speak openly about the illness, offering suggestions and information, praising the family strength and ensuring prompt service. CONCLUSIONS: With family attendance as the systemic focus, it was possible to propose healthcare interventions to improve the quality of family life so as they could devise their own solutions to face adversities.

  15. Motivation to Attend College in American and Chinese Students: Correlates with ADHD Symptomatology and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvilitis, Jill M.; Reid, Howard M.; Ling, Sun; Chen, Sisi

    2013-01-01

    Data were analyzed from 178 American and 153 Chinese college students who participated in a study examining motivation to attend college. Students in the two countries reported similar motivations for attending college, with career and personal reasons being most important and helping family least important. Also, the study assessed the influence…

  16. Introduction to Basic Health Supervising Agencies for Family Planning to the District Health Family Planning the Implementation of the Supervision and Guidance%浅谈基层卫生计生监督机构对辖区卫生计生监督工作的实施与指导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪波; 陈必峰

    2015-01-01

    The basic family planning of health supervision institutions is the most intuitive implementation of family plan-ning of health supervision and law enforcement institutions, it not only need to take within the jurisdiction of the hygiene supervision and law enforcement in terms of family planning, at the same time also need to bear the corresponding guid-ance. Of jurisdiction with the department of health supervision and guidance, to be able to find some problems in the aspect of family planning of health supervision and law enforcement work and weak links, but also in a timely manner to correct and giving corresponding guidance, to avoid in the process of family planning law enforcement health problems, family plan-ning supervisor in health law enforcement behavior proper specification, the overall level of family planning supervision and improve their health and work efficiency, make family planning of health supervision work to maintain maximum degree of legitimacy and fairness.%基层卫生计生监督机构是进行卫生计生监督执法最直接的执行性机构,它不但需要承担其辖区内的卫生计生监督执法方面的工作,同时还需要承担对应指导工作.借助对辖区从业部门的卫生监督及指导,能够发现在卫生计生监督执法方面存在的一些问题以及薄弱环节,而且还能够及时对其进行纠正以及给予对应的指导,进而避免在卫生计生执法的过程之中出现的问题,对卫生计生监督人员执法行为进行规范,提高其卫生计生监督整体水平以及工作效率,令卫生计生监督工作能够保持最大程度的合法性和公正性.

  17. Planning ahead with children with life-limiting conditions and their families: development, implementation and evaluation of ‘My Choices’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noyes Jane

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The United Kingdom has led the world in the development of children’s palliative care. Over the past two decades, the illness trajectories of children with life-limiting conditions have extended with new treatments and better home-based care. Future planning is a critically under-researched aspect of children’s palliative care globally. This paper describes the development, implementation and evaluation of innovative child and parent-held palliative care planning resources. The resources were designed to facilitate parent and child thinking and engagement in future planning, and to determine care preferences and preferred locations of care for children with life-limiting conditions from diagnosis onwards. These resources fill a significant gap in palliative care planning before the end-of-life phase. Methods Drawing on contemporaneous research on producing evidence-based children’s health information, we collaborated with leading children’s not-for-profit organisations, parents, children, and professionals. A set of resources (My Choices booklets were developed for parents and children and evaluated using interviews (parents, children, professionals and questionnaires (professionals and an open web-based consultation. Results Parents and children responded in three ways: Some used the booklets to produce detailed written plans with clear outcomes and ideas about how best to achieve desired outcomes. Others preferred to use the booklet to help them think about potential options. Remaining parents found it difficult to think about the future and felt there was no point because they perceived there to be no suitable local services. Professionals varied in confidence in their ability to engage with families to plan ahead and identified many challenges that prevented them from doing so. Few families shared their plans with professionals. Parents and children have far stronger preferences for home-care than professionals

  18. Parameters of Multiple College Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Paul H.

    This is a report analyzing the multiple community college attendance patterns of students from nine colleges in the Los Angeles Community College District (California) from 1990-2000. The assessment utilizes the Multiple College Index (MCI), which is a measure based on the proportion of units a student earns at different colleges. The study…

  19. Student Satisfaction with Attending Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Thomas A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 252 dental students in three schools measured student satisfaction with (1) the patient care system in the dental school clinic; and (2) the responsibilities of the attending faculty, who manage 10-student teams. Results indicated general satisfaction but point to some problems in individual situations. (MSE)

  20. Does Integrating Family Planning into HIV Services Improve Gender Equitable Attitudes? Results from a Cluster Randomized Trial in Nyanza, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmann, Sara J; Rocca, Corinne H; Zakaras, Jennifer M; Onono, Maricianah; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Grossman, Daniel; Cohen, Craig R

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated whether integrating family planning (FP) services into HIV care was associated with gender equitable attitudes among HIV-positive adults in western Kenya. Surveys were conducted with 480 women and 480 men obtaining HIV services from 18 clinics 1 year after the sites were randomized to integrated FP/HIV services (N = 12) or standard referral for FP (N = 6). We used multivariable regression, with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering, to assess whether gender attitudes (range 0-12) were associated with integrated care and with contraceptive use. Men at intervention sites had stronger gender equitable attitudes than those at control sites (adjusted mean difference in scores = 0.89, 95 % CI 0.03-1.74). Among women, attitudes did not differ by study arm. Gender equitable attitudes were not associated with contraceptive use among men (AOR = 1.06, 95 % CI 0.93-1.21) or women (AOR = 1.03, 95 % CI 0.94-1.13). Further work is needed to understand how integrating FP into HIV care affects gender relations, and how improved gender equity among men might be leveraged to improve contraceptive use and other reproductive health outcomes. PMID:26837632

  1. RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF RELAPAROTOMY IN DEPARTMENT OF OBSTRETRICS, GYNAECOLOGY AND FAMILY PLANNING IN, RURAL TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Thombarapu, Prabha Devi Kodey, GangadharaRao Koneru

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Relaparotomy is biggest dilemma to the surgeon and critical to the patient to undergo second surgery within short span of time .It is challenging both physically and mentally to the patient. Aim: Aim of the study was to determine incidence of relaparotomy and its indication, management and outcome in the department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Family Planning (OBGYN & FP in NRI Medical College & General Hospital at Guntur District. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective observational study for the duration of 3 and ½ years. Total number of surgeries -7, 718. Total number of relaparotomy- 27 which include referral cases. Results: Incidence for relaparotomy was 0.34%. Most important cause for relaparotomy was haemorrhagic causes (44.4%, followed by burst abdomen (33.3%. Relaparotomy can increase morbidity, mortality (14.8% of patients with increased hospital stay on an average of 27 days including Intensive Care Unit, further increasing the financial burden to the patient. Conclusion: Emergency relaparotomy is a life saving procedure. Good expertise in selection of primary surgery and right surgical technique, intra operative hemostasis, control of post operative infection can avoid relaparatomy

  2. THE KNOWLEDGE LEVEL OF A GROUP OF STUDENTS IN CELAL BAYAR UNIVERSITY ABOUT FAMILY PLANNING AND SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar ERBAY DUNDAR

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Young adulthood is a period when concepts like family planning (FP and sexually transmitted diseases (STD?s become important. This cross-sectional study was performed to measure the knowledge level of Biology and Turkish Language / Literature students of Manisa Celal Bayar University about FP and STD?s. The questionnaire measures knowledge level of FP-STD?s and sociodemographic variables was performed to 299 students (73 % of the population undar observation. The data is evaluated by chi square test and Student?s t test in SPSS 10.0 statistics program. The mean age of the study group is 21.3±1.9, 31.8% get informed about FP by friends, 95.4% of girls know about oral contraseptives (oc?s and 88.3% of girls know about IUD?s; 96.1% of boys know about oc?s and 79.4% of them know about condom. The mean knowledge point of FP is 11.2±3.7 of girls, 9.0±3.9 of boys (p0.05. The effective variables of STD?s knowledge is age group.Medico-social section of universities is a very important places for consulting FP and STD?s to the students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(2.000: 66-78

  3. Knowledge Networking for Family Planning: The Potential for Virtual Communities of Practice to Move Forward the Global Reproductive Health Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan O’Brien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights experience from five years of using virtual communication tools developed by the World Health Organization Department of Reproductive Health and Research (WHO/RHR and its partners in the Implementing Best Practices (IBP in Reproductive Health Initiative to help bridge the knowledge-to-practice gap among family planning and reproductive health professionals. It explores how communities of practice and virtual networks offer a unique low-cost way to convene public health practitioners around the world to share experiences. It offers examples of how communities of practice can contribute to the development and dissemination of evidence-based health information products, and explores the potential for online networking and collaboration to enhance and inform program design and management. The paper is intended to inform the reproductive health community, as well as others working in health and development, of the potential for using virtual communities of practice to work towards achieving common goals and provide some examples of their successful use.

  4. Assessing gaps and poverty-related inequalities in the public and private sector family planning supply environment of urban Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jessica K; Curtis, Sian; Zimmer, Catherine; Speizer, Ilene S

    2014-02-01

    Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, and its population is expected to double in Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division 2012; Measurement Learning & Evaluation Project, Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative, National Population Commission 2012). Reducing unwanted and unplanned pregnancies through reliable access to high-quality modern contraceptives, especially among the urban poor, could make a major contribution to moderating population growth and improving the livelihood of urban residents. This study uses facility census data to create and assign aggregate-level family planning (FP) supply index scores to 19 local government areas (LGAs) across six selected cities of Nigeria. It then explores the relationships between public and private sector FP services and determines whether contraceptive access and availability in either sector is correlated with community-level wealth. Data show pronounced variability in contraceptive access and availability across LGAs in both sectors, with a positive correlation between public sector and private sector supply environments and only localized associations between the FP supply environments and poverty. These results will be useful for program planners and policy makers to improve equal access to contraception through the expansion or redistribution of services in focused urban areas.

  5. Determinants of exposure to mass media family planning messages among indigenous people in Bangladesh: a study on the Garo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Rakibul; Islam, M Amirul; Banowary, Banya

    2009-03-01

    This paper evaluates exposure to mass media family planning (FP) messages among the Garo, an indigenous community in Bangladesh. A sample of 223 currently married Garo women were selected purposively from two districts where most of the Garo population live. The analysis demonstrated that television was the most significant form of mass media to disseminate FP messages among the recipients - more so than radio and newspapers. About 80.6% of the respondents had heard of FP messages through television, while for the radio and newspapers the percentages were 55.3% and 22.7% respectively. The contraceptive prevalence rate is much higher (79.5%) in the study area than the national level (55.8%). A linear logistic regression model was employed to identify the confluence of different demographic and socioeconomic characteristics on mass media FP messages. Regarding exposure to FP messages, four independent variables out of six had significant effects on the exposure to FP messages through any one of the types of media, i.e. radio, television and newspapers. These independent variables were age, level of education, occupation and number of children.

  6. Evaluation of the Factors Concerning the Unexpected Pregnancy of Women who Applied to the Mother and Child Care and Family Planning Center of Van Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebahat Gucuk

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the experiences of unexpected pregnancy and the related factors of the women who have applied to our center. Material and Method: The study was planned as a descriptive study which enrolled women in the age range of 15-49 on the basis of volunteerism who have applied to the Mother and Child Care and Family Planning Center of Van Province. The participants were administered a survey in which certain situations were questioned, such as age, educational background, age at first labor, income status, number of living children, miscarriage status, unexpected pregnancy status, the presence of trying to undergo an abortion with alternative methods, and the state of receiving consultancy service on pre- and post-pregnancy family planning. Results: The more increased the educational level of 399 women enrolled in the study, the more significant reduction in unexpected pregnancies was detected (P=0.001. When the educational background and the use of alternative methods to have an abortion were compared, the illiterate women were found to use alternative methods (37.6% at a significantly high ratio (p=0.0001. The average of children number of women with at least one unexpected pregnancy was significantly high (p=0.0001. While the ratio of receiving consultancy on post-pregnancy family planning from health care personnel of the women with unexpected pregnancy was 79.5%, a ratio of 97.9% was detected for the women with planned pregnancy which was significantly different (p=0.0001. Conclusion: The health care personnel may reduce the unexpected pregnancies by training women on family planning in a simple, understandable way and by trying to increase health literacy by taking the dominant social rules in our region into consideration. We consider that the primary healthcare will be more effective and result oriented through newly applied Family Practice in our region. Key Words: Unexpected pregnancy

  7. Minor injury attendance times to the ED.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conlon, Ciaran

    2009-07-01

    The Health Service Executive (HSE) highlights the need for effective patient throughput and management, whilst providing appropriate staffing and therapeutic interventions. It acknowledges that patient need is integral to the development of a nurse led service and advocates planning staffing levels to reflect arrival times of patients. An observational study of all patients who presented to the emergency department in July 2005 and February 2006 was undertaken (n=7768). The study identified 1577 patients suitable for treatment by the Advanced Nurse Practitioner (ANP) in these two months, which represents 20% of all patient attendances to the ED in this time period. A data collection tool was devised collectively by the ANPs to identify appropriate patients. The findings of the study revealed that 73% of patients suitable for the ANP service presented between the hours of 0800 and 2000, of which 54% attended between 0800 and 1600 h. Sunday emerged as the busiest day in July 2005 whereas Monday was found to be the busiest day in February 2006. Friday was found to be consistently busy for both months.

  8. Family Planning Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Married Men and Women in Rural Areas of Pakistan: Findings from a Qualitative Need Assessment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a qualitative assessment aimed at exploring knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding family planning and factors that influence the need for and use of modern contraceptives. A descriptive exploratory study was conducted with married women and men aged between 15 and 40. Overall, 24 focus group discussions were conducted with male and female participants in three provinces of Pakistan. The findings reveal that the majority knew about some modern contraceptive methods, but the overall contraceptive use was very low. Knowledge and use of any contraceptive method were particularly low. Reasons for not using family planning and modern contraception included incomplete family size, negative perceptions, in-laws’ disapproval, religious concerns, side-effects, and lack of access to quality services. The majority preferred private facilities over the government health facilities as the later were cited as derided. The study concluded the need for qualified female healthcare providers, especially for long term family planning services at health facilities instead of camps arranged occasionally. Addressing issues around access, affordability, availability, and sociocultural barriers about modern contraception as well as involving men will help to meet the needs and ensure that the women and couples fulfill their childbearing and reproductive health goals.

  9. [SMS reminders can reduce non-attendance at consultations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Katrina Hutton; Eliasen, Troels Ulrik; Carlsen, Karen Marie; Serup, Jørgen

    2014-09-15

    Each year, thousands of patients fail to attend their consulta-tions. In January 2014, 89/955 (9.3%) planned consultations were misheld at the Dermatology Department of Bispebjerg Hospital, Denmark. A total of 209 patients were interviewed about SMS (short message service) reminders. 82% of re-spondents had a positive opinion of SMS reminders, however, reminders were only enrolled in 17.7% and awareness unknown in 33%. Reminders guaranteed attendance in 6.2%, otherwise forgotten, but the system has a significant untapped potential. It can be improved through automatic enrolment already when referring the patient. PMID:25294207

  10. Impact of family planning programs in reducing high-risk births due to younger and older maternal age, short birth intervals, and high parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Win; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Roche, Neil; Sonneveldt, Emily; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Several studies show that maternal and neonatal/infant mortality risks increase with younger and older maternal age (34 years), high parity (birth order >3), and short birth intervals (decline through contraceptive use--both by reducing unwanted births and by reducing the burden of these high-risk births. However, beyond averting births, the empirical evidence for the role of family planning in reducing high-risk births at population level is limited. We examined data from 205 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), conducted between 1985 and 2013, to describe the trends in high-risk births and their association with the pace of progress in modern contraceptive prevalence rate (yearly increase in rate of MCPR) in 57 developing countries. Using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique, we then examine the contributions of family planning program, economic development (GDP per capita), and educational improvement (secondary school completion rate) on the progress of MCPR in order to link the net contribution of family planning program to the reduction of high-risk births mediated through contraceptive use. Countries that had the fastest progress in improving MCPR experienced the greatest declines in high-risk births due to short birth intervals (3), and older maternal age (>35 years). Births among younger women decline significantly during this period. The decomposition analysis suggests that 63% of the increase in MCPR was due to family planning program efforts, 21% due to economic development, and 17% due to social advancement through women's education. Improvement in MCPR, predominately due to family planning programs, is a major driver of the decline in the burden of high-risk births due to high parity, shorter birth intervals, and older maternal age in developing countries. The lack of progress in the decline of births in younger women <18 years of age underscores the need for more attention to ensure that quality contraceptive methods are available to adolescent

  11. Family Reunion Health Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can post this message as a note on Facebook, tagging family members and loved ones. You also may include ... gov . Planning Tip 2. | Develop a Family Reunion Facebook page and help family members stay in touch throughout the year. Share ...

  12. Smoking cessation with young women in public family planning clinics: the impact of physician messages and waiting room media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, V C; Coates, T J; Spielberg, L A; Ewart, C K; Dorfman, S; Huster, W J

    1984-09-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a media program and a physician-delivered message in encouraging smoking cessation among young black women in public family planning clinics. Incorporated into the clinic visit, the 3- to 5-min physician message was intended to elicit a commitment from participants to take steps toward quitting, namely, to think about quitting, set a target date, enlist the help of family and friends, throw away matches and cigarettes, and to then quit "cold turkey." The media program consisted of specially designed posters in waiting rooms showing models of people in the process of quitting and a continuously run movie dealing with women and smoking. A total of 1,179 female smokers were recruited into the study when they came to three separate clinics in Baltimore, Maryland, to receive gynecological examinations and/or contraceptive services. Four separate interventions were tested: (I) a baseline questionnaire about smoking habits and related information; (II) baseline questionnaire plus media program; (III) baseline questionnaire plus physician message; and (IV) baseline questionnaire plus media program plus physician message. Conditions I and II were administered in Clinic A on alternating weeks, Condition III was administered in Clinic B, and Condition IV was administered in Clinic C. Follow-up was conducted at 3 and 12 months. Follow-up rates were 88.1% at 3 months, 79.9% at 12 months, and 84.1% for both 3 and 12 months. Among women receiving the physician message (Conditions III and IV), 9.9% reported not smoking at 12 months; the lowest selfreported cessation rate was 3.1% in Condition I. When verified through analyzing cotinine in saliva, quit rates were 0.09% in Condition I, 2.4% in Condition II, 3.7% in Condition III, and 2.1% in Condition IV. The fact that participants receiving the physician message quit smoking at a significantly greater rate than those who did not indicates the need for further study of the impact of physician

  13. 77 FR 55212 - Notice of Commission Attendance at the Western Electricity Coordinating Council Board of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Attendance at the Western Electricity...: Western Electricity Coordinating Council Board of Directors Strategic Planning Session, 155 North 400...

  14. Reproductive and family planning history, knowledge, and needs: A community survey of low-income women in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østbye Truls

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reproductive health status of China's low-income urban women is believed to be poor. Therefore, understanding their reproductive history and needs and improving services provision is very important. However, few studies have been done to assess reproductive health status, knowledge and needs in this low-income population. The purpose of this study is to broadly assess reproductive and family planning history, knowledge and health needs among low income urban women with an aim to informing health services interventions. Methods 1642 low-income women age 18–49 from Haidian district, Beijing were selected. All were interviewed via a standardized questionnaire in 2006. Results Most women reported at least one pregnancy and delivery (97.7%, 98.3%. Deliveries in hospitals (97.3% by medical personnel (98.5% were commonplace, as was receipt of antenatal care (86.0%. Nearly half had at least one abortion, with most (56.0% performed in district hospitals, by physicians (95.6%, and paid for out-of-pocket (64.4%. Almost all (97.4% used contraception, typically IUDs or condoms. Reproductive knowledge was limited. Health needs emphasized by the participants included popularizing reproductive health information, being able to discuss their reproductive health concerns, free reproductive health insurance, examination and treatment. Conclusion Among poor urban women in Beijing, antenatal care and contraceptive use were common. However, abortions were also common. Knowledge about reproductive health was limited. There is a need for better reproductive health education, free medical care and social support.

  15. Mobilizing male opinion leaders' support for family planning to improve maternal health: a theory-based qualitative study from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmat SK

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Syed Khurram AzmatTechnical Services and Research and Metrics, Marie Stopes Society, Karachi, Sindh, PakistanPurpose: Pakistan is a patriarchal society in which male opinion leaders play an important role in determining health-seeking behaviors pertaining to family planning (FP among their respective communities. This research focuses on cataloguing the perceptions of opinion leaders (clergymen, health professionals, and social workers about the barriers for using services and practical solutions for promoting FP in the slums of Karachi, Pakistan.Materials and methods: A qualitative study using an open-ended, semistructured interview schedule with hypothetical scenarios and in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 45 opinion leaders (25 mosque imams/clergymen, 12 nonallopathic health professionals, and eight social workers/activists was conducted in 2006–2007 in Karachi, Pakistan. Transcripts were coded thematically utilizing NVivo by using an adapted constant comparison analysis process as described by Strauss and Corbin.Results: Seven key themes were derived from the in-depth interviews. Five themes provide insight into the opinion leaders' perceptions of barriers to FP and modern contraception methods. Among the barriers religious taboos and cultural pressures were particularly noteworthy. Two themes offered opportunities for more effective development and implementation of FP programs.Conclusion: It is evident from the study that opinion leaders in the community and the clergy lack the understanding of the importance of birth spacing. However, because they have a great deal of influence on the community at large, it is imperative to interact with them to build their capacity in order to propagate the messages of FP and improve maternal health and reproductive health in general.Keywords: religious leaders/community imams/clergyman, health professionals, social workers

  16. How the Reproductive Health Needs of Unmarried Youth Be Concerned in Quality Services in Family Planning/ Reproductive Health?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nian CUI; Min-xiang LI; Xiao-wen TU

    2006-01-01

    Objective To understand the reproductive health needs of unmarried youth so as to provide them better quality services.Method Data were drawn from a baseline questionnaire survey of provision of reproductive health information and services for unmarried youth aged 16-20 years in rural areas of Chengdu, Southwest China in 2001-2002.Results The study comprised of 1 895 valid subjects. More than 70% subjects felt that the knowledge, information and services in relation to sexual and reproductive health provided by the society were rather insufficient. Near 95% thought that unmarried young people seeking sexual and reproductive health counseling and services were quite normal, although some of them had different misgivings. Their preferred services in reproductive health included: counseling in relation to sexual and reproductive health, how to cope with unexpected sex and unwanted pregnancy, how to select the appropriate contraceptives for unmarried youth, etc. About 2/3 subjects agreed to provide contraceptive services to unmarried youth actively by the society. And they thought the difficulties and obstacles in provision of contraceptive services for unmarried youth were in the following order: restriction of the traditional conceptions,shyness of unmarried youth in accept of such services, disapproval of parents/school teachers, and so forth.Conclusion To improve reproductive health status of unmarried youth and meet their needs is a challenge to quality service of family planning/reproductive health program in China. The related departments and service providers should pay attention to this matter and take the strategies and measures to provide appropriate, specific, friendly and accessibly services for unmarried young people.

  17. TEACHING, COEXISTENCE AND ATTENDANCE AT A TECHNOLOGICAL HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Carranza-Peña

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article, which stems from ethnographic research, shows the importance of faculty intervention in the classroom setting in encouraging student attendance. Our findings indicate that the habitus the educator establishes can either encourage youth to continue their studies, or lead them to drop out, thus placing them at risk of addictions, illegal activities, unemployment or low-paid jobs. The Pedagogy of Hope therefore provides an option for effecting large-scale changes in personal, school, family, community and socio-economic conditions. The paper’s conclusions include providing training to teaching faculties on coexistence issues; ensuring coordination between school and family, and emphasizing an integral approach to education as means of promoting school attendance.

  18. Using RFID Technology to Track Attendance

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet F. Dicle; John Levendis

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between class attendance and academic performance continues to be of interest. The most common methods of tracking attendance, however, have their shortcomings and biases. We provide researchers with a method to collect unbiased and reliable attendance data. Late arrivals and early departures can also be recorded with ease, allowing researchers to evaluate these behaviors as well. Our method is intended to collect valuable attendance data at a minimal cost of time or money: s...

  19. Attendance Control System based on RFID technology

    OpenAIRE

    Nurbek Saparkhojayev; Selim Guvercin

    2012-01-01

    In Kazakhstan, checking students' attendance is one of the important issues for universities, because many universities evaluate students attendance and while giving the final grade, professors consider their total number of appearances on classes during the whole semester. This brings to the idea of having some tool to control students attendance. Some universities prefer to use paper sheet for controlling attendance, whereas some universities prefer to use paper sheet for checking students'...

  20. Family business

    OpenAIRE

    KLUZÁKOVÁ, Lucie

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on family business companies and above all on their problem of succession planning. For the purposes of this work, I have chosen a family business company that is owned by two shareholders. Both shareholders are going to leave the company within next 5 to 10 years. The thesis deals with the succession plan of both shareholders and this concerning the rate of preparedness as well as the rate of coordination of both plans. Prior to the research, two hypotheses were fixed. Th...

  1. Attendance and Attainment in a Calculus Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulenbroek, Bernard; van den Bogaard, Maartje

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the relationship between attendance and attainment in a standard calculus course is investigated. Calculus could in principle be studied without attending lectures due to the wealth of material available (in hardcopy and online). However, in this study we will show that the pass rate of students attending classes regularly (>75%…

  2. Preparo de médicos para o atendimento a diabéticos no Programa Saúde da Família e suas percepções sobre as dificuldades de adesão ao tratamento = Medical prepare for attendance to the diabetics in Health Family Program and their perceptions about the difficulties for the treatment compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozagna Machado dos Reis

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivamos analisar o preparo de médicos do Programa Saúde da Família(PSF para o atendimento aos diabéticos em Goiânia, identificar princípios utilizados pelos mesmos para o diagnóstico e tratamento e analisar a percepção destes profissionais acerca das dificuldades dos pacientes para adesão. Participaram 13 médicos, de seis distritossanitários de Goiânia. Utilizamos questionário e entrevista gravada para coletar dados. Quanto ao preparo dos profissionais, verificou-se o predomínio de especialistas (9, o conhecimento superficial do Consenso de Diabetes (12, no último ano, não fizeram curso para se atualizarem nesta área (13 e geralmente, não assinam revistas científicas (8. As dificuldades de adesão por parte dos diabéticos, segundo os médicos, envolvem: dificuldades na estrutura do Sistema Único de Saúde, mudanças no estilo de vida, restrições econômicas.Concluiu-se que o preparo destes profissionais ainda contrasta com o preconizado pelo PSF e evidenciam-se dificuldades para o atendimento resolutivo aos usuários.We intended to analyze the preparation of doctors of the Family HealthProgram to attend diabetics, identify the principles utilized by them to get the diagnosis and treatment and analyze the perceptions of those professional about the patients’ difficulties to the treatment compliance. Thirteen doctors of six health districts of Goiânia took part in this study. We used questionnaire and taped interview for data collect. As to professional preparation, we verified predominance of specialists (nine who had superficial knowedge of diabetes consensus (twelve that last year had not taken any course to become up to date in the area (thirteen in general do not subscribe scientific magazines (eight. The patient‘s difficulties of adhesion, according medical perceptions involve: difficulties at Sistema Único de Saúde structure, changed in life style, economics restriction. We conclude that the outline of

  3. Utilization of traditional birth attendants in MCH care in rural Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, H

    1987-12-01

    Training of the traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in Malaysia was preceded by a KAP study, and the results have been a tremendous improvement in maternal-child health care. Although Malaysia has an extensive health care system composed of government sponsored midwife clinics, health centers and sub-centers, regional hospitals, private general practitioners and estate clinics, which are utilized by 94% for prenatal care, 40% of women still called in TBAs for delivery. TBAs are popular because they provide a full range of traditional customs, are available locally, and well known to local women. 100 active TBAs in the Krian District, an area of 157,649 people in northwestern Malaysia, were surveyed. 89% had primary education; 76% were over 55 years of age; 82% had over 10 years of experience; 60% had received family planning training. They had favorable attitudes toward modern medicine, advised women to attend prenatal care, advised them on traditional diet, and performed such procedures as abdominal massage and heat fomentation. They tended to take all cases regardless of risk. The training consisted of practical demonstrations and flip charts for 6 consecutive saturdays conducted by public health nurses. TBAs were taken to meet staff and see hospital facilities and received a UN midwifery kit as an incentive. After training, hospital deliveries rose from 29.5% in 1976 to 35.9% in 1983; government midwives attended 40.2% compared to 23.3% of deliveries; deliveries conducted by TBAs fell from 47.2% to 19.4%; and more high risk cases were referred to hospitals. During the period maternal mortality declined from 1.46-1.98 in the 1970s to 0.84-1.09 in the 1980s.

  4. Evaluation of Chlamydia Partner Notification Practices and Use of the “Let Them Know” Website by Family Planning Clinicians in Australia: Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Joanne M; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Jamil, Muhammad S; Harvey, Caroline; Bateson, Deborah; van Gemert, Caroline; Wand, Handan; Kaldor, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Chlamydia, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, is the most common reportable infection in many developed countries. Testing, treatment, and partner notification (PN) are key strategies for chlamydia control. In 2008 the Let Them Know (LTK) PN website was established, which provided means for people to send anonymous PN messages by text messaging (short message service, SMS), email, or letter. Objective We evaluated PN practices among Australian family planning clinicians following chlamydia diagnosis and assessed how often clinicians refer their patients to the LTK website. Methods A mixed methods approach included a Web-based cross-sectional survey of Australian family planning clinicians to examine PN attitudes and practices and focus groups to explore the context of LTK website use. Results Between May 2012 and June 2012, all clinicians from 29 different family planning services (n=212) were invited to complete the survey, and 164 participated (response rate=77.4%); of the clinicians, 96.3% (158/164) were females, 56.1% (92/164) nurses, and 43.9% (72/164) doctors. More than half (62.2%, 92/148) agreed that PN was primarily the client's responsibility; however, 93.2% (138/148) agreed it was the clinician's responsibility to support the client in informing their partners by providing information or access to resources. Almost half (49.4%, 76/154) of the clinicians said that they always or usually referred clients to the LTK website, with variation across clinics in Australian states and territories (0%-77%). Eleven focus groups among 70 clinicians at 11 family planning services found that the LTK website had been integrated into routine practice; that it was particularly useful for clients who found it difficult to contact partners; and that the LTK letters and fact sheets were useful. However, many clinicians were not aware of the website and noted a lack of internal clinic training about LTK. Conclusions The LTK website has become an important PN tool

  5. Planning your pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy > Before or between pregnancies > Planning your pregnancy Planning your pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... partner as you start your family. Why is planning your pregnancy important? Planning your pregnancy can help ...

  6. Responsibility of the Government:Estabilishing Rural Social Endowment Insurance System in Family Planning Families%政府职责:建立农村计划生育家庭社会养老保险制度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣红

    2012-01-01

    Estabilishing rural social endowment insurance system in family planning families is the responsibility of the government. In the process of implementation on family planning rewards policy, the government has made great innovation both in systematic supply and financal supply. The incorporation of rewards into the new rural agricultural insurance in one of innovations, which strengthens the effect of compentation, excition and security%建立农村计划生育家庭社会养老保险制度,政府责无旁贷。在奖扶制度的实施中,政府在制度供给和财政供给方面进行了积极的探索和创新。奖扶制度并入新农保,是制度的又一创新。由于明确和强化了政府的代偿职责,制度补偿、保障和激励的功效会更好。

  7. Increasing Use of Postpartum Family Planning and the Postpartum IUD: Early Experiences in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleah, Tsigue; Hyjazi, Yolande; Austin, Suzanne; Diallo, Abdoulaye; Dao, Blami; Waxman, Rachel; Karna, Priya

    2016-08-11

    A global resurgence of interest in the intrauterine device (IUD) as an effective long-acting reversible contraceptive and in improving access to a wide range of contraceptive methods, as well as an emphasis on encouraging women to give birth in health care facilities, has led programs to introduce postpartum IUD (PPIUD) services into postpartum family planning (PPFP) programs. We describe strategic, organizational, and technical elements that contributed to early successes of a regional initiative in West and Central Africa to train antenatal, maternity, and postnatal care providers in PPFP counseling for the full range of available methods and in PPIUD service delivery. In November 2013, the initiative provided competency-based training in Guinea for providers from the main public teaching hospital in 5 selected countries (Benin, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Niger, and Senegal) with no prior PPFP counseling or PPIUD capacity. The training was followed by a transfer-of-learning visit and monitoring to support the trained providers. One additional country, Togo, replicated the initiative's model in 2014. Although nascent, this initiative has introduced high-quality PPFP and PPIUD services to the region, where less than 1% of married women of reproductive age use the IUD. In total, 21 providers were trained in PPFP counseling, 18 of whom were also trained in PPIUD insertion. From 2014 to 2015, more than 15,000 women were counseled about PPFP, and 2,269 women chose and received the PPIUD in Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. (Introduction of PPIUD services in Chad has been delayed.) South-South collaboration has been central to the initiative's accomplishments: Guinea's clinical centers of excellence and qualified trainers provided a culturally resonant example of a PPFP/PPIUD program, and trainings are creating a network of regional trainers to facilitate expansion. Two of the selected countries (Benin and Niger) have expanded their PPFP/PPUID training

  8. Participatory approaches involving community and healthcare providers in family planning/contraceptive information and service provision: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Petrus S; Cordero, Joanna Paula; Gichangi, Peter; Smit, Jennifer A; Nkole, Theresa; Kiarie, James; Temmerman, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    As efforts to address unmet need for family planning and contraception (FP/C) accelerate, voluntary use, informed choice and quality must remain at the fore. Active involvement of affected populations has been recognized as one of the key principles in ensuring human rights in the provision of FP/C and in improving quality of care. However, community participation continues to be inadequately addressed in large-scale FP/C programmes. Community and healthcare providers' unequal relationship can be a barrier to successful participation. This scoping review identifies participatory approaches involving both community and healthcare providers for FP/C services and analyzes relevant evidence. The detailed analysis of 25 articles provided information on 28 specific programmes and identified three types of approaches for community and healthcare provider participation in FP/C programmes. The three approaches were: (i) establishment of new groups either health committees to link the health service providers and users or implementation teams to conduct specific activities to improve or extend available health services, (ii) identification of and collaboration with existing community structures to optimise use of health services and (iii) operationalization of tools to facilitate community and healthcare provider collaboration for quality improvement. Integration of community and healthcare provider participation in FP/C provision were conducted through FP/C-only programmes, FP/C-focused programmes and/or as part of a health service package. The rationales behind the interventions varied and may be multiple. Examples include researcher-, NGO- or health service-initiated programmes with clear objectives of improving FP/C service provision or increasing demand for services; facilitating the involvement of community members or service users and, in some cases, may combine socio-economic development and increasing self-reliance or control over sexual and reproductive health

  9. Increasing Use of Postpartum Family Planning and the Postpartum IUD: Early Experiences in West and Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleah, Tsigue; Hyjazi, Yolande; Austin, Suzanne; Diallo, Abdoulaye; Dao, Blami; Waxman, Rachel; Karna, Priya

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A global resurgence of interest in the intrauterine device (IUD) as an effective long-acting reversible contraceptive and in improving access to a wide range of contraceptive methods, as well as an emphasis on encouraging women to give birth in health care facilities, has led programs to introduce postpartum IUD (PPIUD) services into postpartum family planning (PPFP) programs. We describe strategic, organizational, and technical elements that contributed to early successes of a regional initiative in West and Central Africa to train antenatal, maternity, and postnatal care providers in PPFP counseling for the full range of available methods and in PPIUD service delivery. In November 2013, the initiative provided competency-based training in Guinea for providers from the main public teaching hospital in 5 selected countries (Benin, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, Niger, and Senegal) with no prior PPFP counseling or PPIUD capacity. The training was followed by a transfer-of-learning visit and monitoring to support the trained providers. One additional country, Togo, replicated the initiative’s model in 2014. Although nascent, this initiative has introduced high-quality PPFP and PPIUD services to the region, where less than 1% of married women of reproductive age use the IUD. In total, 21 providers were trained in PPFP counseling, 18 of whom were also trained in PPIUD insertion. From 2014 to 2015, more than 15,000 women were counseled about PPFP, and 2,269 women chose and received the PPIUD in Benin, Côte d’Ivoire, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. (Introduction of PPIUD services in Chad has been delayed.) South–South collaboration has been central to the initiative’s accomplishments: Guinea’s clinical centers of excellence and qualified trainers provided a culturally resonant example of a PPFP/PPIUD program, and trainings are creating a network of regional trainers to facilitate expansion. Two of the selected countries (Benin and Niger) have expanded their PPFP

  10. Participatory approaches involving community and healthcare providers in family planning/contraceptive information and service provision: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Petrus S; Cordero, Joanna Paula; Gichangi, Peter; Smit, Jennifer A; Nkole, Theresa; Kiarie, James; Temmerman, Marleen

    2016-07-22

    As efforts to address unmet need for family planning and contraception (FP/C) accelerate, voluntary use, informed choice and quality must remain at the fore. Active involvement of affected populations has been recognized as one of the key principles in ensuring human rights in the provision of FP/C and in improving quality of care. However, community participation continues to be inadequately addressed in large-scale FP/C programmes. Community and healthcare providers' unequal relationship can be a barrier to successful participation. This scoping review identifies participatory approaches involving both community and healthcare providers for FP/C services and analyzes relevant evidence. The detailed analysis of 25 articles provided information on 28 specific programmes and identified three types of approaches for community and healthcare provider participation in FP/C programmes. The three approaches were: (i) establishment of new groups either health committees to link the health service providers and users or implementation teams to conduct specific activities to improve or extend available health services, (ii) identification of and collaboration with existing community structures to optimise use of health services and (iii) operationalization of tools to facilitate community and healthcare provider collaboration for quality improvement. Integration of community and healthcare provider participation in FP/C provision were conducted through FP/C-only programmes, FP/C-focused programmes and/or as part of a health service package. The rationales behind the interventions varied and may be multiple. Examples include researcher-, NGO- or health service-initiated programmes with clear objectives of improving FP/C service provision or increasing demand for services; facilitating the involvement of community members or service users and, in some cases, may combine socio-economic development and increasing self-reliance or control over sexual and reproductive health

  11. Family Planning Practices, Programmes and Policies in India Including Implants and Injectables with a Special Focus on Jharkhand, India: A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Janmejaya; Dehury, Ranjit Kumar

    2015-11-01

    The National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-3 clearly delineates that the usage of contraceptive practices has increased considerably but is more inclined toward terminal methods of contraception especially the female sterilization. The fact is also evident from various studies carried out from time to time in different Indian states. Given the context we carried out a short review to understand the family planning practices, programs and policies in India including implants and injectable contraceptives with a special focus on the state of Jharkhand. We found that among the reversible methods IUCD (intra uterine contraceptive devices), OC (oral contraceptive) pills and condoms are the most commonly used methods. In this review, in addition to national picture, we specially focused on the state of Jharkhand owing to its very gloomy picture of family planning practices as per NFHS -3 reports. The current usage of any methods of contraception in Jharkhand is only 35.7% out of which terminal methods especially female sterilization accounts to 23.4% and male sterilization being only 0.4%. Similar picture is also reflected in the conventional methods such as; IUCD-0.6%, oral pill -3.8% and condom-2.7%. Compared to the national figure the unmet need for family planning in Jharkhand is also relatively high for the conventional reversible methods than that of terminal methods which is 11.9 and 11.3 respectively. Injectable contraceptives are available only through private or social marketing channels, because of which their use is limited. The studies carried out in different Indian states show improvement in contraceptive prevalence but the same needs further improvement. PMID:26674943

  12. Attendance and Performance: How Important Is It for Students To Attend Class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Randy

    2003-01-01

    Explores the correlation between class attendance and performance in a biology course. Shows that class attendance by most students in nonmajor science classes is influenced by whether they receive points for attending class. Indicates the value of stressing to introductory science students the importance of class attendance to their academic…

  13. 老龄社会生育政策新内涵%New Connotation of Family Planning Policy in Aging Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡乃军; 于淼

    2013-01-01

    在老龄社会,生育政策必须与国家人力资源发展规划相匹配。本文运用人口数据建立老龄化的时间表,代入计划生育政策变量,建立预测和分析模型,观察其对人口总量和人口结构的影响,论证了二胎间隔生育政策的必要性。继而运用典型案例分析方法进一步证明二胎间隔生育政策的可行性,由此推论生育政策内涵从“节制生育”到“调节人口结构和控制总量”的新内涵转变及其实现路径。%In aging society, family planning policy must be matched to the national human resource development planning. To demonstrate the necessity of the two-child policy, this paper first uses population data to form an aging timetable and establish the forecasting and analytical model to observe the impact of family planning policy on total population and population structure. Then the paper further demonstrates the feasibility of two-child policy by a case study. Based on the above analysis, one can draw a conclusion that the connotation of family planning policy should be changed from“birth control”to“adjusting population structure and controlling the total population”. Finally, the ways of implementation are discussed.

  14. Direct and Indirect Factors Influencing Selection of Birthing Attendants in Gunungsari, West Lombok (NTB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nyoman Aryaniti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: This study aims to determine the direct and indirect factors influencing the selection of birth attendants in Gunungsari subdistrict, West Lombok.Methods: This study was cross-sectional with a purposively selected sample of 27 mothers giving birth assisted by non-health professionals. Samples of those assisted by health professionals were taken by means of proportional systematic random sampling in Gunungsari and Penimbung health centers, respectively 29 of 916 and 14 of 437. Exogenous factors were maternal education levels, attendance to ANC classes, knowledge levels regarding to birthing attendants, maternal attitude, family support, and access to facilities. Birth attendant selection was the endogenousfactor. Data were collected by means of interviews. Data analysis includes descriptive and inferential analysis with path analysis by linear regression.Results: The majority of respondents were 21-25 years old (87.4% , housewives (47.14% had educat ion under high school (65.72% and were married (88.57%. Family support had a direct influence in decision making with a coefficient of 0.534 and 35.54% influence overall. Attendance to ANC classes in addition to family support had anindirect influence with a coefficient of 0.520 and 34.78% influence overall. Family support had a direct influence and the factor of attendance to ANC classes and family support has an indirect effect with the overall effect of 70.32%.Conclusion: The presence of the husband/family was needed in ANC class, through an implementation of schedule agreement.Keywords: family support, ANC class, birth attendants, path analysis, West Lombok

  15. Busy Brides and the Business of Family Life: The Wedding-Planning Industry and the Commodity Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Kristin

    2008-01-01

    As work traditionally located in the private sphere, wedding planning, like other domestic functions, has become commodified. Building upon Hochschild's work on the commercialization of intimate life, this article explores the relationship of feminism to the commercial spirit of intimate life to understand wedding planning as a commodified…

  16. 家族企业继承者计划的挑战及探索%The Challenge and Exploration of Family Firms' Succession Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅君; 陈松威

    2015-01-01

    本文以家族企业为例,梳理了国内企业在继承者计划制定、实施过程中面临的挑战——传承时机、传承核心要素、传承策略,并采用二维分析框架对继任者计划进行深入分析,进而结合台塑集团的实践探讨金融工具,如家族信托、慈善基金等在家族企业代际传承中的作用,最后提出一些建议.%In this paper, the case of family firms is used to explore the challenge of domestic enterprises' succession planning, including the timing, core elements and strategies of inheritance. Then, a two dimensional framework is employed to do a thorough analysis of the planning, after which the experience of The Formosa Plastics Group is discussed to learn the role of financial instruments, such as family trust, charitable foundation etc. in the process of family firms' succession. Finally some advices are advanced.

  17. Post-Secondary Attendance by Parental Income in the U.S. and Canada: What Role for Financial Aid Policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Belley, Philippe; Frenette, Marc; Lochner, Lance

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of tuition and need-based financial aid policies for family income - post-secondary (PS) attendance relationships. We first conduct a parallel empirical analysis of the effects of parental income on PS attendance for recent high school cohorts in both the U.S. and Canada using data from the 1997 Cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and Youth in Transition Survey. We estimate substantially smaller PS attendance gaps by parental income in Cana...

  18. Community based distribution agents’ approach to provision of family planning information and services in five Nigerian States: A mirage or a reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojisola Fayemi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reducing maternal mortality in Nigeria has received continuous attention both nationally and internationally. Objectives: This article highlights the outcome of an intervention which sought to address maternal mortality reduction through increasing contraceptive uptake in 10 rural local government areas (LGAsin five Nigerian states.Method: The community based distribution (CBD approach was used in the implementation of a three year intervention that targeted 10 LGAs. Two hundred and fifty community members were trained as community based distribution agents (CBDA to provide information on reproductive health, provide non-prescriptive family planning (FP commodities, treat minor aliment and make referrals to primary health centres within the communities.Results: Final evaluation revealed an increase in the proportion of community members who had utilised FP commodities at all, from 28% at baseline to 49%, and an increase in the proportion of current contraceptive users from 16% at baseline to 37%. An average of 50% increase in clientele patronage was also observed in the 10 LGAs’ primary health care centres. Most (96% of the interviewed CBDA agents reported that a drug-revolving system was in place to ensure that drugs and commodities were available. On-the-spot assessment of the service forms revealed that 86% of them had their activities regularly recorded in their worksheets. Some of the challenges faced by CBDA were discrimination and misconception of community members about family planning (38%, inadequate financial support (14%,and transportation problems (8%.Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that the CBD approach played a critical role in enhancing access to Reproductive Health and Family Planning information and services in the project communities.

  19. Familiy Planning and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Storage Pool Deficiencies Home About Bleeding Disorders Family planning and pregnancy Carriers should receive genetic counselling about ... Diagnosis When to Test for Carrier Status Family Planning and Pregnancy Conception Options Prenatal Diagnosis Fetal Sex ...

  20. Attendance and attainment in a Calculus course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulenbroek, Bernard; van den Bogaard, Maartje

    2013-10-01

    In this paper the relationship between attendance and attainment in a standard calculus course is investigated. Calculus could in principle be studied without attending lectures due to the wealth of material available (in hardcopy and online). However, in this study we will show that the pass rate of students attending classes regularly (>75% of the classes) is much higher than the pass rate of students attending fewer classes. We use a logistic model to investigate whether this correlation is significant. We will argue why we believe that this correlation between attendance and attainment is causal, i.e. why it is necessary for most students to attend classes in order to (improve their chances to) pass the exam.

  1. Long-Term Effects of the Booster-Enhanced READY-Girls Preconception Counseling Program on Intentions and Behaviors for Family Planning in Teens With Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Charron-Prochownik, Denise; Sereika, Susan M.; Becker, Dorothy; White, Neil H.; Schmitt, Patricia; Powell, A. Blair; Diaz,Ana Maria; Jones, Jacquelyn; Herman, William H.; Rodgers Fischl, Andrea F.; McEwen, Laura; DiNardo, Monica; Guo, Feng; Downs, Julie

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine 12-month effects of a booster-enhanced preconception counseling (PC) program (READY-Girls) on family planning for teen girls with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants 13–19 years of age (n = 109) were randomized to a standard care control group (CG) or intervention group (IG) that received PC over three consecutive clinic visits. Prepost data were collected at baseline, 3- and 6-month booster sessions, and a 12-month follow-up visit. RESULT...

  2. 家族企业权力传承的规划设计研究%A Study on the Planning of Power Succession in Family Businesses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    权英; 吴士健; 刘新民

    2011-01-01

    The power succession in a family business,including the continuation of property,reputation and social status as well as the inheritance of power from generation to generation, determines the sustainable development or even survival of a family business. With the "inheritance model" being the main trend, family businesses should make a scientific planning on issues such as the selection and training of the successors, the optimal timing of succession and the withdrawal of the old generation, etc. To promote the execution of the planning, family businesses should also build up a coordinating mechanism, pay close attention to the responses of all stakeholders and fully value the significance of the family spirit and the transmission of corporate culture based on the formality and normalization of succession planning.%家族企业权力传承既是企业所有权和控制权由上一代传递给下一代的过程,同时也是家族财产、声誉和社会地位的传递,关系到家族企业的持续发展乃至生死存亡。在“予承父业”的主流模式下,家族企业谘须对权力传承所涉及的继任者选择、继任者培养、权力交接的最优时机设计以及老一代家族企业主的退出等问题进行科学的规划设计。为推动传承规划的顺利执行,家族企业还应在确保传承规划设计的正式性和规范性的基础上,建立有利于权力传承的协调机制,密切关注各利益相关者的反应并充分考虑到家族精神和企业文化的传承的重要意义。

  3. How Do Students Meet the Cost of Attending a State University? Information Brief. Volume 4, Issue 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida Board of Governors, State University System, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Students and their families must cover, on average, 83% of the roughly $16,000 cost of attendance for a full-time, in-state undergraduate at a state university in Florida. On average, 75% of the cost of attendance in Florida's public universities is from expenses other than tuition and fees and books. The largest expense is room and board,…

  4. Influências das relações intrafamiliares no comportamento de crianças que frequentam creches públicas de alfenas Influencias de las relaciones intrafamiliares en el comportamiento de niños en centros infantiles de Alfenas Influences of intra-family relationships on the behavior of children attending public nursery schools in Alfenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelly Rodrigues Esteves

    2012-09-01

    , leading to an increase in the nursery school demand by the population. Our aim was to understand the influences of intra-family relationships on the behavior of children ages 0-3 years old who attend nursery schools through the experiences of their child care providers. A qualitative research, using Phenomenological Approach, in which 12 child care providers of six municipal nursery schools were interviewed. As categories: Reproduction of behaviors learned in the family atmosphere; Integration family-nursery school as a facilitator of the work carried out by the child care providers; Lack of hygienic care offered by the family. Future studies could promote improvements in the actions of caregivers towards the children's needs, leading to a better quality of life for the children and helping to develop their full potential.

  5. Home Away from Home: A Toolkit for Planning Home Visiting Partnerships with Family, Friend, and Neighbor Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Staub, Christine; Schmit, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Home visiting is one tool used to prevent child abuse and improve child well-being by providing education and services in families' homes through parent education and connection to community resources. This toolkit provides state policymakers and advocates with strategies for extending and expanding access to state- or federally-funded home…

  6. Fertility awareness in the 1990s--the Billings Ovulation Method of natural family planning, its scientific basis, practical application and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, K

    1991-01-01

    Early methods of natural family planning (calendar rhythm, basal body temperature, and symptothermal) are briefly mentioned and dismissed as unsatisfactory for fertility regulation at our present state of knowledge of female reproductive physiology. Cervical mucus patterns, which reflect ovarian hormone levels, are shown to be accurate markers of the fertile and infertile phases of a woman's menstrual cycle. Interpretation of these patterns forms the basis of the Billings Ovulation Method of natural family planning. Extensive laboratory and clinical studies have shown this method to be on a sound scientific footing, that it is applicable to all phases of a woman's reproductive life, and that women readily understand and are able to teach other women the meaning of these patterns as experienced by changing sensations at the vulva and changing characteristics of any visible mucus. The simple rules which have been formulated for postponing and achieving pregnancy are given. Field trials of this non-invasive method for fertility regulation in both developing and developed countries show that the rules are readily understood by participants. In the most recent trials, it has been shown that the method-related pregnancy rate is less than 1 per 100 woman years, which compares more than favorably with other contraceptive techniques. PMID:1950726

  7. Attending to social vulnerability when rationing pandemic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vawter, Dorothy E; Garrett, J Eline; Gervais, Karen G; Prehn, Angela Witt; DeBruin, Debra A

    2011-01-01

    Pandemic plans are increasingly attending to groups experiencing health disparities and other social vulnerabilities. Although some pandemic guidance is silent on the issue, guidance that attends to socially vulnerable groups ranges widely, some procedural (often calling for public engagement), and some substantive. Public engagement objectives vary from merely educational to seeking reflective input into the ethical commitments that should guide pandemic planning and response. Some plans that concern rationing during a severe pandemic recommend ways to protect socially vulnerable groups without prioritizing access to scarce resources based on social vulnerability per se. The Minnesota Pandemic Ethics Project (MPEP), a public engagement project on rationing scarce health resources during a severe influenza pandemic, agrees and recommends an integrated set of ways to attend to the needs of socially vulnerable people and avoid exacerbation of health disparities during a severe influenza pandemic. Among other things, MPEP recommends: 1. Engaging socially vulnerable populations to clarify unique needs and effective strategies; 2. Engaging socially vulnerable populations to elicit ethical values and perspectives on rationing; 3. Rejecting rationing based on race, socioeconomic class, citizenship, quality of life, length of life-extension and first-come, first-served; 4. Prioritizing those in the general population for access to resources based on combinations of risk (of death or severe complications from influenza, exposure to influenza, transmitting influenza to vulnerable groups) and the likelihood of responding well to the resource in question. 5. Protecting critical infrastructures on which vulnerable populations and the general public rely; 6. Identifying and removing access barriers during pandemic planning and response; and 7. Collecting and promptly analyzing data during the pandemic to identify groups at disproportionate risk of influenza-related mortality and

  8. Attending Behavior of Children Near a Child Who is Reinforced for Attending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okovita, Hymie Wolf; Bucher, Bradley

    1976-01-01

    The present study investigated effects of a token program for one child on the attending behavior of other children sitting near him. Results show the rewarded child's attending increased in the reinforcement conditions and the unrewarded children's attending increased when they were sitting on either side of the rewarded child. (Author)

  9. A Study on Attendance and Academic Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund, Kristian J.; Bignoux, Stephane

    -all degree classification, which we see as a proxy for academic ability. We suggest that attendance may simply be a reflection of student conscientiousness, engagement and motivation. We also challenge the assumptions about gender differences found in prior research on student attendance and student......In this study we attempt to answer Romer’s (1993) question: “Should attendance be mandatory?” Contrary to many existing studies, we conclude that in the case of business and management programs the answer is ‘no’. In a study of over 900 undergraduate strategy students, spanning four academic years......, we examine the link between attendance and exam results. Unlike prior research on this topic, our findings show that attendance is not the best determinant of student performance. We find instead that the best determinant of student performance for third year bachelor students is their over...

  10. How States Developed Plans to Meet a Federal Mandate: Addressing the Challenges of the Child and Family Services Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Ledford, M. Gail

    2007-01-01

    Much of the child welfare literature addresses risk factors, incidence, and consequences of abuse and neglect, and innovative programs, services, and interventions designed to serve at-risk and maltreated children, youth, and their families. Less attention has been given to how state and local governments oversee the public child welfare system and respond to federal mandates, especially in achieving positive outcomes for this vulnerable population. In 1997, the Congress enacted the Adop...

  11. Class attendance and cardiology examination performance: a study in problem-based medical curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamuhair SS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Samira S Bamuhair,1 Ali I Al Farhan,1,2 Alaa Althubaiti,1 Saeed ur Rahman,1,2 Hanan M Al-Kadri1,3 1College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 2Department of Family Medicine and Primary Health Care, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background and aims: Information on the effect of students' class attendance on examination performance in a problem-based learning medical curriculum is limited. This study investigates the impact of different educational activities on students' academic performance in a problem-based learning curriculum. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study conducted on the cardiology block at the College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All students who undertook the cardiology block during the academic year 2011–2012 were included. The students' attendance was measured using their overall attendance percentage. This percentage is a product of their attendance of many activities throughout the block. The students' performance was assessed by the final mark obtained, which is a product of many assessment elements. Statistical correlation between students' attendance and performance was established. Results: A total of 127 students were included. The average lecture attendance rate for the medical students in this study was found to be 86%. A significant positive correlation was noted between the overall attendance and the accumulated students' block mark (r=0.52; P<0.001. Students' attendance to different education activities was correlated to their final mark. Lecture attendance was the most significant predictor (P<0.001, that is, 1.0% increase in lecture attendance has predicted a 0.27 increase in students' final block mark. Conclusion: Class attendance has a positive effect on students' academic performance with stronger effect for lecture attendance compared to

  12. Family illness, work absence and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Begoña Álvarez

    2002-01-01

    Combining family and work demands has become a tough challenge for many workers in modern societies. Using data from a random sample of Spanish employees, this paper investigates the effects of attending to family health needs on work absence decisions of working individuals. The estimates reveal that men and women respond in a different way to several forces influencing work absence due to family illness. The analysis also shows that workers declaring to have used working time to attend to i...

  13. Family Planning in a Family Health Unit Planificación familiar en Unidad de Salud de la Familia Planejamento familiar em Unidade de Saúde da Família

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Aparecida dos Santos Pierre

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the care provided by health professionals who work in family planning, in a Family Health Unit in the municipality of Ribeirao Preto, São Paulo. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional and quali-quantitative study. Data were collected through interviews with 11 health professionals. The results revealed that most professionals had not received training in family planning, and that information about contraceptive methods is transmitted in an individual way, having women as the target-public. The contraceptive methods which the professionals suggest and offer more are those considered most effective. These findings indicate that family planning care at the Family Health Unit needs to be adjusted not only to ensure quality of service, but also to ensure sexual and reproductive rights.El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la asistencia ofrecida por los profesionales de la salud que actúan en la planificación familiar, en una Unidad de Salud de la Familia, en el municipio de Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo con corte transversal y abordaje cuali-cuantitativo. Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de entrevista con 11 profesionales de la salud. Los resultados revelaron que la mayoría de los profesionales no recibió capacitación en planificación familiar, siendo que la información sobre los métodos anti-conceptivos es trasmitida de forma individual, teniendo como público objetivo a las mujeres. Los métodos anticonceptivos considerados más eficaces son aquellos sobre los cuales los profesionales más orientan y ofrecen. Los hallazgos apuntan que la asistencia en planificación familiar en la Unidad de Salud de la Familia necesita de adecuaciones, no sólo para asegurar la calidad del servicio prestado, como también para asegurar los derechos sexuales y reproductivos.O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a assistência oferecida pelos profissionais de saúde que

  14. Determinants and Long-Term Effects of Attendance Levels in a Marital Enrichment Program for African American Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Allen W; Beach, Steven R H; Hurt, Tera R; Fincham, Frank D; Stanley, Scott M; Kogan, Steven M; Brody, Gene H

    2016-04-01

    Although most efficacious marital enrichment programs are multisession, few studies have explored whether outcomes differ according to session attendance, particularly among minority groups with lower than average participation in prevention programs. This study therefore investigates attendance levels and long-term improvements in couple functioning among 164 couples participating in the Promoting Strong African American Families program. Structural equation models indicated session attendance predicted 2-year changes for men's reports of communication, commitment, and spousal support (marginally) but not for women's. Individual and couple characteristics that predicted attendance levels were also identified. Results highlight distinct gender differences in the effects of sustained attendance as well as characteristics that provide early identifiers for African American couples at increased risk of low program attendance. PMID:25919769

  15. The impact of social franchising on the use of reproductive health and family planning services at public commune health stations in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Van

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Service franchising is a business model that involves building a network of outlets (franchisees that are locally owned, but act in coordinated manner with the guidance of a central headquarters (franchisor. The franchisor maintains quality standards, provides managerial training, conducts centralized purchasing and promotes a common brand. Research indicates that franchising private reproductive health and family planning (RHFP services in developing countries improves quality and utilization. However, there is very little evidence that franchising improves RHFP services delivered through community-based public health clinics. This study evaluates behavioral outcomes associated with a new approach - the Government Social Franchise (GSF model - developed to improve RHFP service quality and capacity in Vietnam's commune health stations (CHSs. Methods The project involved networking and branding 36 commune health station (CHS clinics in two central provinces of Da Nang and Khanh Hoa, Vietnam. A quasi-experimental design with 36 control CHSs assessed GSF model effects on client use as measured by: 1 clinic-reported client volume; 2 the proportion of self-reported RHFP service users at participating CHS clinics over the total sample of respondents; and 3 self-reported RHFP service use frequency. Monthly clinic records were analyzed. In addition, household surveys of 1,181 CHS users and potential users were conducted prior to launch and then 6 and 12 months after implementing the GSF network. Regression analyses controlled for baseline differences between intervention and control groups. Results CHS franchise membership was significantly associated with a 40% plus increase in clinic-reported client volumes for both reproductive and general health services. A 45% increase in clinic-reported family planning service clients related to GSF membership was marginally significant (p = 0.05. Self-reported frequency of RHFP service use

  16. SATISFACTION FROM HEALTH INSURANCE INSTITUTIONS AMONG PEOPLE ATTENDING THE PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTERS IN ANKARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma ILHAN

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the status of satisfaction from health insurance institutions among people at age 18 and over , attending the primary health care centers in Ankara city center. This study was conducted by applying a questionnaire to the persons attending to four primary health care center and two Mather-Child Health Care and Family Planning Centers in Ankara City Center between May 20-July 20, 2003. 3184 persons applied to six primary health care centers in Ankara city center were interviewed. The median age of the subjects was 38; 66.4 % were women; 30.9 % were primary school graduate and 48.8% were housewife. 100% of the subjects who own private health insurance were satisfied with their insurance status. This rate was 92.0% for the subjects who were under coverage of Emekli Sandigi, and 79% for those who were under coverage of Bag-Kur. The most common health insurance institution the subjects were not satisfied with, was SSK with 48.4 % unsatisfaction rate. “The capability of being physically emamined and treated in any health facility he/she want” was in the first rank among the satisfaction reasons (54.2%. “The absence of this capability” was the most common reason for unsatisfaction (44.0%. 51.6 of the subjects were satisfied with their own health insurance institution, Emekli Sandigi was the most preffered institution with a percentage of 22.3. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(4.000: 244-253

  17. Prevalence of Antenatal Depression and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Okechukwu; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The prevalence of antenatal depression (AD) and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria, was determined. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted, interviewing 314 pregnant women selected by multistage sampling technique from among those attending antenatal clinics. Information was collected using structured questionnaire and a screening tool, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), to assess probable depression. Results. The prevalence of antenatal depression was 24.5%. There were significant associations between antenatal depression and attending public health facility (P = 0.000), young maternal age (P = 0.012), single marital status (P = 0.010), not having formal education (P = 0.022), large family size (P = 0.029), planned pregnancy (P = 0.014), coexisting medical conditions (P = 0.034), history of previous caesarian section (P = 0.032), drinking alcohol during pregnancy (P = 0.004), and gender based abuse (P = 0.001). On health seeking behaviour for antenatal depression among depressed pregnant women, most, 68.9%, consulted their husbands about their symptoms; 57.3% took the decision to get treatment from doctors, and 52% sought prayer in the church. Conclusion. Antenatal depression is prevalent in this study population. Interventions to address its risk factors should be carried out and physicians should suspect depression in pregnant women reporting alcohol use and gender abuse. PMID:27635258

  18. Prevalence of Antenatal Depression and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Okechukwu; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The prevalence of antenatal depression (AD) and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria, was determined. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted, interviewing 314 pregnant women selected by multistage sampling technique from among those attending antenatal clinics. Information was collected using structured questionnaire and a screening tool, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), to assess probable depression. Results. The prevalence of antenatal depression was 24.5%. There were significant associations between antenatal depression and attending public health facility (P = 0.000), young maternal age (P = 0.012), single marital status (P = 0.010), not having formal education (P = 0.022), large family size (P = 0.029), planned pregnancy (P = 0.014), coexisting medical conditions (P = 0.034), history of previous caesarian section (P = 0.032), drinking alcohol during pregnancy (P = 0.004), and gender based abuse (P = 0.001). On health seeking behaviour for antenatal depression among depressed pregnant women, most, 68.9%, consulted their husbands about their symptoms; 57.3% took the decision to get treatment from doctors, and 52% sought prayer in the church. Conclusion. Antenatal depression is prevalent in this study population. Interventions to address its risk factors should be carried out and physicians should suspect depression in pregnant women reporting alcohol use and gender abuse.

  19. Dynamic planning of module for product family design%一种面向产品族设计的模块动态规划方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴永明; 侯亮; 赖荣燊

    2013-01-01

    针对产品族设计中的模块规划问题,研究和分析了产品族核心系统的模块化理论和实施方法,对产品生命周期中的各种动态要素进行了分析;根据核心系统零部件成本等市场因素的动态变化对模块规划的影响,从可维护性和经济性考虑,提出一种产品族核心系统模块动态规划方法;通过建立功能关联矩阵和动态关联权重矩阵,采用模糊聚类方法对功能关联矩阵中的组件进行聚类,通过取适当的α截集,将产品族中的核心系统划分为多个子功能模块,结合动态关联权重分析对模块部件进行动态评价,并提取出动态评价值较高的部件,为设计阶段重点考虑这些部件提供了理论依据,减少了后期维护成本.通过装载机液压传动系统的模块规划和后期维护数据,证明了该方法的可行性.%Aiming at the module planning problem in product family design,the modular theory and implementation methods of core systems for product family were researched,and a variety of dynamic elements in product life cycle were analyzed.According to the influence of market factors' dynamic changes such as core system components on modular planning,a dynamic planning method for module product family was proposed from the maintainability and economic point of view.Through the establishment of functional and dynamic correlation matrix,the components in matrix were clustered by using fuzzy clustering method.The core system of product family was divided into multiple sub-function modules with proper a cut-set.The components of modular were analyzed dynamically and the components with higher evaluation value were extracted by combining the dynamic correlation weights,which could provide a theoretical basis for the design phase and reduce the maintenance cost of products.The effectiveness and feasibility of the method was proved by module planning of hydraulic transmission system and post-maintenance data of loaders.

  20. 自然避孕法与宫内节育器效果比较%The Contraceptive Effect of Natural Family Planning Method Compared with Intrauterine Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹春艳; 张翠琼

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨比林斯法(Billing)与测定基础体温(BBT)相结合自然避孕法(NFP)与IUD效果比较,解决IUD失败又不宜使用口服避孕药物并拒绝使用外用避孕药具的育龄妇女的节育问题。方法对163例适宜NFP的妇女传授使用Billing法和BBT相结合的NFP,即根据观察宫颈粘液及外阴部感觉,进行自我监测排卵日的方法与测定BBT相结合,找出可孕期、安全期,指导性生活。与同期163例健康IUD妇女进行跟踪观察和比较。结果两组妇女避孕有效率相近,无明显统计学差异。结论对于部分不宜使用避孕药具的妇女,在有条件的地区进行推广应用NFP,解决由于避孕药具的副作用与失败给妇女带来不必要的痛苦,达到节育与生殖健康的目的,不失为较好的方法之一,随着社会的进步和人们生活文化水平的提高,有较好的推广使用前景。%Objective To resolve the contraceptive problem of the child-bearing period woman who use nither oral family planning medicines nor external family planning medicines and devices after IUD failure,by comparing the effect of natural family planning(NFP) combined Billing and basal body temperature(BBT) with that of intrauterine device (IUD).Methods 163 cases were taught to use NFP.According to the observation of cervix uterimucuc and valva feeling,conbined the BBT monitoring by self,the conceptional period and safe period were found out and sexual life was arranged properly.163 cases with IUD were control group.Results The contraceptive rate between two group was approximate,with no statistical difference.Conclusions That the NFP was spread at conditional area,for some women who were inconvenient to use family planning medicines and/or devices,can remove some trouble suffering from side effect and failure of medicines and devices.This was one of good approaches to intrauterine and reproductive health.

  1. Awareness level of family planning methods in adolescent girls of different socio-economic groups in rural sectors, in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Kakani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence, the transition from childhood to adulthood is an important crossroad. Studies are available which suggest that a considerable number of adolescent boys (16 to 14% and girls (1 to 10% engage in premarital sexual activity. All though importance of health education and health counseling for adolescents have been incorporated in the formal education system but there are no large scale community based studies to assess awareness level of adolescent girls about the method of family planning. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of socio-economic factor on the awareness level of adolescent girls with special reference to the methods of family planning, and their concepts about long term effects of high population growth. Methods: The study samples were higher secondary girl students between 15 to 19 years of age in 5 rural schools (Hindi & English medium of Wardha district, Maharashtra, India. The survey programme was conducted during a period of one year from July 2011 to June 2012. A questionnaire was prepared in local language. Results: The education level of parent in upper-middle (group A was significantly more than low-economic group (group B. Knowledge about hormonal contraceptive pill in group A was significantly high than group B and the idea about surgical technique and condom was also high in group A than group B. Regarding emergency contraceptive technique, the idea in group A was high but in group B, the rate was very low. Conclusions: The awareness programme should be conducted in formal education in the school curricula so that adolescent girl’s knowledge, attitude and practice can be assessed. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2012; 1(1.000: 3-6

  2. Receiving voluntary family planning services has no relationship with the paradoxical situation of high use of contraceptives and abortion in Vietnam: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Phuong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vietnam shows a paradoxical situation where high contraceptive prevalence goes together with high abortion rates. This study examined the associations between self-reports of having received voluntary family planning (VFP services and induced abortions. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted in Thai Nguyen province, covering a total of 1281 women. Data were derived from a sample of 935 married women aged 18–49 years who were ever-users (93.5% and current users of contraceptives (84%, and had completed birth histories. The dependent variables were the likelihood of having an induced abortion and repeated (two or more induced abortions. The main independent variable was having received the three VFP dimensions (counselling, broader information, and access to availability. The association was examined using multivariate logistic regressions, taking into account women’s socio-demographic characteristics. Results The overall induced abortion percentage was 19.4 per 100 pregnancies. None of the three VFP dimensions was significantly associated with the odds of having an induced abortion or having repeated induced abortions. Mother’s age of 35 or older, having more than three living children, and ever used female contraception methods significantly doubled or more the odds of having an induced abortion and significantly tripled the odds of having repeated abortions. Conclusions Results indicate that women receiving VFP services were not less likely to have induced abortions. The provision of family planning counselling, information on contraceptive method mix, and management skills to ensure availability, are in need of reinforcement in a new set of policy and program strategies in the future.

  3. CPAFFC Delegation Attends China-Mexico Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>From October 29 to 31, 2007, the CPAFFC delegation, the goodwill delegation and the entrepreneurs’ delega- tion led by CPAFFC Vice President Li Xiaolin attended the Forum of China-Mexico: Strategic Partners of the 21st Century

  4. The Correlation between Attendence and Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    In a global context it is generally accepted that the retention and associated completion rates for first year students is an area for concern in third level institutions. One are of particular interest is the low levels of completion on some degree programmes. Earlier studies of a similar nature have indicated that these students who attend at high levels not only pass examinations but also attain higher grades. Whilst attendance itself is not the cause of learning, even the most basic expos...

  5. Attendance and Exam Performance at University

    OpenAIRE

    David O Allen; Webber, Don J

    2006-01-01

    Marburger (2006) explored the link between absenteeism and exam performance by assessing the impact on absenteeism of removing a university wide policy of mandatory attendance for a single class. His results indicate that while an attendance policy has a strong impact on reducing absenteeism the link between absenteeism and exam performance is weak.This paper presents an alternative exploration into the link between absenteeism and exam performance by assessing the impact of implementing a mo...

  6. Parental Substance Use, Family Support and Outcome Following Treatment for Adolescent Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Stephen D.; Kelly, John F.; Myers, Mark G.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2002-01-01

    Examines family variables that may influence adolescent substance use during the 6 months following inpatient treatment: parental substance use, family aftercare attendance, and adolescent ratings of family helpfulness. Results revealed no relationship between either parental substance use and family aftercare attendance or reports of family…

  7.  "Maternal Health and Family Planning Distance Education" experience among physicians: a three-phase study to determine the educational needs, develop education program, and evaluate efficacy of the education administered

    OpenAIRE

    Deger, Cetin

    2016-01-01

    Bestami Ciftci,1 Nesibe Uzel,1 M Onur Ozel,2 Sema Zergeroglu,1 Cetin Deger,2 S Sare Turasan,1 Ayse Gul Karakoc,1 Semra Ozbalci,1 1General Directorate of Health Research (SAGEM), Turkish Ministry of Health, Ankara, Turkey; 2Bayer Türk Kimya San Ltd, Sti, Ankara, Turkey Aim: This study aims to assess the educational needs of family practitioners and evaluate the efficacy of the ongoing “Maternal Health and Family Planning Distance Education” program conducted by th...

  8. Attendance Control System based on RFID technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurbek Saparkhojayev

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Kazakhstan, checking students' attendance is one of the important issues for universities, because many universities evaluate students attendance and while giving the final grade, professors consider their total number of appearances on classes during the whole semester. This brings to the idea of having some tool to control students attendance. Some universities prefer to use paper sheet for controlling attendance, whereas some universities prefer to use paper sheet for checking students' attendance and after this, fill out these information into a system manually, like Kazakh-British Technical University does. However, this is not an efficient way since there will be spent much of time for calling students names and putting marks like presence or absence if the class is a lecture class, and in this class at least 5 groups are presented. Moreover, some students may call his/her friend as presence even though this student is currently absent. After thinking all these issues, authors of the following research paper decided to create a system that makes easier to check students attendance automatically, and this system is implemented in Suleyman Demirel University, Kazakhstan. Actually, this is the first time when such kind of system is being used in educational system of Kazakhstan. The system is based on RFID technology, and in this paper, details of this system are presented.

  9. A Process and Outcomes Evaluation of the International AIDS Conference: Who Attends? Who Benefits Most?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalonde Bernadette

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the study was to conduct a process and outcomes evaluation of the International AIDS Conference (IAC. Reaction evaluation data are presented from a delegate survey distributed at the 2004 IAC held in Thailand. Input and output data from the Thailand IAC are compared to data from previous IACs to ascertain attendance and reaction trends, which delegates benefit most, and host country effects. Outcomes effectiveness data were collected via a survey and intercept interviews. Data suggest that the host country may significantly affect the number and quality of basic science IAC presentations, who attends, and who benefits most. Intended and executed HIV work-related behavior change was assessed under 9 classifications. Delegates who attended 1 previous IAC were more likely to report behavior changes than attendees who attended more than 1 previous IAC. The conference needs to be continually evaluated to elicit the required data to plan effective future IACs.

  10. Attendance in cancer screening programmes in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Grazzini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The European Community recommends mammography, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes. In Italy, cancer screening programmes have been included in the Basic Healthcare Parameters (Livelli Essenziali di Assistenza since 2001. Full national coverage of a population-based organized screening programme has been planned for in Italy and is being implemented. Since 2005, the Ministry of Health - Department of Prevention has formally charged The National Centre for Screening Monitoring (Osservatorio Nazionale Screening –ONS- with monitoring and promoting screening programmes nationwide. Participation of target populations is a key indicator of the impact and efficacy of a screening programme in reducing cancer mortality.

    Methods: Attendance of invitees is one of the indicators calculated every year in the quality control of Italian screening programmes. Data collection is organized by means of a structured questionnaire, sent by ONS to the referent for data collection in each Region, who then returns the completed questionnaires to the Regional Centre. Questionnaires are then sent to the National Centre. Logical and epidemiologic checks are performed at both levels. Every year ONS publishes reports on the results of the surveys. A feasibility study for a National data warehouse based on individual records is in progress. The national survey “Multiscopo sulle famiglie” and the Passi Study (Progetti delle Aziende Sanitarie per la Salute in Italia provided additional information regarding spontaneous preventive health care activities in the Italian population.

    Results: Mammography screening: In 2006, 78.2% of Italian women aged 50-69 lived in areas where organised screening was in place (theoretical extension, however, the distribution of the screening activity is not uniform (higher in Northern/Central Italy compared with Southern

  11. Estado nutricional de crianças assistidas em creches e situação de (insegurança alimentar de suas famílias Nutritional status of children attended in day-care-centers and food (insecurity of their families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maercio Mota de Souza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Examinar fatores associados a excesso de peso, déficit de estatura e déficit de peso em crianças assistidas em creches estaduais de João Pessoa e descrever a situação de (insegurança alimentar das suas famílias. Trata-se de um estudo transversal com amostra de 250 crianças. Foram estudadas variáveis socioeconômicas, maternas e das crianças. O estado nutricional das crianças foi avaliado considerando os índices estatura-para-idade e peso-para-estatura. A segurança alimentar familiar foi avaliada com a utilização da Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar. As proporções de déficit de estatura, déficit de peso e excesso de peso foram 7,6%, 1,6% e 6,4%, respectivamente. Os fatores associados à baixa estatura foram baixa estatura materna e esquema vacinal incompleto. Com relação ao baixo peso, o fator associado foi idade materna inferior a 20 anos. O excesso de peso infantil apresentou associação com o excesso de peso materno e baixa estatura materna. Em 59,6% das famílias, observou-se situação de insegurança alimentar e nutricional, sendo mais frequente a forma leve (32,4%. Excesso de peso e déficit de estatura foram os distúrbios nutricionais mais frequentes neste estudo, constituindo prioridades que devem ser consideradas nas políticas públicas atuais.The scope of this study was to examine associated factors with overweight, stunting and underweight in children attending state day care centers of João Pessoa, as well as to describe the situation of food (insecurity of their families. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 250 children. Socioeconomic, maternal and child variables were studied. The nutritional status of children was evaluated considering the height-for-age and weight-for-height indices. Household food security was assessed using the Brazilian Scale of Food Insecurity. The proportions of stunting, underweight and overweight were 7.6%, 1.6% and 6.4% respectively. The associated

  12. Student attitudes about class absences, class attendance, and requiring attendance at Virginia Tech

    OpenAIRE

    Hileman, Annmarie Long

    1992-01-01

    Seventy-nine undergraduate students were interviewed in February, 1992, to determine attitudes about class attendance, class absences, and required attendance. Three hundred undergraduates were selected in a random sample; seventy-nine attended one of the six group interview sessions. The reasons students gave for skipping classes included being lazy or tired, dislike of the professor, material for the class was seen as unimportant, bad or nice weather, early mornin...

  13. Epidemiology of frequent attenders: a 3-year historic cohort study comparing attendance, morbidity and prescriptions of one-year and persistent frequent attenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ter Riet Gerben

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General Practitioners spend a disproportionate amount of time on frequent attenders. So far, trials on the effect of interventions on frequent attenders have shown negative results. However, these trials were conducted in short-term frequent attenders. It would be more reasonable to target intervention at persistent frequent attenders. Typical characteristics of persistent frequent attenders, as opposed to 1-year frequent attenders and non-frequent attenders, may generate hypotheses regarding modifiable factors on which new randomized trials may be designed. Methods We used the data of all 28,860 adult patients from 5 primary healthcare centers. Frequent attenders were patients whose attendance rate ranked in the (age and sex adjusted top 10 percent during 1 year (1-year frequent attenders or 3 years (persistent frequent attenders. All other patients on the register over the 3-year period were referred to as non-frequent attenders. The lists of medical problems coded by the GP using the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC were used to assess morbidity. First, we determined which proportion of 1-year frequent attenders was still a frequent attender during the next two consecutive years and calculated the GPs' workload for these patients. Second, we compared morbidity and number of prescriptions for non-frequent attenders, 1-year frequent attenders and persistent frequent attenders. Results Of all 1-year frequent attenders, 15.4% became a persistent frequent attender equal to 1.6% of all patients. The 1-year frequent attenders (3,045; 10.6% were responsible for 39% of the face-to-face consultations; the 470 patients who would become persistent frequent attenders (1.6% were responsible for 8% of all consultations in 2003. Persistent frequent attenders presented more social problems, more psychiatric problems and medically unexplained physical symptoms, but also more chronic somatic diseases (especially diabetes

  14. Detecção de Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis em Clínica de Planejamento Familiar da Rede Pública no Brasil STD Screening in a Public Family Planning Clinic in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Santiago de Codes

    2002-03-01

    mulheres infectadas não serão identificadas ou tratadas. Considerando-se a alta sensibilidade e especificidade da nova tecnologia disponível para o rastreamento da infecção por clamídia, gonorréia e infecção por HIV, e a facilidade de se coletarem espécimes de urina para o diagnóstico, mais esforços devem ser dirigidos para a vigilância das populações de risco, para que a prática clínica corrente possa refletir o risco verdadeiro das populações servidas.Purpose: to analyze the prevalence of gonorrhea, Chlamydia, syphilis and HIV among patients attending a family planning clinic regarding presence of STD symptoms and risk behaviors. Methods: women between the ages of 18 and 30 years who attended a public family planning clinic in Brazil were tested for gonorrhea and Chlamydia using the urine-based DNA amplification test (LCR, Abbott, and a blood test for syphilis (VDRL and HIV. All participants were asked questions about their health care seeking behavior, the presence of STD symptoms, and about the STD risk behaviors. Results: Chlamydia was found in 11.4%, syphilis in 2%, gonorrhea in 0.5% and HIV was confirmed positive in 3%. Approximately 61% of the women who were infected with Chlamydia had no symptoms. Women who never used condoms had much higher risks for STD than women who used them always or most of the time. Although not statistically significant, there was a trend for women who never used any contraceptive to have a higher risk for STD than women who used some method of contraception (p=0.09. However, when examining separately each contraceptive, none of them alone offered protection against STD. Very few women reported problems related to the use of alcohol or illegal drugs. But among those who did report such use, the risk for STD was very high, particularly regarding marijuana use. Conclusions: the most significant findings in our study were the high STD rates among a population of women generally reporting low-risk health behaviors. Based

  15. Frequent attenders in out-of-hours general practice care: attendance prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the use of out-of-hours service and analyse attendance prognosis for frequent attenders and other groups of attenders, and to present a concept describing frequent attendance over time. METHODS: All adult attenders in 1990 were included in a 4-year follow-up study....... Frequent attenders (FAs) were defined as those 10% among the attenders who most frequently used the out-of-hours service during a calendar year (12 months). This gave an intersection point of four or more contacts for frequent attenders. Three more groups were defined according to whether they had one, two......,321 individuals aged 18 years and over who contacted the out-of-hours service in 1990. Outcome measures were attendance per year, age and sex. RESULTS: FAs made 42% of the out-of-hours contacts in 1990, and 33% of those who were FAs in 1990 were also FAs in 1991. Among the 1990 FAs, 67% contacted the out...

  16. Variables Associated with Therapy Attendance in Runaway Substance Abusing Youth: Preliminary Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Slesnick, Natasha

    2001-01-01

    Service providers and researchers note that youth with substance abuse problems are difficult to engage in treatment and, when engaged, often drop out early. Estimates of the alcohol and drug abuse rate of runaway youth range from 70% to 95%. This study evaluated predictors of therapy attendance in a sample of substance abusing youth recruited through two southwestern runaway shelters. Runaway youth and their families (N = 36) were engaged into a 15-session ecologically-based family therapy (...

  17. Factors influencing alcohol and tobacco addiction among patients attending a de-addiction Centre, South India

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhu, Poornima; Srinivas, Raju; Vishwanathan, Kashi; Raavi, Abhilash

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Alcohol and tobacco consumption are highly correlated behaviors. Aim: To assess the factors influencing alcohol and tobacco addiction and their impact on personal, family, and social life among patients attending the Spandana Nursing Home and De-addiction Centre, Bangalore. The objectives are to assess the various factors leading to alcohol and tobacco addiction, to assess the influence of addiction on personal, family, and social life, and also to create awareness among the com...

  18. Efficacy of family mediation and the role of family violence: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Cleak, Helen; Schofield, Margot; Bickerdike, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Family law reforms in Australia require separated parents in dispute to attempt mandatory family dispute resolution (FDR) in community-based family services before court attendance. However, there are concerns about such services when clients present with a history of high conflict and family violence. This study protocol describes a longitudinal study of couples presenting for family mediation services. The study aims to describe the profile of family mediation clients, including ...

  19. Religious Affiliation, Religious Service Attendance, and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jibum; Smith, Tom W; Kang, Jeong-han

    2015-12-01

    Very few studies have examined the effects of both religious affiliation and religiosity on mortality at the same time, and studies employing multiple dimensions of religiosity other than religious attendance are rare. Using the newly created General Social Survey-National Death Index data, our report contributes to the religion and mortality literature by examining religious affiliation and religiosity at the same time. Compared to Mainline Protestants, Catholics, Jews, and other religious groups have lower risk of death, but Black Protestants, Evangelical Protestants, and even those with no religious affiliation are not different from Mainline Protestants. While our study is consistent with previous findings that religious attendance leads to a reduction in mortality, we did not find other religious measures, such as strength of religious affiliation, frequency of praying, belief in an afterlife, and belief in God to be associated with mortality. We also find interaction effects between religious affiliation and attendance. The lowest mortality of Jews and other religious groups is more apparent for those with lower religious attendance. Thus, our result may emphasize the need for other research to focus on the effects of religious group and religious attendance on mortality at the same time.

  20. Contribution à l’histoire du Planning familial : le partenariat CFDT-MFPF au cours des années soixante-dix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Le Brouster

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article examine les rapports qu’une centrale syndicale - la Confédération française démocratique du travail (CFDT - a entretenus avec une association féministe - le Mouvement français pour le planning familial (MFPF - et montre comment ces deux organisations, aux intérêts supposés concurrents ou contradictoires, ont pu au cours des années soixante-dix nouer des alliances. En effet, au sortir de Mai 68, le contexte historique du mouvement des femmes permet d’accélérer la réflexion en cours dans chacune des organisations, la CFDT s’acheminant vers une stratégie articulant lutte des classes et sexualité, le MFPF souhaitant relier les problèmes de contraception et d’avortement aux inégalités socio-économiques. Les mutations à l’œuvre dans chacune des organisations, qui ne sont pas sans susciter de nombreuses controverses tant au sein de la CFDT que du MFPF, vont ainsi permettre, à la faveur de la lutte pour l’abrogation de la loi de 1920, la création d’un partenariat. Ce dernier se traduit à partir de 1974 par la mise en place d’actions communes (commissions planning, formations internes à chaque organisation, autant d’initiatives qui apparaissent comme une tentative intéressante d’articulation entre lutte féministe et lutte syndicale et qui font du partenariat CFDT-MFPF une expérience originale.The present paper deals with the relationship between a trade union – the Confédération française démocratique du travail (CFDT – and a feminist association – the Mouvement français pour le planning familial (MFPF – and shows how these two organizations, which seem to have competing or contradictory interests, established alliances. Indeed, shortly after Mai 68, the historical context of women movement speeds up the reflection in progress in each organization – the CFDT heads towards a strategy linking class struggle and sexuality while the MFPF tries to connect contraception and abortion

  1. Ganho ponderal e desfechos gestacionais em mulheres atendidas pelo Programa de Saúde da Família em Campina Grande, PB (Brasil Weight gain and gestational outcomes in women attending the Family Health Program in Campina Grande, PB (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Lisiane de Assunção

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o ganho ponderal e sua associação com os desfechos gestacionais em gestantes do Programa de Saúde da Família no município de Campina Grande, PB. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo longitudinal prospectivo desenvolvido de março de 2005 a março de 2006. O peso gestacional foi avaliado a cada quatro semanas a partir da 16ª semana gestacional. O cálculo do índice de massa corporal seguiu os critérios de Atalah (1997, adotados pelo Ministério da Saúde, e o ganho ponderal foi avaliado segundo recomendações do Institute of Medicine (1990. RESULTADOS: O estudo foi concluído com 118 gestantes, entre as quais a média de idade foi de 23 anos. As incidências de ganho de peso excessivo, no segundo e no terceiro trimestres, foram iguais a 44% e a 45%, respectivamente. A hipertensão arterial gestacional foi observada em 8,5% da amostra, sendo estatisticamente significante a sua associação com o estado nutricional inicial (p=0,02. Não houve casos de diabetes gestacional e 34% das gestantes tiveram partos cirúrgicos. O estado nutricional inicial de sobrepeso/obesidade, bem como o ganho de peso excessivo nos dois trimestres estudados, apresentou associação significante com o estado nutricional pós-parto (pOBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the average gestational weight gain and its relation with outcomes in pregnant women attending the Programa de Saúde da Família (Family Health Program in Campina Grande in Paraíba, Brazil. METHODS: Through a prospective longitudinal study developed from March 2005 to March 2006, the gestational weight was estimated every four weeks from the 16th gestational week. The body mass index followed the Atalah criteria (1977 adopted by the Ministry of Health, and the average weight gain was evaluated according to recommendations by the Institute of Medicine (1990. RESULTS: The study involved 118 pregnant women with an average age of 23 years. The incidence of excessive weight gain

  2. Situação do aleitamento materno em população assistida pelo programa de saúde da família-PSF Situación de la lactancia materna en populación asistida por el programa de salud de la familia - PSF Breast feeding in a population attended by the family health program - FHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Garcia de Lima Parada

    2005-06-01

    , which is fully covered by the family health program. We collected information about the current eating habits of children under one year old who were attended during the 2003 Multivaccination Campaign. Associations were submitted to the chi-square test, adopting p<0.05 as the critical level. The prevalence rates for exclusive breastfeeding (EB and predominant breastfeeding (PB in 4-month-olds and younger were 25.4% and 44.4%, respectively, and 66.7% of the children under one were still being breastfed. Prevalence for EB in 6-month-olds and younger was heterogeneous, ranging from 7.4 to 41.2% according to the children's region of origin in the FHP. Difficulties at the beginning of breastfeeding were associated with lower prevalence rates for EB and PB. These results show a situation far from WHO recommendations and from that situation in which there is evidence that children's health receives maximum protection, reiterate the need to support mothers in the early puerperal period and demonstrate the importance of diagnoses separated per regions for actions aimed at promoting breastfeeding.

  3. Evaluation of an antenatal education programme: characteristics of attenders, changes in knowledge and satisfaction of participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, S; Oak, S; Booth, P; Jensen, J; Saxton, A

    1991-11-01

    The evaluation of the efficiency and effectiveness of antenatal education programmes has been identified as a priority in improving maternity services in Australia. Two hundred and ninety four primiparas completed a brief questionnaire in the 3 days following delivery; 82% of the women surveyed attended antenatal education classes. Women were less likely to attend if they were single, younger than 26 years, had lower levels of education, received care during pregnancy from the antenatal clinic and did not have private health insurance. Attenders at antenatal education were also more likely to plan on breast feeding, to be nonsmokers and to know of a greater number of community organizations to help new mothers. However, logistic regression analyses indicated that, with the exception of number of community organizations known, these differences were attributable to demographic differences between attenders and nonattenders. One hundred and forty two women and their partners attending the major provider of antenatal education classes in Newcastle were surveyed prior to and following classes. Significant increases in knowledge were evident following the programme among both women and their partners. Satisfaction with the programme was high as indicated by a large proportion of respondents attending all 4 classes, most programme components being reported as useful or very useful and only a small proportion of respondents experiencing problems with the programme. PMID:1799341

  4. School attendance, health-risk behaviors, and self-esteem in adolescents applying for working papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suss, A L; Tinkelman, B K; Freeman, K; Friedman, S B

    1996-01-01

    Since health-risk behaviors are often encountered in clusters among adolescents, it was hypothesized that adolescents with poor school attendance would be associated with more health-risk behaviors (e.g., substance use, violence) than those who attend school regularly. This study assessed the relationship between poor school attendance and health-risk behaviors, and described health-risk behaviors and self-esteem among adolescents seeking employment. In this cross-sectional study, school attendance (poor vs. regular attendance) was related to health-risk behaviors by asking 122 subjects seen at a New York City Working Papers Clinic to complete both a 72-item questionnaire about their health-risk behaviors and the 58-item Coopersmith Self-Esteem School Form Inventory. Chi-square and Fisher's Exact Tests were performed. The poor and regular attenders of school differed significantly in only 5 out of 44 items pertaining to health-risk behaviors. Self-esteem measures for the two groups did not differ from one another or from national norms. In this sample, depression "in general" (global) and "at home," but not "at school," were associated significantly with suicidal thoughts/attempts and serious past life events (e.g. family conflict, sexual abuse). There were no significant associations between depression or self-esteem and illicit substance or alcohol use. We found few associations between poor school attendance and health-risk behaviors in this sample of employment-seeking adolescents. The poor and regular attenders of school were similar in most aspects of their health-risk behaviors and self-esteem. PMID:8982520

  5. Modification of school attendance for an elementary population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, R M; Kagey, J R

    1977-01-01

    The staff and students of a school composed of Grades 1 through 3 participated in a program to increase school attendance. Children earned the opportunity to attend part or all of a monthly party by their attendance. Immediate feedback occurred each morning by placing stars on a classroom chart for each child present. The school's attendance during the program was compared both with attendance during preceding years and with attendance at other schools. The experimental school's attendance improved dramatically to become the best of all elementary schools in the system. PMID:16795547

  6. Young people’s perspectives on the adoption of preventive measures for HIV/AIDS, malaria and family planning in South-West Uganda: focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graffy Jonathan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the possibility of preventing many cases of HIV, malaria and unplanned pregnancy, protective measures are often not taken by those at risk in Uganda. The study aim was to explore young people’s perspectives on the reasons why this is so. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 100 secondary school and college students in Kanungu, Uganda in 2011. Three parallel groups considered HIV, malaria and family planning, and common messages were then explored jointly in a workshop based on the RE-AIM framework (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance. Results Participants identified various reasons why preventive action was not always taken. They worried about the effectiveness and side effects of several key interventions: condoms, antiretroviral treatment, various contraceptives and impregnated mosquito nets. Cost, rural isolation and the quality and availability of health services also limited the extent to which people were able to follow health advice. Although there was respect for policy supporting abstinence and fidelity, it was seen as hard to follow and offering inadequate protection when gender imbalance put pressure on women to have sex. Conclusions There is an opportunity to improve the uptake of preventive measures by tackling the misconceptions and fears that participants reported with clear, evidence-based messages. This should be done in a way that encourages more open communication about reproductive health between men and women, that reaches out to isolated communities, that draws on both voluntary and government services and enlists young people so that they can shape their future.

  7. Fertility Intentions and Interest in Integrated Family Planning Services among Women Living with HIV in Nyanza Province, Kenya: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K. Harrington

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing efforts to address the reproductive health needs of people living with HIV, a high unmet need for contraception exists among HIV+ women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study explores the fertility intentions and family planning (FP preferences of Kenyan women accessing HIV treatment. We conducted 30 semistructured interviews and qualitatively analyzed the data with a grounded theory approach. Fears of premature death, financial hardship, and perinatal HIV transmission emerged as reasons for participants’ desire to delay/cease childbearing. Participants strongly identified FP needs, yet two-thirds were using male condoms alone or no modern method of contraception. Women preferred the HIV clinic as the site of FP access for reasons of convenience, provider expertise, and a sense of belonging, though some had privacy concerns. Our findings support the acceptability of integrated FP and HIV services. Efforts to empower women living with HIV to prevent unintended pregnancies must expand access to contraceptive methods, provide confidential services, and take into account women's varied reproductive intentions.

  8. Hope for Whom? Financial Aid for the Middle Class and Its Impact on College Attendance

    OpenAIRE

    Dynarski, Susan

    2000-01-01

    The federal government and the states have recently enacted a slew of aid policies aimed at college students from middle- and high-income families. I estimate the impact of aid on the college attendance of middle- and upper-income youth by evaluating Georgia's HOPE Scholarship, the inspiration of the new federal Hope Scholarship. The results suggest that Georgia's program has had a surprisingly large impact on the college attendance rate of middle- and high-income youth. Using a set of nearby...

  9. Adolescent Marijuana Use and School Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebuck, M. Christopher; French, Michael T.; Dennis, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between adolescent marijuana use and school attendance. Data were pooled from the 1997 and 1998 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse to form a sample of 15 168 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, who had not yet complete high school. The analysis determined the role of marijuana use in adolescent school dropout…

  10. CPAFFC Delegation Attends Global Zero Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>CPAFFC President Chen Haosu led a delegation to attend the Global Zero Summit in Paris,France from February 2 to 4.The event aimed to promote a new phase in the"Global Zero"movement:working to reach a binding and verifiable agreement on elimination of all nuclear weapons worldwide.More than 200

  11. Hidden Transcripts of Flight Attendant Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Alexandra G.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes (using flight attendants) hidden transcripts--interactions, stories, myths, and rituals in which employees participate beyond direct observation--to provide an avenue to identify resistance and change in the organizing process. Challenges the outdated ideal of transmissional meaning, questions organizational power by including the…

  12. Build a Diversified Pension System to Deal with Family Pension Risk of Weinan Planned-parenthood Family%构建多元化养老机制,应对渭南计划生育家庭养老风险

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马素英; 常俊霞

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes Weinan living status in rural planned-parenthood families, with comprehensive understand of difficulties and suffering of rural family planning, and explores the diversification of social security in Weinan rural planned-parenthood families. And it also takes precautions against the problem of elderly pension during the peak of family planning in the future in accordance with system construction.%分析渭南市农村计划生育家庭的生活现状,全面了解农村计划生育家庭养老方面的困难和疾苦,探索渭南市农村计划生育家庭多元化养老保障机制,从制度构建上防范未来计划生育家庭养老高峰期来临时所面临的老有所养、老有所依的问题。

  13. Understanding health insurance plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000879.htm Understanding health insurance plans To use the sharing features on this ... for you and your family. Types of Health Insurance Plans Depending on how you get your health ...

  14. In-Group and Role Identity Influences on the Initiation and Maintenance of Students' Voluntary Attendance at Peer Study Sessions for Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M.; O'Connor, Erin L.; Hamilton, Kyra

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although class attendance is linked to academic performance, questions remain about what determines students' decisions to attend or miss class. Aims: In addition to the constructs of a common decision-making model, the theory of planned behaviour, the present study examined the influence of student role identity and university student…

  15. Infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en usuarias de dos clínicas de planificación familiar Chlamydia trachomatis infection in users of two family planning clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Canto-de Cetina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en mujeres que acuden a dos clínicas de planificación familiar. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal en 1 100 mujeres sexualmente activas, aparentemente sanas, de Mérida, Yucatán, México, quienes acudieron a dos clínicas de planificación familiar en el periodo comprendido de enero a diciembre de 1998. Las mujeres incluidas en el estudio tuvieron entre 15 y 45 años de edad, y habían estado libres de tratamiento antibacteriano al menos durante el mes previo a su inclusión. Se obtuvieron muestras endocervicales y datos epidemiológicos. La detección de bacterias fue realizada por el método inmunoenzimático de marca Wellcozyme. Los datos fueron procesados en el programa EPI Info. Como métodos estadísticos se utilizaron la prueba de Z, ji cuadrada y como medida de asociación, la razón de prevalencias. RESULTADOS: Setenta y cuatro mujeres (6.7 % fueron positivas a infección por Chlamydia trachomatis. Cerca de 50% de las mujeres estuvo asintomática. No se encontró diferencia estadística entre la proporción de mujeres con y sin Chlamydia que tuvieron síntomas vulvovaginales; por el contrario, los cambios relacionados con cervicitis fueron más frecuentes en las pacientes infectadas. C trachomatis fue más frecuente en usuarias de anticonceptivos orales (8.3% comparadas con mujeres que no tenían método anticonceptivo (5.4%. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados de este estudio confirman la alta prevalencia de infecciones asintomáticas y pone énfasis en la importancia de un diagnóstico oportuno para evitar secuelas.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending two family planning clinics in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From January to December 1998, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 100 sexually active women between 15 and 45 years of age. Study subjects had not received

  16. Selected Internet Resources on Family History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Steven

    2001-01-01

    Provides a list of Internet resources on family history that cover topics such as colonial families, shifting family ideals, families in the Early Republic, families in bondage, westward migration, families during the Great Depression, journals, reference sources, and lesson plans. (CMK)

  17. Population Growth and Family Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Louise; Schaefer, Judith B.

    1973-01-01

    Factor analysis of questionnaire responses from 313 college students revealed that concern about overpopulation was a highly significant predictor of the number of children the respondents wanted. While the average number of children desired was 3.02, the majority of respondents accepted abortion and approximately one-third accepted sterilization…

  18. Birth control and family planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vagina over the cervix before intercourse, to prevent sperm from reaching the uterus. It should be left ... and contain a chemical that kills or "disables "sperm. The sponge is moistened and inserted into the ...

  19.  "Maternal Health and Family Planning Distance Education" experience among physicians: a three-phase study to determine the educational needs, develop education program, and evaluate efficacy of the education administered

    OpenAIRE

    Ciftci B; Uzel N; Ozel MO; Zergeroglu S; Deger C; Turasan SS; Karakoc AG; Ozbalci S

    2016-01-01

    Bestami Ciftci,1 Nesibe Uzel,1 M Onur Ozel,2 Sema Zergeroglu,1 Cetin Deger,2 S Sare Turasan,1 Ayse Gul Karakoc,1 Semra Ozbalci,1 1General Directorate of Health Research (SAGEM), Turkish Ministry of Health, Ankara, Turkey; 2Bayer Türk Kimya San Ltd, Sti, Ankara, Turkey Aim: This study aims to assess the educational needs of family practitioners and evaluate the efficacy of the ongoing “Maternal Health and Family Planning Distance Education” program conducted by the General Di...

  20. Physician Orders for Life Sustaining Treatment in US Nursing Homes: A Case Study of CRNP Engagement in the Care Planning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald A. Hartle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This case study describes changes in Physician Orders for Life Saving Treatment (POLST status among long-stay residents of a US nursing home who had a certified registered nurse practitioner (CRNP adopt the practice of participating in nursing home staff care plan meetings. The CRNP attended a nonrandomized sample of 60 care plan meetings, each featuring a review of POLST preferences with residents and/or family members. Days since original POLST completion, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, number of hospitalizations since index admission, and other sociodemographic characteristics including religion and payer source were among the data elements extracted via chart review for the sample as well as for a nonequivalent control group of 115 residents also under the care of the medical provider group practice at the nursing home. Twenty-three percent (n=14 of the 60 care conferences attended by the CRNP resulted in a change in POLST status after consultations with the resident and/or family. In all cases, POLST changes involved restated preferences from a higher level of intervention to a lower level of intervention. Fifty-nine percent of the CRNP-attended conferences resulted in the issuance of new medical provider orders. CRNP participation in care conferences may represent a best practice opportunity to revisit goals of care with individuals and their family members in the context of broader interprofessional treatment planning.