Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and 'Department of Microbiology,. University of Ghana ... device (IUCD) was the most common Family Planning method chosen .... Panel B Microscopy of wet preparation and grain stain. Gram stain ...
Behets, F M; Ward, E; Fox, L; Reed, R; Spruyt, A; Bennett, L; Johnson, L; Hoffman, I; Figueroa, J P
To assess sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among women attending Jamaican family planning clinics and to evaluate decision models as alternatives to STD laboratory diagnosis. Women attending two family planning clinics in Kingston were interviewed and tested for syphilis seroreactivity using toluidine red unheated serum test and Treponema pallidum haemagglutination, for gonorrhoea using culture, for chlamydial infection using enzyme linked immunoassay, and for trichomoniasis using culture. Urine was tested with leucocyte esterase dipstick (LED). The women were treated based upon a clinical algorithm. Computer simulations explored the use of risk inclusive decision models for detection of cervical infection and/or trichomoniasis. Among 767 women, 206 (26.9%) had at least one STD. The prevalence of gonorrhoea was 2.7%; chlamydial infection 12.2%; gonococcal and/or chlamydial cervical infection 14.1%; trichomoniasis 11.5%; syphilis seroreactivity 5.9%. The clinical algorithm was 3.7% sensitive and 96.7% specific in detecting cervical infection. Detection of cervical infection and/or trichomoniasis was 63.5% sensitive and 60.6% specific using LED and 57.7% sensitive and 46.2% specific using the risk inclusive algorithm employed in Jamaican STD clinics. Either cervical friability or LED (+) or family planning clinic attender less than 25 years old with more than one sexual partner in the past year was 72.5% sensitive and 53.3% specific. The positive predictive values of the STD clinic algorithm, LED, and two developed decision models ranged from 25.0% to 33.4% to detect cervical infection and/or trichomoniasis in these women. STDs were quite prevalent in these mainly asymptomatic family planning clinic attenders. None of the evaluated decision models can be considered a good alternative to case detection using laboratory diagnosis. Appropriate detection tools are needed. In the meantime, available STD control strategies should be maximised, such as promotion of
Satterwhite, Catherine Lindsey; Grier, LaZetta; Patzer, Rachel; Weinstock, Hillard; Howards, Penelope P; Kleinbaum, David
Annual chlamydia screening is recommended for all sexually active women aged clinics reporting data to IPP. Using the clinic as the unit of analysis, a correlated, longitudinal data analysis with a random intercept was conducted among clinics reporting ≥3 years of data during the analysis timeframe. Sensitivity analyses were performed to address the impact of various clinic participation levels in addition to the assessment of various correlation structures. Over 5 million chlamydia tests were reported to IPP family planning clinics from 2004 to 2008. A majority of tests were conducted among white women (clinic-specific mean: 63.2%, interquartile range: 37.6%-91.5%); the clinic-specific mean percent of tests conducted among black women was 17.9% (interquartile range: 0.8%-25.7%). Overall chlamydia positivity from 2004 to 2008 was 7.0%. The odds ratio associated with a single year change (1.00; 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.00) suggested that chlamydia positivity did not change from 2004 to 2008, after controlling for clinic-specific population factors (age, race, test usage, and geography). Findings support previous analyses suggesting that chlamydia prevalence is not increasing despite apparent increasing rates based on case reports.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Unintended pregnancy (mistimed or unwanted remains an important health issue for women. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with risk of unintended pregnancy in a sample of Victorian women attending family planning clinics. Methods This cross-sectional survey of three Family Planning Victoria Clinics from April to July 2011 recruited women aged 16-50 years with a male sexual partner in the last 3 months, and not intending to conceive. The questionnaire asked about contraceptive behaviours and important factors that influence contraception use (identified from a systematic literature review. Univariate analysis was calculated for the variables of interest for associations with contraceptive use. An overall multivariate model for being at risk for unintended pregnancy (due to inconsistent or ineffective contraceptive use or non-use was calculated through backward elimination with statistical significance set at Results 1006 surveys were analyzed with 96% of women reporting contraception use in the last 3 months. 37% of women were at risk for unintended pregnancy due to imperfect use (61% inconsistent users; 31% ineffective methods or never using contraception (8%. On multivariate analysis, women at risk for unintended pregnancy compared with women not at risk were 1 partner in the last 3 months (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.3-4.6. These women were dissatisfied with current contraception (OR 2.5, 95% 1.8-3.5; felt “vulnerable” to pregnancy (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.6-3.0; were not confident in contraceptive knowledge (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.5-4.8; were unable to stop to use contraception when aroused (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-2.9 but were comfortable in speaking to a doctor about contraception (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.1. Conclusion Despite reported high contraceptive usage, nearly 40% of women were at risk for unintended pregnancy primarily due to inconsistent contraceptive use and use of ineffective
Ong, Jason; Temple-Smith, Meredith; Wong, William C W; McNamee, Kathleen; Fairley, Christopher
Unintended pregnancy (mistimed or unwanted) remains an important health issue for women. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with risk of unintended pregnancy in a sample of Victorian women attending family planning clinics. This cross-sectional survey of three Family Planning Victoria Clinics from April to July 2011 recruited women aged 16-50 years with a male sexual partner in the last 3 months, and not intending to conceive. The questionnaire asked about contraceptive behaviours and important factors that influence contraception use (identified from a systematic literature review). Univariate analysis was calculated for the variables of interest for associations with contraceptive use. An overall multivariate model for being at risk for unintended pregnancy (due to inconsistent or ineffective contraceptive use or non-use) was calculated through backward elimination with statistical significance set at women reporting contraception use in the last 3 months. 37% of women were at risk for unintended pregnancy due to imperfect use (61% inconsistent users; 31% ineffective methods) or never using contraception (8%). On multivariate analysis, women at risk for unintended pregnancy compared with women not at risk were 1 partner in the last 3 months (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.3-4.6). These women were dissatisfied with current contraception (OR 2.5, 95% 1.8-3.5); felt "vulnerable" to pregnancy (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.6-3.0); were not confident in contraceptive knowledge (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.5-4.8); were unable to stop to use contraception when aroused (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-2.9) but were comfortable in speaking to a doctor about contraception (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.1). Despite reported high contraceptive usage, nearly 40% of women were at risk for unintended pregnancy primarily due to inconsistent contraceptive use and use of ineffective contraception. Strategies for improving consistency of effective contraception use or greater emphasis on long
Fine, David; Warner, Lee; Salomon, Sarah; Johnson, David M
We assessed the impact of staff, clinic, and community interventions on male and female family planning client visit volume and sexually transmitted infection testing at a multisite community-based health care agency. Staff training, clinic environmental changes, in-reach/outreach, and efficiency assessments were implemented in two Family Health Center (San Diego, CA) family planning clinics during 2010-2012; five Family Health Center family planning programs were identified as comparison clinics. Client visit records were compared between preintervention (2007-2009) and postintervention (2010-2012) for both sets of clinics. Of 7,826 male client visits during the time before intervention, most were for clients who were aged clinics significantly increased the number of male visits (4,004 to 8,385; Δ = +109%); for comparison clinics, male visits increased modestly (3,822 to 4,500; Δ = +18%). The proportion of male clinic visits where chlamydia testing was performed increased in intervention clinics (35% to 42%; p clinics (37% to 33%; p analyses conducted among adolescent and young adult males yielded similar findings for male client volume and chlamydia testing. The number of female visits declined nearly 40% in both comparison (21,800 to 13,202; -39%) and intervention clinics (30,830 to 19,971; -35%) between preintervention and postintervention periods. Multilevel interventions designed to increase male client volume and sexually transmitted infection testing services in family planning clinics succeeded without affecting female client volume or services. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
Mukthar, V K; Maranga, A K; Kulei, S J; Chemoiwa, R K
To determine the uptake ana factors associated with the uptake of modern contraceptives among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) attending Maternal Child Health and Family Planning Clinics/Units in Rift Valley Provincial Hospital in Kenya. A descriptive cross-sectional study. Rift Valley Provincial hospital which is a level five health facility situated in Nakuru County, Kenya. Women of reproductive age (15-49 years) who were attending Maternal Child Health and Family Planning Clinics at the Rift Valley Provincial Hospital. The respondents were identified by systematic random sampling Modern contraceptive uptake is over ninety percent (90.4, n = 218). The factors that are significantly associated with uptake of modern contraceptives are perceived convenience to use modern contraceptives (OR 0.39, CI: 0.16 - 0.93, p value- 0.04), experience of unmet needs of contraception (OR 0.08, CI: 0.03 - 0.2, p value- 0.001), history of a modern contraception discontinuation (OR 5.5, CI: 1.7 - 9.2, p value- 0.036) and knowledge of modern contraceptives (OR 19.1, CI: 12.3 - 27.5, p value-0.001). Conclusion: This study concluded that uptake of modern contraceptive is relatively high in Nakuru, Kenya and there is need for programmes to focus more on the client of modern contraceptive and the attributes of the modern contraceptives in up-scaling the uptake of modern contraceptives.
... Natural Family Planning Share Print Natural family planning (NFP) is a form of pregnancy planning. It does not involve medicine or devices. NFP helps people know when to have sexual intercourse. ...
natural family planning by the Government. The Ministry of Health in collaboration with government through partnership should plan for training natural family planning teachers as they are the ones who can teach people on family planning in their communities. This will also improve on utilization as some clients cited that ...
A public health nurse from London describes the customs of nomadic people in the British Isles, known as "travellers," as they affect provision of family planning services. Most are of British or Irish stock, some migrate and others live in caravan sites all year. Their traditions dictate that men work and women are housewives. Early, often arranged, marriage, early childbearing and large families are the norm. Sex and contraception are not considered appropriate for discussion between the sexes, or in the presence of children. Large families and financial hardship force many women to space pregnancies. Women often have to hide contraceptives from their husbands, difficult in conditions without privacy. Therefore they prefer IUDs, but some use oral contraceptives, although sometimes erratically because most are illiterate. Traveller women are usually unwilling to do self-examination, as needed with IUDs. They often have difficulty attending regular Pap smear clinics. Cervical cancer rates are high. They experience discrimination in clinics, and need extra care about modesty. It is worth while to take time to develop trust in the clinical relationship, to deal with the traveller woman's uneasy among outsiders.
Statistical analysis plan for the family-led rehabilitation after stroke in India (ATTEND) trial: A multicenter randomized controlled trial of a new model of stroke rehabilitation compared to usual care.
Billot, Laurent; Lindley, Richard I; Harvey, Lisa A; Maulik, Pallab K; Hackett, Maree L; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Vs; Anderson, Craig S; Shamanna, Bindiganavale R; Jan, Stephen; Walker, Marion; Forster, Anne; Langhorne, Peter; Verma, Shweta J; Felix, Cynthia; Alim, Mohammed; Gandhi, Dorcas Bc; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai
Background In low- and middle-income countries, few patients receive organized rehabilitation after stroke, yet the burden of chronic diseases such as stroke is increasing in these countries. Affordable models of effective rehabilitation could have a major impact. The ATTEND trial is evaluating a family-led caregiver delivered rehabilitation program after stroke. Objective To publish the detailed statistical analysis plan for the ATTEND trial prior to trial unblinding. Methods Based upon the published registration and protocol, the blinded steering committee and management team, led by the trial statistician, have developed a statistical analysis plan. The plan has been informed by the chosen outcome measures, the data collection forms and knowledge of key baseline data. Results The resulting statistical analysis plan is consistent with best practice and will allow open and transparent reporting. Conclusions Publication of the trial statistical analysis plan reduces potential bias in trial reporting, and clearly outlines pre-specified analyses. Clinical Trial Registrations India CTRI/2013/04/003557; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN1261000078752; Universal Trial Number U1111-1138-6707.
Information dissemination is part of the communication component of successful family planning program operation. Communication informs people about family planning, motivates them to practice it, and teaches them how to correctly use safe and reliable methods. Family planning communication is receiving renewed attention in the late 1980s in nearly all parts of the world. 1 of the most effective ways to reach policymakers and service providers is through newsletters. At the 1986 Family Health Research Centers Directors Conference, 4 of the 6 directors said they regularly publish newsletters. Workshops, conferences, and seminars are other forums for information dissemination. These forums present ideal opportunities for media coverage, 1 of the best ways to spread information about contraceptive research findings and family planning. Advice columns are a way to publicize family planning in print media on a regular basis. It may be necessary for leaders of family planning groups to make the 1st efforts to contact editors and broadcast personnel. While family planning is no longer a new topic in most countries, it remains true that important information needs to circulate and that family planners can help this process by helping the media cover it.
Hamburg, M V
17 days were spent devoted to the effort of learning about China's educational approach to family planning in the hope of discovering how they are achieving their remarkable success in reducing population growth. As a member of the 1981 New York University/SIECUS Colloquim in China, it was necessary to rely on the translation provided by the excellent guides. Discussions were focused on questions prepared in advance about the topics that concerned the group. These observations, based on a short and limited exposure, cover the following areas: marriage and family planning policies; the family planning program; school programs; adult education; family planning workers; and unique aspects of the program. China has an official position on marriage and family planning that continues to undergo revisions. The new marriage law sets the minimum ages of marriage at 22 for men and 20 for women. Almost everyone marries, and an unmarried person over age 28 is a rarity. The family planning program in China is carried out by an extensive organizational network at national, provincial, and local government levels. Officials termed it a "propaganda campaign." Hospitals, clinics, and factories invariably displayed posters; a popular set of four presents the advantages of the 1 child family as follows: late marriage is best, for it allows more time to work and study; 1 child is best for the health of the mother; one gets free medical care for his/her child if a family has only 1 child; and there is more time to teach 1 child. The state operated television regularly explains the 1 child policy utilizing special films. According to 1 family planning official, "before marriage there is little sex." There are few abortions for unmarried women. Education about sex is for adults, for those persons who are about to be married. There is little if any sex education in schools. Sexual teaching is not generally acceptable, especially in the rural areas. By contrast, in Shanghai the physiology
Family planning and its association with women's health and the health of families, communities, and societies will be a central theme of the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, Egypt, in September 1994. The conference will provide an opportunity to determine new directions for the development of family planning programs. Making family planning programs woman-friendly is to insure that they: are based on the principle of voluntary informed choice; are available to all; offer confidentiality in counseling and services; provide a broad choice of traditional and modern methods; make the user's safety a prime concern; encourage male involvement; are supportive of women with unwanted pregnancies; and provide protection from, as well as management of, sexually transmitted diseases. The need to encourage male involvement and sharing in responsibilities is essential. Although the bulk of contraceptive methods are for use by women, many require the active cooperation of men. With the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS, barrier methods and cooperation between sex partners will gain importance. The responsibilities of men as partners, fathers, and family members should be emphasized in all family planning programs. Policy makers must insure that family planning programs offer high quality counseling, the prevention of unsafe abortion, and the management of genital infections, sexually transmitted diseases, infertility and diseases of the reproductive tract.
Objective To review the acceptance pattern and the influence of age and parity on the choice of Family Planning Methods at the Family Planning Clinic, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH), Kano, Nigeria. Method All records of the clients that attended the Family Planning Clinic from January 2003 to December 2007 ...
Decker, Michele R; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L; Tancredi, Daniel J; Anderson, Heather; Levenson, Rebecca R; Silverman, Jay G
Adolescent and young adult women are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV). We evaluate the prevalence of IPV in the past 3 months and its associations with STI/HIV risk, STI and related care-seeking over the same time period. Female family planning clinic patients ages 16-29 years (n=3504) participated in a cross-sectional survey in 2011-2012 as a baseline assessment for an intervention study. We examined associations of recent IPV with sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk behaviour, self-reported STI and STI-related clinical care seeking via logistic regression. Recent physical or sexual IPV (prevalence 11%) was associated with recent sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk, specifically unprotected vaginal sex (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.93, 95% CI 1.52 to 2.44), unprotected anal sex (AOR 2.22, 95% CI 1.51 to 3.27) and injection drug use, their own (AOR 3.39, 95% CI 1.47 to 7.79) and their partner's (AOR 3.85, 1.91 to 7.75). IPV was also linked with coercive sexual risk: involuntary condom non-use (AOR 1.87 to 95% CI 1.51 to 2.33), and fears of requesting condoms (AOR 4.15, 95% CI 2.73 to 6.30) and refusing sex (AOR 11.84, 95% CI 7.59 to 18.45). STI-related care-seeking was also more common among those abused (AOR 2.49, 95% CI 1.87 to 3.31). Recent IPV is concurrent with sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk, including coercive sexual risk, thus compromising women's agency in STI/HIV risk reduction. Clinical risk assessments should broaden to include unprotected heterosexual anal sex, coercive sexual risk and IPV, and should promote safety and harm reduction.
Morrissey, Taryn W.; Hutchison, Lindsey; Winsler, Adam
Low family income is associated with poor academic achievement among children. Higher rates of school absence and tardiness may be one mechanism through which low family income impacts children's academic success. This study examines relations between family income, as measured by receipt of free or reduced-price lunch, school attendance, and…
Family Integrants Obstructing Pupils' School Attendance and Girl-Child Education in Plateau State: Current Status and Challenges for Counsellors. ... Findings revealed major integrants impeding parents from allowing their children to attend school regularly. They also affect the girl – child education. Such integrants include ...
Bashore, Lisa; Bender, Joyce
To explore the long-term benefits to families of childhood cancer survivors who attended a weekend childhood cancer survivor family retreat. Descriptive-qualitative study including families who had attended the weekend retreat at least once but not in the past 12 months, and who attend a large pediatric hematology and oncology cancer survivorship program in Texas. A semistructured interview guide was used during three audio-taped focus groups to explore the benefits of having attended a weekend retreat. Descriptive qualitative analysis was used to analyze the focus groups' transcripts. Seven families participated in the focus groups, and the themes identified were reconnecting (with others or family), putting life in perspective, and changing outlook on life. Retreats offer families of cancer survivors opportunities to reconnect with others and their own family members in a therapeutic environment. These reconnections in a therapeutic environment enriched the families' positive outlooks on life and changed their perspectives. Families of childhood cancer survivors report a lack of support following the completion of therapy. Retreats in a nonclinical therapeutic setting optimize family-perceived support, relationship building, and reconnecting survivor families. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.
The focus is in terms of family planning as an exercise in induced social change; the objective is to alter the reproductive patterns of societies sufficiently to bring about a significant reduction in fertility. The year 1974 emerges as the year in which family planning as a social movement achieved maturity and was confirmed as a legitimate area for national policy and programming, a year of determined and varied efforts to reduce population growth. In affirming the rights and responsibilities of people and the obligations of governments in population concerns, the Bucharest Conference conferred its seal of approval on a movement that had made considerable progress since it began early in the 19th century. The evolution of birth control as a social movement which began with Francis Place's printing and distributing contraceptive bills in 1820 was encouraged by other writings in England and the U.S. over the next 50 years. Several overlapping phases can be distinguished in the global response to a new sense of urgence regarding population concerns following World War 2. Moving from a global perspective to consideration of family planning as it exists in the programs of individual countries, the achievement is not so great and the prospects are less hopeful. Although it has had success as a social movement and is now accepted as a government responsibility, family planning programs still have a long way to go before they develop the scope, vigor, and versatility that is required for there to be widespread demographic change. 1 change that is needed is for a stronger and more visible political commitment and commitment on the basis of demographic rather than health or welfare reasons.
The high rates of infant, child, and maternal mortality and morbidity observed in many developing countries could be decreased through the provision of adequate family planning services. Poor women in developing countries, compared to women in industrialized nations, have poor health statuses and little or no access to health care. In addition, they endure frequent pregnancies throughout their reproductive life spans. Closely spaced births do not give these women's bodies an opportunity to recuperate from the strains of pregnancy, and these drained women are further burdened with the task of caring for large families. Many women in developing countries subject themseleves to the riskse associated with illegal abortion in order to avoid another unwanted pregnancy. Maternal mortality rates in come countries are as high as 1000/100,000 live births, 2/3 of all pregnant women in developing countries (excluding China) suffer from nutritional anemia, and 200,000 women die each year from illegal abortions. Closely spaced births and childbearing during the late and early phases of the reproductive life span enhance, not only the risk of maternal mortality and morbidity, but the risk of infant and child mortality and morbidity. Children born after a birth interval of 1 year or less are 2 times more likely to die than children born after a birth interval of 2 or more years. Compared to infants born to women aged 20-35 years, infants born to women under 20 years of age have a higher risk of premature birth, and those born to women over 35 years of age have a greater risk of death and of birth defects. The provision of family planning services would also help couples overcome infertility problems and provide women with an opportunity to pursue educational and employment goals. The decline in breastfeeding in developing countries increases the need to provide family planning services. Breastfeeding delays the return of fertility following delivery. As breastfeeding declines
Pioneering activities in family planning in Ghana were hospital/clinic-based, aimed at assisting couples to space their children, prevent unwanted pregnancies, manage infertility and improve upon their overall reproductive health. Community-based approaches to family planning services delivery geared towards equipping ...
Though most of all the respondents, 292 (72.5%) opined that decisions on family planning practice should be jointly reached by the couple and many, 202 (50.1%) remind their wives to use contraceptive, only 91 (22.6%) attended family planning clinics with their wives. The results showed that though many of the male civil ...
Family planning is regarded as an important preventive measure against maternal and child morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed at determining the knowledge, attitude and use of family planning methods among women attending antenatal clinic in Jos; factors that militates against use of contraceptive methods ...
Holland, Margaret L; Olds, David L; Dozier, Ann M; Kitzman, Harriet J
We examined visit attendance patterns of mothers enrolled in the Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) home visitation program and associations between these patterns and characteristics of the families and sites, with the goal of increasing participant engagement. We utilized repeated measures latent class analysis to identify attendance patterns among 66,967 mothers in NFP sites across the USA. Mothers enrolled from 1996 to 2010. Data were collected by home visitors and aggregated by the NFP National Service Office. Five visit attendance patterns were identified. Consistent attenders (22%) remained engaged for the full program and attended 51.3 visits on average. Inconsistent attenders (9%) remained engaged but missed many visits, with an average of 36.4 visits. The remaining patterns were characterized by when participants left the program: early (28%; 6.7 visits), gradually (27%; 19.4 visits), or late (15%; 35.3 visits). Consistent and inconsistent attenders were less likely to use English as their primary language than other participants (R = 0.12; p < .001). Participants with more nurse changes per visit attended were more likely to drop out early (R = 0.11; p < .001). Sites with a higher percent of missing data had smaller portions of mothers who remained consistently engaged in the program over time (b = - 0.032; p < .01) and greater portions in the late (b = 0.007; p < .04) and gradual attrition classes (b = 0.018; p < .01). The large number of participants who dropped out early is concerning. Further exploration of this group may optimize use of resources by improving either retention or targeting of potential participants.
Kleinman, Ronald L., Ed.
The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) believes that all people have the right to family planning information, including premarital and marital counseling, contraception information, and sex education. This physician's handbook is designed to provide all doctors with the necessary instructions on the latest family planning methods…
Morrissey, Taryn W; Hutchison, Lindsey; Winsler, Adam
Low family income is associated with poor academic achievement among children. Higher rates of school absence and tardiness may be one mechanism through which low family income impacts children's academic success. This study examines relations between family income, as measured by receipt of free or reduced-price lunch, school attendance, and academic achievement among a diverse sample of children from kindergarten to 4th grade (N = 35,419) using both random and within-child fixed-effects models. Generally, results suggest that the receipt of free or reduced-price lunch and duration of receipt have small but positive associations with school absences and tardies. Poor attendance patterns predict poorer grades, with absences more associated with grades than tardies. Given the small associations between receipt of free or reduced-price lunch and school attendance, and between the duration of receipt of free or reduced-price lunch and children's grades, results do not provide strong evidence that absences and tardies meaningfully attenuate relations between the duration of low family income and student achievement; poorer attendance and persistent low income independently predict poorer grades. Implications for policy and future research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Pinter, Bojana; Hakim, Marwan; Seidman, Daniel S; Kubba, Ali; Kishen, Meera; Di Carlo, Costantino
Religion is embedded in the culture of all societies. It influences matters of morality, ideology and decision making, which concern every human being at some point in their life. Although the different religions often lack a united view on matters such contraception and abortion, there is sometimes some dogmatic overlap when general religious principles are subject to the influence of local customs. Immigration and population flow add further complexities to societal views on reproductive issues. For example, present day Europe has recently faced a dramatic increase in refugee influx, which raises questions about the health care of immigrants and the effects of cultural and religious differences on reproductive health. Religious beliefs on family planning in, for example, Christianity, Judaism, Islam and Hinduism have grown from different backgrounds and perspectives. Understanding these differences may result in more culturally competent delivery of care by health care providers. This paper presents the teachings of the most widespread religions in Europe with regard to contraception and reproduction.
Brown, J B; Blackwell, L F; Billings, J J; Conway, B; Cox, R I; Garrett, G; Holmes, J; Smith, M A
It is now well accepted that a woman can conceive from an act of intercourse for a maximum of only about 7 days of her menstrual cycle. The reliability of natural family planning depends on identifying this window of fertility without ambiguity. Several symptomatic markers, cervical mucus and basal body temperature, have been used extensively and with considerable success in most women but failures occur. Ovarian and pituitary hormone production show characteristic patterns during the cycle. Urinary estrogen and pregnanediol measurements yield reliable information concerning the beginning, peak, and end of the fertile period, provided that the assays are accurate and performed on timed specimens of urine. We have developed such enzyme immunoassays for urinary estrogen and pregnanediol glucuronides that can be performed at home. In the early versions of the assays, enzyme reaction rates were measured by eye, but more recently, a simple photoelectronic rate meter has been used. The final problem to be solved is not technologic but whether women are sufficiently motivated to expend the same time and effort each day for 10 days a month, with less cost, on fertility awareness as they spend on making a cup of tea.
The major sources of funding for family planning associations include: 1) contributions from foundations and private individuals; 2) government subsidies; 3) international assistance; and 4) profits from family planning services, e.g., contraceptive sales, operation of family planning clinics and health check laboratories, and sales of educational materials. In many Asian countries, the operation of health check laboratories appears to be an especially promising source of income. Industrialization and higher education have produced an increased emphasis on good health and a higher quality of life. Family planning associations can thus play a role in providing regular health check-ups and health education for all family members. Family planning counseling can be provided to clients as a part of their medical check-ups. Since such examinations should be conducted on a yearly basis, a fixed amount of income can be assumed. Family planning associations that are considering starting a health examination program should invest in the necessary facilities and equipment, recruit medical doctors and laboratory technicians, and form linkages with specialists, hospitals, universities, and other research institutions. It may take 3-5 years for a family planning association to accumulate the necessary technology and experience in this field and to acquire the confidence of the general public.
Some interviews with educated women about their thoughts on family planning, birth spacing, and desired family size are provided. There were rumors that Nigerian women wanted birth spacing because the economy was so bad. There was a question about whether women desired family planning for both birth spacing and family limitation without jeopardizing conjugal felicity, or whether the government campaigns for smaller family size were being effective, or whether the economic realities were forcing rethinking. The responses came from a legal assistant in her early 30s; a health consultant, a 27-years old baby wear dealer, a 27-year old nurse, a 54-years old academician, a 44-year old librarian, a 35-year old pharmacist, and a fashion designer. Mrs. Ige, the legal assistant, married at 28 years believed that family planning was essential and the desired family size was around 4, but more importantly family size was based on the parents ability to provide "adequate" care. The health consultant with 4 children considered that a mother had a life after children and living standards were not improving. The baby war dealer with 2 children believed that family planning provided the opportunity to plan for the education of your children; the number of educated children depended on the ability of society to provide adequate jobs. The nurse was not married and planned to seek counseling in family planning after her first child. The academician with 4 children believed individuals had the right to decide the desired number of children, but should be guided by the principle of having no more than they could adequately care for. The librarian with 4 children thought family planning was nice for helping ladies plan their families according to their means; wealthy families could afford 4-5 children, and middle income earners could only afford 2-3 children. The fashion designer with 2 children said that family planning was necessary for spacing the number of children and giving the
Abraham De D'ornellas, R
The treatment in the press of family planning hinges on two fundamental factors: the taboo of the leftist groups and the taboo of the Catholic Church, whose head is against abortion under any circumstances. Leftist views insinuate that family planning is the genocidal plan of North American imperialists against the Third World and, in particular, against Latin America. This genocidal plan is supposed to subject poor populations to international schemes. In the press family planning is often treated in a sanctimonious fashion, lumping it together with topics like pornography, sex, and violence. In 1983 the daily newspaper Expreso published a supplement running every week for almost three months about the issue of population, which dealt fairly extensively with such topics as population and housing, education, employment, and urban proliferation, as well as responsible parenthood and child survival. In addition, there was a detailed description of contraceptive methods. In October 1986 another surprising thing happened: the President of Peru talked about the topic of family planning, which at the time was an act of courage. Since then much has changed; the whole world is interested in family planning and certain aspects of population. Since October 1986 more has been published in this domain than during the preceding 20 years. In contrast, the Church reacted differently to this issue: after some initial caution, the conference of Peruvian bishops attacked all methods of modern contraceptives and private institutions of family planning. The information boom in family planning will certainly continue. At the moment this flood of articles and editorials about the issue is an expression of the anxiety of families related to uncontrolled reproduction and the fear of overpopulation in large cities devoid of minimal services.
This thesis reports on a study on lesbian families in which the children were born to the lesbian relationship (planned lesbian families). How strong is the desire of lesbian mothers to have a child, and what are their motivations? How do lesbian mothers experience parenthood? What do they strive
Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Boer, Hendrik; Seydel, E.R.
This prospective study, using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) as a theoretical framework, was carried out to identify the determinants of repeat attendance and attendance patterns in organised breast screening. A group of 2657 women filled out a baseline questionnaire, approximately 8 weeks
Community-based distribution projects are currently operating in 40 countries, including the program in Oyo State in southwest Nigeria. Such programs utilize volunteer community workers to expand the availability and accessibility of primary health care services, family planning information, and nonprescription contraceptives in rural areas. These workers play a vital role in linking the village with government health facilities. Among the responsibilities of community health workers are promotion of food supply and proper nutrition, adequate supply of safe water and sanitation, maternal and child health care (including family planning, immunization, prevention and control of major endemic diseases, treatment of common diseases, and provision of essential drugs). These workers are nominated by traditional village leaders and selected by public health nurses; priority is given to traditional birth attendants. In Oyo State, community workers participate in an extensive 2-phase learning program followed by refresher courses every 6 months. After 2 years of program services in Oyo State, approval of family planning increased from 20% to 50% and the desire to postpone the next pregnancy beyond the period of postpartum abstinence increased from 15% to 34%. Knowledge of a modern family planning method rose from 24% to 45%. Current use of contraception rose from 1.5% to 4.5%. Despite these gains, there has been a persistence of the traditional viewpoint that regards sex as primarily for the purpose of procreation. An additional barrier is the widespread belief among husbands that if women are protected from conceiving, they will engage in extramarital relations. These strong Yoruba cultural beliefs continue to restrict acceptance of family planning and pose a challenge to health workers.
Antônio Aleixo Neto
Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a prevalência de Candida sp. e a distribuição de suas espécies na flora vaginal de mulheres numa clínica de planejamento familiar. Método: estudo transversal no qual se avaliaram prospectivamente 72 mulheres não-grávidas, com ou sem queixas específicas, sendo coletadas amostras de secreção vaginal para cultura de leveduras, efetuada a medição do pH vaginal e anotados dados de achados do exame ginecológico. Resultados: leveduras pertencentes ao gênero Candida foram encontradas em 18 casos (25%. A C. albicans foi a espécie mais prevalente (77,8% e conseqüentemente 22,2% foram não-albicans. Entre as não-albicans a espécie mais prevalente foi a C. glabrata (16,7% seguida pela C. parapsilosis (5,6%. Prurido e ardor foram os únicos sintomas relacionados significativamente com a presença de cândida. Foi observado que a C. glabrata, ao contrário da C. albicans, não causa corrimento clinicamente verificável ao exame ginecológico. Não foram verificadas associações de alguns fatores predisponentes (idade, escolaridade e uso de contraceptivos com a presença ou não de cândida. Conclusões: nossos resultados sugerem: a uma alta prevalência de Candida sp. entre as mulheres (25%; b que as espécies não-albicans desempenham um papel importante no meio vaginal; c que prurido e ardor são os sintomas mais comuns na presença de cândida e d que a C. glabrata não costuma causar corrimento vaginal ao exame ginecológico. Finalmente, é importante observar que nossos resultados são consistentes com o que a literatura internacional tem mostrado nos últimos anos.SUMMARY Purpose: to estimate the prevalence of Candida sp. and the distribution of its species in the vagina of women attended at a family planning Service. Methods: a cross-sectional study evaluating prospectively 72 nonpregnant women, with or without specific complaints. Samples were checked for the presence of yeast and vaginal pH. Data obtained
The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has been a leader in international family planning for almost 30 years, accounting for 46% of all funds in international family planning provided by OECD countries during 1991. Moreover, relative to other donor countries, the US supplies worldwide a disproportionate amount of contraceptives. While international family planning activities received $546 million in 1995, the budget was slashed in 1996 to $72 million. This unprecedented cut will have a profound effect upon the reproductive health and family planning choices of tens of millions of people in developing countries. Millions of additional unintended pregnancies and maternal and child deaths may result. 1996 began with the White House and Congress in political gridlock, with negotiations on foreign aid stalled on the issue of abortion. The Republican-led House of Representatives wanted to bar support of any nongovernmental organization (NGO) which also provided information on abortion, while Democratic President Bill Clinton affirmed that he would veto such legislation. At the end of January, the House passed the Balanced Budget and Down Payment Act (HR 2880) containing clauses which cut the aid budget by 35% and barring new money in the area of family planning until July 1. Spending was limited to the allocation of 6.5% of the total budget each month. Some social marketing programmers who distribute condoms and oral contraceptives are already feeling the pinch, and some programs will simply run out of contraceptives. This cut in funding also bodes ill for achieving the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. There is, however, hope that the cuts will be reversed for the next fiscal year. The author notes survey findings which indicate that US citizens support higher budgets for family planning.
Dr. Jean Infield, a family planning expert from England, was invited to conduct a series of refresher lectures to the medical personnel of the Association. The 4-session refresher course was held in the mornings of February 26 to March 1 for 47 doctors, advisers and nurses. The topics were on the choice of contraceptive, postcoital contraception, overview of hormonal contraception, myths and fallacies of oral contraceptives, intrauterine contraception, contraception for the older women and barrier methods. Participants agreed that the lectures were informative and useful to their work in family planning. full text
The switch in emphasis in population policies from family planning to the development of socioeconomic policies that would encourage smaller families--summed up in the word "developmentalism"--is charted from a 1967 paper by Kinsley Davis to its culmination at the 1974 World Population Conference, when even as staunch a supporter of family planning as John D. Rockefeller came out in support of placing population policy in the context of economic and social development. The real question is, however: To what extent does developmentalism represent a true shift in policy and how much is simply a more sophisticated rhetoric designed to deflect the growing opposition to population control? On the one hand, the endorsement by a man of Rockefeller's stature indicates a significant change. On the other, the changes which the implementation of developmentalism would entail seem irreconcilable with the present political and economic structures of underdeveloped nations and of relations between them and the more developed countries. Further, developmentalism is neither as progressive as its advocates suggest, nor as threatening as its opponents cry. It is, in fact, a prescription for enhancing the effectiveness of family planning through a form of social engineering from the top; its details--more aid, investment, and trade--would involve an expanded Western role in the Third World. It is even suggested that developmentalism might be a cover for the creation of a more stratified society, where marginal members are restricted to their own quarters in an effort to secure political stability and economic growth. In the end, developmentalism might be shortlived, as pressure to step up birth control programs is felt from many quarters.
1965 the Rhodesia Family Planning Association (FPA) was formed and 1966 contraceptives were distributed ... function is to educate, motivate and screen clients for oral contraceptives. The distributors role is to ... The Zimbabwe Reproductive Health Survey in 1984 showed that 2 out of 3 ever-in-union women had ever ...
Sirey, A R
In some isolated family planning services innovative uses of new professional manpower are being demonstrated. With specialized training, the paramedical personnel are performing full gynecological screening examinations under the supervision of physicians, serving as clinic administrators, and providing counseling and educative services. Currently not enough funds are being allocated to manpower development. In 1973 only 3% of federal funds for family planning services were earmarked for this endeavor. There also is an unwillingness of a large percentage of medical and health professionals to accept the potential roles of the new professionals as well as to come to grips with the concept of "consumer participation". This consumer involvement is necessary in developing a system that is responsive to the patient's needs. Training periods vary for the new professionals from a few weeks to 3 years to prepare Physicians' Assistants. In a 20 week course individuals have been trained to recognize and differentiate normal and abnormal breast and pelvic findings and to provide family planning and cancer screening services including full pelvic exams and insertion of the IUD. Over 100 new professionals who function as in-hospital family planning counselors and community education technicians in a New York City program were trained through the laboratory method approach. The key to the performance of the new professionals in the clinic is proper supervision and good communication between them and the traditionally trained professionals. Some of the dead-end restrictions which characterize so many of the new positions can be removed if efforts are made within each program to provide in-service training or released time for employees to attend seminars, workshops, of courses at suitable institutions to foster growth and mobility.
Background: Nigeria's maternal and perinatal health status is still among the poorest in the world, with a poor contraceptive prevalence rate and a high fertility rate. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness of family planning methods among women attending antenatal care, its uptake, and predictors of ...
Plank, S J
Family allowances designed to promote maternal and child health and welfare could be self-defeating if they stimulated otherwise unwanted births, as often assumed. That assumption, with its public health and demographic implications, needs testing. An attempt to test it was made in Chile in 1969--1970 through interviews with 945 wives receiving an allowance and 690 non-recipients. Recipients practiced contraception significantly more than did non-recipients. This was not explained by wives' educational attainment or employment, the couples' earnings, or number of living children, but was associated with a 50 per cent greater utilization of professional prenatal care by recipients during the most recent pregnancy; women with such care (regardless of allowance status) were 75 per cent more likely than others to control their fertility. Prenatal care was probably sought more by recipients in part because an additional stipend was provided as soon as pregnancy was confirmed, usually at clinics with integrated family planning. Greater family income, attributable to the allowance, probably also contributed to the recipients' better prenatal attention and to contraceptive practice. Noteworthy, too, was the finding that with the number of living children controlled, contraceptive practice was significantly greater amoung couples who had never lost a child.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This locator tool will help you find Title X family planning centers that provide high quality and cost-effective family planning and related preventive health...
A diversified pattern of family planning service delivery currently exists, one that is considerably extended through the development of a wide range of supply and distribution channels. In most areas, nongovernmental organizations have played a crucial role in the development of innovative approaches to making contraceptives widely available. In many nations the provision of contraceptives through the national health system continues to be the backbone of the family planning program. Changes in the approach to health care have helped increase the acccessibility and acceptability of family planning services. 2 factors necessitate a close link between contraceptive and health services: the need for medical skills and facilities in the provision of surgical contraceptive methods, and the importance of medical supervision in the continuing use of other methods. A widely used approach integrates contraceptive delivery with other development programs, community-based distribution (CBD) of contraceptives, and commercial retail sales. The cornerstone of CBD is extensive use of community networks and of trained community residents. An effective project requires efficient resupply and distribution mechanisms, carefully designed supervision systems, and medical back-up facilities. CBD has spread to over 40 countries, most of them in Asia and Latin America. Wider use of existing commercial retail outlets is being followed in more than 30 countries. Self-sufficiency of these projects has not been realized, and considerable subsidization continues to be required to maintain their efficiency. Efforts to increase the availability of contraceptives have been facilitated by the widening range of service providers. Nurses, midwives, traditional birth attendants, and members of the community are being trained to perform many family planning tasks in clinical and nonclinical settings. Many of these advances have been made possible by the liberalization of laws and regulations
Okour, Abdulhakeem M; Saadeh, Rami A; Zaqoul, Mona
Counselling plays a key role in enhancing reproductive services, providing contraception-related information and supporting long-term family planning for women of childbearing age. This study aimed to evaluate family planning counselling sessions in selected governmental and private clinics in northern Jordan. This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and June 2016 in Irbid, Jordan. A total of 200 women attending two private clinics affiliated with the Jordanian Association for Family Planning and Protection (JAFPP) and six governmental clinics were invited to participate in the study. Counselling sessions were attended by an independent observer and evaluated with regards to their compliance with the standard Greet, Ask, Tell, Help, Explain, Return (GATHER) framework. A total of 198 women participated in the study (response rate: 99.0%), including 80 women (40.4%) from JAFPP clinics and 118 (59.6%) from governmental clinics. In total, 42.9% of the counselling sessions were deemed adequate, with providers applying 80% or more of the GATHER framework, while 26.8% of the sessions were deemed semi-adequate and 30.3% were considered inadequate. Counselling services provided in the governmental clinics were significantly less adequate than those provided in JAFPP clinics ( P counselling services in governmental family planning centres in Jordan needs to be improved to ensure that women receive the highest possible level of care. Healthcare policymakers should therefore focus on developing and supporting effective family planning counselling services in northern Jordan.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Strategic Planning... attend the meeting of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) Strategic Planning Committee (SPC), as noted...
As a result of a study conducted by the Family Planning Association in Guatemala, it was learned that a favorable climate exists for an integrated orientation program which includes family planning. Consequently, the Association developed a 5-year program of health education, family life education, social organization and advancement, training, and family planning. The program's objectives are: 1) to promote the well-being of the rural family, encouraging the exercise of the duty and the right of responsible and conscious procreation; 2) to continue to uphold the family in rural areas as the basis for society; and 3) to contribute to the reduction of health risks, induced abortion, infant mortality, malnutrition, poverty, and ignorance. There are program projects that focus on economic development, health education, family life, social organizations, and other aspects within the socioecnomic realms. Courses on family planning, responsible parenthood, and family life were also offered. Additionally, family planning services are provided on a voluntary basis under the medical supervision of the family orientation unit in the township of Tactic. A study conducted to evaluate the health, social, and economic situation in Tactic revealed: 82 persons stated that family planning was good, 54 individuals claimed to know how to prevent pregnancies, and 51 claimed ignorance of family planning. Additionally, a majority of the people interviewed reported a desire to have small families. Parents have expressed an interest in sex education, and 47 of those interviewed indicated that they would teach their children about birth control.
This article presents the result of a study conducted by Miriam N. Jato on the impact of multimedia family planning communication campaigns on contraceptive use. The study was conducted in Tanzania, where a government program integrated family planning into maternal and child health care services in 1988, while in 1992 a private-sector condom-marketing program begun and a national population policy for wider distribution of family planning information was adopted by the government. In less than 3 years, contraceptive use was found to have doubled to a level of 11.3% and the total fertility rate declined from an average of 6.3 to 5.8 live births. The result of the study indicates that exposure to media sources of family planning messages was directly associated with increased contraceptive use. Moreover, the use of modern methods increased among women who were exposed to a greater number of media sources, as did discussion of family planning with spouses and attendance of health facilities. The programmatic implications of the results confirm that utilization of multiple media channels in the promotion of family planning and other reproductive issues must be continued, with emphasis on media sources that reach large audiences.
Two-thirds (67.4%) of the respondents had adequate level of knowledge on family planning services (FPS) and the most popular source of information was the radio (65.8 %). Being in a lower class (χ² =8.6; P<0.02) and attending co education schools (χ² =12.9; P< 0.001) were predictors of inadequate level of knowledge on ...
This review of natural family planning (NFP) focuses on the following: components of the fertile phase; sympto-thermal methods; the history and methodology of NFP (calendar rhythm, basal body temperature, cervical mucus--the Billings Ovulation method); special circumstances--periods of erratic ovulation (puberty, lactation, premenopause, discontinuation of ovulation suppression, cervicitis and vaginitis, ovulation suppression by stress and pharmaceuticals); effectiveness of natural family planning; achieving pregnancy; achieving couple autonomy (confidence in the method, periodic abstinence, dynamics of the learning process, and support systems); problem areas; and delivery systems. The number of users of NFP methods increased from 2.8% of currently married couples in 1973 to 3.4% in 1976. In 1979, 75,000 new clients received training in contemporary NFP, while the number increased to over 100,000 in 1980. NFP is planning for achieving or preventing a pregnancy by the timing of intercourse. A couple can, by observing and recording certain natural symptoms and bodily changes that occur in a woman's menstrual cycle and using the information as a guide, learn to identify fertile and infertile phases in the menstrual cycle. Precise prediction of ovulation forms one of the components of delineation of the fertile phase. Billings pioneered the use of cervical mucus as a single parameter for the prediction of ovulation and its application to NFP. Women are instructed to observe their mucus patterns at the vulva, relying primarily on the sensation of wetness and lubrication, the use of the Kegel exercise, palpation with the finger, a "wipe-through" with toilet paper, or a combination of these observations. In the absence of ovulation, the usual changing mucus pattern is also absent. NFP can be used either to achieve or to avoid pregnancy. When NFP is used to avoid pregnancy, one will encounter method-related pregnancies, teaching-related pregnancies due either to poor
Arokiasamy, J T
A study was conducted at the Army Garrison Hospital at Port Dickson in Peninsular Malaysia to determine the attitudes of 110 married men towards family planning. The sample included 80 Malays and 30 Indians who are army personnel attending the hospital either for medical treatment or a check-up. The study instrument was a pre-tested questionnarie administered by 2 male nurses during the November-December 1975 period. 76 of the respondents were between the ages of 20-34 years. 81 of the respondents had been married for a duration of up to 11 years. A breakdown by religion showed that 80 were Muslims, 25 were Hindus, and 5 were Christians, the latter being all Roman Catholics. All of the respondents were able to read and write in at least 1 language, 36 had had schooling varying from standard 1-6, 40 had had schooling varying between Form 1-Form 3, and 34 had had schooling varying from Form 4-to either Malaysian Certificate of Education Level or Higher School Certificate Level. 103 of the respondents approved of family planning, and of these 63 had always felt this way in the past. 6 respondents indicated that they had not thought about family planning in the past. 87 respondents did not approve of the practice of family planning before having the 1st child. Only 7 of 80 Malays in contrast to 16 of 30 Indian respondents -- a significant difference -- approved of family planning before the 1st child. 89 of the 110 respondents had discussed family planning with their wives; 21 respondents had not. 93 respondents disapproved of induced abortion; 17 approved of it. Only 3 of 80 Malay respondents approved induced abortion, but 14 of 30 Indian respondents indicated approval. 98 of the respondents indicated that they were interested in learning more about family planning, and 96 approved of their wife practicing family planning. 56 respondents were practicing family planning, and 20 indicated that they would do so in the future. 6 said they would not practice family
Gil-Rivas, Virginia; Kilmer, Ryan P; Larson, Jacqueline C; Armstrong, Laura Marie
Subsequent to the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, the experiences of military service members (MSVMs) and veterans have garnered increasing attention. A growing body of work has begun to shed light on their reintegration, a process that can bring with it transitions and challenges for service members and their families. Although many families adapt effectively, some have difficulty navigating this process, which can lead to a host of short- and long-term negative consequences for families. The literature to date is not well-developed regarding strategies for supporting successful reintegration of MSVMs and veterans in the context of military families. Guided by the ecological framework, this article summarizes selected evidence regarding factors that influence reintegration and puts forth recommendations for research and practice to promote the wellness of military families. Informed by findings regarding the diverse challenges faced by these families and grounded in the ecological framework, the authors highlight the need to assess both proximal and distal factors related to families' reintegration experiences and the need to intervene at multiple levels and across multiple contexts. Of primary importance, the authors recommend strategies to enhance the capacity of families' natural settings and describe selected capacity- and resource- enhancement approaches for families, neighborhoods, schools, and communities that facilitate resilience and promote wellness. Other recommendations include focusing on the accessibility, integration, and coordination of services; considering the long-view and developing strategies for longer-term support; developing mechanisms for family support; and evaluating efforts to address needs of families and promote family resilience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Parejo Maestre, N; Lendínez-de la Cruz, J M; Bermúdez-Torres, F M; Gónzalez-Contero, L; Gutierrez-Espinosa de Los Monteros, M P; Espejo-Almazán María, T
The use of health services has seen a steep rise. The frequent users are responsible for significant economic, human and social impact. The objective is to analyze the characteristics of frequent attenders in our Health Center, in order to evaluate the possibility of taking corrective measures to improve the quality of care and efficiency in the use of resources. Descriptive observational study of a sample of 379 patients over 18 years old. The dependent variables were attendance (number of visits to their family doctor during the previous year), frequent attendance (10 or more visits to the family doctor in the last year), and persistent frequent attenders (10 or more visits to the family doctor in each of the last two years). Data were collected from medical records and by telephone interview. The mean attendance was 6.83 (95%CI: 6.13-7.53), frequent attendance reached 25.4% (95%CI: 21.4-29.6), and persistent frequent attenders, 1.6% (95%CI: 0.5-2.9). Frequent attendance was associated with sex, age, marital status, educational level, family structure, existence of chronic disease, use of anxiolytic and antidepressants, request for additional tests, and referrals to other specialists, proximity to the health center, and level of satisfaction with their family doctor. The low persistent frequent attenders found suggests that frequent attendance could be largely due to factors related to professional and organization. Studies are required to address the high level of consumption of psychotropic drugs, and improving professional skills in dealing with mental problems. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
... responsibilities in terms of care resources and relatives' experiences with regard to patients' behavioral changes. Nurse managers should to facilitate participative workshops and establish of family support groups. Keywords: Experiences, diagnosed with AIDS, antiretroviral therapy clinic, relatives of infected family ...
Haddock, S A; Zimmerman, T S; MacPhee, D
In the past two decades, feminist scholars have challenged the field of family therapy to incorporate the organizing principle of gender in its theory, practice, and training. In this paper, we introduce a training, research, and therapeutic tool that provides guidance for addressing or observing gender and power differentials in the practice of family therapy. As a training tool, the Power Equity Guide helps trainees to translate their theoretical understanding of feminist principles into specific behaviors in therapy. Researchers and supervisors can use the Power Equity Guide to evaluate the practice of gender-informed family therapy. We also provide specific suggestions for its use by trainers, supervisors, therapists, and researchers.
AJRH Managing Editor
Family planning utilization in Tanzania is low. This study was cross sectional. It examined family planning use and socio demographic variables, social networks, knowledge and communication among the couples, whereby a stratified sample of 440 women of reproductive age (18-49), married or cohabiting was studied in ...
Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.
This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…
Meltem Demirgöz Bal; Semiha Aydın Özkan
Background: The objective of this study is to investigate the myths of women about contraceptive methods.Method: This study was planned as a cross-sectional research. The study population consisted of 1335 women aged between 16 and 56 years, who attended to a family planning clinic of a state hospital in Karaman City in the southwest part of Turkey.Findings: The mean age of women has been 32,79±8,8. While 6.2% (n=84) of the women used no contraceptive method, 70.4% (n=945) of them used an eff...
The Jamaica Family Planning Association started holding presentations and discussions in the workplace in January 1986, now reaching 8000 people in 32 companies. The firms are primarily manufacturers (21) and hotels(7), but also include publishing, construction, printing and supermarket businessess. In these companies as well as many of the 480 members of the Jamaica Chamber of Commerce, employees are usually women of reproductive age who cannot afford to take time off to attend a clinic. There is a great demand for information and discussion on sexually transmitted diseases and clarification of the contraindications of various contraceptive methods. At the end of the discussions, educators offer pills, condoms and neo-sampoon, and may refer people for clinical services. Almost new acceptors have been recruited. The success of the project depends heavily on cooperation of management, supervisors and union representatives. In some cases union representives or company nurses act as distributors of contraceptives. This project has been so successful that some companies expressed an interest in participating in the Associations's resource development program.
Hardy, James M.
A document intended to provide program planning guidelines for Young Men's Christian Associations (YMCAs) desirous of working with families, recommends adherence to eight principles and following of five steps. The principles involve planning before action, fact finding and analysis, clear delineation of operational objectives, planning at all…
Ansari, Arya; Winsler, Adam
Latino children often struggle in school. Early childhood education programmes are seen as critical for fostering children's school readiness. Latino families often choose family childcare (FCC) over centre-based childcare (CBC), yet little is known about the school readiness of Latino children attending FCC. We compared school readiness over the…
Creusa Ferreira da Silva
Full Text Available Objectives: To identify educational practices in family planning, facilitating factors, difficulties and resulting impacts. Method: This is an integrative literature review, using the three descriptors: "family planning", "health education" and "contraception"; In the databases of the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS and Nursing Database (BDENF, were searched in January and February 2016. Results: Regarding the accomplishment of educational practices, most of the studies pointed out its accomplishment. The difficulties and facilitators aspects were related to the management of the health service, professional competence and users. Guarantee of family rights and autonomy were the impacts pointed out. Conclusion: The study showed that educational practices in family planning are tools to be encouraged as a guarantee and respect for sexual and reproductive rights. Descriptors: family planning; education in health; contraception.
Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede
, Denmark (600,000 inhabitants). The study only included attenders ages 18 and over. FAs were defined as the group that, within each calendar year (12 months), had 4 or more contacts with the after-hours family practice service. RESULTS: FAs made up 9.5% of the attenders and accounted for more than 40...... of the overall reduction in use of services could be ascribed to changes in FA behavior. CONCLUSIONS: The reorganization of the after-hours service produced a significant fall in attendance and costs, especially with respect to adult FAs....
Vedsted, Peter; Fink, Per; Olesen, Frede
In cross-sectional studies, psychological distress has been associated with frequent health care utilization. However, there is a need for prospective studies to confirm these findings. This cohort study evaluated whether psychological distress predicted frequent attendance in family practice....... In 1990, 185 consecutive adults who consulted their primary care physician (PCP) about an illness were rated on two psychometric scales (Hopkins Symptom Check List [SCL-8] and Whiteley-7), and their annual number of face-to-face contacts with a family practice was followed until 1996. Frequent attenders.......16 [0.99-1.36] for SCL and OR 1.31 [1.05-1.65] for Whiteley). Psychological distress involved an increased risk of future frequent attendance among adult patients consulting family practice in the daytime about an illness....
Caldwell, John C; Caldwell, Pat
Sub-Saharan Africa will be the family planning frontier of the twenty-first century. Fertility levels and population growth rates are still high, and family planning programs suited to the region are still being developed. Nevertheless, by the end of the twentieth century, fertility transition was under way in Southern Africa and a few countries elsewhere. Successful regional family planning in the twenty-first century will depend upon stronger political leadership, the development of family planning programs that meet the needs of all segments of society and not only currently married women, assistance to the market, and a recognition of the central importance of hormonal methods, especially injectables. Problems include stagnation in economic growth and in child mortality decline, as well as the persistence of the AIDS epidemic.
Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld
dependent on the specific assembly structure of the configured product, i.e. the combination of modules. In this paper, issues of how to create manufacturing structures and related planning data in product family models are presented. Primarily, the more complicated multi-level manufacturing structures......To enable product configuration of a product family, it is important to develop a model of the selected product family. From such a model, an often performed practice is to make a product configurator from which customers can specify individual products from the family. To get further utilisation...... of the product family model, however, the model should be enriched with data for planning and execution of the manufacturing processes. The idea is that, when any individual product is specified using the product configurator, a product model can be extracted with all data necessary for planning...
Schuler, S R; McIntosh, E N; Goldstein, M C; Pande, B R
To investigate why family planning (FP) services in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal are underused, a study was initiated under the auspices of the Nepal Family Planning/Maternal--Child Health Project. The study was intended to provide a user perspective, by examining interactions between FP clinic staff and their clientele. "Simulated" clients were sent to 16 FP clinics in Kathmandu to request information and advice. The study revealed that in the impersonal setting of a family planning clinic, clients and staff fall into traditional, hierarchical modes of interaction. In the process, the client's "modern" goal of limiting her family size is subverted by the service system that was created to support this goal. Particularly when status differences are greatest, that is, with lower-class and low caste clients, transmission of information is inhibited.
3 social aspects of family planning are discussed: cultural heritage, relations between pathology and parity and the problem of unwanted children. The family as an institution enabled mankind to face successfully the adverse conditions to which it was subjected for thousand of years. Now the role of the family is changing, but this raises the problem of whether to accept a new way of life or follow traditions. No uniform solution is applicable to all places or to all s ocial strata within each country. It is necessary to limit the number of unwanted children that cannot be properly raised, but most women can only resort to abortion, which is unlawful and dangerous. Education in family planning must begin in primary school and promoted among parents. It is necessary to explain that the tradition of early marriage must be stopped, and parents must wait until they are able to p lan their family responsibly and to support and educate their children.
Slocker De Arce, C
The motivations which led to creation of a family planning specialty within social medicine are discussed and currently available contraceptive methods are reviewed. Among considerations which lead to family planning are the universal worry about uncontrolled population growth and limited resources, especially in the 3rd World: the earth's population is expected to reach 6.5 billion in the year 2000, but already 2.2 billion persons lack adequate resources. Health education and family planning are needed to promote safe conditions for pregnancy and to avoid pregnancy in cases of genetic deficiency. Family planning is a purely medical problem when the woman has a medical problem that would be life threatening to her or her child in case of pregnancy. Illnesses that may be aggravated by pregnancy include cardiopathy, diabetes, nephropathies, thyroid disease, and tuberculosis. Family planning involves provision of information and counseling for patients suffering such disorders as well as for patients who are infertile. Among psychosocial indications for family planning are 2 major problems of modern society: the quality of life and abortion. Family planning has given women the possibility of becoming sexual companions, but the fact that they and not men must submit themselves to contraceptive methods is a negative psychological factor for the stability of the couple. A great change has occurred in Spanish society, in that marriage used to be the only legitimate context for sexual activity and, for Catholics, the only legitimate sexual activity was that oriented toward procreation. Promiscuity, pornography, and sexual liberties and abuses promote undesired pregnancies and abortions. In addition, premarital and extramarital sexual relations have become more frequent. Some 300,000 abortions occur annually in Spain, but abortion can never be a valued family planning method because of its associated morbidity and mortality, and high costs of hospitalization in cases of
There are signs in Nigeria that the family planning message is making powerful headway in the markets and the streets. In 1981 the majority of Nigeria's traditional leaders were wary of family planning, and the media largely ignored the topic. By 1984 Nigerian newspapers had highlighted the country's unchecked population growth, and in 1986 most Nigeria's 19 states have family planning programs. The Futures Group of Washington's 1985 report assessed the effects of population growth on Nigeria's social and economic development. This report, part of the Resources for the Awareness of Population Impact on Development series, projected the impact of restrained and unrestrained population growth on such areas as food production, fuel wood resources, petroleum, education, health, urban growth, and housing. The report drew criticism for being overly pessimistic, yet it had a positve effect on the spread of family planning activities. UN estimates project that at the present growth rate of 3.2% a year, Nigeria's population will double in 22 years to 186 million. A recently developed program of family planning initiatives already is in place in several states with technical assistance and funding from the Population Communication Services of John Hopkins University. Pictorial booklets on oral contraceptives (OCs), IUDs, and condoms now are available in Nigeria's 4 major languages. Demand for these booklets among Ministry of Health clinic personnel already has exceeded the limited supplies. While the Nigerian media have highlighted unchecked population growth since 1984 news papers have been more generous in their coverage than radio and television.
Hamburg, M V
In China, raising the age at marriage is an integral part of the family planning program. The new marriage law sets the minimum age at 22 for men and 20 for women. Marriage is a universal practice, and an unmarried person over 28 is a rarity. For economic purposes, the Central Committee of the People's Republic adopted the 1-child family policy in 1980. Childlessness is not encouraged. An extensive organizational network at the national, provincial, and local governmental levels conducts the family planning program. The media is widely used to publicize the message. Billboards, posters, state-run television, and other media tools regularly promote the virtues of the 1-child family, regardless of the sex of the child. Premarital sex is rare, and sex education, if any, is limited to adults--those about to be married. In Shanghai, physiology education in the middle school does include sex education and reproduction. All hospitals have family planning offices, and services include excellent maternal/child health care and family planning counseling. Family planning services are also found in the workplace. Permission must be obtained from the Production Brigade to marry and to have a child. Inspite of this, the family planning program is not viewed as coercive. When certain segments of the working population want to have more children than have been allocated, adjustments (e.g., delays in marriage or in pregnancy) are made. A unique feature of the program is its use of reward and punishment which varies from province to province, and between rural and urban populations. Economic incentives (monetary subsidies, free education for the children, housing priorities, and pension benefits) are given to those who have 1 child and withheld from those who have 2 children. In some areas, additional economic penalties (payment to state) are required from families with 2 children. Another unique feature is the trend toward later marriage, with 25 or 26 becoming the norm. It appears
El-ansary, A I; Kramer Oe, J
The authors explore social marketing applications in the Louisiana model of statewide program for family planning. The marketing concept has 4 major elements: 1) consumer orientation; 2) social process; 3) integrated effort; 4) profitable operation. Success of program and continued growth are the results of defining services needed by consumer; determining market target; taking services to customer; and emphasizing concept of selling family planning rather than giving free birth control method. Another important facet is the recognition of many participants--community agencies, the church, the American Medical Association, funding sources, and hospitals. This project used anyaltical marketing tools and defined services as human services rather than the narrow family planning services. It also extended activities to multinational environment and adapted the product offering to meet these needs.
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For recipients eligible under the plan for family planning services, the plan must provide that each recipient is free from coercion or mental pressure and...
Two reproductive health advocacy networks have been established in two districts in eastern Africa to help promote family planning and reproductive health among the people in this area. The districts are the Suhum-Kraboa-Coaltar and the New Juaben Municipality. To enhance the performance of the network, a 4-day workshop was held at Koforidua for the members to prepare an action plan for their advocacy and map out areas of collaboration between the public and the private sector group. The workshop, organized by the Futures Group International based in the US with support from the USAID, was attended by 30 participants from nongovernmental organizations and public offices. In an address, Ms. Patience Adow, the Regional Minister observed that through the idea of family planning has been promoted in the country over the past two decades, the country continues to experience a population growth rate of about 2.8%. She expressed the hope that the workshop will equip the participants with the relevant skills to develop and implement their advocacy strategy effectively. Dr. J. E. Taylor, Medical Administrator of the Koforidua Central Hospital, who chaired the function in a bid to improve the health of women and the quality of life of the people. The Ministry of Health as part of its medium term strategic plan has developed the national reproductive health and service policy.
AJRH Managing Editor
Specifically, respondents were asked about availability of various kinds of family planning that included; combined oral pill, progestin-only pill, counseling on natural methods, male condom, female condom, intrauterine device, implant (6 rod, 1 rod,. Norplant, Implanon), spermicides, diaphragm, emergency contraceptive pill ...
for instance, Robey and colleaguesº asserted that strong commitment to the family planning pro- gramme by the government and donor organisa- tions, through efforts in changing attitudes towards contraception and provision of contraceptives, led to an increase in contraceptive use and fertility de- cline. Nigeria, as a result ...
three main themes across the studies: 1) individual factors behind contraceptive demand, 2) programmatic factors ... highlight three themes: 1) family planning and the. Millennium Development Goals, 2) evidence-based .... margin for improvement in service delivery, individual learning, and the research enterprise. In terms ...
Everton Faccini Augusto; Larissa Silva dos Santos; Ledy do Horto dos Santos Oliveira
OBJECTIVES: to survey the prevalence of human papillomavirus, associated risk factors and genotype distribution in women who were referred to cervical cancer screening when attended in a Family Health Program. METHOD: we conducted a cross-sectional survey, investigating 351 women. Polymerase chain reaction for DNA amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis were used to detect and typify the papillomavirus. RESULTS: virus infection was detected in 8.8% of the ...
Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from
Eddosary, Melfy; Ko, Yong Jae; Sagas, Michael; Kim, Hee Youn
The purpose of this study was to identify important factors of consumers' intention to attend professional soccer events among Saudi Arabian soccer fans. To explore the decision-making process of this relatively understudied population, the theory of planned behavior was used as theoretical background. Particularly, this study measured the effect of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control (time and money), and game importance on intention to attend, and examined the moderating role of commitment. Structural equation modeling (SEM) using 231 Saudi university students (M = 21.9 yr., SD = 1.21) indicate that attitude and game importance were significantly related to attendance intention. The effect of subjective norms was significant only for the low commitment group and game importance was more important for the low than the high commitment group.
Garcia-Huidobro, Diego; Allen, Michele; Rosas-Lee, Maira; Maldonado, Francisco; Gutierrez, Lois; Svetaz, Maria Veronica; Wieling, Elizabeth
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) can help increase the attendance in community programs. Padres Informados, Jovenes Preparados (PIJP) is a program that aims to prevent tobacco and other substance use among Latino youth by promoting positive parenting. Although the trial used CBPR approaches, attendance was inconsistent. In the present study, factors associated with attendance and nonattendance and recommendations to maximize participation were explored in 12 brief feedback discussions (BFDs) with participants and in 10 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with facilitators who delivered PIJP. Content analysis guided two pairs of researchers, who independently coded emerging themes and categories (κ = .86 for BFDs and .73 for IDIs). Data from BFDs and IDIs were merged and interpreted together. We grouped factors that positively affected participation into three categories: individual and family (e.g., motivation), program (e.g., offering food and childcare and having facilitators who are trusted), and research (e.g., having incentives). Barriers to participation were grouped into four categories: individual and family (e.g., family conflicts), sociocultural (e.g., community and cultural beliefs), program (e.g., fixed schedules), and research (e.g., recruitment procedures). Participants provided recommendations to address all types of barriers. Although PIJP used CBPR, complete satisfaction of community needs is difficult. Effective community programs must address participants' needs and preferences. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
The two-day Family Health and Family Planning in Islam Conference was held in Ankara, Turkey, during November 1995 to charge family planning promotion in countries and regions of Islamic culture by discussing all matters related to family planning based upon the authentic and authoritative interpretation of family planning in Islam. In his speech before 300 religious and family planning leaders of countries and regions under Islamic culture and religion, Dr. Mohammed S. Tantawi, the Grand Mufti of Egypt, stressed that Islam is a religion supportive of family planning. Tantawi stressed the lack of a contradiction between family planning and Muslims' faith and belief in destiny. His timely message was welcomed by all conference attendants because of its clear endorsement of family planning. Religious support has been very important in promoting family planning in Islamic countries and regions.
Bonnaire, Céline; Phan, Olivier
While recent data suggest a high prevalence of adolescent with Internet gaming disorder, little is known about interpersonal factors that contributes or protect to this disorder. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the relationships between parental attitudes, adolescent perception of family functioning and Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and explore gender differences. From a sample of 434 adolescents attending school (n =434; age 13.2 years), 383 non-problematic gamers (NPG, 196 males; 187 females) were compared with 37 problematic gamers (PG, 29 males; 8 females). Family functioning was assessed with the Family Relationship Index and parental attitudes with a questionnaire measuring rules, access to video games, monitoring and banning of video games. NPG have a better family cohesion while PG have more family conflict and a poorer family relationship. While rules about gaming use are important in males, for females, banning is associated with IGD. For both sex, parental monitoring, conflicts and family relationship are associated with IGD. These findings highlight the strong influence of parental attitudes and family functioning on the occurrence of IGD in adolescents and their gender specificities. Thus, prevention programs need to take into account the importance of parents, parenting and gender specificities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bator, Eli X; Gleason, Joseph M; Lorenzo, Armando J; Kanaroglou, Niki; Farhat, Walid A; Bägli, Darius J; Koyle, Martin A
Indirect expenses for accessing health care may place significant fiscal strain on Canadian families. Telemedicine alternatives, using email, telephone, and video conferencing, can mitigate such financial burdens by reducing travel and related costs. Our objectives were to assess costs that families incur visiting an outpatient pediatric surgical clinic, and family attitudes toward telemedicine alternatives. A survey was offered pre-consult to all families who attended pediatric urology and general surgery outpatient clinics over a three-month period. A total of 1032 of 1574 families screened participated (66.0%). Less than half (18.5%) of participants traveled over 200 km, and 32.9% spent over 4 hours in transit, round-trip. The proportion of participants who spent over $50 on travel and ancillary expenses was 33.0%. In 74.0% of families, 1 or more adults missed work. The proportion of families who perceived costs as somewhat high or high was 29.1%. Perceived cost was positively correlated to distance traveled, money spent, and missed work (ptraveled (p<0.01) were only weakly associated with greater willingness to substitute a clinic visit with video conferencing. Many families face high costs related to routine outpatient clinical visits, and there is a substantial willingness by them to access telemedicine alternatives, rather than the traditional face-to-face clinical visit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cho, H; Shreshtha, P; Mawlong, M; Pestano, R; Wichiensharoen, K; Mobarez, N
Prominent women from Korea, Nepal, India, Philippines, Thailand, and Afghanistan discuss family planning attitudes in broad terms. Educated women in urban areas make decisions regarding birth control and family size, but the tradition in most developing countries is that of the man in the authority role. Family planning is intrinsically a joint decision. Obligations to family and family lineage prohibit family planning. In the Philippines, Catholicism is the dominant religion and because of population density, encourages family planning. For economic and social reasons, rural families prefer more children. The changing role of women to include jobs and education will have a positive effect on family planning. The representative from Nepal points out that it is necessary to have family planning in order to have changing women's roles. Rather than emphasizing smaller family size, it is recommended by concensus, that family planners communicate health and nutritional benefits for each individual child.
Wunderink, S R
This study examines economic models of household choice and the role of economic factors in determining the timing of births. A static economic model is presented and tested with data from the Netherlands. After the availability of contraceptives, the family size variable shifted from being an exogenous to an endogenous one, because births could be regulated. Costs of childbearing were construed to have maintenance costs for parents and society, attendance costs of care, and intangible costs such as anxiety or personal freedom. Benefits were intangible ones, such as joy and happiness; income; public benefits; and attendance benefits. Intangible benefits enlarged the utility of children, but maintenance costs diminished resources available for consumption. Child quality was a product of market goods purchased by parents and others and household labor. Household time allocation varied with child's age. Private responsibility for children varied by country. Quality of child care varied between countries and over time. Quality was dependent upon economies of scale, variable costs by the age of the child, variable time commitments by age of the child, and market substitutes for private child care. Higher income families spent more money but less time on children. It is pointed out that Becker's model explained number of children, but not timing of births. Postponement of birth was unlikely for those with a limited education, an unpleasant job, and low wages. When the advantages and disadvantages of having a baby were positive, spouses or single women with a high subjective preference were expected to bear a child as soon as possible. Government policy can affect the average family size by increasing or decreasing the financial and/or time burden of children. Postponement may be chosen based on long term analysis of a couple's future, the formation and use of capital, and/or high subjective time preference. Before and after first birth are different frames of reference
Little, P; Somerville, J; Williamson, I; Warner, G; Moore, M; Wiles, R; George, S; Smith, A; Peveler, R
higher attenders were more likely to be depressed (HAD depression scale = 0-7, 8-10, 11+ respectively; adjusted ORs (95% CIs) = 1, 2.04 (1.27-3.27), 1.60 (0.75-3.42)) or anxious (anxiety scale 0-7, 8-10, 11+, respectively; adjusted ORs [95% CIs] = 1, 1.60 [0.99-2.58], 1.97 [1.20-3.26]). Important parental factors are council house tenancy, the parents' perception of and willingness to tolerate, somatic symptoms in the child, and the parents' own attendance history, health anxiety, and perception of somatic symptoms Doctors should be sensitive to the parental and family factors that underlie the decision to consult and of the needs of parents of high-attending children.
Rodriguez, Erin M; Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin; Wilson, Helen W; Brown, Larry K; Houck, Christopher
This study examined associations among family environment, coping, and emotional and conduct problems in adolescents attending therapeutic day schools due to mental health problems. Adolescents (N = 417; 30.2% female) ages 13-20 (M = 15.25) reported on their family environment (affective involvement and functioning), coping (emotion-focused support-seeking, cognitive restructuring, avoidant actions), and emotional and conduct problems. Poorer family environment was associated with less emotion-focused support-seeking and cognitive restructuring, and more emotional and conduct problems. Emotional problems were negatively associated with cognitive restructuring, and conduct problems were negatively associated with all coping strategies. Cognitive restructuring accounted for the relationship between family environment and emotional problems. Cognitive restructuring and emotion-focused support-seeking each partially accounted for the relationship between family functioning and conduct problems, but not the relationship between family affective involvement and conduct problems. Findings implicate the role of coping in the relationship between family environment and adolescent mental health. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Stamm, Martina; Klaghofer, Richard
The study investigates in what way physicians integrate their desire to have children into their career planning. Within the framework of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates on career development of young physicians, beginning in 2001, 534 participants (285 women, 249 men) were assessed in January 2007, in terms of having children, planning to have children, the career aspired to and the work-family balance used or planned. Among the study participants, 19% (54) of the women and 24% (59) of the men have children. Of the others 88% plan to start a family in the future. Female physicians with children are less advanced in their careers than women without children; for male physicians no such difference can be observed. Of the female physicians with children or the desire for children 42% aspire to work in a practice, 28% to a clinical and only 4% to an academic career. Of the male physicians with children or the desire for children one third aspire to work in a practice, one third to a clinical and 14% to an academic career. The preferred model of work repartition of female physicians with children is father full time/mother part time or both parents part time; the preferred model of male physicians is father full time/mother part time or not working. Children are an important factor in the career and life planning of physicians, female physicians paying more attention to an even work-family balance than male physicians. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, more than 90% of all pregnant women attend antenatal care at least once and approximately 62% four times or more, yet less than five in ten receive skilled delivery care at available health units. We conducted a qualitative study in Ngorongoro district, Northern Tanzania, in order to gain an understanding of the health systems and socio-cultural factors underlying this divergent pattern of high use of antenatal services and low use of skilled delivery care. Specifically, the study examined beliefs and behaviors related to antenatal, labor, delivery and postnatal care among the Maasai and Watemi ethnic groups. The perspectives of health care providers and traditional birth attendants on childbirth and the factors determining where women deliver were also investigated. Methods Twelve key informant interviews and fifteen focus group discussions were held with Maasai and Watemi women, traditional birth attendants, health care providers, and community members. Principles of the grounded theory approach were used to elicit and assess the various perspectives of each group of participants interviewed. Results The Maasai and Watemi women's preferences for a home birth and lack of planning for delivery are reinforced by the failure of health care providers to consistently communicate the importance of skilled delivery and immediate post-partum care for all women during routine antenatal visits. Husbands typically serve as gatekeepers of women's reproductive health in the two groups - including decisions about where they will deliver- yet they are rarely encouraged to attend antenatal sessions. While husbands are encouraged to participate in programs to prevent maternal-to-child transmission of HIV, messages about the importance of skilled delivery care for all women are not given emphasis. Conclusions Increasing coverage of skilled delivery care and achieving the full implementation of Tanzania's Focused Antenatal Care
Nguyen Thi Hue
The Vietnam Peasant Union encourages peasants to comply with the following criteria for the modern family: not having too many children, not being poor and starving, not having malnourished children and diseased women due to the bearing of too many children, being literate, not being superstitious, and not violating the law and State policy. 30% of the union's 7.5 million members have registered to abide by these rules. Peasants comprise almost 80% of Vietnam's total population. Although poor, peasant family incomes are increasing along with living conditions. Fertility remains too high. The Peasant Union has therefore been carrying out information, education, and communication and motivational activities among peasants so that peasants in general, and middle-aged heads of households in particular, will accept and practice family planning. For each province, the union produces teaching materials such as training packages for officers at provincial, district, and community levels, as well as a manual for field workers. The manual has two columns for respective topics: one explains a population and family planning item, while the other depicts a related agricultural activity.
-family planning users were included in a study to assess the factors that are associated with utilization of family planning services at different levels of health institutions in northwest Ethiopia. Despite for (more) children was the most common ...
Rakhshani, F; Niknami, S; Ansari Moghaddam, A R
A qualitative study in Zahedan, Islamic Republic of Iran, used focus group discussions with 120 people in 8 main groups to understand more about couple's decision-making and the role of men in family planning. The study included men and women from Sunni and Shia sects as well as theologians from both sects. Shiites, lay people and theologians, believed that both husband and wife play a major role in decision-making about family planning, while Sunnis believed that men are the main decision-makers. All participants believed that men have an important role in family planning, but also that men do not like attending family planning clinics. Religious tenets were important in couple's decision-making about using contraceptives but there were confusions over different teachings.
Wilcoxon, S. Allen
Features an examination of the ethical issues affecting decisions for serving clients when systemic intervention is indicated but critical family members resist engagement. Discussion focuses on conceptual and empirical information concerning engagement for systemic intervention as well as possible solutions to ethical dilemmas that affect…
Background: The unmet need for family planning services in Ethiopia is believed to be high (36%) while the already available services do not appear to be optimally used by potential clients. It is thus expected that an assessment and improvement of the quality of family planning services could enhance family planning ...
Background: Adoption of family planning by men or their spouses many times is influenced by men particularly in developing countries. This is despite evidence that reduction of maternal mortality and morbidity is tied to family planning use. In order to design programmes that enhance adoption of family planning methods ...
54.5%) had used a family planning method before with majority, 105(58.2%) using natural family planning method. Only 22.7% of the participants was using a family planning method at the time of the study. In majority of the women, ...
Background: Family planning improves community health and wellbeing by helping women to space and/or limit the number of children they want until they are ... to promote modern family planning utilization, partner participation, and couple counselling for join to decision making to improve modern family planning use.
Major motivating factors to the usage of family planning service were to space children, 94% (47/50) and to prevent pregnancy and sexual transmitted infections 84% (42/50). Major reasons for not accessing family planning services were opposition from husbands, 90% (207/230) and misconceptions about family planning, ...
Sources and nature of family planning information have been found to influence the use of family planning services. Unfortunately, the exact relationships between these variables and family planning utilization are not certain in Nigeria. This paper therefore searches for better understanding of the interrelationships, using ...
This study examined the knowledge level, attitude to and the practice of Family Planning among Airmen in Nigeria. It was hypothesized that knowledge of Family Planning, number of children and religion affect the use of Family planning. The study also identified socio-demographic variables and other factors associated ...
Three themes and categories emerged from the data analysis namely, commencement of family planning methods, different family planning methods in IK and bio-medicine. It was concluded that most of the community members still use IK family planning and it is of importance for health workers to address such issues ...
Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others
Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)
Cianetti, S; Lombardo, G; Lupatelli, E; Rossi, G; Abraha, I; Pagano, S; Paglia, L
The aim of this study was to verify whether socioeconomic determinants, such as parents' educational level, family income and dental service attendance by children, are associated with the presence of caries among an Italian population of children. An observational retrospective study was carried out in a population of children aged 4-14 years who visited the Paediatric Dentistry Department of the University of Perugia, Italy. Children were stratified according to familial socioeconomic level (father's and mother's educational level, family income) and dental service attendance of children. Age- and sex- adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated by means of multivariate logistic regression models. A sample of 231 children (mean age 8.1 yrs, SD 2.6; 127 males, 104 females) was recruited. One hundred and sixty three (70.46%) children in the study had caries. Caries presence in children was higher in children where the mothers' educational level was lower (OR =6.1; 95% CI = 3.1 to 12.7), in children where the fathers' educational level was lower (OR =2.9; 95% CI =1.6 to 5.5) and in children with lower family income (OR = 9.9; 95% 95% CI = 5.1 to 20.1). No statistically significant difference were observed in terms of caries presence between the children who were visited at least once by a dentist and children who were not previously seen by a dental practitioner (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.4 to 1.6). Socioeconomic level was an important predictor of caries presence among children. Both low income and low parental educational level were related to an increased presence of caries, whereas previous dental visits experience did not affect caries presence in children.
Akpom, C A; Akpom, K L; Mayer, S; Olesak, A
The validity of the fear that providing teen-age girls with family planning information and services will lead to promiscuity is examined. Changes in self-perception of the levels of sexual activity of unmarried, sexually active teen-age girls and changes in the frequency of sexual intercourse and number of sexual partners following attendance at a family planning clinic were evaluated among 71 teen-age girls. All 71 girls, aged between 13 and 18, had had sexual intercourse and were never married. 79% of the girls had had their 1st intercourse 1 or more years before their 1st attendance at a "rap" session. Only 21% had had 1st intercourse less than 1 year before attending. 61 of these girls later received contraceptive services at the clinic (clinic group) and their behavior was compared at follow-up with that of the 10 girls who did not attend the clinic again (non-clinic group). The mean frequency of sexual intercourse of the clinic group increased after receiving contraceptive services but did not differ significantly from the figure for the non-clinic group. 89% of the clinic group, after receipt of contraceptive services, restricted their sexual activity to 1 partner. This study calls into question the basis of some fears regarding the provision of family planning services to sexually active teen-age girls.
Vietnam's economy began to grow after the December 1986 implementation of Doi Moi policy, with the gross domestic product increasing by more than 5% annually since 1990. Per capita GNP has increased to US$220. In 1989, Vietnam achieved self-sufficiency in rice production and became the world's third largest exporter of rice, the infant mortality rate is 42 per 1000 live births, the average life expectancy is 65 years, and 88% of people aged 10 years and older are literate. Vietnam's economy is expected to continue to grow. However, population growth is a major constraint to Vietnam's projected steady economic and social development. The total population grew from 15.5 million in 1921 to 74 million in 1995. A high unemployment rate and urbanization are already issues. Doi Moi policy therefore gives top priority to the Population and Family Planning (PFP) Program. The overall objective of the PFP policies is to achieve small and healthy families conducive to a happy and prosperous life. Specifically, it hopes to realize each family with one or two children so that by the year 2015 the average number of children for each family will be only two. Policy aims to stabilize Vietnam's population by the year 2050.
Full Text Available Objectives: 1. To evaluate the role of Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM as a spacing method. 2. To assess knowledge attitude and practices regarding breastfeeding. 3. To bring awareness regarding importance of breastfeeding on child health and as a method of family planning so that exclusive breast feeding is promoted. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: In rural village of district Wardha. Study Universe : All the lactating mothers who had2 children (one of which was less than 3 years. Study Variables: Duration of Breast Feeding, LAM, Importance of Breast Feeding. Knowledge of Colostrum, Awareness of Breast Feeding, etc. Statistical analysis used: Percentages and proportions. Result: A total 42 families were included in the survey of which 26 (61.9% belongs to nuclear families with majority of the women 19(45.2% in the age group of 20-25 yrs, 20 (47.6% were illiterate and 18(42.8% families were of lower Socio Economic Status. A directly proportional relationship was found between duration of Breastfeeding & LAM and period of LAM & age of youngest child when the mother delivered again. Only 31% knew about the importance of breastfeeding. 16.6% of woman initiated Breast Feeding within 1/2 hr.
Everton Faccini Augusto
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to survey the prevalence of human papillomavirus, associated risk factors and genotype distribution in women who were referred to cervical cancer screening when attended in a Family Health Program. METHOD: we conducted a cross-sectional survey, investigating 351 women. Polymerase chain reaction for DNA amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis were used to detect and typify the papillomavirus. RESULTS: virus infection was detected in 8.8% of the samples. Among the 21 different genotypes identified in this study, 14 were high risk for cervical cancer, and the type 16 was the most prevalent type. The infection was associated with women who had non-stable sexual partners. Low risk types were associated with younger women, while the high risk group was linked to altered cytology. CONCLUSION: in this sample attended a Family Health Program, we found a low rate of papillomavirus infection. Virus frequency was associated to sexual behavior. However, the broad range of genotypes detected deserves attention regarding the vaccine coverage, which includes only HPV prevalent types.
Kelly, Peter J; Leung, Joanne; Deane, Frank P; Lyons, Geoffrey C B
Despite clinical recommendations that further treatment is critical for successful recovery following drug and alcohol detoxification, a large proportion of clients fail to attend treatment after detoxification. In this study, individual factors and constructs based on motivational and volitional models of health behaviour were examined as predictors of post-detoxification treatment attendance. The sample consisted of 220 substance-dependent individuals participating in short-term detoxification programs provided by The Australian Salvation Army. The Theory of Planned Behaviour and Implementation Intentions were used to predict attendance at subsequent treatment. Follow-up data were collected for 177 participants (81%), with 104 (80%) of those participants reporting that they had either attended further formal treatment (e.g. residential rehabilitation programs, outpatient counselling) or mutual support groups in the 2 weeks after leaving the detoxification program. Logistic regression examined the predictors of further treatment attendance. The full model accounted for 21% of the variance in treatment attendance, with attitude and Implementation Intentions contributing significantly to the prediction. Findings from the present study would suggest that assisting clients to develop a specific treatment plan, as well as helping clients to build positive perceptions about subsequent treatment, will promote greater attendance at further treatment following detoxification. [Kelly PJ, Leung J, Deane FP, Lyons GCB. Predicting client attendance at further treatment following drug and alcohol detoxification: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Implementation Intentions. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:678-685]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Butt, H W
In order to increase the motivation and skills of doctors at Mission hospitals throughout India in the latest methods of family planning, 10 advanced courses were given in 1971-1972. The courses represented the combined efforts of the Family Planning Association of India, which sponsored the team of experts, the Indian government, which mobilized agencies and communities to volunteer cases for sterilization, and the Christian Medical Association, which took care of the organizational details. Each course is made up of 4 parts: presentation of a brief theoretical framework; an opportunity for discussion and exchange of ideas and experience; practical demonstrations by the experts of different types of operations for male and female sterilization; and the active participation of each individual by performing operations under expert guidance. 648 doctors and technical personnel have taken advantage of the advanced courses in some way. Efforts at evaluating the effectiveness of the courses by the participants themselves have not been too successful as they often do not bother to complete the evaluation sheets. However, the views of those who did respond are presented.
Hackett, Christina; Feeny, David; Tompa, Emile
We estimate the intergenerational relationship between the residential school (RS) attendance of an older generation family member and the physical and mental health of a younger generation. Data from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) is used to examine the relationship between previous generational family RS attendance and the current physical and mental health of off-reserve First Nations, Métis and Inuit Canadians. Five outcomes are considered (self-perceived health, mental health, distress, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt). Direct (univariate) and indirect (multivariate) effects of family RS attendance are examined for each dependent variable. We draw from the general and indigenous-specific social determinants of health literature to inform the construction of our models. Familial RS attendance is shown to affect directly all five health and mental health outcomes, and is associated with lower self-perceived health and mental health, and a higher risk for distress and suicidal behaviours. Background, mediating and structural-level variables influence the strength of association. Odds of being in lower self-perceived health remain statistically significantly higher with the presence of familial attendance of RS when controlling for all covariates. The odds of having had a suicide attempt within the past 12 months remain twice as high for those with familial attendance of RS. Health disparities exist between indigenous and non-indigenous Canadians, an important source of which is a family history of RS attendance. This has implications for clinical practice and Canadian public health, as well as countries with similar historical legacies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
A family planning association was established in each village of Xiaqidu Township in Hunan Province, China in October 1986. The positive functions of each such association were so fully developed that family planning work reached new levels. For example, most villages are no longer experiencing early marriages or unplanned births. Some of the villages have established associations for individual work groups. The traditional method was for both township and village associations to rely upon the positive attitudes of officials to instill into fertile women Party policy, and to arouse their patriotism and initiative. By establishing family planning associations at the village level, however, the people can conduct their own affairs and educate themselves. Emphasis has been placed on attracting into the associations those who are of childbearing age, as well as older villagers of experience. The associations' raison d'etre was to serve the people. They did so through: propaganda (disseminating population theory, birth control and family planning information); helping the people overcome poverty, traditional thinking, and ignorance; assisting women with any problems and anxieties relating to child-bearing; delivering contraceptives to households; and providing the elderly with care and the young with education.
Since the 3rd plenary session, the Party Central Committee and the State Council of China have attached great importance to family planning work, pointing out that the population has always been an extremely important issue in China's economic and social development. Characteristics that clarify China's situation are 1) a low level of industrial and agricultural production and the underdevelopment of economy and culture, 2) a large population with a young age composition, 3) a vast territory with conditions differing tremendously in various places, and 4) a predominantly rural population with feudal ideological influences--such as boys are superior to girls--that are relatively deep-rooted. The total fertility rate of childbearing age women in 1983 was 2.07 which, when compared with 5.68 in the 1960s and 4.01 in the 1970s, dropped 3.61 and 1.97 respectively. This growth rate is already lower than their population replacement rate, and is much lower than that of developing countries. Governments at all levels and related departments, all people's organizations, and all professions and trades now regard family planning as a part of their own work; unlike the old days, the concept of childbirth has greatly changed among the masses after years of publicity and practice in family planning. A nationwide scientific research network for family planning is now taking shape; in contraception and birth control, the types and model sizes of IUDs and oral drugs of domestic make are relatively complete.
The US Congress has become reluctant to appropriate funds for family planning assistance in developing countries. In the Congress, international family planning has misguidedly and mistakenly become the battleground over abortion. It is unfortunate that the majority in the 104th and 105th Congress have undertaken a concerted attack on US support for international family planning by reducing needed funding and saddling the program with onerous restrictions. While the Congress debates international family planning funding, women, children, and families around the world are suffering the consequences of reduced and/or restricted access to family planning services. Cutting and/or restricting international family planning funds produces a devastating effect on the health and well-being of women and children in developing countries, and in the long term, the consequences will be overpopulation leading to poverty, malnutrition, urban crowding, environmental degradation, and the depletion of the world's resources.
World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.
This report summarizes the meetings of the World Health Organization (WHO) Working Group on Family Planning and Sex Education of Young People, which was attended by advisors representing education, sociology, psychology, pediatrics, demography, obstetrics and gynocology, family planning, and psychological medicine. The advisors were from eight…
González-Pérez, Brian; Salas-Flores, Ricardo; Sosa-López, María Lucero; Barrientos-Guerrero, Carlos Eduardo; Hernández-Aguilar, Claudia Magdalena; Gómez-Contreras, Diana Edith; Sánchez-Garza, Jorge Arturo
there are few studies on breast symptoms (BS) in patients attended at primary care units in Mexico. The aim was to determine the frequency and types of BS overall and by age-group and establish which BS were related to diagnosis of breast cancer. data from all female patients with a breast-disease-related diagnosis, attended from 2006 to 2010, at the Family Medicine Unit 38, were collected. The frequencies of BS were determined by four age-groups (49, 50-69, > 70 years) and likelihood ratios for breast cancer for each breast-related symptom patient, with a 95 % confidence interval (CI). the most frequent BS in the study population were lump/mass (71.7 %) and breast pain (67.7 %) of all breast complaints, and they were more noted in women age group of 20-49 years. Overall, 120 women had breast cancer diagnosed with a median age of 53.51 + 12.7 years. Breast lump/mass had positive likelihood ratios for breast cancer 4.53 (95 % CI = 2.51-8.17) and breast pain had increased negative LR = 1.08 (95 % CI = 1.05-1.11). breast lump/mass was the predominant presenting complaint among females with breast symptoms in our primary care unit, and it was associated with elevated positive likelihood of breast cancer.
Worldwide, there are an estimated 18 million refugees, people who have crossed international borders to escape political conflict, famine, destruction of their natural environment, or other disasters. There are an additional 24 million displaced individuals, people who left their homes but remain in their own countries. Women and children comprise more than 80% of both groups. Following some major event or series of events, these individuals have typically relocated in large number over a short period of time to an area devoid of the necessary basic facilities to support their rapid influx. International agencies, foreign governments, and nongovernmental organizations usually come forward to provide emergency relief as best they are able. With regard to the delivery of health care, health services for refugees are typically designed to meet emergency needs, such as the provision of clean water, the delivery of adequate food supplies, and the treatment of disease. Family planning is generally not provided, especially to refugees in the early stages of relocation. Reproductive health services during this initial phase are instead usually limited to care for pregnant women. Refugees, however, do have sex. In fact, birth rates in refugee camps are typically higher than they are for the host-country population. Refugees and displaced persons have often undergone some degree of psychological trauma and emotional loss. Families are displaced and separated, and loved ones have died. Those fortunate enough to make it to refugee camps and be restored to a reasonable state of health typically find themselves in limbo, away from their cherished homes, and often mourning the loss of friends, spouses, and/or children. These individuals are going to have sexual intercourse for a number of reasons. Sex relieves the boredom of camp life, especially for young people, some people want to replace children who have died or been separated from the family, women with few or no relatives
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy ICT Transmission Planning... Commission's ongoing outreach efforts. Entergy ICT Transmission Planning Summit August 23, 2011 (8 a.m.-5 p.m...
80% of women using contraception in Zambia use oral contraceptives (OCs), yet they often complain about side effects. 66% of people polled at family planning (FP) clinics prefer OCs and 30% chose condoms. Nevertheless only 10% of the 60% of married couples familiar with FP use contraception. This contributes to Zambia having 1 of the highest annual population growth rates in the world (3.4%). The Planned Parenthood Association of Zambia (PPAZ) thinks that if males become more knowledgeable about FP, the population growth would slow down. At least 60% of men in Zambia approve of their wives using FP, yet they are slow to use male contraception. They say condoms reduce sensation and wives often consider condoms a nuisance. The AIDS epidemic forces men to rethink their views toward condom use, however. Those 30% of men who do use condoms are more likely to use them with their girlfriends or women with whom they are unfamiliar. So they are not using them for FP purposes. Men fear vasectomy because they perceive it to cause impotence. Considerable education to counter this myth is needed to increase the number of vasectomies. Besides some men prefer their wives be sterilized rather than themselves because if the men lose all their children they can have other children with other wives. PPAZ aims programs at men in order to expand their participation and nurture their influence in FP matters. It has a male counseling program serving rural villages along the railroad lines which begin in the northern copper belt and end in urban areas in the south to promote birth spacing. It is working with companies to include FP services in their clinics so men can learn more about FP. FP specialists in Zambia foresee an increase in male support of FP as they realize the difficulty of supporting large families during the economic crises.
The 1994 Human Development Report from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) proposes a 20-20 Human Development Compact based on shared responsibilities between poor and rich nations, whereby poor and rich nations would help unmet basic human development needs such as primary education, primary health care, safe drinking water, and family planning over the next 10 years. This would require an additional US $30 to US $40 billion annually. Developing countries would commit 20% of their budgets to human priority concerns instead of the current 10% by reducing military expenditure, selling off unprofitable public enterprises and abandoning wasteful prestige projects. Donor countries would increase foreign aid from the current average of 7% to 20%. The report will propose a new concept of human security at the World Summit for Social Development to be held in March 1995, calling widespread human insecurity a universal problem. On average, poor nations have 19 soldiers for every one doctor. Global military spending has been declining since 1987 at the rate of 3.6% a year, resulting in a cumulative peace dividend of US $935 billion from 1987 to 1994. But this money has not been expended on unmet human needs. India ordered fighter planes at a cost that could have provided basic education to the 15 million Indian girls now out of school. Nigeria bought tanks from the UK at a cost that could have immunized all 2 million unimmunized children while also providing family planning to nearly 17 million couples. UNDP proposes a phasing out of all military assistance, military bases, and subsidies to arms exporters over a 3-year period. It also recommends the major restructuring of existing aid funds, and proposes a serious study on new institutions for global governance in the next century.
It is imperative to make family planning more accessible in low resource settings. The poorest couples have the highest fertility, the lowest contraceptive use and the highest unmet need for contraception. It is also in the low resource settings where maternal and child mortality is the highest. Family planning can contribute to improvements in maternal and child health, especially in low resource settings where overall access to health services is limited. Four critical steps should be taken to increase access to family planning in resource-poor settings: (i) increase knowledge about the safety of family planning methods; (ii) ensure contraception is genuinely affordable to the poorest families; (iii) ensure supply of contraceptives by making family planning a permanent line item in healthcare system's budgets and (iv) take immediate action to remove barriers hindering access to family planning methods. In Africa, there are more women with an unmet need for family planning than women currently using modern methods. Making family planning accessible in low resource settings will help decrease the existing inequities in achieving desired fertility at individual and country level. In addition, it could help slow population growth within a human rights framework. The United Nations Population Division projections for the year 2050 vary between a high of 10.6 and a low of 7.4 billion. Given that most of the growth is expected to come from today's resource-poor settings, easy access to family planning could make a difference of billions in the world in 2050.
Wang, Fei; Zhao, Liqiu; Zhao, Zhong
China initiated its family planning policy in 1962 and one-child policy in 1980 and allows all couples to have two children as of 1st January, 2016. This paper systematically examines the labor market consequences of China's family planning policies. First, we briefly review the major historical evolution of China's family planning policies. Second, we investigate the effects of these policies on the labor market, focusing on the size and quality of the working-age population and its age and ...
Suneela Garg; Ritesh Singh
The family planning programme of India has shown many significant changes since its inception five decades back. The programme has made the contraceptives easily accessible and affordable to the people. Devices with very low failure rate are provided free of cost to those who need it. Despite these significant improvements in service delivery related to family planning the programme cannot be said to achieve success at all levels. There are many issues with the family planning services availa...
Mcwilliam, J A
In reviewing the effort of research workers in model testing with special reference to determinants of contraceptive usage, this paper draws on 2 fertility case studies in urban Ghana and central India. A brief description of path analysis technique, a special form of regression analysis, is given (weights are assigned to each variable for optimal prediction). In applying this technique to the case studies, the author notes some similarities in the adoption of family planning. This conclusion applies to education and income as a factor in the Indian case, and education and household status factors in the case of Ghana. In the case of India the effect is direct; for Ghana it is considered indirect. The advantages of path analysis technique include: 1) its flexibility in analyzing data in the most frequently arising circumstances, namely where an interval scale or dichotomous (dependent) variable is to be understood; 2) its ability to bridge the gap between sociological theory and statistical analysis. However, drawbacks in using regression models in testing social theories and models must be considered. Multiple regression assumes a 1 way scheme of cause and effect; a linear relationship between variables is also assumed but not always substantiated by reality e.g., family size may not change with socioeconomic status; types of data suitable for use is usually limited to ratio or interval data but social scientists frequently analyze nominal data such as religion, ethnic group or residence. In both the Ghanaian and Indian study, the data were not originally collected with the intention of performing a path analysis. However with both studies an initial attempt to test models in fertility/family planning behavior was made that is useful to the understanding of how the hypothesized relationships between variables in these models stand up to sophisticated statistical procedures. Tables accompanying the text include Mishler and Westoff's conceptual model for fertility
deficiency Virus (HIV) infection influence the design and background Family planning is an important preventive measure against maternal and child morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed at determining the awareness and utilization of family ...
Full Text Available Acute vital crisis in end-of-life situations may result in hospitalization and intensive care without recognizable benefit in many cases. Advance directives regarding indications for resuscitation, hospitalization, and symptomatic treatment help ensure that acute complications can be managed quickly and satisfactorily in the patient’s customary surroundings. A plan was designed and implemented in Austrian nursing homes to provide emergency physicians with rapidly obtainable information on the patient’s current situation, and whether resuscitation attempts and hospitalization are advised or not. This palliative treatment plan is arranged by a physician together with caregivers, close relatives, and the patient or his court-appointed health care guardian or holder of power of attorney. Four years after implementation of the plan, a user satisfaction survey was carried out. The majority of participating nurses, emergency physicians and family doctors judged application and design of the palliative treatment plan positively. However, the low response rate of family doctors indicates nonconformity. In particular, the delegation of symptomatic treatment to nurses proved to be controversial. There is still a need to provide up-to-date information and training for health professionals in order for them to understand advance directives as extended autonomy for patients who have lost their ability to make their own decisions.
Hebert, Luciana Estelle; Schwandt, Hilary Megan; Boulay, Marc; Skinner, Joanna
In Nigeria, fertility continues to be high and contraceptive prevalence remains low. This study was conducted in order to understand the perceptions of, experiences with and challenges of delivering family planning services in two urban areas of Nigeria from the perspectives of family planning service providers. A qualitative study using 59 in-depth interviews was conducted among family planning providers working in hospitals, primary health centres, clinics, pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in Ibadan and Kaduna, Nigeria. Providers support a mix of individuals and organisations involved in family planning provision, including the government of Nigeria. The Nigerian government's role can take a variety of forms, including providing promotional materials for family planning facilities as well as facilitating training and educational opportunities for providers, since many providers lack basic training in family planning provision. Providers often describe their motivation to provide in terms of the health benefits offered by family planning methods. Few providers engage in any marketing of their services and many providers exclude youth and unmarried individuals from their services. The family planning provider community supports a diverse network of providers, but needs further training and support in order to improve the quality of care and market their services. Adolescents, unmarried individuals and women seeking post-abortion care are vulnerable populations that providers need to be better educated about and trained in how to serve. The perspectives of providers should be considered when designing family planning interventions in urban areas of Nigeria.
Manjer, Åsa Ritenius; Emilsson, Ulla Melin; Zackrisson, Sophia
Mammography screening can reduce breast cancer mortality. The aim of the present study was to investigate non-attendance in mammography screening in relation to different aspects of a women's social network, attitudes and cancer in close relations. Data from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study baseline examination in 1991-1996 was used. A re-examination began in 2007, and 1452 women participated. Family composition, social support, sense of belonging, attitudes on screening and breast cancer risk and on previous cancer in close relations were investigated in relation to self-reported participation in mammography screening using logistic regression analysis, yielding odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals. Both attendees (98.0 %) and non-attendees (95.2 %) considered mammography screening important. Non-attendance in mammography screening was associated with being unmarried vs. married (2.40:1.30-4.45) and with not having vs. having children (1.77:1.08-2.92). Non-attendees planned to abstain from mammography screening in the future more often than attendees (4.78:2.56-8.90), and they had often abstained from cervical cancer screening (1.69:1.04-2.75). No other statistically significant association was found. This study indicates that family composition, but not necessarily the presence or absence of social support, perceived cancer risk or cancer in close relations, may affect non-attendance in mammography screening. A positive attitude towards mammography screening was found among both attendees and non-attendees, although the latter group planned to a lesser degree to attend mammography screening in the future.
Navot, Noa; Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Vander Stoep, Ann; Toth, Karen; Webb, Sara Jane
The diagnosis of a child with autism has short- and long-term impacts on family functioning. With early diagnosis, the diagnostic process is likely to co-occur with family planning decisions, yet little is known about how parents navigate this process. This study explores family planning decision making process among mothers of young children with…
Utilisation of family planning by women will promote sustainable development and general wellbeing of women at the rural community. The study assessed utilization of family planning techniques among women in the rural area of Lagos state. Sixty respondents were randomly selected for the study. Structured interview ...
Population in Nigeria is turning into an issue that needs public alertness. Informing men on family planning services and contraceptives is extremely necessary. For this will promote more favorable attitudes and increase their involvement. This study aimed at investigating the source of family planning information for married ...
INTRODUCTION. Family planning implies the ability of individuals and couples to anticipate and attain their desired number of children by spacing and timing their births. It is achieved through the use of contraceptive methods and the treatment of involuntary infertility. The availability of family planning does more than ...
AJRH Managing Editor
Family Planning in Northern Nigeria. African Journal of Reproductive Health December 2013; 17(4):107. SHORT REPORT. Awareness, Use, and Unmet Need for Family Planning in Rural. Northern Nigeria. Henry V. Doctor*. 1,2. Sally E. Findley,. 3. Godwin Y. Afenyadu,. 4. Charles Uzondu. 5 and. Garba M. Ashir. 6.
Introduction: High fertility,high birth rates and low family planning prevalence rate is a common feature in developing countries with consequent rapid population growth. Family planning has saved the lives and protected the health of millions of women and children. This study aims to ascertain prevalence, pattern and ...
Kim, Young Mi; Kols, Adrienne; Mwarogo, Peter; Awasum, David
Comparisions of family planning sessions in Kenya found distinct gender differences in reasons for visiting the clinics and communication styles of both the clients and the counselors. These communication patterns may be a result of Kenyan gender roles and men's and women's different reasons for seeking family planning services. Implications of…
Current reports indicate that male participation improves uptake of maternal healthcare and family planning services among women. Objective: To determine factors that influence male participation in family planning services in Kenya. Design: A retrospective study. Setting: Nationally representative survey of Eight provinces ...
AJRH Managing Editor
To achieve the improved maternal and child outcomes of birth spacing, family planning in the postpartum period is essential. The objective of this study is to determine the perceptions regarding programmatic aspects of postpartum family planning by key informants in 17 countries determined to have high unmet need for ...
Family planning has profound sexual and reproductive rights implications which have been recognised over the years at several international conferences. Access to family planning is a major approach to maternal mortality reduction. Social and political factors, such as religion and politically-motivated funding restrictions ...
Of all unintended pregnancies, 39.6% (44) and 18.9% (21) were reported to have occurred in association with using contraceptive methods and in relation to poor quality of family planning services, respectively. This study has indicated the need for intervention to improve the quality of family planning services in the study ...
, such as natural family planning (4.7%), the vaginal ring (3.3%) and male or female sterilisation (2.8%), can prevent STIs. Married status was associated with current use of contraceptives, and having been formally taught about family planning ...
The use of modern family planning methods in developing countries is low. Among reasons for low uptake is religious belief on procreation. This study was designed to assess the knowledge and attitude of family planning among religious leaders in Ogbomoso metropolis of Oyo State, Nigeria. The study is a descriptive ...
AJRH Managing Editor
predictors were locality, fear of side effects and geopolitical zones in both the 2007 and 2012 surveys though with some variations. The level of family planning use ... explained as the extent and composition of potential demand for modern family planning ... These barriers include lack of awareness, lack of access, cultural ...
Family Planning Clinic, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Okunlola M.A Owonikoko K. M; Adekunle .A 0 and ... 1995 only 8% family planning clinic clients opted for Norplant, their reasons for its choice was based .... introductory clinical trials of Norplant implants. A comparison of seventeen countries experience.
Knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning following termination of pregnancy among Basotho women at Queen Elizabeth II Hospital, Maseru, Lesotho. ... It is essential that the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) be involved in promoting health education about the importance of family planning and the ...
Los Angeles Regional Family Planning Council, CA.
This guidebook is designed to assist health workers in the delivery of information and education regarding reproductive health and fertility control to family planning clients. Aspects of services that might be provided by various staff members are suggested. Initially, family planning philosophy from which general operating principles are derived…
Childbearing and family planning choices of women living with HIV and AIDS: the lived experiences. ... E Nunkwe, J Mwanza, C Nzala, B Michelo Chi ... spread among women of childbearing age, there is an increasing need for support programs for infected women regarding sex, safer sex, pregnancy and family planning.
A total of 334 Nigerian, non-pregnant women, living in a high density, low-income urban area of Enugu, Nigeria, were interviewed on knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning. About 97.6% were found literate. Knowledge and approval of family planning was high, 81.7% and 86.2% respectively, but the practice of ...
... very few women had adequate knowledge about family planning methods. The study also revealed that women perceived family planning as a welcomed strategy to control population and make mothers healthy and strong after child birth, however, fear of pushing their husbands outside and increased promiscuity as well ...
Latin America and the Caribbean (2.2). More than 100 million women in less developed countries, or about 17 percent of all married women, would prefer to avoid a pregnancy but are not using any form of family planning. Currently, approximately 24.8 percent of African women have unmet needs for family planning; this ...
Background: Men are powerful decision makers especially in developing countries. Their permission and support are required for women to access family planning services. This study was conducted to assess the predictors of family planning awareness and practice among married men in a semi-urban community in ...
Adherence to the policy guidelines and standards is necessary for family planning services. We compared public and private facilities in terms of provision of family planning services. We analyzed data from health facility questionnaire of the 2006 Tanzania Service Provision Assessment survey, based on 529 health ...
Family planning programmes initiated in the Islamic Republic of Iran from 1966 met with limited success. Following the 1986 census family planning was considered a priority and was supported by the country's leaders. Appropriate strategies based on the principles of health promotion led to an increase in the contraceptive prevalence rate among married women from 49.0% in 1989 to 73.8% in 2006. This paper reviews the family planning programmes in the Islamic Republic of Iran and their achievements during the last 4 decades and discusses the principles of health promotion and theories of behaviour change which may explain these achievements. Successful strategies included: creation of a supportive environment, reorientation of family planning services, expanding of coverage of family planning services, training skilled personnel, providing free contraceptives as well as vasectomy and tubectomy services, involvement of volunteers and nongovernmental organizations and promotion of male participation.
the individual’s experiences. The individual describes the experiences for the researcher and then the researcher interprets the narration given by...after becoming instructors. Learned from a profession instructor. I called our director of natural family planning. She sat down and showed me films ...planning and sex selection: Fact or fiction ? American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecologv. 165,1982-1984. Natural Family Planning 73 Guida, M. (1999
Mexico's private, nonprofit social marketing company, known as PROFAM, intends to expand its family planning clinics to marginal urban areas. The clinics are part of PROFAM's push to diversify social marketing outlets for contraceptive products and other birth control methods. PROFAM expects to establish 3 new clinics, possibly including a pregnancy test laboratory, a small 1-doctor clinic, and a large clinic housing an operating room. 1 clinic will be located outside the Mexico City area, the program's traditional boundaries. The company currently runs 2 small clinics and a pregnancy testing laboratory in Ciudad Netzahualcoyti, a community of 3.5 million on Mexico City's outskirts. PROFAM recently obtaine d government approval to sell condoms in food stores, which should increase distribtuion and sales. Currently, the company sells over 1 million high quality, lubricated condoms each month, accounting for over half of the Mexican market. Distribution covers 85% of the country's drugstore. Program setbacks occurred in 1981, when the Mexican government cancelled PROFAM's sales permits for all contraceptive products except condoms. Cancelled products included an oral contraceptive and 3 vaginal spermicides. These 4 products had provided nearly 100,000 couple years of protection in 1979 and an estimated 120,000 CYP 1980. During 1979 and 1980, condoms provided about 27,000 and 60,000 CYP, respectively. PROFAM had relied heavily on the pill and spermicides because its early studies showed condoms had a negative image in Mexico, due largely to the product's association with extramarital affairs. To counter this, PROFAM launched a widespread, free product sampling program in 1979, along with a continuing educational and advertising drive. Subsequent consumer surveys revealed a marked increase in product acceptance, with PROFAM's condom becoming the most widely known brand available in Mexico.
Clarke, Angela T; Marshall, Stephen A; Mautone, Jennifer A; Soffer, Stephen L; Jones, Heather A; Costigan, Tracy E; Patterson, Anwar; Jawad, Abbas F; Power, Thomas J
This study examined the relative contribution of two dimensions of parent engagement, attendance and homework adherence, to parent and child treatment response and explored whether early engagement was a stronger predictor of outcomes than later engagement. The sample consisted of parents of participants (n = 92; M age = 9.4 years, SD = 1.27; 67% male, 69% White) in a 12-session evidence-based family-school intervention for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Attendance was assessed using clinician records, and homework adherence was measured by rating permanent products. Outcomes included parent and teacher ratings of family involvement in education, parenting practices, and child functioning. Accounting for the contributions of baseline scores and attendance, homework adherence was a significant predictor of parental self-efficacy, the parent-teacher relationship, parenting through positive involvement, and the child's inattention to homework and homework productivity. Accounting for the contribution of baseline scores and homework adherence, attendance was a significant predictor of one outcome, the child's academic productivity. Early homework adherence appeared to be more predictive of outcomes than later adherence, whereas attendance did not predict outcomes during either half of treatment. These results indicate that, even in the context of evidence-based practice, it is the extent to which parents actively engage with treatment, rather than the number of sessions they attend, that is most important in predicting intervention response. Because attendance is limited as an index of engagement and a predictor of outcomes, increased efforts to develop interventions to promote parent adherence to behavioral interventions for children are warranted.
Szelenyi, Katalin; Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi
This paper examines the role of living-learning (L/L) programs in undergraduate women's plans to attend graduate school in STEM fields. Using data from the 2004-2007 National Study of Living Learning Programs (NSLLP), the only existing multi-institutional, longitudinal dataset examining L/L program outcomes, the findings show that women's…
Avery, A; Pallister, C; Allan, J; Stubbs, J; Lavin, J
Background Family-based approaches are recommended for the prevention and management of childhood obesity. Given the large numbers of obese children, scalable practical solutions are required. The present study evaluated a family-based national programme that aimed to empower adolescents to adopt healthier lifestyles. Methods Group facilitators supporting more than six young members (11–15 years) participated in the study. A questionnaire was designed to determine the characteristics of the adult attending with the adolescent, any health professional recommendations given and the young member’s integration within traditional adult weight management groups. Data on measured height and weight [and calculated body mass index (BMI)], sex and attendance were collated from member’s records. Results Questionnaires were completed by 22 facilitators (15% response rate), representing data for 128 young members with complete weight data available for 106. All members had a joining BMI > 91st centile, with 68% >98th centile. The mean (SD) number of weeks attended was 12.5 (8.1), with 19% (20) having attended for more than 20 weeks with 62% still attending. A mean (SD) BMI Z-score change of 2.49 (0.72) to 2.27 (0.74) was achieved (P < 0.001). The relationship of the adult supporter to the young member was varied, with 62% either already members or joining alongside their daughter/son. Limited guidance was provided by health professionals before or during attendance. Facilitators were comfortable about the age mix within groups. Conclusions The community weight management organisation studied takes a family-based approach and successfully supports young members to manage their weight. PMID:22834988
Hancock, Nancy L; Stuart, Gretchen S; Tang, Jennifer H; Chibwesha, Carla J; Stringer, Jeffrey S A; Chi, Benjamin H
Reducing the global unmet need for contraception is currently a priority for many governments, multi-lateral initiatives, non-governmental organizations, and donors. Evidence strongly suggests that the provision of quality family planning services can increase uptake, prevalence, and continuation of contraception. While an accepted framework to define the components of family planning service quality exists, translating this framework into assessment tools that are accessible, easily utilized, and valid for service providers has remained a challenge. We propose new approaches to improve the standardization and accessibility of family planning service quality assessment tools to simplify family planning service quality evaluation. With easier approaches to program evaluation, quality improvements can be performed more swiftly to help increase uptake and continuation of contraception to improve the health of women and their families.
Macqueen, I A
Recommendations on community family planning services are made by an Aberdeen Medical Health Officer. It is noted that: 1) both GPs and clinics have their value in contraceptive treatment; 2) clinics should be conveniently located and might be set up in buildings which are used for other health purposes at other times; 3) most women work so there should be evening sessions; 4) arrangements should be made which include both an appointments system and emergency visits; 5) reception at the clinic should be courteous and without moral judgements; 6) domiciliary services should be used only as a last resort; and 7) payment of prescription charges is now required, but there might be advantages in changing this to a free service. The ideal person for motivating people to use the service is the health visitor. More health visitors are needed, salaries and promotions must be raised, and enrolled nurses should be recruited to act as assistants to health visitors. Benefits of the Aberdeen community family planning services are described. Such services increase the happiness of the community and save the community a considerable amount of money.
This is the final article in a series on a survey of 710 couples who consulted for family planning in Lyons and Paris in 1968, Agreement before marriage on planned family size was correlated with success in achieving this plan, especially in the young, well educated, and in rightists. The number of children was directly related to desired family size, but a large proportion of those without a plan had uuplanned children. Factors tending toward larger desired family size were religious practice, higher education, and income. Factors associated with larger existing families were lower education and income, religous practice, female unemployment, longer duration of marriage, and use of traditional contrceptive methods. Among those with only elementary education, the proportion with 3 or more children remained constant with rising income, but among those with postsecondary education the proportion of large families was closely correlated with income. Couples who considered their families complete or who considered their family planning successful were overrepresented by the well educated, while couples with incomplete families or characterized by imperfect planning were more often secondary school graduates. Success in family planning was only apparent in many cases, since these results were often achieved by abortion.
Brosnan, Caragh; Southgate, Erica; Outram, Sue; Lempp, Heidi; Wright, Sarah; Saxby, Troy; Harris, Gillian; Bennett, Anna; Kelly, Brian
Students from backgrounds of low socio-economic status (SES) or who are first in family to attend university (FiF) are under-represented in medicine. Research has focused on these students' pre-admission perceptions of medicine, rather than on their lived experience as medical students. Such research is necessary to monitor and understand the potential perpetuation of disadvantage within medical schools. This study drew on the theory of Bourdieu to explore FiF students' experiences at one Australian medical school, aiming to identify any barriers faced and inform strategies for equity. Twenty-two FiF students were interviewed about their backgrounds, expectations and experiences of medical school. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Findings illustrate the influence and interaction of Bourdieu's principal forms of capital (social, economic and cultural) in FiF students' experiences. The absence of health professionals within participants' networks (social capital) was experienced as a barrier to connecting with fellow students and accessing placements. Financial concerns were common among interviewees who juggled paid work with study and worried about expenses associated with the medical programme. Finally, participants' 'medical student' status provided access to new forms of cultural capital, a transition that was received with some ambivalence by participants themselves and their existing social networks. This study revealed the gaps between the forms of capital valued in medical education and those accessible to FiF students. Admitting more students from diverse backgrounds is only one part of the solution; widening participation strategies need to address challenges for FiF students during medical school and should enable students to retain, rather than subdue, their existing, diverse forms of social and cultural capital. Embracing the diversity sought in admissions is likely to benefit student learning, as well as the communities
The current study examined whether there are differences between gay father families (n = 36) and heterosexual families (n = 36) on father-child relationship, fathers' experiences of parental stress and children's wellbeing. The gay fathers in this study all became parents while in same-sex
On the basis of Marx and Engels' prediction and thesis of scientific socialism, socialist China, the most populous nation in the world, is the 1st to have realized the planned management of population reproductive in the history of mankind, thus giving an answer to the problem in practice. This paper makes a tentative exploration of such a necessity in socialist family planning. Engels points out that 1) under private ownership, population reproduction takes class antagonism as the basis, while public ownership of the means of production eradicates it; 2) in capitalist society, the reproduction of the labor force is commodity reproduction--public ownership of the means of production can be divorced from the domain of commodity; and 3) under private ownership, population reproduction is purely the private business of an individual or a family whose economic benefit forms the motive force of population reproduction--public ownership liberates it from one's personal gains making it a public affair. The great significance of family planning to economic development can be recognized as production, consumption, and accumulation. Taking family planning as the basis for the reproduction plan of the labor force is the guarantee of realizing the material production plan. Family planning reflects the trend of the structure and change of consumer requirements and provides the direct and indirect objectives of various items of material production planning; it provides the objective basis for social accumulation and the arrangement of expanding reproduction. 3 conclusions are derived: 1) the building up of the public ownership of the means of production affords man the possibility to regulate the production of matter as well as man, 2) the characteristics of the planned development of a socialist national economy demands the planned production of man, and 3) family planning and the development of a socialist economy demand their mutual congruence.
Hardee, Karen; Kumar, Jan; Newman, Karen; Bakamjian, Lynn; Harris, Shannon; Rodríguez, Mariela; Brown, Win
At the 2012 Family Planning Summit in London, world leaders committed to providing effective family planning information and services to 120 million additional women and girls by the year 2020. Amid positive response, some expressed concern that the numeric goal could signal a retreat from the human rights-centered approach that underpinned the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Achieving the FP2020 goal will take concerted and coordinated efforts among diverse stakeholders and a new programmatic approach supported by the public health and human rights communities. This article presents a new conceptual framework designed to serve as a path toward fulfilling the FP2020 goal. This new unifying framework, which incorporates human rights laws and principles within family-planning-program and quality-of-care frameworks, brings what have been parallel lines of thought together in one construct to make human rights issues related to family planning practical. © 2014 The Population Council, Inc.
...." The Mexico City policy denies U.S. funds to foreign nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that perform or promote abortion as a method of family planning -- even if the activities are undertaken with non-U.S. funds...
Changing Face of Family Planning Funding in Kenya: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Two Urban Counties. Nelson Keyonzo, Julius Korir, Faith Abilla, Morine Sirera, Peter Nyakwara, Eva Bazant, Charles Waka, Nancy Koskei, Mark Kabue ...
Difference between the meaning of approval and encouragement should be explored. Interventions involving information education and communication campaigns geared to men and promoting male involvement in family planning could increase contraceptive prevalence. Keywords: Contraception, male involvement, ...
AJRH Managing Editor
. Future efforts to ... Keywords: Family planning, long-acting reversible contraception, Malawi. Résumé. Moins de 2% ..... OCP=oral contraceptive pills; IUC=intrauterine contraception; BTL=bilateral tubal ligation; EC=emergency contraception.
What do Family Planning Clients and University Students in Nairobi, Kenya, Know and Think about Emergency Contraception? Esther Muia, Charlotte Ellertson, Shelley Clark, Moses Lukhando, Batya Elul, Joyce Olenja, Elizabeth Westley ...
Potential for Revitalisation of the Diaphragm for Family Planning in Uganda: A Rapid Assessment of the Feasibility of Introducing the SILCS Diaphragm. IT Kyamwanga, E Turyakira, M Kilbourne-Brook, PS Coffey ...
Family planning providers' experiences and perceptions of long-acting reversible contraception in Lilongwe, Malawi. Tapika Mwafulirwa, Michele S. O'Shea, Gloria Hamela, Emilia Samuel, Christine Chingondole, Virginia Chipangula, Mina C. Hosseinipour, Jennifer H. Tang ...
White, Katherine M; Thomas, Ian; Johnston, Kim L; Hyde, Melissa K
Using a prospective study of 77 1st-year psychology students' voluntary attendance at peer-assisted study sessions for statistics, the authors tested the addition of role identity to the theory of planned behavior. The authors used a revised set of role-identity items to capture the personal and social aspects of role identity within a specific behavioral context. At the commencement of the semester, the authors assessed the students' attitudes, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, role identity, and intention. The authors examined the students' class attendance records 3 months later. Attitudes and perceived behavioral control predicted intention, with intention as the sole predictor of attendance. Role identity also predicted intention, reflecting the importance of the student role identity in influencing decision making related to supplementary academic activities.
This brief article summarizes a speech given by the Director of Population Studies in Hebei, China, on family planning and sustainable development. Concurrent with the implementation of the family planning policy over the past 20 years was the implementation of development policies in rural areas. Agricultural policy shifted from support of the commune system to a land-leasing system. The land-leasing system is an improvement that inspires farmers to become wealthy and modernized. The new rural administration encourages modernization that releases manpower, and thus, frees farmers to concentrate on improving production and farming techniques rather than on increasing reproduction. Farmers decide on working time allocation and investment. Surplus agricultural laborers are migrating to cities in search of better work opportunities. Legal measures are needed to help migrants adapt to development. Urban living requires a one-child policy, while a two-child policy is acceptable in poor and mountainous rural areas. "The education of family planning must be mandatory." Under the new policies, people must become committed to family planning. Farmers are beginning to discover the benefits of family planning. Farmer's enlightenment occurred as a result of the family planning and poverty alleviation efforts during the late 1980s and 1990s. Farmers appreciate the government assistance and now believe that family planning benefits individuals and enhances their honor and responsibility. The benefits of the policy will continue into the future. "Sustainable population development is an important part of economic development." China is entering the new century with a new type of demographic structure, a new cultural system of family planning, and practical efforts.
The theory of planned behaviour is a theory originating from psychology. Over time, the theory has been applied to a variety of research areas. In business administration, the theory is used to gain insight into the ethical behaviour of managers, the adoption of new products and entrepreneurship. The family business context is a specific context, in which the family has a strong influence on the strategic decisions of the business. Current application of the theory of planned behaviour in fam...
Ahsan, S B
More and more men are convincing their wives to use family planning in Bangladesh. In this conservative, Moslem country, women are not allowed to leave the homes so husbands must go to buy methods especially rural areas. 70% of women who use oral contraceptives (OCs), IUDs, or condoms report that their husbands obtain these method for them. many couples are poor peasants. Contraceptive prevalence is not 23.2%. Female sterilization and OCs are the 2 most popular methods (9% each) followed by condoms (2%), IUD (1.7%), and vasectomy (1.5%). The total fertility rate is 4.8 which is higher than the goal of 3.5 Bangladesh hoped to reach by 1995. In 1975, 30% of women believed fate determines family size but now only 8% think that. Attitude changes about family size have occurred despite illiteracy and poverty. Traditional religious beliefs are still prevalent in rural areas making it difficult for wives to speak to their husbands about family planning. Husband-wife communication is more open among urban, middle class couples. The long lasting hormonal implant, Norplant, holds promise as a means for Bangladesh to reach its goal. About 4500 women now have Norplant and government and nongovernment clinics plan to insert it into around 20,000 more women. A study of 2586 potential acceptors of Norplant at family clinics in Bangladesh 3 other developing countries shows that counseling diminishes the anxiety women and their husbands experience about Norplant and its side effects. A study in Bangladesh reveals higher continuation rates of Norplant for women whose husbands underwent counseling than for those whose husbands did not undergo counseling. Family planning advertisements on the radio, TV, and in newspapers have convinced couples to use family planning, but the advertisements tend to not explaining how to use family planning. Men are key to the changes in attitude about family planning in Bangladesh.
The desire to control fertility has probably always been present to some degree. Even in prehistoric times, it was undoubtedly necessary to restrain fertility to improve chances of survival. Among the signs of a growing acceptance of the concept of family planning in Africa are the increasing proportions of women over 40 who are shown in surveys not to want more children, the fact that urban family planning centers have significant numbers of clients, and the large numbers of illegal abortions especially among young girls. Although contraceptive usage is increasing in many countries, large numbers of women who wish to avoid pregnancy do not use a method. Results of the 1983 National Fertility Survey demonstrated that a large proportion of women had no intention of using contraception in the future regardless of their fertility preferences. Among apparent obstacles to the success of family planning programs is the perception that they are foreign customs imposed by other cultures. Obstacles related to political and administrative will may hinder development of programs. Some health facilities do not care to offer family planning services, and some lack the needed infrastructure to do so. The persistence of high mortality, family opposition, lack of confidence in health workers with large families who advise others to limit themselves to four, and the dissuasive effect of rumors and misinformation are other factors. To increase acceptance of family planning, it is advised that the endogenous character of family planning activities be stressed, with the latent or implicit needs of the population as the starting point. Family planning information should be made more readily available, and not limited to fertile aged women.
Brittain, Anna W.; Williams, Jessica R.; Zapata, Lauren B.; Moskosky, Susan B.; Weik, Tasmeen S.
Context Family planning services are essential for reducing high rates of unintended pregnancies among young people, yet a perception that providers will not preserve confidentiality may deter youth from accessing these services. This systematic review, conducted in 2011, summarizes the evidence on the effect of assuring confidentiality in family planning services to young people on reproductive health outcomes. The review was used to inform national recommendations on providing quality family planning services. Evidence acquisition Multiple databases were searched to identify articles addressing confidentiality in family planning services to youth aged 10–24 years. Included studies were published from January 1985 through February 2011. Studies conducted outside the U.S., Canada, Europe, Australia, or New Zealand, and those that focused exclusively on HIV or sexually transmitted diseases, were excluded. Evidence synthesis The search strategy identified 19,332 articles, nine of which met the inclusion criteria. Four studies examined outcomes. Examined outcomes included use of clinical services and intention to use services. Of the four outcome studies, three found a positive association between assurance of confidentiality and at least one outcome of interest. Five studies provided information on youth perspectives and underscored the idea that young people greatly value confidentiality when receiving family planning services. Conclusions This review demonstrates that there is limited research examining whether confidentiality in family planning services to young people affects reproductive health outcomes. A robust research agenda is needed, given the importance young people place on confidentiality. PMID:26190851
Garg, Suneela; Singh, Ritesh
The family planning programme of India has shown many significant changes since its inception five decades back. The programme has made the contraceptives easily accessible and affordable to the people. Devices with very low failure rate are provided free of cost to those who need it. Despite these significant improvements in service delivery related to family planning the programme cannot be said to achieve success at all levels. There are many issues with the family planning services available through the public health facilities in India. Failure to adopt the latest technology is one of these. But the most serious drawback of the programme is that it has never been able to bridge the gap between the two genders related to contraceptives. The programme gave emphasis to women-centric contraceptive and thus women were seen as their clients. The choice to adopt a contraceptive though is 'cafeteria approach' in family planning lexicon; it is the choice of the husband that is ultimately practiced. There is not enough dialogue between husband and wife and husband and health worker to discuss the use of one contraceptive over another. The male gender needs to be taken in confidence while promoting the family planning practice. The integration of gender equity is to be done carefully so as not to make dominant gender more powerful. Only when there is equity between genders while using family planning services the programme will achieve success.
Full Text Available The family planning programme of India has shown many significant changes since its inception five decades back. The programme has made the contraceptives easily accessible and affordable to the people. Devices with very low failure rate are provided free of cost to those who need it. Despite these significant improvements in service delivery related to family planning the programme cannot be said to achieve success at all levels. There are many issues with the family planning services available through the public health facilities in India. Failure to adopt the latest technology is one of these. But the most serious drawback of the programme is that it has never been able to bridge the gap between the two genders related to contraceptives. The programme gave emphasis to women-centric contraceptive and thus women were seen as their clients. The choice to adopt a contraceptive though is ′cafeteria approach′ in family planning lexicon; it is the choice of the husband that is ultimately practiced. There is not enough dialogue between husband and wife and husband and health worker to discuss the use of one contraceptive over another. The male gender needs to be taken in confidence while promoting the family planning practice. The integration of gender equity is to be done carefully so as not to make dominant gender more powerful. Only when there is equity between genders while using family planning services the programme will achieve success.
Full Text Available Over the last decade, planned home births in the United States (US have increased, and have been associated with increased neonatal mortality and other morbidities. In a previous study we reported that neonatal mortality is increased in planned home births but we did not perform an analysis for the presence of professional certification status.The objective of this study therefore was to undertake an analysis to determine whether the professional certification status of midwives or the home birth setting are more closely associated with the increased neonatal mortality of planned midwife-attended home births in the United States.This study is a secondary analysis of our prior study. The 2006-2009 period linked birth/infant deaths data set was analyzed to examine total neonatal deaths (deaths less than 28 days of life in term singleton births (37+ weeks and newborn weight ≥ 2,500 grams without documented congenital malformations by certification status of the midwife: certified nurse midwives (CNM, nurse midwives certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board, and "other" or uncertified midwives who are not certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board.Neonatal mortality rates in hospital births attended by certified midwives were significantly lower (3.2/10,000, RR 0.33 95% CI 0.21-0.53 than home births attended by certified midwives (NNM: 10.0/10,000; RR 1 and uncertified midwives (13.7/10,000; RR 1.41 [95% CI, 0.83-2.38]. The difference in neonatal mortality between certified and uncertified midwives at home births did not reach statistical levels (10.0/10,000 births versus 13.7/10,000 births p = 0.2.This study confirms that when compared to midwife-attended hospital births, neonatal mortality rates at home births are significantly increased. While NNM was increased in planned homebirths attended by uncertified midwives when compared to certified midwives, this difference was not statistically significant. Neonatal
Grünebaum, Amos; McCullough, Laurence B; Arabin, Birgit; Brent, Robert L; Levene, Malcolm I; Chervenak, Frank A
Over the last decade, planned home births in the United States (US) have increased, and have been associated with increased neonatal mortality and other morbidities. In a previous study we reported that neonatal mortality is increased in planned home births but we did not perform an analysis for the presence of professional certification status. The objective of this study therefore was to undertake an analysis to determine whether the professional certification status of midwives or the home birth setting are more closely associated with the increased neonatal mortality of planned midwife-attended home births in the United States. This study is a secondary analysis of our prior study. The 2006-2009 period linked birth/infant deaths data set was analyzed to examine total neonatal deaths (deaths less than 28 days of life) in term singleton births (37+ weeks and newborn weight ≥ 2,500 grams) without documented congenital malformations by certification status of the midwife: certified nurse midwives (CNM), nurse midwives certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board, and "other" or uncertified midwives who are not certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board. Neonatal mortality rates in hospital births attended by certified midwives were significantly lower (3.2/10,000, RR 0.33 95% CI 0.21-0.53) than home births attended by certified midwives (NNM: 10.0/10,000; RR 1) and uncertified midwives (13.7/10,000; RR 1.41 [95% CI, 0.83-2.38]). The difference in neonatal mortality between certified and uncertified midwives at home births did not reach statistical levels (10.0/10,000 births versus 13.7/10,000 births p = 0.2). This study confirms that when compared to midwife-attended hospital births, neonatal mortality rates at home births are significantly increased. While NNM was increased in planned homebirths attended by uncertified midwives when compared to certified midwives, this difference was not statistically significant. Neonatal mortality rates
Pilgrim, Nanlesta A; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Gray, Ronald H; Sekasanvu, Joseph; Lutalo, Tom; Nalugoda, Fred; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J
A better understanding is needed of the contextual factors that influence HIV risk behaviors among female adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. The objectives of this study were to assess the influence of family structure on lifetime sexual partners and on the number of sexual partners in the last year among female adolescents in rural Rakai, Uganda. In addition, the study assessed whether the influence of family structure on these outcomes differed by the school attendance status of the adolescents. The sample consisted of 2337 unmarried adolescent girls, aged 15-19, enrolled in the Rakai Community Cohort Study. The last survey interview within the time period of 2001-2008 available for each girl was used. Analyses were stratified by age (15-17 year olds and 18-19 year olds) and school status. Multinomial logistic and poisson regressions were used. Living in a household with a biological father was protective against both outcomes. Family structure was not associated with the outcomes among in-school adolescents but it was significantly associated with the outcomes among out-of-school adolescents. The findings suggest that understanding the familial context in which female adolescents develop, as well as its interaction with school attendance, is important for HIV prevention efforts. Both research and programmatic initiatives must consider the interplay between the family and school domains when considering ways to reduce HIV acquisition among adolescent women.
Context: Family planning is an integral part of maternal health as its uptake is a significant factor in the reduction of maternal mortality and in ensuring positive child health outcomes. Objectives: To describe prevalence and pattern of contraceptive use, and identify reasons for discontinuation among women accessing family ...
Management and Information Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, 1Department of Health Information ... perspectives of the family physicians, managers, employees and clients in the health system in. 2014. ..... Not justifying the Family Physician Plan's physicians about health problems. 29. 29. 14.5.
This paper examines the linkages between socioeconomic characteristics, attitudes, and familial contraceptive use. Past family planning programs in Nigeria have been mainly directed toward women. However, because northern Nigeria (and to a slightly lesser extent all of Nigeria) remains a patrilineal society characterized ...
Army barracks in Nigeria have low contraceptive prevalence rates (CPRs) and many children per family. The aim of this interventional study, involving 963 married women, is to determine the impact of health education on family planning knowledge, attitudes, and practices among married barrack women. The intervention ...
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
Population growth trends and family planning activities in Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania are summarized in this booklet developed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Narrative information for each continent gives a resume of population growth trends, reasons for the trends, population problems, policy formation, family…
Background: Family physician plan (FPP) and referral system (RS) is one of the major plans in Iran's health system with the aim of increasing the accountability in the health market, enhancing the public's access to the health services, lowering the unnecessary costs and equitable distribution of health across the society.
The paper discusses the effects of the changes of rural income level on family planning practice based a survey of 200 rural families in a affluent vegetable producing area of suburban Beijing. In 1984, 99.7% of child birth followed the local birth planning, and 99.1% of families with one child received One Child Certificates. The annual per capita income of the 200 families was 1,092 yuan (1 US$ = 3.7 yuan) in 1984 even higher than the community average. The number of children was negatively associated with the per capita income and per capita consumption except families with 4 children, most of whom have grown up. The rural mechanization in the community has greatly increased the need for skills and technology rather than strong laborers. The provision of community welfare programs and the increased living standard changed the value of children and also changed people's perception in favor of gender equality. Among families with 1 or 2 children, most preferred to have girls. And among families with more children, the preferred family size is smaller than the actual size, which shows a tendency towards favoring a small family. Among 1 child families, 58.7% considered 1 boy and 1 girl to be ideal, and 37.7% was happy with the only child. As the community becomes richer, both the community and individual families increased their investment in education. The spending on education per child was over 2 times as high in 1 child families than the families with more children. The educational status of parents is positively associated with the exception of children's future education and current spending on education. The concern of parents over children's education is an important factor in improving the quality of labor force. Women of higher education status are more acceptable to contraception and family planning policy. The relatively high level of education of the community has been conducive to it fertility decline.
Niniek Lely Pratiwi
Full Text Available Background: The MDG target to increase maternal health will be achieved when 50% of maternal deaths can be prevented through improvment the coverage of K1, K4, to make sure that midwife stay in the village improve the delivery by health workers in health facilities, increase coverage long-term contraceptive methods participant as well as family and community empowerment in health. Methods: This study is a further analysis of Riskesdas in 2010 to assess how big the accessibility of services in family planning in Indonesia. Results: Women of 3–4 children in rural greater and prevalence (27.1% compared to women who live in urban areas (25.0%. The main reason of not using contraception mostly because they want to have children 27.0% in urban, 28.2% rural whereas, the second reason is the fear of side effects 23.1% in urban, 16.5% rural. There is 10% of respondent did not use contraceptives, because they did not need it. Health seeking behavior of pregnant women with family planning work status has a significant relationship (prevalence ratio 1.073. The jobless mothers has better access to family planning services compared to working mother. Conclusions: Accessibility of family planning services is inadequate, because not all rural ‘Poskesdes’ equipped with infrastructure and family planning devices, a lack of knowledge of family planning in rural areas. Health seeking behavior of family planning services is mostly to the midwives, the scond is to community health centers and than polindes, ‘poskesdes’ as the ranks third.
Hen, Itay; Rieffel, Eleanor G.; Do, Minh; Venturelli, Davide
There are two common ways to evaluate algorithms: performance on benchmark problems derived from real applications and analysis of performance on parametrized families of problems. The two approaches complement each other, each having its advantages and disadvantages. The planning community has concentrated on the first approach, with few ways of generating parametrized families of hard problems known prior to this work. Our group's main interest is in comparing approaches to solving planning problems using a novel type of computational device - a quantum annealer - to existing state-of-the-art planning algorithms. Because only small-scale quantum annealers are available, we must compare on small problem sizes. Small problems are primarily useful for comparison only if they are instances of parametrized families of problems for which scaling analysis can be done. In this technical report, we discuss our approach to the generation of hard planning problems from classes of well-studied NP-complete problems that map naturally to planning problems or to aspects of planning problems that many practical planning problems share. These problem classes exhibit a phase transition between easy-to-solve and easy-to-show-unsolvable planning problems. The parametrized families of hard planning problems lie at the phase transition. The exponential scaling of hardness with problem size is apparent in these families even at very small problem sizes, thus enabling us to characterize even very small problems as hard. The families we developed will prove generally useful to the planning community in analyzing the performance of planning algorithms, providing a complementary approach to existing evaluation methods. We illustrate the hardness of these problems and their scaling with results on four state-of-the-art planners, observing significant differences between these planners on these problem families. Finally, we describe two general, and quite different, mappings of planning
Gallagher, Fiona; Jasper, Melanie
The purpose of this study was to explore Health Visitors' experiences of Family Group Conferences as part of Child Protection Planning in Hampshire, England. The aim was to identify good practice, recognizing the challenges of the approach and enabling recommendations for improved collaboration to be framed. The Family Group Conferences model is based on partnership, decision-making and family involvement and presents an alternative to case conferences. A Husserlian phenomenological approach was adopted, using taped semi-structured interviews with four health visitors who had experience of Family Group Conferences. Colaizzi's seven stages of phenomenological analysis were used. The four key categories related to the ability of the Family Group Conference model to empower families; the need for health visitors to receive appropriate education and training; organizational; and professional issues. Health visitors believed that Family Group Conferences could empower families, but they felt unprepared to attend. Concerns were identified regarding confidentiality and responsibility. Although the health visitors supported the principles underpinning Family Group Conferences, they were unsure about how to put theory into practice. The need for more education and training was strongly supported to enable the model to move from marginal to mainstream use. They also considered that Family Group Conferences could threaten interagency working, associated with issues relating to professional responsibility. The results identified training and procedural issues that need to be addressed if Family Group Conferences are to be introduced successfully within mainstream child protection practice. Insights from this study have led to inclusion of Family Group Conferences in the local child protection guidelines, with emphasis applied to interdisciplinary working, empowerment of families and professional staff, and education and training.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most research on frequent attendance has been cross-sectional and restricted to one year attendance rates. A few longitudinal studies suggest that frequent attendance is self-limiting. Frequent attenders are more likely to have social and psychiatric problems, medically unexplained physical symptoms, chronic somatic diseases (especially diabetes and are prescribed more psychotropic medication and analgesics. RESEARCH QUESTION: To describe the attendance rates in a longitudinal study and to test if depression, panic syndrome, other anxiety syndrome, alcohol misuse and general quality of life are associated with frequent attendance in next two consecutive years. METHODS: 1118 consecutive family practice attendees, aged 18 to 75 years from randomly selected family medicine practices were recruited at baseline and followed up at 12 and 24 months. We identified frequent attenders in the top 10 centile within one year. Using a multivariate model, we ascertained if presence of common mental disorders and quality of life assessed at baseline in 2003 predict frequent attendance in 2004 and 2005. RESULTS: 40% of frequent attenders continue to be frequent attenders in the following year and 20% of the frequent attenders were so for the 24 month period. Lower physical scores on the SF-12 questionnaire were strongly associated with future frequent attendance at 12 and 24 months. There was a trend for people with greater than elementary school education to be less likely to become frequent attenders at both 12 and 24 months. For other variables these effects were less consistent. Presence of major depression, panic syndrome, other anxiety syndrome and alcohol misuse were not predictive of frequent attendance in the following two years. CONCLUSION: Low physical quality of life is strongly predictive of higher frequent attendance and similar finding was observed for people with lower educational level but further confirmatory research is required to
Indifference to family planning in Sri Lanka stems from a number of institutional factors. Family planning advocates in Sri Lanka constitute a small group of Westernized individuals who are alienated from the traditional cultural patterns of Sri Lanka society. The majority of Sri Lanka se. In traditional Sinhalese culture 1) marriages were easily dissolved; 2) fidelity was not highly valued; 3) polyandrous marriages were relatively common; 4) large families were desired; and 5) abortion and infanticide were practiced. Although the traditional culture is no longer intact, many low income Sinhalese still adhere to some elements of traditional culture and most still want to have large families. In recent years, some of the inhabitants of Sri Lanka became westernized, and most of these individuals now constitute the middle class. The middle class adopted an extremely rigid morality which they have attempted to impose on the lower class Sinhalese. The middle class tends to oppose abortion and fears that contraceptive availability will lead to promiscuous behavior. Both the middle and lower classes tend to associatefamily planning with the Tamil segment of the population. The Tamil immigrated to Sri Lanka from India, and their presence and power have always been resented and feared by theSinhalese. Many Sinhalese believe that family planning is a politically motivated attempt on the part of the Tamil to reduce the number of Sinhalese in the population. Although family planning is integrated into the government's maternal and child welfare program, resistance to family planning, especially among the lower classes, remains high. At the present time only 19% of all married women less than 50 years old practice contraception. The national family program made only a minor contribution to the recently observed decline in the fertility rate. The major factor involved in the decline was a growing pattern of delayed marriage.
This paper explores the use of Islamic doctrine and jurisprudence by family planning organizations in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of northern Pakistan. It examines how particular interpretations of Islam are promoted in order to encourage fertility reductions, and the ways Muslim clerics, women and their families react to this process. The paper first discusses how Pakistan's demographic crisis, as the world's sixth most populous nation, has been widely blamed on under-funding for reproductive health services and wavering political commitment to family planning. Critics have called for innovative policy and programming to counter 'excessive reproduction' by also addressing socio-cultural and religious barriers to contraceptive uptake. Drawing on two years of ethnographic research, the paper examines how family planning organizations in Gilgit-Baltistan respond to this shift by employing moderate interpretations of Islam that qualify contraceptive use as a 'rational' reproductive strategy and larger families as 'irrational'. However, the use of Islamic rhetoric to enhance women's health-seeking agency and enable fertility reductions is challenged by conservative Sunni ulema (clergy), who seek to reassert collective control over women's bodies and fertility by deploying Islamic doctrine that honors frequent childbearing. Sunnis' minority status and the losses incurred by regional Shia-Sunni conflicts have further strengthened clerics' pronatalist campaigns. The paper then analyses how Sunni women navigate the multiple reproductive rationalities espoused by 'Islamized' family planning and conservative ulema. Although Islamized family planning legitimizes contraceptive use and facilitates many women's stated desire for smaller families, it frequently positions women against the interests of family, community and conservative Islam.
have access to latrines; this is the case for only 39% of the families in Kapata. Parasite infection was 42.9% in Kabushi and 35% in Kapata. The integrated project has been very successful in using parasite control as an entry point for other health interventions. The Zambia study has demonstrated the need for adopting strategies that will suit local conditions. In the case of Kabushi and Kapata, a different entry point was needed. By attending to 3 common health concerns such as eye problems, jigger, and foot infection among children, the project staff made family planning more acceptable to the people in the 2 areas.
Altman, Miriam; Meis, Alexandra
The American K-12 grade education system is experiencing a truancy crisis. Nationally, 15%, or 7.5 million students, miss an entire month of school annually , with that rate frequently doubling or even tripling among students from underserved communities . Research has identified attendance as one of three primary indicators of high school…
Mount, Jill Katherine
Background and objective. Latinos are the largest ethnic minority in the U.S. and by 2050 they are estimated to become one quarter of the population, yet only one in ten has a college degree. More Latino women (Latinas) are currently attending college than Latino men. To date research has focused on their experiences and where they obtain support…
Although pharmacies now dispense primarily modern products originating in large multinational corporations, the community pharmacist has not been replaced by any ultramodern technological advance. Many thousand persons acquire family planning products in pharmacies. The pharmacist works many hours a day, is always available, and provides free advice to his clients. Pharmacists are consulted daily on numerous topics, especially on family planning. Many prsons in rural areas are without the services of a physician and rely on pharmacists all the more. Pharmacists could orient the public on family planning in general, help in choosing the most appropriate of available methods, and refer patients to physicians in case of problems. Participants at the recent International Conference on the Role of Retail Pharmacists in Family Planning, held in Alexandria, Egypt, concluded that pharmacists should cooperate with physicians and other health professionals to provide family planning services and should participate in elaboration of laws regulating the manufacture, storage, prices, and distribution of contraceptives. The prices of contraceptive supplies to the consumer could be reduced if taxes and import duties were removed, if supplies were produced locally, or if supplies were subsidized by some donor organization.
Chandani, Y; Breton, G
Many developing countries increasingly recognize and acknowledge family planning as a critical part of socio-economic development. However, with few health dollars to go around, countries tend to provide essential drugs for curative care, rather than for family planning products. Donors have historically provided free contraceptives for family planning services. Whether products are donated or purchased by the country, a successful family planning program depends on an uninterrupted supply of products, beginning with the manufacturer and ending with the customer. Any break in the supply chain may cause a family planning program to fail. A well-functioning logistics system can manage the supply chain and ensure that the customers have the products they need, when they need them. Morocco was selected for the case study. The researchers had ready access to key informants and information about the Logistics Management Information System. Because the study had time and resource constraints, research included desktop reviews and interview, rather than data collection in the field. The case study showed that even in a challenging environment an LMIS can be successfully deployed and fully supported by the users. It is critical to customize the system to a country-specific situation to ensure buy-in for the implementation. Significant external support funding and technical expertise are critical components to ensure the initial success of the system. Nonetheless, evidence from the case study shows that, after a system has been implemented, the benefits may not ensure its institutionalization. Other support, including local funding and technical expertise, is required.
Pakpour, Amir H; Gellert, Paul; Asefzadeh, Saeed; Sniehotta, Falko F
The aim of this study was to investigate whether planning a dental appointment is a predictor of actual dental visits over a one-year period when controlling for past attendance, demographic factors, and dental health beliefs. In addition, the planning-attendance association was explored to determine whether dental anxiety and educational status moderated this relationship. A total of N = 1,422 adults with a mean age of M = 44.4 (SD = 11.0) years and resident in Iran participated in a prospective study over a one-year period. The primary outcome was self-reported dental appointment attendance at one-year follow-up, which was validated using clinical records. Action planning, coping planning, health beliefs, age, dental insurance, income, dental health status, dental anxiety, and years of education were assessed at baseline by self-report questionnaire. Data were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Action planning and coping planning were significantly associated with dental appointment attendance at one-year follow-up. Planning a dental appointment was more predictive of dental appointment attendance for people with higher levels of education and lower dental anxiety. The findings of this study suggest that implementation of the behaviour change technique planning into routine dental practice may have the potential to increase dental appointment attendance rates. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.
Melunsky, Nina; Crellin, Nadia; Dudzinski, Emma; Orrell, Martin; Wenborn, Jennifer; Poland, Fiona; Woods, Bob; Charlesworth, Georgina
Reminiscence therapy has the potential to improve quality of life for people with dementia. In recent years reminiscence groups have extended to include family members, but carers' experience of attending joint sessions is undocumented. This qualitative study explored the experience of 18 family carers attending 'Remembering Yesterday Caring Today' groups. Semi-structured interviews were transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis. Five themes were identified: experiencing carer support; shared experience; expectations (met and unmet), carer perspectives of the person with dementia's experience; and learning and comparing. Family carers' experiences varied, with some experiencing the intervention as entirely positive whereas others had more mixed feelings. Negative aspects included the lack of respite from their relative, the lack of emphasis on their own needs, and experiencing additional stress and guilt through not being able to implement newly acquired skills. These findings may explain the failure of a recent trial of joint reminiscence groups to replicate previous findings of positive benefit. More targeted research within subgroups of carers is required to justify the continued use of joint reminiscence groups in dementia care. © The Author(s) 2013.
Etemadi, Afsaneh; Zarebahramabadi, Mahdi; Mirkazemi, Roksana
Al-Anon self-help group is the sole source of assistance for families whose members suffer from alcohol abuse problems in Iran. To assess the effects of Al-Anon meeting attendance on family function and quality of life of women living with husbands with alcohol use disorders. The study was conducted among two groups of women first time participants in Al-Anon (n = 40) and participants who had attended Al-Anon for at least six months (n = 40) in Mashhad, Iran. Participants were administered the Quality of Life Short Form (QOL SF-36) and Family Assessment Device (FAD). There was a significant group difference in the QOL SF-36 total as well as in the sub-scores of role limitations due to physical problems, role limitations due to emotional problems, vitality, pain, and social functioning sub-scores. No significant group differences were observed in FAD sub-scores, except for the subscale of problem solving. These findings suggest Al-Anon, when other structured therapeutic interventions are not available, may be of particular benefit for quality of life issues in women attendees.
In Japan, the condom is the method of choice of 82% of all contraceptive users. The Japan Family Planning Association covers about 3% of the total condom market through a well-organized social marketing scheme. Mobile guidance teams, equipped with a vehicle, supply contraceptives to health centers, independent midwives, and maternity hospitals in 17 prefectures and collect payment for condoms distributed after their previous visit. As an incentive, organizations and health institutions receive a commission for the condoms they supply. Japan's largest condom manufacturer provides supplies to the Family Planning Association at a very low price. The contraceptive social marketing program pays for its own promotion, and the Family Planning Association is able to support its other activities from the income it earns. The program was designed to complement rather than compete with commercial marketing channels such as pharmacies, which supply 60% of the 660 million condoms purchased in Japan each year.
Population growth in China will soon be out of control if measures are not taken immediately. More than 130 million children were born between 1954 and 1960; these children are now of marriage and childbearing age. Even if a couple will have only 1 child, a new baby boom is inevitable in the coming years. Under such circumstances it is important that young couples realize that late marriage and childbearing age are essential for the economic future of the motherland; 25 is being advocated as the proper age to give birth for the first time. Another problem is represented by family planning education in the countryside, where it has always been hard to implement. In some provinces family planning is combined with the responsibility system, that is, a couple, when assigned its quota of production responsibilities, signs a contract that guarantees both production and family planning. Concrete rules should be laid down for all districts within their specific conditions.
Smyth, Suzie; Stronge, Shirley
Family planning gives individuals and couples control and choice over the number of children they have and the timing of their births. Developments in reproductive health have resulted in major changes in the options for family planning, providing more choice and control over fertility. This article explores reproductive health in the Republic of Cuba and the Republic of Ireland, with a focus on contraceptive use and termination of pregnancy as methods of family planning. The predominant religion in both countries is Catholicism, which promotes the right to life of the unborn child. The two countries have adopted different approaches to the availability of both contraception and termination of pregnancy. Cuba has offered free access to contraception and termination of pregnancy since the 1960s to reduce maternal mortality. In Ireland, contraception was not widely available until 1995 and termination of pregnancy is available only in extremely limited circumstances.
Basten, Stuart; Jiang, Quanbao
In November 2013, China announced reforms to its family planning policies whereby couples would be allowed to have a second child if either parent is an only child. The announcement garnered worldwide media coverage, and stimulated academic and popular discussion. We explore the context of the 2013 reforms, including the economic, demographic, and political motivations behind them, and speculate on their likely effect. Noting that the impact of the reforms on China's long-term demographic future is likely to be relatively slight, we consider why more radical reform may have been difficult to implement. We offer observations about possible future directions for Chinese family planning policies and explore the notion of "local pronatalism within nationally prescribed antinatalist limits" and how this suggests that an ideological shift within China's family planning apparatus may be plausible. © 2014 The Population Council, Inc.
Cuca, R; Pierce, C S
Experiments in the delivery of family planning services are an important means of testing new approaches on a relatively small scale. Over the past 20 years, extensive experimental efforts have explored such key aspects of service delivery as personnel, the use of mass media, integration of family planning with other services, intensive efforts and camps, incentive payments to acceptors, and inudation or community-based distribution. Approaches that proved successful have often been incorporated into regular programs. An examination of the methodology and findings of family planning experiments, based on a survey of 96 projects testing various approaches, highlights successes, failures, and continuing problems. The discussion of past experience halps point to criteria that might be followed in formulating future experimental projects.
Some results are provided from the 1991 Social Weather Survey conducted in 1991 for the Legislators' Committee on Population and Development. The sample included both males and females (84% Roman Catholic, 7% other indigenous Christians, 7% Protestants, 1.2% Muslims, 0.2% without a religion, and 0.1% Buddhists). Surprising findings are that the public does not feel restricted from using family planning methods due to religious rules, schooling teachings, or a physician's advice. Most people hold that politicians generally support family planning. Only 19% are reported to believe that governors are against family planning, and 16% report that their mayors are against family planning. According to stated voting intentions, incumbent government officials perceived to be anti-family planning risk not being reelected. 96% of the survey respondents believe that it is important to have control over one's fertility. Awareness of family planning methods is directly related to socioeconomic class, education, and urban location. 21% say that their religion forbids tubal ligation and 26% say that ligation should never be practiced. 22% say that their religion allows ligation. Among people who believe that religion bans ligation, 10% approve of ligation at any time and 44% stipulate that there are times when it may be practiced. Another interesting finding was that school teaching had more influence on beliefs than religion. When schools said that rhythm was not allowed, 40% agreed. When religion taught that rhythm was not allowed, only 21% agreed. 9% of persons who were sectarian educated and 5% among non-sectarian educated persons believed that ligation should not be practiced.
Full Text Available This paper explores inequalities in the use of modern family planning methods among married women of reproductive age (MWRA in rural Nepal. Data from the 2012 Nepal Household Survey (HHS were utilized, which employed a stratified, three-stage cluster design to obtain a representative sample of 9,016 households from rural Nepal. Within the sampled households, one woman of reproductive age was randomly selected to answer the survey questions related to reproductive health. Only four out of every ten rural MWRA were using a modern family planning method. Short-acting and permanent methods were most commonly used, and long-acting reversible contraceptives were the least likely to be used. Muslims were less likely to use family planning compared to other caste/ethnic groups. Usage was also lower among younger women (likely to be trying to delay or space births than older women (likely to be trying to limit their family size. Less educated women were more likely to use permanent methods and less likely to use short-term methods. To increase the CPR, which has currently stalled, and continue to reduce the TFR, Nepal needs more focused efforts to increase family planning uptake in rural areas. The significant inequalities suggest that at-risk groups need additional targeting by demand and supply side interventions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The independent effects of stress on the health of primary care patients might be different for different types of clinic populations. This study examines these relationships in a low-income female population of patients attending a family planning clinic. Methods This study investigated the relevance of different sources of personal stress and social support to self-rated health, adjusting for mental health, health behavior and demographic characteristics of subjects. Five hundred women who attended family planning clinics were surveyed and 345 completed the form for a response rate of 72 percent. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that liking oneself was related to good self-rated health (Odds ratio = 7.11, but stress or support from children, parents, friends, churches or spouses were not significant. White non-Hispanic and non-white non-Hispanic respondents had lower odds of reporting good self-rated health than Hispanic respondents (odds ratios were 2.87 and 2.81, respectively. Exercising five or more days per week also was related to good self-rated health. Smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day, and obese III were negatively related to good self-rated health (odds ratios were .19 and .22, respectively with corresponding p-values equal to .0043 and .0332. Conclusions Among younger low-income women, addressing low self-esteem might improve health status.
Fehring, Richard J
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of contraception, abortion, and natural family planning (NFP) on divorce rates of US women of reproductive age. The variables of importance of religion and frequency of church attendance were also included in the analysis. The study involved 5,530 reproductive age women in the (2006-2010) National Survey of Family Growth who indicate that they were ever married. Among the women who ever used NFP only 9.6 percent were currently divorced compared with the 14.4 percent who were currently divorced among the women who never used NFP (x (2) = 5.34, P NFP users the reason might be due to their religiosity. Lay summary: Providers of natural family planning (NFP) frequently mention that couples who practice NFP have fewer divorces compared to couples who use contraception. Evidence for this comment is weak. This study utilized a large data set of 5,530 reproductive age women to determine the influence that contraception, sterilization, abortion, and NFP has on divorce rates. Among the women participants who ever used NFP only 9.6 percent were currently divorced compared with the 14.4 percent who used methods of contraception, sterilization or abortion as a family planning method. Frequency of church attendance also reduced the likelihood of divorce.
Fehring, Richard J.
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of contraception, abortion, and natural family planning (NFP) on divorce rates of US women of reproductive age. The variables of importance of religion and frequency of church attendance were also included in the analysis. The study involved 5,530 reproductive age women in the (2006–2010) National Survey of Family Growth who indicate that they were ever married. Among the women who ever used NFP only 9.6 percent were currently divorced compared with the 14.4 percent who were currently divorced among the women who never used NFP (x2 = 5.34, P NFP users the reason might be due to their religiosity. Lay summary: Providers of natural family planning (NFP) frequently mention that couples who practice NFP have fewer divorces compared to couples who use contraception. Evidence for this comment is weak. This study utilized a large data set of 5,530 reproductive age women to determine the influence that contraception, sterilization, abortion, and NFP has on divorce rates. Among the women participants who ever used NFP only 9.6 percent were currently divorced compared with the 14.4 percent who used methods of contraception, sterilization or abortion as a family planning method. Frequency of church attendance also reduced the likelihood of divorce. PMID:26912935
Full Text Available Unwanted pregnancies with their negative impact on both women and children occur on an ongoing basis in Gauteng, South Africa. One way to prevent unwanted pregnancies is to use a reliable contraceptive method available free of charge from primary health care clinics providing family planning services throughout Gauteng Province. A literature review was completed on women and access to family planning services and an interview schedule (questionnaire was developed. The purpose of this study was to describe guidelines to meet the expectations of clients accessing family planning services provided by a clinic in Region F, Area 28 of the Greater Johannesburg metropolitan council. This quantitative, exploratory, descriptive and comparative study measured the gaps between the expectations of participants on service delivery and the extent to which these expectations were met. A convenience sample was conducted and consisted of 50 women of reproductive age (ages 15 to 49 attending the family planning clinic. Pre-testing of the instrument was conducted. Structured interviews with a interview schedule were conducted before and after women attended a family planning service. Inferential statistics indicated that there was a significant gap between the client expectations of family planning service delivery and the extent to which these expectations were met. Of the sixty-four items where women indicated the extent of their expectations the findings on only three items were not statistically significant. These gaps were addressed by proposing managerial guidelines to be implemented by the nurse manager in charge of the facility, on which this article will focus. Validity and reliability principles were ensured in the study. Ethical principles were adhered to during the research process.
This work summarizes a paper by Cynthia B. Lloyd and Serguey Ivanov entitled "The Effects of Improved Child Survival on Family Planning Practice and Fertility" that was presented at the October 1987 conference in Nairobi on the health benefits of family planning for women and children. The paper presented results of a systematic literature review that sought to answer 2 questions: 1) do improved prospects of child survival reduce fertility, and 2) if so, what role does family planning play in the process. The 4 parts of the study defined the theoretical framework of the analysis, examined socioeconomic factors that could influence family building strategies, reviewed empiric research on the subject, and discussed policy implications. Improved survival prospects for children have 4 different effects which promote fertility decline. The transition effect refers to the parents' growing awareness that they can influence future events. The physiologic effect results when lactation is uninterrupted by early death of the child. When fertility behavior becomes more calculated and less fatalistic, demand and supply effects enter into play. The relationship between fertility and mortality is 2-directional. Socioeconomic factors determine the number of surviving children desired by a couple. In the traditionally agricultural societies of sub-Saharan Africa, the economic value of children far exceeds their costs, which at any rate are shared by the extended family and the community at large. The age distribution of death largely determines the predictability of child survival. High mortality after the 1st year as in Sahel countries which have the highest child morality rates in the world is unfavorable to family planning. The distribution of causes of death is also important because parents are more likely to notice improved survival prospects and change their fertility expectations accordingly if they themselves helped improve conditions rather than merely benefitting from
Mahamed, Fariba; Parhizkar, Saadat; Raygan Shirazi, Alireza
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of health education on the knowledge and attitude regarding family planning and contraception's method among the women who obligatory attended the Premarital Counseling Center in Yasouj city, Iran. An experimental study was carried out and a total of 200 women were selected for the study using convenience sampling method among women who attended in the health centre in order to utilize the necessary premarital actions. Respondents were divided by two experimental and control groups randomly. A pre-evaluation was done on the knowledge and attitude on family planning using a structured questionnaire. After which, the health education for experimental group was done within four educational sessions during 4 consecutive weeks and control group underwent traditional education method. Post evaluation was utilized for any changes regarding their knowledge and attitude among the respondents immediately after the intervention. Independent and paired t-test was used to evaluate the mean knowledge and attitude scores differences among both groups. RESULTS showed that there was a significant improvement in respondents' knowledge and attitude after educational program in experimental group (p<0.001), while no significant difference was observed in knowledge and attitude of control group. The finding also indicated that age was significantly associated with the level of respondents' knowledge. These results deal the effectiveness of the educational method. In conclusion, the educational method is effective in increasing the knowledge and improving the attitude of women regarding family planning in Yasouj compared to current used educational method. Future educational programs need to incorporate the features that have been associated with successful interventions in the past, as well as including their own evaluation procedures.
This study aimed at assessing the pattern of family planning methods used by antenatal patients at Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. The study was conducted between December,2007 and February,2008 at the antenatal clinic of the hospital. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical committee of ...
The immediate need to control the high fertility rates among women in the rural part of Nigeria has attracted the interest of scholars in the academic world. Lots have been done by international agencies and other stakeholders to encourage the use of family planning methods among women both in rural and urban areas of ...
Abstract: This study investigated factors influencing utilization of modern family planning services among women of childbearing age (15-49 years) in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. Three research questions and three hypotheses were formulated. Descriptive survey design was adopted for it.
Women with unplanned pregnancy who came to the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH), Calabar, Nigeria, for antenatal care were studied. The aim was to establish the knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning amongst these women. The incidence of unplanned pregnancy in our antenatal population ...
Unplanned pregnancy poses a major public health challenge to women of reproductive age in Nigeria and this has been hastened by poor use of modern family planning methods. This study employed secondary data analysis of the National HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey conducted in 2007 and 2012 to ...
... implementation of family planning programmes in predominant Muslim communities was carefully appraised. This discourse therefore was written to improve the knowledge and sharpen the skill of health workers who are likely to work in such communities for effective negotiation and application of appropriate strategies.
Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess the reproductive choices for Women Living with HIV on ... planning methods can often impede family size preferences being acted upon and reproductive rights ... and long term sexual relationships, cohabiting (living as married). There were a considerable number of ...
Integration of Family Planning Services within Post Abortion Care at Health Facilities in Dessie –North East Ethiopia. ... Facility based cross - sectional study design was used including both quantitative and qualitative data collection method. The sample size was 291. The number of study units to be sampled from each ...
From September 24 through October 4,1997, a cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the status of Community-based distribution (CBD) of family planning as perceived by reproductive age groups aged 15-49 years and the CBD workers. The study covered 14 German Agency for Technical Co-operation (GTZ) ...
The author provides a global review of family planning techniques and their impact on national birth rates. Sterilization, the pill, and intrauterine devices are the most popular methods of contraception worldwide. Abortion, where it is legal, is also extremely popular. In countries such as the United States where population control is not an…
Objectives: The study sought to determine factors influencing utilization of Natural Family Planning (NFP) among child bearing women in Chilonga Catchment area. The literature review was mainly obtained from studies conducted globally, regionally and Zambia inclusively. Literature review revealed that information ...
Despite a high fertility rate of 5.5 per woman and a high population growth rate of 3.2%, Nigeria's contraceptive prevalence is 15%, which is one of the lowest in the world. The objective of this study was ... joint decisions in this regard. Keywords: Birth control, contraception, contraceptives, family planning, population control ...
AJRH Managing Editor
Nigeria. According to the 2008 Nigeria DHS only. 9.7% of married women used a modern method of contraception, while 20.2% of women had an unmet need for family planning services6. Contraceptive use was also lowest in. Northern Nigeria with 2.5% and 3.5% in the North. West and North East regions using a modern.
An intensive family planning program offering a variety of delivery systems has been successful for the last decade in the Philippines. The emphasis is on people's involvement. 2 government sponsored programs are currently spearheading a total national effort enlisting many related or complementary projects, some area specific, which utilize both private and public resources. The Commission on Population started 3 types of nonclinic based projects during 1975-76: the Total Integrated Development Approach (TIDA), the National Population/Family Planning Outreach Project (Outreach), and Project Compassion (PROCOM). Offices were set up at regional and provincial levels. The TIDA program has mostly been superseded by the Outreach program which was launched with U.S. government assistance. The PROCOM project integrates 4 social services: family planning, nutrition, food production, and environmental sanitation. At the village level, PROCOM is represented by volunteer neighborhood captains. Panay Island has the Panay Unified Services for Health (PUSH). Clinic-based delivery of maternal health services coupled with family planning services under the Population Commission are designed to reach every barangay. Rural health units are being established in every province with a population of 7-40,000. In the area covered by each rural health unit are several primary health care units with a midwife.
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300.24 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF...
Objective: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya ...
Strategies to improving access and utilization to family planning methods should therefore include; the involvement of male partners as well as traditional/religious leaders, economic empowerment of women and continuous research aimed at improving safety and reduction of side effects profile of the methods among ...
support at all levels of the public health system. The technical support includes training for service providers, including HEWs on different family planning methods, post ..... Kalutara district Siri Lanka. Int J Collaborative. Res Intern Med Public Health 2012;4(6):1097-114. 2. Cates W, Abdool Karim Q, El-Sadr W, Haffner D,.
Ayten Senturk Erenel
Full Text Available Use of an family planning method during the postpartum period is important both to space births, and to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Under-utilization of family planning services during this period not only leads to adverse conditions caused by excessive fertility, but also has negative effects on both maternal and infant health. Women are in close contact with health care providers before, during, and after childbirth, when they are most likely to be impressed by the services they receive. Effective provision of health care services in these periods is therefore of great importance. Literature indicates high rates of success and compliance with family planning services provided during these periods. Many women neglect to use a modern contraceptive method in the postpartum period believing that breastfeeding alone ensures sufficient protection against pregnancy. Indeed, breastfeeding can be 98% effective as a contraceptive method; however, this is only true if certain criteria are observed. There are three basic criteria for the lactational amenorrhea method to be effective: the baby must be less than six months old, must be exclusively or almost exclusively breast-fed, and the mother must not be menstruating. In a conference held in Bellago in August 1988 by the World Health Organization and other international agencies, a consensus was developed for effective use of lactational amenorrhea method, and it was agreed to adopt breastfeeding as a potential family planning method in maternal and child health programs. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(4.000: 383-390
In order to reverse the trends in high fertility rates, there is need to increase uptake of family planning .... reverse the stall in fertility levels, and reduce unwanted and mistimed pregnancies, levels of unsafe abortions, ..... Hosmer D, Lemeshow S. Applied Logistic Regres- sion. Second ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 2000.
In Malawi family planning methods used are the common modern methods. Traditional methods include breast feeding, abstinence and the wearing of a waist ring made from traditional medicine. Twenty-six indicators were reportedly used in ascertaining if a woman has conceived. Lightening of the woman's complexion ...
Cost effectiveness studies of family planning (FP) services are very valuable in providing evidence-based data for decision makers in Egypt. Cost data came from record reviews for all 15 mobile clinics and a matched set of 15 static clinics and interviews with staff members of the selected clinics at Assiut Governorate.
Sep 15, 2017 ... CNSEE. Enquête Démographique et de Santé du Congo. (EDSC-II) 2011-2012. Available at: http:// http://www.cnsee.org/pdf/EDSC2012.pdf. (Accessed: 26th August 2017). 17. Williams T, Schutt-Aine J and Cuca Y. Measuring family planning service quality through client satisfaction exit interviews. Int. Fam.
0.93-1.75]. †Pseudo R-square=0.1039, model p<0.0001. Adjusted for clinic at recruitment. * P values from likehood ratio tests. Family planning methods among women in a vaginal microbicide feasibility study in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa ...
We conducted this study to find out the reasons for this low uptake in our practice environment. Methodology: This is a ... couples can space their pregnancies by at least 2 years using family planning methods, about 35% of ... is, therefore, the urgent need to find out the contraceptive prevalence in our area of practice and ...
and build upon the work non‑commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. For reprints contact: ... Family planning has the potential to reduce maternal deaths and disabilities by delaying motherhood, spacing childbirths, avoiding unplanned pregnancy, and its.
85.8%) and prevention of unplanned or unwanted pregnancy (93.6%). With regard to perceived negative effects of family planning use, half of the respondents (50.3%) believed that it could enhance unfaithfulness among married women, 40.6%.
Deliberate efforts should be made by the management of UCTH Calabar to train and retrain health services providers to equip them with knowledge, skills and new ideas required for the handling of clients with all types of FP problems. Keywords: Problems, Prospects, Family planning, Calabar Global Journal of Social ...
Context: Medical audit in healthcare has a goal to monitor and upgrade the standard of health care in a setting. Whether a client will accept, use effectively and continue to practice contraception depends on the quality of services rendered. Objective: To assess the quality of our family planning services as perceived by our ...
the way people living with HIV and AIDs in Zambia think about family planning choices and childbearing. .... it was expected that if they were not married, they would in essence be engaged in other non permanent ... who were abstaining and living a solitary life (widowed, single and divorced) (Table 1). Table 1: Type of ...
E mail: email@example.com. ABSTRACT. Aim: This study aimed at determining the awareness about family planning amongst pregnant women presenting to the antenatal clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. Methodology: The study was conducted between December, 2007 and February ...
Family Planning - A Priority Social and Health Action Programme for. Africa and the Role of the Physician. Dr. A.A. Arkutu ... cern about che risk - benefit factor while ochers cite che spread of HIV infection as justification for not ... promote health and reduce che high levels of illness and mortality, especially among vulnerable.
Little is known on integrating HIV and family planning (FP) services in community settings. Using a cluster randomized controlled design, we conducted a formative assessment in two districts in Uganda where community health workers, called VHTs, already offered FP. Thirty-six trained VHTs also provided HIV testing and ...
The Standard Days Method is a simple fertility awareness—based method of family planning that helps women ... Rwanda remains one of the poorest countries in ... Community health workers afﬁhatedvﬁth the sites were üained to mobilize and refer clients to clinics. Behavior change communication activities, including.
This study was designed to assess the utilization of Family planning methods and associated factors among HIV-infected women in ART clinics of public health institutions Nekemte town, East Wollega zone, Ethiopia. Facility based cross sectional study design using quantitative technique of data collection method ...
Background: Family planning in our environment had remained a delicate issue that is still reluctantly being accepted based on religious belief and the perception that it is synonymouswith population control. Objective: This study was carried out with the objectives of identifying the characteristics of contraceptive acceptors ...
AJRH Managing Editor
This health systems assessment evaluated the feasibility of introducing a new contraceptive device, the SILCS single-size diaphragm, into the existing family planning method mix in Uganda. A total of 26 focus group discussions with 201 female and. 77 male potential users and 98 key informant interviews with policymakers ...
Background: Unwanted pregnancy is a common event in our environment and many of them will end in an unsafe abortion. Unsafe abortion is a significant cause of maternal mortality. Correct use of effective family planning methods will reduce the incidence of unwanted pregnancy and improve the health of women.
Objective: To investigate family planning needs, knowledge of HIV transmission and HIV disclosure in a cohort sample that had undergone PMTCT in a resource poor setting. Design. Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Five clinics implementing PMTCT from Qaukeni Local Service Area, O.R. Tambo District in the Eastern Cape.
Objective:. To assess the level of regard and misconceptions of modern family planning methods in Abraka communities. Methods: The interviewer\\'s administered questionnaire method was used to gather the required information from 657 respondents randomly chosen from PO, Ajalomi, Erho, Oria, Otorho, Umeghe, ...
Aim: This study aimed at determining the awareness about family planning amongst pregnant women presenting to the antenatal clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. Methodology: The study was conducted between December, 2007 and February, 2008 at the antenatal clinic of the hospital. Ethical ...
To assess the knowledge of mothers of under- five children brought to immunisation centres of contraceptivemethods applicable bymales and their perceptions of the roles ofmales in family planning. This cross- sectional descriptive study involved a questionnaire interview of mothers who came to immunise their children at ...
Women with severe maternal morbidity represent an important group to target for increasing contraceptive uptake. Our objective was to explore the future fertility intentions, use of family planning including methods and reasons for not wanting to use contraception among a group of women who had traumatic delivery ...
A total of 2,133 currently married women age 15-49 from the 2000 survey and 1,988 ... respondent's education, knowledge of family planning, respondent's work status, ... On the other hand, number of living children, education, age and age at ...
Ugwu, Dorothy N.; Adamuti-Trache, Maria
This study examines the post-graduation plans of international science and engineering doctoral students at a public research-intensive university, and the extent to which graduate school experiences influence post-graduation plans. The study is grounded in Tinto's Integration Model as well as Berry's Acculturation Model. Study findings highlight…
Markham, Christine M; Tortolero, Susan R; Escobar-Chaves, S Liliana; Parcel, Guy S; Harrist, Ronald; Addy, Robert C
Youth in alternative high schools engage in risky sexual behavior at higher rates than do their peers in regular schools, placing themselves at an increased risk of sexually transmitted disease and unintended pregnancy. Family connectedness is associated with reduced adolescent sexual risk-taking, although this association has not been tested among alternative school youth. A sample of 976 urban, predominantly minority alternative high school students in Houston, Texas, were surveyed in 2000-2002. Survey data were analyzed using logistic regression to determine whether family connectedness is related to sexual risk-taking. Overall, 68% of students reported ever having had sex. Of sexually experienced students, 74% reported having had sex in the past three months and 29% reported ever having been involved in a pregnancy. The higher students scored on a scale of perceived family connectedness, the less likely they were to report ever having had sex, recently having had unprotected sex and having been involved in a pregnancy (odds ratio, 0.97 per unit increase for each outcome). Among females, higher perceived family connectedness was associated with reduced odds of ever having had sex or having initiated sex prior to age 13 (0.96 for each); males who perceived higher family connectedness had reduced odds of having been involved in a pregnancy (0.93). Family connectedness may be a protective factor related to sexual risk-taking, even among high-risk youth. Including activities that acknowledge the influence of family relationships and facilitate positive parent-child relationships may increase the efficacy of programs for reducing sexual risk-taking among alternative school youth.
Albania's entrance into the world community has exposed some of the consequences of a pronatalist policy of 40 years; high infant and maternal mortality, illegal clandestine abortions leading to morbidity and death, and high fertility at 3.3 children per woman in 1990. The crude birth rate was 25.2 per 1000. The communist dictator Enver Hohxa used extreme measures with his secret police to enforce repressive policies. Birth control was forbidden to be even discussed, and sex was absent from medical literature. The current population of Albania is 3.3 million, with 66% living in remote mountain villages. A national family planning program is currently underway. The goals are to reduce mortality, reduce premature births by 20%, and achieve contraceptive usage among 10% of the reproductive age populations. Medical personnel will be trained in family planning, and family planning will be introduced in the entire health education program. Reliance will be placed on the existing extensive system of primary health care (PHC) facilities. The outreach effort to the 700,000 women of reproductive age will involve all health care professionals. Information, education, and communication will be the main thrust of the program. A model family planning clinic will be established at the Maternity Hospital at Tirana, which already has a teaching capacity for training of medical students, midwives, and nurses. Although a PHC system is in place, buildings and equipment are out of data. The health personnel of the program are excited by the challenge of providing reproductive health care for an woman's entire reproductive life. A new family planning clinic has already been established in Elbasan, a remote village south of Tirana, but public response has been mixed. Another clinic north of tirana has a population that is enthusiastic about family planning, even with a clinic not as well equipped as in Elbasan. The educational outreach must include doctors as well, who have only read
Johannessen, Aud; Bruvik, Frøydis Kristine; Hauge, Solveig
Background Psychosocial interventions for persons with dementia and their primary family carers are promising approaches to reducing the challenges associated with care, but, obtaining significant outcomes may be difficult. Even though carers in general are satisfied with such interventions, few studies have evaluated the interventions by means of qualitative methods. Aim The objective of the study reported here was to investigate family carers’ experiences of a multicomponent psychosocial intervention program, and also to offer advice on how to develop the intervention program. Methods Content analyses were taken from individual qualitative interviews conducted in 2012 with 20 carers (aged 50–82 years) who participated in a psychosocial intervention program that included education, individual and family counseling, and parallel group sessions for carers and persons with dementia. Results Two main categories emerged: 1) benefits of the intervention program, which sets out the informants’ experiences for the benefits of participation, described in the subcategories “importance of content and group organization” and “importance of social support”; and 2) missing content in the intervention program, which details the informants’ suggestions for future interventions, contained in the subcategories “need for extended content” and “need for new group organization”. Conclusion The carers found the interventions useful. The importance of even earlier and more flexible interventions for the family carers, the extended family, and the persons with dementia was underscored. PMID:25709469
Johannessen, Aud; Bruvik, Frøydis Kristine; Hauge, Solveig
Psychosocial interventions for persons with dementia and their primary family carers are promising approaches to reducing the challenges associated with care, but, obtaining significant outcomes may be difficult. Even though carers in general are satisfied with such interventions, few studies have evaluated the interventions by means of qualitative methods. The objective of the study reported here was to investigate family carers' experiences of a multicomponent psychosocial intervention program, and also to offer advice on how to develop the intervention program. Content analyses were taken from individual qualitative interviews conducted in 2012 with 20 carers (aged 50-82 years) who participated in a psychosocial intervention program that included education, individual and family counseling, and parallel group sessions for carers and persons with dementia. Two main categories emerged: 1) benefits of the intervention program, which sets out the informants' experiences for the benefits of participation, described in the subcategories "importance of content and group organization" and "importance of social support"; and 2) missing content in the intervention program, which details the informants' suggestions for future interventions, contained in the subcategories "need for extended content" and "need for new group organization". The carers found the interventions useful. The importance of even earlier and more flexible interventions for the family carers, the extended family, and the persons with dementia was underscored.
Decades of social change in West Germany and the emergence of an ideology that stresses individualism have altered dramatically procreative behavioral patterns. At present, West Germany is characterized by a low marriage rate (6.1/1000 in 1986), declining fertility (10.3 birth/1000), rising divorce rates (20.1/1000), and increases in the proportion of single-person households (34%). The relationship between family planning, family policy, and demographic policy is unclear and changing. Family planning practice is viewed as a part of comprehensive life planning and is based on factors such as partnership or marital status, sex roles, the conflict between working in the home and having a career, consumer aspirations, and housing conditions. The Government's family policy includes the following components: child benefits, tax relief on children, tax splitting arrangements for married couples, childcare allowance, parental leave, student grants, tax deductions for domiciliary professional help and nursing assistance, and the provision of daycare. Thus, West Germany's family policy is directed more at encouraging and facilitating parenthood and family life than at a setting demographic goals. There is no evidence, however, that such measures will be successful and divergent influences of other policy areas are often more compelling. Nor is there any way to quantify the fertility-costing impact of individual family policy measures. The indistinct nature of family planning policy in West Germany mirrors political differences between the current coalition government, which maintains a traditional view of the family, and the opposition Social-Democratic and Green Parties, which question whether the equality of men and women can be achieved in the context of old family structures.
Piotrow, P T; Rimon, J G
Countries in Asia played a key a role in identifying problems related to population growth and high fertility and in developing strategies to address these problems. Despite the economic problems experienced by some, they continue to lead the world in designing and implementing programs in the areas of reproductive and family health using a strategic communication approach. This modern strategic communication program has the following characteristics: science and research-based, client-centered, benefit-oriented, service-linked, entertainment-education focused, professionally developed, and programmatically sustainable. This paper describes several outstanding Asian family planning communication programs in 5 countries that clearly illustrate these 7 elements. Overall, these Asian countries have shown that strategic communication can be the steering wheel for modern family planning and health promotion programs. The article concludes by giving future directions for strategic communication programs to address new emerging health and population concerns in the region.
Padmadas, Sabu S; Amoako Johnson, Fiifi; Leone, Tiziana; Dahal, Govinda P
Nepal has a distinct topography that makes reproductive health and family planning services difficult to access, particularly in remote mountain and hill regions where over a quarter of modern contraceptive users rely exclusively on vasectomy. A three-level random intercept logistic regression analysis was applied on data from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey to investigate the extent of influence of mobile family planning clinics on the odds of a male or a female sterilization, adjusting for relevant characteristics including ecological differences and random effects. The analyses included a sample of 2014 sterilization users, considering responses from currently married women of reproductive ages. The odds of a male sterilization were significantly higher in a mobile clinic than those in a government hospital (odds ratio, 1.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-2.25). The effects remained unaltered and statistically significant after adjusting for sociodemographic and clustering effects. Random effects were highly significant, which suggest the extent of heterogeneity in vasectomy use at the community and district levels. The odds of vasectomy use in mobile clinics were significantly higher among couples residing in hill and mountain regions and among those with three or more sons or those with only daughters. Mobile clinics significantly increase the uptake of vasectomy in hard-to-reach areas of Nepal. Reproductive health interventions should consider mobile clinics as an effective strategy to improve access to male-based modern methods and enhance gender equity in family planning. Family planning interventions in hard-to-reach communities could consider mobile clinic as an effective strategy to promote male-based modern methods. Improving access to vasectomy could substantially reduce unmet need for family planning in countries experiencing rapid fertility transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
For Muslims the Koran provides the infallible rules of conduct fundamental to their way of life. In the past, conservative religious leaders represented a force opposing changes in the traditional status of women and large family norms in Egypt. However, the Grand Mufti has openly expressed his support for responsible parenthood and family planning. The total fertility rate would not have dropped to 3.9 in Egypt without his strong support for family planning. The Grand Mufti expressed his views on family planning in an interview. Family planning is compatible with the teaching of the Koran. There is no problem in promoting family planning according to the Koran. Family planning is the independent and voluntary decision and right of each couple. The Grand Mufti encourages practice family planning through TV, radio, and newspapers. Among Islamic countries, Egypt is one of the few countries where family planning has been well accepted. Religious leaders, medical doctors, and mass media people recognize that the Koran's teachings harmonize with family planning, therefore the promotion of family planning has been successful. More and more people in other Islamic countries will come to practice family planning as they comprehend the Koran's teachings accurately. However, it will take some time before people in these countries will be able to benefit from family planning, since many countries face economic problems thwarting the development of family planning services. The fact that most of the family planning users are women is immaterial, as family planning is the joint responsibility of the married couple. Men should definitely participate in family planning. Men's participation in family planning fits in with the Koran. At the International Conference on Population and Development to be held in the September, 1994, the Grand Mufti is going to speak on men's responsibility for family planning.
Cho, Heung-Don; Kim, Nam-Young; Gil, Hyo-wook; Jeong, Du-shin; Hong, Sae-yong
The frequency and extent of the existence of a familial suicide prevention plan may differ across cultures. The aim of this work was, therefore, to determine how common it was for families to develop a suicide prevention plan and to compare the main measures used by families with and without such a plan, after an attempt to commit suicide was made by a member of a family living in a rural area of Korea. On the basis of the presence or absence of a familial suicide prevention plan, we compared 50 recruited families that were divided into 2 groups, with Group A (31 families) employing a familial suicide prevention plan after a suicide attempt by a family member, and Group B (19 families) not doing so. The strategy that was employed most frequently to prevent a reoccurrence among both populations was promoting communication among family members, followed by seeking psychological counseling and/or psychiatric treatment. Contrary to our expectation, the economic burden from medical treatment after a suicide attempt did not influence the establishment of a familial suicide prevention plan. It is a pressing social issue that 38% (19 of 50) of families in this study did not employ a familial suicide prevention plan, even after a family member had attempted suicide. Regional suicide prevention centers and/or health authorities should pay particular attention to these patients and their families.
Wilson, Samantha L.
The child-caregiver relationship has long been recognized as crucial to social-emotional functioning and later development. Specifically, the consistency with which caregivers interact with young children in warm, supportive ways is related to optimal early development. This may be especially critical in the families formed by international…
Pronatalist attitudes are traditional in Rwanda, a country in which more than 90% of the population lives by peasant agriculture and the Catholic church is strong. A rapid change in thinking will be inevitable if the country is to attain its goal of food self-sufficiency and to improve the health of its mothers and infants. Population densities were already high in Rwanda in the early 20th century, and they have become much higher. The total population increased from an estimated 2 million around 1940 to 4 million in 1970 and about 6 million in 1984. If the current rate of growth of 3.7% is maintained, the population will exceed 10 million before the year 2000. Already the size of the average farm is only .4 hectare. The health situation is equally alarming. Infant and child mortality rates are each about 125/1000 live births. The high death rate among mothers is partly due to too many births, too closely spaced. At age 49 a Rwandan woman will have given birth to an average of 8.5 children. Prematurity, malnutrition, and diarrhea and other diseases take their toll on the children of chronically exhausted mothers. Family planning alone will not solve the problems; better prenatal care, medical surveillance of infants and young children, improved obstetrical facilities, vaccination programs, oral rehydration programs and a range of other services are needed. The government of Rwanda created the Scientific Consultative Council for Sociodemographic Problems in 1974 and the National Office of Population (ONAPO) in 1981. ONAPO is responsible for promotion and provision of family planning services. A project to increase acceptance of family planning in the 2 prefectures of Butare and Gikongoro and to integrate family planning into maternal-child health services has received support from the German government since 1986. The 1st phase of the project, in 1986-87, involved informing the population and political-administrative authorities of Gikongoro of the benefits of
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore whether parents' engagement in shift work affects the sleep habits of their adolescent children who attend school in two shifts. METHODS: The data were drawn from an extensive survey of sleep and daytime functioning of adolescents attending school one week in the morning and the other in the afternoon. The participants were 1,386 elementary and high school students (11-18 years old whose parents were both employed. The data were analyzed using MANOVA, with parents' work schedule, adolescents' gender and type of school as between-subject factors. RESULTS: Parents' working schedule significantly affected the sleep patterns of high school adolescents. When attending school in the morning, adolescents whose parents were both day workers woke up somewhat later than adolescents with one shiftworking parent. In addition, they slept longer than adolescents whose parents were both shift workers. On weekends, adolescents whose parents both worked during the day went to bed earlier than adolescents whose parents were both shiftworkers. They also had smaller bedtime delay on weekends with respect to both morning and afternoon shifts than adolescents for whom one or both parents worked shifts. A significant interaction between parents' working schedule, adolescents' gender and type of school was found for sleep extension on weekends after afternoon shift school. CONCLUSIONS: Parental involvement in shift work has negative effects on the sleep of high school adolescents. It contributes to earlier wake-up time and shorter sleep in a week when adolescents attend school in the morning, as well as to greater bedtime irregularity.OBJETIVO: Investigar se a ocupação de pais com o trabalho em turnos interfere nos hábitos de sono dos filhos adolescentes que freqüentam a escola em dois períodos distintos. MÉTODOS: Os dados foram coletados em uma extensa pesquisa sobre sono e atividades diurnas de adolescentes que freqüentavam a escola no
The safest way for children to travel within a car is by provision of a weight-appropriate safety-seat. To investigate this, we conducted a cross-sectional study of adult parents who had children under 12 years, and collected information related to: car use, safety-seat legislation, and type of safety-seat employed. Data were reviewed on 120 children from 60 respondents. Ninety-eight (81.7%) children were transported daily by car. Forty-eight (81.4%) respondents were aware that current safety-seat legislation is based on the weight of the child. One hundred and seven (89.9%) children were restrained during travel using a car safety-seat. One hundred and two (96.2%) safety seats were newly purchased, installed in 82.3% (88) cases by family members with installation instructions fully read in 58 (55.2%) cases. Ninety-nine (83.2%) children were restrained using an appropriate safety-seat for their weight. The results show that four out of five families are employing the most appropriate safety-seat for their child, so providing an effective mechanism to reduce car-related injury. However, the majority of safety-seats are installed by family members, which may have child safety consequences.
The most recent contraceptive prevalence survey in Colombia indicated that over 2/3 of couples at risk of conception used some contraceptive method in 1990. This figure is close to the 80% or over common in developed countries and far exceeds the rates of 10% or even less in sub-Saharan African countries. Colombia's prevalence rate of around 15% in 1965, the 1st year of institutionalized family planning programs, included many users of ineffective traditional methods. Family planning, the possibility of determining the number and spacing of children, can be analyzed from various perspectives including its legal foundation as a human right and the demographic benefits of reproductive moderation. A stable population size would substantially simplify the problems of health, education, housing, and employment faced by developing countries. From a humanitarian perspective, family planning satisfies the ancient desire of human beings to separate reproduction and sex and also opens the door to different techniques of medically assisted conception. Some of the most significant benefits of family planning are those in the area of health. The positive effects on maternal and infant health and survival of avoiding pregnancy at the extremes of the reproductive period as well as pregnancies that are too numerous or closely spaced are now recognized. Colombia's infant mortality rate has fallen from 100/1000 live births in 1965 to 24 in 1990. Many factors besides family planning were involved, and the exact contribution of higher educational levels of mothers, use of oral rehydration therapy, promotion of breastfeedings, greater availability of potable water, and vaccination programs as well as of family planning are difficult to assess. But it is clear that child survival programs that neglect to include modern contraception as a principal component are shortsighted. Infants of adolescent mothers face mortality rates that are 15-40% higher than those of mothers over 20. Beyond
Dinkel, Andreas; Schneider, Antonius; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Brähler, Elmar; Häuser, Winfried
To investigate the association between the quality of the family physician-patient relationship and frequent attendance of primary and specialist health care. Cross-sectional survey of a representative German population sample (N=2.266). Family physician-patient relationship was assessed with the Patient Doctor Relationship Questionnaire (PDRQ-9). Determinants of frequent attendance were analyzed using logistic regression. Frequent attendance of family physicians was associated with lower income (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.02-2.00), not being in paid work (OR 1.58, CI 1.08-2.30), psychological distress (OR 1.14, CI 1.07-1.22), somatic symptoms (OR 1.07, CI 1.04-1.11), and physical comorbidity (OR 1.54, CI 1.36-1.74) in the multivariate analysis. Frequent attendance of specialists was related to psychological distress (OR 1.12, CI 1.04-1.20), somatic symptoms (OR 1.08, CI 1.04-1.11), and physical comorbidity (OR 1.69, CI 1.48-1.93) in the multivariate analysis. Quality of the relationship was associated with frequent attendance only in the univariate analyses. A stronger relationship with the family physician was not associated with reduced contact with specialists. The quality of the family physician-patient relationship is not independently associated with frequent attendance. Family physicians should be aware that need factors, i.e. symptom burden and physical comorbidities, are main drivers of frequent attendance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
López-Colombo, Aurelio; Meléndez-Mena, Daniel; Sedeño-Monge, Virginia; Camacho-Hernández, José R; Vázquez-Cruz, Eduardo; Morales-Hernández, Eduardo R; Sosa-Jurado, Francisca; Márquez-Domínguez, Luis; Santos-López, Gerardo
Approximately 180 million persons (~2.8%) globally are estimated to be infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV prevalence in Mexico has been estimated to be between 1.2 and 1.4%. The aim of present work was to determine the prevalence of HCV infection in patients and family members attending two primary care clinics in Puebla, Mexico. Patients and their accompanying family members in two clinics were invited to participate in this study between May and September 2010. A total of 10,214 persons were included in the study; 120 (1.17%) persons were anti-HCV reactive. Of the reactive subjects, detection of viral RNA was determined in 114 subjects and 36 were positive (31%). The more frequent risk factors were having a family history of cirrhosis (33.1%) and having a blood transfusion prior to 1995 (29%). After a multiple logistic regression analysis only transfusion prior to 1995 resulted significant to HCV transmission (p = 0.004). The overall detected HCV genotypes were as follows: 1a (29%), 1b (48.5%), 2/2b (12.8%), and 3a (6.5%). The HCV prevalence in this population is in agreement with previous studies in other regions of Mexico.
Serna-Cock, Liliana; Correa-Gómez, Maria D C; Ayala-Aponte, Alfredo A
The responsibility for providing healthy food involves all members of the production chain from input supplier to the distributor and consumer of food. Children and older adults represent the most vulnerable consumers for acquiring food-borne illness (FBI), meaning that the risk factors produced in food-processing targeted for this population group must be reduced. A clean-up plan was thus designed and implemented following the guideline laid down in decree 3075/1997 to reduce FBI risk factors in a population of children and older adults. A training plan was also conducted for handling staff involved in receiving, storing, packaging and distributing raw materials in a food distributor. The clean-up plan and training led to a 40 % to 70 % increase in compliance with best manufacturing practices (BPM). These results represent a solid basis for ensuring food safety and reducing the risk of acquiring FBI in the study population. This article also provides an outline for easily acquiring the necessary methodology for implementing a clean-up plan in a food industry.
Meier, K J; Mcfarlane, D R
Policy theory suggests that coherent statutes--those with precise, clear goals, supported by an adequate causal theory, with clear administrative responsibilities, clear implementation rules, and assigned to committed agencies--are more likely to have their intended impact. This paper examines US family planning policies with a pooled time series analysis from 1982-88 using the Mazmanian and Sabatier policy implementation framework. Of the four family planning statutes (Title V, Title X, Title XIX, and Title XX), only Title X, the categorical grant program, meets the criteria of a coherent statute. The study reveals that a dollar spent through Title X has a much greater impact on births, abortion rates, late prenatal care, and infant neonatal mortality than does a dollar spent through other programs. The findings are strong evidence in support of designing policies with coherent statutes.
Delamou, Alexandre; Samandari, Ghazaleh; Camara, Bienvenu Salim; Traore, Pernamou; Diallo, Fatoumata Guilinty; Millimono, Sita; Wane, Defa; Toliver, Maimouna; Laffe, Kira; Verani, Fabio
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health problem that affects women's physical, mental, sexual and reproductive health. Very little data on IPV experience and FP use is available in resource-poor settings, such as in West Africa. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence, patterns and correlates of IPV among clients of an adult Family Planning clinic in Conakry, Guinea. The study data was collected for four months (March to June 2014) from women's family planning charts and from an IPV screening form at the Adult Family Planning and Reproductive Health Clinic of "Association Guinéenne pour le Bien-Etre Familial", a non-profit organization in Conakry, Guinea. 232 women out of 245 women who attended the clinic for services during the study period were screened for IPV and were included in this study. Of the 232 women screened, 213 (92%) experienced IPV in one form or another at some point in their lifetime. 169 women reported psychological violence (79.3%), 145 reported sexual violence (68.1%) and 103 reported physical violence (48.4%). Nearly a quarter of women reported joint occurrence of the three forms of violence(24%).Half of the IPV positive women were current users of family planning (51.2%) and of these, 77.9% preferred injectable contraceptives. The odds of experiencing IPV was higher in women with secondary or vocational level of education than those with higher level of education (AOR: 8.4; 95% CI 1.2-58.5). Women residing in other communes of Conakry (AOR: 5.6; 95% CI 1.4-22.9) and those preferring injectable FP methods (AOR: 4.5; 95% CI 1.2-16.8) were more likely to experience lifetime IPV. IPV is prevalent among family planning clients in Conakry, Guinea where nine out of ten women screened in the AGBEF adult clinic reported having experienced one or another type of IPV. A holistic approach that includes promotion of women's rights and gender equality, existence of laws and policies is needed to prevent and respond to IPV
Bouzidi, M; Jones, M
In 1970, a Dutch medical team began work in the city of El Kef in Tunisia on a project designed to bring family planning into rural areas. The project aimed to persuade the rural people to use urban health centers, but this approach failed partly because of the remoteness of the communities and their reluctance to discuss personal matters with strangers. Funded by UNFPA, a new project began to recruit and train local girls as home health visitors or aides-familiales, an approach which became the central focus of the El Kef project. The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) took over the project and expanded it to include nutrition, health care, health education, family planning, disease prevention and domestic crafts. 4 goals were fixed for the project: total vaccination coverage for children; elimination of severe malnutrition; reduction of infant mortality; and use of family planning practice by at least 1/2 the women of childbearing age. An efficient recordkeeping system enabled the project to be carefully evaluated and provides much-needed data, showing where it has achieved its aims and where new efforts should be directed. The project resulted in large numbers of women receiving ante-natal advice, child care and family planning from their local health centers. 860 pregnant women were followed up during the 3-year study period. Some 57% of pregnant women went for advice; only 15% went for postnatal care, but 50% of the women under 50 attended child welfare sessions during the study period for weight checks, nutrition advice, vaccination and treatment for minor ailments. Over the 3 years, the number of contraceptive users more than trebled, from 14% to 54%. The IUD was the most popular method. The most successful aspect of the project was the emphasis on maternal and child health, and the home visits were the most motivating feature. Vaccination became more popular. A further aspect of the project was the training in home improvement skills, like
Balancing career and family! Balancing what you love and who you love!! It is such an attention getting topic. And yet, if you really think about it, people have been doing it for ages. What makes it challenging in today's world is the dual income families that throw off-balance of traditional style of balancing family and profession. Balancing family and career is not as difficult. The question is more meaningful when you ask how do you find the right balance, and in fact, what is the right balance? How do you know you are there? Happiness at home and self esteem due to work is genderless issue however, it is essentially talked more in the context of women. Some of the things that could be helpful in achieving the right balance, are time management, proper prioritization, asking for help, a caring family, friends, and most importantly colleagues. In the portfolio of professional passions, it is important to identify the areas that are conducive to possibilities of changing family needs, international families, spouse's career and job relocation, etc. So, the bottom line question is whether it is possible to find a right balance between family and career? I would submit to you that with passion, courage, open- mindedness, and proper career planning, it is definitely possible. We just need to utilize the same techniques in choosing and sustaining the right balance that we use in identifying research topics and executing it. This discussion will look into further details of the challenges of balancing family and career from the perspective of also an immigrant, and possible ways of overcoming them.
Obelenienė, Birutė; Narbekovas, Andrius
The article analyses the moral difference between Natural Family Planning (NFP) and contraception. Problem Statement: Today one of the most frequently asked questions is the following: if contraception and NFP both have the same purpose of avoiding pregnancy, how can there be any moral difference between them. Moreover, people state that it does not make any difference which method is used, if the end and purpose are the same. In fact, proponents of contraceptives often argue that...
Full Text Available Irit Sinai,1,2 Susan Igras,1 Rebecka Lundgren1 1Institute for Reproductive Health, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA; 2Palladium, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: The standard approach for measuring unmet need for family planning calculates actual, physiological unmet need and is useful for tracking changes at the population level. We propose to supplement it with an alternate approach that relies on individual perceptions and can improve program design and implementation. The proposed approach categorizes individuals by their perceived need for family planning: real met need (current users of a modern method, perceived met need (current users of a traditional method, real no need, perceived no need (those with a physiological need for family planning who perceive no need, and perceived unmet need (those who realize they have a need but do not use a method. We tested this approach using data from Mali (n=425 and Benin (n=1080. We found that traditional method use was significantly higher in Benin than in Mali, resulting in different perceptions of unmet need in the two countries. In Mali, perceived unmet need was much higher. In Benin, perceived unmet need was low because women believed (incorrectly that they were protected from pregnancy. Perceived no need – women who believed that they could not become pregnant despite the fact that they were fecund and sexually active – was quite high in both countries. We posit that interventions that address perceptions of unmet need, in addition to physiological risk of pregnancy, will more likely be effective in changing behavior. The suggested approach for calculating unmet need supplements the standard calculations and is helpful for designing programs to better address women’s and men’s individual needs in diverse contexts. Keywords: unmet need, family planning, contraception, Mali, Benin
Grierson, Lawrence E M; Fowler, Nancy; Kwan, Matthew Y W
To assess residents' practice intentions since the introduction of the College of Family Physicians of Canada's Triple C curriculum, which focuses on graduating family physicians who will provide comprehensive care within traditional and newer models of family practice. A survey based on Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour was administered on 2 occasions. McMaster University in Hamilton, Ont. Residents (n = 135) who were enrolled in the Department of Family Medicine Postgraduate Residency Program at McMaster University in July 2012 and July 2013; 54 of the 60 first-year residents who completed the survey in 2012 completed it again in 2013. The survey was modeled so as to measure the respondents' intentions to practise with a comprehensive scope; determine the degree to which their attitudes, subjective norms, and perceptions of control about comprehensive practice influence those intentions; and investigate how these relationships change as residents progress through the curriculum. The survey also queried the respondents about their intentions with respect to particular medical services that underpin comprehensive practice. The responses indicate that the factors modeled by the theory of planned behaviour survey account for 60% of the variance in the residents' intentions to adopt a comprehensive scope of practice upon graduation, that there is room for curricular improvement with respect to encouraging residents to practise comprehensive care, and that targeting subjective norms about comprehensive practice might have the greatest influence on improving resident intentions. The theory of planned behaviour presents an effective approach to assessing curricular effects on resident practice intentions while also providing meaningful information for guiding further program evaluation efforts in the Department of Family Medicine at McMaster University.
Mundigo, A I
Condoms have been used since the 16th century as a prophylactic agent against sexually transmitted diseases. With regards to family planning, condoms are used for spacing and prevention of pregnancy. However, after the invention of more reliable contraceptives, condoms lost their popularity as a contraceptive agent, only to regain it in the wake of the AIDS epidemic. The main concern in using condoms has always been the high failure rate, which tends to be a complicated issue given that it's efficacy is affected by the motivation and characteristic of the user. Irrespective of the numerous advantages of the condom, at present there is little incentive to use them on a routine basis. Reasons for this objection include the fact that condoms not only interfere with sex, but are unnatural and leave the man very unsatisfied. Promoting condoms in developing countries is both a cultural and political issue, stemming from the misleading preconception of the man's role in family planning. For instance, condoms are infamous for their use in illicit sex, and as such cannot be used on a relatively respectable individual. The challenge in condom promotion is the creation of a new image based on family planning, reliability aspects of condoms, noninterference with pleasure concept and the added value of protection against STD's.
Toohey, J V; Valenzuela, G J
A Spanish language family planning education program utilizing the dynamics of values clarification has been designed and implemented in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. The design of the program features three basic personality identification activities to help individuals identify other dimensions of adult life expression than child rearing. In addition, a series of simple and precise scenarios specifically related to family planning are presented. Each scenario is accompanied by a set of valuing questions that direct the learner to respond to the scenario. The activity booklet is entitled, "Clarification De Valores En La Planificacion Familar." The booklet requires the learner to make responses to the learning materials. Responses are then used as a basis for inferring that people are comprehending and above all personalizing knowledge about themselves and their culture and family planning. The program is cross cultural and can be used in Spanish speaking communities in the U.S. Its English language form can be used with English speaking target populations. Statistical analysis of seven critical categories of the program indicated that the shifts in attitudes from pre-to post-values, whether positive or negative (desirable or undesirable), were not significant at the .05 level of confidence. It should, however, be noted that small shifts in the rate of natural increase, or rate of natural decrease for population growth can have a dramatic effect on population growth when multiplied by time.
Sinai, Irit; Igras, Susan; Lundgren, Rebecka
The standard approach for measuring unmet need for family planning calculates actual, physiological unmet need and is useful for tracking changes at the population level. We propose to supplement it with an alternate approach that relies on individual perceptions and can improve program design and implementation. The proposed approach categorizes individuals by their perceived need for family planning: real met need (current users of a modern method), perceived met need (current users of a traditional method), real no need, perceived no need (those with a physiological need for family planning who perceive no need), and perceived unmet need (those who realize they have a need but do not use a method). We tested this approach using data from Mali (n=425) and Benin (n=1080). We found that traditional method use was significantly higher in Benin than in Mali, resulting in different perceptions of unmet need in the two countries. In Mali, perceived unmet need was much higher. In Benin, perceived unmet need was low because women believed (incorrectly) that they were protected from pregnancy. Perceived no need - women who believed that they could not become pregnant despite the fact that they were fecund and sexually active - was quite high in both countries. We posit that interventions that address perceptions of unmet need, in addition to physiological risk of pregnancy, will more likely be effective in changing behavior. The suggested approach for calculating unmet need supplements the standard calculations and is helpful for designing programs to better address women's and men's individual needs in diverse contexts.
Full Text Available Family planning services in Nepal are provided by government and non-government health facilities. A descriptive cross sectional study was done by secondary data review of eight months from Institutional clinic, District Health Office (DHO Ilam district. Use of different family planning methods through government health facility was studied in relation to different variables like age, sex, ethnicity, and, number of children. Around 53% of the female users of spacing method and around 47% of female users of permanent method were in age group 20-29 years and 25-29 years respectively. The major reasons for removal of IUCD were husband’s migration and experienced physical problems. Most of the females doing sterilization were from Disadvantaged Janajati group whereas most of the males doing sterilization were from Upper caste ethnic group. Among females doing sterilization, 70% already had their second live birth baby. Out of the total sterilization performed in 8 months, only 15.15% was done among males. So, there is need of increasing male involvement in Family planning. There is also need of programs to encourage spacing methods among the target population. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v6i0.8482 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 6, 2012 125-138
Pereira, Edna Regina Silva; Pereira, Aline de Castro; Andrade, Guilherme Borges de; Naghettini, Alessandra Vitorino; Pinto, Fernanda Karolline Melchior Silva; Batista, Sandro Rodrigues; Marques, Solomar Martins
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is an important Brazilian public health issue that has as main etiologies, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM). The precocious diagnosis is important, because it allows the implementation of preventive measures that retard or interrupt the progression to the most advanced stages of the CKD. Identify the prevalence and the associated factors to the CKD among adults served by the Family Health Strategy (FHS). Cross-sectional study with epidemiological, descriptive and observational design, realized with 511 adults older than 20 years, served by the FSH in a region of Goiania. CKD was defined as GFR old, masculine gender, DM and alcohol consume. Therefore, a CKD screening and monitoring is suggested in adults who are served by the FHS.
Cooke, Richard; French, David P
Meta-analysis was used to quantify how well the Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behaviour have predicted intentions to attend screening programmes and actual attendance behaviour. Systematic literature searches identified 33 studies that were included in the review. Across the studies as a whole, attitudes had a large-sized relationship with intention, while subjective norms and perceived behavioural control (PBC) possessed medium-sized relationships with intention. Intention had a medium-sized relationship with attendance, whereas the PBC-attendance relationship was small sized. Due to heterogeneity in results between studies, moderator analyses were conducted. The moderator variables were (a) type of screening test, (b) location of recruitment, (c) screening cost and (d) invitation to screen. All moderators affected theory of planned behaviour relationships. Suggestions for future research emerging from these results include targeting attitudes to promote intention to screen, a greater use of implementation intentions in screening information and examining the credibility of different screening providers.
China's family planning program is described in reference to its goals, approaches, and achievements. Between 1949-83, China's population increased from 541 million to 1,024,950,000. The population has a young age structure, and the median age is 22.9 years. 80% of the population is rural, and 90% of the population lives in the southeastern region of the country. In view of this demographic situation, the government recognizes the need to control population growth. China's goals for the year 2000 are to increase industrial and agricultural input by 400% and to keep population size below 1.2 billion in order to ensure that per capita income increases. In accordance with these goals, the government, in 1979, began advocating a 1-child policy. To ensure the survival of single children, the government also launched a program to upgrade maternal and child health (MCH). In some rural areas and among certain minority groups, the 1-child restriction is not applied. Family size goals will vary with time. These variations will reflect the need to maintain a balance between economic growth and population growth. A variety of incentives are used to promote the 1-child family. For example, single children receive medical and educational benefits, and in some rural areas, the parents of single children can obtain additional land contracts. Economic disincentives are also used. The government seeks to obtain compliance with the policy primarily through educating the public about the consequences of uncontrolled population growth. All channels of the mass media are used to deliver the messages, and the publicity campaign is especially intensive in rural areas. A comprehensive plan to provided family planning and population education for middle school students is currently being implemented. Each local area develops its own fertility control plan. This plan is then incorporated into the nation's overall plan and the overall plan is implemented from above. Family planning workers
Walcott, Melonie M; Ehiri, John; Kempf, Mirjam C; Funkhouser, Ellen; Bakhoya, Marion; Aung, Maung; Zhang, Kui; Jolly, Pauline E
The objective of this study was to identify the association between gender norms and family planning practices among men in Western Jamaica. A cross-sectional survey of 549 men aged 19 to 54 years attending or visiting four government-operated hospitals was conducted in 2011. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with taking steps to prevent unwanted pregnancy, intention to have a large family size (three or more children), and fathering children with multiple women. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated from the models. Reduced odds for taking steps to prevent unwanted pregnancy among men with moderate (AOR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.3-0.8) and high (AOR = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-0.6) support for inequitable gender norms was observed. Desiring large family size was associated with moderate (AOR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.3-2.5) and high (AOR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.5-4.3) support for macho scores. For men with two or more children (41%), there were increased odds of fathering children with multiple women among those who had moderate (AOR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.0-4.4) and high (AOR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.1-5.6) support for masculinity norms. Support for inequitable gender norms was associated with reduced odds of taking steps to prevent unwanted pregnancy, while support for masculinity norms was associated with desiring a large family size and fathering children with multiple women. These findings highlight the importance of including men and gender norms in family planning programs in Jamaica. © The Author(s) 2014.
The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of
Saka Gunay; Ertem Meliksah; Ceylan Ali; Akdeniz Nurten
Abstract Background To describe the impact of the post-abortion family planning counseling in bringing about the contraceptive usage in women who had induced abortion in a family planning clinic. Method The Diyarbakir Office of Turkish Family Planning Association (DTFPA) is a nonprofit and nongovernmental organization which runs a family planning clinic to serve the lower socio-economic populations, in Diyarbakir-Turkey. Post abortion counseling is introduced by using proper communication ski...
Hulme, Jennifer; Dunn, Sheila; Guilbert, Edith; Soon, Judith; Norman, Wendy
Contraceptives are underutilized in Canada, and nearly one in three Canadian women will have an abortion in her lifetime. To help delineate a national family planning research agenda, the authors interviewed healthcare providers and organizational stakeholders to explore their perspective on barriers to contraception across regions of Canada. Semi-structured interviews were conducted based on validated frameworks for assessing family planning access and quality. The authors purposefully selected 14 key stakeholders from government agencies, professional organizations and non-governmental organizations for in-person interviews. Fifty-eight healthcare providers and representatives of stakeholder organizations in reproductive health who self-selected through an online survey were also interviewed. Transcripts were analyzed for repeated and saturated themes. Cost was the most important barrier to contraception. Sexual health education was reported as inconsistent, even within provinces. Regional differences were highlighted, including limited access to family physicians in rural Canada and throughout Quebec. Physician bias and outdated practices were cited as significant barriers to quality. New immigrants, youth, young adults and women in small rural, Northern and Aboriginal communities were all identified as particularly vulnerable. Informants identified multiple opportunities for health policy and system restructuring, including subsidized contraception, and enhancing public and healthcare provider education. Sexual health clinics were viewed as a highly successful model. Task-sharing and expanded scope of practice of nurses, nurse practitioners and pharmacists, alongside telephone and virtual healthcare consultations, were suggested to create multiple points of entry into the system. Results underscore the need for a national strategic approach to family planning health policy and health services delivery in Canada. Copyright © 2015 Longwoods Publishing.
Nuguid, N A
Under the Local Government Code that took effect in the Philippines on January 1, 1992, more autonomy would go to provincial, municipal, city, and barangay (village) units to spur local development. It would transfer more than 62% of the 74,000 national health employees to local government along with 596 government hospitals and over 12,000 rural health units. In Laguna province family planning services and counseling are provided in 19 hospitals funded by the province as well as in 17 of 37 rural health units. The rate of natural population growth in the province with a population of 1,252,286 is 1.57%, which is below the national average of 2.3%. However, immigration from rural areas to its industrialized economy boosts the rate to over 3%. The Department of Health (DOH) funds and operates 6 provincial and district hospitals, a Medicare hospital, and a small community hospital. Modernization increases the demand for maternity care, as patients seek the safety of hospital services. However, the obstetrical extension of the provincial hospital is struggling to retain doctors, nurses, and midwives. Under devolution the regional health services could activate 760,000 community health workers including 350,000 barangay health workers, 62,000 traditional birth attendants and healers, and 52,000 barangay service point officers to stimulate family planning at the grassroots level. There are an average of 80 women of reproductive age in a barangay, and an average of 18 mobilized volunteers could cover every 100 women in reproductive age promoting the population program, referring clients to clinics, motivating potential acceptors, and distributing supplies. A bill was introduced in 1992 seeking to exempt DOH from devolution. The move was opposed by provincial governors and nongovernmental organizations as undermining the goals of the Local Government Code. DOH continues to pay devolved health workers and supports the activities of NGOs attending to ethnic tribes, the
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
This document gives highlights of the family planning situation in countries of the world, together with basic demographic statistics. Its purpose is to provide a quick reference source for those who work in family planning, population, and other related fields. Following a brief history of the pioneering work in family planning, population…
PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA
Jun 1, 2015 ... Table 1 presents the different types of family planning available methods and the percentage usage in Nigeria. Of all the women surveyed. 85.1% are currently not on any family planning method. Table 1: Frequency of Women Currently on Family Planning. Current use by method use. Frequency.
Liu, Hueiming; Lindley, Richard; Alim, Mohammed; Felix, Cynthia; Gandhi, Dorcas B C; Verma, Shweta J; Tugnawat, Deepak Kumar; Syrigapu, Anuradha; Ramamurthy, Ramaprabhu Krishnappa; Pandian, Jeyaraj D; Walker, Marion; Forster, Anne; Anderson, Craig S; Langhorne, Peter; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana; Shamanna, Bindiganavale Ramaswamy; Hackett, Maree L; Maulik, Pallab K; Harvey, Lisa A; Jan, Stephen
We are undertaking a randomised controlled trial (fAmily led rehabiliTaTion aftEr stroke in INDia, ATTEND) evaluating training a family carer to enable maximal rehabilitation of patients with stroke-related disability; as a potentially affordable, culturally acceptable and effective intervention for use in India. A process evaluation is needed to understand how and why this complex intervention may be effective, and to capture important barriers and facilitators to its implementation. We describe the protocol for our process evaluation to encourage the development of in-process evaluation methodology and transparency in reporting. The realist and RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance) frameworks informed the design. Mixed methods include semistructured interviews with health providers, patients and their carers, analysis of quantitative process data describing fidelity and dose of intervention, observations of trial set up and implementation, and the analysis of the cost data from the patients and their families perspective and programme budgets. These qualitative and quantitative data will be analysed iteratively prior to knowing the quantitative outcomes of the trial, and then triangulated with the results from the primary outcome evaluation. The process evaluation has received ethical approval for all sites in India. In low-income and middle-income countries, the available human capital can form an approach to reducing the evidence practice gap, compared with the high cost alternatives available in established market economies. This process evaluation will provide insights into how such a programme can be implemented in practice and brought to scale. Through local stakeholder engagement and dissemination of findings globally we hope to build on patient-centred, cost-effective and sustainable models of stroke rehabilitation. CTRI/2013/04/003557. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not
Moliner Tena, M A; Moliner Tena, J
To measure the perceived quality of service at a Family Planning Clinic (FPC) in Burriana (Castellón), taking as reference the empirical studies developed in commercial marketing. A descriptive study based on a survey using a questionnaire adapted from the SERVQUAL and SERVPERF ones, then a multivariant analysis of the data. Burriana Family Planning Clinic, Castellón. 183 women were interviewed after being attended, of whom 155 (85%) filled out the questionnaire correctly. The overall quality of service is highly valued (6.1 out of 7 points). Six factors which explained 63.3% of the total variance were identified: high personal attention, little bureaucracy, modern installations and equipment, professionalism and competence of staff, accessibility, reputation and layout. It was also found that the Cronbach alpha coefficients were not acceptable in three factors. off Marketing proposes that the quality of health service provision must be measured from the user's point of view, i.e. the important question is the perceived quality. Research is still at an experimental stage and the two measuring tools (SERVQUAL and SERVPERF) are still under discussion. The conclusion is that marketing can be adapted perfectly to the needs of health provision, although a line of research to design the appropriate method for measuring the quality of any health service needs to be followed.
Decker, Emily J; Ahrens, Katherine A; Fowler, Christina I; Carter, Marion; Gavin, Loretta; Moskosky, Susan
The federal Title X Family Planning Program supports the delivery of family planning services and related preventive care to 4 million individuals annually in the United States. The implementation of the 2010 Affordable Care Act's (ACA's) Medicaid expansion and provisions expanding access to health insurance, which took effect in January 2014, resulted in higher rates of health insurance coverage in the U.S. population; the ACA's impact on individuals served by the Title X program has not yet been evaluated. Using administrative data we examined changes in health insurance coverage among Title X clinic patients during 2005-2015. We found that the percentage of clients without health insurance decreased from 60% in 2005 to 48% in 2015, with the greatest annual decrease occurring between 2013 and 2014 (63% to 54%). Meanwhile, between 2005 and 2015, the percentage of clients with Medicaid or other public health insurance increased from 20% to 35% and the percentage of clients with private health insurance increased from 8% to 15%. Although clients attending Title X clinics remained uninsured at substantially higher rates compared with the national average, the increase in clients with health insurance coverage aligns with the implementation of ACA-related provisions to expand access to affordable health insurance.
Boerner, Kathrin; Carr, Deborah; Moorman, Sara
The effectiveness of advance care planning (ACP) may depend on family members' understanding of patient preferences. However, we know of no studies that explore the association between family relationship dynamics and ACP. ACP includes a living will, durable power of attorney for health care (DPAHC) appointment, and discussions. We evaluated the effects of three aspects of family relations--general family functioning, support and criticism from spouse, and support and criticism from children--on both overall ACP and specific DPAHC designations. Using multinomial logistic regression models and data from a sample of 293 older adults, we estimated the effects of family relationship quality on the likelihood of completing ACP and appointing a spouse or adult child as DPAHC. Analyses controlled for demographic and health characteristics. Better overall family functioning increased the odds of ACP. Higher levels of spousal support increased the odds of holding informal discussions, whereas spousal criticism reduced the odds of naming one's spouse as DPAHC. Both criticism and emotional support from children increased the odds that a child was named as DPAHC. Family dynamics affect ACP in complex ways and should be considered when patients and their families discuss end-of-life care and make DPAHC designations.
Fehring, Richard J; Schneider, Mary; Barron, Mary Lee; Pruszynski, Jessica
To determine the influence of mutual motivation on unintended pregnancy rates of couples who used natural family planning (NFP) methods to avoid pregnancy. Using an online taught NFP method, 358 women and (their male partners) indicated "how much" and "how hard" they wished to avoid pregnancy on a scale of 0 to 10 before each menstrual cycle charted over 12 month of use. This motivation scale is used in the National Survey of Family Growth as a measure of motivation. All pregnancies were verified with an online pregnancy evaluation and urine-based pregnancy test. A combined motivation score was used in analysis. There were 28 pregnancies among the low-motivation participants (N = 60) and 16 among the high-motivation participants (N = 298). At 12 months of use, there were 75 pregnancies per 100 users for the low-motivation group and only 8 for the high-motivation group. There was an 80% greater likelihood of a pregnancy with the low-motivation group (χ = 25.5, p motivation to avoid pregnancy by both the female user of a behavioral method of family planning and her male partner is required for high efficacy. Assessing motivation of both the woman and her male partner before prescribing NFP methods is recommended.
Sarnquist, Clea C; Rahangdale, Lisa; Maldonado, Yvonne
Review key topics and recent literature regarding reproductive health and family planning needs for HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa. Electronic searches performed in PubMed, JSTOR, and Web of Science; identified articles reviewed for inclusion. Most HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa bear children, and access to antiretroviral therapy may increase childbearing desires and/or fertility, resulting in greater need for contraception. Most contraceptive options can be safely and effectively used by HIV-infected women. Unmet need for contraception is high in this population, with 66- 92% of women reporting not wanting another child (now or ever), but only 20-43% using contraception. During pregnancy and delivery, HIV-infected women need access to prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services, a skilled birth attendant, and quality post-partum care to prevent HIV infection in the infant and maximize maternal health. Providers may lack resources as well as appropriate training and support to provide such services to women with HIV. Innovations in biomedical and behavioral interventions may improve reproductive healthcare for HIV-infected women, but in Sub-Saharan Africa, models of integrating HIV and PMTCT services with family planning and reproductive health services will be important to improve reproductive outcomes. HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa have myriad needs related to reproductive health, including access to high-quality family planning information and options, high-quality pregnancy care, and trained providers. Integrated services that help prevent unintended pregnancy and optimize maternal and infant health before, during and after pregnancy will both maximize limited resources as well as provide improved reproductive outcomes.
Ali Asghar Rahimi Rezaee
Full Text Available This paper studies the effective of family life education (FLE on marital status among women attending in Isfahan counseling centers. The methodology of this research was quasi experimental with pre-test and post-test design and control group. Statistical populations were women attending in Isfahan city counseling centers. For selecting statistical sample, 30 women from women attending in counseling centers were selected as volunteers and randomly distributed between experimental and control groups. The main hypothesis of this research states that FLE increases marital satisfaction and their subscales in women. In this study, the dependent variable was marital-satisfaction and the independent variable was family life education conducted to case group in 10 sessions. The results of this survey show that the FLE improved marital satisfaction (p<0.01 and it was effective on the subscales (p<0.01.
The slow progress of family planning in Egypt is not due to the insufficiency of human and material resources. The problem lies in the distribution, management, and improvement of these resources. Research and personnel training are critical to directing efforts along the right course and towards the right objectives. The Population Council (USA), at the end of 1972, identified all findings of major significance from international research on family planning programs. Of the 322 studies, not 1 was carried out in Egypt or was based on 2ndary data from Egypt. Since 1972, though, Egyptian social and medical scientists have become actively involved in demographic themes and human reproduction. These are mainly personal iniatives, often limited by a scarcity of funds. Findings of population studies are not as transferable from 1 population to another. Also, there is a diversity of research needs. Many Muslims believe that their religion outlaws birth control. Religious objection appears the most widely shared reason for nonuse. This objection suggests a series of questions on what can be done to influence religious attitudes relating to contraception. A permanent and adequately managed institution for training in family planning and related aspects of maternal education has not been set up in Egypt. Training requirements of different levels and categories of personnel must be carefully identified. The impact of training on the quality of performance must be monitored. Training should not be limited to conventional groups of trainees. Al-Azhar's Islamic Centre for Population Studies and Research was built 5 years ago with initial aid from the United Nations Fund for Population Activities. It was an attempt to create an intellectual focus on population issues, concerning how the quality of life and Islamic standards of its quality affect each other. During the 1st 5 years, the Centre devoted itself to research activities. 44 studies were conducted.
Tumlinson, Katherine; Okigbo, Chinelo C; Speizer, Ilene S
A better understanding of the prevalence of service provider-imposed barriers to family planning can inform programs intended to increase contraceptive use. This study, based on data from urban Kenya, describes the frequency of provider self-reported restrictions related to clients' age, parity, marital status, and third-party consent, and considers the impact of facility type and training on restrictive practices. Trained data collectors interviewed 676 service providers at 273 health care facilities in five Kenyan cities. Service providers were asked questions about their background and training and were also asked about age, marital, parity, or consent requirements for providing family planning services. More than half of providers (58%) reported imposing minimum age restrictions on one or more methods. These restrictions were commonly imposed on clients seeking injectables, a popular method in urban Kenya, with large numbers refusing to offer injectables to women younger than 20 years. Forty-one percent of providers reported that they would not offer one or more methods to nulliparous women and more than one in four providers reported that they would not offer the injectable to women without at least one child. Providers at private facilities were significantly more likely to impose barriers, across all method types, and those without in-service training on family planning provision had a significantly higher prevalence of imposing parity, marital, and consent barriers across most methods. Programs need to address provider-imposed barriers that reduce access to contraceptive methods particularly among young, lower parity, and single women. Promising strategies include targeting private facility providers and increasing the prevalence of in-service training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The goals of the Malaysian Family Planning Program are not only to reduce population growth from 3% to 2% by 1985 and to bring the crude birth rate to 28.2 from 30.3, but to generally improve the health of the family, and to enhance the government's efforts to raise the per capita income. The work program is divided into the Creative Unit, the Media Unit, the Production Unit, and the Field Diffusion Unit. The objectives are to build up strong support from political, community, and opinion leaders, and to run educational campaigns aimed at motivating potential acceptors. The program also runs centers training medical and paramedical personnel. The program is combined with development programs for women, especially useful among the rural population.
Full Text Available This research aims to examine the influence of marketing mix carried out media performance social media portal on attitude towards a social marketing program,and its relationship with source credibility of the portal. This study was focused on "Generasi Berencana" Program (Generation with Plan Program, a program aimed at educating the youth on family planning The Research employed Structural Equations Modeling (SEM. Based on data from 150 respondents it can be concluded that in social marketing programs, source credibility, engagement, word of mouth have positive influence on the formation of behavior, but awareness of a program is not found to influence formation of behavior. This research also obtained findings that attitudes influence behavioral intention, but subjective norms is not positively influence the formation of behavioral intentions.
Rohland Barbara M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiology of obesity in primary care populations has not been thoroughly explored. This study contributes to filling this gap by investigating the relationship between obesity and different sources of personal stress, mental health, exercise, and demographic characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional survey using a convenience sample. Five hundred women who attended family planning clinics were surveyed and 274 provided completed answers to all of the questions analyzed in this study. Exercise, self-rated mental health, stress, social support, and demographic variables were included in the survey. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. Results After adjusting for mental health, exercise, and demographic characteristics of subjects, analysis of the data indicated that that being having a large family and receiving no support from parents were related to obesity in this relatively young low-income primary care sample, but self-reported stress and most types of social support were not significant. Conclusion Obesity control programs in primary care centers directed at low-income women should target women who have large families and who are not receiving support from their parents.
Bustamante-Forest, Rosa; Giarratano, Gloria
The shift in focus on men's reproductive health was influenced by the 1994 Cairo (ICPD) Action Plan to promote gender equality and equity, empower women, and improve family health in society. Changing and improving the way in which men are involved in reproductive health can only have a positive impact on women's, men's, and children's health. Educating and counseling men about contraceptive choices is essential if they are to be supportive of women's reproductive health. Research on new male contraceptive methods must continue if the bias of women shouldering the major responsibility for contraception is to be eliminated.
Critchlow, D T
This overview of the US birth control movement reflects on the emergence of family planning policy due to the efforts of Margaret Sanger, feminists, and the civil rights movement, the eugenics motive to limit "deviant" populations, and the population control movement, which aims to solve social and economic problems through fertility control. Population control moved through three stages: from the cause of "voluntary motherhood" to advance suffrage and women's political and social status, to the concept of "birth control" promoted by socialist feminists to help empower women and the working class, to, from 1920 on, a liberal movement for civil rights and population control. Physicians such as Dr. Robert Latou Dickinson legitimized the movement in the formation of the Committee on Maternal Health in 1925, but the movement remained divided until 1939, when Sanger's group merged with the American Birth Control League, the predecessor of the present Planned Parenthood Federation of America. A key legal decision in 1939 in the United States v. One Package amended the Comstock Act and allowed for the distribution of birth control devices by mail to physicians. Sanger, after a brief retirement, formed the International Planned Parenthood Federation and supported research into the pill. Eugenicists through the Committee on Maternal Health supported Christopher Tietze and others developing the pill. Final constitutional access to contraception based on the right to privacy was granted in Griswold v. Connecticut. The ruling in Eisenstadt v. Baird in 1972 extended this right to unmarried persons. The right to privacy was further extended in the Roe v. Wade decision in 1973 on legal abortion. The argument for improving the quality of the population remained from the formation of the Population Reference Bureau in 1929 through the 1960s. Under the leadership of Rockefeller, population control was defined as justified on a scientific and humanitarian basis. US government support
Pastuszak, Alexander W; Wenker, Evan P; Smith, Peggy B; Abacan, Allyssa; Lamb, Dolores J; Lipshultz, Larry I; Buzi, Ruth
The objective of this study was to assess the overall health, including sexual and reproductive health (SRH) knowledge and needs, sexual behaviors, and testicular health practices among young minority males. Anonymous questionnaires were administered to 18- to 25-year-old males receiving services at health clinics in a large southwestern U.S. city. The survey was completed by 258 males with a mean age of 20.8 years. Most young males (67.1%) identified as African American, and 32.9% as Hispanic. Results suggest study participants lack SRH knowledge related to pregnancy and condom effectiveness, and engage in risky sexual behavior including not using birth control at their last sexual encounter. Although 21.6% of participants had a sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the past year, approximately 80% perceived their STI/HIV risk as very low or low. Respondents had low engagement and lack of knowledge of testicular health practices. The majority of respondents (71.1%) reported having been in a physical fight one or more times and 18.1% reported being victims of intimate partner violence. These data support a need for comprehensive health services for minority young males.
Tajudeen Nuhu, Folorunsho; Jika Yusuf, Abdulkareem; Akinbiyi, Akinsola; Oluyinka Fawole, Joseph; Joseph Babalola, Obafemi; Titilope Sulaiman, Zainab; Oyeniran Ayilara, Olaniyi
Caring for patients with chronic medical and psychiatric disorders is associated with significant burden. However little is known about the burden experience by caregivers of patients with epilepsy in Nigeria. The objective of this study, therefore, was to assess the level and correlates of burden among caregivers of patients with epilepsy. It was a cross-sectional study carried out among 231 eligible caregivers of patients with epilepsy attending the psychiatric clinic of government psychiatric hospital in Kaduna, Northern Nigeria. Sociodemographic/clinical characteristics of patients and socio-demographic characteristics of caregivers were recorded, and the Zarit Burden Interview administered to caregivers to assess their experience of burden. The mean age of the caregivers was 43.6 ± 9.5 years, 52.4% lived outside Kaduna and the mean seizure-free period for the patients was 26.4 ± 36.5 weeks. One hundred and twenty (51.9%) caregivers had high burden. High burden was significantly associated with patients aged less than 20 years, patient's unemployment, long duration of epilepsy, short seizure-free period, family history of epilepsy and living outside Kaduna (p valueburden while caring for their relatives and this is mainly associated with patient's factors and location of residence. Therefore efforts should be made control seizure and make health care available and affordable to all citizens irrespective of where they live.
Berry, L.G.; Brown, M.A.; Wright, T.; White, D.L.
The national evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) consists of five separate studies. The Single-Family Study is one of three studies that will estimate program energy savings and cost effectiveness in principal WAP submarkets. This report presents the experimental plan for the Single-Family Study, which will be implemented over the next three years (1991--1993). The Single-Family Study will directly estimate energy savings for a nationally representative sample of single-family and small multifamily homes weatherized in the 1989 program year. Savings will be estimated from gas and electric utility billing records using the Princeton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM). The study will also assess nonenergy impacts (e.g., health, comfort, safety, and housing affordability), estimate cost effectiveness, and analyze factors influencing these outcomes. For homes using fuels such as wood, coal, fuel oil, kerosene, and propane as the primary source of space conditioning, energy savings will be studied indirectly. The study will assemble a large nationally representative data base. A cluster sampling approach will be used, in which about 400 subgrantees are selected in a first stage and weatherized homes are selected in a second range. To ensure that the Single-Family Study is able to identify promising opportunities for future program development, two purposively selected groups of subgrantees will be included: (1) subgrantees that install cooling measures (such as more efficient air conditioning equipment or radiant barriers), and (2) exemplary subgrantees that use state-of-the-art technologies and service delivery procedures (such as advanced audit techniques, blower door tests, infrared scanners, extensive client education, etc.). These two groups of subgrantees will be analyzed to identify the most effective program elements in specific circumstances. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.
Akers, Aletha Y.; Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Borrero, Sonya; Corbie-Smith, Giselle
CONTEXT Parent-adolescent communication is associated with increased adolescent contraceptive use. However, studies of this association are limited by their lack of examination of the communication process, reliance on cross-sectional designs and infrequent comparison of parent and adolescent perspectives. Examining communication in black families is particularly important, given the high pregnancy rate among black adolescents. METHODS Between December 2007 and March 2008, a total of 21 focus groups were conducted with 53 black families (68 parents and 57 adolescents) in Pennsylvania. Separate groups were held for males and females, and for parents and adolescents. The discussion guide explored family communication about sexual health topics, including contraception, family planning and abortion. Sessions were audio-recorded; data were transcribed and analyzed using a grounded theory approach to content analysis and the constant comparison method. RESULTS Five key themes emerged among both parents and adolescents. First, discussions about contraception were indirect and framed in terms of the need to avoid negative consequences of sex. Second, contraceptive knowledge was low. Third, parents more often reported helping male adolescents get condoms than helping females get contraceptives. Fourth, discussions emphasized planning for the future over contraception. Finally, negative attitudes toward abortion were prevalent. CONCLUSIONS Parent-adolescent communication interventions should improve contraceptive knowledge, help parents understand the harmful effects of gender biases in information dissemination, and provide mothers and fathers with communication skills tailored to enhance the role they play in their adolescents’ sexual development. PMID:20887285
Chamie, M; Eisman, S; Forrest, J D; Orr, M T; Torres, A
Reports on a survey of family planning clinic and community characteristics in selected US counties where high and low proportions of adolescents obtain family planning services in clinics. In areas where large proportions of teenagers are served, clinics are more numerous, flexible, diverse, innovative, assertive and visible, have larger adolescent caseloads and provide more hours of service, have more varied funding and include more types of agencies. Parental consent or notification is less likely to be required, and other types of health services are more likely to be provided. Higher proportions of continuing adolescent clients, no charge for services, lack of formal appointments, and special outreach and follow-up programs and recruitment activities, are other characteristics of clinics in these areas. They also engender more support and more opposition. In areas where relatively small proportions of teenagers visit clinics, private physicians are less likely to prescribe contraceptives to minors on their own consent, pharmacists are less likely to display contraceptives openly, state laws and policies are more often silent or ambiguous about teenagers' rights and less often encourage teaching birth control in the schools.
Full Text Available Strategies to accelerate progress of India′s family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG s0 tates which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these s0 tates. a0 rationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women′s autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users′ needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients.
Valadez, J J; Transgrud, R; Mbugua, M; Smith, T
This report demonstrates the use of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) to evaluate the technical competence of two cohorts of family planning service providers in Kenya trained with a new curriculum. One cohort had just finished training within two months of the study. The other cohort was the first group trained with the new curriculum about one year before the study. LQAS was adapted from industrial and other public health applications to assess both the individual competence of 30 service providers and the competence of each cohort. Results show that Cohorts One and Two did not differ markedly in the number of tasks needing improvement. However, both cohorts exhibited more tasks needing improvement in counseling skills as compared with physical examination skills or with all other skills. Care-givers who were not currently providing services accounted for most service-delivery problems. This result suggests that providers' use of their skills explains their ability to retain service-delivery skills learned in training to a greater degree than does the amount of time elapsed since they were trained. LQAS proved to be a rapid, easy-to-use empirical method for management decisionmaking for improvement of a family planning training curriculum and services.
Halsall, Viannella; Rogers, Jennifer; Witt, Jacki; Song, Sejun; Nguyen, Hoang Duc Huy; Kelly, Patricia
To provide an overview of lessons learned during the development process of an app for iOS and Android based on national recommendations for providing quality family planning services. After a review of existing apps was conducted to determine whether an app of clinical recommendations for family planning existed, a team of clinicians, training specialists, and app developers created a resource app by first drafting a comprehensive content map. A prototype of the app was then pilot tested using smart tablets by a volunteer convenience sample of women's healthcare professionals. Outcomes measured included usability, acceptability, download analytics, and satisfaction by clinicians as reported through an investigator-developed tool. Sixty-nine professionals tested a prototype of the app, and completed a user satisfaction tool. Overall, user feedback was positive, and a zoom function was added to the final version as a result of the pilot test. Within 3 months of being publicly available, the app was downloaded 677 times, with 97% of downloads occurring on smart phones, 76% downloads occurring on iOS devices, and 24% on Android devices. This trend persisted throughout the following 3 months. Clinicians with an interest in developing an app should consider a team approach to development, pilot test the app prior to wider distribution, and develop a web-based version of the app to be used by clinicians who are unable to access smart devices in their practice setting.
Anand Mohan Dixit
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge of contraceptive methods and intended family size among the men of urban slum.Material and Method: Present study conducted in urban slum area of Jaipur. Information from 400 married men of age group 18-49 years collected on semi structured schedule during June to October 2012.House to house survey conducted to achieve defined sample size. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 12 soft ware. Chi square, t test and ANOVA were used for interpretation.Result and Conclusion: Most commonly known methods of family planning were female sterilization (95.2%, condom (94.7% and Male sterilization (93.5%. IUCD (57% was still not popularly known method of contraception. Emergency contraceptive pills (12.2% and Injectables (25.7% were least known methods among men. Knowledge of different contraceptive differs according to educational status and caste of men. TV and radio were main source of information. Only 16% men said that they got information from health personnel. On analysis present family size was 3.125 while desired family size was 2.63, it shows that two child norm is not ideal to all. Men who had already two children 53 % of them still want to expand their family. Approximately half of the men feel that they have larger family size and the main reasons were inappropriate knowledge (37% and ignorance (21%. Those men who want to expand their family size, son preference was the major reason. Only 3% men show the intention of one child as ideal in family, which indicate that one child norm is too far to reach.
Gao, M; He, S; Zhang, F; Lu, C; Liao, J; Wei, L; Cheng, R
This document discusses the clash between traditional concepts about fertility in China and goals which seek to reduce fertility and promote equality between the sexes. The traditional emphasis on having a son to carry on the family line and support his elders is seen as a practical necessity by many rural dwellers. During a 6-month period starting in April 1992, therefore, "China Population News" published commentaries on this subject written by people from all walks of life and all areas of China. Six of these commentaries are presented in this article. In the first, a family planning (FP) worker notes that farmers without sons currently have an economic and social disadvantage, which may be mitigated if daughters can carry on family lines and have an equal right of inheritance. Another FP worker also urges women to affirm that they can carry on the family name. A farmer, however, believes that every man should have a son to carry on their family line because daughters become members of their husband's families upon marriage. A third FP worker finds feudal ideas of male superiority still at work in small towns and feels that education and socioeconomic development will be required to encourage farmers to abandon this outmoded concept. Another farmer then relays that her family's response to having a single daughter was to have her son-in-law become a member of her family, with the first child having her surname and the second child his. The final account is from a government worker whose only brother was killed. Despair killed her mother and almost killed her father until he understood that his daughter and son-in-law would care for him in his old age. This woman's first child was given both surnames.
This is a resume of a study that evaluated 3 communication campaigns carried out by the National Council of Population (CONAPO) between 1972 and 1976, and their effects on perceptions and attitudes regarding family planning. Data were collected in group sessions in Mexico City with lower middle and lower class women between 29 and 32 years of age and with a minimum of 2 children. Women remembered in great detail the 3 basic communications of CONAPO. The message of the second campaign, "The small family lives better," was remembered by the greatest number of women. The slogan of the third campaign, "Lady, the decision to get pregnant is yours," was remembered perfectly by most women but the remainder of the message was not. The visual images transmitted by television were quite clearly remembered except in the case of the third campaign. The auditory elements of the second and third campaigns were clearly understood, but the overall meaning of the first message was confused because a large number of messages used the same slogan. The general reaction towards "the small family lives better" was positive, but a minority of women were frustrated by the third message because it did not include details on how to carry out the proposed decision.
Barr, Ronald D; Silva, Agustina; Wong, Maria; Frid, William; Posgate, Susan; Browne, Gina
Camping programs for children with chronic diseases are designed for specific needs, but rigorous evaluation of their impact is largely lacking. The biggest camp for children with cancer and their families provided an opportunity to conduct such an investigation. The study sample consisted of 76 attendee and 86 non-attendee families. Parents and children completed a series of validated questionnaires addressing family functioning (the primary effect measure); health-related quality of life (HRQL) of the patients; the children's behavior and relationships; parental behavior, mood and social support; parental nurturance, rejection and monitoring (from the perspective of the children); and a health and social service utilization inventory. The most common diagnoses in the attendee and nonattendee groups were acute lymphoblastic leukemia and central nervous system tumors, respectively. A higher proportion of attendees were receiving active treatment (26.7% vs. 5.8%), almost all for relapsed disease. Parent attendees reported significantly better family function and social support, and parenting skills and coping, than nonattendee parents. The parental proxy assessments of the children's overall HRQL revealed significantly better scores for the attendees, although there was a greater burden of pain among attendees and of cognitive morbidity among nonattendees. Costs related to health care and social services were substantially greater in the attendee families. Children with cancer cannot be randomized not to attend camp. So the results of this study cannot resolve the conundrum--do better-adapted families attend a camp designed to meet the special needs of their children, or does attendance materially improve the health and welfare of families of children with cancer? However, the very proliferation of such camps is indicative of a need being met and greater efforts should be made to promote the camping experience, and to encourage such children and their families to
The Hungarian Central Statistical Office has carried out five different sample surveys in the last fifteen years for investigating more closely questions of fertility, family planning and birth control. The study summarizes the main findings. Some of these surveys applied retrospective methods to investigate fertility, family planning and birth control bahaviour of females in the past. Surveys of another type tried to reveal in perspective manner, with longitudinal observation of the couples, changes which took place in family planning and birth control ideas and practice. The main purpose of recent population policy measures was to ensure simple reproduction of the population. As a result of the measures taken in 1974 to increase the number of births the birth-rate went up significantly. This increase (30% as compared to 1973) appeared primarily for the second birth which constitutes 62% of the increment in births in 1974, 31% is accounted for by an 11% increase in the first births. The number of third births rose by 13% and their relative share remained 10%. The number of fourthand further births did not increase and their relative share decreased by 1%. Fertility data of 1974 show that the birth-rate increase was not in line with the intended aim, i.e. it was not the number of third births that increased. The net reproduction coefficient showing long-range growth of the population calculated with birth-rate of 1974, has developed favourably, it was over unity for the first time since 1958 (it was about 1.05). The birth-rate increased in 1974 in every age-group of females. The largest increase (19%) occurred for females 25-34 years old. Though it was 16% also for females under 24. According to a sample survey investigating the number of intended children by married females under 35 it did not increase as compared to data of previous surveys of similiar character. The differences is that the proportion of those who wished to have two children increased, while of
Colombia's rate of population growth of about 2%/year from 1938-51 increased to over 3% between 1951-64 before dropping again to 1.8% in 1985. The total fertility rate declined from 6.7 in 1969 to 3.2 in 1986, but the decline was not equal for all population sectors. In 1986, the total fertility rate was 4.4 in the Atlantic Coast region, 2.7 in Bogota, 2.8 in urban areas, 4.9 in rural areas, 5.4 for illiterate women, and 1.5 for women with higher educations. Knowledge of contraceptive methods is almost universal, with pills, IUDs, and female sterilization the best known. The proportion of women in union using contraception increased from 15% in rural areas and 45% in urban areas in 1969 to 53% in rural areas and 70% in urban areas in 1986. Use of female sterilization increased steadily to 19% of urban and 17% of rural women by 1985, while use of oral contraceptives declined slightly from 20% of urban and 12% of rural women in 1978 to 18% of urban and 13% of rural women in 1986. 11% of women in union used IUDs in 1986. Use of contraception increased rapidly with age of the woman, from 57% of women in union aged 20-24 to 76% aged 35-39. Rates of contraceptive usage in 1986 were 51% for illiterate women, 62% for those with primary educations, 72% for those with secondary educations, and 81% for those with higher educations. The private family planning organization PROFAMILIA is the contraceptive source for over 1/3 of family planning users, with especially high rates for IUD and sterilization users. PROFAMILIA sells over 1/2 of the pills, condoms, and vaginal methods used in the country. Pharmacies supply 30% of users, with especially high rates for pills, injectables, condoms, and vaginal methods. Around 1988, there will be an estimated 7,889,242 fertile aged women in Colombia, some 4,212,855 of them in union and 2,814,187 current users. Although PROFAMILIA is 1 of the most economical family planning programs in the world, its need for financial support will
Ely, Mindy S.; Gullifor, Kateri; Hollinshead, Tara
Early intervention visual impairment services are built on a model that values family. Matrix session planning pulls together parent priorities, family routines, and identified strategies in a way that helps families and early intervention professionals outline a plan that can both highlight long-term goals and focus on what can be done today.…
The population rise was due to low use of contraceptive methods (21% in rural areas and 43% in urban areas) and coupled with high unmet need for family ... size ,children dying less than five years old, husbands forbidding women from using family planning and lack of community leaders' involvement in family planning ...
World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.
A review is given of the status of family planning education at medical, nursing, and midwifery schools in seven European countries. The report is presented in 11 sections. Section one, an introduction, explains the scope of the study and defines family planning to include birth control, pregnancy and delivery, problems of adolescents, family life…
Hence, investments in family planning services in poor areas are not only important because they allow women to plan their births better, but also because they may lead to higher primary enrolment rates and thus contribute to ... Keywords: Fertility; Family Planning ; Path Analysis; District Panel; Children's Schooling; Africa ...
Harvey, P D
In 1977 and again in 1982, a series of couponed ads were run in three major Bangladeshi newspapers to test the relative effectiveness of different family planning themes. The ads offered a free booklet about methods of family planning (1977) or "detailed information on contraceptives" (1982) in the context of family health, the wife's happiness, the children's future, and family economics. The most effective ads, by a highly significant margin, were those stressing the importance of family economics (food and shelter) and the children's (sons') future. The least effective ads stressed the benefits of family planning for the wife.
Full Text Available Abstract Background With a maternal mortality ratio of 789 per 100,000 live births, and a contraceptive prevalence rate of 4.7%, South Sudan has one of the worst reproductive health situations in the world. Understanding the social norms around sexuality and reproduction, across different ethnic groups, is key to developing and implementing locally appropriate public health responses. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in the state of Western Bahr el Ghazal (WBeG in South Sudan to explore the social norms shaping decisions about family planning among the Fertit community. Data were collected through five focus group discussions and 44 semi-structured interviews conducted with purposefully selected community members and health personnel. Results Among the Fertit community, the social norm which expects people to have as many children as possible remains well established. It is, however, under competitive pressure from the existing norm which makes spacing of pregnancies socially desirable. Young Fertit women are increasingly, either covertly or overtly, making family planning decisions themselves; with resistance from some menfolk, but also support from others. The social norm of having as many children as possible is also under competitive pressure from the emerging norm that equates taking good care of one’s children with providing them with a good education. The return of peace and stability in South Sudan, and people’s aspirations for freedom and a better life, is creating opportunities for men and women to challenge and subvert existing social norms, including but not limited to those affecting reproductive health, for the better. Conclusions The sexual and reproductive health programmes in WBeG should work with and leverage existing and emerging social norms on spacing in their health promotion activities. Campaigns should focus on promoting a family ideal in which children become the object of parental investment, rather than
Danésio de Souza, Jacqueline; Queiroz Ribeiro, Andréia; Oliveira Martinho, Karina; Silva Franco, Fernanda; Vidal Martins, Marcos; Gonçalves Rodrigues, Meirele; Wick, Jeannette Y; Araújo Tinôco, Adelson Luiz
the aging population has been accompanied by epidemiological changes of the Brazilian population, with the highlight being the continued growth of the prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases especially cardiovascular or artery-coronary, resulting from changes in the lipid profile of the elderly. this study had the aim to describe the behavioral, anthropometric, lifestyle and body composition factors and their association with changes in the lipid profile of elderly people. the sample included 402 participants attended at the Family Health Strategy, Viçosa (MG), to which a questionnaire with socio-demographic, behavioral and lifestyle information was applied. Blood sample was collected to obtain the lipid fractions, and the weight, height, waist circumference and body fat percentage were measured. Multiple linear regression was performed to identify independently associated factors with changes in each of the selected lipid fractions. the factors independently associated with increased levels of total cholesterol were the presence of sedentary behavior, high body fat percentage, greater waist height and greater waist circumference. The consumption of alcoholic beverages and a higher waist-hip ratio remained independently associated with decreased high-density lipoprotein levels. The increased waist circumference was independently associated with low values of the low-density lipoprotein levels. The value of increased triglyceride was independently associated with higher waist-hip ratio, higher body mass index and smoking. modifiable risk factors associated with a changed lipid profile should be prioritized among the actions to be considered in structuring health programs for the elderly. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Choi, Yoonjoung; Fabic, Madeleine Short; Adetunji, Jacob
Expanding access to family planning (FP) is a driving aim of global and national FP efforts. The definition and measurement of access, however, remain nebulous, largely due to complexity. This article aims to bring clarity to the measurement of FP access. First, we synthesize key access elements for measurement by reviewing three well-known frameworks. We then assess the extent to which the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS)-a widely used data source for FP programs and research-has information to measure these elements. We finally examine barriers to access by element, using the latest DHS data from four countries in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss opportunities and limitations in the measurement of access, the importance of careful interpretation of data from population-based surveys, and recommendations for collecting and using data to better measure access. © 2016 The Population Council, Inc.
Chen, E C
Results are presented of a multiple classification analysis of responses to a 1972 KAP survey in Taiwan of 2013 married women aged 18-34 designed to determine whether family planning communication is primarily a reinforcement agent or a change agent. 2 types of independent variables, social demographic variables including age, number of children, residence, education, employment status, and duration of marriage; and social climate variables including ever receiving family planning information from mass media and ever discussing family planning with others, were used. KAP levels, the dependent variables, were measured by 2 variables each: awareness of effective methods and awareness of government supply of contraceptives for knowledge, wish for additional children and approve of 2-child family for attitude, and never use contraception and neither want children nor use contraception for practice. Social demographic and attitudinal variables were found to be the critical ones, while social climate and knowledge variables had only negligible effects on various stages of family planning adoption, indicating that family planning communications functioned primarily as a reinforcement agent. The effects of social demographic variables were prominent in all stages of contraceptive adoption. Examination of effects of individual variables on various stages of family planning adoption still supported the argument that family planning communications played a reinforcement role. Family planning communications functioned well in diffusing family planning knowledge and accessibility, but social demographic variables and desire for additional children were the most decisive influences on use of contraception.
Kohan, Shahnaz; Simbar, Masoumeh; Taleghani, Fariba
Women carry the primary responsibility for family planning in most parts of the world, and should be afforded the power of decision-making and control over their fertility. This study seeks to gain insight into Iranian women's perception of the meaning of empowerment in family planning. Using a qualitative study, seven focus group discussions and five individual interviews were conducted with 35 married Iranian women of reproductive age. The data were analysed using a conventional content analysis approach, in which themes and categories were explored to reveal women's experiences of empowerment in family planning. The results demonstrated four main categories: control over fertility plan, participative family planning, maintaining health and access to optimal family planning services. They viewed knowledge of family planning and autonomy of decision-making in fertility issues as essential elements for control of their fertility plan. Participants felt more empowered when joint family planning decisions were made with their partners in an atmosphere of agreement. Therefore, family planning policymakers should plan services with new approaches that focus on women's health and empowerment.
Local publications about population in Rwanda over the past 3 years have tended either to view population growth and high density as advantageous because they lead to more intensive use of resources and hence development, or to view Rwanda as regressing economically and socially because of its very rapid population growth. It is questionable whether Rwanda's development goals can be attained without bringing down the rate of population growth. Population pressure in some rural areas has become catastrophic, yet parents do not see their large families as a problem because they expect their children once grown to make their living elsewhere. Local authorities should help to communicate the concept that only demographic stability will allow achievement of communal development goals. The advantages of smaller families should be discussed. Rwanda's policy of increasing agricultural production has encountered numerous obstacles. Subdivision of plots through inheritance, sale, or sharecropping is a problem in itself and also tends to increase erosion. None of the methods of increasing plot size by collectivization or resettling the population is without serious drawbacks. The best solution appears to be encouragement of better cultivation techniques through extension agents and demonstration projects at the local level. Artisanal activities and manual labor should be promoted to provide employment at the communal level. Community development projects should be decentralized and carefully planned to meet local needs.
In Nicaragua, the recently opened Regional Family Planning (FP) Center in the capital of Chontales Province provides a variety of FP services to the 60,000 citizens of Juigalpa. These services include counseling, laboratory exams, gynecologic exams, and voluntary sterilization. the Asociacion Pro Bienestar de la Familia Nicaraguense (PROFAMILIA) opened the center, since FP services have been neglected in this province as compared to access to these services in the large population centers of Managua and Leon. A recent contraceptive prevalence survey shows that contraceptive prevalence in urban areas of Nicaragua is 62%, while it is just between 13-15% in rural regions, like Chontales and Zelaya. The center will also run a community distribution program for Chontales. As of May 1993, it had 25 community distribution posts in the region, providing contraceptives and training volunteers. PROFAMILIA hopes to open another regional center in Chinandega in the western part of Nicaragua in 1993. It plans on opening a central clinic in Grenada, the third largest city, to serve 120,000 people from Grenada and the small communities surrounding Grenada.
Choi, Joyce; Chan, Sherry; Wiebe, Ellen
To assess physicians' knowledge, attitudes, and practice with respect to four evidence-based natural family planning (NFP) methods: Standard Days, cervical mucus, basal body temperature, and the lactational amenorrhea method. We undertook a cross-sectional survey of a random sample of family physicians and all gynaecologists in British Columbia (n = 460) who have women of reproductive age in their practice, as well as all affiliated residents (n = 239). Main outcome measures were (1) physicians' attitudes towards NFP and their perceptions of its effectiveness; (2) the relationship between physicians' demographic factors, their personal experience or beliefs, and their attitudes and knowledge; and (3) how these factors affect the counselling physicians offer their patients. The survey response rate was 44%. Only 3% to 6% of physicians had correct knowledge of the effectiveness in perfect use of the NFP methods cited in this study. Fifty percent of physicians who responded mention NFP to their patients as an option for contraception, and 77% of physicians mention NFP as an option to couples trying to conceive. Family physicians and residents were much more likely than gynaecologists or gynaecology residents to mention NFP during counselling. Older physicians were more likely to mention NFP than younger physicians and also had more personal experience with NFP. Most physicians in our study underestimated the effectiveness of NFP methods, and only a small proportion of physicians provide information about NFP during contraceptive counselling. Physicians need better understanding of modern methods of NFP to provide evidence-based contraceptive counselling to selected highly motivated patients who prefer NFP as a contraceptive choice.
Molebatsi, Tshegofatso Queen
Introduction: Unmet need for family planning is high in most African countries including South Africa and Malawi as witnessed by high levels of teenage pregnancies, unwanted births and unsafe abortion. As such unmet need for family planning was added to the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG) as an indicator for tracking progress on improving maternal health. Objective: The primary objective of the study is to determine the correlates of unmet need for family planning among women of re...
Full Text Available Augustine Ankomah1, Jennifer Anyanti1, Muyiwa Oladosu21Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 2MiraMonitor Consulting Ltd, Abuja, NigeriaBackground: This paper examines myths, misinformation, factual information, and communication about family planning and their effects on contraceptive use in Nigeria.Methods: A nationally representative sample of 20,171 respondents from two waves of a multiround survey (one in 2003 and the other in 2005, was analyzed at the bivariate level using Chi-square tests and at the multivariate level using logistic regression.Results: Key myths and misinformation about family planning having significant negative effects on contraceptive use included: “contraception makes women become promiscuous”, “it is expensive to practice family planning”, and “family planning causes cancer”. Factual information having significant positive effects on contraceptive use includes the messages that family planning methods are effective and not against religious teaching. The type of people with whom respondents discussed family planning had a significant effect on use of contraception. Respondents who discussed family planning with their spouse, friends, and health workers were more likely to use contraception than those who discussed it with religious leaders. Other significant predictors of contraceptive use were region of residence, gender, and socioeconomic status.Conclusion: Family planning programs should focus on eliminating myths and misinformation, while strengthening factual information. Contraception programs should factor in the role of significant others, particularly spouses and friends.Keywords: contraceptive use, family planning, logistic regression, misconceptions, myths
Conclusions: Both, UI and OAB represent a significant problem among patients attending the family practice physician office. It seems that the knowledge of both dysfunctions is satisfactory among physicians. The majority of patients would tell their doctors about UI and OAB and would also receive appropriate instructions regarding the bladder training and PFMT, both methods being very important for the prevention and treatment of these dysfunctions.
As part of the preparations for the 1994 UN International Conference on Population and Development, an expert group meeting on family planning (FP), health, and family well-being was held in India on October 26-30, 1992. The group focused on the following issues: 1) society and FP, a review of existing FP programs, and the implementation of FP programs (including quality of services and human resources development, unreached populations, adolescent fertility, diffusion of innovative activities, community-based distribution systems and social marketing, and future contraceptive requirements and logistics management needs); 2) FP and health (including safe motherhood and child survival, the interdependence of services, sexually transmitted diseases [STDs], and AIDS); 3) FP and family well-being (including family size, family structure, child development, fertility decline, and family support systems); and 4) the involvement of people in FP programs (community participation, cost of supplies and service, contraceptive research and development, and a reexamination of the roles of various agencies). Both developed and developing countries were considered, with an emphasis on the latter. After reviewing the progress made in implementing the World Population Plan of Action adopted in Bucharest in 1974, the expert group drafted 35 recommendations to governments, donors, and other agencies. Governments are asked to support FP programs as a cost-effective component of a development strategy, to provide opportunities for women to participate in public policy processes, to support the family through public policies and programs, to increase investments in FP and reproductive and maternal and child health, to increase support to the health and education sectors to achieve basic human rights, to provide safe access to counseling and abortion services, and to include STD/HIV education and prevention in the work of FP programs. FP programs should receive support and funding and
Umar Aminu Kaoje
Full Text Available Introduction: Satisfaction evaluation is an excellent opportunity to involve clients in the process of assessing programs from users′ perspective and is recognized as a component of quality of care. This study aimed to identify determinants of client satisfaction with the family planning (FP services provided in government health facilities in Sokoto metropolis. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among FP clients that patronized the FP commodity delivery point in selected health facility in Sokoto, Northern Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the study respondents. List of the clients that attended each clinic was compiled and used as a sampling frame. A set of pretested exit interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from the clients. Ethical approval was granted for the conduct of the study, and individual informed consent was obtained from each client. Thereafter, the exit questionnaire was administered. Results: All the respondents were females and those aged 25-29 years constituted a larger proportion of 26%. Overall mean age was 30.8 ± 7.0 years. Large proportion (85% expressed satisfaction with FP services provided. About 49% of the respondents reported waiting for 30 min before being attended to by service providers while 13% waited for more than 2 h. Average waiting time was 60.3 ± 21.3 min with clients mean desired waiting time of 35.2 ± 11.1 min. Clinic waiting time, being examined during the visit, and attitude of both service providers and other clinic staffs were found to be the key determinants of client satisfaction. Conclusion: Although, most of the clients waited for more than 30 min, majority were satisfied with the services offered. There is a need to reduce waiting time of FP clients at the clinic and ensure clients are appropriately examined.
Sharma, Vasundhara; Mohan, Uday; Das, Vinita; Awasthi, Shally
Understanding of family planning scenario among different societies and communities, which by and large reside in urban slum and rural areas, might prove useful in increasing family planning acceptance by them and decreasing population growth. To assess the sociodemographic determinants and KAP of family planning among urban slum and rural areas of Lucknow. Cross sectional. Bal Mahila Chikitsalaya, Aliganj, in urban and Primary Health Centre, Bakshi Ka Talaab, in rural area of Lucknow. October 2008 to April 2009. Six hundred and eightytwo postpartum women (within 42 days of delivery) who came to these health facilities for their child's vaccination were interviewed, by a preformed and pretested schedule. Maximum utilization of family methods were seen among Hindu women, women of age group 30 or more, parity four and more, educational level upto high school and above and those of higher socioeconomic class. Although overall residential area (urban or rural) of women had no influence on the practice of family planning by them and all of them were willing to adopt family planning methods in future, urban women were found to have a higher level of knowledge and attitude toward modern methods of family planning. Only 2.8% were unsure of preferred method for future use. Family planning programs which effectively promotes the use of family planning methods, so that the trend toward increase in population could be arrested is the need of hour.
Wambui, T; Ek, A-C; Alehagen, S
Men have rarely been involved in either receiving or providing information on sexuality, reproductive health or birth spacing. They have also been ignored or excluded in one way or the other from participating in many family planning programmes as family planning is viewed as a woman's affair. To describe the perceptions of family planning among low-income men in Western Kenya. A qualitative study using focus group interviews and content analysis was conducted, with 64 men aged 15-54 years participating actively. Perceptions of family planning were manifold. For example, some perceived it as meaning having the number of children one is able to provide for. Most men knew about traditional and modern methods of birth control, although their knowledge was poor and misconceived. Modern methods were thought to give side effects, discouraging family planning. Low instances of family planning were also because of the fact that culturally, children are considered wealth. A law advocating family size limitation was regarded as necessary for the future. Men's perceptions of family planning are manifold. Their knowledge about contraception is poor and sometimes misconceived. Preferences regarding a child's gender are strong, thus attitudes and cultural beliefs that might hinder family planning have to be considered. A policy on male contraception and contraceptive services is seen as necessary.
Omolase, C O; Faturoti, S O; Omolase, B O
This study aimed at determining the awareness about family planning amongst pregnant women presenting to the antenatal clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. The study was conducted between December, 2007 and February, 2008 at the antenatal clinic of the hospital. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical Review Committee of the hospital prior to commencement of the study. The information was obtained from the respondents with the aid of a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire which included their bio-data, awareness and the sources of awareness about family planning .Other information obtained were reasons for family planning as well as knowledge about the different methods of family planning. The information obtained with the study instrument (questionnaire) was collated and analyzed with SPSS statistical software version 12.0.1. Most respondents (89%) were aware of family planning. The majority of the respondents:42 (47.2%) received information about family planning from health workers while 21(23.6%) received the information through the media. Most of the respondents (74%) knew about condom. The level of education significantly affected the awareness about family planning with a p value of 0.017. Most respondents were aware of family planning. The media should play a more prominent role in creating awareness amongst the populace about family panning.
Joshi, L R
Family planning (FP) is one of the major components of reproductive health and its goal is to prevent unwanted pregnancies and regulate wanted pregnancies, thereby ensuring the health of mothers and children. It also aims at regulating the population in order to maintain the vital balance between development and the environment. Ideally, FP depends on the efforts of a couple where the man and woman are equally responsible and accountable. In reality, however, this is not the case. It is in this background that the present study aims at examining the nature and level of male participation in preventing unwanted pregnancies and the factors that influence male participation in FP. The data for the study was derived using mixed methods, drawing from both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The research design was cross-sectional, descriptive and observational. Despite the high level of knowledge and awareness about FP among the respondents, it was found that male participation in FP continues to remain very low. The multidimensional factors influencing their participation include education of the couple (the unadjusted odds ratio of higher education level of respondents is 2.182 and the adjusted OR is 1.972; and the unadjusted OR of higher education level of the spouse is 2.030, and the adjusted OR is 1.570), and economic condition (the unadjusted OR of higher income is 2.272 and the adjusted OR is 2.436) of family. Male participation in FP was found to be higher in rural areas (69.8 %) and among Dalits (72.5%). Other factors include social stigma and religious practice, patriarchal notions, gender roles and individual characteristics. Male participation plays a crucial role in population management, but patriarchal notions, socioculturally defined gender roles, combined with the inefficiency of the current FP programme, and biological factors contribute towards keeping male participation very low.
Family planning in Malaysia is discussed. Family planning began in Malaysia about 15 years ago through the efforts of voluntary family Planning Associations in the various Malay states. In 1966 the Malaysian Parliament passed the National Family Planning Act setting up the National FAmily Planning Board to formulate policies and methods for the promotion and spread of family planning knowledge and practice on the grounds of health of mothers and children and welfare of the family. In 1967, the board set a target of 40,000 new acceptors of family planning and 90% of the target was reached. This represents 3% of the child-bearing married women aged 15-49. The target for 1968 of 65,000 new acceptors is being achieved. A survey of acceptors is to be carried out from December 1968 to April 1969 to ascertain how many women who accepted family planning continue to practice it. Malaysia's crude birth rate declined from 46.2 in 1957 to 37.3 in 1966 before the government program was instituted. Abortion attempts have been frequent. The main method of contraception used is oral contraceptives. According to a 1957 survey, 31% of the married women in the metropolitan areas and 2% of rural women were using contraception. Presently, in Malaysia there is a need to: 1) train personnel to provide services, 2) inform and motivate families to accept family planning, 3) continue a broad educational program, 4) reform Malaysia's antiquated abortion law, and 5) integrate family planning services more fully into the general health services of the country.
Lusiana Andriani Lubis
Full Text Available Communication strategy on family planning campaign is the interpretation on knowledge attitude and practice theory KAP theory that commonly used in many health campaign programs in developing countries and advance countries in the world. This theory can also be applied for other programs such as agriculture family planning commercial and society capacity building. The aims of this research are to described and analyzed communication strategy on family planning campaign by the field officer for family planning campaign and also to find out all factors that can be the obstacle on family planning program in Sumatera Utara province especially in Langkat District. The long term goal of this research is to find out the best method that can be done by the government in order to get peoples support. It can only be achieved if the program are transparant clearly stated and on the perfect target. The population of the research are the field officer for family planning campaign 10 person and also the citizen of Langkat District 10 person plus their husbandwife. All informants were being selected by purposive sampling technique. Observation interview and Focus Group Discussion were also being held in order to get best result. Several results were shown It showed that the better productive age couples receive information about family planning the use of contraception especially using injection and implant methods among productive age couples is increasing. Biggest problem in Langkat District is that many of the family planning acceptors using short therm contraception method such as pill condom and injection rather than long term contraception method such as IUD implant or vasectomytubectomy. BKKBN National Family Planning Coordinating Body in Langkat District still need to improve many aspects on doing communication strategy on family planning campaign by the field officer for family planning campaign especially in the low income productive age couples
Chavane, Leonardo; Dgedge, Martinho; Bailey, Patricia; Loquiha, Osvaldo; Aerts, Marc; Temmerman, Marleen
The contraceptive prevalence rate in Mozambique was estimated as 11.3% in the last Demographic and Health Survey. The impact of family planning (FP) on women's health and on the reduction of maternal mortality is well known. Acknowledging the importance of user satisfaction in the utilisation of health services, exit interviews were used to assess women's satisfaction with FP services in Mozambique. The survey, conducted in 174 health facilities, was representative at the national level, covered all provinces, and both urban and rural areas. Overall, 86% of respondents were satisfied with FP services, but issues such as insufficient supplies of oral contraceptives and the low quality of healthcare provider/client interactions were given as reasons for women's dissatisfaction. Defined actions at the level of health service provision are needed to tackle the identified issues and ensure improved satisfaction with, and better utilisation of, FP services in Mozambique. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Notkola, V; Nieminen, M
"The article looks in detail at the population development in China since the 1950s, highlighting some dramatic changes. In the late 1950s the country was hit by widespread famine, which resulted in increased mortality and decreased fertility. Infant mortality climbed to almost 300/1,000. During the 1960s fertility began to increase again and mortality declined. From the beginning of the 1970s fertility started to decline, dropping from about six to just over two children per woman in the late 1980s. Today, fertility is thought to be below replacement level. The main reason for this fertility decline lies in the highly efficient family planning programmes implemented in China since the 1950s and particularly since the 1970s. The decline in infant mortality and the favourable socio-economic development have also been important factors in the decline in fertility. Although fertility in China is currently at a low level, the country's population is still set to grow." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt
Full Text Available In South Africa, client satisfaction with the quality of health care has received minimal attention; probably due to the lack of locally developed and tested measures. Therefore, we developed and tested a 20-item attitude scale to determine satisfaction with Family Planning (FP services. The objectives of this study were to: ascertain reliability of the scale and confirm, through factor analysis, that satisfaction with the FP service was based on interpersonal and organisational dimensions. The sample comprised 199 black adult interviewees (158 women and 41 men, who had previously used or were currently using contraception, from an informal settlement in Gauteng, South Africa. Three items were removed from the scale due to unacceptable communality estimates. The reliability coefficient of 0.76 for the 17-item scale was satisfactory. The principal components analysis, with orthogonal and oblique rotations, extracted two factors; accounting for 51.8% of the variance. The highest loadings on Factor I involved an interpersonal dimension (friendly, encouraging, competent, informative and communicative. Factor II tended to focus on the organisational elements of the system, such as different methods, choice of methods, service availability and length of waiting time. It was concluded that this scale was a reliable, easily administered and scored measure of satisfaction, with underlying interpersonal and organisational dimensions.
Huber, Douglas; Saeedi, Nika; Samadi, Abdul Khalil
Afghan women have one of the world's highest lifetime risks of maternal death. Years of conflict have devastated the country's health infrastructure. Total fertility was one of the world's highest, contraceptive use was low and there were no Afghan models of success for family planning. We worked closely with communities, providing information about the safety and non-harmful side-effects of contraceptives and improving access to injectable contraceptives, pills and condoms. Regular interaction with community leaders, mullahs (religious leaders), clinicians, community health workers and couples led to culturally acceptable innovations. A positive view of birth spacing was created by the messages that contraceptive use is 300 times safer than pregnancy in Afghanistan and that the Quran (the holy book of Islam) promotes two years of breastfeeding. Community health workers initiated the use of injectable contraceptives for the first time. The non-for-profit organization, Management Sciences for Health, Afghan nongovernmental organizations and the Ministry of Public Health implemented the Accelerating Contraceptive Use project in three rural areas with different ethnic populations. The contraceptive prevalence rate increased by 24-27% in 8 months in the project areas. Men supported modern contraceptives once they understood contraceptive safety, effectiveness and non-harmful side-effects. Injectable contraceptives contributed most to increases in contraceptive use. Community health workers can rapidly increase contraceptive use in rural areas when given responsibility and guidance. Project innovations were adopted as best practices for national scale-up.
In March 1995, the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) and the government of Japan sponsored a 2-week international workshop on Family Planning Programmes of NGOs (nongovernmental organizations) in the SAARC Region (South Asia). The purpose of the workshop was to share experiences with family planning and reproductive health of the Matlab and the MCH-FP (maternal and child health-family planning) Extension Projects in urban and rural areas with family planning program managers from NGOs and policy and operations researchers. It also intended to examine those family planning and reproductive health projects of the NGOs in Bangladesh that fostered significant improvement of the national family planning and MCH program in Bangladesh. Participants were presented with effective family planning and MCH program design and strategies to strengthen improved management. The workshop emphasized the emerging norms of quality of care in family planning and reproductive health. NGOs initiated the concept of family planning in Bangladesh in 1953, so they are considered innovators. Accordingly, they are expected to develop designs and models for effective service delivery systems, training, management information system, IEC (information, education, and communication), community participation as well as to set social norms and values for small families. At the workshop, Bangladesh was offered as an example of how innovative NGO activities, sustained partnership between the NGOs and the government, and technical support from ICDDR,B lead to progress in family planning and MCH programs, despite the great poverty and economic stagnation. Contraceptive prevalence has increased from around 7% to almost 45% between 1977 and 1994.
Mosha, I.H.; Ruben, R.
Family planning utilization in Tanzania is low. This study was cross sectional. It examined family planning use and socio demographic variables, social networks, knowledge and communication among the couples, whereby a stratified sample of 440 women of reproductive age (18-49), married or cohabiting
Kimberly G. Smith, MD, MS
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to explore third- year medical students’ interest in learning about family planning, exposure to family planning (contraception and abortion and perceived barriers and benefits to family planning education in their obstetrics and gynecology rotation.Method: We conducted four focus groups with 27 third-year medical students near the end of their rotation in obstetrics and gynecology.Results: Students desired education in family planning but perceived limited exposure during their rotation. Most students were aware of abortion but lacked factual information and abortion procedural skills. They felt systemic and faculty-related barriers contributed to limited exposure. Students discussed issues such as lack of time for coverage of contraception and abortion in the curricula and rotation itself. Perceived benefits of clinical instruction in family planning included increased knowledge of contraceptive management and abortion the ability to care for and relate to patients, opportunity for values clarification, and positive changes in attitudes towards family planning.Conclusions: Medical students who desire full education in family planning during their obstetrics and gynecology rotation may face barriers to obtaining that education. Given that many medical students will eventually care for reproductive-age women, greater promotion of opportunities for exposure to family planning within obstetrics and gynecology rotations is warranted.
levels of education. Awareness of family planning methods. Virtually all (99.8 percent) respondents were aware of the existence of modern contraceptives, and most ..... In Colombia,. Profamilia serves men at its women-oriented family planning clinics as well as in clinics for men only.23. This seemingly positive attitude of the ...
Zakiyah, Neily; van Asselt, Antoinette D. I.; Roijmans, Frank; Postma, Maarten J.
Background A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs) who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions
involvement in family planning decision making was poor and their patronage of family planning services was low (Afr J. Reprod Health 2010; 14: 45-52). ... women's reproductive rights and responsibilities. In Nigeria the high rate of .... estimating single proportions as described by. Armitage and Berry, and cited in ...
Background: Providing quality of care in family planning services is an important task for care providers so as to increase service utilization and coverage; however, little is known about the existing quality of care in such services. Objective: To assess quality of care in family planning services in Jimma Zone, southwest ...
AJRH Managing Editor
We study how the availability and use of family planning services in African countries influences the family planning situation of households and through this the educational participation of young children. A district panel dataset is used for 441 urban and rural areas within 233 districts of 25 countries. Path analysis shows ...
van Soest, A.H.O.; Saha, U.R.
Abstract: Analyzing the effect of family planning on child survival remains an important issue but is not straightforward because of several mechanisms linking family planning, birth intervals, total fertility, and child survival. This study uses a dynamic model jointly explaining infant mortality,
Kakoko, D.; Ketting, E.; Kamazima, S.R.; Ruben, R.
Adherence to the policy guidelines and standards is necessary for family planning services. We compared public and private facilities in terms of provision of family planning services. We analyzed data from health facility questionnaire of the 2006 Tanzania Service Provision Assessment survey, based
Islam, M M; Hasan, A H
This paper analyses mass media exposure and its effect on family planning in Bangladesh using data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 1993-94. The findings indicate that radio and television are two important mass media for disseminating family planning information in Bangladesh. However, access to them and exposure to family planning through them are still limited. Slightly more than 40% (42.1%) of respondents reported that they had heard family planning messages via radio, while 17.2% said television, 8.4% said poster and 5.4% said billboard. Respondent's place of residence, education, economic status, geographical region and number of living children appeared to be the most important variable determining mass media exposure to family planning. Multivariate analysis shows that both radio and TV exposure to family planning messages and ownership of a radio and TV have a significant effect on current use of family planning methods. These factors remain significant determinants of contraceptive use, even after controlling socioeconomic and demographic factors. The study reveals that both socioeconomic development policies and family planning programmes with a special emphasis on mass media, especially radio, may have a significant effect on contraceptive use in Bangladesh. The principal policy challenge is to design communications strategies that will reach the less privileged, rural and illiterate people who are by far the majority in Bangladesh.
Tierney, Michael L.
The Timmons Savings Plan, which encourages families to save toward college costs, is analyzed. This plan allows for periodic (non-tax deductible) contributions to an account administered by the U.S. Department of the Treasury. The amount deposited would be matched by the federal government in exchange for the government's earning the interest on…
DeMino, Kathleen A; Appleby, George; Fisk, Deborah
This study compared the perception of social support and the degree of internalized homophobia for two demographically similar groups: lesbians with planned families and lesbians who did not have children. Results found that lesbians with planned families perceived significantly less social support from friends overall, from gay men and lesbian friends specifically, and more support from their families-of-origin than lesbians who did not have children. Lesbians with planned families also reported significantly higher internalized homophobia specific to disclosure of sexual identification. The authors suggest that selective disclosure may be an adaptive response rather than a true measure of internalized homophobia.
Wegs, Christina; Creanga, Andreea A; Galavotti, Christine; Wamalwa, Emmanuel
Use of family planning (FP) is powerfully shaped by social and gender norms, including the perceived acceptability of FP and gender roles that limit women's autonomy and restrict communication and decision-making between men and women. This study evaluated an intervention that catalyzed ongoing community dialogues about gender and FP in Siaya county, Nyanza Province, Kenya. Specifically, we explored the changes in perceived acceptability of FP, gender norms and use of FP. We used a mixed-method approach. Information on married men and women's socio-demographic characteristics, pregnancy intentions, gender-related beliefs, FP knowledge, attitudes, and use were collected during county-representative, cross-sectional household surveys at baseline (2009; n11 = 650 women; n12 = 305 men) and endline (2012; n21 = 617 women; n22 = 317 men); exposure to the intervention was measured at endline. We assessed changes in FP use at endline vs. baseline, and fitted multivariate logistic regression models for FP use to examine its association with intervention exposure and explore other predictors of use at endline. In-depth, qualitative interviews with 10 couples at endline further explored enablers and barriers to FP use. At baseline, 34.0% of women and 27.9% of men used a modern FP method compared to 51.2% and 52.2%, respectively, at endline (pevaluation demonstrates that an intervention that catalyzes open dialogue about gender and FP can shift social norms, enable more equitable couple communication and decision-making and, ultimately, increase use of FP.
Edmond, Karen M; McAuley, Kimberley; McAullay, Daniel; Matthews, Veronica; Strobel, Natalie; Marriott, Rhonda; Bailie, Ross
The quality of social and emotional wellbeing services for Indigenous families of young children is not known, in many settings especially services provided by primary care centers. Our primary objective was to assess delivery of social and emotional wellbeing services to the families of young (3-11 months) and older (12-59 months) Indigenous children attending primary care centers. Our secondary objective was to assess if delivery differed by geographic location. Two thousand four hundred sixty-six client files from 109 primary care centers across Australia from 2012 to 2014 were analysed using logistic regression and generalised estimating equations. The proportion of families receiving social and emotional wellbeing services ranged from 10.6% (102) (food security) to 74.7% (1216) (assessment of parent child interaction). Seventy one percent (71%, 126) of families received follow up care. Families of children aged 3-11 months (39.5%, 225) were more likely to receive social and emotional wellbeing services (advice about domestic environment, social support, housing condition, child stimulation) than families of children aged 12-59 months (30.0%, 487) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.68 95% CI 1.33 to 2.13). Remote area families (32.6%, 622) received similar services to rural (29.4%, 68) and urban families (44.0%, 22) (aOR 0.64 95% CI 0.29, 1.44). The families of young Indigenous children appear to receive priority for social and emotional wellbeing care in Australian primary care centers, however many Indigenous families are not receiving services. Improvement in resourcing and support of social and emotional wellbeing services in primary care centers is needed.
...) Permissible motivational screening factors. Permitted motivational factors include requiring attendance at FSS...) Prohibited motivational screening factors. Prohibited motivational screening factors include the family's... Action Plan. (c) Motivation as a selection factor—(1) General. a PHA may screen families for interest...
Kohan, Shahnaz; Talebian, Ferdos; Ehsanpour, Soheila
Background: One of the important factors in the prediction of family planning outcome is paying attention to women's role in decision making concerning fertility and household affairs. With the improvement of women's status and autonomy, their control over fertility is expected to increase. The present study aimed to investigate the association between women's autonomy and family planning outcome of the couples residing in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: This is cross-sectional study. Two hundred and seventy women of childbearing age, eligible for family planning and residing in Isfahan, were selected through random cluster sampling and they filled a researcher-made questionnaire. Women's autonomy was measured with the questions on their decision-making autonomy concerning household affairs and physical mobility autonomy. The association between women's autonomy and family planning outcome was analyzed through statistical methods. Results: The results showed that the mean of women's decision-making, physical mobility, and general autonomy was 50. Women's autonomy had a direct significant association with the type of contraception method (P = 0.01) and the length of usage of their present contraception method (P = 0.04) as well as where they received family planning services (P = 0.02). Conclusions: Analysis of data revealed women with higher autonomy used a more efficient contraception method and continued their contraception method for a longer time, which leads to improvement of couples’ family planning outcome. Therefore, family planning services should be planned and provided with women's autonomy under consideration. PMID:25400671
Saeedi, Nika; Samadi, Abdul Khalil
Abstract Problem Afghan women have one of the world’s highest lifetime risks of maternal death. Years of conflict have devastated the country’s health infrastructure. Total fertility was one of the world’s highest, contraceptive use was low and there were no Afghan models of success for family planning. Approach We worked closely with communities, providing information about the safety and non-harmful side-effects of contraceptives and improving access to injectable contraceptives, pills and condoms. Regular interaction with community leaders, mullahs (religious leaders), clinicians, community health workers and couples led to culturally acceptable innovations. A positive view of birth spacing was created by the messages that contraceptive use is 300 times safer than pregnancy in Afghanistan and that the Quran (the holy book of Islam) promotes two years of breastfeeding. Community health workers initiated the use of injectable contraceptives for the first time. Local setting The non-for-profit organization, Management Sciences for Health, Afghan nongovernmental organizations and the Ministry of Public Health implemented the Accelerating Contraceptive Use project in three rural areas with different ethnic populations. Relevant changes The contraceptive prevalence rate increased by 24–27% in 8 months in the project areas. Men supported modern contraceptives once they understood contraceptive safety, effectiveness and non-harmful side-effects. Injectable contraceptives contributed most to increases in contraceptive use. Lessons learnt Community health workers can rapidly increase contraceptive use in rural areas when given responsibility and guidance. Project innovations were adopted as best practices for national scale-up. PMID:20428392
The Polish Senate proposed an anti-abortion law that less 5 main points: the one performing the abortion can be sentenced for up to 2 years of imprisonment, women who induce or allow someone to abort their fetus are not subject to punishment, abortions done to save the life of the woman or because the pregnancy was induced by an illegal act are exempt, a tribunal can renounce the penalty, and persons who use force or threat to induce an abortion can be sentenced for up to 5 years of imprisonment. The bill must go to the Parliament and pass in order to become a law. This proposed bill has caused a large scale public debate. Many women and doctors have publicly protested against the bill. The political force behind the bill is the Catholic population of Poland, including the Catholic Church. The current abortion law in Poland adopted in 1956 allows for the abortion for social indications, until week 20; medical indications, until the 2nd trimester; or when pregnancy was a result of rape. The law resulted an elimination of deaths related to abortion, also a reduction in the number of miscarriages. However since 1955 the number of abortions performed has increased. Causes are low levels of sexual knowledge in the public, few contraceptives, and limited sexual education. The abortion issue represents a larger problem in Polish society. The lack of governmental sponsored family planning results in a large number of unintended pregnancies. It is the author's opinion that the women of Poland should be allowed to have the choice to have an abortion.
In Brazilian Congress, the importance of family planning has, for historical reasons, been confused with controlling population growth. The question is mostly related to the iniquitous distribution of wealth rather than overpopulation. The populations of developed countries consume energy, primary materials, and foodstuffs for a comfortable living, however, a large part of the populations in countries on the peripheries barely survive with incomes below the poverty line. In Brazil, the richest 10% possess half of the national wealth, and the remaining 90% are left with the other half. Most of all, the lack of access to produced wealth is the reason why the majority do not have access to health care, education, leisure, information, culture, and the conditions of living with dignity. The adoption of contraceptive methods is intimately associated with the level of culture and information of the population. The majority of women desire to use some kind of contraceptive method. It is imperative that the state grant to the women and men who so desire access to the materials and necessary information in order to choose the number of children they desire. The Ministry of Health has run for almost a decade a program for maternal health (PAISM), although it has not been fully implemented, and the benefits of this program have remained inaccessible to large numbers of women, especially in the large metropolises. In Brazil, about 30% of women of reproductive age undergo sterilization, as opposed to only 7% in developed countries. Those who cannot afford it give birth to children who grow up without education or medical care and become immersed in violence to fight for their survival.
Hogge, Jon; Eborn, Ben; Packham, Joel; Findlay, Reed; Harrison, Steve
Farm succession and estate planning pose difficult challenges for farmers. Idaho farmers generally do not have a business succession plan or an estate plan. Due to the complexities of farm management, University of Idaho Extension personnel partnered with the Idaho Barley Commission and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Risk Management Agency to…
The population explosion has been abating since the 2nd half of the 1960s. The birth rate of the 3rd World dropped from 45/1000 during 1950-55 to 31/1000 during 1985-90. From the 1st half of the 1960s to the 1st half of the 1980s the total fertility of such countries dropped from 6.1 to 4.2 children/woman. In Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Malaysia living standards improved as a result of industrialization, and fertility decreased significantly. In Sri Lanka, China, North Vietnam, and Thailand the drop of fertility is explained by cultural and religious factors. In 1982 about 78% of the population of developing countries lived in 39 states that followed an official policy aimed at reducing the population. Another 16% lived in countries supporting the concept of a desired family size. However, World Bank data showed that in the mid-1980s in 27 developing countries no state family planning (FP) programs existed. India adopted an official FP program in 1952, Pakistan followed suit in 1960, South Korea in 1961, and China in 1962. In Latin America a split policy manifested itself: in Brazil birth control was rejected, only Colombia had a FP policy. In 1986 the governments of 68 of 131 developing countries representing 3.1 billion people considered the number of children per woman too high. 31 of these countries followed concrete population control policies. On the other hand, in 1986 24 countries of Africa with 40% of the continent's population took no measures to influence population growth. In Latin America and the Caribbean 18 of 33 countries were idle, except for Mexico that had a massive state FP program. These programs also improve maternal and child health with birth spacing of at least 2 years, and the prevention of pregnancies of too young women or those over 40. The evaluation of rapidly spreading FP programs in the 1970s was carried out by the World Fertility Survey in 41 countries. The impact of FP programs was more substantial than
Based on experiences with the Productive Cooperative Movement and the Parasite Control Movement in Japan, the Japanese Family Planning Movement began in April 1954. The resultant private and nonprofit Japan Family Planning Association (JFPA) followed and it served to help Japan achieve its goal of reducing fertility by promoting family planning. It did so by publishing a monthly newsletter on family planning, hosting meetings and national conventions, spreading information via the mass media, and selling contraceptives and educational materials. JFPA earned funding from these sales with no support from the government thereby establishing self dependence and freedom to speak candidly to the government. The JFPA learned that families wanted to improve their standard of living and were willing to limit family size to 2 children. After the birth rate peaked in 1955, the birth rate and the number of illegal abortions decreased. In the 1950s, JFPA joined the International Planned Parenthood Federation and subsequently learned of the problems faced by developing countries. Based on the successful reduction of fertility in Japan and a strong economic base, JFPA and the government were in a position to organize an international cooperation program for family planning. Therefore, the leader of JFPA resigned to found the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning which promotes family planning in developing countries via its integrated family planning, nutrition, and parasite control program. A steering committee composed of leaders from government, universities, and private organizations sets the policies for the program in each country. It is to the Japanese government's advantage to work with private organizations instead of providing all social services because they are flexible and provide administrative stability and national expenses are minimized.
Piotrow, P T; Rimon, J G
Good communication about family planning is needed for many reasons: 1) what many people think they know about family planning is wrong, 2) about 25% of the Asian population (600 million people) are between the ages of 10 and 19 and they need to be informed, 3) individuals must want to use family planning so they will use it regularly and effectively, and 4) people hear competing messages from those opposed to family planning. The authors make the following predictions for the field of family planning IEC in the 1990s: 1) family planning communication will have many different audiences, so messages and media will have to be developed for very specific groups; 2) more time will be spent on research, learning about specific audiences, the media, and background before developing messages, and messages and products will be carefully tested before being widely distributed; 3) peer groups will be used more to reach peer groups; 4) entertainment will reach and teach wider audiences about family planning, AIDS, and sexual responsibility (promoting "enter-education," a combination of entertainment and education); 5) audiences will participate more actively in different kinds of family planning communication, including community mobilization and individual involvement; 6) family planning messages will be much more personal, using human interest stories to capture and persuade the audience; 7) multiple media will be used more and more to get the message across; 8) the best quality family planning entertainment materials will be able to compete with commercial products and produce revenue; 9) campaigns and other communications will be oriented towards large regional markets; 10) more creative and more sympathetic communication in clinics and by health care providers will increase acceptance and continuation rates for many methods; 11) communication among family planning professionals will increasingly depend on effective national population information centers that can use
Muhammed S. A. Masood
Full Text Available Background. The Yemeni government is focusing more attention on the needs of youth to ensure a healthy transition to adulthood. This is critical because adolescent population (ages 15–24 of 3.35 million will double in just 20 years. Young adults often lack basic knowledge about reproductive health and family planning. Objectives. To determine reproductive health and family planning knowledge and attitude among young adults aged 15 to 25+ years. Method. Sample study was taken from Marie Stopes International in Yemen which was conducted from March to July 2013 on the reproductive health age 15–49 years. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were employed. Results. Majority had heard about reproductive health and family planning and encouraged its methods. Television, relatives, and radio were major sources of information. Adults with higher education tend to have more awareness about health services. Knowledge about health services and family planning methods among older adults was significant, and adults in Belqees Club were more likely to have high empowerment scores for family planning methods. Conclusion. The level of knowledge about health services for reproductive health and family planning and its methods was low to moderate. The introduction of contraceptives remains a challenge in Yemen because the educational reproductive health is weak in Yemeni schools or health institutes or universities. Information about reproductive health and family planning should be provided to adolescents through medical schools curricula.
Full Text Available A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions from the published literatures and assess their implication for policy and future research.A systematic review was performed in several electronic databases i.e Medline (Pubmed, Embase, Popline, The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER, EBSCOHost, and The Cochrane Library. Articles reporting full economic evaluations of strategies to improve family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, published between 1995 until 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Data was synthesized and analyzed using a narrative approach and the reporting quality of the included studies was assessed using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS statement.From 920 references screened, 9 studies were eligible for inclusion. Six references assessed cost effectiveness of improving family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, while the rest assessed costs and consequences of integrating family planning and HIV services, concerning sub-Saharan Africa. Assembled evidence suggested that improving family planning interventions is cost effective in a variety of L-MICs as measured against accepted international cost effectiveness benchmarks. In areas with high HIV prevalence, integrating family planning and HIV services can be efficient and cost effective; however the evidence is only supported by a very limited number of studies. The major drivers of cost effectiveness were cost of increasing coverage, effectiveness of the interventions and country-specific factors.Improving family planning interventions in low and middle income countries appears to be cost-effective. Additional economic evaluation studies with improved reporting quality are necessary
Speizer, Ilene S; Nanda, Priya; Achyut, Pranita; Pillai, Gita; Guilkey, David K
Family planning has widespread positive impacts for population health and well-being; contraceptive use not only decreases unintended pregnancies and reduces infant and maternal mortality and morbidity, but it is critical to the achievement of Millennium Development Goals. This study uses baseline, representative data from six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India to examine family planning use among the urban poor. Data were collected from about 3,000 currently married women in each city (Allahabad, Agra, Varanasi, Aligarh, Gorakhpur, and Moradabad) for a total sample size of 17,643 women. Participating women were asked about their fertility desires, family planning use, and reproductive health. The survey over-sampled slum residents; this permits in-depth analyses of the urban poor and their family planning use behaviors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are used to examine the role of wealth and education on family planning use and unmet need for family planning. Across all of the cities, about 50% of women report modern method use. Women in slum areas generally report less family planning use and among those women who use, slum women are more likely to be sterilized than to use other methods, including condoms and hormonal methods. Across all cities, there is a higher unmet need for family planning to limit childbearing than for spacing births. Poorer women are more likely to have an unmet need than richer women in both the slum and non-slum samples; this effect is attenuated when education is included in the analysis. Programs seeking to target the urban poor in Uttar Pradesh and elsewhere in India may be better served to identify the less educated women and target these women with appropriate family planning messages and methods that meet their current and future fertility desire needs.
Zakiyah, Neily; van Asselt, Antoinette D I; Roijmans, Frank; Postma, Maarten J
A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs) who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions from the published literatures and assess their implication for policy and future research. A systematic review was performed in several electronic databases i.e Medline (Pubmed), Embase, Popline, The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), EBSCOHost, and The Cochrane Library. Articles reporting full economic evaluations of strategies to improve family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, published between 1995 until 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Data was synthesized and analyzed using a narrative approach and the reporting quality of the included studies was assessed using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement. From 920 references screened, 9 studies were eligible for inclusion. Six references assessed cost effectiveness of improving family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, while the rest assessed costs and consequences of integrating family planning and HIV services, concerning sub-Saharan Africa. Assembled evidence suggested that improving family planning interventions is cost effective in a variety of L-MICs as measured against accepted international cost effectiveness benchmarks. In areas with high HIV prevalence, integrating family planning and HIV services can be efficient and cost effective; however the evidence is only supported by a very limited number of studies. The major drivers of cost effectiveness were cost of increasing coverage, effectiveness of the interventions and country-specific factors. Improving family planning interventions in low and middle income countries appears to be cost-effective. Additional economic evaluation studies with improved reporting quality are necessary to generate
In Vietnam between 1989 and 1993, the modern contraceptive prevalence rate stopped at 38%. In 1984, the government implemented economic renovation (Doi Moi). This closed agricultural cooperatives which had supported commune health centers. Health workers received either low or no wages, resulting in low morale, absenteeism, and moving to the private sector or agriculture. Most women began using the IUD because it was low cost and easy to monitor, provided long-term protection against pregnancy, and there was a limited supply of oral contraceptives (OCs) and condoms. Condom use fell from 13% in 1984 to 1.4% in 1993. More than 80% of contraceptive users used the IUD. The IUD is not appropriate for many women because of health problems: 60-70% of pregnant women and 80% of parturient women have anemia, 40-60% of women have reproductive tract infections, and sexually transmitted diseases are rising. Vietnam's Prime Minister and the Communist Party are committed to expanding the range of the contraceptive method-mix and choice. Limited method choice is especially a problem in rural areas. It increases the abortion rate. About 38% of abortions supplant modern and traditional family planning methods. Improper counseling, insufficient knowledge, and low promotion of OCs account for the low use of OCs. Inferior quality, aversion by couples, and inaccessibility in most rural areas limit condom use. Women's fear and husband's objection outweigh the government's promotion of sterilization. Providers have limited comprehensive accurate and current knowledge of contraceptives. Health service facilities are concentrated in urban and semiurban areas. The quality of care in rural areas, where there is no clean water supply, is inferior. An annual target used to forecast contraceptive needs risks contraceptive stocks expiring during storage and/or disruptions in supply of users. Consecutive actions to eliminate constraints to use of other methods, developing a community level service
el Tom, A R; Lauro, D; Farah, A A; McNamara, R; Ali Ahmed, E F
In 1980, the Department of Community Medicine of the University of Khartoum designed an operations research project to test the possibility of getting village midwives to be involved in the delivery of maternal and child health and family planning (MCH/FP) services. From 1981-1983 the project was implemented by the University of Khartoum in cooperation with the Ministry of Health. The project area covered 100 km. It encompassed a largely agrarian population of 93,000 in 90 villages north of Khartoum along the banks of the Nile. The focus was on training and supervising village midwives. Information was provided on contraceptives for birth spacing, distribution of oral contraceptives, and referral for other methods. Also provided to midwives was information for mothers on oral rehydration therapy for children with diarrhea, and distribution of oral rehydration solution packets. Nutrition education was given midwives with emphasis on breastfeeding and weaning procedures. Information was also supplied about vaccination for children under 5 years of age (in collaboration with the Sudan Expanded Program on Immunization). The project was expensive, particularly regarding incentive payments for supervisors and midwives. The project had a very good start, but when incentive payments were withdrawn, it almost collapsed. At first, what midwives could do to provide maternal and child health services was targeted, but as the project went on, there was more concern for involvement of midwives in broader rural health delivery. The project area was a conservative, Islamic one. An extension area was selected 5 hours travelling time from Khartoum in Shendi District of Nile Province. The project was begun in 60 villages of 75,000 inhabitants. The land stretched for 120 km along both banks of the Nile. In the extension area, a small fee (US$.025) was charged per cycle, half going to the midwives, and half towards the health teams' expenses. 21 health zones were created, and a health
Bangladesh has a population of 115 million people, and the economic growth rate of 3.7% during the 1980s was undermined by rapid population growth. The annual population growth rate was 3% in the 1960s and early 1970s, 2.5% between 1981-91 decreasing to 2.3% in 1991. The average of number of children is 4.6/woman compared with 7 in the 1960s. Infant mortality dropped from 150/1000 births in 1976 to 118/1000 in 1991. Life expectancy rose from 47 to 54 years. The 1991 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey showed that 39.9% of married women under 50 use contraceptives in 1991 vs. 18.6% in 1981. The use of modern methods increased from 10.9% in 1981 to 31.2% in 1991, while traditional methods rose from 7.7% to 8.7%. Sterilization was most prevalent in 1981. 29,000 female family planning (FP) workers were aggressively engaged in dispensing FP services in 1990. The Social Marketing Company sells pills, condoms, and oral rehydration salts through 130,000 retail outlets. The 1989 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey showed that 40% of pill and condom users obtained them from this network, and 95.4% of women knew about 4 methods of contraception. In 1990 there were 120 private organizations providing contraceptive services. Some of the components of the government FP program include field worker distribution door-to-door of injectable contraceptives (50% injectable usage rate in the Matlab project); recordkeeping activities; a satellite clinic network with access to contraceptive services; and decentralization through the Upazila (subdistrict) approach. The logistics system of FP has improved the warehousing, transportation, and management information system. Foreign aid (mainly USAID) financing of contraceptives helped avert 14.4 million births between 1974-90. The increase of contraceptive prevalence to 50% by 1997 would avert another 21.9 million births during 1991-96 (replacement fertility requires 70% prevalence.
Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Matovu, Joseph K B; Kamya, Moses R; Tumwesigye, Nazarius M; Nannyonga, Maria; Wagner, Glenn J
Eliminating family planning (FP) unmet need among HIV-infected individuals (PLHIV) is critical to elimination of mother-to-child HIV transmission. We assessed FP unmet need among PLHIV attending two clinics with differing models of FP services. Nsambya Home Care provided only FP information while Mulago HIV clinic provided information and contraceptives onsite. In a cross-sectional study conducted between February-June 2011, we documented pregnancies, fertility desires, and contraceptive use among 797 HIV-infected men and women (408 in Mulago and 389 in Nsambya). FP unmet need was calculated among women who were married, unmarried but had sex within the past month, did not desire the last or future pregnancy at all or wished to postpone for ≥ two years and were not using contraceptives. Multivariable analyses for correlates of FP unmet need were computed for each clinic. Overall, 40% (315) had been pregnant since HIV diagnosis; 58% desired the pregnancies. Of those who were not pregnant, 49% (366) did not desire more children at all; 15.7% wanted children then and 35.3% later. The unmet need for FP in Nsambya (45.1%) was significantly higher than that in Mulago at 30.9% (p = 0.008). Age 40+ compared to 18-29 years (OR = 6.05; 95% CI: 1.69, 21.62 in Mulago and OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.90 in Nsambya), other Christian denominations (Pentecostal and Seventh Day Adventists) compared to Catholics (OR = 7.18; 95% CI: 2.14, 24.13 in Mulago and OR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.80 in Nsambya), and monthly expenditure > USD 200 compared to clinics and especially at the clinic which did not have contraceptives onsite. Lower income and younger women were most affected by the lack of contraceptives onsite. Comprehensive and aggressive FP programs are required for fertility support and elimination of FP unmet need among PLHIV, even with integration of FP information and supplies into HIV clinics.
Wulifan, Joseph K; Jahn, Albrecht; Hien, Hervé; Ilboudo, Patrick Christian; Meda, Nicolas; Robyn, Paul Jacob; Saidou Hamadou, T; Haidara, Ousmane; De Allegri, Manuela
Unmet need for family planning has implications for women and their families, such as unsafe abortion, physical abuse, and poor maternal health. Contraceptive knowledge has increased across low-income settings, yet unmet need remains high with little information on the factors explaining it. This study assessed factors associated with unmet need among pregnant women in rural Burkina Faso. We collected data on pregnant women through a population-based survey conducted in 24 rural districts between October 2013 and March 2014. Multivariate multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the association between unmet need for family planning and a selection of relevant demand- and supply-side factors. Of the 1309 pregnant women covered in the survey, 239 (18.26%) reported experiencing unmet need for family planning. Pregnant women with more than three living children [OR = 1.80; 95% CI (1.11-2.91)], those with a child younger than 1 year [OR = 1.75; 95% CI (1.04-2.97)], pregnant women whose partners disapproves contraceptive use [OR = 1.51; 95% CI (1.03-2.21)] and women who desired fewer children compared to their partners preferred number of children [OR = 1.907; 95% CI (1.361-2.672)] were significantly more likely to experience unmet need for family planning, while health staff training in family planning logistics management (OR = 0.46; 95% CI (0.24-0.73)] was associated with a lower probability of experiencing unmet need for family planning. Findings suggest the need to strengthen family planning interventions in Burkina Faso to ensure greater uptake of contraceptive use and thus reduce unmet need for family planning.
Full Text Available M Rakibul Islam1, Gunnar Thorvaldsen21Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh; 2Norwegian Historical Data Centre, University of Tromsø, NorwayBackground: This article aims to understand the family planning (FP knowledge and current use of contraception and its predictors among women of the Mru people – the most underprivileged indigenous community in Bangladesh.Methods: In this study, 374 currently married Mru women were interviewed and selected purposively from three upazilas (administrative subdistricts of the Bandarban area, where most of the Mru people live. The association between the variables was assessed in bivariate analysis using the Chi-square test and binary logistic regression models were employed to explore the predictors of FP knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru women.Results: Only about 40% of respondents had ever heard FP messages or about FP methods – two-fifths of the national figure (99.9%. The current use of contraception was much lower (25.1% among the Mru people than at the national level (55.8%. Among both modern and traditional methods, the contraceptive pill ranked first. About two-thirds (66.0% of married women used this method – more than two times than the national figure (28.5%. On the other hand, the prevalence of male methods was comparatively lower than at the national level. Logistic regression models revealed that place of residence, religion, age, school attendance, husband's school attendance, service provided in the community, distance to the service center, and exposure to mass media had significant effects on knowledge of FP and on use of contraception.Conclusion: Education for mothers and vernacular language-based doorstep FP programs with special emphasis on awareness are suggested for the community.Keywords: family planning, contraceptive use, the Mru, logistic regression, Bangladesh
Zoellner, Jamie M; Hill, Jennie; You, Wen; Brock, Donna; Frisard, Madlyn; Alexander, Ramine; Silva, Fabiana; Price, Bryan; Marshall, Ruby; Estabrooks, Paul A
Few interventions have evaluated the influence of parent health literacy (HL) status on weight-related child outcomes. This study explores how parent HL affects the reach, attendance, and retention of and outcomes in a 3-month multicomponent family-based program to treat childhood obesity (iChoose). This pre-post, quasiexperimental trial occurred in the Dan River Region, a federally designated medically underserved area. iChoose research protocol and intervention strategies were designed using an HL universal precautions approach. We used validated measures, standardized data collection techniques, and generalized linear mixed-effect parametric models to determine the moderation effect of parent HL on outcomes. No significant difference in HL scores were found between parents who enrolled their child in the study and those who did not. Of 94 enrolled parents, 34% were low HL, 49% had an annual household income of less than $25,000, and 39% had a high school education or less. Of 101 enrolled children, 60% were black, and the mean age was 9.8 (standard deviation, 1.3) years. Children of parents with both low and high HL attended and were retained at similar rates. Likewise, parent HL status did not significantly influence improvements in effectiveness outcomes (eg, child body mass index [BMI] z scores, parent BMI, diet and physical activity behaviors, quality of life), with the exception of child video game/computer screen time; low HL decreased and high HL increased screen time (coefficient = 0.52, standard error, 0.11, P < .001). By incorporating design features that attended to the HL needs of parents, children of parents with low HL engaged in and benefited from a family-based childhood obesity treatment program similar to children of parents with high HL.
Background Nigeria is Africa's most populous state with a low rate of contraceptive use. Factors affecting the method of contraception chosen vary widely across different parts of the country. We studied the preferred methods and characteristics of new clients attending a family planning clinic in a teaching hospital in ...
Darney, P D
A 1968 study of family size aspirations and attitudes toward contraception and the effects of overpopulation was conducted by interviewing 20 randomly selected third-year medical students and their wives from the University of California and 20 San Francisco State College students and their wives. Couples in the 2 groups were compared to each other, as were persons desiring small families (2 or fewer children) to those wanting large families (4 or more children). Although more medical students expected large families than State college couples (50% compared to less than 20%), a majority of both groups expected more children than they considered ideal for the average American family (a mean of 2.5 children). Overpopulation was considered almost unanimously to be a problem, but much of the blame for crowding in the U.S. was placed on members of lower socioeconomic classes. All couples practiced contraception. Those expecting large families (75% medical students) expressed less concern about future overpopulation problems and financial disadvantages of large families. A change in basic attitude towards responsibility of population growth seems necessary on the part of many affluent Americans, represented by these students.
Sallinen, Bethany J; Schaffer, Sarah; Woolford, Susan J
A family-based multidisciplinary weight management program for obese children 7-11 years old was implemented by a pediatric weight management center and local YMCA. The purpose of this study was to explore parents' and children's perceptions of the program to gain insight about factors that may enhance engagement and retention of families in weight management treatment. Families were invited to participate in a telephone interview after their participation in the program. The interviews assessed satisfaction with program components, acceptability of the intervention, barriers to treatment participation, and suggestions for improvement. A total of 34 semistructured telephone interviews were performed, including 19 parents and 15 children. The majority of children (mean age=9.2±1.5 years) interviewed were female (74%) and recipients of Medicaid (79%). The population was racially diverse (63% black, 26% white, 11% other). Results suggest families were generally very positive about the program and viewed the major components of the program as helpful (i.e., nutrition, exercise, behavior). Families particularly enjoyed exercise and cooking demonstrations, whereas self-monitoring activities and learning about behavior change strategies were less enjoyable. Parents noted that increasing the length of individual sessions would likely be beneficial. Families who did not complete the program cited factors such as transportation barriers (e.g., gas money, distance), scheduling conflicts, and unmet expectations as contributing to their decision to discontinue participation. This study may have implications for how to enhance family-based pediatric weight management programs for children ages 7-11 years.
Full Text Available The research aim to know the family planning behaviour, the acceptance small family norm and the influential factors in two villages that have different geographical aspect. The behaviour involve the knowledge, the attitude and the practice where as the influential factors involve education, accupation, values of children, income, children still born and family size desired. The research areas are chosen purposive in two villages that have different geographical aspect, social aspect and cultural aspect. The aspect are: 1 location and topography, 2 socialy structure, and 3 the achievement of effective acceptor. Based on the three aspects, Ngalas village (developing and Sumberejo (developed are chosen as research areas. The recorded as ative acceptor (recordedin RI/PUS/1991 form. The respondents are chosen by cencus at two neighborhoord association at every village. There are six variables in this research are assumed influence the periode of the contraceptives use, such as education, occupation status, values of children, family income, children still born, and family size desired. There are three variables are assumed influence the small family norm, such as education, occupation status, and values of children. The data was analyzed by frequency table, crosee table, and statistical analysis (Q square and Regresion. The data was always compared between the two villages. The analysis use computer by Microsoft Program. The research result showed that Sumberejo was better than Ngalas in the knowledge, the attitude, and the practice of family planning. Most of the people who live in Sumberejo understood the contraception device well (52,4%, where as in Ngalas (26,8%. Both of them agreed on using contraception device (more than 70%. The respondent who live in Sumberejo used IUD (40% and MOW/MOP (23,23%. They had used of the contraception device for 4.8 years on an average. Mean while the respondents in Ngalas use IUD (23,68% and MOW/MOP (2
Quality of facility-based family planning services for adolescents in Malawi: ... 13 to 19 years) had twice the odds of reporting a better experience of care compared to ... Clients seen in facilities under nongovernmental management had better ...
An examination of postpartum family planning in western Kenya: “I want to use contraception but I have not been told how to do so”. V Naanyu, J Baliddawa, E Peca, J Karfakis, N Nyagoha, B Koech ...
Kabir, M; Islam, M A
A sample of 871 currently married urban Bangladeshi women was used to assess the impact of mass media family planning programmes on current contraceptive use. The analyses suggested that radio had been playing a significant role in spreading family planning messages among eligible clients; 38% of women with access to a radio had heard of family planning messages while the figures for TV and newspaper were 18.5% and 8.5% respectively. Education, number of living children and current contraceptive use were important predictors of exposure to any mass media family planning messages. There was a negative relationship between breast-feeding and the current use of contraception indicating a low need for contraception among women who were breast-feeding.
Rosales Aujang, Enrique; Felguérez Flores, Jesús Alberto
Familiar planning is an important branch of the preventive medicine that can have a great impact on the health of the humanity. The present study is an evaluation by a cross section of the effects obtained by the program of familiar planning during a period of 15 years in the Aguascalientes Delegation of the Mexican Institute of the Social Security, establishing therefore a diagnosis and identifying elements that can contribute in the suitable planning of strategies to improve the quality of the attention and to respond to social and health necessities of the population.
Perera, Jennifer; de Silva, Tharangi; Gange, Harshana
In Sri Lanka over 500 induced abortions are done daily in spite of restrictive legislation. Experiences in other countries show that liberal laws alone have not solved the issues of induced abortions which may harm a woman's physical and mental health. To determine the socio-demographic features of women seeking termination of pregnancy, and their knowledge, attitude and behaviour with respect to induced abortion and family planning. A prospective study on a randomly selected group of 210 women attending a clinic in Colombo requesting termination of pregnancy. A pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Over 80% of women seeking abortion were between 20 and 40 years of age. All religions were represented. 13% were single and 10% wanted to postpone a pregnancy. 38.6% had three or more children. In 90% the period of gestation was less than 10 weeks. Presence of a young child was the commonest reason for termination, followed by poverty. Only 0.9% were due to incest and foetal abnormality. 96% were not aware of adverse effects of abortion. 91% thought that induced abortion was immoral and 94% did not know that it was illegal. 29% had previous terminations and post-abortion contraception counselling was poor. Although 78% were knowledgeable on at least one method of contraception, only 16.3% were using it regularly. A majority used induced abortion as a family planning method. Improving accessibility and the quality of family planning services is of paramount importance. Every encounter of a woman with a health care worker should be an opportunity for counselling.
Gulzar, Jamshaid; Ali, Moazzam; Kuroiwa, Chushi
In the 1990s, social marketing approach was introduced in Pakistan to improve the quality and accessibility of family planning methods involving private practitioners. This study measured six quality elements using a Bruce-Jain framework. Cross-sectional survey data were collected from 29 randomly selected Green Star clinics. The study's four components were 1) an inventory of each outlet (infrastructure, equipment, and supplies); 2) an observation guide for interaction between family planning clients and service providers; 3) exit interviews with clients attending the outlet; and 4) interviews with providers at the outlet. Of the 29 clients participating in the exit interviews, 72% were new users of family planning. The clients' mean age was 32 years; all clients were married; 93% had received formal education. Housework was the principal activity of 93% of clients. The mean number of children reported was three. Both hormonal and intrauterine contraceptives (IUCDs) were available in all facilities; 86% of the clients reported being able to obtain their contraceptive of choice. Most facilities had the equipment and supplies needed to deliver services; service personnel were trained and regularly supervised; the service outlets emphasized mechanisms to ensure continuity of use. Notable shortcomings included a shortage of information on alternative methods, contraindications, and side-effect management, as well as a dearth of registration records. In conclusion, this is a good example of public-private partnership involving private practitioners using a social marketing approach. The quality components of a Bruce-Jain framework were achieved, resulting in a satisfied clientele. Involvement of private service outlets increased the accessibility and enhanced the use of services. Social marketing may be expanded to improve quality and access by involving further components of health care.
Wilder, E I
This paper uses data from the 1974-1975 Israel Fertility Survey and the 1987-1988 Study of Fertility and Family Formation to examine trends in fertility control among ethnoimmigrant groups in Israel. From 1974 to 1988, Israel underwent extremely rapid economic growth and there occurred what might be considered a contraceptive revolution in the realm of family planning. Specifically, the nonuse of family planning and reliance on less effective techniques of fertility control (withdrawal and abortion) were largely replaced by more efficient modes (e.g., pill, IUD) of family size limitation. In addition, ethnic differences in patterns of fertility control diminished. Meanwhile, socioeconomic and cultural variables such as religiosity and income maintained their importance as determinants of variation of family planning practices among Israeli women.
partner's approval. Difference between the meaning of approval and encouragement should be explored. Interventions involving information education and communication campaigns geared to men and promoting male involvement in family ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Both availability and quality of family planning services are believed to have contributed to increasing contraceptive use and declining fertility rates in developing countries. Yet, there is limited empirical evidence to show the relationship between the quality of family planning services and the population based prevalence of contraceptive methods. This study examined the relationship between quality of family planning services and use of intrauterine devices (IUD in Egypt. Methods The analysis used data from the 2003 Egypt Interim Demographic and Health Survey (EIDHS that included 8,445 married women aged 15–49, and the 2002 Egypt Service Provision Assessment (ESPA survey that included 602 facilities offering family planning services. The EIDHS collected latitude and longitude coordinates of all sampled clusters, and the ESPA collected these coordinates for all sampled facilities. Using Geographic Information System (GIS methods, individual women were linked to a facility located within 10 km of their community. A facility-level index was constructed to reflect the quality of family planning services. Four dimensions of quality of care were examined: counseling, examination room, supply of contraceptive methods, and management. Effects of quality of family planning services on the use of IUD and other contraceptive methods were estimated using multinomial logistic regression. Results are presented as relative risk ratios (RRR with significance levels (p-values. Results IUD use among women who obtained their method from public sources was significantly positively associated with quality of family planning services (RRR = 1.36, p Conclusion This study is one among the few that used geographic information to link data from a population-based survey with an independently sampled health facility survey. The findings demonstrate that service quality is an important determinant of use of clinical contraceptive methods in Egypt
Withers, Mellissa; Dworkin, Shari L; Zakaras, Jennifer M; Onono, Maricianah; Oyier, Beryl; Cohen, Craig R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Grossman, Daniel; Newmann, Sara J
Gender inequity has been closely linked with unmet need for family planning among women in sub-Saharan Africa but the factors related to male family planning disapproval are not well-understood. This qualitative study explored men's perspectives of gender roles and cultural norms as they pertain to family planning. Twelve small group meetings were held with 106 married men in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Shifting gender relations made the definitions of manhood more tenuous than ever. Men's previous identities as sole breadwinners, which gave them significant control over decision-making, were being undermined by women's increasing labour force participation. While many men viewed family planning positively, fears that family planning would lead to more female sexual agency and promiscuity or that male roles would be further jeopardised were widespread and were major deterrents to male family planning approval. By addressing such fears, gender-sensitive programmes could help more men to accept family planning. Increased family planning education for men is needed to dispel misconceptions regarding family planning side-effects. Focusing on the advantages of family planning, namely financial benefits and reduced conflict among couples, could resonate with men. Community leaders, outreach workers and healthcare providers could help shift men's approval of joint decision-making around family size to other reproductive domains, such as family planning use.
Hartmann, Miriam; Gilles, Kate; Shattuck, Dominick; Kerner, Brad; Guest, Greg
Research suggests that spousal communication and male involvement in decision making can positively influence family-planning use and continuation. However, few existing studies explore the dynamics of this communication and how they factor into family-planning decision making. Building upon a recent evaluation of a theory-based male-involvement intervention in Malawi, this study aimed to fill this gap by examining the role of communication in the intervention's success, through semi-structured in-depth interviews with male participants and female partners of study participants. Results support the idea that communication is an integral component of successful interventions to increase male involvement in family planning. Participants reported improvements in spousal communication, increased frequency of communication, and an increase in shared decision making as a result of the study, which directly contributed to their family-planning use. This effect was often mediated through increased knowledge or reduced male opposition to family planning. Further analysis of communication and decision-making dynamics revealed shifts in gendered communication norms, leading to improvements in spousal relationships in addition to contraceptive uptake. This study shows that interventions can and should encourage spousal communication and shared decision making, and it provides an effective model for involving men in family-planning use.
Brittain, Anna W; Williams, Jessica R; Zapata, Lauren B; Moskosky, Susan B; Weik, Tasmeen S
Family planning services are essential for reducing high rates of unintended pregnancies among young people, yet a perception that providers will not preserve confidentiality may deter youth from accessing these services. This systematic review, conducted in 2011, summarizes the evidence on the effect of assuring confidentiality in family planning services to young people on reproductive health outcomes. The review was used to inform national recommendations on providing quality family planning services. Multiple databases were searched to identify articles addressing confidentiality in family planning services to youth aged 10-24 years. Included studies were published from January 1985 through February 2011. Studies conducted outside the U.S., Canada, Europe, Australia, or New Zealand, and those that focused exclusively on HIV or sexually transmitted diseases, were excluded. The search strategy identified 19,332 articles, nine of which met the inclusion criteria. Four studies examined outcomes. Examined outcomes included use of clinical services and intention to use services. Of the four outcome studies, three found a positive association between assurance of confidentiality and at least one outcome of interest. Five studies provided information on youth perspectives and underscored the idea that young people greatly value confidentiality when receiving family planning services. This review demonstrates that there is limited research examining whether confidentiality in family planning services to young people affects reproductive health outcomes. A robust research agenda is needed, given the importance young people place on confidentiality. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Guiahi, Maryam; Hoover, Jennifer; Swartz, Maryke; Teal, Stephanie
Catholic hospitals operate under the Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Care Services, which for obstetrics and gynecology residents may create barriers to receiving adequate training in family planning. We evaluated how training at a Catholic hospital affects trainees' subsequent provision of reproductive health services at secular institutions. This qualitative study used semistructured interviews with recent obstetrics and gynecology graduates in generalist practice at secular institutions. We queried about their training experiences, perceived deficiencies, and current provision of family planning services. Three researchers independently coded transcripts, using grounded theory. We reached thematic saturation after 15 of 31 graduates (48%) from 7 Catholic hospital residencies participated in interviews between June 2014 and February 2015. Many participants reported a lack of awareness regarding limitations on this aspect of their training. All participants reported reproductive health care training deficiencies, and many explained that "elective" training required resident initiative to obtain. After graduation, participants reported dissatisfaction with training in family planning, delayed competency in this area, and a lack of ability to provide certain family planning procedures. All felt that Catholic programs should improve family planning training by providing routine, opt-out family planning opportunities. Obstetricians and gynecologists who trained at Catholic institutions felt that religion-based policies negatively affected their training experiences and the range of reproductive health services they subsequently provide in practice. Forming collaborations with off-site facilities, particularly for postpartum tubal ligation and uterine evacuation, may improve the reproductive care these physicians ultimately provide to women.
Ali, Moazzam; Seuc, Armando; Rahimi, Asma; Festin, Mario; Temmerman, Marleen
To develop a global research agenda that will guide investment in effective interventions to satisfy the large unmet need for modern methods of family planning. In a global survey, experts on contraception were invited to identify and rank the types of research that would be needed--and the knowledge gaps that would have to be filled--to reduce the unmet need for family planning in the next decade. The experts were then asked to score the research on a given topic in terms of the likelihood of its leading to an intervention that would: (i) be deliverable, affordable and sustainable; (ii) substantially reduce the unmet need for contraceptives; (iii) be effective and efficient in improving health systems; (iv) be ethically implemented; and (v) improve equity in the target population. The overall scores were then ranked. Most of the topics that received the 15 highest scores fell into three categories: implementation of policies in family planning; the integration of services to address barriers to contraceptive use; and interventions targeted at underserved groups, such as adolescents. Experts on contraception gave top priority ranking to research on improving the implementation and integration of health services and on strengthening the health systems supporting family planning services. The results of the exercise may help decision-makers, researchers and funding agencies to develop a clear and focused approach to satisfying the global need for family planning and reach the target set by the Family Planning 2020 initiative.
Full Text Available Contraceptive use during the postpartum period is critical for maternal and child health. However, little is known about the use of family planning and the determinants in Nepal during this period. This study explored pregnancy spacing, unmet need, family planning use, and fertility behaviour among postpartum women in Nepal using child level data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys 2011. More than one-quarter of women who gave birth in the last five years became pregnant within 24 months of giving birth and 52% had an unmet need for family planning within 24 months postpartum. Significantly higher rates of unmet need were found among rural and hill residents, the poorest quintile, and Muslims. Despite wanting to space or limit pregnancies, nonuse of modern family planning methods by women and returned fertility increased the risk of unintended pregnancy. High unmet need for family planning in Nepal, especially in high risk groups, indicates the need for more equitable and higher quality postpartum family planning services, including availability of range of methods and counselling which will help to further reduce maternal, perinatal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality in Nepal.
PRATA, NDOLA; FRASER, ASHLEY; HUCHKO, MEGAN J.; GIPSON, JESSICA D.; WITHERS, MELLISSA; LEWIS, SHAYNA; CIARALDI, ERICA J.; UPADHYAY, USHMA D.
Summary This paper reviews the literature examining the relationship between women’s empowerment and contraceptive use, unmet need for contraception and related family planning topics in developing countries. Searches were conducted using PubMed, Popline and Web of Science search engines in May 2013 to examine literature published between January 1990 and December 2012. Among the 46 articles included in the review, the majority were conducted in South Asia (n = 24). Household decision-making (n = 21) and mobility (n = 17) were the most commonly examined domains of women’s empowerment. Findings show that the relationship between empowerment and family planning is complex, with mixed positive and null associations. Consistently positive associations between empowerment and family planning outcomes were found for most family planning outcomes but those investigations represented fewer than two-fifths of the analyses. Current use of contraception was the most commonly studied family planning outcome, examined in more than half the analyses, but reviewed articles showed inconsistent findings. This review provides the first critical synthesis of the literature and assesses existing evidence between women’s empowerment and family planning use. PMID:28069078
Wahyuni Apri Astuti
Full Text Available This study is carried out in Nusukan, Banjarsari, Surakarta. The problems that are related to economic crisis in Indonesia are the supply of contraception, the weakening of people purchasing power so they influence the realization of family planning program. The goals of the study are: to know the supply of contraception for poor household, to study the influence of the effect of economic crisis for the participant of family planning, to study the change of birth control and its effective strategy and to know the quality of family planning service. The data are collected using observation, and questionnaire. The study takes the area in which it has more productive couple, the percentage of poor families and the prosperous families I that belong to productive couple whose age 20 to 49 years old, at least they have two children, and participant of family planning or ever followed it. The result of the study shows that 82% respondents can get contraception easily before and at economic crisis. It is one of the important factors, for which the participant of family planning is still high. Although the economic crisis influences the price of contraception and family Income, it does not affect the participant of family planning. 87% respondents participate actively the family planning. This shows that the people have realized the importance of family planning program. There is an impact of economic crisis for the change of the ways of birth control. 38% respondents have changed over their strategy from modern to traditional contraception and the contrary, and from modern contraception to the other one. Some of them are abstention. The level of the people adaptation is high enough. They use various ways to prevent of being pregnant. 92% respondents do not want to be pregnant. If it happens an unwanted pregnancy, 15% of the respondents will abort their pregnancy. This is the challenge for the officers and the government to supply safe and accurate
Popp, Tierney K.; You, Hyun-Kyung
The mediating role of parental satisfaction in the relation between family involvement in early intervention service planning and parental self-efficacy was explored. Participants included families of children with disability or delay involved in early intervention (n = 2586). Data were examined upon entry into early intervention (T1) and at…
partners (4.9 children for men and 3.7 for women). ... in terms of partner approval and discussion were important in determining the role of husbands regarding the use of family planning methods by women, and on the fertility level of the family.
Bos, H.M.W.; van Balen, F.
The study assessed the extent to which children between eight and 12 years old in planned lesbian families in the Netherlands experience stigmatization, as well as the influence of protective factors (relationship with parents, social acceptance by peers, contact with children from other families
de Valk, H.A.G.
This paper examined the work and family plans of adolescents from five different ethnic origins. The way in which parents influence these plans was studied by using a representative sample of secondary school pupils (N = 52,000) in The Netherlands. Results showed that substantial proportions of
Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.
This report summarizes abortion information received by the Center for Disease Control from collaborators in state health departments, hospitals, and other pertinent sources. While it is intended primarily for use by the above sources, it may also interest those responsible for family planning evaluation and hospital abortion planning. Information…
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
Population growth trends and family planning activities in Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania are summarized in this booklet developed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Narrative information for each continent gives a resume of population growth trends, reasons for the trends, population problems, policy formation, family…
Eto, Kumi; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel R.; Adachi, Miyuki
Objective: To examine associations between Theory of Planned Behavior variables and the family meal frequency. Methods: Fifth-through seventh-grade students (n = 236) completed a self-administered questionnaire in their classrooms. The relationships between Theory of Planned Behavior variables (intention, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived…
Full Text Available A study conducted on eligible rural women who were unwilling to accept family planning methods revealed that many women were concerned about child survival and viewed children as a source of support in old age. Family size was usually decided by in-laws. Pressure from in-laws to have more children was significantly higher in families where the women were less educated or illiterate.
Mauldin, W P
) segura de traducir las estadísticas de servicio en práticas y tal vez aún datos sobre suministro comercial en datos sabre tasas de natalidad. Esto incluye, par ejemplo, los esfuerzos para consolidar observaciones coma "cinco años-mujer de usa de IUD, a 400 condones equivalen a la prevención de un nacimiento," y esfuerzos como los de Pakistán de calcular tasas coma "años de protección de una pareja contra el embarazo."In the belief that a decrease in the rate of population growth will increase economic development, more than ten countries have inaugurated family planning programs in the past fifteen years. To provide a model for measuring the immediate, intermediate, and long-term effects of any such program, the authors use the Taiwan evaluation.The model suggests that a good system of evaluation should include monthly statistics on (1) participants, who are grouped by characteristics; (2) the distribution of supplies, reported at first by the characteristics of recipients, but after by gross volume only; (3) family planning activities of private physicians to measure the catalytic effect on the private sector; (4) new contacts and amount of advertising in mass media; (5) costs broken down by areas and by cost categories; and (6) distribution of commercial supplies. In addition, the program should conduct 300-400 interviews every 6-12 months to learn the rates of continuation and the rates and reasons for discontinuation. Finally, a KAP survey should be conducted every two years.The administration of the evaluation should be close to the director for policy decisions and for the ultimate work of evaluation-the finding of new ways to measure the main goal of change in fertility by the translation of statistics on Services provided and commercial supplies into birth rate data.
Olawale, Kamildeen Oladimeji; Mosaku, Kolawole Samuel; Fatoye, 'Femi Olusegun; Mapayi, Boladale Moyosore; Oginni, Olakunle Ayokunmi
The objective of this study was to assess caregiver burden among relatives of patients on treatment for depressive disorder attending the psychiatry outpatient clinic of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile Ife, Nigeria. A cross sectional design was used. Hundred caregivers of patients with ICD-10 diagnosis of depression, on outpatient treatment for at least six months were recruited from the psychiatric outpatient clinic. Caregivers completed a semi-structured socio-demographic questionnaire, the Zarit Burden Interview and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 12. Descriptive statistics were used to describe socio-demographic variables; association between dependent and independent variables were assessed using Pearson's correlation, chi squared and t test as appropriate. The mean ZBI score was 41.32 (S.D. = 9.82), 45% of respondents reported moderate to severe burden, spouses constituted 57% of caregivers. Age at onset of depression (t = 2.46, P = .02) number of hospitalization,(χ(2) = 9.82, P = 0.001), and current active symptoms (χ(2) = 36.1, P = .001) were all significantly associated with burden score. Severity of symptoms (r = 0.48, P burden scores, while GHQ score among caregivers also correlated significantly with burden scores (r = 0.52, P burden. Caring for the depressed need to change from a patient focused approach to a combined patient and caregiver approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Herson, J; Crocker, C L; Butts, E; Phong, L T; Haynes, J A
The management information system (FP/MIS) used by the Howard University Center for Family Planning Services, which operates community family planning clinics in Washington, D.C. is described. The system was developed to satisfy program objectives in patient management, program planning and evaluation, resource management, federal reporting systems and clinical, epidemiological and health services research. The data collection forms used in the system and the output from the four data display groups--patient profile, resource management, quality of care and epidemiology-are described along with examples of their use.
With community mobilization, the women acceptance and attitude to modern methods of contraception was better than previously. Prior to community mobilization, 13 out of 30 women in need of permanent limitation of their family size chose injectable contraceptives. With community mobilization, majority of the women (120 ...
Availability of resources was checked using provider interview and inventory checklist. Moreover, a total of 150 ... Hence, it is advisable that health managers of the health facilities and the district health office ensure improved availability of trained personnel, IEC materials and other supplies at the clinics. Keywords: Family ...
Full Text Available Background: Utilization of family planning methods, their side effects and the factors influencing their uses. Aims: To study the family planning practices/methods among the married women of reproductive age (15- 45yrs. Study Design: Community-based study. Study Subjects: The Women of reproductive age groups (15-45yrs adopting family planning methods & those residing in urban slums of, Lucknow. Sample size: 540, Study Period : July 2009 to July 2011. Sampling Technique: thirty cluster sampling. Result: The acceptance of family planning methods both temporary and permanent methods increased with level of literacy of women. About 53.40 % adopted I.U.C.D, 38.83% O.C pills & only 7.77% of their partners used condoms. 66.6% have undergone laparoscopic & 33.4% mini-lap sterilization. Vasectomy was not done for even a single partner. More number of illiterate and primary educated accepted permanent method after 3 or more children than higher educated who accepted it after 1 or 2 children. Among acceptors of permanent methods, total 70.27 % were experiencing side effects and among temporary method users, it accounted 23.30%. Conclusions: Acceptance in family planning is associated with increasing age, nuclear family & level of literacy. IUCD is the most accepted one among all the temporary methods. Vasectomy and newer contraceptives were not at all used.
Marfil, M P
The Sarikaya Project of the Philippine Ministry of Health's National Family Planning Office was conceived as an innovative approach to providing information, education, and communication on health, nutrition, and family planning using the services of neighborhood leaders who can gain the cooperation and participation of community members in health and family planning programs. The Sarikaya worker (SW) serves as the link between the community and the Ministry of Health. Selection of SWs is a collaborative effort of the Barangay Health Service midwife, the community, and the barangay council. SWs are trained by the BHS midwife in a 5-day seminar which includes an orientation to the role and function of the Sarikaya Project, health and family planning IEC, and 1st aid. SWs undertake activities in family planning, maternal and child health, nutrition, environmental sanitation, communicable disease control, and emergency treatment. As volunteers, the SWs receive no compensation except for a nominal training allowance. The SW relies on the BHS midwife for technical and logistical support, on the health committee of the barangay council for coordination and administrative support, and on informal community leaders for guidance and advice. Pilot testing of the sarikaya project was undertaken in 1979, when 241 workers were trained. Results of early evaluations were encouraging, and plans were made to expand the project in 1980.
Full Text Available Background: In recent years use of family physicians has been determined as a start point of health system reform to achieve more productive health services. In this study we aimed to assess the cost-efficiency of the implementation of this plan in Fars province, southern Iran.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was done in 2007 in 18 provincial health centers as well as 224 rural health centers in Fars province. Data were collected using forms, statistics, and available evidence and analyzed by expert opinion and ratio techniques, control of process statistics, and multi indicator decision model.Results: Although in the family physician plan more attention is paid to patients and the level of health training, availability, and equity has improved and the best services are presented, it has not only decreased the costs, but also increased the referrals to pharmacies, laboratories, and radiology clinics and the costs of healthcare.Conclusion: Although the family physician plan has led to more regular service delivery, it has increased the patients’ referral to pharmacies, laboratories, and radiology centers and more referrals to family physicians. It seems that the possibility of setting regularity in health system can be gained in the following years of the family physician program mainly via planning, appropriate management and organizing correct health plans according to need assessments, and continual supervision on activities, which would happen according to current experiences in this plan.
Steinauer, Jody E; Turk, Jema K; Preskill, Felisa; Devaskar, Sangita; Freedman, Lori; Landy, Uta
Obstetrics and gynecology residency programs are required to provide access to abortion training, but residents can opt out of participating for religious or moral reasons. Quantitative data suggest that most residents who opt out of doing abortions participate and gain skills in other aspects of the family planning training. However, little is known about their experience and perspective. Between June 2010 and June 2011, we conducted semistructured interviews with current and former residents who opted out of some or all of the family planning training at ob-gyn residency programs affiliated with the Kenneth J. Ryan Residency Training Program in Abortion and Family Planning. Residents were either self-identified or were identified by their Ryan Program directors as having opted out of some training. The interviews were transcribed and coded using modified grounded theory. Twenty-six physicians were interviewed by telephone. Interviewees were from geographically diverse programs (35% Midwest, 31% West, 19% South/Southeast and 15% North/Northeast). We identified four dominant themes about their experience: (a) skills valued in the family planning training, (b) improved patient-centered care, (c) changes in attitudes about abortion and (d) miscommunication as a source of negative feelings. Respondents valued the ability to partially participate in the family planning training and identified specific aspects of their training which will impact future patient care. Many of the effects described in the interviews address core competencies in medical knowledge, patient care, communication and professionalism. We recommend that programs offer a spectrum of partial participation in family planning training to all residents, including residents who choose to opt out of doing some or all abortions. Learners who morally object to abortion but participate in training in family planning and abortion, up to their level of comfort, gain clinical and professional skills. We
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Understanding of family planning scenario among different societies and communities, which by and large reside in urban slum areas, might prove useful in increasing family planning acceptance by them and decreasing population growth. Unmet need is a valuable indicator for assessing the achievements of national family planning programs. OBJECTIVES: The present study was undertaken with the objectives to estimate unmet need for family planning among the married women of reproductive age group (15 - 49 years in urban slums of Lucknow and to determine the various factors that influence the unmet need. METHODS: A community based cross - sectional study was conducted in slums of Lucknow City from February 2014 to September 2014. A total 452 married women in reproductive age group were interviewed through house to house survey with the help of a pre - designed, pre - tested and semi - structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The total unmet need for family planning was 69.0%. Multivariate logistic regression revealed socioeconomic status upper lower and below (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.5 - 5.1; p = 0.00; duration of marriage less than 1 year (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1 - 2.9; p = 0.01; less number of live issues (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1 - 2.5; p = 0.00; working status of women (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1 - 2.9; p = 0.03; social class i.e. OBC and SC/ST (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.1 - 4.6; p = 0.02 were found to be independent predictors of unmet need of family planning. CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that unmet need for family planning was quite high among women belonging to social class i.e. OBC and SC/ST, with low socioeconomic status, duration of marriage less than one year less number of live issues and working status of the women.
Corroon, Meghan; Kebede, Essete; Spektor, Gean; Speizer, Ilene
The Family Planning 2020 initiative aims to reach 120 million new family planning users by 2020. Drug shops and pharmacies are important private-sector sources of contraception in many contexts but are less well understood than public-sector sources, especially in urban environments. This article explores the role that drug shops and pharmacies play in the provision of contraceptive methods in selected urban areas of Nigeria and Kenya as well as factors associated with women's choice of where to obtain these methods. Using data collected in 2010/2011 from representative samples of women in selected urban areas of Nigeria and Kenya as well as a census of pharmacies and drug shops audited in 2011, we examine the role of drug shops and pharmacies in the provision of short-acting contraceptive methods and factors associated with a women's choice of family planning source. In urban Nigeria and Kenya, drug shops and pharmacies were the major source for the family planning methods of oral contraceptive pills, emergency contraceptives, and condoms. The majority of injectable users obtained their method from public facilities in both countries, but 14% of women in Nigeria and 6% in Kenya obtained injectables from drug shops or pharmacies. Harder-to-reach populations were the most likely to choose these outlets to obtain their short-acting methods. For example, among users of these methods in Nigeria, younger women (planning users who had never been married were significantly more likely than married users to obtain these methods from a drug shop or a pharmacy than from a public-sector health facility. Low levels of family planning-related training (57% of providers in Kenya and 41% in Nigeria had received training) and lack of family planning promotional activities in pharmacies and drug shops in both countries indicate the need for additional support from family planning programs to leverage this important access point. Drug shops and pharmacies offer an important and
Chipman, Abigail; Morrison, Edward
Previous research on contemporary childbearing has identified a strong relationship between environmental conditions, such as economic deprivation, and early fertility. Less is known, however, about the social-psychological mechanisms that mediate these environmental predictors of early fertility at the individual level and the extent to which they are consistent with life history theory. The aim of this research was to determine how kin networks, mating and reproductive risk taking, discount preference, and perceptions of environmental risk predict individual differences in fertility preferences in a socioeconomically diverse sample of adolescents. Questionnaires were administered to 333 adolescents (245 female) between the ages of 13 and 19 years, attending schools in urban neighborhoods in Hampshire, United Kingdom. Individuals' subjective life expectancy and perception of their environment better predicted fertility intentions than did structural measures of environmental quality. This suggests that by the time individuals reach adolescence they are monitoring the morbidity and mortality risk of their environment and are adjusting their reproductive ideals accordingly. Levels of grandparental investment also predicted parenting preferences, suggesting cooperative breeding may play a role in reproductive decision making. There was also evidence that patterns of risk taking behaviors could be adaptive to environmental conditions and some evidence that pro-natal attitudes, as opposed to knowledge of safe sexual practice, predict adolescents' reproductive strategies. These findings suggest that studying individuals' psychology from a life history perspective adds to my understanding of the persistently high rates of early reproduction within developed countries, such as the United Kingdom.
Abdul Samad, Shazimah; Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Ismail, Maslinor
This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence and the factors associated with sexual initiation among the late adolescents in 6 institutions of higher learning in Malaysia. A total of 1572 students completed self-administered questionnaires between April and September 2013. Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression analyses stratified by gender were employed to identify the correlates of sexual initiation. The analyses were further adjusted by sampling weights. The overall prevalence of sexual initiation was 9.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.3-11.6), 18.1% (95% CI = 15.1-21.5) among males, and 4.1% (95% CI = 2.9-5.9) among females. The risk factors identified in this study supported the influence of the individual, family, and peer factors in the social-ecological model on adolescents' behaviors. The findings suggest the need for risk-reduction strategies aimed at the individual, family, and peer levels as well as the importance of gender-specific focus in assuring better outcomes. © 2016 APJPH.
Lam, Joyce Nga Hei; Lau, Vincent I; Priestap, Fran A; Basmaji, John; Ball, Ian M
In the new era of decreasing hospital bed availability, there is an increasing rate of direct discharge to home (DDH) from intensive care units (ICUs), despite sparse literature informing this practice. To evaluate patient, family, and ICU attending physician satisfaction with planning for DDH from the ICU and intensivists' current DDH practices and perceptions. Prospective cohort study, using convenience sampling, of adult patients undergoing DDH from an ICU between February 2016 and February 2017 using a modified FS-ICU 24 satisfaction survey completed by patients, family members, and attending physicians at the time of patient discharge to home from the ICU. Seventy-two percent of patients, 37% of family members, and 100% of ICU physicians recruited completed the survey. A majority of patients (89%) and families (78%) were satisfied or very satisfied with DDH. Only 6% of patients and 8% of families were dissatisfied to very dissatisfied with DDH. Conversely, ICU physician satisfaction varied, with only 5% being very comfortable with DDH and the majority (50%) only somewhat comfortable. Twenty percent of staff consultants were uncomfortable to very uncomfortable with the practice of DDH. Thirty-one percent of staff physician respondents felt that patient and family discomfort would be barriers to DDH. Compared to physicians and other allied health professionals, nurses were identified as the most helpful members of the health-care team in preparation for DDH by 98% of patients and 92% of family members. The DDH rates have increased for the past 12 years in our ICUs but declined during the study period (February 2016 to February 2017). Patients and family members are satisfied with the practice of DDH from ICU, although ICU physician satisfaction is more variable. Physician comfort may be improved by data informing which patients may be safely DDH from the ICU.
Teo, Zhi L; Sawyer, Sarah D; James, Paul A; Mitchell, Gillian; Trainer, Alison H; Lindeman, Geoffrey J; Shackleton, Kylie; Cicciarelli, Linda; Southey, Melissa C
The familial aggregation of breast cancer has been well-described with approximately 25% of breast cancers attributable to inherited mutations in currently known breast cancer susceptibility genes. PALB2 c.3113G>A (p.Trp1038*) is a protein-truncating mutation which has been associated with high estimated risk of breast cancer in Australian women (91%; 95% CI = 44-100) to age 70 years. This study screened for PALB2 c.3113G>A in germline DNA representing 871 unrelated individuals from "high-risk" breast and/or ovarian cancer families evaluated in the setting of a Familial Cancer Centre in Australia. The PALB2 c.3113G>A mutation was identified in eight of 871 probands (0.92%) from these families. Median age of diagnosis was 42 years. Five of these eight women had contra-lateral breast cancers. Available data suggests that PALB2 c.3113G>A is a rare mutation with estimated breast cancer risks similar in magnitude to that associated with BRCA2 mutations. Although the proportion of high-risk women carrying this PALB2 mutation is low, research efforts should continue in order to effect its translation into clinical genetic testing practice.
Opoku-Boateng, Yaw Nyarko; Kretchy, Irene A; Aryeetey, Genevieve Cecilia; Dwomoh, Duah; Decker, Sybil; Agyemang, Samuel Agyei; Tozan, Yesim; Aikins, Moses; Nonvignon, Justice
Low and middle income countries face many challenges in meeting their populations' mental health care needs. Though family caregiving is crucial to the management of severe mental health disabilities, such as schizophrenia, the economic costs borne by family caregivers often go unnoticed. In this study, we estimated the household economic costs of schizophrenia and quality of life of family caregivers in Ghana. We used a cost of illness analysis approach. Quality of life (QoL) was assessed using the abridged WHO Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) tool. Cross-sectional data were collected from 442 caregivers of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia at least six months prior to the study and who received consultation in any of the three psychiatric hospitals in Ghana. Economic costs were categorized as direct costs (including medical and non-medical costs of seeking care), indirect costs (productivity losses to caregivers) and intangible costs (non-monetary costs such as stigma and pain). Direct costs included costs of medical supplies, consultations, and travel. Indirect costs were estimated as value of productive time lost (in hours) to primary caregivers. Intangible costs were assessed using the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). We employed multiple regression models to assess the covariates of costs, caregiver burden, and QoL. Total monthly cost to caregivers was US$ 273.28, on average. Key drivers of direct costs were medications (50%) and transportation (27%). Direct costs per caregiver represented 31% of the reported monthly earnings. Mean caregiver burden (measured by the ZBI) was 16.95 on a scale of 0-48, with 49% of caregivers reporting high burden. Mean QoL of caregivers was 28.2 (range: 19.6-34.8) out of 100. Better educated caregivers reported lower indirect costs and better QoL. Caregivers with higher severity of depression, anxiety and stress reported higher caregiver burden and lower QoL. Males reported better QoL. These findings highlight the high household
Beeson, Tishra; Mead, Katherine H; Wood, Susan; Goldberg, Debora Goetz; Shin, Peter; Rosenbaum, Sara
The confidentiality of family planning services remains a high priority to adolescents, but barriers to implementing confidentiality and privacy practices exist in settings designed for teenagers who are medically underserved, including federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). A sample of 423 FQHCs surveyed in 2011 provided information on their use of five selected privacy and confidentiality practices, which were examined separately and combined into an index. Regression modeling was used to assess whether various state policies and organizational characteristics were associated with FQHCs' scores on the index. In-depth case studies of six FQHCs were conducted to provide additional contextual information. Among FQHCs reporting on confidentiality, most reported providing written or verbal information regarding adolescents' rights to confidential care (81%) and limiting access to family planning and medical records to protect adolescents' confidentiality (84%). Far fewer reported maintaining separate medical records for family planning (10%), using a security block on electronic medical records to prevent disclosures (43%) or using separate contact information for communications regarding family planning services (50%). Index scores were higher among FQHCs that received Title X funding than among those that did not (coefficient, 0.70) and among FQHCs with the largest patient volumes than among those with the smallest caseloads (0.43). Case studies highlighted how a lack of guidelines and providers' confusion over relevant laws present a challenge in offering confidential care to adolescents. The organizational practices used to ensure adolescent family planning confidentiality in FQHCs are varied across organizations. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Ceylan, Ali; Ertem, Meliksah; Saka, Gunay; Akdeniz, Nurten
To describe the impact of the post-abortion family planning counseling in bringing about the contraceptive usage in women who had induced abortion in a family planning clinic. The Diyarbakir Office of Turkish Family Planning Association (DTFPA) is a nonprofit and nongovernmental organization which runs a family planning clinic to serve the lower socio-economic populations, in Diyarbakir-Turkey. Post abortion counseling is introduced by using proper communication skills and with using appropriate methods to women. In this study we introduced contraceptive usage of women who had induced abortion one year ago and followed by DTFPA's clinic. 55.3% of our clients were not using contraceptive methods before abortion. At the end of the one year, 75.9% of our followed-up clients revealed that they were using one of the modern contraceptive methods. There was no woman with IUD before induced abortion. At the end of one year 124 (52.3%) women had IUD. "A modern method was introduced immediately after abortion" was the most important factor increasing modern method usage. Our results advocate that post-abortion counseling may be an effective tool to increase the usage of contraceptives. Improved and more qualified post-abortion family planning counseling should be an integral part of abortion services.
Zeyneloğlu, Simge; Kısa, Sezer Kısa; DelibaŞ, Leyla
This study assesses the determinants of family planning methods use by Turkish married men in South East Anatolia. A descriptive and cross-sectional survey research design was used among 1,352 men aged 20 to 52 years who lived in South East Turkey. A pilot-tested questionnaire was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, and multivariate regression analysis were used. The rate of nonusage of contraceptive methods among the participants was 60.4%. Within the nonusers, 34.9% reported a religious prohibition and 9.4% had misconceptions about family planning. Chi-square analysis determined four factors that were significantly related to the men's usage of contraception. These factors are the following: the men's age, educational level, number of existing children, and their perception of their household income level. These four factors were also subjected to multivariate regression analysis, the results of which were used to compute odds ratios for each value of each factor indicating the likelihood for using contraception by men within each group. Male-specific family planning programs can make an important contribution to the overall efforts to improve the usage of contraceptives by men. It is important to note that family planning services and education programs related to family planning should be appropriate for men.
Verran, Alice; Evans, Sarah; Lin, Daniel J; Griffiths, Frances
Chinese family planning policy is unique. There is limited sex education and the state is highly influential. This has resulted in extremely wide coverage of contraception with long-acting methods being favoured. The Chinese constitute a large proportion of asylum applicants to the UK. This study examines how their experiences and decisions about family planning in the UK are shaped by their cultural background. Data were drawn from 10 semi-structured qualitative interviews with female Chinese asylum seekers recruited through a family planning clinic in the UK. The increased autonomy provided by the UK system was appreciated by the participants. Choice of contraceptive method was influenced by traditional cultural beliefs and values, and the effect of hormonal contraception on menstruation was particularly concerning. Women arrived from China with little knowledge of contraception. Friends from a similar background were the most trusted source of advice. When transitioning from China to the UK unwanted pregnancies had occurred amongst unmarried women who had missed out on sex education while living in China. Chinese societal and cultural practices continue to influence family planning decisions made within the UK. Culturally competent health strategies are needed to ensure Chinese immigrant women fully benefit from family planning within the UK. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Lash, Denise N.; Smith, Jane Ellen; Rinehart, Jenny K.
Obesity has become a world-wide epidemic; in the United States (U.S.) approximately two-thirds of adults are classified as overweight or obese. Military veterans’ numbers are even higher, with 77% of retired or discharged U.S. veterans falling in these weight categories. One of the most common methods of changing one’s weight is through dieting, yet little is known regarding the factors that facilitate successful dieting behavior. The current investigation tested the Theory of Planned Behavior’s (TPB) ability to predict dietary intention and future dieting in a sample of 84 overweight and obese patients attending medical clinics at a Veterans Affairs Hospital in the southwestern part of the U.S. Participants primarily were male (92%) and ethnic/racial minorities (58%). Perceived need and anticipated regret were added to the standard TPB model. While the TPB predicted dietary intention, it did not significantly account for improved dietary behaviors. Anticipated regret significantly enhanced the basic TPB’s ability to predict intention to diet, while perceived need did not. These findings highlight the difficulty in predicting sustained change in a complex behavior such as dieting to lose weight. The need for more work with older, overweight/obese medical patients attending veterans’ facilities is stressed, as is the need for such work with male patients and ethnic minorities in particular. PMID:26792774
Ling, Jes; Tong, S F
Traditionally, family planning initiatives were concentrated on women despite it being a family matter. As family dynamics evolved over the years, fathers' involvement in family planning has become crucial in enhancing the family well-being. This study aimed to identify the role played by men in family planning activities and the association of socio-economic characteristics with these roles. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in a university primary care clinic. All married male attendees to the clinic, aged 50 years and below, were approached to answer a set of self-administered questionnaires, asking for their involvement in family planning practices. The data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. There were 167 participants in the study. A high proportion of men participated in the discussions regarding previous pregnancies (60.42%), future child planning (89.76%) and desired family size (89.76%). However, the discussions on the usage of family planning methods (FPMs; 39.16%) were significantly low. Socio-economic factors associated with higher likelihood of men discussing family planning activities were older age (p planning activities. The roles taken by men in family planning were associated with older age and higher socio-economic class. The majority of men needs to be encouraged to play a more active role in the discussion of FPMs.
Realizing the potential of commercial marketing in changing the attitude and behavior of the target audience in the early years of the 4th 5-year development plan, the National Family Planning Program tried to develop new ventures in communicating the concept of the small family norm to the people. The condom was chosen as the 1st product to be sold through the social marketing project because male awareness about family planning was still low. Based on audience research, the pricing, packaging, and branding of the product was developed. The most accepted brand name was Dua Lima because it has a neutral meaning, is easily remembered, and can be described in sign language. The last reason is very important because most consumers have difficulty communicating about condoms in the sales outlet. Social marketing has proved effective because of strong public relations activities and the involvement of formal and informal leaders. This experiment has convinced family planning management that social marketing is workable for promoting the small family norm. In 1987, under the new program of self-sufficiency in family planning, the private sector is invited to participate by providing family planning services for target audiences, using the principles of self-sufficiency and self-support. There are 2 principal activities; 1) the IEC campaign, and 2) product (contraceptive) selling. IEC activities include a media campaign public relations work. Product selling is done through commercial channels such as pharmaceutical firms, drug stores, private doctors, and midwives. It was decided that the campaign would be aided by a name and logo. The blue circle was chosen because it is unique, communicative, and simple. The social marketing of contraceptives in Indonesia can be considered a breakthrough in communication strategy for a national development program.
Full Text Available Research question : Is there agreement between husbands and wives regarding unmet need of family planning? Hypothesis : The unmet need of family planning is perceived more by women then their husbands. Objective : 1 To ascertain the unmet needs of family planning for husbands and wives. 2 To ascertain the level of agreement between husbands and wives regarding unmet needs of family planning. Design: A cross-sectional survey Setting: Dayalpur village in Intensive field practice area of Comprehensive Rural Health Services project (CRHSP, Ballabgarh, Haryana. Study Period: July 2003- June 2005. Participants included 200 married couples selected by simple random sampling. Statistical Analysis: Level of agreement between husbands and wives was analyzed using Kappa statistics. Results: Unmet need for family planning was 11% (22 out of 200 for husbands and 17.5% (35 out of 200 for wives. The difference was seen both in unmet need for spacing (M-3.5% vs. F-6% as well as limiting family size (M-7.5% vs. F-11.5%. Overall, 93.5% concordance was observed amongst husbands and wives. In all the cases where disagreement was seen (6.5%, wives reported having unmet need for contraception whereas their husbands perceived none. The unadjusted Kappa statistic was 0.73 and prevalence adjusted Kappa was 0.88. Conclusion: Unmet need for family planning was significantly higher for wives compared to husbands. Despite high degrees of agreement amongst the couples, the nature of disconcordance reinforces the need for policy makers to take into account the perspective of men.
Rodríguez, Erin M; Kumar, Harsha; Alba-Suarez, Juliana; Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa
Low-income urban children of color are at elevated risk for poor asthma control. This cross-sectional study examined associations among parents' coping (primary control, secondary control, and disengagement), parental depressive symptoms, and children's asthma outcomes (asthma control and school attendance) in a predominantly low-income, racially/ethnically diverse sample of families. Parents (N = 78; 90% female) of children (33% female; 46% Black; 38% Latino) aged 5-17 years (M = 9.5 years) reported on their own coping and depressive symptoms, their child's asthma control, and full and partial days of school missed due to asthma. Parents' secondary control coping (i.e., coping efforts to accommodate/adapt to asthma-related stressors) was negatively correlated, and disengagement coping (i.e. coping efforts to avoid/detach from stressors) was positively correlated, with their depressive symptoms. Secondary control coping was also correlated with fewer partial days of school missed. Primary control coping (i.e., coping efforts to change stressors) was not associated with depressive symptoms or asthma outcomes. Parents' depressive symptoms were also positively correlated with poorer asthma control and partial days of school missed. Regression models showed direct and indirect effects of secondary control and disengagement coping on asthma outcomes via depressive symptoms, after controlling for demographic factors. Parents' secondary control and disengagement coping are related to children's asthma outcomes. Secondary control coping may support parents' mental health and children's asthma control in low-income urban families.
Hujou Township, situated in northern Zhejiang Province, has a land mass of 1,316.51 sq. km, a population of over 730,000 (89.2% of whom are agrarian), and a 1986 average income of 720 yuan. Family planning began here in 1963. Since 1986, the township seriously followed the directive to have one child per couple, with beneficial results: the natural rate of growth was 6.55/1000; the birth rate fell from 5.34 in the 1960s to the current 1.45; there was an increased awareness of contraceptives; the attitude towards birth improved (33.8% of families permitted to have two children voluntarily had one child). Ways to strengthen family planning management include: 1) Win the attention of Party and government leaders; this is the key to grasping properly family planning management at its basic level. 1987-88 were spent in stressing the importance of not having two children, and in delaying marriage. This was accomplished by requesting feedback from officials, establishing "responsibility systems" among village cadres and family planning centers, and disseminating family planning information at all government levels. 2) Make sure every organization has the same goals; this is a basic condition for strengthening family planning management. In October 1986 a Family Planning Harmonizing System was established in family planning centers and in the bureaus of statistics, propaganda, sanitation, labor and gynecology. 3) Grasp properly family planning management at the village level. Every administrative unit has a family planning leader, and one family planning service worker for every 26 fertile woman. 4) All family planning officials must display exemplary behavior.
This paper studies the formation of Japanese ventures in family planning deployed in various villages in Asia from the 1960s onward in the name of development aid. By critically examining how Asia became the priority area for Japan's international cooperation in family planning and by analyzing how the adjective "humanistic" was used to underscore the originality of Japan's family planning program overseas, the paper shows that visions of Japanese actors were directly informed by Japan's delicate position in Cold War geopolitics, between the imagined West represented by the United States and "underdeveloped" Asia, at a time when Japan was striving to (re-)establish its position in world politics and economics. Additionally, by highlighting subjectivities and intra-Asian networks centered on Japanese actors, the paper also aims to destabilize the current historiography on population control which has hitherto focused either on Western actors in the transnational population control movement or on non-Western "acceptors" subjected to the population control programs.
West, Lucy; Isotta-Day, Harriet; Ba-Break, Maryam; Morgan, Rosemary
The Syrian conflict presents the fastest growing refugee crisis in the world today, with over four million people now displaced outside the country. Existing literature suggests that family planning services are often still neglected in crisis response efforts. A small-scale qualitative study conducted in May 2013, interviewing Syrian women residing in a Jordanian refugee camp about use and barriers to accessing family planning services. The study shows that significant barriers remain, and suggests that international attempts to address refugees' family planning needs remain inconsistent. Several practical measures are identified to address barriers to access, making the article of both practical and academic relevance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Antić, Ljiljana; Djikanović, Bosiljka; Vuković, Dejana
Family planning is an important aspect of population policy at the state level, because the demographic trends in Serbia are very unfavorable. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in family planning between the women in rural and urban areas of Serbia. This study represents the secondary analysis of the National Health Survey of the population in Serbia from 2006, which was conducted as a cross sectional study, on a representative sample of the population. The respondents who used condoms as a method of contraception, were often younger, better educated, had better financial status, lived in Vojvodina, and had no children. Our study showed that there were differences in terms of family planning between the women of urban and rural areas, however, these differences could be explained by differences in age and education.
Mello, Michelle Marie; Powlowski, Marcus; Nañagas, Juan M P; Bossert, Thomas
Compared to neighboring countries, the Philippines has high fertility rates and a low prevalence of modern-method contraception use. The Philippine government faces political and cultural barriers to addressing family planning needs, but also legal barriers erected by its own policies. We conducted a review of laws and policies relating to family planning in the Philippines in order to examine how the law may facilitate or constrain service provision. The methodology consisted of three phases. First, we collected and analyzed laws and regulations relating to the delivery of family planning services. Second, we conducted a qualitative interview study. Third, we synthesized findings to formulate policy recommendations. We present a conceptual model for understanding the impact of law on public health and discuss findings in relation to the roles of health care provider regulation, drug regulation, tax law, trade policies, insurance law, and other laws on access to modern-method contraceptives.
Obimakinde, A M; Ladipo, M M; Irabor, A E
Individuals with somatization may be the most difficult to manage because of the diverse and frequent complaints across many organ systems. They often use impressionistic language to describe circumstantial symptoms which though bizarre, may resemble genuine diseases. The disorder is best understood in the context "illness" behaviour, masking underlying mental disorder, manifesting solely as somatic symptoms or with comorbidity. To evaluate somatization symptoms and explore its comorbidity in order to improve the management of these patients. A cross-sectional survey of 60 somatizing patients who were part of a case-control study, selected by consecutive sampling of 2668 patients who presented at the Family Medicine Clinic of University College Hospital Ibadan, Nigeria between May-August 2009. Data was collected using the ICPC-2, WHO- Screener and Diagnostic Schedule and analysed with SPSS 16. There were at least 5 symptoms of somatization in 93.3% of the patients who were mostly females. Majority had crawling sensation, "headache", unexplained limb ache, pounding heart, lump in the throat and insomnia. The mean age at onset was 35yrs with 90% having recurrence of at least 10yrs.Approximately 54% had comorbidity with cardiovascular disease being the most prevalent. The study revealed that somatization is not a specific disease but one with a spectrum of expression. This supports proposition that features for the diagnosis of somatization could be presence of three or more vague symptoms and a chronic course lasting over two years. It is important to be conversant with pattern of symptoms and possible comorbidity for effective management of these patients.
Tawfik, Youssef; Rahimzai, Mirwais; Ahmadzai, Malalah; Clark, Phyllis Annie; Kamgang, Evelyn
To address low contraceptive use in Afghanistan, we supported 2 large public maternity hospitals and 3 private hospitals in Kabul to use modern quality improvement (QI) methods to integrate family planning into postpartum care. In 2012, QI teams comprising hospital staff applied root cause analysis to identify barriers to integrated postpartum family planning (PPFP) services and to develop solutions for how to integrate services. Changes made to service provision to address identified barriers included creating a private counseling space near the postpartum ward, providing PPFP counseling training and job aids to staff, and involving husbands and mothers-in-law in counseling in person or via mobile phones. After 10 months, the proportion of postpartum women who received family planning counseling before discharge in the 5 hospitals increased from 36% to 55%, and the proportion of women who received family planning counseling with their husbands rose from 18% to 90%. In addition, the proportion of postpartum women who agreed to use family planning and left the hospital with their preferred method increased from 12% to 95%. Follow-up telephone surveys with a random sample of women who had received PPFP services in the 2 public hospitals and a control group of postpartum women who had received routine hospital services found significant differences in the proportion of women with self-reported pregnancies: 3% vs. 15%, respectively, 6 months after discharge; 6% vs. 22% at 12 months; and 14% vs. 35% at 18 months (P < .001). Applying QI methods helped providers recognize and overcome barriers to integration of family planning and postpartum services by testing changes they deemed feasible. PMID:25276580
Diamond-Smith, Nadia; Raj, Anita; Prata, Ndola; Weiser, Sheri D
Women in Nepal have low status, especially younger women in co-resident households. Nepal also faces high levels of household food insecurity and malnutrition, and stagnation in uptake of modern family planning methods. This study aims to understand if household structure and food insecurity interact to influence family planning use in Nepal. Using data on married, non-pregnant women aged 15-49 with at least one child from the Nepal 2011 Demographic and Health Survey (N = 7,460), we explore the relationship between women's position in the household, food insecurity as a moderator, and family planning use, using multi-variable logistic regressions. We adjust for household and individual factors, including other status-related variables. In adjusted models, living in a food insecure household and co-residing with in-laws either with no other daughter-in-laws or as the eldest or youngest daughter-in-law (compared to not-co-residing with in-laws) are all associated with lower odds of family planning use. In the interaction model, younger-sisters-in-law and women co-residing with no sisters-in-law in food insecure households have the lowest odds of family planning use. This study shows that household position is associated with family planning use in Nepal, and that food insecurity modifies these associations-highlighting the importance of considering both factors in understanding reproductive health care use in Nepal. Policies and programs should focus on the multiple pathways through which food insecurity impacts women's reproductive health, including focusing on women with the lowest status in households.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding why people do not use family planning is critical to address unmet needs and to increase contraceptive use. According to the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2011, most women and men had knowledge on some family planning methods but only about 29% of married women were using contraceptives. 20% women had an unmet need for family planning. We examined knowledge, attitudes and contraceptive practice as well as factors related to contraceptive use in Jimma zone, Ethiopia. METHODS: Data were collected from March to May 2010 among 854 married couples using a multi-stage sampling design. Quantitative data based on semi-structured questionnaires was triangulated with qualitative data collected during focus group discussions. We compared proportions and performed logistic regression analysis. RESULT: The concept of family planning was well known in the studied population. Sex-stratified analysis showed pills and injectables were commonly known by both sexes, while long-term contraceptive methods were better known by women, and traditional methods as well as emergency contraception by men. Formal education was the most important factor associated with better knowledge about contraceptive methods (aOR = 2.07, p<0.001, in particular among women (aOR(women = 2.77 vs. aOR(men = 1.49; p<0.001. In general only 4 out of 811 men ever used contraception, while 64% and 43% females ever used and were currently using contraception respectively. CONCLUSION: The high knowledge on contraceptives did not match with the high contraceptive practice in the study area. The study demonstrates that mere physical access (proximity to clinics for family planning and awareness of contraceptives are not sufficient to ensure that contraceptive needs are met. Thus, projects aiming at increasing contraceptive use should contemplate and establish better counseling about contraceptive side effects and method switch. Furthermore in all family planning
Full Text Available Women in Nepal have low status, especially younger women in co-resident households. Nepal also faces high levels of household food insecurity and malnutrition, and stagnation in uptake of modern family planning methods.This study aims to understand if household structure and food insecurity interact to influence family planning use in Nepal.Using data on married, non-pregnant women aged 15-49 with at least one child from the Nepal 2011 Demographic and Health Survey (N = 7,460, we explore the relationship between women's position in the household, food insecurity as a moderator, and family planning use, using multi-variable logistic regressions. We adjust for household and individual factors, including other status-related variables.In adjusted models, living in a food insecure household and co-residing with in-laws either with no other daughter-in-laws or as the eldest or youngest daughter-in-law (compared to not-co-residing with in-laws are all associated with lower odds of family planning use. In the interaction model, younger-sisters-in-law and women co-residing with no sisters-in-law in food insecure households have the lowest odds of family planning use.This study shows that household position is associated with family planning use in Nepal, and that food insecurity modifies these associations-highlighting the importance of considering both factors in understanding reproductive health care use in Nepal. Policies and programs should focus on the multiple pathways through which food insecurity impacts women's reproductive health, including focusing on women with the lowest status in households.
Emmanuel Columba Inyang-Etoh
Full Text Available Background . The prevailing low utilization of modern contraceptives for family planning in developing countries in spite of an almost universal level of awareness by the populace is a cause for concern by relevant stakeholders. Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the feeling and attitude of women toward family planning and the reasons for such attitude. Material and methods . A 7-item structured, pre-coded questionnaire was used to sample respondents’ feelings and attitude toward family planning. Results. All the respondents were aware of family planning, and 412 (90.9% of them believed in the practice. The majority 269 (59.4% of the respondents preferred to allow 24 months between their last delivery and the next pregnancy. 306 (74.3% respondents believed in the use of modern contraceptives for family planning and preferred: the male condom – 160 (52.3%, intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD – 27 (8.8%, and hormonal contraceptives – 119 (38.9%. Those who did not believe in modern contraception preferred abstinence – 12 (11.3%, the withdrawal technique – 75, (70.8% and the rhythm method – 19 (17.9%. The major reasons why some respondents would not use modern contraceptives for child spacing were the feeling that it is not natural - 39 (36.6%, it could fail – 13 (12.2%, fear of side effects – 41 (39.0%, and the fear that it could cause infertility – 13 (12.2%. Conclusions . The willingness to utilize modern contraceptives for family planning in Nigeria remains relatively low despite a universal level of awareness about the practice. This is due to misconceptions about modern contraception.
Kagurusi, Patrick T
The media has been employed to increase uptake of Family Planning through behaviour change communication (BCC). Understanding the barriers encountered in effectively undertaking this function would increase the strategy's effectiveness. Sixty journalists from East Africa participated in trainings to enhance their BCC skills for Family Planning in which a qualitative study was nested to identify barriers to effective Family Planning BCC in the region's media. The barriers were observed to be insufficient BCC skills, journalists' conflict of interest, interests of media houses, inaccessible sources of family planning information, editorial ideologies and absence of commercially beneficial demand. Coupled with the historical ideologies of the media in the region, the observed barriers have precipitated ineffective family planning BCC in the regions media. Effective BCC for family planning in the regions media requires capacity building among practitioners and alignment of the concept to the media's and consumers' aspirations.
The government of Nangong City, a newly instituted city with a relatively large proportion of agricultural workers has integrated family planning into the building up of mental civilization. As a result, in 1986, the family planning practice rate was 98.4%. One way the government accomplished this was by developing production to eliminate poverty, to show that population development has a significant impact on socioeconomic development. To help change people's attitudes about family planning, the government 1) used publicity, such as speechmaking, mass media, and courses in population theory; 2) awarded those who made contributions; 3) carried out publicity and education in accordance with characteristics of different groups of people; and 4) encouraged bridegrooms to live with their wives' families if the wives' parents had had no son. Another technique the government used as the popularization of scientific knowledge about population theory, physiology and hygiene, birth control, and eugenics and health in births. A 4th method was to popularize knowledge of laws and regulations, such as of early marriage and consanguineous marriage. 5th, the government developed social security undertakings: 1) giving priority to single-child families and 2) taking care of the elderly. Finally, the government improved maternal and child care by 1) providing premarital health care; 2) creating a project for healthier births and better upbringing; 3) family planning workers showing warm concern for reproductive women; and 4) controlling women's diseases and providing health care knowledge, as well as family planning services. These 6 activities have resulted in 1) the decreasing momentum of per capita arable land being controlled, 2) 1-child couples having more time to learn, 3) the development of educational undertakings, 4) a change in people's traditional practices, and 5) improvement in the understanding of patriotism.
Farmer, Didi Bertrand; Berman, Leslie; Ryan, Grace; Habumugisha, Lameck; Basinga, Paulin; Nutt, Cameron; Kamali, Francois; Ngizwenayo, Elias; Fleur, Jacklin St; Niyigena, Peter; Ngabo, Fidele; Farmer, Paul E; Rich, Michael L
Background: While Rwanda has achieved impressive gains in contraceptive coverage, unmet need for family planning is high, and barriers to accessing quality reproductive health services remain. Few studies in Rwanda have qualitatively investigated factors that contribute to family planning use, barriers to care, and quality of services from the community perspective. Methods: We undertook a qualitative study of community perceptions of reproductive health and family planning in Rwanda’s southern Kayonza district, which has the country’s highest total fertility rate. From October 2011 to December 2012, we conducted interviews with randomly selected male and female community members (n = 96), community health workers (n = 48), and health facility nurses (n = 15), representing all 8 health centers’ catchment areas in the overall catchment area of the district’s Rwinkwavu Hospital. We then carried out a directed content analysis to identify key themes and triangulate findings across methods and informant groups. Results: Key themes emerged across interviews surrounding: (1) fertility beliefs: participants recognized the benefits of family planning but often desired larger families for cultural and historical reasons; (2) social pressures and gender roles: young and unmarried women faced significant stigma and husbands exerted decision-making power, but many husbands did not have a good understanding of family planning because they perceived it as a woman’s matter; (3) barriers to accessing high-quality services: out-of-pocket costs, stock-outs, limited method choice, and long waiting times but short consultations at facilities were common complaints; (4) side effects: poor management and rumors and fears of side effects affected contraceptive use. These themes recurred throughout many participant narratives and influenced reproductive health decision making, including enrollment and retention in family planning programs. Conclusions: As Rwanda
This research study investigates community support and concerns for new multi-family housing projects in Vancouver. It examines the approaches that planners and developers use at the neighbourhood planning and development application stage to increase community support and mitigate concerns for new multi-family housing projects. The research also suggests new approaches and strategies that planners and developers could take to increase community support and mitigate concerns for new multi-fam...
Wulifan, Joseph K.; Jahn, Albrecht; Hien, Hervé; Ilboudo, Patrick Christian; Meda, Nicolas; Robyn, Paul Jacob; Saidou Hamadou, T.; Haidara, Ousmane; De Allegri, Manuela
Background Unmet need for family planning has implications for women and their families, such as unsafe abortion, physical abuse, and poor maternal health. Contraceptive knowledge has increased across low-income settings, yet unmet need remains high with little information on the factors explaining it. This study assessed factors associated with unmet need among pregnant women in rural Burkina Faso. Method We collected data on pregnant women through a population-based survey conducted in 24 r...
Ankomah A; Anyanti J; Oladosu M
Augustine Ankomah1, Jennifer Anyanti1, Muyiwa Oladosu21Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 2MiraMonitor Consulting Ltd, Abuja, NigeriaBackground: This paper examines myths, misinformation, factual information, and communication about family planning and their effects on contraceptive use in Nigeria.Methods: A nationally representative sample of 20,171 respondents from two waves of a multiround survey (one in 2003 and the other in 2005), was analyzed at the bivariate level using Chi-squ...
The Hendong County Family Planning Commission in Hunan Province, China, has found "eight visits" to be an effective approach to family planning work. The 1st visit is paid to youths at marriageable ages for a heart-to-heart talk about late marriage. The 2nd visit is paid to newlyweds who are greeted with congratulations and mobilized for late childbearing. The 3rd visit is made to single child families to mobilize couples to get single child certificates. The 4th visit is made to married women of childbearing age to persuade them, by thorough and painstaking ideological work, to practice birth control. The 5th visit is paid to acceptors of surgical contraception. The 6th visit shows warm solicitude by visiting single child families. The 7th visit is paid to employees who are on home leave for family reunions to remind them of contraception. The 8th visit is made to old folks to show them that they are being cared for. With these "eight visits," satisfactory achievements have been made in family planning work.
Yarger, Jennifer; Decker, Martha J; Campa, Mary I; Brindis, Claire D
The purpose of this study was to compare awareness and use of family planning services by rural and urban program site among a sample of adolescent women before participation in the federal Personal Responsibility Education Program in California. We conducted a secondary analysis of survey data collected from youth before participation in California's Personal Responsibility Education Program. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted for a sample of 4,614 females ages 14-18 years to compare awareness and use of family planning services between participants at rural and urban program sites, controlling for the program setting and participant demographic, sexual, and reproductive characteristics. Overall, 61% of participants had heard of a family planning provider in their community, and 24% had visited a family planning provider. Awareness and use of family planning services were lower among rural participants than urban participants. After adjusting for the program setting and participant characteristics, rural participants were less likely to know about a family planning provider in their community (odds ratio, .64; 95% confidence interval, .50-.81) or receive family planning services (odds ratio, .76; 95% confidence interval, .58-.99) than urban participants. Findings suggest that adolescents in rural areas face greater barriers to accessing family planning services than adolescents in urban areas. Targeted efforts to increase awareness and use of family planning services among adolescents in rural areas and among other underserved populations are needed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nishtar, Noureen Aleem; Sami, Neelofar; Alim, Sabina; Pradhan, Nousheen; Hasnain, Farid Ul
.... The study was conducted to explore family planning service providers' perceptions regarding use of different contraceptive methods and to identify factors that are influencing their use amongst...
Al-Khaldi, Yahia M; Al-Ghamdi, Essam A; Al-Mogbil, Tariq I; Al-Khashan, Hesham I
The objectives of this study were to assess the current situation of the teaching and training of undergraduate and postgraduate programs in family medicine in KSA, assess the current practice of family medicine, and draw a roadmap to achieve Saudi vision 2020. This study was conducted with the support and collaboration of the Primary Health Care Department of the Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia, and World Health Organization (EMRO) in November 2015. Based on the literature review of previous studies conducted for similar purposes, relevant questionnaires were developed. These consisted of four forms, each of which was directed at a different authority to achieve the above-mentioned objectives. Data of all questionnaires were coded, entered, and analyzed using SPSS version 16. There are 2282 primary health-care centers (PHCCs), 60% of which are in rural areas. More than half of the PHCCs have a laboratory and more than one-third have a Radiology Department. Out of the 6107 physicians, 636 are family physicians (10%). All medical colleges have a family medicine department with a total staff of 170 medical teachers. Thirteen departments run family medicine courses of 4-8 weeks' duration for students. Fourteen colleges have internship programs in family medicine and four colleges have postgraduate centers for family medicine (27%). There are 95 training centers for Saudi Board (Saudi Board of Family Medicine [SBFM]) and 68 centers for Saudi Diploma (Saudi Diploma of Family Medicine [SDFM]). The total number of trainers was 241, while the total trainees were 756 in SBFM and 137 in SDFM. This survey showed that there is a shortage of qualified family physicians in all health sectors in Saudi Arabia as a result of the lack of a strategic plan for the training of family physicians. A national strategic plan with specific objectives and an explicit budget are necessary to deal with this shortage and improve the quality of health-care services at PHCCs.
Catholic groups and individuals united in a public rally in Manila's Rizal Park to decry a "cultural dictatorship," which promotes abortion, homosexuality, lesbianism, sexual perversion, condoms, and artificial contraception. Government spokesmen responded that condoms and contraception were part of government policy to spread family planning knowledge and informed choices among the population. Cardinal Jaime Sin and former president Corazon Aquino joined forces to lead the movement against the national family planning program in the largest demonstration since the ouster of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986. Also criticized was the 85-page draft action plan for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) scheduled for September 1994. Cardinal Sin accused President Clinton of using the action plan to promote worldwide abortion. Under the administration of President Fidel Ramos, family planning funding has quintupled and the number of family planning workers has increased from 200 to 8000. President Ramos has gone the farthest of any administration in opposing the Church's positions on contraception and abortion, although years ago Fidel Ramos and Cardinal Sin were allies in the effort to push out Ferdinand Marcos. The population of the Philippines is 85% Catholic, and laws reflect the Church's doctrine against divorce and abortion. The current growth rate is 2.3%, and the goal is to reduce growth to 2.0% by 1998, the end of Ramos's term in office. The population target is in accord with demographic goals proposed in the UN draft action plan. The Vatican has opposed the language in the plan and may have encouraged other religious leaders to join those opposed to the "war against our babies and children." Sin said that contraceptive distribution was "intrinsically evil" and should be stopped now. Ramos's administration stated that their policies and programs are not "in the hands of the devil" and there is support for the Church on family values and
Maiga, O S; Poudiougou, B; Kéita, T F D; Ronse, I; Boundy, F; Bagayoko, D; Diallo, D
The birth control program was in place and functional since 1970, and it was integrated with maternal and infant health activities in 1978: knowledge about contraception is increasing among women and men respectively 75.6% and 87.6% according to EDSM II, 2001. Nevertheless, only 5.7% of women and 10% of men reported the use of one of the modern contraceptive methods. This is a transversal descriptive and analytic study which included men of 14 years old and above residing in Kayes, Koulikoro, Mopti, Sikasso and Bamako. We used a random choice of 6 out of the 9 regions in Mali (Bamako and the 5 regions supported by partners funding the present study) followed by a non-random choice at different degrees. Data were uniformly collected from One thousand and four men. The mean age was 37.6 +/- 15.6 years, 44.7% of the men were monogamous whereas 23.1% were polygamous and 30.6% were either single or had a fiancé. Most of the men in the study group had more than 2 children compared to 34.2% without children and 19.9% with either one or two children. Among them, 89.1% reported to have heard about birth control program and 70.3% had listed Planned Parenthood as an objective of birth control. The most used methods of birth control the most used are contraceptives (66.7%), condoms (60.5%) and injections (30.8%). However, only 30.6% of men used one birth control method with their partners; among those studied in the cohort, 40.8% used birth control method with their wives. Condom was the main method used by 86% of the men compared to utilization of contraceptive pills and injections respectively 66.7% and 25.6%. Birth control methods were used mainly to protect against sexually transmitted diseases (20.7%), then maternal and infant health respectively 6.0% and 5.8%. 60.7% of men think that the decision to use birth control method should be made by them whereas 25.7% think that the decision should be made by the couples. Many strategies are being proposed to involve men in the
Calhoun, Lisa M; Nanda, Priya; Speizer, Ilene S; Jain, Meenakshi
A cultural preference for sons has been well documented in India, resulting in skewed sex ratios, especially exhibited in northwest India. Previous research has shown that family sex composition is associated with family planning (FP) use and couples' desire for more children. This study examines family sex composition and fertility and FP behaviors in urban Uttar Pradesh, India; little work has examined these issues in urban settings where family sizes are smaller and FP use is common. Data for this analysis comes from a 2010 representative survey of married, non-pregnant fecund women aged 15-49 from six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India. Multivariate analyses are used to examine the association between family sex composition and fertility desires and FP use. The multivariate results indicate that family sex composition is associated with fertility desires and FP use. Women without living children and without at least one child of each sex are significantly less likely to want no more children and women with both sons and daughters but more sons are significantly more likely to want no more children as compared to women that have both sons and daughters but more daughters. Women with no living children and women with daughters but no sons are less likely to be modern FP users than nonusers whereas women with both sons and daughters but more sons are more likely to be modern FP users than nonusers as compared to women with both sons and daughters but more daughters. These findings confirm that family sex composition affects fertility behavior and also reveals that preference for sons persists in urban Uttar Pradesh. These results underscore the importance of programs and policies that work to enhance the value of girl children.
Lyon, Maureen E; Garvie, Patricia A; Kao, Ellin; Briggs, Linda; He, Jianping; Malow, Robert; D'Angelo, Lawrence J; McCarter, Robert
To explore the effect of spirituality and religious beliefs on FAmily CEntered (FACE) Advance Care Planning and medication adherence among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive adolescents and their surrogate decision-makers. A sample of HIV-positive adolescents (n = 40) and their surrogates, aged ≥ 21 years, (n = 40), was randomized to an active Healthy Living Control group or the FACE Advance Care Planning intervention, guided by transactional stress and coping theory. Adolescents' spirituality and their belief that HIV is a punishment from God were assessed at baseline and 3 months after the intervention, using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well Being Scale, Expanded, Version 4. Control adolescents increased faith and meaning/purpose more than FACE adolescents (p = .02). At baseline, more behaviorally infected adolescents (16%) believed that HIV was a punishment from God as compared with those who were infected perinatally (8%). Adolescents endorsing that HIV was a punishment scored lower on spirituality (p = .05) and adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) (p = .04). Surrogates were more spiritual than adolescents (p ≤ .0001). Providing family support in a friendly, facilitated environment enhanced spirituality among adolescents. Facilitated family conversations had an especially positive effect on medication adherence and spiritual beliefs among behaviorally infected adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mosha, I.H.; Ruben, R.; Kakoko, D.
Background: Contraceptive use is low in developing countries which are still largely driven by male dominated culture and patriarchal values. This study explored family planning (FP) decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples in Mwanza region of Tanzania. Methods: Twelve focus group
Haddad, Lisa; Wall, Kristin M; Vwalika, Bellington; Htee Khu, Naw; Brill, Ilene; Kilembe, William; Stephenson, Rob; Chomba, Elwyn; Vwalika, Cheswa; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan
Objective To describe predictors of contraceptive method discontinuation and switching behaviors among HIV positive couples receiving couples' voluntary HIV counseling and testing services in Lusaka, Zambia. Design Couples were randomized in a factorial design to two family planning educational intervention videos, received comprehensive family planning services, and were assessed every 3-months for contraceptive initiation, discontinuation and switching. Methods We modeled factors associated with contraceptive method upgrading and downgrading via multivariate Andersen-Gill models. Results Most women continued the initial method selected after randomization. The highest rates of discontinuation/switching were observed for injectable contraceptive and intrauterine device users. Time to discontinuing the more effective contraceptive methods or downgrading to oral contraceptives or condoms was associated with the women's younger age, desire for more children within the next year, heavy menstrual bleeding, bleeding between periods, and cystitis/dysuria. Health concerns among women about contraceptive implants and male partners not wanting more children were associated with upgrading from oral contraceptives or condoms. HIV status of the woman or the couple was not predictive of switching or stopping. Conclusions We found complicated patterns of contraceptive use. The predictors of contraception switching indicate that interventions targeted to younger couples that address common contraception-related misconceptions could improve effective family planning utilization. We recommend these findings be used to increase the uptake and continuation of contraception, especially long acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods, and that fertility-goal based, LARC-focused family planning be offered as an integral part of HIV prevention services. PMID:24088689
Raselekoane, Nanga R; Morwe, Keamogetse G; Tshitangano, Takalani
Many young men continue to disregard the importance of contraception and family planning in South Africa. The fact that even university students also do not take contraception and family planning seriously poses a serious threat to their own health and well-being. This paper aims at investigating the attitudes of male students towards contraception and the promotion of female students' sexual health rights and well-being at the University of Venda. Quantitative research method is used to determine how attitudes of 60 male students towards contraception can jeopardise the health and well-being of both male and female students. This study reveals that the majority of 60 male students at the University of Venda have a negative attitude towards contraceptives. As a result, male students at the University of Venda are not keen on using contraceptives. Male students' negative attitude and lack of interest in contraceptives and family planning also limit progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals on primary health care, especially with regard to sexual and reproductive health and well-being of female students at the University of Venda. The fact that more than half of the male students interviewed did not take contraception and family planning seriously poses a serious threat to health and well-being of students, including violation of female students' sexual and reproductive health rights in South Africa. This calls for radical health promotion and sexual and reproductive rights programmes which should specifically target male students at the University of Venda.
AJRH Managing Editor
Defining a New Pathway for Family Planning in Africa After 2014. Friday Okonofua. Editor, African Journal of Reproductive Health. The International Conference on Population and. Development (ICPD) was a landmark event that shifted emphasis from concerns with population growth to commitment to reproductive equity,.
In the past, operations research has played a significant role in providing donor agencies and family planning program managers with information to guide the development of services most likely to reduce fertility. As family planning programs have become more established, however, the focus of operations research has shifted from an emphasis solely on outcome variables such as contraceptive usage to consideration of psychosocial and quality of care variables. There is new awareness that aspects of the service delivery system itself determine client transactions (proximate psychosocial variables), which in turn affect client satisfaction and contraceptive use. Such aspects include choice of contraceptive methods, client education and counseling, providers' technical competence, client-staff relations, mechanisms to encourage continuity of use, eligibility restrictions, provider bias, and an appropriate constellation of services. Increasing emphasis is being placed on operations research to guide the process of introduction of new contraceptive technologies (e.g., Norplant) into family planning programs. Finally, there is greater appreciation of the need in operations research for nonexperimental, qualitative data collection methods such as focus group discussions, in-depth unstructured interviews, and direct observation techniques, as well as multi-level analyses that reflect the perspectives of both providers and users. As family planning programs become more complex, the disciplines of organizational psychology and sociology should be drawn upon for theoretical and methodological guidance.
COPE (Client-Oriented, Provider-Efficient) methodology, a self-assessment tool that has been used in 35 countries around the world, was used to improve the quality of care in family planning clinics in Kenya. COPE involves a process that legitimately invests power with providers and clinic-level staff. It gives providers more control over their…
Haddad, Lisa; Wall, Kristin M; Vwalika, Bellington; Khu, Naw Htee; Brill, Ilene; Kilembe, William; Stephenson, Rob; Chomba, Elwyn; Vwalika, Cheswa; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan
To describe predictors of contraceptive method discontinuation and switching behaviours among HIV-positive couples receiving couples' voluntary HIV counselling and testing services in Lusaka, Zambia. Couples were randomized in a factorial design to two-family planning educational intervention videos, received comprehensive family planning services and were assessed every 3 months for contraceptive initiation, discontinuation and switching. We modelled factors associated with contraceptive method upgrading and downgrading via multivariate Andersen-Gill models. Most women continued the initial method selected after randomization. The highest rates of discontinuation/switching were observed for injectable contraceptive and intrauterine device users. Time to discontinuing the more effective contraceptive methods or downgrading to oral contraceptives or condoms was associated with the women's younger age, desire for more children within the next year, heavy menstrual bleeding, bleeding between periods and cystitis/dysuria. Health concerns among women about contraceptive implants and male partners not wanting more children were associated with upgrading from oral contraceptives or condoms. HIV status of the woman or the couple was not predictive of switching or stopping. We found complicated patterns of contraceptive use. The predictors of contraception switching indicate that interventions targeted to younger couples that address common contraception-related misconceptions could improve effective family planning utilization. We recommend these findings be used to increase the uptake and continuation of contraception, especially long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods, and that fertility goal based, LARC-focused family planning be offered as an integral part of HIV prevention services.
AJRH Managing Editor
expectation that the new approach will galvanise efforts and lead to an improved use and acceptance of family planning by those who need them. Since ICPD, the evidence has shown that indeed, contraceptive prevalence rates (CPR) increased worldwide between 1990 and 2013, with a parallel decrease in unmet need ...
This study assessed coverage of Reproductive Health (RH) issues—family planning (FP), abortion, and. HIV—in the Ghanaian Daily Graphic newspaper. Using the composite week sampling technique, the researcher analyzed the contents of 62 editions of the paper. Prominence was measured using various attributes, and ...
Listyawardani, Dwi; Hariastuti, Iswari
Systems thinking is needed due to the growing complexity of the problems faced family planning field workers in the external environment that is constantly changing. System thinking ability could not be separated from efforts to develop learning for the workers, both learning at the individual, group, or organization level. The design of the study…
This study assessed coverage of Reproductive Health (RH) issues—family planning (FP), abortion, and HIV—in the Ghanaian Daily Graphic newspaper. Using the composite week sampling technique, the researcher analyzed the contents of 62 editions of the paper. Prominence was measured using various attributes, and ...
Jung, Lee Ann
The individualized family service plan (IFSP) is the cornerstone document that guides supports for infants and toddlers receiving early intervention through Part C of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The outcomes included on the IFSP reflect what everyone in the child's life values as important for the child right now. The…
Family planning clinics for university students play a valuable role in promoting health. This research project, a pilot study among women students who sought family planning services through a Costa Rican university clinic, introduced student evaluation of the family planning clinic, documented services provided in family planning visits, and identified issues for further study. Aged 18-33 years, the 53 respondents (a convenient sample) who completed a self-administered questionnaire were mostly (64%) single; all were sexually active; and 78% wished to have children (or more children) some day. Though all were sexually active at the time of their visit, only 62% were currently using contraception, and fewer than half of these were using effective methods. Nearly all students (96%) reported they learned new information during their appointment, and many received screening tests and examinations. Respondents rated their satisfaction with aspects of clinic service as high, citing the clinic's low visibility on campus as the most important area for improvement. All of the students said they would definitely return (85%) or would consider returning (15%). The results support the continuance of such a clinic on the campus, as well as of the practice of student evaluation. This collaborative study demonstrated areas for future research and stimulated interest in the university clinic as a research setting.
Matthews, Zoe; Padmadas, Sabu S.; Hutter, Inge; McEachran, Juliet; Brown, James J.
Recent stagnation in the reduction of infant mortality in India can arguably be attributed to early child bearing practices and the lack of progress in lengthening birth intervals. Meanwhile, family planning efforts have been particularly successful in the southern states such as Andhra Pradesh,
Draper World Population Fund, Washington, DC.
World population growth and family planning progress in developing nations are discussed. The Draper Fund, established within the Population Crisis Committee (PCC) in 1975 to honor PCC's principal founder, encourages and funds activities which promise the greatest impact in slowing world population growth. There are 10 articles and an editorial.…
Bush, Ruth; Mentzer, Danielle R.; Grisaffi, Danielle; Richter, Julie
Newspaper reports of female college seniors modifying their career plans to opt out of work before they enter the workforce challenge the assumption that because many recent college graduates were raised in dual-income families, they would expect to have a substantial workforce role. Using a questionnaire format, this study examines postgraduation…
Mihoko Tanabe; Anna Myers; Prem Bhandari; Nadine Cornier; Sathyanarayanan Doraiswamy; Sandra Krause
... and the Women’s Refugee Commission undertook a multi-country assessment to document knowledge of family planning, beliefs and practices of refugees, and the state of service provision in the select refugee settings of Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh...
Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Yeh, Christine J.
The authors explore how individual and familial factors predict educational and career aspirations, plans, and vocational outcome expectations of urban, Chinese immigrant youths. Participants were 265 Chinese immigrant high school students in New York City. The results indicated that higher self-reported English language fluency and career-related…
De Souza, Roger-Mark
The article by Potts et al, "The Pill is Mightier than the Sword," points out that family planning has an important role to play in building peace by increasing women’s empowerment and their agency, ultimately helping peacebuilding efforts. Evidence has demonstrated that family planning programs are cost effective, produce quick results, help women and couples meet their desired fertility levels, and produce a multitude of benefits around economic productivity, community engagement, conservation, resilience, and peacebuilding. In order for policy audiences from a variety of sectors, including conflict and peacebuilding, to appreciate these benefits, it is important to find common ground and articulate co-benefits that will help them appreciate and value the role of family planning, as it were, give them sugar to help the pill go down. This commentary examines how resilience, peacebuilding and family planning efforts need to focus on co-benefits in order to build on the successful interventions and opportunities that Potts et al highlight. PMID:26927398
Guiahi, Maryam; Maguire, Karla; Ripp, Zachary T; Goodman, Rachel W; Kenton, Kimberly
Because of religious beliefs against contraception and abortion, family planning education is limited at faith-based institutions. The purpose of this study was to assess medical students' satisfaction with family planning education at a faith-based medical school. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was designed and distributed to all second- and fourth-year students (n=273) at a faith-based medical school during the 2008-2009 academic year. The questionnaire included items on adequacy of and preference for amount and content of family planning preclinical education and clinical training. A total of 220 students completed the questionnaire for a response rate of 80.6%. The majority of respondents described the preclinical education as inadequate and preferred increased content on contraception (73.9%), sterilization (68.6%) and abortion (65.2%). The majority of fourth-year students reported appropriate contraceptive clinical training (69.0%), but inadequate sterilization training (54.8%) and abortion training (71.4%) during their third-year OB/GYN clerkship. Approximately half of fourth-year students (51.8%) desired clinical abortion training. The majority of students enrolled at a faith-based medical school rated their current family planning education as inadequate and desired additional opportunities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background: This study determined the profile of women seeking termination of pregnancy (TOP) in the Free State and whether TOP was used as a family planning method. Methods: Seven hundred and fifty women (15-47 years old) seeking TOP at the Reproductive Health Unit of the National Hospital in Bloemfontein were ...
This study explored the factors associated with discontinuance of Family Planning (FP) in Nigeria. A geo-additive model was specified to simultaneously measure the fixed, nonlinear, spatial and random effects inherent in the data. The fixed effect of categorical covariates was modelled using the diffuse prior, the nonlinear ...
This study assessed men's awareness, attitude, and practice of modern contraceptive methods, determined the level of spousal communication, and investigated the correlates of men's opinion in family planning decision making in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Quantitative methodology was employed in this cross-sectional descriptive ...
Unintended pregnancies can lead to poor maternal and child health outcomes. Family planning use during the first year postpartum has the potential to significantly reduce at least some of these unintended pregnancies. This paper examines the relationship of menses return, breastfeeding status, and postpartum duration ...
Kassa, Mihretie; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Gedefaw, Molla
Men's participation is crucial to the success of family planning programs and women's empowerment and associated with better outcomes in reproductive health such as contraceptive acceptance and continuation, and safer sexual behaviors. Limited choice and access to methods, attitudes of men towards family planning, perceived fear of side-effects, poor quality of available services, cultural or religious oppositions and gender-based barriers are some of the reasons for low utilization of family planning. Hence, this study assessed the level of male involvement in family planning services utilization and its associated factors in Debremarkos town, Northwest Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from October to November, 2013. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 524 eligible samples. Data were collected by using semi-structured questionnaires. Epi Info and SPSS were used to enter and analyze the data; univariate, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to display the outputs. Only 44 (8.4%) respondents were using or directly participating in the use of family planning services mainly male condoms. The reasons mentioned for the low participation were the desire to have more children, wife or partner refusal, fear of side effects, religious prohibition, lack of awareness about contraceptives and the thinking that it is the only issue for women. Opinion about family planning services, men approval and current use of family planning methods were associated with male involvement in the services utilization. In this study, the level of male involvement was low. Lack of information, inaccessibility to the services and the desire to have more children were found to be the reasons for low male involvement in family planning services utilization. Governmental and nongovernmental organizations, donors and relevant stakeholders should ensure availability, accessibility and sustained advocacy for use of family planning
Anderson, Annie S; Caswell, Stephen; Macleod, Maureen; Steele, Robert Jc; Berg, Jonathan; Dunlop, Jacqueline; Stead, Martine; Eadie, Douglas; O'Carroll, Ronan E
The current work aimed to assess health behaviors, perceived risk and control over breast/colorectal cancer risk and views on lifestyle advice amongst attendees at cancer family history clinics. Participants attending the East of Scotland Genetics Service were invited to complete a questionnaire (demographic data, weight and height, health behaviors and psycho-social measures of risk and perceived control) and to participate in an in-depth interview. The questionnaire was completed by 237 (49 %) of attendees, ranging from 18 to 77 years (mean age 46 (±10) years). Reported smoking rates (11 %) were modest, most (54 %) had a BMI > 25 kg/m2, 55 % had low levels of physical activity, 58 % reported inappropriate alcohol intakes and 90 % had fiber intakes indicative of a low plant diet. Regression analysis indicated that belief in health professional control was associated with higher, and belief in fatalism with poorer health behavior. Qualitative findings highlighted doubts about the link between lifestyle and cancer, and few were familiar with the current evidence. Whilst lifestyle advice was considered interesting in general there was little appetite for non-tailored guidance. In conclusion, current health behaviors are incongruent with cancer risk reduction guidance amongst patients who have actively sought advice on disease risk. There are some indications that lifestyle advice would be welcomed but endorsement requires a sensitive and flexible approach, and the acceptability of lifestyle interventions remains to be explored.
Heuser, Cara C; Gibbins, Karen J; Smid, Marcela C; Branch, D Ware
Women and families benefit from access to the full spectrum of reproductive care, including family-planning services. We commend our family-planning colleagues on their tireless dedication to preserve the rights of women through advocacy. While several of our perinatology peers have also set an example by dedication to these issues, advocacy for patient access to reproductive care options has not been a focus of the larger perinatology community. The time has come for individual perinatologists, as well as the overall perinatology community, to join them and do the work needed to preserve access to safe care, including contraception and abortion services. In this call to action, we detail several ways that individuals and the community can become more involved in working for reproductive rights. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper attempted to examine the effects of women knowledge on attitude and family planning approval on contraceptive use of married women. The primary data was collected from Narsingdi municipality and the cluster sampling techniques had been adopted for collecting the data. Path analysis was used to determine the effects of factors that haveinfluence on contraceptive use. The result showed that the attitude and knowledge on contraception, and family planningapproval has significant effects on the use of contraceptive. The study also revealed that media exposure significantly effects on family planning approval, increase the positive attitude on contraceptive, and significantly increase the knowledge on contraception and STDs diseases. Women education and mass media can also be considered as potential factors to influence the contraceptive use.
Nazzar, A; Adongo, P B; Binka, F N; Phillips, J F; Debpuur, C
This article describes the first six months of the strategic planning process to develop a culturally appropriate community health and family planning program for a traditional community in a district of northern Ghana, served by the Navrongo Health Research Centre. To explain the context within which fertility decisions are made, this article describes the district's severe ecological, social, economic, and health constraints to family planning. It discusses related programmatic obstacles and presents the strategies developed to respond to them. A system of care has been developed that is closely coordinated with traditional leaders and communication networks. Management systems support outreach workers by emphasizing the importance of peer leadership, supervisory support, and community liaison in the implementation of village-based services. A large-scale experiment will be fielded to test the demographic impact of this approach.
Aiken, Abigail R A; Scott, James G
Following decades of mainstream bipartisan support, contraception has reemerged as a controversial political issue in the United States. At the same time, opposition to abortion has intensified. State legislatures across the country have enacted highly visible policies limiting access to family planning. Perhaps the most striking example occurred in 2011 in Texas, when legislators instituted unprecedented requirements on abortion providers and cut public funding for contraception by two thirds. Yet, despite popular interpretations of this phenomenon as a simple byproduct of increasing partisan divisions, little is understood about the factors underlying such policy shifts. We fit Bayesian ideal-point models to analyze correlation patterns in record-vote data in the Texas House of Representatives in the 2003 and 2011 Legislatures. Both sessions had large Republican majorities and saw the passage of restrictive abortion bills, but they differed markedly with respect to public funding for contraception. We demonstrate that variation in voting on family-planning issues cannot be fully attributed to partisanship in either session. However, the politics of abortion and contraception have converged over time, and - at least for Democrats - the correlation between constituency characteristics and voting behavior on family-planning legislation is markedly higher in 2011 than in 2003. These shifts have been partly driven by legislators from high-poverty, majority Latino districts near the US-Mexico border. Recent dramatic shifts in family-planning policy go beyond simple partisan divisions. As the politics of abortion and contraception have converged, policies that are increasingly hostile to reproductive health and that disproportionately affect low-income minority women have emerged. Recent shifts in family-planning policy restrict women's access to contraception and abortion, yet little research has examined why such shifts are occurring. This paper analyzes factors