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Sample records for attending antenatal clinics

  1. Predictors of skilled attendance at delivery among antenatal clinic attendants in Ghana: a cross-sectional study of population data

    OpenAIRE

    Amoakoh-Coleman, Mary; Ansah, Evelyn K.; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Grobbee, Diederick E; Gbenga A Kayode; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify demographic, maternal and community predictors of skilled attendance at delivery among women who attend antenatal clinic at least once during their pregnancy in Ghana. Design A cross-sectional study using the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data. We used frequencies for descriptive analysis, χ2 test for associations and logistic regression to identify significant predictors. Predictive models were built with estimation of area under the receiver operating ...

  2. Seroprevalence of HIV in women attending antenatal clinic at KIMS hospital, Narketpally

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    Venna Guru Prasad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess seroprevalence of HIV among antenatal women and the extent of utilization of therapeutic interventions to minimize the risk of mother to child transmission. Methods: Pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of a medical college in a rural area of Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh, India from August 2006 to July 2009 were tested for HIV by Rapid Test which included pre and post test counseling. Antiretroviral prophylaxis with nevirapine was given to seropositive mother-baby pairs during delivery. Results: Of the 5809 new antenatal booking visits 4848 attended pretest counseling and 4698 accepted HIV testing. Fifty three women were found to be seropositive. Sero-prevalence rate of HIV infection was 1.12%. Ten had opted for pregnancy termination. Out of forty three deliveries four were intrauterine deaths. All the newborns received nevirapine prophylaxis. Conclusions: The seroprevalence of HIV infection among antenatal women is 1.12% which was high as the institute is located in Andhra Pradesh which is a known high prevalence state. Thirty one babies tested after 18 months of age were negative. Nine babies died before they reached 18 months of age. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2012; 1(1.000: 17-21

  3. Prevalence and Characteristics of Pregnant Syphilis among Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Shenzhen (China) in 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Fan(杨帆); Zhou Hua(周华); Hong Fuchang(洪福昌); Luo Bin(罗斌); Cai Yumao(蔡于茂); Wen Lizhang(文立章); Zhang Chunlai(张春来)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background: The Nnewly reported cases of congenital syphilis have been increaseding substantially over the past few years. To control the epidemic, a municipal program aimed at preventing mother-to-child transmission of syphilis was introduced in July, 2001,which was designed aimed to screen all pregnant women for syphilis at their first visit to antenatal clinics or at admission to hospitals in Shenzhen.Objectives: The aim of the study is tTo determine the prevalence of syphilis among women attending antenatal clinics and other medical institutions in Shenzhen and identifies its patterns of infection.Methods: Upon giving informed consent, w Women who attended antenatal care centers in Shenzhen from January to December 2003 were included in this study subject to obtaining informed consent. A blood sample was harvested for syphilis screened for syphilising by using rapid plasma reagent test (RPR) and confirmed by TPHA for those who were RPR positive. The women with pregnant syphilispositive serology were systematically interviewed to obtain. During the interview, their demographic detailsinformation, patterns of risk behaviors and other data. Data were collected andwere analyzed retrospectively.Results: Among Of 118,235 pregnant women surveyed,555 pregnant women were confirmed to have syphilis (prevalence of 4.69%), with a incidence of 4.69‰. 123women were excluded from the analysis because of incomplete medical records. Of 432 infected subjects with complete medical records, the average age was 26.8, with a range of 19 to 41. 7.41% (32/432) of them suffered from primary syphilis, 3.24% (14/432) were ofhad secondary syphilis, and 89.35%(386/432) had latent syphilis. Without any conspicuous clinical signs and symptoms. Conclusions: The prevalence of syphilis among the pregnant women in our series was high an most of them were asymptomatic. Screening for syphilis among pregnant women in Shenzhen is of importantce for the prevention of mother

  4. Sociodemographic and Obstetric Characteristics of Anaemic Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Bolgatanga Regional Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahenkorah, Benjamin; Nsiah, Kwabena; Baffoe, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The study determined the sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics of pregnant women which contribute to the risk of developing anaemia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit at the Bolgatanga Regional Hospital Antenatal Clinic. Anaemia was significantly associated (p < 0.05) with younger maternal age, parity, gravidity, trimester of pregnancy, and source of drinking water. Multivariate logistic regression identified the following factors with adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI): unemployment (aOR = 4.76 (CI: 2.26–11.33); p < 0.0001), rural dwelling (aOR = 3.10 (CI: 2.16–4.91); p = 0.0071), primigravida (aOR = 2.13 (CI: 1.34–3.18); p = 0.0201), nulliparity (aOR = 1.92 (CI: 1.23–2.86); p = 0.0231), first antenatal visit at second trimester (aOR = 1.71 (CI: 1.33–3.12); p = 0.0149) and first antenatal visit at third trimester (aOR = 2.73 (CI: 1.24–4.35); p = 0.0017), drinking from well and boreholes (aOR = 2.78 (CI: 2.27–5.21); p < 0.0001), and the presence of domestic livestock (aOR = 2.15 (CI: 1.33–3.68); p = 0.0019). This study has shown the various sociodemographic and obstetric factors which significantly contribute to anaemia in pregnancy. PMID:27242947

  5. Intestinal Helminth Infections in Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at Kitale District Hospital, Kenya

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    A. W. Wekesa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal helminth infections during pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes including low birth weight and prenatal mortality. The infections are a major public health problem in developing countries. A hospital based survey was undertaken for six months to determine the infection prevalence, intensity, and risk factors. The study involved expectant women attending antenatal clinic. Stool samples were screened microscopically for helminth ova using Kato Katz technique. Information on risk factors was collected using semistructured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS. Epidemiological data was analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis. The overall prevalence of infection was 21 (13.8%. Ascariasis was the most prevalent 10 (6.5%, hookworm infection was 6 (3.9%, and trichuriasis was 2 (1.3%. Pregnant women aged below 29 years (OR = 3.63, CI = 0.87–11.75 and those with primary level of education (OR = 3.21, CI = 0.88–11.75 were at a higher risk of infection compared to those aged ≥ 29 years with secondary level of education. Hand washing was significantly associated with reduced likelihood of infection (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.06–0.57. It was concluded that intestinal helminth infections were prevalent among pregnant women. We recommended that all expectant women visiting antenatal clinics be screened for intestinal helminth infections and positive cases be advised to seek treatment.

  6. Frequency of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women attending routine antenatal clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency of vaginal candidiasis in clinically symptomatic and asymptomatic cases of pregnant women attending routine antenatal clinic. A total of 110 pregnant women were nonrandomly recruited by convenient sampling. The studied variables included the demographic data information on parity, trimester of pregnancy, presence of vaginal discharge and the presence or absence of diabetes. Vulva and vagina were inspected for signs of inflammation and discharge with sterile speculum and vaginal specimens were collected with sterile cotton tipped swabs. Swabs were subjected to Gram staining and examined microscopically for the diagnosis of candidiasis. The frequency of vaginal candidiasis during pregnancy was found to be 38%, in which 27% were symptomatic and 11% were asymptomatic group. Increased ratio of infection was observed in multigravida and diabetic women. There was no marked differences in results with respect to age and trimester of pregnancy. Although there is generally a high frequency of vaginal candidiasis, an increased ratio of vaginal candidiasis in multigravida and diabetic pregnant women requires these women to be routinely screened for vaginal candidiasis regardless of symptomatic status. (author)

  7. Incidence of hemoglobinopathies in women attending antenatal clinics in their first trimester

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    Parikh U R

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hemoglobinopathies are a group of genetic disorders of hemoglobin in which there is abnormal production or structure of the hemoglobin molecule. Aim: The present study attempted to find out the occurrence of hemoglobinopathies and the spectrum of different types of hemoglobinopathies in the study population. Material & Method: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study based on records of screening program for hemoglobinopathies in the hematology unit of the pathology department of our hospital. The study population comprised of all the women attending antenatal clinics in their first trimester, who were screened for hemoglobinopathies in our hospital from January 2013 to August 2013. Primary screening is done by naked eye single tube osmotic fragility test (NESTROFT to screen β thalassemia and solubility test with sodium metabisulfite for sickle cell abnormality in all cases. The diagnosis is verified by HPLC in suspected positive cases. The results of RBC Indices, NESTROFT and solubility tests are compared. Result: Majority of our patients are 21-25 years age group (60 %. Out of all patients 51.03 % patients have microcytic hypochromic anemia. Sensitivity, specificity and efficiency of NESTROFT and solubility tests are counted. . Sensitivity, specificity and efficiency of NESTROFT is 100 %, 83.16 % and 84 % while for solubility tests they are 50 %, 86.55 % and 86.4 % respectively. Conclusion: Although NESTROFT and solubility tests are less reliable, they are cheaper and easier to perform. As per cost effectiveness study, it is better to use them as a primary screening tool.

  8. Asymptomatic urinary tract infection among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Hawassa Referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tadesse, Endale; Teshome, Million; Merid, Yared; Kibret, Belayhun; Shimelis, Techalew

    2014-01-01

    Background Untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) during pregnancy may cause serious complications including pyelonephritis and delivery of premature or low-birth-weight infants. However, little is known about asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy in Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, bacterial agents, and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of the Hawassa Teaching and Referral Hospital. Methods A...

  9. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among women attending antenatal clinics in Tanga, north eastern Tanzania

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    Chiduo, M; Theilgaard, Z P; Bakari, V;

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women in Tanga, Tanzania. Retrospective data on syphilis and HIV status during 2008-2010 were collected from antenatal clinic (ANC) records. Prospective data were...

  10. The association between maltreatment in childhood and pre-pregnancy obesity in women attending an antenatal clinic in Australia.

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    Katharine Hollingsworth

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of complications and adverse outcomes in mother and child. Childhood adverse experiences are known to have numerous negative physical and emotional sequelae. We aimed to examine if exposure to abuse and/or neglect in childhood increased the likelihood of pre-pregnancy obesity. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data including weight, height, mental health as measured by the General Health Questionnaire and exposure to childhood trauma as measured by the childhood trauma questionnaire was collected from 239 women attending antenatal care at an Australian tertiary hospital. RESULTS: More than one quarter of women were obese prior to pregnancy and approximately 20% of women self reported experiencing moderate to severe physical, sexual or emotional abuse. Almost 60% of women scored in the clinical range on the GHQ. Pre-pregnancy obesity in women attending antenatal care was associated with a self-reported history of emotional or physical abuse with those exposed to moderate or severe emotional or physical abuse having increased odds of being obese prior to pregnancy (O.R. and 95% CI: 2.40; 1.19-4.84 and 2.38; 1.18-4.79 respectively. There was no significant association between other forms of childhood maltreatment, demographic or current mental health status and pre-pregnancy obesity. CONCLUSIONS: The high rates of obesity, mental health problems and self reported childhood maltreatment in the Australian antenatal population are serious public health concerns due to the extra health risks conferred on mother and offspring. Exposure to physical or emotional abuse during childhood increases the likelihood of obesity in women attending antenatal care. Further research is required to determine reasons for this association.

  11. Prevalence of HIV among rural pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at Pravara Rural Hospital, Loni, Maharashtra, India

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    Purushottam A Giri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many antenatal clinics (ANC-based HIV surveillance systems in India have limited coverage of remote rural sites, a weakness that compromises adequate estimation, monitoring, and development of effective preventive and care programs. To address this void in rural area of western Maharashtra, we conducted antenatal clinic-based sentinel surveillance to know the prevalence of HIV infection among rural pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out at ANC clinic, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Pravara Rural Hospital, Loni, Maharashtra. A total of 12,171 pregnant women from rural area accepted HIV testing after counseling who attending ANC clinic in Pravara Rural Hospital, Loni, during January 2008 to December 2011 were included in the study. Data were entered in Microsoft excel and percentage and proportion was calculated. Results: In the present study, out of 12171 pregnant women from the rural area accepted HIV testing after counseling who attending ANC clinic, only 50 (0.41% were HIV positive and remaining 12, 221 (99.59% were HIV negative. The study showed that the prevalence of HIV among pregnant women was 0.41%. Out of the 50 HIV positive pregnant women studied majority, 32 (64.0%, were primigravidas and 18 (36.0% were multigravidas. Conclusion: In our study all 12171 pregnant women from the rural area accepted HIV testing after counseling and prevalence of HIV was found to be 0.41%. The need of the hour is to provide universal access to these services by involving the NGO′s and the private sector.

  12. Childbirth information feeds for first time Malawian mothers who attended antenatal clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Malata, Address; Chirwa, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Childbirth information received by mothers during antenatal period influences their satisfaction with the care during perinatal period. It is important for the midwives to know the type of information that satisfies their clients. This study found that the childbirth information that mothers received during antenatal period did not satisfy them. On the other hand, although some of the information received at home was useful, some information had potential to cause fear, anxiety and ill health...

  13. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Pregnant Women Attending An-tenatal Clinic at the University Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana

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    Acheampong, I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The apparent decline in immunity of pregnant women appears to promote the growth of both com-mensal and non-commensal microorganisms. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women visiting the University hospital, Ku-masi. This prospective hospital-based study was carried out between April-June 2009. A total of 200 pregnant women were recruited for this study. The ages of the women ranged from 15 to 46 years. About 5-10mls of clean catch urine was cultured on Cysteine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient (CLED agar aerobically at 37oC . Isolates were identified to the species level using standard proto-col. Antibiotic sensitivity test were carried out using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Of the 200 women examined, 19 had significant bacteriuria representing a prevalence of 9.5% in the study population. Pregnant women in their second trimester from the study had the highest prevalence of significant bacteriuria (52.6% with age ranges between 30-34 years having the highest prevalence (36.8%. Nulliparous women were 35 (17.5% with 3 (8.6% testing positive for bacteriuria and 165 (82.5% were multiparous with 16 (9.7% testing positive for bacteriuria. E. coli (36.8% was the common bacteria isolate from this study. From this study, asymptomatic bacteriuria is common among antenatal women in the population studied. It is therefore recommended that periodic test-ing of pregnant women is advocated and those found to be infected need to be treated to avoid complications.

  14. Sero-prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Khartoum and Omdurman Maternity Hospitals, Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Musa Abdel-Raouff; Mohamed Mobarak Elbasheir

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the sero-prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection among pregnant Sudanese women. Methods:One hundred and sixty three pregnant women attending antenatal care in Omdurman Maternity Hospitals, Khartoum, Sudan during June to August in 2013 were enrolled and screened for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antitoxoplasma antibodies using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique. Results:Among 163 pregnant women, 33 (20.2%) were positive for (IgG) antitoxoplasma antibodies, while 130 (79.8%) were seronegative. None of the examined women had IgM antitoxoplasma antibodies. The highest rate of infection (26.7%) was detected among women aged 21-29 years. No statistically significant relation was observed between T. gondii sero-prevalence and the other variable of risk factors studied. Conclusions: Over 79% Sudanese women screened for antitoxoplasma IgG antibodies were seronegative and they were at risk of seroconversion during pregnancy. Moreover, the study showed that screening of T. gondii infections during antenatal care should be considered in Khartoum state as the main strategy to minimize congenital toxoplasmosis.

  15. Mobile phones improve antenatal care attendance in Zanzibar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Stine; Nielsen, Birgitte B; Hemed, Maryam; Boas, Ida M; Said, Azzah; Said, Khadija; Makungu, Mkoko H; Rasch, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    pregnancy. METHODS: This study was an open label pragmatic cluster-randomised controlled trial with primary healthcare facilities in Zanzibar as the unit of randomisation. 2550 pregnant women (1311 interventions and 1239 controls) who attended antenatal care at selected primary healthcare facilities were...... measure was four or more antenatal care visits during pregnancy. Secondary outcome measures were tetanus vaccination, preventive treatment for malaria, gestational age at last antenatal care visit, and antepartum referral. RESULTS: The mobile phone intervention was associated with an increase in antenatal...

  16. Sero-Prevalence of Hepatitis B amongst Pregnant Women Attending the Antenatal Clinic of a Tertiary Care Hospital, Jamnagar (Gujarat.

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    Vipul Mansukhbhai Khakhkhar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background: Majority of the transmission of Hepatitis-B in India and other developing countries occurs by vertical transmission from an infected carrier mother to the neonate, intrapartum or antenatally. Up to 90% of babies born to carrier mothers may also become carriers and they are at a very high risk of developing chronic liver disease at a younger age. Aims & Objectives: Present study was done to know the determination of sero-markers of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg amongst pregnant women. Further, to find prevalence of HBeAg and Anti HBe-IgM Ab amongst HBsAg positive pregnant women. Methods: A retrospective study was done based on review of records of pregnant women. Blood samples were collected from 2050 pregnant women with age ranging from 16-40 years during the January 2001 to December 2003. Screening of HBs Ag was done by RPHA method and positive HBsAg tests were confirmed by ELISA. The positive samples were then further tested for HBeAg and Anti-HBe-IgM Ab. Results: Amongst, 2050 pregnant women, 63 (3.07% were positive by RPHA and ELISA. Significant statistical association was found between HBsAg positive carriers 63, with HBeAg positive 11 (17.46% and Anti-HBe IgM Ab positive 18 (28.57% samples (χ2=128.14, P<0.001. Statistically significant association was not found for age group (χ2=8.05, P>0.05, history of disease (χ2=6.56, P>0.05 and trimester of pregnancy (χ2=1.66, P>0.05 with HBsAg positivity in pregnant women. Though, highest HBsAg positivity was found with age group of 21-25 year (4.20%, history of Jaundice (13.95% and third trimester of pregnancy (3.56%. Conclusion: Screening of pregnant women for HBsAg is presently practiced in order to identify those neonates at risk of transmission. However, HBsAg positive mothers should further be screened for HBV markers particularly, the test for HBeAg and Anti-HBe-IgM-Ab which suggests high chances of carrier state. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(3.000: 362-365

  17. Knowledge, attitude, perception of malaria and evaluation of malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic in metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria

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    N.C. Iriemenam, A.O. Dosunmu, W.A. Oyibo & A.F. Fagbenro-Beyioku

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Little information exists on the compliance of pregnant women to malaria managementin malaria endemic countries. This study was designed to access knowledge, attitude, perception and homemanagement of malaria among consenting pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC clinic.Methods: In total, 350 pregnant women were randomly recruited during their ANC Clinic in Lagos. Structuredquestionnaires were administered in a two-stages research design; first during their early months of ANC visitand the second approximately 1–2 months before delivery. Information on occupation, parity, symptoms used torecognise malaria, treatment sources, control measures, knowledge factors, anti-vector measures, health-seekingpractices, malaria parasitaemia and packed cell volume (PCV were recorded.Results: The results revealed that 78.9% of the pregnant women identified infected mosquitoes as the cause ofmalaria while 86% of the pregnant women identified stagnant water as its breeding sites. Knowledge of thebenefit of insecticide-treated mosquito bednets was less prominent as most of the selected subjects decried itshigh market price. Our data also showed that educational programme targeted on potential mothers is beneficial.Overall, 27.4% (96/350 of the pregnant women had peripheral malaria infection with 88.5% (85/96 of theparasite positive women infected with Plasmodium falciparum and 11.5% (11/96 with P. malariae. PCV rangedfrom 20–40% (median 33.9% with 25.7% (90/350 of the pregnant women being anaemic with PCV <33%. Wefound an association between malaria infection and occupation, and this association was not influenced byparity.Interpretation & conclusion: Our findings revealed that improvement in knowledge and education of women ofchild-bearing age has an influential impact on malaria control

  18. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Ante-Natal Patients Attending State Hopital, Ado-Ekiti , Ekiti State, Nigeria

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    Ilusanya, O. A. F.; T.O. Adesetan; H.O. Egberongbe; A.T. Otubushin

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence, predisposing factors and aetiological agents of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at State Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. One hundred (100) pregnant women were screened. Clean catch midstream urine samples were collected, examined microscopically and cultured. Questionnaires were administered to determine the possible predisposing factors to asymptomatic bacteriuria. 52(52%) out of the 100 women screened were positive...

  19. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in women attending antenatal care in Tete province, Mozambique

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    Luján, Jhonny; Arrázola de Oñate, Wouter; Delva, Wim; Claeys, Patricia; Sambola, Fulgencia; Temmerman, Marleen; Fernando, Joaquim; Folgosa, Elena

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and syphilis in pregnant women. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among women attending antenatal care clinics (ANCs). Blood samples were tested for syphilis using the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and treponemal haemagglutination (TPHA) tests; CT and NG were diagnosed using a manual polymerase chain reaction assay on first-void urine samples. A socio-demographic questionnaire was com...

  20. Estimation of the incidence of bacterial vaginosis and other vaginal infections and its consequences on maternal/fetal outcome in pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in a tertiary care hospital in North India

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    Lata Indu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was undertaken to estimate the incidence of bacterial vaginosis (BV and other vaginal infections during pregnancy and its association with urinary tract infections (UTI and its consequences on pregnancy outcome, maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Settings and Design: Prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: The present prospective cohort study was conducted on 200 women attending the antenatal clinic (ANC of a tertiary hospital. All pertinent obstetric and neonatal data covering antenatal events during the course of pregnancy, delivery, puerperium and condition of each newborn at the time of birth were collected. BV was detected by both Gram stain and gold standard clinical criteria (Amsel′s composite criteria. Statistical analysis used: Data were analyzed using SPSS version 9. Fischer′s exact test, chi square tests and Student′s′ test has been used for analysis. The probability of 5% was considered as significant for continuous variables such as age, period of gestation and birth weight. Odds ratio (OR and confidence interval (CI with 95% probability were determined. Results: The incidence of bacterial vaginosis was 41 in 200 patients. Adverse outcomes such as preterm labor, PROM and fetal complications were found more in pregnant women who had bacterial vaginosis (N=41, bacterial vaginosis with UTI (N=14 as compared to those without bacterial vaginosis (N=118. Conclusions: The incidence of poor pregnancy outcome was higher in bacterial vaginosis with UTI. Prevention of BV and UTI is cost effective to minimize the pregnancy-related complications and preterm labor to decrease in perinatal and maternal mortality and morbidity. We recommend all antenatal patients should be screened for the presence of bacterial vaginosis, other infections and UTI.

  1. Integration of antenatal syphilis screening in an urban HIV clinic: a feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Manabe, Yukari C; Namale, Gertrude; Nalintya, Elizabeth; Sempa, Joseph; Ratanshi, Rosalind Parkes; Pakker, Nadine; Katabira, Elly

    2015-01-01

    Background Syphilis infection during pregnancy leads to avoidable morbidity and mortality and remains a significant problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite global initiatives to increase the proportion of pregnant women screened, implementation has been slow. We sought to investigate the feasibility of adding syphilis screening within an integrated antenatal HIV clinic. Methods Pregnant women attending the HIV antenatal clinic were sequentially enrolled and consenting participants answered a q...

  2. Red cell alloimmunization among antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital in south India

    OpenAIRE

    Varghese, Jophy; Mary P Chacko; Rajaiah, Molly; Daniel, Dolly

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Detection of maternal alloimmunization against red cell antigens is vital in the management of haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn (HDFN). This study was conducted to measure the presence of allosensitization to blood group antibodies in the antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital and to observe the proportion of minor blood group antibodies to assess the benefit of screening for the same. Methods: All antenatal women registered in the hospital bet...

  3. Red cell alloimmunization among antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital in south India

    OpenAIRE

    Jophy Varghese; Chacko, Mary P.; Molly Rajaiah; Dolly Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Detection of maternal alloimmunization against red cell antigens is vital in the management of haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn (HDFN). This study was conducted to measure the presence of allosensitization to blood group antibodies in the antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital and to observe the proportion of minor blood group antibodies to assess the benefit of screening for the same. Methods: All antenatal women registered in the hospital...

  4. Screening for Anxiety among Antenatal Women Attending a Taluk Hospital in Rural India

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    Chris Zacharias Thomas, Surekha A., Suguna A. , Kurian Jose Puthur, Pretesh Kiran, Sulekha T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available "Background: Antenatal anxiety can adversely affect pregnancy outcome, have an impact on maternal competence in childcare. Lot of emphasis has been given on antenatal depression but studies addressing the anxiety issues are few. Objectives were to study the prevalence of anxiety, using the Perinatal Anxiety Screening Scale (PASS and to identify the risk factors associated with anxiety among antenatal women attending the Anekal Taluk Hospital, Bangalore. Method: This was a cross sectional study, done at Anekal between April and May 2014 among 146 antenatal women by convenience sampling. Results: The mean [SD] age of the study population was 22.52 ± 3.04 years. Majority (89.73% were housewives and 43.2% were in the third trimester of pregnancy. Of the 146 antenatal women, 22.6% of women screened positive for anxiety. Anxiety was significantly associated with primigravida, low parity and previous abortions. Multivariate regression analysis showed significant association of anxiety with period of gestation and gravidity. Conclusion: The findings of the study highlight the importance of routine screening for antenatal anxiety in primary health care. "

  5. Under-attending free antenatal care is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes

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    Heinonen Seppo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most pertinent studies of inadequate antenatal care concentrate on the risk profile of women booking late or not booking at all to antenatal care. The objective of this study was to assess the outcome of pregnancies when free and easily accessible antenatal care has been either totally lacking or low in number of visits. Methods This is a hospital register based cohort study of pregnancies treated in Kuopio University Hospital, Finland, in 1989 – 2001. Pregnancy outcomes of women having low numbers (1–5 of antenatal care visits (n = 207 and no antenatal care visits (n = 270 were compared with women having 6–18 antenatal visits (n = 23137. Main outcome measures were: Low birth weight, fetal death, neonatal death. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were controlled for confounding factors (adjusted odds ratios, OR: s in multiple logistic regression models. Results Of the analyzed pregnant population, 1.0% had no antenatal care visits and 0.77% had 1–5 visits. Under- or non-attendance associated with social and health behavioral risk factors: unmarried status, lower educational level, young maternal age, smoking and alcohol use. Chorio-amnionitis or placental abruptions were more common complications of pregnancies of women avoiding antenatal care, and pregnancy outcome was impaired. After logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding, there were significantly more low birth weight infants in under- and non-attenders (OR:s with 95% CI:s: 9.18 (6.65–12.68 and 5.46 (3.90–7.65, respectively more fetal deaths (OR:s 12.05 (5.95–24.40 and 5.19 (2.04–13.22, respectively and more neonatal deaths (OR:s 10.03 (3.85–26.13 and 8.66 (3.59–20.86, respectively. Conclusion Even when birth takes place in hospital, non- or under-attendance at antenatal care carries a substantially elevated risk of severe adverse pregnancy outcome. Underlying adverse health behavior and possible abuse indicate close surveillance of the

  6. Community-based distribution of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy improved coverage but reduced antenatal attendance in southern Malawi

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    K.P. Msyamboza; E.J. Savage; P.N. Kazembe; S. Gies; G. Kalanda; U. D'Alessandro; B.J. Brabin

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a 2-year programme for community-based delivery of sulfadoxine-pyremethamine (SP) on intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy coverage, antenatal clinic attendance and pregnancy outcome. Fourteen intervention and 12 control villages in the catchment areas of Chikw

  7. Red cell alloimmunization among antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital in south India

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    Jophy Varghese

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Detection of maternal alloimmunization against red cell antigens is vital in the management of haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn (HDFN. This study was conducted to measure the presence of allosensitization to blood group antibodies in the antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital and to observe the proportion of minor blood group antibodies to assess the benefit of screening for the same. Methods: All antenatal women registered in the hospital between January 2008 and January 2009, were screened for irregular antibodies using a commercial 3-cell antibody screening panel. Antibody identification was performed on samples found positive using a commercial 11 cell-panel. Results: Screening was performed on 5347 women, 339 (6.34% of whom were Rh negative. Allosensitization was found in 79 women (1.48%; confidence interval 1.17 -1.84. In 29 of these 79 (37% women the allo-antibodies could not be identified. In the remaining 50 women, 54 antibodies were characterized. A total of 40 clinically significant antibody specificities were identified among 36 women, of whom four were Rh(D positive. Allosensitization with clinically significant antibodies was found in 9.43 per cent (confidence interval 6.55-13.06 Rh(D negative and in 0.08 per cent (confidence interval .02-0.2 Rh(D positive women. Anti D was the most frequent antibody found in 8.85 per cent Rh(D negative women. The remaining clinically significant antibodies identified included anti-C, c, E, Jk a , Jk b , M and S. In Rh(D negative women, anti-D and antibodies of the Rh system contributed 83.3 and 94.4 per cent of clinically significant antibodies. However, in Rh(D positive women, non-Rh antibodies comprised three out of four clinically significant antibodies. Interpretation & conclusions: The presence of alloimmunization in our study corroborated with data reported from India. The most frequent antibody was anti-D. However, a significant fraction was

  8. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Ante-Natal Patients Attending State Hopital, Ado-Ekiti , Ekiti State, Nigeria

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    O.A.F. Ilusanya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence, predisposing factors and aetiological agents of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at State Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. One hundred (100 pregnant women were screened. Clean catch midstream urine samples were collected, examined microscopically and cultured. Questionnaires were administered to determine the possible predisposing factors to asymptomatic bacteriuria. 52(52% out of the 100 women screened were positive for asymptomatic bacteriuria. 6(11.5% out of these had mixed bacterial growth while 46(88.5% subjects had one type of bacteria. 36% had non-significant bacterial growth. 12(12% yielded viable growth of Candida albicans. Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant bacteria followed by Escherichia coli. Pregnant women in their third trimester had the highest prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (60.3%. The age group 30-40 years had the highest prevalence (62.5%.Women with parity range of 1-2 has the highest prevalence rate of 80% while the least 27.3% was found in parity range of 0 (no previous pregnancy Full time housewives had highest prevalence while Christian pregnant women had higher prevalent rate (66.7% than their Muslim counterparts (58.1% Routine screening of the urine of pregnant women for asymptomatic bacteriuria and personal hygiene was emphasized so as to reduce maternal and foetal complications associated with pregnancy.

  9. Antenatal care in practice: an exploratory study in antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania

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    Kessy Flora

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential of antenatal care for reducing maternal morbidity and improving newborn survival and health is widely acknowledged. Yet there are worrying gaps in knowledge of the quality of antenatal care provided in Tanzania. In particular, determinants of health workers' performance have not yet been fully understood. This paper uses ethnographic methods to document health workers' antenatal care practices with reference to the national Focused Antenatal Care guidelines and identifies factors influencing health workers' performance. Potential implications for improving antenatal care provision in Tanzania are discussed. Methods Combining different qualitative techniques, we studied health workers' antenatal care practices in four public antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania. A total of 36 antenatal care consultations were observed and compared with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Participant observation, informal discussions and in-depth interviews with the staff helped to identify and explain health workers' practices and contextual factors influencing antenatal care provision. Results The delivery of antenatal care services to pregnant women at the selected antenatal care clinics varied widely. Some services that are recommended by the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines were given to all women while other services were not delivered at all. Factors influencing health workers' practices were poor implementation of the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines, lack of trained staff and absenteeism, supply shortages and use of working tools that are not consistent with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Health workers react to difficult working conditions by developing informal practices as coping strategies or "street-level bureaucracy". Conclusions Efforts to improve antenatal care should address shortages of trained staff through expanding training opportunities, including health worker

  10. Significant Bacteriuria Among Asymptomatic Antenatal Clinic Attendees In Ibadan, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Aderemi O. Kehinde; Adedapo, Kayode S.; Aimaikhu, Christopher O.; Odukogbe, Akin-tunde A.; Olayemi, Oladapo; Salako, Babatunde

    2011-01-01

    Untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria can lead to urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnancy with devastating maternal and neonatal effects such as prematurity and low birth weight, higher fetal mortality rates and significant maternal morbidity. We carried out a two year (April 2007 to March 2009) cross-sectional epidemiological study to determine the prevalence of significant bacteriuria among asymptomatic antenatal clinic attendees at two antenatal clinics (ANCs) in University College Hospita...

  11. LATE PREGNANCY OUTCOMES AMONG WOMEN WHO ATTENDED AND WOMEN WHO DID NOT ATTEND FIRST TRIMESTER ANTENATAL CARE VISITS IN A SUBURBAN REGIONAL HOSPITAL IN CAMEROON

    OpenAIRE

    Tsi N. Njim, MD

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite relatively high number of women who attend antenatal care (ANC) in Cameroon, there is an ever-increasing maternal mortality ratio, and pregnancy outcomes remain inadequate. A new suggested Optimal ANC Package includes attending ANC in the first trimester. This study assesses the overall ANC coverage, the percentage, and pregnancy outcomes among women who attended and did not attend ANC in the first trimester in the Buea Regional Hospital (BRH) in Cameroon. Methods: A c...

  12. Acceptance of HIV testing among women attending antenatal care in south-western Uganda: risk factors and reasons for test refusal

    OpenAIRE

    Dahl, Viktor; Mellhammar, Lisa; Bajunirwe, Francis; Björkman, Per

    2008-01-01

    Abstract A problem commonly encountered in programs for prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa is low rates of HIV test acceptance among pregnant women. In this study, we examined risk factors and reasons for HIV test refusal among 432 women attending three antenatal care clinics offering PMTCT in urban and semi-urban parts of the Mbarara district, Uganda. Structured interviews were performed following pre-test counselling. Three-hundre...

  13. Do non-monetary incentives for pregnant women increase antenatal attendance among Ethiopian pastoralists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khogali, M; Zachariah, R; Reid, A J; Alipon, S C; Zimble, S; Gbane, M; Etienne, W; Veerman, R; Hassan, A; Harries, A D

    2014-03-21

    In a pastoralist setting in Ethiopia, we assessed changes in attendance between the first and subsequent antenatal care (ANC) visits following the implementation of non-monetary incentives in a primary health care centre over a 3-year period from October 2009 to September 2012. Incentives included the provision of a bar of soap, a bucket, a mosquito net, sugar, cooking oil, a jerrycan and a delivery kit. The first ANC visits increased by 48% in the first year to 60% in the second. Subsequent visits did not show a similar pattern due to ruptures in incentive stocks. Incentives appear to increase ANC attendance; however, ruptures in stock should be avoided to sustain the effect. PMID:26423755

  14. Are pregnant women receiving support for smoking dependence when attending routine antenatal appointments?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cully, G

    2010-09-01

    Early and consistent intervention with pregnant smokers can reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with smoking during pregnancy. A survey of 470 pregnant women was conducted to establish the care they received in relation to smoking whilst attending routine public antenatal appointments. The overall prevalence of smoking was 23.5%. Age, level of education and nationality were associated with smoking status with younger, less educated Irish women being most likely to smoke. Women attending for their first visit were much more likely to be asked about their smoking status 71 (85.5) versus 68 (17.8) and advised to quit if they were smokers 11 (73.3) versus 11 (15.7). None of the women were offered specific assistance to help them stop smoking or had a follow-up appointment arranged specifically to do with smoking. 167 women (35.6) were exposed to passive smoking in their own homes.

  15. Prevalence of “unexpected antibodies” in the antenatal women attending the Government Maternity Hospital, Tirupati

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    Suresh B

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: All antibodies to red cell antigens, other than naturally occurring anti-A and anti-B are considered unexpected. They can be either alloantibodies or auto antibodies. In pregnant women, these antibodies may cross the placenta and cause haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn (HDFN. Timely detection of such antibodies in antenatal women is essential for early management of HDFN. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out on 2060 multiparous pregnant women attending the Government Maternity Hospital, Tirupati to detect prevalence of unexpected antibodies. The women were grouped and typed for ABO and rhesus (Rh D antigens by tube method and screened for alloantibodies by column agglutination technology. The medical and detailed obstetric history of these women were reviewed. Results: The overall prevalence of alloantibodies was 1.1%. There was a statistically significant difference between alloimmunization rates in the Rh D-antigen negative and D-antigen positive women (12.8% versus 0.3%. The antibodies detected in this study were, anti-D (63.8%, anti-D+C (13.7%, anti-C, anti-E, anti-M, anti-Le a , and anti-Leb (4.5% each. Anti-D contributed to 77.3% of total alloimmunization in this study. Conclusions: In spite of the introduction of prophylactic Rh- immunoglobulin, anti-D (77.3% is still a common antibody identified in the antenatal women of our region. In developing countries like India, universal antenatal antibody screening, though desirable may not be justified at present as the cost and infrastructure required would be immense. However, it is necessary to impose properly formulated protocols to screen at least the pregnant women with adverse obstetric history.

  16. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital

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    Ananthi Kasinathan

    2014-04-01

    Methods: A total of 174 antenatal women of and #8804;28 weeks of gestation who had no clinical features of urinary tract infection were recruited for this study over a period of 6 months. Midstream urine sample was collected and sent for routine examination and culture-sensitivity testing. Results: Significant bacteriuria was detected in 22 (12.6% antenatal women. Of them 13 (59.1% belonged to the age group 26-30 years. Nearly half of the culture positive cases, that is 10 (45.5% were educated upto primary school and they belonged to socioeconomic status class 4. Majorities (68% were in the second trimester of pregnancy and the commonest organism isolated was E. coli. Conclusions: Undetected and untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria leads to chronic drug resistant infection, hypertension, anemia, etc. in the mother and prematurity, intrauterine growth restriction etc. in the fetus. Hence it is important to do urine culture for all women during antenatal check-up. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(2.000: 437-441

  17. Brief Report: HIV Testing Among Pregnant Women Who Attend Antenatal Care in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenthani, Lyson; Haas, Andreas D; Egger, Matthias; Van Oosterhout, Joep J; Jahn, Andreas; Chimbwandira, Frank; Tal, Kali; Myer, Landon; Estill, Janne; Keiser, Olivia

    2015-08-15

    Malawi adopted the Option B+ strategy in 2011. Its success in reducing mother-to-child transmission depends on coverage and timing of HIV testing. We assessed HIV status ascertainment and its predictors during pregnancy. HIV status ascertainment was 82.3% (95% confidence interval: 80.2 to 85.9) in the pre-Option B+ period and 85.7% (95% confidence interval: 83.4 to 88.0) in the Option B+ period. Higher HIV ascertainment was independently associated with higher age, attending antenatal care more than once, and registration in 2010. The observed high variability of HIV ascertainment between sites (50.6%-97.7%) and over time suggests that HIV test kit shortages and insufficient numbers of staff posed major barriers to reducing mother-to-child transmission. PMID:25950205

  18. Factors affecting antenatal care attendance: results from qualitative studies in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi.

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    Christopher Pell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antenatal care (ANC is a key strategy to improve maternal and infant health. However, survey data from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that women often only initiate ANC after the first trimester and do not achieve the recommended number of ANC visits. Drawing on qualitative data, this article comparatively explores the factors that influence ANC attendance across four sub-Saharan African sites in three countries (Ghana, Kenya and Malawi with varying levels of ANC attendance. METHODS: Data were collected as part of a programme of qualitative research investigating the social and cultural context of malaria in pregnancy. A range of methods was employed interviews, focus groups with diverse respondents and observations in local communities and health facilities. RESULTS: Across the sites, women attended ANC at least once. However, their descriptions of ANC were often vague. General ideas about pregnancy care - checking the foetus' position or monitoring its progress - motivated women to attend ANC; as did, especially in Kenya, obtaining the ANC card to avoid reprimands from health workers. Women's timing of ANC initiation was influenced by reproductive concerns and pregnancy uncertainties, particularly during the first trimester, and how ANC services responded to this uncertainty; age, parity and the associated implications for pregnancy disclosure; interactions with healthcare workers, particularly messages about timing of ANC; and the cost of ANC, including charges levied for ANC procedures - in spite of policies of free ANC - combined with ideas about the compulsory nature of follow-up appointments. CONCLUSION: In these socially and culturally diverse sites, the findings suggest that 'supply' side factors have an important influence on ANC attendance: the design of ANC and particularly how ANC deals with the needs and concerns of women during the first trimester has implications for timing of initiation.

  19. Factors affecting attendance at and timing of formal antenatal care: results from a qualitative study in Madang, Papua New Guinea.

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    Erin V W Andrew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Appropriate antenatal care (ANC is key for the health of mother and child. However, in Papua New Guinea (PNG, only a third of women receive any ANC during pregnancy. Drawing on qualitative research, this paper explores the influences on ANC attendance and timing of first visit in the Madang region of Papua New Guinea. METHODS: Data were collected in three sites utilizing several qualitative methods: free-listing and sorting of terms and definitions, focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, observation in health care facilities and case studies of pregnant women. Respondents included pregnant women, their relatives, biomedical and traditional health providers, opinion leaders and community members. RESULTS: Although generally reported to be important, respondents' understanding of the procedures involved in ANC was limited. Factors influencing attendance fell into three main categories: accessibility, attitudes to ANC, and interpersonal issues. Although women saw accessibility (distance and cost as a barrier, those who lived close to health facilities and could easily afford ANC also demonstrated poor attendance. Attitudes were shaped by previous experiences of ANC, such as waiting times, quality of care, and perceptions of preventative care and medical interventions during pregnancy. Interpersonal factors included relationships with healthcare providers, pregnancy disclosure, and family conflict. A desire to avoid repeat clinic visits, ideas about the strength of the fetus and parity were particularly relevant to the timing of first ANC visit. CONCLUSIONS: This long-term in-depth study (the first of its kind in Madang, PNG shows how socio-cultural and economic factors influence ANC attendance. These factors must be addressed to encourage timely ANC visits: interventions could focus on ANC delivery in health facilities, for example, by addressing healthcare staff's attitudes towards pregnant women.

  20. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Antenatal Depression among Women Attending Antenatal Care Service at Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayele, Tadesse Awoke; Azale, Telake; Alemu, Kassahun; Abdissa, Zewditu; Mulat, Haregewoin; Fekadu, Abel

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder during pregnancy and is associated with psychosocial and clinical obstetric factors. Depressive disorders are not only common and chronic among women throughout the world but also principal sources of disability. The scarce information and limited attention to the problem might aggravate the consequence of the problem and can limit the intervention to be taken. Therefore, the current study was conducted to determine the prevalence and identify associated factors for antenatal depression. Methods Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted by taking a sample of 388 pregnant women coming for ANC service at Gondar University Hospital. Systematic random sampling technique was employed to recruit the study participants. Structured, pretested and interview administered questionnaire was used to collect related information while Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess individuals`depression condition. A cut off point with high sensitivity and specificity was determined and internal consistency of the tool was checked (Cronbach alpha = 0.82). Ep Info V. 2002 and STATA 12 were used for data entry and analyses, respectively. Adjusted Odds Ratio with its 95% CI was used to declare the statistical significance of the factors. Results Depression among pregnant women was found to be 23% (95%CI: 18.48%, 26.86%). Factors significantly associated with depression were: woman`s age (20 to 29, AOR = 0.18,95% CI:0.07,0.49), occupation (housewife, AOR = 2.57,95%CI:1.21,5.46, merchant and daily laborers, AOR = 3.44 (1.38,8.58), previous pregnancy (No, AOR = 4.74,95% CI:1.58,14.17) and previous ANC follow up pattern (irregular, AOR = 11.43,95% CI:3.68,35.49), no follow up, AOR = 11.98, 95% CI:4.73,30.33). Conclusion Depression symptoms are common in pregnant mothers in the study area and interventions that would address the aforementioned factors would benefit to tackle further complications. PMID

  1. LATE PREGNANCY OUTCOMES AMONG WOMEN WHO ATTENDED AND WOMEN WHO DID NOT ATTEND FIRST TRIMESTER ANTENATAL CARE VISITS IN A SUBURBAN REGIONAL HOSPITAL IN CAMEROON

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    Tsi N. Njim, MD

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite relatively high number of women who attend antenatal care (ANC in Cameroon, there is an ever-increasing maternal mortality ratio, and pregnancy outcomes remain inadequate. A new suggested Optimal ANC Package includes attending ANC in the first trimester. This study assesses the overall ANC coverage, the percentage, and pregnancy outcomes among women who attended and did not attend ANC in the first trimester in the Buea Regional Hospital (BRH in Cameroon. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 200 consenting pregnant women presenting for delivery at the BRH. A bivariate analysis was used to compare the frequencies of various pregnancy outcomes within the the two categories of women who attended and who did not attend first trimester ANC. Results: Ninety-six percent of the women attended at least 1 ANC visit with 20.5% of these women attending ANC in the first trimester and 60.2% attending at least 4 visits. Sociodemographic and obstetric factors were not found to be associated with attending ANC in the first trimester. Also, there was no statistically significant association between all the late pregnancy outcomes assessed and attending ANC in the first trimester. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Trends in most sub-Saharan countries seem to suggest that most women do not attend first trimester ANC. This could have negative consequences on overall perinatal outcome. More user-friendly educational programs for women of childbearing age is required in such regions to address this situation.

  2. Prevalence of syphilis infection in Mozambican women with second trimester miscarriage and women attending antenatal care in second trimester.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindstrand, A; Bergström, S; Bugalho, A.; Zanconato, G; Helgesson, A M; Hederstedt, B.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To elucidate whether recent syphilis infection is significantly more prevalent among women with mid-trimester miscarriage than among antenatal care attenders in midtrimester pregnancy. DESIGN--Two categories of pregnant women were compared regarding serological signs of syphilis. Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) analyses were done in Mozambique and Veneral Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) tests in Sweden. In case of RPR and/or VDRL positivity, Treponema pallidum haemagglutination (TPHA...

  3. The Murri clinic: a comparative retrospective study of an antenatal clinic developed for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women

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    Kildea Sue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians are a small, widely dispersed population. Regarding childbearing women and infants, inequities in service delivery and culturally unsafe services contribute to significantly poorer outcomes, with a lack of high-level research to guide service redesign. This paper reports on an Evaluation of a specialist (Murri antenatal clinic for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. Methods A triangulated mixed method approach generated and analysed data from a range of sources: individual and focus group interviews; surveys; mother and infant audit data; and routinely collected data. A retrospective analysis compared clinical outcomes of women who attended the Murri clinic (n=367 with Indigenous women attending standard care (n=414 provided by the same hospital over the same period. Both services see women of all risk status. Results The majority of women attending the Murri clinic reported high levels of satisfaction, specifically with continuity of carer antenatally. However, disappointment with the lack of continuity during labour/birth and postnatally left some women feeling abandoned and uncared for. Compared to Indigenous women attending standard care, those attending the Murri clinic were statistically less likely to be primiparous or partnered, to experience perineal trauma, to have an epidural and to have a baby admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, and were more likely to have a non-instrumental vaginal birth. Multivariate analysis found higher normal birth (spontaneous onset of labour, no epidural, non-instrumental vaginal birth without episiotomy rates amongst women attending the Murri clinic. Conclusions Significant benefits were associated with attending the Murri clinic. Recommendations for improvement included ongoing cultural competency training for all hospital staff, reducing duplication of services, improving co-ordination and communication between community and tertiary

  4. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Ananthi Kasinathan; Prasad Thirumal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the presence of actively multiplying bacteria within the urinary tract in the absence of any symptoms. Antenatal women are more susceptible to urinary tract infection because of the anatomical and physiological changes which occur during pregnancy. Aim of current study was the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women, the organisms responsible and to treat the same. Methods: A total of 174 antena...

  5. Prevalence of “unexpected antibodies” in the antenatal women attending the Government Maternity Hospital, Tirupati

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh B; Sreedhar Babu KV; Arun R; Jothibai DS; Bharathi T

    2015-01-01

    Background: All antibodies to red cell antigens, other than naturally occurring anti-A and anti-B are considered unexpected. They can be either alloantibodies or auto antibodies. In pregnant women, these antibodies may cross the placenta and cause haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn (HDFN). Timely detection of such antibodies in antenatal women is essential for early management of HDFN. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out on 2060 multiparous pregnant women...

  6. Determinants for refusal of HIV testing among women attending for antenatal care in Gambella Region, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Fanta Wondimagegn; Worku Alemayehu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In Gambella region, inhabitants owe socio-cultural factors that might favor refusal for HIV testing service utilization among Antenatal Care attendees. Objective To assess determinants for refusal of HIV testing service utilization among ANC attendees in Gambella Region. Methods A comparative cross sectional study was conducted among ANC attendees from March 2008 to May 2008 in four selected health facilities of Gambella region. Sample size of 332 participants (83 who refu...

  7. Perceptions, attitude and uptake of rapid syphilis testing services in antenatal clinics in North-Western Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnko, Soori; Changalucha, John; Mosha, Jacklin; Bunga, Catherine; Wamoyi, Joyce; Peeling, Rosanna; Mabey, David

    2016-06-01

    Infection with syphilis during pregnancy could cause spontaneous abortion, low birth weight and stillbirth. To prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes caused by syphilis, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends syphilis screening and treatment of all pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) services. Rapid syphilis testing (RST) demonstration project was introduced at ANC clinics in Tanzania in 2009, to assess the feasibility, acceptability and its impact on uptake of syphilis screening service. Data collection was composed of in-depth interviews with health workers and pregnant women attending ANC. Additionally, from the health facility registers we extracted information on the uptake of antenatal care services, including number of pregnant women screened and treated for syphilis. Introduction of RST at health facilities was appreciated by pregnant women attending ANC and health workers. Following the introduction of RST services at ANC clinics, we observed a significant increase of the uptake of syphilis screening. Pregnant women appreciated RST service since it reduced the frequency of their visits to the health facilities and shortened the duration that they spent at the clinics. Moreover, the provision of same-day screening and treatment services helped women to save money that they would have to spend on transportation for the follow up visits. Health workers felt that RST simplified procedures to diagnose syphilis, and enabled the health workers to test and treat large numbers of clients in a shorter period of time. Our study demonstrates that, it is feasible to introduce RST service in antenatal clinics. The RST was appreciated by health workers and pregnant women, since it simplifies syphilis screening procedures, saves the time that pregnant women used to waste to wait for the results, and saves the cost that women would have to spend on transportation to come back for treatment. PMID:26685146

  8. Significant bacteriuria among asymptomatic antenatal clinic attendees in ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehinde, Aderemi O; Adedapo, Kayode S; Aimaikhu, Christopher O; Odukogbe, Akin-Tunde A; Olayemi, Oladapo; Salako, Babatunde

    2011-09-01

    Untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria can lead to urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnancy with devastating maternal and neonatal effects such as prematurity and low birth weight, higher fetal mortality rates and significant maternal morbidity. We carried out a two year (April 2007 to March 2009) cross-sectional epidemiological study to determine the prevalence of significant bacteriuria among asymptomatic antenatal clinic attendees at two antenatal clinics (ANCs) in University College Hospital and Adeoyo Maternity Hospital, both in Ibadan, Nigeria.All consenting ANC attendees without UTI were enrolled in the study. Urine specimens of 5 to 10 ml collected from each subject were examined microscopically for white blood cells, red blood cells and bacteria. The specimens were further cultured on MacConkey agar using a sterile bacteriological loop that delivered 0.002 ml of urine. Colony counts yielding bacterial growth of more than 10(5)/ml of pure isolates were considered significant.Of the 473 subjects studied, 136 had significant bacteriuria, giving a prevalence rate of 28.8%. The highest age specific prevalence (47.8%) was found in the 25-29 year olds while only one (0.7%) was found in the teenage group. A large percentage (64.0%) of subjects with significant bacteriuria had tertiary education, compared with 4.4% who had no formal education but the association was not statistically significant (X(2) = 0.47, p = 0.79). The majority (75.8%) of subjects with significant bacteriuria had no previous history of abortion, while 20 (14.7%) had one previous abortion and only three (2.1%) admitted to three previous abortions (X(2) = 5.16, p = 0.16). The majority (69.8%) of those with significant bacteriuria presented at second trimester while 38 (28.0%) presented at third trimester (X(2) = 6.5, p = 37).Only 22 (4.6%) of the studied subjects presented at first trimester, and 3 (13.7%) of these had significant bacteriuria.The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria is high

  9. Antenatal care practice and the chance of having nurse/midwife birth attendant: a study in Central Mountain of Papua

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    Marinda Asiah Nuril Haya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Papua merupakan salah satu propinsi di Indonesia dengan angka kematian ibu tertinggi di Indonesia. Penolong persalinan terlatih dan asuhan antenatal (ANC merupakan salah satu faktor yang penting untuk menurunkan angka kematian ibu. Tujuanstudi ini untuk mengidentifikasi pengaruh ANC dan beberapa faktor yang lain terhadap kemungkinan persalinan yang ditolong oleh perawat/bidan di Papua.Metode: Studi potong lintang dengan sampling purposif dilakukan terhadap perempuan yang mempunyai anak balita yang datang ke Posyandu pada 15-30 Januari 2014 di 24 desa wilayah pegunungan tengah Jayawijaya, Papua. Karakteristik demografi, praktek ANC dan persalinan didapatkan melalui wawancara. Subjek diklasifikasikan ke dalam 2 kelompok, yang bersalin didampingi perawat/bidan dan yang menolong sendiri atau ditolong keluarga. Analisis dilakukan dengan regresi Cox dengan waktu konstan. Hasil: Dari 469 subjek, 391 subjek yang dianalisis terdiri dari 280 subjek yang melahirkan ditolong sendiri/ keluarga dan 111 subjek yang ditolong perawat/bidan. Subjek yang yang melahirkan di hutan atau kandang hina hanya 3 orang. Dibandingkan dengan yang tidak pernah ANC, subjek yang melakukan ANC di Posyandu 5,6 kali kemungkinan melahirkan ditolong perawat/bidan [risiko relatif suaian (RRa = 5,60; interval kepercayaan 95% (CI = 2,99-10,47]. Selain itu, subjek yang mendapatkan pemeriksaan ANC oleh bidan dan kunjungan ANC 4 kali memiliki kemungkinan lebih tinggi untuk melahirkan ditolong perawat/bidan, masing-masing 4,9 kali (RRa = 4,89; 95% CI = 2,70-8,86 dan 6,9 kali (RRa = 6.90; 95% CI = 3,59-13,27.Kesimpulan: Asuhan antenatal adalah cara untuk meningkatkan angka persalinan yang ditolong oleh tenaga tenaga perawat/bidan di Papua. (Health Science Indones 2014;2:60-6Kata kunci: asuhan antenatal, persalinan oleh perawat/bidan, PapuaAbstractBackground: Papua has one of the highest maternal mortality rates in Indonesia. Nurse/midwife birth attendants and regular

  10. Socio Demographic and Clinical Profile of HIV Positive Antenatal Women Registered in PPTCT Centres, Surat, Gujarat

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    Grishma Chauhan, Anupam Verma, R.K.Bansal, Rachana Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study reports the socio demographic and clinical profile of 127 HIV positive antenatal women and their husbands. The findings of the study will be helpful for policy decision makers to address the issues of a specific vulnerable group. Materials and Methods: During Jan 2007 to Dec 2008, a total 282 ante-natal women were referred to 5 PPTCT centres for HIV testing and counseling. Of these 127 (45% antenatal women who came to collect their reports could be contacted for this study. The husbands of the 127 HIV positive antenatal women were contacted to collect their information. Result: Mean Age of HIV positive antenatal women was 25.5 ±3.8 years, more than 50% were in the age group of 20-25 years and 18.9% of HIV positive antenatal women were illiterate. HIV positivity rate in spouse was 80%. Two third women were diagnosed HIV positive in 2nd & 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Among the positive 60 (47.3% were primi gravidas, 27 (21.3% mothers were not tested for CD4 count. However 98 (77% mothers were registered in ART centre and 35% HIV positive an-tenatal women were on ART. Conclusion: HIV positive pregnant women were younger, primi and housewives. HIV positive antenatal women need to be followed rigorously to link them to ART services.

  11. Health professional's treatment of gestational overweight and obesity at an antenatal clinic in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Rifai, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    Aim:  To describe health professional's treatment of pregnant overweight or obese women at an antenatal clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. Method: A descriptive qualitative method was used including interviews with 11 health professionals at an antenatal clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. The interviews were semi-structured and consisted of five open-ended question. The result was then analysed through a systematic content analyse. Result: Four categories were identified. The methods used to state gestational ...

  12. Frequency of syphilis among antenatal clinic attendee in combined military hospital abbottabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frequency of syphilis among pregnant women attending Combined Military Hospital Abbottabad Study Design: Descriptive study. Material and Methods: A screening for syphilis of 500 married pregnant women presenting to antenatal clinics was carried out using the qualitative Rapid Plasma Regent (RPR) test/ Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test. The Treponema Palladium Haem-Agglutination Assay (TPHA) test was used as confirmatory test for all Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test positive cases. Results: A total of 8 women (1.6%) were positive for Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test. Out of these 4 (0.8%) were positive for Treponema Palladium Haem-Agglutination Assay (TPHA) test. All of these cases have bad obstetrical history. Conclusion: The sero-positivity of Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test is (1.6%), considered high among pregnant women reporting in obstetrics clinics of Combined Military Hospital Abbottabad. Similarly sero-positivity of Treponema Palladium Haem-Agglutination Assay (TPHA) test is (0.8%) considered high among the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test population. Therefore Screening of syphilis in pregnancy especially in patients having bad obstetrical history (BOH) should be incorporated into the study. (author)

  13. Why don't some women attend antenatal and postnatal care services?: a qualitative study of community members' perspectives in Garut, Sukabumi and Ciamis districts of West Java Province, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Heywood Peter; Hunter Cynthia L; Titaley Christiana R; Dibley Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Antenatal, delivery and postnatal care services are amongst the recommended interventions aimed at preventing maternal and newborn deaths worldwide. West Java is one of the provinces of Java Island in Indonesia with a high proportion of home deliveries, a low attendance of four antenatal services and a low postnatal care uptake. This paper aims to explore community members' perspectives on antenatal and postnatal care services, including reasons for using or not using thes...

  14. Self-medication and Contributing Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in Ethiopia: The Case of Jimma University Specialized Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Befekadu, Abdi; Dhekama, Nezif Hussein; MOHAMMED, Mohammed Adem

    2014-01-01

    Self-medication is the selection and use of non-prescription medicines by individuals own initiatives to treat self-recognized illnesses or symptoms. It is practiced significantly worldwide even though its type, extent and reasons for its practice may vary. In this study we aimed to determine the prevalence of self-medication and contributing factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care at JUSH, Jimma town, south west Ethiopia. A prospective hospital based cross-sectional study with ...

  15. Compliance with Iron-Folate Supplement and Associated Factors among Antenatal Care Attendant Mothers in Misha District, South Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abinet Arega Sadore; Lakew Abebe Gebretsadik; Mamusha Aman Hussen

    2015-01-01

    Background. In Ethiopia, higher proportions of pregnant women are anemic. Despite the efforts to reduce iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy, only few women took an iron supplement as recommended. Thus, this study aimed to assess compliance with iron-folate supplement and associated factors among antenatal care attendant mothers in Misha district, South Ethiopia. Method. Community based cross-sectional study supported with in-depth interview was conducted from March 1 to March 30, 2015. Th...

  16. Patient characteristics affecting attendance at general outpatient clinics.

    OpenAIRE

    McClure, R J; Newell, S J; Edwards, S

    1996-01-01

    A study was carried out to identify the characteristics of children who do not attend appointments at general outpatient clinics. Over six months, 359 children who had an appointment at a general clinic were studied using a questionnaire given to parents (74% response rate) and by inspection of case notes. Based on their first appointment in the study period, children were divided into 'attenders' (n = 262) and 'non-attenders' (n = 97) for analysis. Non-attenders were significantly more likel...

  17. A decade of inequality in maternity care: antenatal care, professional attendance at delivery, and caesarean section in Bangladesh (1991–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronsmans Carine

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bangladesh is committed to the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG-5 target of reducing its maternal mortality ratio by three-quarters between 1990 and 2015. Since the early 1990s, Bangladesh has followed a strategy of improving access to facilities equipped and staffed to provide emergency obstetric care (EmOC. Methods We used data from four Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 1993 and 2004 to examine trends in the proportions of live births preceded by antenatal consultation, attended by a health professional, and delivered by caesarean section, according to key socio-demographic characteristics. Results Utilization of antenatal care increased substantially, from 24% in 1991 to 60% in 2004. Despite a relatively greater increase in rural than urban areas, utilization remained much lower among the poorest rural women without formal education (18% compared with the richest urban women with secondary or higher education (99%. Professional attendance at delivery increased by 50% (from 9% to 14%, more rapidly in rural than urban areas, and caesarean sections trebled (from 2% to 6%, but these indicators remained low even by developing country standards. Within these trends there were huge inequalities; 86% of live births among the richest urban women with secondary or higher education were attended by a health professional, and 35% were delivered by caesarean section, compared with 2% and 0.1% respectively of live births among the poorest rural women without formal education. The trend in professional attendance was entirely confounded by socioeconomic and demographic changes, but education of the woman and her husband remained important determinants of utilization of obstetric services. Conclusion Despite commendable progress in improving uptake of antenatal care, and in equipping health facilities to provide emergency obstetric care, the very low utilization of these facilities, especially by poor women, is a

  18. Why don't some women attend antenatal and postnatal care services?: a qualitative study of community members' perspectives in Garut, Sukabumi and Ciamis districts of West Java Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heywood Peter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal, delivery and postnatal care services are amongst the recommended interventions aimed at preventing maternal and newborn deaths worldwide. West Java is one of the provinces of Java Island in Indonesia with a high proportion of home deliveries, a low attendance of four antenatal services and a low postnatal care uptake. This paper aims to explore community members' perspectives on antenatal and postnatal care services, including reasons for using or not using these services, the services received during antenatal and postnatal care, and cultural practices during antenatal and postnatal periods in Garut, Sukabumi and Ciamis districts of West Java province. Methods A qualitative study was conducted from March to July 2009 in six villages in three districts of West Java province. Twenty focus group discussions (FGDs and 165 in-depth interviews were carried out involving a total of 295 respondents. The guidelines for FGDs and in-depth interviews included the topics of community experiences with antenatal and postnatal care services, reasons for not attending the services, and cultural practices during antenatal and postnatal periods. Results Our study found that the main reason women attended antenatal and postnatal care services was to ensure the safe health of both mother and infant. Financial difficulty emerged as the major issue among women who did not fulfil the minimum requirements of four antenatal care services or two postnatal care services within the first month after delivery. This was related to the cost of health services, transportation costs, or both. In remote areas, the limited availability of health services was also a problem, especially if the village midwife frequently travelled out of the village. The distances from health facilities, in addition to poor road conditions were major concerns, particularly for those living in remote areas. Lack of community awareness about the importance of these

  19. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital in Kanchipuram: evaluation of screening tests and antibiotic susceptibility pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Abirami Lakshmy Jayachandran; Ukkiravel Gnanasambandam; Balan K.; Sangeetha, A.V.; T. S. Vijayalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) occurring in pregnant women can lead onto complications like acute pyelonephritis, hypertensive disease of pregnancy, premature delivery and intrauterine growth retardation if untreated. Methods: The present study aims to estimate the occurrence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in antenatal women and to study the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates. The Gram staining, pus cell count and culture was performed for 120 urine samples. Antibi...

  20. A study to assess knowledge and attitude of antenatal women about maternal nutrition attending a tertiary care centre

    OpenAIRE

    Renu Gupta; Shaily Agarwal; Neetu Singh; Rimjhim Jain; Arti Katiyar; Almas siddiqui

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nutrition is the fundamental pillar of human life. All human beings need a balanced amount of nutrients for proper functioning of body system. Inadequate nutrition during pregnancy has a negative impact on the pregnant mother as well as short and long term consequences on the newborn. This study aims to assess knowledge and attitude of antenatal women about maternal nutrition in pregnancy and highlights the need of interventions aimed at promoting awareness about healthy diet duri...

  1. Use of complementary therapies by patients attending musculoskeletal clinics.

    OpenAIRE

    Chandola, A; Young, Y.; McAlister, J.; Axford, J S

    1999-01-01

    Patients with musculoskeletal disorders commonly seek treatment outside orthodox medicine (complementary therapy). In patients attending hospital clinics we investigated the prevalence of such behaviour and the reasons for it. Patients attending rheumatology and orthopaedic clinics who agreed to participate were interviewed on the same day by means of a structured questionnaire in three sections: the first section about demographic characteristics; the second about the nature and duration of ...

  2. Prevalence of syphilis among antenatal clinic attendees in Karachi: Imperative to begin universal screening in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, SA; Kristensen, S; Memon, MA; Usman, G; Ghazi, A; John, R; Sathiakumar, N; Vermund, SH

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Sexually transmitted infections are thought by some to be rare in socially conservative Muslim countries. Little is known about prevalence of syphilis in Pakistani women from the general population. We determined syphilis prevalence in a multi-center cross-sectional study of low risk pregnant women in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods We administered a structured questionnaire and obtained a blood sample for syphilis serology (rapid plasma reagin test with Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay confirmation) from all women giving informed consent over six weeks in 2007. Results The prevalence of confirmed syphilis was less than one percent (0.9%; 95%CI: 0.4, 1.8) in a sample size of 800 women recruited from three urban sites (≈1% refusal rate). Women who lived in an area where male drug use is prevalent (Ibrahim Hyderi Hospital) had 1% (1.5%) higher prevalence rates than women from the other two sites 0.5%. Conclusions We documented higher-than-expected syphilis seroprevalence rates in a low risk population of antenatal clinic attendees in Pakistan. Bridge populations for syphilis may include drug users, who are usually married, and Hijras or their clients. Hijras are transgender and/or transvestite men who may provide sex for money to men. In accordance with our results, the national policy for syphilis control in Pakistan should be modified to include universal syphilis screening in antenatal clinics with subsequent partner notification. PMID:22356034

  3. Feasibility of Providing Culturally Relevant, Brief Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Antenatal Depression in an Obstetrics Clinic: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Swartz, Holly A.; Frank, Ellen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To minimize barriers to care, ameliorate antenatal depression, and prevent postpartum depression, we conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of providing brief interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-B) to depressed, pregnant patients on low incomes in an obstetrics and gynecological (OB/GYN) clinic. Method: Twelve pregnant,…

  4. PREVENTION OF CANCER OF THE CERVIX UTERI AT AN ANTENATAL CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Bakhlaev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer (CC morbidity is analyzed on the basis of the data of the Karelian cancer register over the period 1998-2007. During this period, 816 cases of CC were registered and 126 were found at an antenatal clinic (AC. Its early detection rate was ascertained to be 96% during screening at the AC. A comprehensive examination was made in 1742 women with various cervical diseases, of them 37.5% were infected with human papillomavirus (HPV. High-grade dysplasia and carcinoma in situ were diagnosed in 6.6% of the HPV-infected patients. Large-scale screening for HPV infection and pretumor disorders with their further treatment will aid in reduc- ing CC morbidity and mortality rates.

  5. Compliance with Iron-Folate Supplement and Associated Factors among Antenatal Care Attendant Mothers in Misha District, South Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinet Arega Sadore

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In Ethiopia, higher proportions of pregnant women are anemic. Despite the efforts to reduce iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy, only few women took an iron supplement as recommended. Thus, this study aimed to assess compliance with iron-folate supplement and associated factors among antenatal care attendant mothers in Misha district, South Ethiopia. Method. Community based cross-sectional study supported with in-depth interview was conducted from March 1 to March 30, 2015. The sample size was determined using single population proportion to 303. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Results. The compliance rate was found to be 39.2%. Mothers knowledge of anemia (AOR = 4.451, 95% CI = (2.027,9.777, knowledge of iron-folate supplement (AOR = 3.509, 95% CI = (1.442,8.537, and counseling on iron-folate supplement (AOR = 4.093, 95% CI = (2.002,8.368 were significantly associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Conclusions. Compliance rate of iron-folate supplementation during pregnancy remains very low. This study showed that providing women with clear instructions about iron-folate tablet intake and educating them on the health benefits of the iron-folate tablets can increase compliance with iron-folate supplementation.

  6. A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF SERUM URIC ACID LEVEL IN NORMAL PREGNANCY AND PREGNANCY INDUCED HYPERTENSION AMONG PATIENTS ATTENDING ANTENATAL OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT OF GA UHATI MEDICAL COLLEGE, GUWAHATI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To estimate serum uric acid level in normal pregnancy and pregnancy induced hypertension at different duration as pregnancy advances and to evaluate its place in determining severity of pregnancy induced hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A longitudinal study was carried out among forty cases of normal pregnancy and forty cases of pregnancy induced hypertension attending antenatal outpatient department of Gauhati Medical College and Hospital. Serum uric acid level was estimated colorimetrically by using Uricase method in the Department of Physiology, Gauhati Medical College. Statistical analysis was carried out applying ANOVA test using IBM SPSS 16. RESULTS: Serum Uric Acid level was found to be significantly higher in study group as compared to control g roup. The mean values of serum uric acid level in study group were 4.07 mg/dl, 4.44 mg/dl and 5.27mg/dl as compared to 3.14mg/dl, 3.11 mg/dl and 3.71 mg/dl in control group at 20 - 24 weeks, 24 - 28 weeks and 32 - 40 weeks of gestation respectively. Also, the leve l of serum uric acid was found to be increased with increasing severity of pregnancy induced hypertension. CONCLUSION: A definite rise in serum uric level was found in cases of pregnancy induced hypertension and its level increases with increasing severity of the disease.

  7. Disclosure experience to partner and its effect on intention to utilize prevention of mother to child transmission service among HIV positive pregnant women attending antenatal care in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Sendo, Endalew Gemechu; Cherie, Amsale; Erku, Tadese Asfaw

    2013-01-01

    Background Disclosure of HIV status has become an entry criterion for prevention of mother to child transmission programs in resource-constrained countries. However, little has been explored about the prevalence of, barriers to, outcomes and factors associated with HIV status disclosure among HIV positive pregnant women in Ethiopia. Method Cross- sectional study was conducted among 107 pregnant women who were attending antenatal care in public centers from April to June 2011 in Addis Ababa ca...

  8. SELF WOUND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES BEFORE ATTENDING ANTIRABIES VACCINE CLINIC

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    Amit Kumar Mishra, Smita Panda, Prakash Chandra Panda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In INDIA almost 20000 people die (40% of world death each year from rabies. Most of these deaths could be prevented by post exposure prophylaxis with wound washing, rabies immunoglobulin & vaccination. Local wound management alone can reduce viral load by up to 80%. Objective: To study self-wound management practices in animal exposure patients before attending a tertiary level ARV clinic. Methodology: Data regarding wound management was collected by individual interview of patients attending the ARV clinic during OCT 2011 to MAR 2012. The data collected in the form of a questionnaire. Analysis of data was done in the Department Of Community Medicine, V.S.S. Medical College, Burla. Results: Total 493 cases of animal exposure were attended during the study period. Most common biting animal was dog (94.5%. 31% of cases were under the age of 10 years & 23% belongs to the age of 10-19 years. Male to female ratio was 3:1. Most of the cases (91% were of category III exposure. Immediate management of wound was practiced by 63-77% of cases before visiting ARV clinic; only 2% wash the wound with running water & soap for 15 minutes. 39% of cases applied Dettol/savlon at the wound side & other 38% applied turmeric, red chilli, kerosene, Band-Aid & ghee locally. Most cases (61% reported to ARV clinic within 24hours.

  9. How do women prepare for pregnancy? Preconception experiences of women attending antenatal services and views of health professionals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Stephenson

    Full Text Available To determine the extent to which women plan and prepare for pregnancy.Cross-sectional questionnaire survey of pregnant women attending three maternity services in London about knowledge and uptake of preconception care; including a robust measure of pregnancy planning, and phone interviews with a range of health care professionals.We recruited 1173/1288 (90% women, median age of 32 years. 73% had clearly planned their pregnancy, 24% were ambivalent and only 3% of pregnancies were unplanned. 51% of all women and 63% of those with a planned pregnancy took folic acid before pregnancy. 21% of all women reported smoking and 61% reported drinking alcohol in the 3 months before pregnancy; 48% of smokers and 41% of drinkers reduced or stopped before pregnancy. The 51% of all women who reported advice from a health professional before becoming pregnant were more likely to adopt healthier behaviours before pregnancy [adjusted odds ratios for greatest health professional input compared with none were 2.34 (95% confidence interval 1.54-3.54 for taking folic acid and 2.18 (95% CI 1.42-3.36 for adopting a healthier diet before pregnancy]. Interviews with 20 health professionals indicated low awareness of preconception health issues, missed opportunities and confusion about responsibility for delivery of preconception care.Despite a high level of pregnancy planning, awareness of preconception health among women and health professionals is low, and responsibility for providing preconception care is unclear. However, many women are motivated to adopt healthier behaviours in the preconception period, as indicated by halving of reported smoking rates in this study. The link between health professional input and healthy behaviour change before pregnancy is a new finding that should invigorate strategies to improve awareness and uptake of pre-pregnancy health care, and bring wider benefits for public health.

  10. Health profiles of foreigners attending primary care clinics in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ab Rahman, Norazida; Sivasampu, Sheamini; Mohamad Noh, Kamaliah; Khoo, Ee Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background The world population has become more globalised with increasing number of people residing in another country for work or other reasons. Little is known about the health profiles of foreign population in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of the health problems presented by foreigners attending primary care clinics in Malaysia. Methods Data were derived from the 2012 National Medical Care Survey (NMCS), a cross sectional survey of primary care enco...

  11. Sero-prevalence and associated risk factors of Toxoplasma gondi infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, northwest Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kefale; Awoke; Endalkachew; Nibret; Abaineh; Munshea

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and to assess the possible risk factors associated with the infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care center at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar town, northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women. Three hundred eighty four serum samples were collected from November 2013 to January 2014. Data on socio-demographic and predisposing factors were collected from each study participant with simple random sampling technique. The serum samples were examined for anti- Toxoplasma gondii(T. gondii) antibodies using latex agglutination test. Results: The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii among the pregnant women was 18.5%. All of T. gondii positive cases found to be positive only for Ig G antibody. Significant association was observed between seroprevalence and presence of domestic cats [AOR=2.85, 95% CI: 1.66-4.90, P=0.000], consumption of raw or undercooked meat [AOR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.15-2.43, P=0.014] and history of abortion [AOR=2.47, 95% CI: 1.40-4.34, P=0.002]. No significant association was observed between seroprevalence and socio-demographic characters, gestational age, gravidity, consumption of raw vegetable, and blood transfusion. Conclusions: The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Bahir Dar town was relatively high. Presence of domestic cats at home and consumption of raw or undercooked meat were identified as main risk factors for T. gondii infection. Therefore, health education towards avoiding eating raw or undercooked meat and avoiding contact with cats are recommended for prevention of miscarriage or defects during pregnancy.

  12. Fertility Intent and Contraceptive Decision-making among HIV Positive and Negative Antenatal Clinic Attendees in Durban, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Marlow, Heather M.; Maman, Suzanne; Groves, Allison K.; Moodley, Daya

    2012-01-01

    We explored contraceptive decision-making among South African antenatal clinic attendees, fertility intent post-HIV diagnosis, and women’s experiences at government health facilities. Data are from in-depth interviews with HIV negative and HIV positive women. We interviewed women in Zulu; interviews were recorded, transcribed and translated. We conducted qualitative analyses of interviews. Women were the dominant decision-makers about contraceptive use, whether they involved their partners or...

  13. Acceptability and feasibility of integration of HIV care services into antenatal clinics in rural Kenya: A qualitative provider interview study

    OpenAIRE

    Winestone, Lena E.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Cohen, Craig R.; Kwaro, Daniel; Kley, Nicole; Turan, Janet M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the perspectives of healthcare providers on the advantages and disadvantages of integrating HIV care services, including highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), into antenatal care (ANC) clinics in rural Kenya. We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews and thematic analysis; 36 healthcare providers from 6 health centres in Nyanza Province, Kenya participated. Effects on service providers included increased workload due to the incorpo...

  14. HIV type 1 gag genetic diversity among antenatal clinic attendees in North Rift Valley, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyagaka, Benuel; Kiptoo, Michael K; Lihana, Raphael W; Khamadi, Samoel A; Makokha, Ernest P; Kinyua, Joyceline G; Mwangi, Joseph; Osman, Saida; Lagat, Nancy J; Muriuki, Joseph; Okoth, Vincent; Gicheru, Michael; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Songok, Elijah M

    2012-05-01

    HIV genetic recombination and high mutation rate increase diversity allowing it to escape from host immune response or antiretroviral drugs. This diversity has enabled specific viral subtypes to be predominant in specific regions. To determine HIV-1 subtypes among seropositive antenatal clinic attendees in Kenya's North Rift Valley, a cross-sectional study was carried out on 116 HIV-1-positive blood samples. Proviral DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by DNAzol lysis and ethanol precipitation. Polymerase chain reactions using specific primers for HIV-1 gag and population sequencing on resulting amplicons were carried out. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 81 (70%) were subtype A1, 13 (11%) subtype D, 8 (7%) subtype C, 3 (3%) subtype A2, 1 (1%) subtype G, and 10 showed possible recombinants: 5 (4%) subtype A1D, 4 (3%) subtype A1C, and 1 (1%) subtype A2C. These data support the need to establish circulating subtypes for better evaluation of effective HIV diagnostic and treatment options in Kenya. PMID:21827277

  15. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Pregnant Women Attending An-tenatal Clinic at the University Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Acheampong, I.; N. Amidu; Bio, F.Y.; Quaye, L; Obirikorang, C.; Addo, K.

    2012-01-01

    The apparent decline in immunity of pregnant women appears to promote the growth of both com-mensal and non-commensal microorganisms. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women visiting the University hospital, Ku-masi. This prospective hospital-based study was carried out between April-June 2009. A total of 200 pregnant women were recruited for this study. The ages of the women ranged from 15 to 46 years. About 5-10mls of clean ca...

  16. Incidence of hemoglobinopathies in women attending antenatal clinics in their first trimester

    OpenAIRE

    Parikh U R; Goswami H M; Mehta R C; Patel P S; Gonsai R N

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Hemoglobinopathies are a group of genetic disorders of hemoglobin in which there is abnormal production or structure of the hemoglobin molecule. Aim: The present study attempted to find out the occurrence of hemoglobinopathies and the spectrum of different types of hemoglobinopathies in the study population. Material & Method: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study based on records of screening program for hemoglobinopathies in the hematology...

  17. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and rubella in pregnant women attending antenatal private clinic at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laure Stella Ghoma Linguissi; Bolni Marius Nagalo; Cyrille Bisseye; Thrse S Kagon; Mahamoudou Sanou; Issoufou Tao; Victoire Benao; Jacques Simpor; Bibiane Kon

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and rubella among pregnant women at Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso. Methods: All patient sera were tested for rubella and toxoplasmosis anti-IgG using commercial ELISA kits (PlateliaTM Rubella IgG and Platelia™Toxo IgG). The presence of anti-rubella and anti-toxoplasmosis IgM in serum samples was tested using commercial ELISA kits Platelia Rubella IgM and Platelia Toxo IgM. Results:Among all the pregnant women tested for toxoplasmosis and rubella, their prevalence were 20.3%and 77.0%, respectively. Pregnant women in the age group of 18-25 years showed the highest frequency of anti-toxoplasmosis (34.5%) and anti-rubella IgG (84.6%). The prevalence of anti-toxoplasma and anti-rubella IgG decreased between 2006 and 2008 from 32.7%to 12.1%and 84.6%to 65.0%, respectively. There was no significant association between age and the mean titer of anti-toxoplasmosis IgG among pregnant women. Conclusions: The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and rubella is necessary in pregnant women in Burkina Faso because of the low immunization coverage rate of rubella and the high level of exposure to these two infections which can be harmful to the newborn if contracted by women before the third trimester of pregnancy.

  18. Couple experiences of provider-initiated couple HIV testing in an antenatal clinic in Lusaka, Zambia: lessons for policy and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Musheke, M.; Bond, V.; Merten, S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Couple HIV testing has been recognized as critical to increase uptake of HIV testing, facilitate disclosure of HIV status to marital partner, improve access to treatment, care and support, and promote safe sex. The Zambia national protocol on integrated prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) allows for the provision of couple testing in antenatal clinics. This paper examines couple experiences of provider-initiated couple HIV testing at a public antenatal clinic...

  19. Sources of dietary calcium in patients attending an osteoporosis clinic

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    Horn G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gemma HornSurgical Department, Perth Royal Infirmary, Perth, ScotlandIntroduction: Osteoporosis is a common disease that affects both women and men but is more prevalent in postmenopausal women. Reviews suggest that dietary-derived calcium is vital in maintaining adequate calcium balance. Sources of dietary calcium intake among adult patients attending an osteoporosis clinic were reviewed.Method: Two hundred and ninety-one patients attending an osteoporosis clinic were given an eleven-item food questionnaire to complete. The results were compared to the recommended daily allowance of 700 mg.Results: The overall mean intake was 657 mg/day with little difference between age or gender. The best foods for supplying calcium were cheese and milky drinks.Conclusion: This study has confirmed that suboptimal calcium intakes remain common. Dairy sources of calcium remain important. More awareness is needed to convey the importance of dietary calcium and bone health to avoid the development of osteoporosis.Keywords: osteoporosis, clinic, food questionnaire, calcium, dietary intake, bone health

  20. Knowledge and perception of Prevention of Mother to Child services amongst pregnant women accessing antenatal clinic in a Primary Health Care centre in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Owoaje, Eme T.; Adedoyin D. Omidokun; Ige, Olusimbo K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Few studies have assessed pregnant women’s perceptions regarding prevention of mother to child of HIV and the available services at the primary health care level in Nigeria.Objective: Assessment of knowledge and perception of antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees regarding Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV at primary health care facilities in south-west Nigeria.Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 400 antenatal attendees in a Primary Health Car...

  1. Effect of using protocols on medical care: randomised trial of three methods of taking an antenatal history.

    OpenAIRE

    Lilford, R J; Kelly, M; Baines, A.; Cameron, S.; Cave, M.; Guthrie, K.; Thornton, J

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the effectiveness of three methods of taking an antenatal history on the quality of obstetric care. DESIGN--Randomised controlled trial. SETTING--Antenatal clinic of St James's University Hospital, Leeds. SUBJECTS--2424 women attending the hospital for the first (booking) visit. INTERVENTIONS--Histories were taken by midwives using an unstructured paper questionnaire, a structured paper questionnaire (incorporating a checklist), or an interactive computerised questionnai...

  2. Managing mood disorders in patients attending pulmonary rehabilitation clinics

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    Selvarajah S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Colleen Doyle,1–3 David Dunt,2 David Ames,1 Suganya Selvarajah11National Ageing Research Institute, Royal Melbourne Hospital Royal Park Campus, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; 2Centre for Health Policy, Programs and Economics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; 3Australian Catholic University, Fitzroy, Victoria, AustraliaBackground: There is good evidence for the positive benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR in the prevention of hospital admissions, lower mortality, and improved health-related quality of life. There is also increasing evidence about the impact of PR on mental health and, in particular, mood disorders. We aimed to identify how depression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients in Victoria, Australia, is being managed in PR, to identify the prevalence of depressive symptoms among COPD patients who attend PR, and to determine whether patients with depressive symptoms or anxiety symptoms dropped out of PR early.Method: Of 61 PR clinics, 44 were invited and 22 agreed to participate. Telephone interviews were conducted to see how depression and anxiety in COPD patients were being recognized and managed in these clinics. A total of 294 questionnaires were distributed to patients by clinic coordinators to determine the prevalence of anxiety/depression, as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Coordinators were contacted to provide information on whether respondents dropped out of rehabilitation early or continued with their treatment at 2–4 months post program.Results: Seven clinics were not aware of local guidelines on assessment/treatment/management of mood. Four clinics did not use any screening tools or other aids in the recognition and management of depression and/or anxiety. Overall, eight clinics participating in this study requested advice on suitable screening tools. The patient survey indicated that the mean depression score on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression

  3. Behavioural and demographic characteristics of attenders at two genitourinary medicine clinics in England.

    OpenAIRE

    Catchpole, M; Connor, N; Brady, A.; Kinghorn, G.; Mercey, D; Band, B; Thin, N

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate how attenders with sexually transmitted disease (STD) differ from the general population with respect to sexual behaviour, and to identify which attenders at genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics are at particular behavioural risk for acquiring STD. DESIGN: Multicentre cross sectional survey. SETTING: Two genitourinary medicine clinics, one in London and one in Sheffield SUBJECTS: 20,516 patients attending the two clinics over an 18 month period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE...

  4. TO STUDY COMPLIANCE OF ANTENATAL WOMEN IN RELATION TO IRON SUPPLEMENTATION IN ROUTINE ANTE-NATAL CLINIC AT A TERTIARY HEALTH CARE CENTRE

    OpenAIRE

    Sushila Godara; Ritu Hooda; Smiti Nanda; Sonika Mann

    2013-01-01

    Background : The purpose of this study was to determine the compliance of the pregnant women and factors related to iron tablet consumption behavior among pregnant women. Response to  iron deficiency anemia  is related to the dose and schedule of a iron tablets and diet. Noncompliance reduces treatment benefits and is associated with poorer prognosis. Methods: A detailed questionnaire designed to assess the antenatal women compliance. Eight hundred  and sixty women of 16-30wks pregancy who re...

  5. Increasing Partner Attendance in Antenatal Care and HIV Testing Services: Comparable Outcomes Using Written versus Verbal Invitations in an Urban Facility-Based Controlled Intervention Trial in Mbeya, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuring, Stefanie; Jefferys, Laura F; Nchimbi, Philo; Mbezi, Paulina; Sewangi, Julius

    2016-01-01

    In many Sub-Saharan African settings male partner involvement in antenatal care (ANC) remains low, although great benefits for maternal and infant health outcomes have been long recognised, in particular regarding the prevention of HIV transmission. Yet there is paucity on evidence regarding the effectiveness of strategies to increase male partner involvement. This controlled intervention trial in Ruanda Health Centre in Mbeya, Tanzania, assessed the effectiveness of invitation letters for male involvement in ANC. Pregnant women approaching ANC without partners received official letters inviting the partner to attend ANC. A control group was instructed to verbally invite partners. Partner attendance was recorded at two subsequent ANC visits. Rates for male partner return, couple voluntary counselling and testing (CVCT), and influencing factors were analysed. From 199 ANC clients in total, 97 were assigned to the invitation letter group; 30 of these (30.9%) returned with their male partners for ANC. In the control group of 102 women, 28 (27.5%) returned with their partner. In both groups CVCT rates among jointly returning couples were 100%. Partner return/CVCT rate was not statistically different in intervention and control group (OR 1.2, p = 0.59). Former partner attendance at ANC during a previous pregnancy was the only factor found to be significantly linked with partner return (p = 0.03). Our study demonstrates that rather simple measures to increase male partner attendance in ANC and CVCT can be effective, with written and verbal invitations having comparable outcomes. In terms of practicability in Sub-Saharan African settings, we recommend systematic coaching of ANC clients on how to verbally invite male partners in the first instance, followed by written invitation letters for partners in case of their non-attendance. Further studies covering both urban and rural settings will be more informative for effective translation into policy. PMID:27043707

  6. Couples' voluntary counselling and testing and nevirapine use in antenatal clinics in two African capitals: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conkling Martha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the accessibility of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT services in sub-Saharan Africa, more women are being tested for HIV in antenatal care settings. Involving partners in the counselling and testing process could help prevent horizontal and vertical transmission of HIV. This study was conducted to assess the feasibility of couples' voluntary counseling and testing (CVCT in antenatal care and to measure compliance with PMTCT. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted over eight months at two public antenatal clinics in Kigali, Rwanda, and Lusaka, Zambia. A convenience sample of 3625 pregnant women was enrolled. Of these, 1054 women were lost to follow up. The intervention consisted of same-day individual voluntary counselling and testing (VCT and weekend CVCT; HIV-positive participants received nevirapine tablets. In Kigali, nevirapine syrup was provided in the labour and delivery ward; in Lusaka, nevirapine syrup was supplied in pre-measured single-dose syringes. The main outcome measures were nurse midwife-recorded deliveries and reported nevirapine use. Results In eight months, 1940 women enrolled in Kigali (984 VCT, 956 CVCT and 1685 women enrolled in Lusaka (1022 VCT, 663 CVCT. HIV prevalence was 14% in Kigali, and 27% in Lusaka. Loss to follow up was more common in Kigali than Lusaka (33% vs. 24%, p = 0.000. In Lusaka, HIV-positive and HIV-negative women had significantly different loss-to-follow-up rates (30% vs. 22%, p = 0.002. CVCT was associated with reduced loss to follow up: in Kigali, 31% of couples versus 36% of women testing alone (p = 0.011; and in Lusaka, 22% of couples versus 25% of women testing alone (p = 0.137. Among HIV-positive women with follow up, CVCT had no impact on nevirapine use (86-89% in Kigali; 78-79% in Lusaka. Conclusions Weekend CVCT, though new, was feasible in both capital cities. The beneficial impact of CVCT on loss to follow up was significant, while

  7. PATIENT SATISFACTION WITH INTEGRATED HIV AND ANTENATAL CARE SERVICES IN RURAL KENYA

    OpenAIRE

    Vo, Baotran N.; Cohen, Craig R.; Smith, Rachel M.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Onono, Maricianah; Doolan, Katie; Washington, Sierra; Turan, Janet M.

    2012-01-01

    A cluster randomized controlled trial was initiated in Kenya to determine if full integration (FI) of HIV care, including HAART, into antenatal care (ANC) clinics improves health outcomes among HIV-infected women and exposed infants, compared to a non-integrated (NI) model. This paper examines ANC clients’ satisfaction with and preferences regarding HIV-integrated services. In this cross-sectional study, pregnant women attending five FI clinics (n=185) and four NI clinics (n=141) completed an...

  8. Health and nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practices of pregnant women attending and not-attending ANC clinics in Western Kenya: a cross-sectional analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Perumal, Nandita; Cole, Donald C; Ouédraogo, Hermann Z; Sindi, Kirimi; Loechl, Cornelia; Low, Jan; Levin, Carol; Kiria, Christine; Kurji, Jaameeta; Oyunga, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Background Antenatal care (ANC) is a key strategy to decreasing maternal mortality in low-resource settings. ANC clinics provide resources to improve nutrition and health knowledge and promote preventive health practices. We sought to compare the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) among women seeking and not-seeking ANC in rural Kenya. Methods Data from a community-based cross-sectional survey conducted in Western Province, Kenya were used. Nutrition knowledge (NKS), health knowledge (HK...

  9. Driving cessation in patients attending a memory clinic.

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Conal

    2005-01-01

    PUBLISHED BACKGROUND: Driving is an increasingly important form of transport for older people. Dementia is common in later life and will eventually lead to driving cessation, which reduces the public health risk of impaired driving but also impairs access to services. The factors associated with driving cessation in dementia are uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To examine the demographic, psychometric and personal factors associated with driving cessation in patients attending a memory cli...

  10. HIV Prevalence and Antenatal Care Attendance among Pregnant Women in a Large Home-Based HIV Counseling and Testing Program in Western Kenya.

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    Samson Ndege

    Full Text Available To describe the uptake of and factors associated with HIV prevalence among pregnant women in a large-scale home-based HIV counseling and testing (HBCT program in western Kenya.In 2007, the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare Program (AMPATH initiated HBCT to all individuals aged ≥13 years and high-risk children <13 years. Included in this analysis were females aged 13-50 years, from 6 catchment areas (11/08-01/12. We used descriptive statistics and logistic regression to describe factors associated with HIV prevalence.There were 119,678 women eligible for analysis; median age 25 (interquartile range, IQR: 18-34 years. Of these, 7,396 (6.2% were pregnant at the time of HBCT; 4,599 (62% had ever previously tested for HIV and 2,995 (40.5% had not yet attended ANC for their current pregnancy. Testing uptake among pregnant women was high (97%. HBCT newly identified 241 (3.3% pregnant HIV-positive women and overall HIV prevalence among all pregnant women was 6.9%. HIV prevalence among those who had attended ANC in this pregnancy was 5.4% compared to 9.0% among those who had not. Pregnant women were more likely to newly test HIV-positive in HBCT if they had not attended ANC in the current pregnancy (AOR: 6.85, 95% CI: 4.49-10.44.Pregnant women who had never attended ANC were about 6 times more likely to newly test HIV-positive compared to those who had attended ANC, suggesting that the cascade of services for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission should optimally begin at the home and village level if elimination of perinatal HIV transmission is to be achieved.

  11. Panic disorder among Vietnamese refugees attending a psychiatric clinic: Prevalence and subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Hinton, Devon; Chau, Ha; Nguyen, Lim; Nguyen, Mai; Pham, Van Thang; Quinn, Sarah; Tran, Minh

    2001-01-01

    This study surveys Vietnamese refugees attending two psychiatric clinics to determine both the prevalence of panic disorder (PD) as well as panic attack subtypes in those suffering PD. A culturally valid adaptation of the SCID-panic module (the Vietnamese Panic Disorder Survey or VPDS) was administered to 100 Vietnamese refugees attending two psychiatric clinics. Utilizing culturally sensitive panic probes, the VPDS provides information regarding both the presence of PD and panic attack subty...

  12. Panic Disorder Among Cambodian Refugees Attending a Psychiatric Clinic: Prevalence and Subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Hinton, Devon; Ba, Phalnarith; Peou, Sonith; Um, Khin

    2000-01-01

    This study surveys Khmer refugees attending two psychiatric clinics to determine both the prevalence of panic disorder as well as panic attack subtypes in those suffering panic disorder. A culturally valid adaptation of the SCID-panic module, the Cambodian Panic Disorder Survey (CPDS), was administered to 89 consecutive Cambodian refugees attending these psychiatric clinics. Utilizing culturally sensitive panic probes, the CPDS provides information regarding both the presence of panic disorde...

  13. Eye donation – Awareness and willingness among attendants of patients at various clinics in Melaka, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandary Sulatha; Khanna Rajesh; Rao Krishna; Rao Lavanya; Lingam Kamala; Binu V

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Corneal blindness accounts for 3.42% of blindness in Malaysia; the rate of eye donation is low. The aim of the study was to assess the awareness about eye donation and willingness to donate eyes among attendants of patients at various clinics in Melaka, Malaysia. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted on attendants who accompanied patients (n = 400) visiting various outpatient departments of the General Hospital and two peripheral clinics in Melaka between A...

  14. Couples' voluntary counselling and testing and nevirapine use in antenatal clinics in two African capitals: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Conkling Martha; Shutes Erin L; Karita Etienne; Chomba Elwyn; Tichacek Amanda; Sinkala Moses; Vwalika Bellington; Iwanowski Melissa; Allen Susan A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background With the accessibility of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) services in sub-Saharan Africa, more women are being tested for HIV in antenatal care settings. Involving partners in the counselling and testing process could help prevent horizontal and vertical transmission of HIV. This study was conducted to assess the feasibility of couples' voluntary counseling and testing (CVCT) in antenatal care and to measure compliance with PMTCT. Methods A prospective c...

  15. TO STUDY COMPLIANCE OF ANTENATAL WOMEN IN RELATION TO IRON SUPPLEMENTATION IN ROUTINE ANTE-NATAL CLINIC AT A TERTIARY HEALTH CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushila Godara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background : The purpose of this study was to determine the compliance of the pregnant women and factors related to iron tablet consumption behavior among pregnant women. Response to  iron deficiency anemia  is related to the dose and schedule of a iron tablets and diet. Noncompliance reduces treatment benefits and is associated with poorer prognosis. Methods: A detailed questionnaire designed to assess the antenatal women compliance. Eight hundred  and sixty women of 16-30wks pregancy who received iron tablets daily for 90 consecutive days in Rohtak city of Haryana state. Results: The results showed that compliance among pregnant women, regarding iron supplementation, was observed by 80.47% women, non compliance was observed by 14.42 % while over compliance was observed only by 5.11% women. Compliance was better observed in educated patients as compared to uneducated i.e.62.14% versus 37.86%. The reasons for non compliance were side effects 29.03% , suffering from pregnancy complications and taking multiple drug supplements 22.58% , long term taking of iron tablets 19.35%, not liking pharmaceutical preparations 16.94%, forgetfullness 9.68% and not liking due to poor quality of iron tablet supplied by government were 2.42%.  Almost all the women believed that the doctor, pharmacist and nurse explained the instructions for intake of iron tablets and diet  to them and they followed those instructions. Conclusion: This study shows that  compliance is related to education of the pregnant women and proper explanation of instructions by doctor, pharmacist and nurses, help to improve the compliance but much can be done to improve existing iron supplementation programs in developing countries by ensuring that iron tablets of good quality are available at all levels of health care. Key Words: Compliance, Pregnant Women, Iron Deficiency Anemia.

  16. A randomized controlled trial to assess the clinical and cost effectiveness of a nurse-led Antenatal Asthma Management Service in South Australia (AAMS study)

    OpenAIRE

    Grzeskowiak, Luke E; Dekker, Gustaaf; Rivers, Karen; Roberts-Thomson, Kate; Roy, Anil; Smith, Brian; Bowden, Jeffery; Bryce, Robert; Davies, Michael; Beilby, Justin; Wilson, Anne; Middleton, Philippa; Ruffin, Richard; Karnon, Jonathan; Clifton, Vicki L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pregnancy presents a unique situation for the management of asthma as it can alter the course of asthma severity and its treatment, which in turn can affect pregnancy outcomes. Despite awareness of the substantial adverse effects associated with asthma during pregnancy, little has been done to improve its management and reduce associated perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the clinical and cost effectiveness of an Antenatal ...

  17. Clinical and demographic features of patients with dementia attended in a tertiary outpatient clinic

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    Vale Francisco A.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe clinical and socio-demographic features of patients with dementia attended in a tertiary outpatient clinic during a three years period (56.9% of the total attendance. Most of them were men, white, from the local community, urban district. Nobody had a job at the moment, two thirds of them got social welfare benefit. They lived with their family, the caregiver being the spouse or a daughter. The education level was very low, a quarter of them being illiterate. They were referred mostly from the public health care service, by neurologists or psychiatrists due to cognitive disorders. Family history as well as individual history of previous neurological/psychiatric disorders were frequent, especially alcoholism, stroke, head trauma and dementia. The neurological exam showed abnormalities in two thirds of cases, chiefly extra-pyramidal and pyramidal signs. Alzheimer's disease was the most frequent cause, followed by cerebrovascular disorder; alcoholism and normal pressure hydrocephalus were also frequent causes. Most patients presented concomitant non-etiological neurological/psychiatric disorders, mainly alcoholism and depression, and non-neurological/psychiatric diseases, predominantly hypertension, cardiopathy and diabetes. Most patients had been referred under medication, frequently politherapy, including psychotropics.

  18. Prevalence of antenatal care, use of food supplements during pregnancy and lactation and factors responsible for not taking them in tarlai, urban slum of islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of antenatal care, use of food supplements during pregnancy and lactation and factors responsible for not taking them in Tarlai, an urban slum of Islamabad. A Cross-sectional survey of 100 married women in the age range 15-45 years women utilizing and not utilizing antenatal care facilities during their previous pregnancy was carried out in April 2004. Data was collected through a structured questionnaire and processed and analyzed by using SPPS 10.0. Use of supplements was found high in women attending antenatal care. Realization of the importance of taking a healthy diet during pregnancy was significantly higher among women utilizing antenatal care. In most of the women's the diet remain unchanged. 56% women attended the antenatal care clinics. Those not taking food supplements, 39% were non affording, 21% had no concept of their benefits, 36% did not like to take and 4% felt nausea and vomiting. Just over 50% women received antenatal care. Utilization of antenatal care showed a positive impact on awareness of taking food supplements during pregnancy and lactation. (author)

  19. Uso antenatal de corticosteróide e evolução clínica de recém-nascidos pré-termo Antenatal corticosteroid use and clinical evolution of preterm newborn infants

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    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a freqüência de utilização de corticosteróide antenatal e a evolução clínica dos recém-nascidos pré-termo. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional prospectivo tipo coorte de todos os neonatos com idade gestacional entre 23 e 34 semanas nascidos na Rede Brasileira de Pesquisas Neonatais entre agosto e dezembro de 2001. Os prontuários médicos foram revistos, as mães entrevistadas e os pré-termos acompanhados. A análise dos dados foi realizada com o teste do qui-quadrado, t de Student, Mann-Whitney, ANOVA e regressão logística múltipla, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Avaliaram-se 463 gestantes e seus 514 recém-nascidos. As gestantes tratadas tiveram mais gestações prévias, consultas de pré-natal, hipertensão arterial e maior uso de tocolíticos. Suas crianças apresentaram melhores escores de Apgar no 1º e 5º minutos, menor necessidade de intervenção na sala de parto e menor SNAPPE II. Nasceram com maior peso e idade gestacional, receberam menos surfatante exógeno, ventilação mecânica e oxigenoterapia. Após regressão logística, o uso pré-natal de corticosteróides manteve de forma independente o efeito protetor para as condições de nascimento e para a diminuição do tempo de ventilação mecânica e esteve associado com aumento na ocorrência de sepse neonatal. CONCLUSÃO: O uso do corticosteróide antenatal foi associado a melhor atendimento pré-natal. As crianças nasceram em melhores condições e tiveram melhor evolução, porém com maior risco de infecção.OBJECTIVES: To describe the use of antenatal corticosteroid and clinical evolution of preterm babies. METHODS: An observational prospective cohort study was carried out. All 463 pregnant women and their 514 newborn babies with gestational age ranging from 23 to 34 weeks, born at the Brazilian Neonatal Research Network units, were evaluated from August 1 to December 31, 2001. The data were obtained through maternal

  20. Telephone reminders reduced the non-attendance rate in a gastroenterology outpatient clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Maja Haunstrup; Ainsworth, Mark Andrew

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Non-attendance is a global health-care problem. The aim of the present study was 1) to investigate if a telephone reminder could reduce the non-attendance rate, 2) to study reasons for non-attendance and 3) to evaluate if a permanent implementation would be economically advantageous...... in a gastroenterology outpatient clinic like ours. METHODS: This was a comparative intervention study with a historical control group in a gastroenterology outpatient clinic. The study lasted six months. Patients with a scheduled appointment in the first three-month period received no reminder...... (control group, n = 2,705). Patients in the following three-month period were reminded by telephone one weekday in advance of their appointment, when possible (intervention group, n = 2,479). Non-attending patients in the intervention group received a questionnaire. Based on the results, a financial cost...

  1. Clinical impact of renography in antenatally discovered pelviureteric stenosis: a short review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital unilateral hydronephrosis is a relatively frequent and often asymptomatic condition diagnosed in utero. The natural history and significance of congenital hydronephrosis on the development and long-term consequences on renal function is not sufficiently known. The present diagnostic methods do not provide prediction of the functional consequences of a potential presence of an obstruction. However, renography is an important method affecting the clinical treatment of children with prenatal unilateral hydronephrosis, and is the only method that satisfactory can provide serial accurate measurements of differential renal function. The present review briefly summarizes the clinical impact of renography in neonatally discovered hydronephrosis in relation to the pathophysiological characteristics of congenital unilateral hydronephrosis. (orig.)

  2. Oral Health Status of Children Attending a Mobile Dental Clinic--A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso, Reyes; Sundaresan, Santosh; Yekikian, Matthew; Mulligan, Roseann

    2015-11-01

    Periodicity of dental visits for children is based on age and disease susceptibility. Frequently mobile dental clinics are unable to provide follow-up care at recommended intervals. This study compared the oral health of children attending the mobile clinic (MC) twice with matched children by age, gender, race, and ZIP code attending for the first time. Dental charts (n=888) were reviewed and scored for decayed and filled surfaces. Seventy-eight children (mean age 9.6 years; 98.7% Hispanic) attended the clinic twice over a mean interval between visits of 1.5 years. These children had statistically significant lower rates of decay in deciduous and permanent tooth surfaces than matched children visiting the clinic for the first time (pdecay in their deciduous and permanent teeth than at the first visit (pdecay in teeth, even when the interval between visits is longer than current recommendations. PMID:26548689

  3. Glycemia and Levels of Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid and Tau in Patients Attending a Memory Clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exalto, Lieza G.; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Scheltens, Phillip; Biessels, Geert Jan

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between markers of glycemia and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid beta 1-42 (A beta 42) and tau levels in patients attending a memory clinic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Memory clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred forty-five consecutive patients atte

  4. Prevalence of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria and its Antibacterial Susceptibility Pattern Among Pregnant Women Attending the Antenatal Clinic at Kanpur, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha, R.; Nawani, Manju

    2014-01-01

    Background: Symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is common in pregnant women. Pregnancy enhances the progression from ASB to symptomatic bacteriuria, which if left untreated, could lead to acute pyelonephritis and other adverse outcomes such as prematurity, postpartum, hypertensive disease, anaemia, UTIs and higher foetal mortality rates.

  5. Comparative Haematological Screening of Urban and Rural Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Lagos and Its Environs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidoye, R. O.; Olukoya, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    Compared blood screening data for 200 urban and rural pregnant women in Nigeria. Found that rural subjects had a greater incidence of moderate anemia than did urban subjects, and corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations fell with increased gestational age. No relationship was found between hemoglobin counts and nutrition habits. (HTH)

  6. Factors influencing breastfeeding preparedness among primigravidae attending antenatal clinic, at university of Port Harcourt teaching hospital, Rivers state, Nigeria

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    Robinson-Bassey G. C.

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Based on these findings it was recommended among others that midwives should be involved in appropriate education of expectant mothers especially new ones to help improve breastfeeding preparedness among them; women should be engaged in occupation that allow them enough time to breastfeed and employers should make adequate provisions for breastfeeding mothers in order to encourage them. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 1071-1076

  7. Reasons patients leave their nearest healthcare service to attend Karen Park Clinic, Pretoria North

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    Agnes T. Masango- Makgobela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many patients move from one healthcare provider or facility to another, disturbing the continuity that enhances holistic patient care.Objectives: To investigate the reasons given by patients for attending Karen Park Clinic rather than the clinic nearest to their homes.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted during 2010. Three hundred and fifty patients attending Karen Park Clinic were given questionnaires to complete, with the following variables: place of residence; previous attendance at the clinic nearest their home; services available at their nearest clinic; and their willingness to attend their nearest clinic in future.Results: Respondents were from Soshanguve (153; 43.7%, Mabopane (92; 26.3%, Garankuwa (29; 8.3% and Hebron (20; 5.7% and most were women (271; 77.4% aged 26–45 (177; 50.6%. Eighty per cent (281 of the patients had visited their nearest clinic previously and 54 of these (19.2% said they would not return. The reasons for this were: long waiting time (88; 25.1%; long queues (84; 24%; rude staff (60; 17%; and no medication (39; 11.1%.Conclusion: The majority of patients who had attended their nearest clinic were adamant that they would not return. It is necessary to reduce waiting times, thus reducing long queues. This can be achieved by having adequate, satisfied healthcare providers to render a quality service and by organising training for management. Patients can thus be redirected to their nearest clinic and the health centre’s capacity can be increased by procuring adequate drugs. There is a need to follow up on patients’ complaints about staff attitudes.

  8. Factors associated with anxiety in patients attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic: qualitative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkell, J; Osborn, D P J; Ivens, D; King, M B

    2006-05-01

    We used qualitative methods to explore factors, which might explain increased anxiety in patients attending a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic. Twenty patients, who scored significantly for anxiety on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) attended a 20-minute interview. This explored factors contributing to their current psychological symptoms. Transcripts revealed three main themes. First were factors related to possible STIs and the clinic visit. These included health anxieties about HIV or fertility and clinic factors, including staff attitudes and clinic location. Second were factors unrelated to the clinic, including previous emotional difficulties or substance misuse. Third were issues concerning stigma, embarrassment and shame. The origins of anxiety in STI patients are multifactorial and difficult to identify during brief appointments. Despite modern clinics and attitudes, stigma and embarrassment remain prominent. Interventions to address these factors could improve psychological health in this patient group. PMID:16643678

  9. A demographic study to profile non-attenders at a gynaecology outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, R; Bhangu, N; Narayanan, M; Yoong, W

    2012-02-01

    Missed outpatient appointments result in the inefficient utilisation of resources and have secondary effects on the health of the non-attenders, as well as on other patients who have to wait longer for their appointments. The first part of the study involved retrospective analysis of trends of non-attendance based on a computerised database of all gynaecology appointments over 12 months. The second comprised a prospective case-control study in which women who missed their gynaecology outpatient appointments (index cases) over 2 months were compared with patients who attended the same clinics matched for indication for referral (control cases). The overall non-attendance rate over 12 months was 16.1%, of whom 42% were recurrent non-attenders. Data from 105 defaulters were compared with 105 non-defaulters who attended the same clinics. Defaulters were significantly younger, single or separated and were more likely to be 'follow-ups' rather than new cases (all p appointment letter and actual appointment date was significantly related to non-attendance (p = 0.01) and there was a trend to a greater degree of smoking and alcohol ingestion in the defaulter group (p = 0.059). Comparison of other variables such as severity of symptoms, parity, source of referral and fluency of English did not reach statistical significance (p > 0.05). This prospective study has demonstrated certain profiles which are common to defaulters and which can be used to develop strategies to minimise non-attendance. Examples include reducing the time interval between sending the appointment letter and actual appointment date and selectively over-booking younger, single women who smoke. PMID:22296428

  10. Core components of clinical education: a qualitative study with attending physicians and their residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIREZA ESTEGHAMATI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In medical education, particularly in residency courses, most of the training occurs in real clinical environments. Workplace-based learning profoundly affects students’ knowledge, attitudes, and practice; therefore, it should be properly planned. Due to the extensiveness of the clinical environment and its importance in training residents, investigating how residents learn in these environments and detecting factors that influence effectiveness will help curriculum designers to promote residents’ learning by improving their learning environment. Therefore, our qualitative content analysis study, aimed to examine the experiences and perspectives of internal and surgical residents and their attending physicians about learning in clinical settings. Methods: This qualitative content analysis study was conducted through purposeful sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 internal and surgical residents and 15 of their attending physicians at educational hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Results: The main categories explored in this study were hidden curriculum, learning resources, and learning conditions. In the context of clinical environment and under its individual culture, residents learn professionalism and learn to improve their communication skills with patients and colleagues. Because of clinical obligations such as priority of treating the patients for education or workload of the attending physicians, residents acquire most of their practical knowledge from colleagues, fellows, or follow-up patients in different learning conditions (such as: educational rounds, morning reports and outpatient clinics. They see some of their attending physicians as role models. Conclusion: Changing cultural and contextual factors is of prime importance to promote a learning-oriented environment in a clinical setting. The present findings will help curriculum planners and attending physicians to improve

  11. Risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Bitamazire Businge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of HIV among antenatal clients in South Africa has remained at a very high rate of about 29% despite substantial decline in several sub-Saharan countries. There is a paucity of data on risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers and women within the reproductive age bracket in local settings in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Objective: To establish the risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal clients aged 18–49 years attending public antenatal clinics in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa. Design: This was an unmatched case–control study carried out in public health antenatal clinics of King Sabata District Municipality between January and March 2014. The cases comprised 100 clients with recent HIV infection; the controls were 200 HIV-negative antenatal clients. Socio-demographic, sexual, and behavioral data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires adapted from the standard DHS5 women's questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the independent risk factors for HIV infection. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The independent risk factors for incident HIV infection were economic dependence on the partner, having older male partners especially among women aged ≤20 years, and sex under the influence of alcohol. Conclusions: Therefore, effective prevention of HIV among antenatal mothers in KSDM must target the improvement of the economic status of women, thereby reducing economic dependence on their sexual partners; address the prevalent phenomenon of cross-generation sex among women aged <20 years; and regulate the brewing, marketing, and consumption of alcohol.

  12. Effect of Antenatal Exercise on Outcome of Labor

    OpenAIRE

    AK Khatri, Suraj Sirohi, Sanjay Dixit, Shailesh Rai, Dhruvendra Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Background: Safe maternity with improved neonatal outcomes is predicated on proper antenatal care services. Exercise has become a fundamental aspect of women's lives and an important constituent of antenatal care. Objective: To find out effectiveness of antenatal exercise in facilitating normal labor and also other benefits associated with antenatal exercise during pregnancy. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban area (private clinic and government institution) of ...

  13. Regular clinic attendance in two large San Francisco HIV primary care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jenny K; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Moss, Nicholas J; Coffin, Phillip O; Block, Nikolas; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-05-01

    Although poor clinic attendance is associated with increased morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected individuals, less is known about predictors of retention and the acceptability of targeted interventions to increase regular clinic attendance. To better understand which patients are at risk for irregular clinic attendance and to explore interventions to aid in retention to care, we surveyed patients attending two outpatient HIV clinics affiliated with the University of California, San Francisco. A total of 606 participants were surveyed, and the analysis was restricted to the 523 male respondents. Of this group, 45% (N = 299) reported missing at least one visit a year. Missing a clinic visit was associated with being African American (aOR = 1.99; 95%CI 1.12-3.52), being a man who has sex with both men and women (aOR=2.72; 95%CI 1.16-6.37), and reporting at least weekly methamphetamine use (aOR=5.79; 95%CI 2.47-13.57). Participants who reported a monthly income greater than $2000 were less likely to miss an appointment (aOR = 0.56; 95%CI 0.34-0.93). Regarding possible retention interventions, most patients preferred phone calls over other forms of support. These findings support the need for ongoing engagement support with particular attention to at-risk sub-groups. PMID:26654093

  14. Can outpatient non-attendance be predicted from the referral letter? An audit of default at neurology clinics.

    OpenAIRE

    Dickey, W; Morrow, J I

    1991-01-01

    Data obtained from new patient referral letters to regional and peripheral neurology clinics were studied prospectively over a 6-month period in an attempt to determine factors predicting non-attendance. Attendance at peripheral clinics was significantly better, confirming their value. At regional clinics, factors associated with non-attendance were male sex, patient age less than 50 years, urban home address, referral from Accident and Emergency Departments, symptom duration less than 12 mon...

  15. HIV prevalence among clients attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic in Amsterdam: the potential risk for heterosexual transmission.

    OpenAIRE

    Fennema, J S; van Ameijden, E J; Coutinho, R A; van Doornum, G J; Henquet, C J; van den Hoek, J A

    1993-01-01

    INTRODUCTION--Patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in general have engaged in at risk sexual behaviour. Therefore they are at increased risk of acquiring HIV through sexual contact. OBJECTIVE--To determine the HIV prevalence among patients attending a STD clinic in Amsterdam. METHODS--An anonymous cross sectional study was conducted in two 5-week periods in Spring and Autumn 1991. RESULTS--Of the 2362 patients attending the clinic during the study period, 2292 (...

  16. Failure to attend out-patient clinics: is it in our DNA?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roberts, Kinley

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: This paper aims to determine the reasons why patients miss clinic appointments and to ascertain patients\\' views on the implementation of reminder systems and penalty fees to reduce the rates of did not attend (DNAs). Overall, the paper seeks to establish novel ways to run a more efficient out-patient department (OPD) service to improve waiting times and access for patients to limited neurology resources. DESIGN\\/METHODOLOGY\\/APPROACH: A questionnaire-based study was approved by the audit committee and was offered to 204 out-patients attending the neurology clinics over a three-month period (July to September 2009). The patients\\' demographic details and non-attendance records were reviewed. The paper aimed to ascertain, from the patients\\' perspective, why people failed to attend clinic appointments. Each participant was asked their views on how they felt their public hospital service might reduce the number of DNAs at their neurology OPD. FINDINGS: A total of 204 patients took part. Participants had a mean age of 31 years (range 25-75 years) with a modal peak in the 26 to 35 age bracket. Almost 10 per cent of those surveyed admitted to missing a hospital out-patient appointment in the past. The most common reason was that they simply "forgot" (28 per cent). DNA rates by age range were proportionally similar to the overall age profile of attenders. Over 55 per cent said they would like a pre-appointment reminder via a mobile telephone text message, 19 per cent preferred a pre-appointment telephone call, and 19 per cent an e-mail. Of those surveyed, 47 per cent said they would be willing to pay a fee on booking that could be refunded on attending for their appointment. The majority of these felt Euro 20 was the most appropriate amount (39 per cent). The rate of acceptance for various fee amounts was uniform across age ranges. Over half (52 per cent) said that they would agree to a "buddy" system whereby the appointment reminder was sent to the patient

  17. Clinic Attendance for Medication Refills and Medication Adherence amongst an Antiretroviral Treatment Cohort in Uganda: A Prospective Study

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    Setor Kunutsor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Regular clinic attendance for antiretroviral (ARV drug refills is important for successful clinical outcomes in HIV management. Methods. Clinic attendance for ARV drug refills and medication adherence using a clinic-based pill count in 392 adult patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART in a district hospital in Uganda were prospectively monitored over a 28-week period. Results. Of the 2267 total scheduled clinic visits, 40 (1.8% were missed visits. Among the 392 clients, 361 (92% attended all appointments for their refills (regular attendance. Clinic attendance for refills was statistically significantly associated with medication adherence with regular attendant clients having about fourfold greater odds of achieving optimal (≥95% medication adherence [odds ratio (OR=3.89, 95% CI: 1.48 to 10.25, exact P=.013]. In multivariate analysis, clients in age category 35 years and below were less likely to achieve regular clinic attendance. Conclusion. Monitoring of clinic attendance may be an objective and effective measure and could be a useful adjunct to an adherence measure such as pill counting in resource-constrained settings. Where human resource constraints do not allow pill counts or other time-consuming measures, then monitoring clinic attendance and acting on missed appointments may be an effective proxy measure.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of HIV screening of patients attending clinics for sexually transmitted diseases in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, JM; Fennema, JSA; Postma, MJ

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of universal HIV screening of patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in Amsterdam. Design: Cost effectiveness analysis. Methods: A Bernoulli model for the secondary transmission of HIV was linked with epidemiological data on

  19. SPECIFIC DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS IN CHILDREN ATTENDING A CHILD-GUIDANCE CLINIC

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, S.; Chadda, R.

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY This is a retrospective study of specific developmental disorders in children who attended a child guidance clinic of the department of Psychiatry, PGI over a span of 6 years. A total of twenty-eight such children were identified. Majority (22) had speech or language disorder and 10 had some associated psychiatric problem. There were no significant sex differences. Some clinical correlates are described.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF UTI IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ATTENDING OPD CLINIC OF CHITWAN MEDICAL COLLEGE, BHARATPUR, CHITWAN, NEPAL

    OpenAIRE

    Mamata Sharma Neupane; Kalpana Dhakal Sharma; Sangharshila Basnet; Pratik Adhikary; Harish Chandra Neupane; Bijay Aryal

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection in young and elderly women. Despite the higher incidence of bacteriuria in elderly women, most UTI research has been conducted in young women. Hence, the present paper investigates the assessment of UTI in postmenopausal women attending OPD Clinic of Chitwan Medical College, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted in OPD clinic of Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital from December, 2012 to April...

  1. Dermatophytosis Agents in Patients Who Attending to Dermatology Clinic of Fırat University Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Nursel Dilek; Ahmet Yaşar Yücel; Aziz Ramazan Dilek; Yunus Saral; Zülal Aşcı Toraman

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to investigate the types of dermatophytes and dermatophytosis in Elazığ region to provide appropriate information for therapy planning and public health prevention.Methods: A total of 652 patients who attending to outpatient clinic between June 2007 – May 2008 with clinical signs of dermatophytosis were included in this study. All samples, including with negative results on direct microscopy were cultivated in Sabouraud dextrose agar (Oxoid), mycobiotic agar (Acumedia) ...

  2. Contingency Management for Attendance to Group Substance Abuse Treatment Administered by Clinicians in Community Clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Ledgerwood, David M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Hanson, Tressa; Godley, Mark D.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2008-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) is effective in enhancing retention in therapy. After an 8-week baseline, four community-based substance abuse treatment clinics were exposed in random order to 16 weeks of standard care with CM followed by 16 weeks of standard care without CM or vice versa. In total, 75 outpatients participated. Patients who were enrolled in the clinics when the CM treatment phase was in effect attended a significantly greater percentage of therapy sessions than patients who were ...

  3. Integration of antiretroviral therapy services into antenatal care increases treatment initiation during pregnancy: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Stinson

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART during pregnancy is critical to promote maternal health and prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT. The separation of services for antenatal care (ANC and ART may hinder antenatal ART initiation. We evaluated ART initiation during pregnancy under different service delivery models in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using routinely collected clinic data. Three models for ART initiation in pregnancy were evaluated ART 'integrated' into ANC, ART located 'proximal' to ANC, and ART located some distance away from ANC ('distal'. Kaplan-Meier methods and Poisson regression were used to examine the association between service delivery model and antenatal ART initiation. RESULTS: Among 14 617 women seeking antenatal care in the three services, 30% were HIV-infected and 17% were eligible for ART based on CD4 cell count <200 cells/µL. A higher proportion of women started ART antenatally in the integrated model compared to the proximal or distal models (55% vs 38% vs 45%, respectively, global p = 0.003. After adjusting for age and gestation at first ANC visit, women who at the integrated service were significantly more likely to initiate ART antenatally (rate ratio 1.33; 95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.64 compared to women attending the distal model; there was no difference between the proximal and distal models in antenatal ART initiation however (p = 0.704. CONCLUSIONS: Integration of ART initiation into ANC is associated with higher levels of ART initiation in pregnancy. This and other forms of service integration may represent a valuable intervention to enhance PMTCT and maternal health.

  4. Routine HIV screening of sexually transmitted disease clinic attenders has favourable cost-effectiveness ratio in low HIV prevalence settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, JM; van der Meijden, WI; Swart, W; Postma, MJ

    2002-01-01

    HIV screening for attenders of clinics for sexually transmitted disease (STD) may identify individuals with high-risk sexual behaviour and avert HIV infections in partners. Extending our previous analysis in AIDS, we performed an economic evaluation of HIV screening of STD-clinic attenders in Rotter

  5. A microbiological study of vaginal discharge in women attending a Malaysian gynaecological clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Y M; Ng, Y P; Chin, C S; Thambu, J

    1992-03-01

    Vaginal discharge is a common complaint of women attending gynaecological clinics. The purpose of this study was to compare the occurrence of commonly implicated microorganisms in vaginal discharge amongst women with or without the complaint, attending a gynaecological and family planning clinic. The association of Gardnerella vaginalis with bacterial vaginosis was also studied. It was found that there were no significant differences between the cases and controls in the isolation rate of Gardnerella vaginalis, Torulopsis glabrata, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma ssp and Group B streptococcus (p greater than 0.05). Only the isolation rate of Candida albicans was significantly higher in the cases than controls (p less than 0.01). However, there was a significant association of G. vaginalis with bacterial vaginosis. PMID:1387449

  6. Factors Influencing Support for National Health Insurance among Patients Attending Specialist Clinics in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Almualm, Yasmin; Alkaff, Sharifa Ezat; Aljunid, Syed; Alsagoff, Syed Sagoff

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the level of support towards the proposed National Health Insurance scheme among Malaysian patients attending specialist clinics at the National University of Malaysia Medical centre and its influencing factors. The cross sectional study was carried out from July-October 2012. 260 patients were selected using multistage sampling method. 71.2% of respondents supported the proposed National Health insurance scheme. 61.4% of respondents are willing to pay ...

  7. Non-attendance at psychiatric outpatient clinics: communication and implications for primary care.

    OpenAIRE

    Killaspy, H; Banerjee, S.; King, M.; LLOYD, M

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: What should happen when an outpatient fails to attend a psychiatric clinic? Guidelines from the General Medical Services Committee suggest that general practitioners (GPs) have no further responsibility of care for a patient once a referral to a psychiatrist has been made. This raises questions about the formulation of effective management plans for those patients with whom psychiatric services find it difficult to engage due to non-compliance with assessment and follow-up. AIMS: ...

  8. Knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among women attending primary health care clinics in Moshi, Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Untreated STIs may have serious complications. Knowledge of STIs is important in order to prevent this, and to promote care seeking and treatment. Previous studies have found knowledge to be associated with sexual behavior and socioeconomical factors. The aim of our study was to describe the knowledge of STIs among women attending primary health care clinics in Moshi, Tanzania, to identify their sources of knowledge and evaluate if the level of knowledge is associated with soc...

  9. CLINICAL PROFILE OF DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS OF PATIENTS ATTENDING SURGICAL OPD IN RURAL MEDICAL COLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To study the clinical profile of dibetic foot ulcers of patients attending surgical OPD in rural medical college. MATERIAL AND METHODS Clinical profile of 40 patients of diabetic foot ulcers was studied. All the patients were subjected to complete haemogram, fasting and PP blood sugar, LFT, KFT, lipid profile, urine R/E, pus c/s, colour doppler of lower limb and x-ray foot. RESULTS Majority of patients with diabetic foot ulcers were of age group 41–70, male, diabetes mellitus of duration more than 6 years, had intermittent claudication and single ulcer.

  10. Antenatal appendicular perforation.

    OpenAIRE

    Narasimharao, K. L.; Mitra, S. K.; Pathak, I. C.

    1987-01-01

    Antenatal appendicular perforation leading to localized meconium peritonitis and intestinal obstruction is reported in a premature neonate. The baby was successfully treated by a limited ileocaecal resection.

  11. Previous Early Antenatal Service Utilization Improves Timely Booking: Cross-Sectional Study at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tadesse Belayneh; Mulat Adefris; Gashaw Andargie

    2014-01-01

    Background. Early booking of antenatal care (ANC) is regarded as a cornerstone of maternal and neonatal health care. However, existing evidence from developing countries indicate that lots of pregnant woman begin ANC booking lately. Objective. It was aimed to assess timing of ANC booking and associated factors among pregnant women attending ANC clinic at University of Gondar Hospital, 2013. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study design was used to collect data with a face-to-face...

  12. Attenders at young people's clinics in Southampton: variations in contraceptive use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, L; Ingham, R

    1998-10-01

    This paper presents findings from a survey of 424 people attending nine young people's clinics within the Southampton Community Health NHS Trust. In addition to recording some descriptive background data on the people attending the clinics, one major aim of the study was to investigate whether talking to the sexual partner about contraception before their first intercourse together and delaying this first intercourse influenced contraceptive use. Overall, 40 per cent of people attending the clinics were aged 16 or under, although there was some variation between clinics in the age groups attracted. Most clients were female (88 per cent), had ever had sexual intercourse (92 per cent), reported four or more lifetime partners (42 per cent) but only one partner within the last six months (73 per cent) and were currently in a relationship (75 per cent). Potential for contraception and sexually transmitted infection was widespread; 46 per cent (of non-virgins) had had intercourse without contraception at least 'a few times' and 18 per cent used condoms 'rarely' or 'never'. In terms of first intercourse with current/most recent partner, 17 per cent had not used any contraception and 32 per cent had failed to use condoms. The most important findings from this study were that use of contraception (and condoms in particular) on the occasion of first intercourse with the current or most recent partner was significantly associated with the following; if partners had talked to each other about contraception before having intercourse together for the first time (p<0.001), and also if this first intercourse was delayed beyond four weeks as opposed to over a few days of first 'going-out' together (p<0.001). Suggestions for further in-depth research are made. PMID:9855715

  13. Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis among HIV positive patients attending antiretroviral therapy clinic

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    Purushottam A Giri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis (TB is the most common serious opportunistic infection in HIV positive patients and is the manifestation of AIDS in more than 50% of cases in developing countries. TB can occur at any time during the course of HIV infection. Aim: To describe the socio-demographic profile and prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (HIV/TB co-infection among HIV positive patients been attended at the antiretroviral therapy clinic (ART clinic at tertiary care teaching hospital of western Maharashtra, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out at the ART clinic of Pravara Rural Hospital, Loni, from June 2011 to May 2012. A total of 1012 HIV positive patients, who attended ART clinic, receiving ART treatment during the study period, were included in the analysis. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (Version 17.0. Results: This study showed 1012/172 (17% prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis among HIV positive patients, of which 87 (50.58% were males and 85 (48.42% were females. Low CD4 count (< 50/μl had statistically significant association with HIV/TB co-infection as compared to HIV infection only ( P < 0.0001. Conclusion: The study showed that 17% of HIV infected persons had tuberculosis co-infection. More strategic preventive measures that enhance body immunity among HIV patients are highly needed as early as possible before they develop active tuberculosis.

  14. Nutrition related knowledge and practices of hypertensive adults attending hypertensive clinics at day hospitals in the Cape Metropole

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, H; Bester, M.; N. Reyneke; Labadarios, D; Monyeki, K.D.; N.P. Steyn

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine nutrition knowledge and dietary practices of hypertensive adults attending hypertensive clinics at Day Hospitals in the Cape Metropole. Ten Day Hospitals were randomly selected from a total of 31 Day Hospitals and the first participants attending the hypertension clinics per day were recruited. A total of 85 participants were evaluated. The weight, height, waist and hip circumference of each participant was measured, as well as their blood pressure. Know...

  15. Evaluation of the dental anxiety levels of patients attending the oral and maxillofacial surgery clinic in a dental faculty

    OpenAIRE

    SAMUR ERGÜVEN, Sara; Kılınç, Yeliz; Delilbaşı, Ertan; Işık, Berrin

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the dental anxiety levels of patients attending the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery clinic in a dental faculty and to evaluate the associated factors that might be related with the dental anxiety.MATERIALS AND METHOD: Questionnaires were applied to patients attending the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, Gazi University between February 1, 2013 and January 1, 2014 (n=1165). The questionnaire included a Modi...

  16. HIV-1 seroprevalence among women attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in California. California Family of Surveys and Sentinel Surveillance Consortia.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, M. J.; Marelich, W. D.; Lemp, G F; Ascher, M S; Kerndt, P; Kizer, K W

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the distribution of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) epidemic among California women, we analyzed HIV-1 seroprevalence and risk factors among women attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in 21 local health jurisdictions. Using standardized protocols developed by the Centers for Disease Control, we tested unlinked serum specimens from women attending participating STD clinics in 1989. We analyzed demographic characteristics, HIV risk exposure groups, an...

  17. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in the Colombo district, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Gunasekera Henadira Appuhamilage Kamani Mangalika; Silva Koththigoda Cankanamge; Dhammike Priyadarshana; Prathapan Shamini; Mananwatte Sujatha; Weerasinghe Geeganage; Abeygunasekera Nalaka

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Sri Lanka little is known about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection. Objective was to determine the prevalence of CT in female patients attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in the Colombo district. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out for the prevalence of CT in all female patients (n = 168) more than 18 years of age, attending two STD clinics in the Colombo district from January to May 2012. Endocervical ...

  18. Pattern of mental illness among women attending an infertility clinic in Southern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    J O Omoaregba; O Morakinyo; James, O B; A O Lawani

    2011-01-01

    Background: Female infertility is highly co-morbid with mental illness. In Nigeria, very few studies have been conducted to determine the pattern of mental illness among women with infertility. We aimed to determine the pattern of mental illness in a sample of women with female infertility as well as its associated correlates.Patients and Methods: A cross sectional two-stage survey of women (n=100) attending an infertility clinic was conducted in a teaching hospital in Nigeria. A 30-item GHQ ...

  19. Sexual behaviour in adolescents and young people attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic, Ile Ife, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olasode Olayinka

    2007-01-01

    WHO estimates that 20% of persons living with HIV/AIDS are in their 20s and one out of twenty adolescents contract a sexually transmitted disease (STD) each year. A total of 303 adolescents and youths (10-24 years of age) attending an STD clinic were subjected to a questionnaire to assess sexual behavioural patterns that predisposed them to STD. Scope of the questions included age at initiation of sexual intercourse, partner at first exposure, number of sexual partners, use of condoms,...

  20. Factors related to discontinued clinic attendance by patients with podoconiosis in southern Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tora Abebayehu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Podoconiosis is a lymphoedema of non-infectious cause which results in long-term ill health in affected individuals. Simple, effective treatment is available in certain parts of Ethiopia, but evidence indicates that not all patients continue collecting treatment supplies from clinic sites once started. We used qualitative techniques to explore factors related to discontinued attendance at outreach clinics of a non-government organization in southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted in four clinic sites through unstructured in-depth interviews, key informant interviews and focus group discussions with the involvement of 88 study subjects. Results Discontinuation of clinic visits is common among podoconiosis patients. The reasons were: remoteness from the clinic sites, unrealistic expectation of ‘special’ aid, worry about increasing stigma, illness and misconceptions about treatment. Conclusions Several of these factors are remediable through community and individual information and education. Appropriate routes to deliver this information must be identified. Certain factors (such as distance to clinic sites and stigma require substantial expansion of services or liaison with village-level government health services.

  1. Eye donation - Awareness and willingness among attendants of patients at various clinics in Melaka, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhandary Sulatha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Corneal blindness accounts for 3.42% of blindness in Malaysia; the rate of eye donation is low. The aim of the study was to assess the awareness about eye donation and willingness to donate eyes among attendants of patients at various clinics in Melaka, Malaysia. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted on attendants who accompanied patients (n = 400 visiting various outpatient departments of the General Hospital and two peripheral clinics in Melaka between August and October 2007. The participants answered a questionnaire (Malay and English versions which included demographic profile, awareness of eye donation, knowledge regarding facts of eye donation, and willingness to donate eyes. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed at 5% level of significance. Results: Awareness of eye donation was observed in 276 (69% participants. Multivariate analysis showed that awareness was more among females when compared to males (P = 0.009. Of the 276 participants who were aware of eye donation, only 34.42% were willing to donate eyes. Willingness was more among the Indian race (P = 0.02 and males (P = 0.02. Educational status did not influence the willingness to donate eyes. Conclusions: Although majority of participants were aware of eye donation, willingness to donate eyes was poor.

  2. Dermatophytosis Agents in Patients Who Attending to Dermatology Clinic of Fırat University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursel Dilek

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to investigate the types of dermatophytes and dermatophytosis in Elazığ region to provide appropriate information for therapy planning and public health prevention.Methods: A total of 652 patients who attending to outpatient clinic between June 2007 – May 2008 with clinical signs of dermatophytosis were included in this study. All samples, including with negative results on direct microscopy were cultivated in Sabouraud dextrose agar (Oxoid, mycobiotic agar (Acumedia and potato dextrose agar (Oxoid. Results: Dermatophytes were isolated in 142 (21.8% out of all samples. Of the isolates 70.4% were Trichophyton rubrum, 15.4% were Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 4.2% were , 4.2% were Microsporum canis, 2.8% were Epidermophyton floccosum, 2.11% were Trichophyton violaceum, 0.7% were Trichophyton tonsurans.Conclusion: Trichophyton rubrum was most frequently isolated dermatophytosis agent in Elazığ region.

  3. Sexual behaviour in adolescents and young people attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic, Ile Ife, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olasode Olayinka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available WHO estimates that 20% of persons living with HIV/AIDS are in their 20s and one out of twenty adolescents contract a sexually transmitted disease (STD each year. A total of 303 adolescents and youths (10-24 years of age attending an STD clinic were subjected to a questionnaire to assess sexual behavioural patterns that predisposed them to STD. Scope of the questions included age at initiation of sexual intercourse, partner at first exposure, number of sexual partners, use of condoms, exposure to commercial sex workers (CSWs, previous infection with STDs and role of alcohol. Their diagnosis was based on history, clinical findings and laboratory confirmation. Adolescents and youths accounted for 30% of the total number of patients attending the STD clinic during this period. The male to female ratio was 1:0.95. Ninety-six percent (290 were single while 4% (13 were married. Seventy-two percent (217 were students. Age at onset of sexual activity was 10-20 years in 80%, 85% practiced risky sexual behaviour, patronising casual partners was frequent especially after alcohol use, 10% had been exposed to CSWs, condom use was poor, number of sexual partners varied between 1 and 5 and previous infections were not professionally treated. Adolescents and young people are sexually active and practice risky sexual behavioural patterns. Adolescents and youths account for a high percentage of patients patronising the STD clinic. Sexual education and youth friendly reproductive health services are urgently needed to curb the spread of HIV/AIDS/STDs.

  4. Respiratory Virus Detection and Clinical Diagnosis in Children Attending Day Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Nina; Pedersen, Bård; Nordbø, Svein Arne; Skanke, Lars Høsøien; Krokstad, Sidsel; Smyrnaios, Anastasios; Døllner, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Background Respiratory viruses often have been studied in children with respiratory tract infection (RTI), but less knowledge exists about viruses in asymptomatic children. We have studied the occurrence of a broad panel of respiratory viruses in apparently healthy children attending day care, taking into account the influence of possible confounding factors, such as age, clinical signs of respiratory tract infection (RTI), location (day-care section) and season. Methods We have studied 161 children in two day-care centers, each with separate sections for younger and older children, during four autumn and winter visits over a two-year period. A total of 355 clinical examinations were performed, and 343 nasopharyngeal samples (NPS) were analyzed by semi-quantitative, real-time, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for 19 respiratory pathogens. Result Forty-three percent of all NPS were PCR-positive for ≥ 1 of 13 virus species, with high species variation during visits. Rhinovirus 26% (88/343 NPS), enterovirus 12% (40/343) and parechovirus 9% (30/343) were detected in every visit, and the rates varied in relation to age, day-care section and season. Ten other viruses were detected in ≤ 3% of the NPS. Generally, viruses occurred together in the NPS. In 24% (79/331) of the clinical examinations with available NPS, the children had clear signs of RTI, while in 41% (135/331) they had mild signs, and in 35% (117/331) the children had no signs of RTI. Moreover, viruses were found in 70% (55/79) of children with clear signs of RTI, in 41% (55/135) with mild signs and in 30% (35/117) without any signs of RTI (p < 0.001). Conclusions Positive PCR tests for respiratory viruses, particularly picornaviruses, were frequently detected in apparently healthy children attending day care. Virus detection rates were related to age, presence of clinical signs of RTI, location in day care and season. PMID:27433803

  5. Clinical presentation of genital warts among circumcised and uncircumcised heterosexual men attending an urban STD clinic.

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, L. S.; Koutsky, L A; Holmes, K. K.

    1993-01-01

    INTRODUCTION--A recent study comparing heterosexual men with and without confirmed sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in an urban STD clinic showed that uncircumcised men were less likely than circumcised men to have genital warts detectable by clinical examination (adjusted odds ratio 0.7, 95% confidence interval 0.4, 0.9). Based on these initial findings we hypothesised that the appearance and anatomic distribution of genital warts, and possibly treatment response, may be different for ci...

  6. Clinical profile of HIV infected patients attending a HIV referral clinic in Pune, India

    OpenAIRE

    Megha Antwal; Rohan Gurjar; Shweta Chidrawar; Jyoti Pawar; Sunil Gaikwad; Narayan Panchal; Varsha Kale; Madhuri Thakar; Arun Risbud; Srikanth Tripathy

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has infected several million individuals in India. Various interventions have been implemented for early detection and prevention of transmission of HIV infection. This has progressively changed the clinical profile of HIV infected individuals and this study documents the clinical presentation of individuals positive for HIV in 2010, in Pune, Maharashtra, India. Methods: This cross-sectional study included subjects who had come ...

  7. Clinical and bacteriological profile of UTI patients attending a North Indian tertiary care center

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    Saif Quaiser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common cause of morbidity in patients attending our hospital. Recently UTI has become more complicated and difficult to treat because of appearance of pathogens with increasing resistance to the commonly used antimicrobial agents. Objectives: The main aim of the study was to determine the bacteriological profile and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of UTI patients attending our hospital. Materials and Methods: 1843 patients complaining of fever with or without urinary symptoms attending medicine and nephrology clinics of Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College Hospital, Aligarh from June 2012 to July 2014 were analysed. Clean catch mid-stream urine specimens collected from each subject were subjected to urine culture and sensitivity tests. Patients with age 15 to 85 years were included. Results: Significant bacteriuria was detected in 33.4% patients. Diabetes, obstructive uropathy, and previous instrumentation were the major risk factors identified. The most common pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli (52.4%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (12.3% and Citrobacter spp. (9.1%. Most susceptible antibiotic was Amikacin, Cefoperazone-sulbactum, Piperacillin-tazobactum and Nitrofurantoin for most of the isolates. E. coli which was the main isolate was found to be most susceptible to Amikacin (78.3%, Cefoperazone-sulbactum (72.8%, Piperacillin-tazobactum (70.5%, Gentamicin (69.3%, Nitrofurantoin (67.3%, Cefoperazone (64.1% and Ceftriaxone (61.6%. Conclusion: This study highlights the common pathogens causing UTI in our area and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns which could help clinicians in starting rational empirical antibiotic therapy for such patients while awaiting urine culture reports. This would significantly decrease the incidence of drug resistance and be more cost effective to the patients.

  8. Use of the internet by patients attending specialist clinics in Sri Lanka: a cross sectional study

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    Kommalage Mahinda

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The internet is a relatively new medium of disseminating health information. Studies on Internet usage for health information are mainly done in developed countries and very few studies have been carried out in developing countries. Methods The Internet usage of patients who were attending specialist clinics in Teaching Hospital Karapitiya and Southern Hospital in Galle, Sri Lanka was investigated. The study was carried out on the following specialities; General Medicine, Pediatrics, General Surgery and Cardiothoracic surgery. Information was collected using an investigator-administered questionnaire while patients were waiting for a consultation. Results Three hundred and fifty five patients (or guardians in the Pediatric clinic participated in the study. One hundred seventy two (48.3% participants have heard about the Internet. There was a relationship between awareness of the Internet and age, educational level and the clinic attended. There was no difference of awareness depending on the gender or the hospital. Only three participants (0.97% have used the Internet to find information about their disease conditions. Close relatives searched the Internet about the conditions of two participants. Altogether, the Internet was used to search information on the disease condition of five participants (1.4%. Conclusion Very low usage of the Internet for health information retrieval in this study is probably due to low awareness of the Internet and low educational level. This low usage of Internet and the associated reasons shown in this study can be generalized to Sri Lanka and probably to other low-income countries that have lower educational level than Sri Lanka.

  9. Management of childhood febrile illness prior to clinic attendance in urban Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, B M; Brieger, W R; Salako, L A

    2004-03-01

    Parents and caregivers often try various treatment modalities for their sick children before bringing them to clinic. Many community-based studies have documented home and self-treatment practices, often with the aid of patent medicine vendors, but less is known about prior treatment behaviour of caregivers who actually reach a government clinic. This study, therefore, aimed at documenting the treatment provided by caregivers prior to their attendance at a public hospital. Beginning in April 1996, a year-long study was conducted among 1,943 sick children and their caregivers who attended the largest government-owned paediatric hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. The major complaints mentioned by the caregivers included fever, cough, and diarrhoea. Most (89%) caregivers had administered some form of medicine to the child prior to the clinic visit, and on average, 2.5 medications had been given. Associations were found between major complaint and type of medicine given: fevers were associated with antimalarial drugs and analgesics (antipyretics), cough was associated with cough syrup and analgesics, while diarrhoea was associated with antidiarrhoeal drugs. Although one-fifth of the children had received an antibiotic, provision of antibiotics was not associated with a particular complaint/illness. Since caregivers appeared to use perceived complaints/illnesses as a treatment guide, this can form the basis of safer and more appropriate recognition of illness and home management. In addition, the information obtained in this study can be used for training clinicians to inquire about home management and, thus, for making more informed decisions about their own treatment and prescribing practices. PMID:15190811

  10. Knowledge, attitude and practice towards child adoption amongst women attending infertility clinics in Lagos State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenike O. Omosun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child adoption is a recommended alternative form of infertility management. Infertility is of public health importance in Nigeria and many other developing nations. This is a result of its high prevalence and especially because of its serious social implications as the African society places a passionate premium on procreation in any family setting. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of child adoption amongst women attending infertility clinics in teaching hospitals in Lagos State and to determine the factors that influence their attitude and practice towards it.Method: A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. Data were collected by using a structured questionnaire which was interviewer-administered. The study was conducted in the two teaching hospitals in Lagos State (LUTH [Lagos University Teaching Hospital] and LASUTH [Lagos State University Teaching Hospital] from amongst 350 women attending the gynaecological clinics. All the patients under management for infertility at the gynaecology clinics during the period of the study were interviewed.Results: Many respondents (85.7% had heard of child adoption and 59.3% of them knew the correct meaning of the term. More than half of the respondents (68.3% said that they could love an adopted child but less than half of them (33.7% were willing to consider adoption. Only 13.9% has ever adopted a child. The major reason given for their unwillingness to adopt was their desire to have their own biological child. Factors that were favourable towards child adoption were Igbo tribe identity, an age above 40 years, duration of infertility above 15 years, and knowing the correct meaning of child adoption.Conclusion: There is a poor attitude to adoption even amongst infertile couples. Interventions need to be implemented to educate the public on child adoption, to improve their attitude towards adoption and to make it more acceptable.

  11. Prevalence of Peripheral Arterial Disease among Adult Patients Attending Outpatient Clinic at a General Hospital in South Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Feliciano Chanana Paquissi; Arminda Bimbi Paquissi Cuvinje; Almeida Bailundo Cuvinje

    2016-01-01

    Background. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common manifestation of atherosclerosis, whose prevalence is increasing worldwide, and is associated with all-cause mortality. However, no study has assessed this disease in Huambo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PAD in patients attending an outpatient clinic at a general hospital in Huambo, South Angola. Methods. A cross-sectional study, including 115 patients aged 40 years and older attending an outpatient service. ...

  12. Report of the first nationally implemented clinical routine screening for fetal RHD in D- pregnant women to ascertain the requirement for antenatal RhD prophylaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch; Christiansen, Mette; Steffensen, Rudi;

    2012-01-01

    and analyzed for the presence of the RHD gene by real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting two RHD exons. Prediction of the fetal RhD type was compared with serologic typing of the newborn in 2312 pregnancies, which represented the first 6 months of routine analysis. RESULTS: For the detection of.......087%) were not detected, and antenatal RhIG was not given. CONCLUSION: These data represent the first demonstration of the reliability of routine antenatal fetal RHD screening in D-, pregnant women to ascertain the requirement for antenatal RhD prophylaxis. Our findings should encourage the implementation of...

  13. Clinical Features Of Acute Febrile Thrombocytopaenia Among Patients Attending Primary Care Clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Fah, Tong Seng; MMed, Noorazah Abdul Aziz; Liew, Chin Gek; Omar, Khairani

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Identifying clinical features that differentiate acute febrile thrombocytopaenia from acute febrile illness without thrombocytopaenia can help primary care physician to decide whether to order a full blood count (FBC). This is important because thrombocytopaenia in viral fever may signify more serious underlying aetiology like dengue infection.

  14. Co-morbidity in a cystic fibrosis population attending a regional clinic.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Healy, F

    2010-11-01

    Pulmonary disease remains the major cause of morbidity in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, of 115 patients attending a regional CF clinic we noted 16 cases (14%) with co-morbid conditions. Of this group, 4 of 115 patients (3.5%) had renal problems including both structural and functional defects and 4 (3.5%) had neurological disorders, 3 of which were types of epilepsy. Notably, 3 of 115 patients (2.6%) had different forms of neoplasia, all of which required significant surgical and\\/or chemotherapeutic intervention. There is now increasing evidence of the association between digestive tract malignancy and CF, which further complicates management of these already complex cases.

  15. Antenatal stress: An Irish case study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carolan-Olah, Mary

    2013-05-16

    BACKGROUND:: stress in pregnancy is common and impacts negatively on women, infants and families. A number of factors contribute to high levels of stress in pregnancy, including financial concerns, marital discord, low support systems and low socio-economic status. OBJECTIVES:: the aim of this study was to evaluate stress anxiety levels and depressive symptoms among low risk women in an area in Ireland that was particularly impacted by the 2008 economic crisis. DESIGN:: a quantitative descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Data were collected using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Perceived Stress Scale and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Data was collected at a single time during the second trimester. SETTING:: this paper reports a case study of one maternity service in Ireland. Participants included low risk pregnant women who were attending the hospital clinic for routine antenatal care. RESULTS:: of 150 questionnaires distributed, 74 completed questionnaires were returned indicating a 49.3% return rate. Findings indicated high levels of stress, anxiety and depressive symptomatology among participants. There were no significant difference in mean EPDS score for different age groups (F4,69=2.48, P=0.052), living arrangements (F4,68=0.90, P=0.5) or usual occupation (F4,69=1.45, P=0.2). A score of ≥12 was taken as indicative of probable antenatal depression and 86.5% of participants responded with a score of 12 or above. PSS scores were also high and more than three quarters of respondents scored ≥15 (75.6%) and more than a third had scores ≥20 (35.1%), out of a total score of 40. There was a significant difference in mean PSS score between the different age groups (F4,69=3.60, P=0.010) but not for living arrangements or usual occupation. A STAI score of ≥39 was taken as indicative of antenatal anxiety, and 74.3% of participants responded with a score of 39 or above. There were no significant differences in mean STAI

  16. The Etiology of Genital Ulcer Disease among Patients Attending Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics in Guangzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Jin(谷进); ZENG Zhirong(曾志荣); CHEN Rongzhang(陈荣章); ZHU Huilan(朱慧兰); QIU Xiaoshan(邱晓珊)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the etiology of genital ulcerdisease (GUD) among patients attending sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) clinics in Guangzhou, China.Methods: Between September 8, 1998, and August 9,2001, 267 patients with a genital ulcer were clinicallyassessed. Clinical etiology of GUD was dependent onphysical appearance and microbiologic examination,including the following: dark field microscopy and serologyfor Treponema pallidum (TP), swabs of genital ulcer forHerpes simplex virus (HSV), processed quantitativefluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) forsimultaneous detection of HSV, TP, Haemophilus ducreyi(HD), Human papillomavirus (HPV), and serology for HIVinfection.Results: Two hundred thirty men and thirty-sevenwomen with a median age of 33.4 (range 16-74 years) wereanalyzed. The etiology of GUD was syphilis (26.59%)(71/267), genital herpes (17.60%) (47/267), condylomataacuminata (4.87%) (13/267), candidiasis (3.37%) (9/267),bacterial infection (3.75%) (10/267), and multiple infection(6.74%) (18/267). The seroprevalence of HIV was 0.75%(2/267). No etiology was identified in 50.56% (135/267).Conclusion: The etiology of GUD among STD patients inour area was multifactorial with a predominance of syphilisand genital herpes. Based on this limited data obtained atSTD clinics, HIV infection was not common.

  17. A predictive model for survival in metastatic cancer patients attending an outpatient palliative radiotherapy clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a predictive model for survival from the time of presentation in an outpatient palliative radiotherapy clinic. Methods and Materials: Sixteen factors were analyzed prospectively in 395 patients seen in a dedicated palliative radiotherapy clinic in a large tertiary cancer center using Cox's proportional hazards regression model. Results: Six prognostic factors had a statistically significant impact on survival, as follows: primary cancer site, site of metastases, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), and fatigue, appetite, and shortness of breath scores from the modified Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale. Risk group stratification was performed (1) by assigning weights to the prognostic factors based on their levels of significance, and (2) by the number of risk factors present. The weighting method provided a Survival Prediction Score (SPS), ranging from 0 to 32. The survival probability at 3, 6, and 12 months was 83%, 70%, and 51%, respectively, for patients with SPS ≤13 (n=133); 67%, 41%, and 20% for patients with SPS 14-19 (n=129); and 36%, 18%, and 4% for patients with SPS ≥20 (n=133) (p<0.0001). Corresponding survival probabilities based on number of risk factors were as follows: 85%, 72%, and 52% (≤3 risk factors) (n=98); 68%, 47%, and 24% (4 risk factors) (n=117); and 46%, 24%, and 11% (≥5 factors) (n=180) (p<0.0001). Conclusion: Clinical prognostic factors can be used to predict prognosis among patients attending a palliative radiotherapy clinic. If validated in an independent series of patients, the model can be used to guide clinical decisions, plan supportive services, and allocate resource use

  18. Number and timing of antenatal HIV testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen Thi Thuy, Hanh; Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    .3-3.4), living in a remote rural area (aOR 7.8, 95% CI 3.4-17.8), late antenatal care attendance (aOR 3.6, 95% CI 1.3-10.1) and not being informed about PMTCT at their first antenatal care visits (aOR 7.4, 95% CI 2.6-21.1). Among women who had multiple tests, 80% had the second test after 36 weeks of gestation......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: HIV testing for pregnant women is an important component for the success of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). A lack of antenatal HIV testing results in loss of benefits for HIV-infected mothers and their children. However, the provision of unnecessary...... repeat tests at a very late stage of pregnancy will reduce the beneficial effects of PMTCT and impose unnecessary costs for the individual woman as well as the health system. This study aims to assess the number and timing of antenatal HIV testing in a low-income setting where PMTCT programmes have been...

  19. ASSESSMENT OF UTI IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ATTENDING OPD CLINIC OF CHITWAN MEDICAL COLLEGE, BHARATPUR, CHITWAN, NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamata Sharma Neupane

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is the most common bacterial infection in young and elderly women. Despite the higher incidence of bacteriuria in elderly women, most UTI research has been conducted in young women. Hence, the present paper investigates the assessment of UTI in postmenopausal women attending OPD Clinic of Chitwan Medical College, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted in OPD clinic of Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital from December, 2012 to April, 2013. Total 400 patients suspected with UTI were reviewed, out of which 173 (43.3 % of the suspected samples showed presence of potential pathogens causing UTI in postmenopausal women. Escherichia coli (E. coli was the predominant (65.1% bacterial pathogen. Amikacin was found to be most sensitive antimicrobial followed by Nitrofurantoin and Gentamcin. Ampicillin showed the higher percentage of resistant, compared to other antimicrobials. In conclusion, drug resistance among bacterial pathogens is an evolving process, regular surveillance and monitoring is necessary to provide effective treatment of UTIs.

  20. Assessing Readiness to Lose Weight among Obese Women Attending the Nutrition Clinic

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    Fatemeh Ghannadiasl

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessing individual’s readiness to change and targeting the intervention to the level of readiness may improve successful weight loss rates. This study aimed to assess readiness for weight loss in obese women using the trans theoretical model. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 90 volunteer apparently healthy obese women, in Ardabil, Iran. Participants completed the translated and validated University of Rhode Island Change Assessment questionnaire in their first visit. Subjects were categorized into one of the stages of change based on the highest of four z-transformed scale scores. The readiness to change score was calculated. Results: More than half of the participants were in early stages of weight loss and 24.5% were in the action stage. The readiness score in the precontemplation stage was significantly lower than the other stages, but no significant difference was observed among the contemplation, action and maintenance stages. The significant correlation was observed between the stages of change and waist-to-hip ratio (r=0.33, P<0.05. Conclusion: Obese women attending the nutrition clinic are in different stages to change for weight loss. Understanding person specific stages of change orientates the dietitian to use the most appropriate counseling strategies. Hence the stages and readiness to change should be considered before implementing any intervention in clinical settings for optimal outcomes.

  1. Impact of drug awareness and treatment camps on attendance at a community outreach de-addiction clinic

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    Om Prakash Giri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substance misuse is an increasing problem in urban and rural India. The utility of community-based interventions and preventive strategies are increasingly emphasized in this context. The drug de-addiction and treatment center, Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, has been running a drug de-addiction and treatment clinic at Kharar Civil Hospital, Kharar, District Mohali, Punjab, since 1998. As part of an effort to enhance this community outreach program, community-based drug awareness and treatment camps have been organized since March 2004 in villages in and around Tehsil Kharar of Mohali. Aim: To study the impact of the drug awareness and treatment camps on the attendance of patients at the community outreach drug de-addiction and treatment clinic at Kharar Civil Hospital. Methods: Sociodemographic and clinical variables, including treatment outcome-related variables, of patients attending the clinic at Kharar Civil Hospital, before and after the camps were compared. Discussion and Conclusion: The study showed a positive impact on drug awareness and treatment camps held in the community on outpatient attendance at a community outreach clinic, with attendance increasing more than 1.8 times.

  2. The use of antenatal and postnatal care: perspectives and experiences of women and health care providers in rural southern Tanzania

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    Mushi Adiel K

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although antenatal care coverage in Tanzania is high, worrying gaps exist in terms of its quality and ability to prevent, diagnose or treat complications. Moreover, much less is known about the utilisation of postnatal care, by which we mean the care of mother and baby that begins one hour after the delivery until six weeks after childbirth. We describe the perspectives and experiences of women and health care providers on the use of antenatal and postnatal services. Methods From March 2007 to January 2008, we conducted in-depth interviews with health care providers and village based informants in 8 villages of Lindi Rural and Tandahimba districts in southern Tanzania. Eight focus group discussions were also conducted with women who had babies younger than one year and pregnant women. The discussion guide included information about timing of antenatal and postnatal services, perceptions of the rationale and importance of antenatal and postnatal care, barriers to utilisation and suggestions for improvement. Results Women were generally positive about both antenatal and postnatal care. Among common reasons mentioned for late initiation of antenatal care was to avoid having to make several visits to the clinic. Other concerns included fear of encountering wild animals on the way to the clinic as well as lack of money. Fear of caesarean section was reported as a factor hindering intrapartum care-seeking from hospitals. Despite the perceived benefits of postnatal care for children, there was a total lack of postnatal care for the mothers. Shortages of staff, equipment and supplies were common complaints in the community. Conclusion Efforts to improve antenatal and postnatal care should focus on addressing geographical and economic access while striving to make services more culturally sensitive. Antenatal and postnatal care can offer important opportunities for linking the health system and the community by encouraging women to

  3. Frequency of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Among Patients with Epilepsy Attending a Tertiary Neurology Clinic

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    Mohammed Al-Abri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with a median lifetime prevalence of 14 per 1000 subjects. Sleep disorders could influence epileptic seizure. The most common sleep disorder is obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS which occurs in 2% of adult women and 4% of adult men in the general population. The aim of this study is to estimate the frequency of OSAS among patients with epilepsy and to study the seizure characteristics among those patients with co-morbid OSAS.  Methods: Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of epilepsy who attended the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital neurology clinic were recruited for the study between June 2011 and April 2012. Patients were screened for OSAS by direct interview using the validated Arabic version of the Berlin questionnaire. Patients identified as high-risk underwent polysomnography.  Results: A total of 100 patients with epilepsy (55 men and 45 women were screened for OSAS. Generalized and focal seizure was found in 67% of male and 27% of female patients. Six percent of the participants had epilepsy of undetermined type. Only 9% of the sample was found to have high risk of OSAS based on the Berlin questionnaire. No significant correlation was found between risk of OSAS, type of epilepsy, and anti-epileptic drugs.  Conclusion: The risk of OSAS was marginally greater in patients with epilepsy compared to the general population with the overall prevalence of 9%.

  4. Predictors of consistent condom use among Portuguese women attending family planning clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Eleonora C V; Oliveira, Rosa; Ferreira, Domingos; Pereira, M Graça

    2016-01-01

    Women account for 30% of all AIDS cases reported to the Health Ministry in Portugal and most infections are acquired through unprotected heterosexual sex with infected partners. This study analyzed socio-demographic and psychosocial predictors of consistent condom use and the role of education as a moderator variable among Portuguese women attending family planning clinics. A cross-sectional study using interviewer-administered fully structured questionnaires was conducted among 767 sexually active women (ages 18-65). Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the association between consistent condom use and the predictor variables. Overall, 78.7% of the women were inconsistent condom users. The results showed that consistent condom use was predicted by marital status (being not married), having greater perceptions of condom negotiation self-efficacy, having preparatory safer sexual behaviors, and not using condoms only when practicing abstinence. Living with a partner and having lack of risk perception significantly predicted inconsistent condom use. Less educated women were less likely to use condoms even when they perceive being at risk. The full model explained 53% of the variance in consistent condom use. This study emphasizes the need for implementing effective prevention interventions in this population showing the importance of taking education into consideration. PMID:26277905

  5. HIV infection and high risk behavior among patients attending an STD referral clinic in Prague, Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Mikl, J.; Sudar, Z.; Smith, P. F.; Bruckova, M.; Jedlicka, J.; Kastankova, V.; Tryzna, R.; Dehovitz, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of HIV infection and associated risk behaviour in a high risk population of clients attending an STD clinic in Prague, Czech Republic. METHODS: Between September 1994 and January 1995, clients entering the Apolinar STD clinic in Prague, Czech Republic, were enrolled in a blinded, unlinked HIV antibody seroprevalence study. Non-identifying demographic characteristics, STD diagnoses, HIV risk exposures, and voluntary HIV tes...

  6. Condom-use errors and problems among teens attending clinics: better or worse than young adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrier LA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Richard Crosby1–3, Richard J Charnigo1, Lydia A Shrier41College of Public Health, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA; 2Rural Center for AIDS/STD Prevention, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA; 3The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction, Bloomington, IN, USA; 4Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, MA, USAObjectives: To compare the frequency of condom-use errors and problems between teens (15–19 years of age and young adults (20–24 years of age attending clinics. Also, to assess whether the odds of experiencing condom failure were influenced by age group, gender, and motives for condom use.Methods: As part of a larger study of condom effectiveness, youth (15–24 years of age from five clinics, in three US cities, were recruited (N = 263. Data were prospectively collected using daily electronic diaries. For each episode of condom use with penile–vaginal sex, youths were asked to respond to questions assessing seven errors and five problems in condom use. Data analyses entailed statistical modeling with generalized estimating equations.Results: Teens did not significantly differ from their older counterparts on any of the seven condom-use errors or any of the five condom-use problems. Of all condom-use events, teens reported that 20% did not involve condom use from start-to-finish of sex, 14.7% involved a condom that had dried out, 8.1% involved rushed application, 6.7% did not involve adequate lubrication, and other errors and problems occurred less often. Further, condom failure was not predicted by age group, gender, or motive for using condoms. Significant interaction effects were not observed.Conclusions: Several forms of condom-use errors/problems occurred with similar frequency when comparing teens and young adults, suggesting a need to intervene to improve condom-use behavior regardless of age.Keywords: condoms, teens, sexually transmitted diseases, sexual behavior

  7. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in the Colombo district, Sri Lanka

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    Gunasekera Henadira Appuhamilage Kamani Mangalika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Sri Lanka little is known about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection. Objective was to determine the prevalence of CT in female patients attending sexually transmitted disease (STD clinics in the Colombo district. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out for the prevalence of CT in all female patients (n = 168 more than 18 years of age, attending two STD clinics in the Colombo district from January to May 2012. Endocervical swabs were collected and tested for CT using the Amplicor CT/NG polymerase chain reaction assay. Results: Prevalence of CT in females attending the STD clinics in the Colombo district was 8.3%. Mean age of those infected with CT was 32.9 years (SD ± 8.2. Majority of females with CT infections were Sinhalese and married. There was no significant association with age, ethnicity or being married or not. Females who did not attend school, or had their education only up to Grade 5 were significantly found to have six times the risk of having CT infection (95% CI = 1.8-22.6. A significant association was found with number of sexual partners but not with commercial sex work or past history of STD. Conclusions: Prevalence of CT was moderately high in this population.

  8. Prevalence, Specificity and Titration of Red Cell Alloantibodies in Multiparous Antenatal Females at a Tertiary Care Centre from North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Meena; Bala, Renu; Akhtar, Naveen; Sawhney, Vijay

    2016-09-01

    Screening and detection of clinically significant antibodies among antenatal women plays an important role in transfusion safety and preventing hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn. Routine screening of antenatal women for antibodies is not done in all blood centres of our country and so immunization rates are not known in pregnant women. We studied the prevalence of alloantibodies and titration of Anti D among antenatal multiparous women in Jammu region. In present prospective study, 750 antenatal multiparous women attending antenatal clinics were typed for ABO and D antigens. Alloantibody screening was done, if positive, specificity of alloantibody was ascertained by using commercially available red cell panel by tube method. Rate of alloimmunization was correlated with Rh D status, gravida, previous transfusion history and bad obstetric history. Titration of alloantibody D was done in first and third trimester of pregnancy. In present study most common blood group detected was B positive (38.4 %). Rh D negative cases constituted 7.6 % of total cases. Rate of alloimmunization was 2 %. A significant correlation was seen between Rh D-negative and alloimmunization (21 % in D-negative and 0.45 % in D-positive). There is significant increasing degree of alloimmunization with increase in Gravida. Alloimmunization in females with bad obstetric history was high (4.41 %) as compared to females with no bad obstetric history showing only 1.76 %. Alloantibodies detected were Anti-D, Anti-E, Anti-C and Anti-K. Anti-D constituted 80 % of all alloantibodies detected. Six women in their third trimester had raised titers of anti-D. Most common alloantibody detected was anti-D (80 %). Alloantibodies to other Rh antigens and Kell blood group systems were also identified. To minimize alloimmunization in Rh D negative women, proper Anti D immunoprophylaxis should be implemented. PMID:27429523

  9. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Antenatal Depression among Omani Women in a Primary Care Setting: Cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Al-Azri; Iman Al-Lawati; Raya Al-Kamyani; Maisa Al-Kiyumi; Aisha Al-Rawahi; Robin Davidson; Abdullah Al-Maniri

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to identify the prevalence of antenatal depression and the risk factors associated with its development among Omani women. No previous studies on antenatal depression have been conducted in Oman. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out between January and November 2014 in Muscat, Oman. Pregnant Omani women ≥32 gestational weeks who were attending one of 12 local primary care health centres in Muscat for routine antenatal care we...

  10. Epidemiology of Anal HPV Infection in High-Risk Men Attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic in Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Colón-López, Vivian; Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Del Toro-Mejías, Lizbeth; Clatts, Michael Craig; Palefsky, Joel M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies in Puerto Rico have reported an increasing incidence of anal cancer in Puerto Rican men. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors associated with anal HPV infection among men attending an STI clinic in Puerto Rico. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among 205 men 18 years and older. A comprehensive survey was administered that included a demographic and a behavioral assessment. Separate logistic regres...

  11. Etiology and Clinical Characterization of Respiratory Virus Infections in Adult Patients Attending an Emergency Department in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiaoyan; Lu, Roujian; Wang, Zhong; Zhu, Na; Wang, Wen; Julian, Druce; Chris, Birch; Lv, Jianxin; Tan, Wenjie

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) represent a serious global health burden. To date, few reports have addressed the prevalence of respiratory viruses (RVs) in adults with ARTIs attending an emergency department (ED). Therefore, the potential impact of respiratory virus infections on such patients remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine the epidemiological and clinical profiles of common and recently discovered respiratory viruses in adults with ARTIs a...

  12. Sensitization to common food and inhalant allergens in children attending Allergy and Asthma Pediatric Clinic in Doha, Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Kerkadi, Abdelhamid; Al-Thani, Asma; Al-Boainain, Amina; al Janahi, Ibrahim; Singh, Rajiv

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis have risen at an alarming rate throughout the world in the past 50 years. Sensitization to food (FA) and inhalant allergens (IA) have been associated with an increase of allergic diseases. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of sensitization to FA and IA among children attending Allergy and Asthma Pediatric Clinic in Doha, Qatar. A total of 134 children with age between 1 mont...

  13. A survey of the use of prostitutes (commercial sex workers) by new male attenders at a genito urinary medicine clinic.

    OpenAIRE

    C. C. Lim; Armstrong, D.K.; Dinsmore, W W; Maw, R. D.

    1995-01-01

    This study documents the use of prostitutes (commercial sex workers) by new male patients attending a genito urinary medicine clinic. 541 consecutive male patients completed an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. 48 (8.9%) gave a history of previous purchase of sexual services in Northern Ireland and/or elsewhere; 69% of these encounters occurred outside Northern Ireland. The largest group were single men aged 20-29 years. 87% of those who purchased services in Northern Ireland were as...

  14. Effect of aerobic exercise during pregnancy on antenatal depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Rafie MM

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mervat M El-Rafie,1 Ghada M Khafagy,2 Marwa G Gamal31Department of Public Health, 2Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt; 3Family Health Unit, Ministry of Health, Cairo, EgyptBackground: Antenatal depression is not uncommon and is associated with a greater risk of negative pregnancy outcomes.Aim: Exploring the effect of exercise in preventing and treating antenatal depression.Methods: This was a prospective interventional controlled study carried out in 100 pregnant women treated at the Ain-Shams Family Medicine Center and Maadi Outpatient Clinic, Cairo, Egypt. The participants were divided into two groups (n=50 in the exercise group and n=50 in the control group. The exercise group regularly attended supervised sessions for 12 weeks. The activities in each session included walking, aerobic exercise, stretching, and relaxation. The control group completed their usual antenatal care. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D was used to assess depression symptoms at the first interview and immediately after the 12-week intervention.Results: Compared to the control group, the exercise group showed significantly improved depressive symptoms as measured with the CES-D after the 12-week intervention on the CES-D (P=0.001. Within groups, the exercise group demonstrated a significant improvement of depressive symptoms from baseline to intervention completion, while the control group demonstrated no significant changes over time.Conclusion: Exercise during pregnancy was positively associated with reduced depressive symptoms.Keywords: antenatal depression, pregnant women, exercise

  15. INCIDENCE OF ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIURIA IN ANTE- NATAL PATIENTS ATTENDING GENERAL HOSPITAL MINNA – NIGER STATE

    OpenAIRE

    Daniyan S. Y.; M. E. Abalaka

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the occurrences of asymptomatic bacteriuria among healthy pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic of General Hospital Minna, Nigeria. To test for sensitivity to commonly used treatments. Methodology: Two hundred mid- stream urine samples were collected in a sterile universal bottle. The cultured plates were examined. The morphological and biochemical characteristics were determined. Results: The bacteria isolates recovered from urine samples includes E. coli 32 (51.6...

  16. Use of urine polymerase chain reaction to define the prevalence and clinical presentation of Trichomonas vaginalis in men attending an STD clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Wendel, K; Erbelding, E; Gaydos, C.; Rompalo, A.

    2003-01-01

    Methods: Men attending a public STD clinic in Baltimore, Maryland, were evaluated between March and July 2000. Clinicians recorded a standardised history and clinical examination. Urethral swab specimens were collected for Gram stain and Neisseria gonorrhoeae culture. First fraction urine samples were evaluated with TV culture and chlamydia and TV polymerase chain reaction (PCR). True positive TV was defined as a positive TV culture or a positive TV PCR confirmed with a second primer set.

  17. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics, spirometric parameters and response to budesonide/formoterol in patients attending an asthma clinic: an experience in a developing country

    OpenAIRE

    Imad, Hassan; Yasir, Ged

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study aims at describing the epidemiological and clinical characteristics, severity, reversibility testing and response to treatment using simple spirometry in asthmatic patients attending a model specialized Asthma Care Center. Methods Eligible subjects must have a suggestive clinical picture and confirmed by spirometry to have a 12% plus 200ml absolute increase in FEV1 either by reversibility testing or after a therapeutic trial with inhaled and/or oral steroid therapy. Bu...

  18. ANTENATAL ULTRASOUND DIAGNOSIS OF CONGENITAL ANOMALIES: A CENTRAL INDIAN PERSPECTIVE

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    Bhakti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Congenital anomalies are a global problem, but data on congenital anomalies from developing countries like India are limited. We have tried to study antenatal ultrasound detection of anomalous pregnancies, as it can have an effect not only on patient counselling but also on patient’s decision for or against continuation of pregnancy, if it is diagnosed prior to 20 completed weeks and subsequent management options. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES 1. To study various congenital anomalies in singleton pregnancies detected antenatally by ultrasound examination. 2. To study the incidence of stillbirth in those diagnosed to have congenital anomalies on ultrasound examination. METHODS This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study conducted at a tertiary care hospital over a period of six months from January 2015 to June 2015. All women attending Antenatal Clinic were screened by ultrasound examination. Anomalies included in the study were classified by the organ system affected. All women who were diagnosed with major anomaly before 20 weeks of gestation were given a choice of medical termination of pregnancy. Women diagnosed later were observed closely throughout pregnancy and delivery. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS Out of a total of 2535 singleton pregnancies screened, 67 women were sonologically diagnosed to have congenital anomalies. The mean maternal age was 24.7 years. Mean gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 28.5 weeks. Majority women had an abnormal amount of Amniotic Fluid Index (AFI. The mean AFI was 13.7 cm. Central Nervous System affection was the commonest followed by Renal and Cardiovascular System affection. All 9 women who were diagnosed prior to 20 weeks of gestation opted for medical termination of pregnancy. According to our study, the odds that a foetus having a congenital anomaly on Ultrasound examination will die in utero are 4.16 (1.72-10.01. Hence, the association between Congenital Anomaly and Stillbirth was found to be

  19. REVIEW OF FOCUSSED ANTENATAL CARE

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    Sreelatha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antenatal care is a comprehensive antepartum programme which involves a coordinated approach to medical care , continuous risk assessment , and psychological support that optimally begins before conception and extends throughout the postpartum period and int erconceptional period . [1] One of major responsibility of obstetrician providing antenatal care is to identify high risk factors based on past history, examination and investigation results. The objective of antenatal care therefore is to assure that every wanted pregnancy results in the delivery of a healthy baby without impairing the mothers health . [2] In a 1914 study by Williams antenatal care reduced fetal mortality by 40%

  20. A CLINICAL STUDY OF MYOPIA AMONG PATIENTS ATTENDING KATURI MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL AND SANJEEVANI HOSPITAL, GUNTUR

    OpenAIRE

    Nagasree; Vijayalakshmi,

    2015-01-01

    We have studied retrospectively a total of 650 cases of myopia among 35 00 refractions done in Katuri medical college, Guntur and S anjeevani hospital, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh . 10.1% of the patients of the patients attending Ophthalmic department of K aturi medical college and Sanjeevani hospital Guntur have refractory errors. Mal es are more affected than females. There is family incidence of ...

  1. Effect of aerobic exercise during pregnancy on antenatal depression

    OpenAIRE

    El-Rafie, Mervat M; Khafagy, Ghada M; Gamal, Marwa G

    2016-01-01

    Background Antenatal depression is not uncommon and is associated with a greater risk of negative pregnancy outcomes. Aim Exploring the effect of exercise in preventing and treating antenatal depression. Methods This was a prospective interventional controlled study carried out in 100 pregnant women treated at the Ain-Shams Family Medicine Center and Maadi Outpatient Clinic, Cairo, Egypt. The participants were divided into two groups (n=50 in the exercise group and n=50 in the control group)....

  2. Assessment of peer-based and structural strategies for increasing male participation in an antenatal setting in Lilongwe, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mphonda, Steve M; Rosenberg, Nora E; Kamanga, Esmie; Mofolo, Innocent; Mwale, Gertrude; Boa, Edson; Mwale, Mwawi; Martinson, Francis; Hoffman, Irving; Hosseinipour, Mina C

    2014-06-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, although male involvement in antenatal care is associated with positive outcomes for HIV-infected women and their infants, men rarely accompany female partners. We implemented a project to increase the number of male partners attending an antenatal clinic at Bwaila Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi. We evaluated changes in the proportion of women who came with a partner over three periods. During period 1 (January 2007 - June 2008) there was didactic peer education. During period 2 (July 2008 - September 2009) a peer-led male-involvement drama was introduced into patient waiting areas. During period 3 (October 2009 - December 2009) changes to clinical infrastructure were introduced to make the clinic more male-friendly. The proportion of women attending ANC with a male partner increased from 0.7% to 5.7%, to 10.7% over the three periods. Peer education through drama and male-friendly hospital infrastructure coincided with substantially greater male participation, although further gains are necessary. PMID:25022146

  3. Prevalence of HIV in antenatal women at GMERS Medical College Sola, Ahmedabad

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    Seema Kalpesh Patel

    2014-06-01

    Methods: This is a retrospective study. Total 8224 antenatal patients, who attended for first time at antenatal OPD at GMERS Medical College, Sola between April 2012 to March 2014, were included in the study. HIV testing was done by RAPID method after taking informed consent and pre-test counselling as per NACO guideline. Results: Out of total 8224 antenatal patients 7921 (96% patient opted for HIV testing. Seroprevalence of HIV is found to be 15/7921 (0.19%. 7044/7921 (88.93% women attended post-test counselling. 12/15 (80% HIV positive women accepted post-test counselling.12/15 (80% spouses accepted testing for HIV. 8/12 (66.66% spouses of HIV positive women were also found to be HIV positive. Conclusions: The seroprevalence of HIV infection in antenatal women is low. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 662-665

  4. A CLINICAL STUDY OF MYOPIA AMONG PATIENTS ATTENDING KATURI MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL AND SANJEEVANI HOSPITAL, GUNTUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagasree

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We have studied retrospectively a total of 650 cases of myopia among 35 00 refractions done in Katuri medical college, Guntur and S anjeevani hospital, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh . 10.1% of the patients of the patients attending Ophthalmic department of K aturi medical college and Sanjeevani hospital Guntur have refractory errors. Mal es are more affected than females. There is family incidence of myopia in 15% . About 86% of cases come with difficulty in seeing distant objects, and 12% with head ache. Highest diaptoric power of myopia recorded is - 22D. Only a single case of retinal deta chment was noted in our study

  5. Do antenatal education classes decrease use of epidural analgesia during labour? – a Danish RCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Axelsen, Solveig Forberg;

    reduce fear during birth which in turn may decrease use of pain relief. Few randomised trials have examined the effect of attending antenatal education in small groups on use of epidural analgesia and among these conclusions are conflicting. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the effect...... of an antenatal education program in small classes on use of epidural analgesia. Methods: Data from the NEWBORN trial were used. A total of 1766 women from the Copenhagen area, Denmark were randomized to participate in either antenatal education in small groups or standard care. Data were analysed...

  6. Brief intervention for alcohol misuse in people attending sexual health clinics: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    Sanatinia Rahil

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last 30 years the number of people who drink alcohol at harmful levels has increased in many countries. There have also been large increases in rates of sexually transmitted infections. Available evidence suggests that excessive alcohol consumption and poor sexual health may be linked. The prevalence of harmful alcohol use is higher among people attending sexual health clinics than in the general population, and a third of those attending clinics state that alcohol use affects whether they have unprotected sex. Previous research has demonstrated that brief intervention for alcohol misuse in other medical settings can lead to behavioral change, but the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of this intervention on sexual behavior have not been examined. Methods We will conduct a two parallel-arm, randomized trial. A consecutive sample of people attending three sexual health clinics in London and willing to participate in the study will be screened for excessive alcohol consumption. Participants identified as drinking excessively will then be allocated to either active treatment (Brief Advice and referral for Brief Intervention or control treatment (a leaflet on healthy living. Randomization will be via an independent and remote telephone randomization service and will be stratified by study clinic. Brief Advice will comprise feedback on the possible health consequences of excessive alcohol consumption, written information about alcohol and the offer of an appointment for further assessment and Brief Intervention. Follow-up data on alcohol use, sexual behavior, health related quality of life and service use will be collected by a researcher masked to allocation status six months later. The primary outcome for the study is mean weekly alcohol consumption during the previous three months, and the main secondary outcome is the proportion of participants who report unprotected sex during this period. Discussion Opportunistic

  7. Measuring the adequacy of antenatal health care: a national cross-sectional study in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Pi, Ileana; Darney, Blair G; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Lozano, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To propose an antenatal care classification for measuring the continuum of health care based on the concept of adequacy: timeliness of entry into antenatal care, number of antenatal care visits and key processes of care. Methods In a cross-sectional, retrospective study we used data from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2012. This contained self-reported information about antenatal care use by 6494 women during their last pregnancy ending in live birth. Antenatal care was considered to be adequate if a woman attended her first visit during the first trimester of pregnancy, made a minimum of four antenatal care visits and underwent at least seven of the eight recommended procedures during visits. We used multivariate ordinal logistic regression to identify correlates of adequate antenatal care and predicted coverage. Findings Based on a population-weighted sample of 9 052 044, 98.4% of women received antenatal care during their last pregnancy, but only 71.5% (95% confidence interval, CI: 69.7 to 73.2) received maternal health care classified as adequate. Significant geographic differences in coverage of care were identified among states. The probability of receiving adequate antenatal care was higher among women of higher socioeconomic status, with more years of schooling and with health insurance. Conclusion While basic antenatal care coverage is high in Mexico, adequate care remains low. Efforts by health systems, governments and researchers to measure and improve antenatal care should adopt a more rigorous definition of care to include important elements of quality such as continuity and processes of care. PMID:27274597

  8. Antenatal Bartter Syndrome: A Review

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    Y. Ramesh Bhat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antenatal Bartter syndrome (ABS is a rare autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder. The defective chloride transport in the loop of Henle leads to fetal polyuria resulting in severe hydramnios and premature delivery. Early onset, unexplained maternal polyhydramnios often challenges the treating obstetrician. Increasing polyhydramnios without apparent fetal or placental abnormalities should lead to the suspicion of this entity. Biochemical analysis of amniotic fluid is suggested as elevated chloride level is usually diagnostic. Awareness, early recognition, maternal treatment with indomethacin, and amniocentesis allow the pregnancy to continue. Affected neonates are usually born premature, have postnatal polyuria, vomiting, failure to thrive, hypercalciuria, and subsequently nephrocalcinosis. Hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, secondary hyperaldosteronism and hyperreninaemia are other characteristic features. Volume depletion due to excessive salt and water loss on long term stimulates renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system resulting in juxtaglomerular hyperplasia. Clinical features and electrolyte abnormalities may also depend on the subtype of the syndrome. Prenatal diagnosis and timely indomethacin administration prevent electrolyte imbalance, restitute normal growth, and improve activity. In this paper, authors present classification, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, complications, and prognosis of ABS.

  9. Knowledge, Perception, and Attitude of Pregnant Women Towards the Role of Physical Therapy in Antenatal Care - A Cross Sectional Study

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    Nayak R

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physiotherapy plays an essential role in obstetrics, both in the antenatal and postnatal periods. Antenatal exercises are recommended for the health benefits and safe delivery that they secure of pregnant mothers. However, studies on the efficacy of this approach in developing countries like India are limited in literature.The objective of this study was to determine knowledge, perception, and attitude of pregnant women towards the role of physical therapy in antenatal care. Methods: A descriptive survey research design was used for this cross-sectional study. A total of 106 pregnant women attending regular antenatal checkups in tertiary care centers in Mangalore, Karnataka, India were recruited. Data were obtained on maternal characteristics, knowledge, perception, and attitude towards the role of physiotherapy in antenatal care. Results: 46% of subjects knew about antenatal exercises. The majority of them were not aware or not sure about the different type of antenatal exercises avaliable.60% of the respondents had a positive attitude to physiotherapy during antenatal care. However, only 30% of the participants had adequate knowledge of the benefits of antenatal exercise and this was not influenced by maternal sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusion: A majority of Indian pregnant women demonstrate inadequate knowledge but have positive attitude towards role of physiotherapy in antenatal care.

  10. Socio Demographic Factors Determining the Adequacy of Antenatal Care among Pregnant Women Visiting Ekiti State Primary Health Centers

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    Ikeoluwapo O. Ajayi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted in Primary Health Centers among pregnant women to elucidate adequacy of antenatal care across different socio demographic variables. Four hundred respondents were proportionately selected from 18 primary health centers using simple random sampling. Exit interviews were conducted using the adapted antenatal care exit interview form of the Safe Motherhood Needs Assessment package. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi square test. Adequacy of antenatal care in this study was measured by the single adequacy indicators which are duration of pregnancy at entry into antenatal care and number of antenatal visits; which are particularly suitable for developing countries. Age of respondents, means of transportation to the PHCs, occupation, location and level of education of the respondents were found to be determinants of whether the pregnant women attended their first antenatal visit in the first trimester, similarly, age of the respondents was a predictor of whether the women made up to four antenatal visits by their third trimester. Occupation and level of education were determinants of whether or not the pregnant women made their first antenatal visits at the first trimester. More respondents who were not working and those who were unskilled workers made their first antenatal visit at the first trimester compared to those who were skilled workers; work place policies and the fact that antenatal booking are made on weekdays and at work hours may hinder or be discouraging to the working class mothers.

  11. Foot care and footwear practices among patients attending a specialist diabetes clinic in Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Gayle, Krystal A.T.; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.; Younger, Novie O; Francis, Damian K.; Shelly R. McFarlane; Wright-Pascoe, Rosemarie A.; Boyne, Michael S.; Wilks, Rainford J; Ferguson, Trevor S

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the proportion of patients at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) Diabetes Clinic who engage in recommended foot care and footwear practices. Seventy-two participants from the UHWI Diabetes Clinic completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on foot care practices and types of footwear worn. Participants were a subset of a sex-stratified random sample of clinic attendees and were interviewed in 2010. Data analysis included frequency estimates ...

  12. Evaluation of the 'healthy start to pregnancy' early antenatal health promotion workshop: a randomized controlled trial

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    Wilkinson Shelley A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy is an ideal time to encourage healthy lifestyles as most women access health services and are more receptive to health messages; however few effective interventions exist. The aim of this research was to deliver a low-intensity, dietitian-led behavior change workshop at a Maternity Hospital to influence behaviors with demonstrated health outcomes. Methods Workshop effectiveness was evaluated using an RCT; ‘usual care’ women (n = 182 received a nutrition resource at their first antenatal visit and 'intervention' women also attended a one-hour ‘Healthy Start to Pregnancy’ workshop (n = 178. Dietary intake, physical activity levels, gestational weight gain knowledge, smoking cessation, and intention to breastfeed were assessed at service-entry and 12 weeks later. Intention-to-treat (ITT and per-protocol (PP analyses examined change over time between groups. Results Approximately half (48.3% the intervention women attended the workshop and overall response rate at time 2 was 67.2%. Significantly more women in the intervention met pregnancy fruit guidelines at time 2 (+4.3%, p = 0.011 and had a clinically-relevant increase in physical activity (+27 minutes/week compared with women who only received the resource (ITT. Women who attended the workshop increased their consumption of serves of fruit (+0.4 serves/day, p = 0.004, vegetables (+0.4 serves/day, p = 0.006, met fruit guidelines (+11.9%, p , had a higher diet quality score (p = 0.027 and clinically-relevant increases in physical activity (+21.3 minutes/week compared with those who only received the resource (PP. Conclusions The Healthy Start to Pregnancy workshop attendance facilitates improvements in important health behaviors. Service changes and accessibility issues are required to assist women's workshop attendance to allow more women to benefit from the workshop’s effects. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN

  13. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milgrom Jeannette

    2008-04-01

    for other risk factors. Conclusion Risk factor profiles for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress differ but are interrelated. Antenatal depression was the strongest predictor of postnatal depression, and in turn postnatal depression was the strongest predictor for parenting stress. These results provide clinical direction suggesting that early identification and treatment of perinatal depression is important.

  14. Telephone reminders reduced the non-attendance rate in a gastroenterology outpatient clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Maja Haunstrup; Ainsworth, Mark Andrew

    2015-01-01

    in a gastroenterology outpatient clinic like ours. METHODS: This was a comparative intervention study with a historical control group in a gastroenterology outpatient clinic. The study lasted six months. Patients with a scheduled appointment in the first three-month period received no reminder...

  15. Obstetrics risk of HIV infection among antenatal women in a rural Nigerian hospital

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    E A Etukumana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obstetrics risk and practices can lead to the spread of HIV/AIDS. Identification of such obstetrics risk of HIV infection is a useful step in the prevention of transmission of the virus. Objective: We sought to determine obstetrics risk of HIV infection in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in a rural Northern Nigerian hospital. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study of pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of a rural mission hospital in northern Nigeria between June and October 2005. Data were collected using structured questionnaire. HIV screening and confirmation was carried out on pregnant women after voluntary counseling. Results: 350 pregnant women were enrolled with a mean age (±SD of 26.8± 6.4years. The highest number of HIV infected women was observed in those who had their first coitus between 16 and 20 years. The age at first coitus was not significantly related to the HIV infection (P=0.41. Neither parity (P=0.13 nor past history of abortion (P=0.42 was associated with HIV infection. None of the 41 women who had their last delivery at home had HIV infection compared with 9.8% of the 194 women who delivered in the hospital or clinic (P=0.008. Forty percent of those who had their last delivery in primary health centre had HIV infection while 22.2% of those who delivered under the care of traditional birth had HIV infection. Conclusion: Obstetrics practices may encourage transmission of HIV infection. This calls for re-examination of the obstetrics practices especially in our primary health centers in order to prevent transmission of HIV infection.

  16. Antenatal depression in a tertiary care hospital

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    Amar D Bavle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Antenatal depression is not easily visible, though the prevalence is high. The idea of conducting this study was conceived from this fact. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of antenatal depression and identify the risk factors, for early diagnosis and intervention. Settings and Design: The study conducted in a Tertiary Care Hospital was prospective and cross-sectional. Materials and Methods: Pregnant women between 18 and 40 years of age were studied. The sample size comprised 318 women. They were assessed using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS score, Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis I Disorders, Life Event Stress Scale (LESS, and Life Distress Inventory (LDI. Statistical Analysis Used: The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 15 software was used to measure percentages, mean, correlation, and P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Prevalence of antenatal depression in the study was 12.3%. Correlation of the sociodemographic factors, obstetric factors, LDI, and LESS with EPDS scores showed statistical significance for unplanned pregnancy, distress associated with relationships, physical health, financial situation, social life, presence of personality disorder, being a homemaker, and higher educational status. Conclusion: The study showed a high prevalence rate of depression and identified risk factors.

  17. Perception and utilization of traditional birth attendants by pregnant women attending primary health care clinics in a rural Local Government Area in Ogun State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ebuehi OM; Akintujoye IA

    2012-01-01

    Olufunke M Ebuehi, IA AkintujoyeReproductive and International Health Unit, Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, NigeriaBackground: In developing countries, most childbirth occurs at home and is not assisted by skilled attendants. This situation increases the risk of death for both mother and child and has severe maternal and neonatal health complications. The purpose of this study was to explore pregnant women’s perceptio...

  18. Denture care practice among patients attending the prosthetic clinic in a Nigerian teaching hospital

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    Tunde Joshua Ogunrinde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Good denture care practice by individuals using Removable Partial Denture (RPD is an important component of oral health measures. An assessment of denture care practice of such individuals by dental care practitioners is necessary. Objective : To evaluate the denture care practice among prosthetics patients attending a tertiary Hospital Dental Centre in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to obtain information from RPD wearers that were willing to participate. The questionnaire assessed among other things, patients′ bio-data, frequency, techniques and device used for cleaning their dentures. Data was analyzed using Chi-square test (P < 0.05. Results: One hundred and ninety eight denture wearers consisting of 100 (50.5% males and 98 (49.5% females participated in the study. Majority 110 (55.6% cleaned their dentures once daily and toothbrush and pastes were used by 105 (53% of the participants. More than 70% of the respondents removed their dentures at night. One hundred and sixty-six (83.8% visited the dentist only when they needed treatment. There was a statistical significant relationship between frequency and technique of cleaning denture, and denture cleanliness (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This study shows that once daily cleaning of dentures and cleaning the denture with rest of the teeth are ineffective in prevention of plaque accumulation.

  19. Nutrition related knowledge and practices of hypertensive adults attending hypertensive clinics at day hospitals in the Cape Metropole

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    H. Becker

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine nutrition knowledge and dietary practices of hypertensive adults attending hypertensive clinics at Day Hospitals in the Cape Metropole. Ten Day Hospitals were randomly selected from a total of 31 Day Hospitals and the first participants attending the hypertension clinics per day were recruited. A total of 85 participants were evaluated. The weight, height, waist and hip circumference of each participant was measured, as well as their blood pressure. Knowledge of dietary intake was obtained by completing a questionnaire, during an interview with the patient. Knowledge regarding salt usage indicated that a large percentage (34.1 % of participants believed that flavour enhancers like Aromat or Fondor could safely be used instead of table salt. Furthermore, 23.5% reported that tinned and smoked meat or fish have a low sodium (salt content. Fruit and vegetables were perceived as having a positive effect on hypertension by 74.1 % of participants. However, only 15% of the group knew that the recommendation for their usage was five or more servings per day. Only 12.9% of participants in this study had a normal weight (body mass index (BMI < 25, 25.9% were overweight (BMI 25 - 29.9 and 61.2% were obese (BMI ≥ 30; 84.7% recognized the association between obesity and hypertension. A large waist circumference (> 88cm in women; 102cm in men was found in 61.2% of participants, however, only 18.2% of black men had such a measurement. Uncontrolled blood pressure readings (> 140/90mm Hg were found in 61.2% of these patients at the hypertension clinics.

  20. Analysis of the problem of low adherence of patients to attendance at outpatient clinics and cardiorehabilitation programs according to the data from published studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. V. Semenova; N.P. Kutishenko; S.Yu. Martsevich

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to study a problem of outpatient non-attendance by the analysis of relevant literature data. Pubmed and Cyberlenica articles and abstracts, published in 1966-2015, concerning the problem of non-attendance at outpatient clinics and cardiac rehabilitation programs, were used as data sources. The search included articles that reviewed the prevalence of outpatient non-attendance, reasons for it, it’s effect on disease outcomes and search for possible ways of its correct...

  1. Tablet computers for implementing NICE antenatal mental health guidelines: protocol of a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano-Belisario, José S; Gupta, Ajay K; O'Donoghue, John; Morrison, Cecily; Car, Josip

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Depression is one of the most common mental health disorders that may affect women during pregnancy. The prompt identification of this disorder, and the provision of treatment, may help to reduce the likelihood of post-partum depression, prevent severe forms of the disease, and reduce its intergenerational impact. Despite women's repeated encounters with health services throughout their antenatal care, depression often goes undiagnosed. This is one area where mobile health could prove useful. We will assess the feasibility of using tablets to incorporate depression screening into antenatal pathways. We will also assess if survey layout could affect the quality of the data collected through these devices. Methods and analysis We will test the feasibility of using iPad Airs for the administration of the Whooley questions and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) to pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in England. We will assess the impact of survey layout on the quality of the responses given to these screening scales using a parallel, randomised controlled study design. We will calculate the positive predictive value, the negative predictive value and the false omission rate of the Whooley questions in comparison with the EPDS. We will calculate differences in data equivalence, time needed to complete the surveys, break-off rates, data completeness and requests for help between the 2 experimental groups: using all questions in one screen and navigation by vertical scrolling, or a single question per screen and navigation by multiple pages. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the National Research Ethics Service Committee South East Coast—Surrey. Our findings will be disseminated through academic peer-reviewed publications, conferences and discussion with peers. PMID:26801468

  2. [Antenatal care in immigrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, J; Coll, C; Coloma, M; Martín, J I; Padrón, E; González González, N L

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon of immigration has had an impact on the health care of the population. The immigrant population in Spain today represents approximately 8% of the total population. The majority of this population proceeds from countries with low income, and its origin and distribution is diverse. The immigrant population is characterised by its being young and healthy, and with a capacity to adapt to changes, but its social, economic and labour conditions are frequently insecure and favour vulnerability to disease. In spite of the number of immigrants of the male sex being globally higher than that of women, the percentage of immigrants of the female sex is growing. This increase of the female immigrant population has resulted in the appearance of specific health care needs, especially with respect to sexual and reproductive health. To which we must add a substantial increase in pathologies prevalent in the countries of origin, such as anaemia, tuberculosis, malnutrition, haemoglobinopathies, consanguinity, hypocalcaemia, hepatitis B and/or C, sexually transmitted infections, infectious diseases transmitted by arthropods, such as Chagas disease and other parasitoses, as well as genital mutilations. The aim of this article is to analyse the factors that make it difficult to control gestation in the immigrant population, as well as to establish guidelines for acting in antenatal care consultations. Insistence is placed on health education and prevention during pregnancy, and consideration is given to the appearance of rare diseases related to some of these groups. PMID:16721417

  3. What Comes before Report Writing? Attending to Clinical Reasoning and Thinking Errors in School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Gabrielle; Schroeder, Meadow

    2015-01-01

    Psychoeducational assessment involves collecting, organizing, and interpreting a large amount of data from various sources. Drawing upon psychological and medical literature, we review two main approaches to clinical reasoning (deductive and inductive) and how they synergistically guide diagnostic decision-making. In addition, we discuss how the…

  4. Testicular Self Examination--Knowledge of Men Attending a Large Genito Urinary Medicine Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Pauline; Sankar, K. Nathan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To elicit the level of knowledge, training and preferences of men in relation to Testicular Self Examination (TSE). Setting: The Genito Urinary Medicine (GUM) department of a large teaching hospital in the North East of England. The open access clinic serves patients from Newcastle upon Tyne, Northumberland, Gateshead and surrounding…

  5. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus among antenatal patients and incidence of mother- to- child transmission using single dose nevirapine: a cohort study in Maharashtra

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    Sonal A. Bhuyar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objective was to study the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in antenatal patients and to find out the incidence of mother to child transmission (MTCT using single dose nevirapine (sdNVP to mother- baby pairs in labour. Methods: This prospective study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dr. PDMMC, Amravati, Maharashtra from February 2010 to May 2015. All pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic were subjected to pretest counseling and HIV testing after informed consent. The HIV +ve pregnant patients who opted for delivery at our hospital were included in the study. sdNVP was administered to mother- baby pairs according to NACO guidelines. Babies of these patients were followed up to 18 months of age for HIV testing. Results: 12077 antenatal patients underwent pretest counseling. 11957 antenatal patients were tested for HIV of which 28 were detected positive. Therefore, the seroprevalence in this study was found to be 0.23%. 23 patients delivered at our hospital during the study period and babies of 2 patients tested positive for HIV. Hence the incidence of MTCT was found to be 9.5% in our study. Conclusions: Universal screening of pregnant patients for HIV and judicious use of PPTCT regimens can significantly reduce MTCT of HIV and prevalence of pediatric HIV infection. Single dose nevirapine use over last few years has successfully reduced MTCT, but our aim should be to reduce it further with more effective ART regimens for the seropositive antenatal patients and their babies. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1436-1441

  6. Evaluation of risk factors in patients attending STI clinic in a tertiary care hospital in North India

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    Charu Nayyar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the past few years, the interest in STDs and their management has increased tremendously because of their proven role in facilitation of HIV infection, which, in turn, also increases the risk of acquiring STIs. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are a major health problem affecting mostly young people, not only in developing, but also in developed countries Male circumcision is being considered as strategy to reduce the burden of HIV/AIDS. Aims: (i To screen the new patients attending the STI clinic for bacterial causes of STIs (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum and Gardnerella vaginalis and (ii to evaluate the role of various risk factors in the prevalence of STIs. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 200 patients attending the STI clinic. They were evaluated for the prevalence of HIV and bacterial STIs (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum and Gardnerella vaginalis along with the role of risk factors particularly circumcision. Results: The prevalence of HIV was 7% and prevalence of other STI was 20%. The causative agents were Chlamydia 8%, Gonorrhea 7.5%, Bacterial Vaginosis 2.7% and Syphilis 2%. Conclusion: The factors found to be significantly associated with the prevalence of STI were circumcision, positive HIV status, education, religion, multiple sexual partners, contact with Commercial sex workers (CSW, non use of contraception, profession involving long stay away from home, and past history of STI. The present study suggests that circumcision is a protective factor for acquisition of STIs but other factors like sexual behavior, use of barrier contraceptives, drug abuse etc., also play a role.

  7. Prevalence and correlates of serostatus disclosure in HIV-infected adults attending the follow up and treatment clinic in Barbados.

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    Sheila Forde

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the extent of disclosure and factors associated with disclosure of HIV status to sexual partners, we interviewed HIV infected adults attending the centralized HIV clinics seeking medical care for HIV. Methods: The subjects were patients who attended the LRU for primary care and treatment of their HIV infection during the three months period of this study enrolment. Patients were asked to participate in this study after initial clinical care was performed, in a 30-minute standardized interview concerning behavioral, medical, and social history. Results: The study patients had the following characteristics: female, 42.7%; male, 57.3%; singles, 84.5%; married, 11.8%. The median age of respondents was 35 years, and 66.4% were employed. Seventy nine percent were sexually active, and of these 72% had a steady sex partner and 61% had one or more casual partners. Over all 64 (58.2% of those interviewed, had disclosed their HIV status to significant others. Of the sixty three persons who had a steady partner 71.4% had self disclosed their HIV status to one or more steady partners. Of the fifty three persons who had one or more casual partners, 26.4% had self-disclosed their status to one or more casual partners. The most common reasons listed for nondisclosure to spouse or significant other were stigma/discrimination, fear of spread of information, rejection. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that both the knowing and unknowing sexual partners of HIV-infected persons continue to be at risk for HIV transmission.

  8. Practice of breast self-examination amongst women attending a Malaysian Well Person's Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S C

    1999-12-01

    The practice of breast self-examination (BSE) amongst 1,303 women registered with the Well Person's Clinic, Outpatient Department, Hospital Ipoh between April 1995 and March 1997 were assessed through a questionnaire. Majority (98.2%) were never taught and did not practise BSE, 17(1.3%) practised BSE while 6 (0.5%) were taught BSE but failed to put it into practice. Only 5.8% of 52 women with past/family history of breast cancer/lump and 2.9% of 207 women with past/family history of other cancers were practising BSE regularly. Three out of 64 women with breast lumps found on clinical breast examination discovered the lumps themselves. Five of the 64 women were subsequently confirmed to have breast carcinoma. PMID:11072459

  9. Immunization Status of Young People Attending a Youth Clinic in Geneva, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynard, Anne; Genequand, Lydia Markham; Jeannot, Emilien; Wyler-Lazarevic, Claire-Anne; Cerutti, Bernard; Narring, Françoise

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent vaccination coverage is very variable in European countries and data are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess immunization status and analyze potential variations according to sociodemographic variables in a youth clinic in Geneva, Switzerland. Immunization status was assessed retrospectively: Tetanus (number of doses or in absence of data tetanus antibodies) and measles as indicators of childhood coverage as well as hepatitis B and human papillomavirus. All new patients (N = 390) of Geneva University Hospital's youth clinic were included between January 2010 and June 2011. Vaccine coverage was low for all vaccines regardless of sex or origin. 89 % of young people tested (mostly recent immigrants with no available data) had tetanus antibodies indicating adequate childhood immunization but hepatitis B and HPV coverage was low especially in recent immigrants. Systematic assessment allows better adolescent vaccine coverage and can improve safety by avoiding unnecessary dosis. PMID:25774037

  10. Psychopathology and functional impairment among patients attending an adolescent health clinic: Implications for healthcare model reform

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Sushila; Subramanian, Balakrishnan; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar

    2008-01-01

    Background In developing countries, primary health care facilities, such as adolescent health clinics, are frequently the first contact for an adolescent with a health professional for a myriad of health problems including mental health issues. Psychopathology is prevalent among adolescents, and causes significant educational, occupational and social impairment. The presence of psychopathology with impairment requires the development of treatment models to address both of these components. We...

  11. Augmentation and reduction mammaplasty: demographic and obstetric differences in women attending a National Health Service clinic.

    OpenAIRE

    Birtchnell, S.; Lacey, J H

    1988-01-01

    Women presenting for breast augmentation and breast reduction to a National Health Service plastic surgery/psychiatry liaison clinic appear to differ beyond the anatomical. Those requesting breast reduction tend to be younger, unmarried and not to have been pregnant and may be uncomfortable with adult sexuality. Those requesting breast augmentation are presenting for surgery in their mid-thirties although many have always had small breasts. This is at a time of fading attractiveness, marital ...

  12. Foot care and footwear practices among patients attending a specialist diabetes clinic in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayle, Krystal A T; Tulloch Reid, Marshall K; Younger, Novie O; Francis, Damian K; McFarlane, Shelly R; Wright-Pascoe, Rosemarie A; Boyne, Michael S; Wilks, Rainford J; Ferguson, Trevor S

    2012-10-12

    This study aimed to estimate the proportion of patients at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) Diabetes Clinic who engage in recommended foot care and footwear practices. Seventy-two participants from the UHWI Diabetes Clinic completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on foot care practices and types of footwear worn. Participants were a subset of a sex-stratified random sample of clinic attendees and were interviewed in 2010. Data analysis included frequency estimates of the various foot care practices and types of footwear worn. Participants had a mean age of 57.0±14.3 years and mean duration of diabetes of 17.0±10.3 years. Fifty-three percent of participants reported being taught how to care for their feet, while daily foot inspection was performed by approximately 60% of participants. Most participants (90%) reported daily use of moisturizing lotion on the feet but almost 50% used lotion between the toes. Approximately 85% of participants reported wearing shoes or slippers both indoors and outdoors but over 40% reported walking barefoot at some time. Thirteen percent wore special shoes for diabetes while over 80% wore shoes without socks at some time. Although much larger proportions reported wearing broad round toe shoes (82%) or leather shoes (64%), fairly high proportions reported wearing pointed toe shoes (39%), and 43% of women wore high heel shoes. In conclusion, approximately 60% of patients at the UHWI diabetic clinic engage in daily foot inspection and other recommended practices, but fairly high proportions reported foot care or footwear choices that should be avoided. PMID:24765484

  13. Foot care and footwear practices among patients attending a specialist diabetes clinic in Jamaica

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    Krystal A.T. Gayle

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the proportion of patients at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI Diabetes Clinic who engage in recommended foot care and footwear practices. Seventy-two participants from the UHWI Diabetes Clinic completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on foot care practices and types of footwear worn. Participants were a subset of a sex-stratified random sample of clinic attendees and were interviewed in 2010. Data analysis included frequency estimates of the various foot care practices and types of footwear worn. Participants had a mean age of 57.0±14.3 years and mean duration of diabetes of 17.0±10.3 years. Fifty-three percent of participants reported being taught how to care for their feet, while daily foot inspection was performed by approximately 60% of participants. Most participants (90% reported daily use of moisturizing lotion on the feet but almost 50% used lotion between the toes. In conclusion, approximately 85% of participants reported wearing shoes or slippers both indoors and outdoors but over 40% reported walking barefoot at some time. Thirteen percent wore special shoes for diabetes while over 80% wore shoes without socks at some time. Although much larger proportions reported wearing broad round toe shoes (82% or leather shoes (64%, fairly high proportions reported wearing pointed toe shoes (39%, and 43% of women wore high heel shoes. Approximately 60% of patients at the UHWI diabetic clinic engage in daily foot inspection and other recommended practices, but fairly high proportions reported foot care or footwear choices that should be avoided.

  14. Use of antenatal care, maternity services, intermittent presumptive treatment and insecticide treated bed nets by pregnant women in Luwero district, Uganda

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    Mufubenga Patrobas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce the intolerable burden of malaria in pregnancy, the Ministry of Health in Uganda improved the antenatal care package by including a strong commitment to increase distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs and introduction of intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for pregnant women (IPTp-SP as a national policy in 2000. This study assessed uptake of both ITNs and IPTp-SP by pregnant women as well as antenatal and maternity care use with the aim of optimizing their delivery. Methods 769 post-partum women were recruited from a rural area of central Uganda with perennial malaria transmission through a cross-sectional, community-based household survey in May 2005. Results Of the 769 women interviewed, antenatal clinic (ANC attendance was high (94.4%; 417 (57.7% visiting initially during the 2nd trimester, 242 (33.5% during the 3rd trimester and 266 (37.1% reporting ≥ 4 ANC visits. About 537 (71% and 272 (35.8% received one or ≥ 2 IPTp-SP doses respectively. Only 85 (15.8% received the first dose of IPTp-SP in the 3rd trimester. ITNs were used by 239 (31.3% of women during pregnancy and 314 (40.8% delivered their most recent pregnancy outside a health facility. Post-partum women who lacked post-primary education were more likely not to have attended four or more ANC visits (odds ratio [OR] 3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–9.3. Conclusion These findings illustrate the need to strengthen capacity of the district to further improve antenatal care and maternity services utilization and IPTp-SP uptake. More specific and effective community health strategies to improve effective ANC, maternity services utilization and IPTp-SP uptake in rural communities should be undertaken.

  15. Home birth attendants in low income countries: who are they and what do they do?

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    Garces Ana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly half the world’s babies are born at home. We sought to evaluate the training, knowledge, skills, and access to medical equipment and testing for home birth attendants across 7 international sites. Methods Face-to-face interviews were done by trained interviewers to assess level of training, knowledge and practices regarding care during the antenatal, intrapartum and postpartum periods. The survey was administered to a sample of birth attendants conducting home or out-of-facility deliveries in 7 sites in 6 countries (India, Pakistan, Guatemala, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya and Zambia. Results A total of 1226 home birth attendants were surveyed. Less than half the birth attendants were literate. Eighty percent had one month or less of formal training. Most home birth attendants did not have basic equipment (e.g., blood pressure apparatus, stethoscope, infant bag and mask manual resuscitator. Reporting of births and maternal and neonatal deaths to government agencies was low. Indian auxilliary nurse midwives, who perform some home but mainly clinic births, were far better trained and differed in many characteristics from the birth attendants who only performed deliveries at home. Conclusions Home birth attendants in low-income countries were often illiterate, could not read numbers and had little formal training. Most had few of the skills or access to tests, medications and equipment that are necessary to reduce maternal, fetal or neonatal mortality.

  16. Impact of men's dairy intake on assisted reproductive technology outcomes among couples attending a fertility clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Chiu, Yu-Han; Afeiche, Myriam C; Williams, Paige L; Ford, Jennifer B; Tanrikut, Cigdem; Souter, Irene; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2016-03-01

    Intake of full-fat dairy has been linked to lower semen quality but whether this leads to decreased fertility is unknown. To address this question, we prospectively evaluated the association of men's dairy intake with treatment outcomes of subfertile couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART). We followed 142 men from couples undergoing infertility treatment with ART at an academic fertility centre between 2007 and 2014. Couples completed dietary assessments prior to treatment, and the female partners underwent a total of 248 ART cycles. Multivariable generalized linear mixed models were used to examine the association of dairy intake with fertilization, implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status, total exercise time, dietary patterns, alcohol, caffeine, total energy intake, and female dairy intake. Intake of dairy foods, regardless of their fat content, was not associated with fertilization, implantation, clinical pregnancy or live birth rates. The adjusted live birth rates (95% confidence interval) for couples in increasing quartiles of men's dairy intake were 0.42 (0.25, 0.60), 0.25 (0.13, 0.42), 0.26 (0.15, 0.41), and 0.44 (0.27, 0.63) (p linear trend = 0.73). Results remained similar after adjustment for female partner intake of dairy foods. Overall, men's dairy intake was not associated with treatment outcomes of couples undergoing ART. PMID:26825777

  17. Gender differences among suicide attempters attending a Crisis Intervention Clinic in South India

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    Vikas Menon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Studying gender differences among suicide attempters is important for identifying gender-specific risk factors and for planning management and prevention. Our objective was to delineate gender differences among a well-defined group of suicide attempters. Materials and Methods: This record-based study was conducted among patients presenting to a Crisis Intervention Clinic in a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India. Information was gathered regarding sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Hopelessness was measured using Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS, and stress was evaluated using Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale (PSLES. Results: The sample comprised of 162 males and 137 females. Males were significantly older and were more likely to be employed as compared to females. Alcohol use was significantly more in males and number of men who attempted suicide under intoxication was significantly higher. Females had a greater proportion of attempts with the use of plant poisons and medication overdose. There was no significant difference between two genders on BHS though differences were noted on types of stresses reported on PSLES. Conclusion: Gender-specific differences were noted with regard to substance use, mode of attempt and types of stressors experienced. Identifying these factors might help us to design targeted interventions to prevent further attempts.

  18. Predictive indices of empirical clinical diagnosis of malaria among under-five febrile children attending paediatric outpatient clinic

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    Hassan A Elechi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria has remained an important public health problem in Nigeria with children under 5 years of age bearing the greatest burden. Accurate and prompt diagnosis of malaria is an important element in the fight against the scourge. Due to the several limitations of microscopy, diagnosis of malaria has continued to be made based on clinical ground against several World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. Thus, we aim to assess the performance of empirical clinical diagnosis among febrile children under 5 years of age in a busy pediatric outpatient clinic. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study. Children aged <5 years with fever or 72 h history of fever were recruited. Children on antimalarial prophylaxis or on treatment for malaria were excluded. Relevant information was obtained from the caregiver and clinical note of the child using interviewer administered questionnaire. Two thick and two thin films were made, stained, and read for each recruited child. Data was analysed using SPSS version 16. Results: Of the 433 children studied, 98 (22.6% were empirically diagnosed as having malaria and antimalarial drug prescribed. Twenty-three (23.5% of these children were confirmed by microscopy to have malaria parasitemia, while 75 (76.5% were negative for malaria parasitemia. Empirical clinical diagnosis show poor predictive indices with sensitivity of 19.2%, specificity of 76.0%, positive predictive value of 23.5% and negative predictive value of 71%. Conclusion and Recommendations: Empirical clinical diagnosis of malaria among the under-five children with symptoms suggestive of acute malaria is highly not reliable and hence the need to strengthen parasitological diagnosis.

  19. Dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease risk profiles of patients attending an HIV treatment clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe

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    Zhou DT

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Danai Tavonga Zhou,1,2 Vitaris Kodogo,1 Kudzai Fortunate Vongai Chokuona,1 Exnevia Gomo,1 Olav Oektedalen,3 Babill Stray-Pedersen21Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Avondale, Zimbabwe; 2Institute of Clinical Medicine, University in Oslo, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 3Department of Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, NorwayAbstract: The chronic inflammation induced by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV contributes to increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD in HIV-infected individuals. HIV-infected patients generally benefit from being treated with antiretroviral drugs, but some antiretroviral agents have side effects, such as dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. There is general consensus that antiretroviral drugs induce a long-term risk of CHD, although the levels of that risk are somewhat controversial. The intention of this cross-sectional study was to describe the lipid profile and the long-term risk of CHD among HIV-positive outpatients at an HIV treatment clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe. Two hundred and fifteen patients were investigated (females n=165, mean age 39.8 years; males n=50; mean age 42.0 years. Thirty of the individuals were antiretroviral-naïve and 185 had been on antiretroviral therapy (ART for a mean 3.9±3.4 years. All participants had average lipid and glucose values within normal ranges, but there was a small difference between the ART and ART- for total cholesterol (TC and high-density lipoprotein (HDL.Those on a combination of D4T or ZDV/NVP/3TC and PI-based ART were on average oldest and had the highest TC levels. Framingham risk showed 1.4% prevalence of high CHD risk within the next ten years. After univariate analysis age, sex, TC/HDL ratio, HDL, economic earnings and systolic BP were associated with medium to high risk of CHD. After multivariate regression analysis and adjusting for age or sex only age, sex and economic earnings

  20. Assessment of menopausal symptoms among women attending various outreach clinics in South Canara District of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nitin; Nagaraj, Kondagunta; Saralaya, Vittal; Nelliyanil, Maria; Rao, PP Jagadish

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Menopausal symptoms experienced by women are known to affect their quality-of-life. The symptoms experienced at menopause are quite variable and their etiology is found to be multifactorial. This study was hence done to assess the pattern and severity of menopausal symptoms and to find out the factors associated with these symptoms. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in various outreach clinics of Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore. Women in the age group of 40-65 years were included in the study by convenient sampling method. Data regarding menopausal symptom was obtained by interviewing each participant using the menopause rating scale questionnaire. Results: Mean age of the participants were 54.2 ± 7.2 years and mean age of attainment of menopause was 48.4 ± 4.5 years. Mean duration of menopause was found to be 7.5 ± 5.3 years. Commonest symptom reported was joint and muscular discomfort and physical and mental exhaustion seen in 94 (85.4%) participants. The mean number of symptoms reported by participants was 7.6 ± 2.8. Educated women reported significantly more symptoms (F = 2.218, P = 0.047). Somatic and urogenital symptoms were more among perimenopausal women and somatic symptoms were more among postmenopausal women. Fifty-eight (52.7%) participants had one or more severe symptoms. Severe symptoms were most among premenopausal women. Conclusion: The high proportion and severity of menopausal symptoms observed in this study group proves that menopausal symptoms are common and cannot be ignored. More of menopausal clinics are needed for awareness generation, early recognition and treatment of related morbidities. PMID:24970987

  1. Breast self-examination practices in Nigerian women attending a tertiary outpatient clinic

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    A M Ogunbode

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The morbidity and mortality caused by breast cancer can be decreased by early detection with breast self-examination (BSE. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and the factors determining the practice of BSE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 140 women aged above 18 years who presented consecutively in a General Outpatient's clinic in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. This was the baseline study from an intervention study which looked at the effect of demonstration of BSE on improving Clinical Breast Examination (CBE among two groups of respondents. Structured questionnaires were validated and administered by an interviewer and the data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 12. RESULTS: The overall self-reported prevalence of BSE practice was 62.1% among the respondents. Older women (16, 76.2%, married women (63, 65.6% and women with tertiary education (51, 68.9% had the highest prevalence of BSE practice. Prevalence rate was highest for civil servant (25, 78.1%, P = 0.04. The practice of BSE was higher among women with a previous history of breast disease (15, 68.2% and in respondents with a family history of breast disease (7, 63.6%, Only 11 (12.6% performed BSE as per guidelines, which was once in a month. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of BSE was found to be high, especially in those with tertiary education and in those with a past personal or family history of breast disease. In resource-constrained countries, BSE is a screening tool that can be employed to help reduce the breast cancer burden because routine mammography screening is not yet feasible. Women need to be informed about the when and how to perform BSE.

  2. Prevalence of Peripheral Arterial Disease among Adult Patients Attending Outpatient Clinic at a General Hospital in South Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquissi, Feliciano Chanana; Cuvinje, Arminda Bimbi Paquissi; Cuvinje, Almeida Bailundo

    2016-01-01

    Background. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common manifestation of atherosclerosis, whose prevalence is increasing worldwide, and is associated with all-cause mortality. However, no study has assessed this disease in Huambo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PAD in patients attending an outpatient clinic at a general hospital in Huambo, South Angola. Methods. A cross-sectional study, including 115 patients aged 40 years and older attending an outpatient service. The evaluation included a basic questionnaire for lifestyle and medical history and ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurement using hand-held Doppler. PAD was defined as an ABI ≤0.9 in either lower limb. Results. Of 115 patients, 62.60% were women with a median age of 52.5 (range of 40 to 91) years. The prevalence of PAD was 42.6% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 95%: 33.91-52.17%). Among patients with PAD, 95.92% had mild disease and 4.08% moderate to severe disease. The main risk factor for PAD was age (≥60 years) (χ (2) = 3.917, P ≤ 0.05). The prevalence was slightly higher in men and hypertensive subjects, but without statistical significance with ORs of 1.5 (95% CI: 0.69-3.21) and 1.42 (95% CI: 0.64-3.17), respectively. Hypertension was also high in the group (66.95%). Conclusion. The prevalence of PAD was 42.6%, higher in those aged 60 years and older. More studies, with representative samples, are necessary to clarify PAD prevalence and associated risk factors. PMID:27293966

  3. Prevalence of Peripheral Arterial Disease among Adult Patients Attending Outpatient Clinic at a General Hospital in South Angola

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    Feliciano Chanana Paquissi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is a common manifestation of atherosclerosis, whose prevalence is increasing worldwide, and is associated with all-cause mortality. However, no study has assessed this disease in Huambo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PAD in patients attending an outpatient clinic at a general hospital in Huambo, South Angola. Methods. A cross-sectional study, including 115 patients aged 40 years and older attending an outpatient service. The evaluation included a basic questionnaire for lifestyle and medical history and ankle-brachial index (ABI measurement using hand-held Doppler. PAD was defined as an ABI ≤0.9 in either lower limb. Results. Of 115 patients, 62.60% were women with a median age of 52.5 (range of 40 to 91 years. The prevalence of PAD was 42.6% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 95%: 33.91–52.17%. Among patients with PAD, 95.92% had mild disease and 4.08% moderate to severe disease. The main risk factor for PAD was age (≥60 years (χ2=3.917, P≤0.05. The prevalence was slightly higher in men and hypertensive subjects, but without statistical significance with ORs of 1.5 (95% CI: 0.69–3.21 and 1.42 (95% CI: 0.64–3.17, respectively. Hypertension was also high in the group (66.95%. Conclusion. The prevalence of PAD was 42.6%, higher in those aged 60 years and older. More studies, with representative samples, are necessary to clarify PAD prevalence and associated risk factors.

  4. Prevalence of Peripheral Arterial Disease among Adult Patients Attending Outpatient Clinic at a General Hospital in South Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquissi, Feliciano Chanana; Cuvinje, Arminda Bimbi Paquissi; Cuvinje, Almeida Bailundo

    2016-01-01

    Background. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common manifestation of atherosclerosis, whose prevalence is increasing worldwide, and is associated with all-cause mortality. However, no study has assessed this disease in Huambo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PAD in patients attending an outpatient clinic at a general hospital in Huambo, South Angola. Methods. A cross-sectional study, including 115 patients aged 40 years and older attending an outpatient service. The evaluation included a basic questionnaire for lifestyle and medical history and ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurement using hand-held Doppler. PAD was defined as an ABI ≤0.9 in either lower limb. Results. Of 115 patients, 62.60% were women with a median age of 52.5 (range of 40 to 91) years. The prevalence of PAD was 42.6% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 95%: 33.91–52.17%). Among patients with PAD, 95.92% had mild disease and 4.08% moderate to severe disease. The main risk factor for PAD was age (≥60 years) (χ2 = 3.917, P ≤ 0.05). The prevalence was slightly higher in men and hypertensive subjects, but without statistical significance with ORs of 1.5 (95% CI: 0.69–3.21) and 1.42 (95% CI: 0.64–3.17), respectively. Hypertension was also high in the group (66.95%). Conclusion. The prevalence of PAD was 42.6%, higher in those aged 60 years and older. More studies, with representative samples, are necessary to clarify PAD prevalence and associated risk factors. PMID:27293966

  5. Prevalence of Depression among Elderly Diabetes Mellitus Patients Attending Diabetes Clinic at Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute

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    Shivaraj B Mallappa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available "Introduction: Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder among the elderly. Diabetes will add additional burden on occurrence of depression. The study was conducted to study the prevalence of the depression among elderly diabetics who are seeking care at a tertiary care centre. Methods: A cross sectional study held at a diabetes clinic of a tertiary care institute with the purposive sample of 100 subjects during the month of March 2013. The diabetic patients who were above the age of 60 years are surveyed.. WHO Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS short form was used to collect the data. Results: Prevalence of Depression among studied population 41%. Mean age of the study population 67.8 (+6.2 years with females constituting 72%. 39 % of the study population was illiterate and 33 % of them did primary schooling. There were significant association of depression with female gender, widows, illiterates, financially dependent and persons with multiple co-morbid conditions. Conclusion: This study has shown that geriatric depression is highly prevalent. The results of this study emphasize the need of intervention studies which can promote the physical, mental and social health of the patient attending the diabetes clinic." [Natl J Community Med 2016; 7(3.000: 198-200

  6. BREASTFEEDING AND CONTRACEPTIVE PRACTICES AMONG MOTHERS ATTENDING UNDER 5 CLINIC OF A GOVERNMENT TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL, KARNATAKA

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    Manjunath

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Breast feeding and contraception are important determinants of child mortality and morbidity. These practices vary in different communities due to different socio-cultural factors. Breast feeding practices influences health of the child and incidence of infections. OBJECTIVES: 1. To determine the socio demographic characteristics among mothers attending under 5 clinic. 2. To determine the breast feeding practices among mothers. 3. To determine the association between ARI and ADD with breastfeeding. 4. To determine the contraceptive practices among the mother. METHODOLOGY: This Cross-sectional study was conducted at a government tertiary care teaching hospital, Karnataka for a period of 6 months. The data was collected from the mothers by using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire in the local language (Kannada. RESULTS: Of the total 2932 mothers, 46.1% mothers had breast-fed their babies within one hour of delivery, 9.2% had given pre-lacteal feeds and colostrum was not fed to 7.9% of the babies. The difference in the incidence of ARI and ADD between the children who were exclusively breastfeed and the children who were not exclusively breastfed was significant. Contraception was practices by 10.8% of the mothers. CONCLUSION: The immunization clinic offers an opportunity to enquire the mother about the breast feeding practices and advise about the importance of exclusive breast feeding. It also provides an opportunity for questioning and offering advice about contraception.

  7. Health-related quality of life among osteoarthritis patients attending primary care clinics of Mangalore city

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    HN Harsha Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoarthritis (OA of the knee is the most common type of arthritis of the elderly among Asians. Reports suggest that it affects the quality of life. Hence, this study was undertaken with the objective to know the impact of OA of the knee on 8 domains of health related quality of life (HRQoL which include: (1 Physical functioning (PF, (2 role limitation due to physical health (RP. (3 Emotional well-being/mental health (MH, (4 role limitation due to emotional problems (RE, (5 energy/vitality, (6 social well-being (short form [SF], (7 body pain, (8 general health. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in primary care rural clinics situated on peripheral areas of Mangalore city. Total sample size was calculated to be 77. Patients who met the criteria of modified American Rheumatologic Association Classification for OA of knee were administered a SF-36 questionnaire to measure the HRQoL in the local language version. Mean scores (with its standard deviation across each domain was calculated. Results: Of 80 patients, 38 were males. OA affected HRQoL. Four out 8 factors had more impact on HRQoL (they are PF, RP, MH, RE. Duration of OA is an important determinant on HRQoL. Patients with newer onset of OA (4 years of OA (Domain, Mean, the emotional impact (MH, 44.67; RE, 45.67 reduced but the physical impact (PF, 47.83; RP, 19.75 persisted/got worse. Conclusion: Osteoarthritis had impact on HRQoL. Duration of OA determines the kind of impact. With the onset of OA emotional/mental support would be needed in addition to the medical treatment. As the disease progresses, they tend to cope with emotional/mental problems even as the physical problems persist/increase.

  8. Evaluation of Retention in Methadone Treatment in Patients Attending Baharan Hospital Clinic in Zahedan City

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    M.D. Mohebi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: Substance abuse and opioid dependency refers to hazardous use of psychoactive substance .Prevention and treatment of opiate dependence has not been success-ful. Most effective drug in agonist treatment of opiates is methadone maintenance therapy (MMT.But the lack of cooperation of addicts in methadone maintenance therapy has always been a big problem to continue. The purpose of this study is to investigate the retention in the MMT. Materials & Methods: This historical cohort study analyzed the medical records of patients of Baharan hospital in Zahedan. All 912 cases of methadone maintenance clinic of Baharan hos-pital in Zahedan 2011-2012 were studied and the data were analyzed using SPSS. Tables and indexes were analyzed by the Chi-square test and survival curves were plotted using Kaplan–Meier method and analyzed by Log-Rank test. Results: This study reviewed records from 912 patients with a mean age of 34.67% and stan-dard deviation of 10.88 and the range of 15-86 years. 735 were male and 177 ware female. 1-moth retention rate was 71%, 3 months was 59%, 6 months was 47%, 1 year was 30% and 2 years was 17%. Kaplan-Meier median survival time of 8 months was estimated by relation-ship. Doses higher than 60 mg/d of methadone was associated with increased survival on MMT. Conclusion: Age increase, increase of employment time, increasing of the duration of drug abuse, increasing the daily dose of methadone, oral substance abuse increased retention rate and heroin abuse and smoking were associated with decrease retention rate of methadone maintenance therapy. So, with an emphasis on each of these factors effective steps can be taken to improve the cooperation of patients in MMT. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (1:30-36

  9. Perceived Maternal Role Competence among the Mothers Attending Immunization Clinics of Dharan, Nepal

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    Shah Shrooti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Being a mother is considered by many women as their most important role in life. Women’s perceptions of their abilities to manage the demands of parenting and the parenting skills they posses are reflected by perceived maternal role competence. The present study was carried out to assess the perceived maternal role competence and its associated factors among mothers. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional research study was carried out on 290 mothers of infant in four immunization clinics of Dharan, Nepal. Data were collected using a standardized predesigned, pretested questionnaire (Parent sense of competence scale, Rosenberg’s self esteem scale, Maternity social support scale. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and multiple regression analysis at 0.05 level of significance. Results: The mean score of the perceived maternal role competence obtained by mothers was 64.34±7.90 and those of knowledge/skill and valuing/comfort subscale were 31±6.01 and 33±3.75, respectively. There was a significant association between perceived maternal role competence and factors as the age of the mother (P<0.001, educational status (P=0.015, occupation (P=0.001 and readiness for pregnancy (P=0.022. The study findings revealed a positive correlation between perceived maternal role competence and age at marriage (r=0.132, P=0.024, per capita income (r=0.118, P=0.045, self esteem (r=0.379, P<0.001, social support (r=0.272, P<0.001, and number of support persons (r=0.119, P=0.043. The results of the step wise multiple regression analysis revealed that the major predictor of perceived maternal role competence was self esteem. Conclusion: The factors associated with perceived maternal role competence were age, education, occupation, per capita income, self esteem, social support, and the number of support persons.

  10. Male Attendance at Title X Family Planning Clinics - United States, 2003-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besera, Ghenet; Moskosky, Susan; Pazol, Karen; Fowler, Christina; Warner, Lee; Johnson, David M; Barfield, Wanda D

    2016-01-01

    Although both men and women have reproductive health care needs, family planning providers traditionally focus services toward women (1,2). Challenges in providing family planning services to men, including preconception health, infertility, contraceptive, and sexually transmitted disease (STD) care (3,4), include their infrequent use of preventive health services, a perceived lack of need for these services (1,5), and the lack of provider guidance regarding men's reproductive health care needs (4). Since 1970, the National Title X Family Planning Program has provided cost-effective and confidential family planning and related preventive health services with priority for services to low-income women and men. To examine men's use of services at Title X service sites, CDC and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Office of Population Affairs (OPA) analyzed data from the 2003-2014 Family Planning Annual Reports (FPAR), annual data that are required of all Title X-funded agencies. During 2003-2014, 3.8 million males visited Title X service sites in the United States and the percentage of family planning users who were male nearly doubled from 4.5% (221,425 males) in 2003 to 8.8% (362,531 males) in 2014. In 2014, the percentage of family planning users who were male varied widely by state, ranging from ≤1% in Mississippi, Tennessee, and Alabama to 27.2% in the District of Columbia (DC). Title X service sites are increasingly providing services for males. Health care settings might want to adopt the framework employed by Title X clinics to better provide family planning and related preventative services to men (3). PMID:27309884

  11. Perceived Maternal Role Competence among the Mothers Attending Immunization Clinics of Dharan, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrooti, Shah; Mangala, Shrestha; Nirmala, Pokharel; Devkumari, Shrestha; Dharanidhar, Baral

    2016-01-01

    Background: Being a mother is considered by many women as their most important role in life. Women’s perceptions of their abilities to manage the demands of parenting and the parenting skills they posses are reflected by perceived maternal role competence. The present study was carried out to assess the perceived maternal role competence and its associated factors among mothers. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional research study was carried out on 290 mothers of infant in four immunization clinics of Dharan, Nepal. Data were collected using a standardized predesigned, pretested questionnaire (Parent sense of competence scale, Rosenberg’s self esteem scale, Maternity social support scale). The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and multiple regression analysis at 0.05 level of significance. Results: The mean score of the perceived maternal role competence obtained by mothers was 64.34±7.90 and those of knowledge/skill and valuing/comfort subscale were 31±6.01 and 33±3.75, respectively. There was a significant association between perceived maternal role competence and factors as the age of the mother (P<0.001), educational status (P=0.015), occupation (P=0.001) and readiness for pregnancy (P=0.022). The study findings revealed a positive correlation between perceived maternal role competence and age at marriage (r=0.132, P=0.024), per capita income (r=0.118, P=0.045), self esteem (r=0.379, P<0.001), social support (r=0.272, P<0.001), and number of support persons (r=0.119, P=0.043). The results of the step wise multiple regression analysis revealed that the major predictor of perceived maternal role competence was self esteem. Conclusion: The factors associated with perceived maternal role competence were age, education, occupation, per capita income, self esteem, social support, and the number of support persons.

  12. CLINICO EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF WILD ANIMAL BITE VICTIMS ATTENDING ANTI RABIES CLINIC AT GOVERNMENT TERTIARY CARE CENTRE IN MANDYA

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    Jahnavi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Rabies is an acute viral disease that causes fatal encephalitis in virtually all the warm blooded animals including man. In India it is estimated that annually 17.4 million animal bite cases occur and 20, 000 deaths occur due to human rabies. Dogs are responsible for about 97%of the human rabies, followed by cats (2%, jackals, mongoose and others (1%. There is scarcity of literature regarding human rabies due to wild animals. OBJECTIVES: To describe the socio- demographic characteristics of wild animal bite victims attending Anti Rabies Clinic (ARC, Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences (MIMS, Mandya and to describe the circumstances, characteristics of bite and post exposure prophylactic measures taken to prevent rabies. METHODOLOGY: This hospital based case record analysis was done for a period of 3 years from January 2011 to December 2013 at Anti Rabies Clinic (ARC, Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences, Mandya. The details regarding the socio demographic characteristics of bite victims, characteristics of the bite wound and post exposure prophylactic measures taken to prevent rabies were collected using case records of wild animal bite victims. RESULTS: A total of 12, 798 animal bite victims had attended ARC during the study period, of which 67 (0.52% cases were exposed to wild animals. Of these 67 cases, 45 (67.2% of the victims were exposed to monkey and 13 (19.4% were exposed to wild boar. 45 (67.2% of the wild animal bite victims were in the age group of 15 to 60 years, 49 (73.1% were males and 22 (32.8% belonging to class IV socio economic status. Many of the monkey bites happened when the monkey was trying to snatch food from the victims and while other wild animal bites happened when the farmers were guarding their field. 40 (59.7% had bites on upper limb. 51 (76.1% had washed the wound with soap and water before coming to ARC. RIG was advised to all victims but was taken by 49 (73.1% of the bite victims. All four doses

  13. Clinico-epidemiological profile of tobacco users attending a tobacco cessation clinic in a teaching hospital in Bangalore city

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    George D′Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco-attributable mortality in India is estimated to be at least 10%. Tobacco cessation is more likely to avert millions of deaths before 2050 than prevention of tobacco use initiation. Objective: To describe the clinico-epidemiological profile of attendees of a tobacco cessation clinic in a teaching hospital in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study of 189 attendees seen over 2 years in the Tobacco Cessation Clinic of a tertiary-care teaching hospital in Bangalore, with information on socio demographic characteristics, tobacco-use details, nicotine dependence, family/medical history, past quit attempts, baseline stage-of-change, and treatment initiated. Results: Only 5% were ′walk-in′ patients; 98% of attendees were smokers; 97% were males. The mean (±SD age of attendees was 48.0 (±14.0 years. Most participants were married (88%, and predominantly urban (69%. About 62% had completed at least 8 years of schooling. Two-thirds of smokers reported high levels of nicotine dependence (Fagerström score >5/10. About 43% of patients had attempted quitting earlier. Four-fifths (79% of tobacco-users reported a family member using tobacco. Commonly documented comorbidities included: Chronic respiratory disease (44%, hypertension (23%, diabetes (12%, tuberculosis (9%, myocardial infarction (2%, stroke (1%, sexual dysfunction (1% and cancer (0.5%. About 52% reported concomitant alcohol use. At baseline, patients′ motivational stage was: Precontemplation (14%, contemplation (48%, preparation/action (37% and maintenance (1%. Treatment modalities started were: Counseling alone (41%, nicotine replacement therapy alone (NRT (34%, medication alone (13%, and NRT+medication (12%. Conclusions: This is the first study of the baseline profile of patients attending a tobacco cessation clinic located within a chest medicine department in India. Important determinants of outcome have been captured for follow-up and prospective

  14. Maternal Pregnancy Intention and Professional Antenatal Care Utilization in Bangladesh: A Nationwide Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Mosfequr; Rahman, Md. Mizanur; Tareque, Md. Ismail; Ferdos, Jannatul; Jesmin, Syeda S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between maternal pregnancy intention and professional antenatal and delivery care utilization. Methods Our data were derived from the 2011 nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. We included antenatal and delivery care utilization data of the most recent live births for women for the previous three years (n = 4672). We used multilevel logistic regression models to assess the relationship between pregnancy intention and use of professional antenatal and delivery care, with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Results Approximately 13% and 16% of children were reported by their mothers as unwanted and mistimed at the time of conception, respectively. Among the women, 55% received at least one professional antenatal care service; 21% received four or more professional antenatal services, while 32% were attended by professionals during deliveries. Mothers of children whose pregnancies had been unwanted had a greater risk for not seeking professional antenatal and professional delivery care than those whose pregnancies had been wanted [1≥ ANC from professionals: AOR: 0.66; 95% CI:0.51–0.93; 4≥ ANC from professionals: AOR:0.56; 95% CI:0.37–0.84; and delivery care from professionals: AOR: 0.70; 95% CI:0.50–0.97]. Women who were married after age 18, had secondary or higher level of education, and were from the wealthiest households were more likely to utilize antenatal and delivery care. Conclusion Unwanted pregnancy is significantly associated with lower utilization of professional antenatal and delivery care services in Bangladesh. Reducing unwanted births and promoting access to professional antenatal and delivery care are crucial for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 3 in Bangladesh. PMID:27309727

  15. Acoustic Noise Levels of Dental Equipments and Its Association with Fear and Annoyance Levels among Patients Attending Different Dental Clinic Setups in Jaipur, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganta, Shravani; Nagaraj, Anup; Pareek, Sonia; Atri, Mansi; Singh, Kushpal; Sidiq, Mohsin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Noise is a source of pervasive occupational hazard for practicing dentists and the patients. The sources of dental sounds by various dental equipments can pose as a potential hazard to hearing system and add to the annoyance levels of the patients. The aim of the study was to analyze the noise levels from various equipments and evaluate the effect of acoustic noise stimulus on dental fear and annoyance levels among patients attending different dental clinic setups in Jaipur, India. Methodology: The sampling frame comprised of 180 patients, which included 90 patients attending 10 different private clinics and 90 patients attending a Dental College in Jaipur. The levels of Acoustic Noise Stimulus originating from different equipments were determined using a precision sound level meter/decibulometer. Dental fear among patients was measured using Dental Fear Scale (DFS). Results: Statistical analysis was performed using chi square test and unpaired t-test. The mean background noise levels were found to be maximum in the pre-clinical setup/ laboratory areas (69.23+2.20). Females and the patients attending dental college setup encountered more fear on seeing the drill as compared to the patients attending private clinics (p<0.001). Conclusion: The sources of dental sounds can pose as a potential hazard to hearing system. It was analyzed that the environment in the clinics can directly have an effect on the fear and annoyance levels of patients. Hence it is necessary control the noise from various dental equipments to reduce the fear of patients from visiting a dental clinic. PMID:24959512

  16. Seroprevalence of syphilis in patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Southern India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadia; Khan; Godfred; Antony; Menezes; Rahul; Dhodapkar; Belgode; Narasimha; Harish

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To report our experience with two tests,anti-cardiolipin antibody test[venereal disease reasearch laboratory(VDRL) test]and specific treponemal test(Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay),used for screening antenatal,high risk cases and cases from sexually transmitted infection in a tertiary care hospital from January 2006 till December 2008.Methods:A total of 14639 samples received from various patient groups including antenatal cases,patients attending sexually transmitted disease(STD) clinic,blood donors and HIV positive patients were screened.Results:Among the 14639 samples collected,103 were positive by VDRL test.Of these 89 cases were confirmed by quantitative VDRL test and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay.The cumulative seroprevalence over two years was found to be 0.61%in this study.The syphilis seroprevalence reduced from 0.88%in 2006 to 0.40%in 2008.Among the various sub-populations studied,patients attending the sexually transmitted infection clinic showed a seroprevalence of 2.62%.The seroprevalence decreased significantly from 4.00%in 2006 to1.39%in 2008.Conclusions:Our study showed a statistically significant declining rate of syphilis in STD clinics as well as the overall seroprevalence.These findings could be interpreted as indicators of improved programmes for prevention and management of STDs.

  17. Seroprevalence of syphilis in patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Southern India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadia Khan; GodfredAntony Menezes; Rahul Dhodapkar; Belgode Narasimha Harish

    2014-01-01

    To report our experience with two tests, anti-cardiolipin antibody test [venereal disease reasearch laboratory (VDRL) test] and specific treponemal test (Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay), used for screening antenatal, high risk cases and cases from sexually transmitted infection in a tertiary care hospital from January 2006 till December 2008. Methods: A total of 14639 samples received from various patient groups including antenatal cases, patients attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic, blood donors and HIV positive patients were screened. Results: Among the 14639 samples collected, 103 were positive by VDRL test. Of these 89 cases were confirmed by quantitative VDRL test and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay. The cumulative seroprevalence over two years was found to be 0.61% in this study. The syphilis seroprevalence reduced from 0.88% in 2006 to 0.40% in 2008. Among the various sub-populations studied, patients attending the sexually transmitted infection clinic showed a seroprevalence of 2.62%. The seroprevalence decreased significantly from 4.00% in 2006 to 1.39% in 2008. Conclusions: Our study showed a statistically significant declining rate of syphilis in STD clinics as well as the overall seroprevalence. These findings could be interpreted as indicators of improved programmes for prevention and management of STDs.

  18. Applying the theory of planned behaviour to explain HIV testing in antenatal settings in Addis Ababa - a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Mirkuzie Alemnesh H; Sisay Mitike M; Moland Karen; Åstrøm Anne N

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To facilitate access to the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services, HIV counselling and testing are offered routinely in antenatal care settings. Focusing a cohort of pregnant women attending public and private antenatal care facilities, this study applied an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to explain intended- and actual HIV testing. Methods A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in Addis Ababa in 2009...

  19. Effect of removing user fees on attendance for curative and preventive primary health care services in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, D.; Gouws, E.; Sach, M.; Karim, S. S.

    2001-01-01

    User fees are used to recover costs and discourage unnecessary attendance at primary care clinics in many developing countries. In South Africa, user fees for children aged under 6 years and pregnant women were removed in 1994, and in 1997 all user fees at all primary health care clinics were abolished. The intention of these policy changes was to improve access to health services for previously disadvantaged communities. We investigated the impact of these changes on clinic attendance patterns in Hlabisa health district. Average quarterly new registrations and total attendances for preventive services (antenatal care, immunization, growth monitoring) and curative services (treatment of ailments) at a mobile primary health care unit were studied from 1992 to 1998. Regression analysis was undertaken to assess whether trends were statistically significant. There was a sustained increase in new registrations (P = 0.0001) and total attendances (P = 0.0001) for curative services, and a fall in new registrations (P = 0.01) and total attendances for immunization and growth monitoring (P = 0.0002) over the study period. The upturn in demand for curative services started at the time of the first policy change. The decreases in antenatal registrations (P = 0.07) and attendances (P = 0.09) were not statistically significant. The number of new registrations for immunization and growth monitoring increased following the first policy change but declined thereafter. We found no evidence that the second policy change influenced underlying trends. The removal of user fees improved access to curative services but this may have happened at the expense of some preventive services. Governments should remain vigilant about the effects of new health policies in order to ensure that objectives are being met. PMID:11477970

  20. Impact of an electronic clinical decision support system on workflow in antenatal care: the QUALMAT eCDSS in rural health care facilities in Ghana and Tanzania

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    Nathan Mensah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The implementation of new technology can interrupt established workflows in health care settings. The Quality of Maternal Care (QUALMAT project has introduced an (eCDSS for antenatal care (ANC and delivery in rural primary health care facilities in Africa. Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the influence of the QUALMAT eCDSS on the workflow of health care workers in rural primary health care facilities in Ghana and Tanzania. Design: A direct observation, time-and-motion study on ANC processes was conducted using a structured data sheet with predefined major task categories. The duration and sequence of tasks performed during ANC visits were observed, and changes after the implementation of the eCDSS were analyzed. Results: In 24 QUALMAT study sites, 214 observations of ANC visits (144 in Ghana, 70 in Tanzania were carried out at baseline and 148 observations (104 in Ghana, 44 in Tanzania after the software was implemented in 12 of those sites. The median time spent combined for all centers in both countries to provide ANC at baseline was 6.5 min [interquartile range (IQR =4.0–10.6]. Although the time spent on ANC increased in Tanzania and Ghana after the eCDSS implementation as compared to baseline, overall there was no significant increase in time used for ANC activities (0.51 min, p=0.06 in Ghana; and 0.54 min, p=0.26 in Tanzania as compared to the control sites without the eCDSS. The percentage of medical history taking in women who had subsequent examinations increased after eCDSS implementation from 58.2% (39/67 to 95.3% (61/64 p<0.001 in Ghana but not in Tanzania [from 65.4% (17/26 to 71.4% (15/21 p=0.70]. Conclusions: The QUALMAT eCDSS does not increase the time needed for ANC but partly streamlined workflow at sites in Ghana, showing the potential of such a system to influence quality of care positively.

  1. Parent Reports of Exclusive Breastfeeding After Attending a Combined Midwifery and Chiropractic Feeding Clinic in the United Kingdom: A Cross-Sectional Service Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joyce; Beharie, Monica Christine; Taylor, Alison M; Simmenes, Elisabeth Berg; Way, Susan

    2016-04-01

    This service evaluation investigated an interdisciplinary allied professional health care strategy to address the problem of suboptimal breastfeeding. A clinic of midwives and chiropractors was developed in a university-affiliated clinic in the United Kingdom to care for suboptimal feeding through a multidisciplinary approach. No studies have previously investigated the effect of such an approach. The aim was to assess any impact to the breastfeeding dyad and maternal satisfaction after attending the multidisciplinary clinic through a service evaluation. Eighty-five initial questionnaires were completed and 72 (85%) follow-up questionnaires were returned. On follow-up, 93% of mothers reported an improvement in feeding as well as satisfaction with the care provided. Prior to treatment, 26% of the infants were exclusively breastfed. At the follow-up survey, 86% of mothers reported exclusive breastfeeding. The relative risk ratio for exclusive breastfeeding after attending the multidisciplinary clinic was 3.6 (95% confidence interval = 2.4-5.4). PMID:26763046

  2. Trichomonas vaginalis infection in a low-risk women attended in Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Norhayati Moktar; Nor Liyana Ismail; Phoy Cheng Chun; Mohamad Asyrab Sapie; Nor Farahin Abdul Kahar; Yusof Suboh; Noraina Abdul Rahim; Nor Azlin Mohamed Ismail; Tengku Shahrul Anuar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the presence of trichomoniasis among women attending the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre. Methods: A total of 139 high vaginal swabs were taken from the subjects and sent to the laboratory in Amies gel transport media. The specimens were examined for the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis using wet mount, Giemsa staining and cultured in Diamond's medium. Sociodemographic characteristics and gynaecological complaints were obtained in private using structured questionnaire applied by one investigator. Results: The median age was 32 years, with an interquartile interval of 9.96. Most of the subjects were Malays (76.9%) and the remaining were Chinese (15.1%), Indians (2.2%) and other ethnic groups (5.8%). One hundred and thirty eight (99.3%) of the women were married and 98.6%had less than 6 children. More than half (75.5%) of the women's last child birth was less than 6 years ago. Forty seven percent of them were involved in supporting administrative work and 64.7% of the women gave a history of previous or current vaginal discharge. Conclusions: The present study reported zero incidence rate of trichomoniasis. The low incidence rate was postulated due to all women who participated in this study were categorized into a low-risk group.

  3. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction and its correlates among men attending primary care clinics in three countries: Pakistan, Egypt, and Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaeer, K Z M; Osegbe, D N; Siddiqui, S H; Razzaque, A; Glasser, D B; Jaguste, V

    2003-04-01

    The prevalence and correlates of erectile dysfunction (ED) in developing countries are largely unknown. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence and associated factors of ED in three countries (Pakistan, Egypt, Nigeria) that represent very different cultures. Men 35-70y of age seeking primary medical care answered a structured questionnaire adapted to reflect local cultures. Degree of ED was categorized as 'none,' 'mild,' 'moderate,' or 'complete.' The age-adjusted prevalence rates of ED among men attending primary care clinics was 57.4% in Nigeria, 63.6% in Egypt, and 80.8% in Pakistan. Older age, diabetes, peptic ulcers, prostate disease, depression-related symptoms, and caffeine consumption were independently associated with increased prevalence of ED, whereas being moderately active to very active at work (hard physical labor) and during leisure time (strenuous exercise) was associated with half the prevalence of moderate-to-complete ED. Our multicultural study demonstrates that in every country studied, high proportions of men older than age 35 have some degree of ED (57-81%). Both severity and prevalence increase consistently with age. Factors associated with ED are similar, but their distribution differs across countries. PMID:12825103

  4. Prevalence of lymphoedema and quality of life among patients attending a hospital-based wound management and vascular clinic.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gethin, Georgina

    2012-04-01

    Lymphoedema is a chronic, incurable, debilitating condition, usually affecting a limb and causes discomfort, pain, heaviness, limited motion, unsatisfactory appearance and impacts on quality of life. However, there is a paucity of prevalence data on this condition. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of lymphoedema among persons attending wound management and vascular clinics in an acute tertiary referral hospital. Four hundred and eighteen patients meeting the inclusion criteria were assessed. A prevalence rate of 2.63% (n = 11) was recorded. Thirty-six percent (n = 4) had history of cellulitis and broken skin, 64% (n = 7) had history of broken skin and 36% (n = 4) had undergone treatment for venous leg ulcers. The most common co-morbidities were hypertension 55% (n = 6), deep vein thrombosis (DVT) 27% (n = 3), hypercholesterolemia 36% (n = 4) and type 2 diabetes 27% (n = 3). Quality of life scores identified that physical functioning was the domain most affected among this group. This study has identified the need to raise awareness of this condition among clinicians working in the area of wound management.

  5. Cultural adaptation of an intervention to reduce sexual risk behaviors among patients attending a STI clinic in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Lauretta E; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V; Shaboltas, Alla V; Skochilov, Roman V; Kozlov, Andrei P; Abdala, Nadia

    2013-08-01

    Cultural adaptation is an important step in the process of implementing health promotion interventions that, having been proven to be effective in one culture, are being applied in another. This study describes the results of a formative investigation to culturally adapt a STI/HIV risk reduction intervention for use in St. Petersburg, Russia. Analyses of data from brief elicitation interviews, focus groups, community experts, and a pilot test of the adapted intervention identified environmental, cognitive-information processing, and affect-motivation factors that needed to be addressed during the adaptation process. The participant/counselor relationship was adapted to reflect a hierarchical (cf. collaborative) relationship in order to accommodate Russian expectations about patient interactions with healthcare experts. Key skills building activities (e.g., identification of personal risk behaviors, role-playing) were approached gradually or indirectly in order to maintain participants' engagement in the intervention, and close-ended questions were added to assist participants in understanding unfamiliar concepts such as "triggers" and self-efficacy. Information about the prevalence of HIV/STI infections and alcohol use included data specific to St. Petersburg to increase the personal relevance of these materials and messages. Intervention components were tailored to participants' risk reduction and informational needs. No gender differences that would have justified adaptation of the intervention approach or content were noted. Examples of specific adaptations and the key issues to attend to when adapting behavioral interventions for use in Russian clinical settings are discussed. PMID:23322231

  6. Validation of a Predictive Model for Survival in Metastatic Cancer Patients Attending an Outpatient Palliative Radiotherapy Clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To validate a predictive model for survival of patients attending a palliative radiotherapy clinic. Methods and Materials: We described previously a model that had good predictive value for survival of patients referred during 1999 (1). The six prognostic factors (primary cancer site, site of metastases, Karnofsky performance score, and the fatigue, appetite and shortness-of-breath items from the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale) identified in this training set were extracted from the prospective database for the year 2000. We generated a partial score whereby each prognostic factor was assigned a value proportional to its prognostic weight. The sum of the partial scores for each patient was used to construct a survival prediction score (SPS). Patients were also grouped according to the number of these risk factors (NRF) that they possessed. The probability of survival at 3, 6, and 12 months was generated. The models were evaluated for their ability to predict survival in this validation set with appropriate statistical tests. Results: The median survival and survival probabilities of the training and validation sets were similar when separated into three groups using both SPS and NRF methods. There was no statistical difference in the performance of the SPS and NRF methods in survival prediction. Conclusion: Both the SPS and NRF models for predicting survival in patients referred for palliative radiotherapy have been validated. The NRF model is preferred because it is simpler and avoids the need to remember the weightings among the prognostic factors

  7. Mediators of the Relation Between Community Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Adults Attending a Public Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Carey, Michael P

    2016-07-01

    Prior research shows that violence is associated with sexual risk behavior, but little is known about the relation between community violence (i.e., violence that is witnessed or experienced in one's neighborhood) and sexual risk behavior. To better understand contextual influences on HIV risk behavior, we asked 508 adult patients attending a publicly funded STI clinic in the U.S. (54 % male, M age = 27.93, 68 % African American) who were participating in a larger trial to complete a survey assessing exposure to community violence, sexual risk behavior, and potential mediators of the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation (i.e., mental health, substance use, and experiencing intimate partner violence). A separate sample of participants from the same trial completed measures of sexual behavior norms, which were aggregated to create measures of census tract sexual behavior norms. Data analyses controlling for socioeconomic status revealed that higher levels of community violence were associated with more sexual partners for men and with more episodes of unprotected sex with non-steady partners for women. For both men and women, substance use and mental health mediated the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation; in addition, for men only, experiencing intimate partner violence also mediated this relation. These results confirm that, for individuals living in communities with high levels of violence, sexual risk reduction interventions need to address intimate partner violence, substance use, and mental health to be optimally effective. PMID:27000155

  8. Routine outcome monitoring in clinical practice : service and non-service costs of psychiatric patients attending a community mental health centre in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Percudani, Mauro; Barbui, Corrado; Beecham, Jennifer; Knapp, Martin

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND : There is a paucity of economic studies carried out in the routine clinical practice of psychiatric services. This study estimated service and non-service costs in a random sample of patients attending a community psychiatric mental health centre in Italy. Costs of different diagnostic subgroups and variables associated with service and non-service costs were calculated. METHODS : A randomly selected sample of patients identified during one week of routine clinical activity was en...

  9. A CLINICAL STUDY OF EFFECTS OF POLY AND OLIGOHY DROMNIOS ON OBSTETRIC OUTCOME WITH A SP E C I AL REF ERENCE TO PERINATAL MORTALITY AND MORBI D ITY

    OpenAIRE

    Sunanda Bai

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the obstetric outcome in pregnancies with oligohydramnios and polyhydramnios. To determine the perinatal outcome in pregnancies complicated with oligohydramnios and polyhydramnios. METHODS: This study is conducted on pregnant woman with abnormal liquor volume who attended the antenatal clinic at Institute of obstetrics and gynecology , Bowring and Lady curzon Hospital attached to BMCRI Bengaluru Ja...

  10. Substance-dependent women attending a de-addiction center in North India: Sociodemographic and clinical profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover S

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment-seeking is limited in women substance abusers. Studying the sociodemographic and clinical profile of treatment-seeking substance-dependent women can help us to understand the problem better and respond appropriately in terms of primary and secondary prevention strategies. Aim: To study the sociodemographic and clinical profile of women attending a de-addiction centre in North India. Design and Methodology: Retrospective structured chart review of 35 women substance abusers. Results: The results indicated that a typical subject was urban (86%, married (63%, nuclear family (60%, based housewife (57%, educated up to school completion (54%, and having poor social support (57%. The common substances were opioids (60%, followed by alcohol (17%, and tobacco and benzodiazepines (11.5% each. The mean age at onset of substance use was 30.5 years, the mean duration of use was 9 years and mean duration to develop dependence was 5.5 years. The common reasons for initiating use were medical (63% and curiosity (34%. Comorbidity profile was: physical illness (34%, psychiatric illness (23% and dependence on another substance (14%. Only 20% had a family history of substance dependence. The social impairment ranged from 77% for social to 40% for financial and none for legal aspects. A typical subject had followed up 4.2 times in 8.4 months, while 54% were abstaining, 40% were continuing their substance dependence at the last follow up. Conclusions: The results suggest that the development of substance dependence in women is a combination of genetic, personal, and social vulnerability factors, including the drug culture of the social milieu and the poor social support. Comorbidity and impairment are common features.

  11. DRUG SAFETY MONITORING IN PATIENTS ATTENDING EPILEPSY CLINIC IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL IN RURAL BENGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Epilepsy is the second most common neurological disorder affecting fifty million people globally. Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs are the mainstay of management in epilepsy. Use of AEDs over prolonged duration makes occurrence of multiple Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs frequently, especially with polytherapy. OBJECTIVES To estimate the incidence of all the ADRs among patients taking AEDs and to assess their causalities and to quantify their severity. MATERIAL AND METHODS This prospective, observational study was carried out at an Outpatient Referral Epilepsy Clinic at Neurology Department at Bankura Sammilani Medical College, West Bengal, between 1st June and 30th September 2015. The demographic data, diagnosis, drugs prescribed and ADRs experienced by the patients were recorded. Causality and severity assessment was done using Naranjo’s Scale and Hartwig’s Severity Assessment Scale respectively. RESULTS Incidence of ADRs among the patients who attended the clinic was 3.3% (105 patients among 3146 experienced at least one ADR. Total 161 ADRs were detected, among which 55.3% were CNS adverse events followed by 15.5% gastrointestinal, 14.3% endocrine, 10.6% psychiatric abnormalities and 4.3% related to dermatological and allergic manifestations. Nearly one-third of the ADRs (32.3% were found to be possible and 109 (67.7% are of probable category, whereas none were deemed to be doubtful or definite. The most commonly implicated suspect drug was valproate (51.5% followed by Phenytoin (22.9%. Most of the ADRs were mild (93.2%, 5.6% were moderate and only 1.2% were deemed severe. CONCLUSION Incidence of ADRs is found to be common in patients on AEDs. Though rare, but they can be life-threatening. Routine safety assessments and pharmacovigilance is necessary in this set up to reduce the incidence and also improve pharmacotherapy and patient compliance

  12. A qualitative study on why did the poorly-educated Chinese elderly fail to attend nurse-led case manager clinic and how to facilitate their attendance

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, Susanna Lok Lam; Fu, Sau Nga; Lau, Po Shan; Wong, Samuel Yeung Shan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study explored the views, barriers and facilitators of the poorly-educated elderly who were non-attendee of the nurse-led case manager clinic. The case managers provide assessment for diabetes complication screening and can refer patients to the appropriate multidisciplinary team in public outpatient primary care setting. Methods We adopted qualitative research method by individual semi-structured face to face interviews. Nineteen Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects aged...

  13. Postnatal Treatment in Antenatally Diagnosed Meconium Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, S; Andrei, B; Oancea, M; Licsandru, E; Ivanov, M; Marcu, V; Popa-Stanila, R; Mocanu, M

    2015-01-01

    Meconium peritonitis is a rare prenatal disease with an increased rate of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period. Distinctive features revealed by prenatal and postnatal ultrasoundmay be present: abdominal calcifications, ascites, polyhydramnios, meconium pseudocyst, echogenic mass and dilated bowel or intestinal obstruction. Establishing clear postnatal treatment and prognosis is difficult because of the heterogeneity of the results obtained by ultrasound. The aim of the study is to determine how prenatal diagnosis of meconium peritonitis is associated with perinatal management and further evolution. Clinical results are different depending on the presence of antenatal diagnosis of meconium peritonitis and its form, which can be mild or severe. Surgical treatment and management of meconium peritonitis depend on the clinical presentation of the newborn. Meconium peritonitis diagnosed prenatally differs from that of the newborn, not only concerning the mortality rates but also through reduced morbidity and overall better prognosis. PMID:26713828

  14. Evaluation of clinical findings on 10063 prognance women for second-trimester antenatal screening in Lanzhou%兰州地区10063例孕妇孕中期二联产前筛查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝胜菊; 李静; 郑雷; 纪维立; 闫有圣

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinic value of screening chromosomal diseases and abnormal pregnancy by maternal serum examination during second trimester of pregnancy. Methods: Auto - DELFLA are used to test the concentrations of AFP and free β - HCG in the serum of mid - pregnant women, then the results were analyzed with 2T Risk calculator and managing software to determine the fetal risk of DS and NTD, considering weight, maternal age, gestational week, etc. Results; of the 10, 063 pregnant women undergoing antenatal screening, 327 (3. 25% ) were considered as high risk of DS, 45 (0. 45% ) cases suggest trisomy - 18, 277 (2. 75% ) cases are NTD. 315 of the high —risk cases underwent amino fluid examination, of which 9 were diagnosed DS, 3 were trisomy - 18 and 4 were other chromosome abnormities. By B ultrasonic, 69 were diagnosed NTD. Conclusions: This study suggests that complementary measures, such as routine antenatal US, maternal serum screening and antenatal diagnosis, have important values in predicting fetal chromosomal diseases and help reduce the birth defect rate.%目的 探讨兰州市孕中期母血清筛查及异常妊娠的临床价值.方法 以全自动时间分辨仪对10 063例中孕期孕妇血清学标本进行甲胎蛋白(AFP)和游离β人绒毛膜促性腺激素(Freeβ-HCG)检测,并结合孕周、体重、年龄等因素,通过2T风险评估软件进行风险评估.结果 在10 063例单胎孕妇中筛查出21-三体高风险327例,占筛查总数3.25%,18-三体高风险45例,占筛查总数0.45%,NTD高风险277例,占筛查总数2.75%.有315例在本院接受产前诊断,经羊水染色体检查,检测出21-三体9例,18-三体3例,其他染色体异常4例.对277例神经管缺陷高风险的孕妇均加强B超检查,确诊69例.结论 定期的B超、母血清标志物的筛查以及产前诊断等手段的联合对于预测胎儿染色体疾病有重要的临床价值,可有效降低染色体病患儿的出生.

  15. Male involvement in antenatal HIV counseling and testing: exploring men's perceptions in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnio, Pauliina; Olsson, Pia; Chimbiri, Agnes; Kulmala, Teija

    2009-12-01

    Antenatal care can act as an excellent tool to improve access to HIV counseling and testing services. This paper investigates an issue that may weaken its potential, namely lack of male involvement. We explored married men's perceptions of HIV in pregnancy and male involvement in antenatal HIV testing and counseling in Southern Malawi through 11 focus group discussions and a cross-sectional survey (n=388). The main findings were that men were largely unaware of available antenatal HIV testing and counseling services, and perceived it overall problematic to attend female-oriented health care. Most men supported provision of antenatal HIV testing. They perceived husbands to participate in the process indirectly through spousal communication, being faithful during pregnancy, and supporting the wife if found HIV-positive. Involvement of husbands was compromised by men's reluctance to learn their HIV status and the threat that HIV poses on marriage. Men stressed the importance of prior spousal agreement of antenatal HIV testing and considered HIV testing without their consent a valid reason for divorce. We suggest that male involvement in antenatal HIV testing requires refocusing of information and health services to include men. To avoid negative social outcomes for women, comprehensive and early involvement of men is essential. PMID:20024733

  16. Quality of life of People living with HIV and AIDS attending the Antiretroviral Clinic, University College Hospital, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluyemisi F. Folasire

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quality of life (QOL is an important component in the evaluation of the well-being of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA, especially with the appreciable rise in longevity of PLWHA. Moreover, limited studies have been conducted in Nigeria on how PLWHA perceive their life with the World Health Organisation Quality of Life Brief Scale (WHOQOL-Bref instrument. Objective: This study assessed the QOL of PLWHA attending the antiretroviral (ARV clinics, UCH Ibadan, Nigeria.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to September 2008 that involved 150 randomly selected HIV-positive patients who were regular attendees at the antiretroviral clinic, UCH Ibadan. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect information on sociodemographic data, satisfaction with perceived social support, medical records, and QOL was assessed with WHOQOL-Bref.Results: The mean age of the respondents was 38.1 ± 9.0 years and the male : female ratio was 1:2. The mean CD4 count was higher in female patients than in male patients, 407 cells/mm3 : 329 cells/mm3 (p = 0.005. The mean QOL scores on the scale of (0–100 in three domains were similar: psychological health, 71.60 ± 18.40; physical health, 71.60 ± 13.90; and the environmental domain, 70.10 ± 12.00; with the lowest score in the social domain, 68.89 ± 16.70. Asymptomatic HIV-positive patients had significantly better mean QOL scores than symptomatic patients in the physical (74.04 ± 16.85 versus 64.47 ± 20.94, p = 0.005 and psychological domains (76.09 ± 12.93 versus 69.74 ± 15.79, p = 0.015. There was no significant difference in the mean QOL scores of men compared to those of women, in all domains assessed.Conclusion: High QOL scores in the physical, psychological and environmental domains may be reflective of the effectiveness of some of the interventions PLWHA are exposed to at the ARV clinic, UCH Ibadan (on-going psychotherapy, free antiretroviral drugs

  17. Herpes simplex virus type 2: Seroprevalence in antenatal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathore Shagufta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine the seroprevalence of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2 infection in pregnant females, assess the frequency of unrecognized infection and identify the demographic profile and risk factors associated with the seroprevalence. Materials and Methods: Two hundred randomly selected, asymptomatic pregnant females attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Outpatient Department for a routine antenatal check-up constituted the study group. Serum specimens were screened for HSV-2 infection by detecting IgG class antibodies against HSV-2-specific glycoprotein G-2 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results: A seroprevalence of 7.5% was found in our study. Seropositivity was maximum in the age group ≥30 years (22.20%, followed by 26-30 years (9.7%, 21-25 years (2.20% and ≤20 years (0%. HSV-2 seropositivity was found to be significantly associated with increasing age, parity, number of sexual partners, duration of sexual activity and history of abortions (P < 0.05. No statistically significant correlation was observed between seropositivity and other demographic variables such as place of residence, education, annual family income and occupation (P > 0.05. No statistically significant association of seropositivity with present or past history suggestive of other sexually transmitted infections was found. None of our cases tested positive for human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV. Conclusion: A relatively low prevalence of HSV-2 seropositivity was found in our study, with a high frequency of unrecognized and asymptomatic infections. Our findings suggest that type-specific serotesting could be an efficient strategy to diagnose clinically asymptomatic HSV-2 infections and, therefore, to reduce the risk of HSV-2 and HIV sexual transmission by prophylactic counseling against unprotected intercourse. It may also be a useful adjunct in detecting cases who present with symptoms not directly suggestive of genital herpes.

  18. An assessment of serum prolactin levels among infertile women with galactorrhea attending a gynecological clinic North-West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Ajuluchukwu Ugwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Galactorrhea is a common manifestation of hyperprolactinemia but may not always be present in women with hyperprolactinemia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the serum prolactin levels of infertile women presenting with galactorrhea and to determine the prevalence of hyperprolactinemia among them. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of serum prolactin levels of 63 female partners of infertile couples attending the gynecological clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Birnin Kudu, Jigawa State, Nigeria, who were found to have galactorrhea from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2013. Ethical clearance was obtained. Solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure serum prolactin. Sociodemographic characteristics were determined. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 statistical software. Absolute numbers and simple percentages were used to describe categorical variables. Similarly, quantitative variables were described using measures of central tendency (mean, median and measures of dispersion (range, standard deviation as appropriate. Results: The average age of the women was 27.9 ± 5.6 years. In half of the cases (50%, galactorrhea was associated with menstrual disturbances, mainly amenorrhea (23.3%. Although most (63.3% of the clients had normal serum prolactin level despite being galactorrheic, averagely there was a marked elevation in serum prolactin of as high as 40.3 ± 52.3 ng/mL. Conclusion: We conclude, therefore, that the prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in this study was low when compared with other studies and that galactorrhea does not always indicate raised serum prolactin levels.

  19. Prevalence of HBV Infection and Knowledge of Hepatitis B Among Patients Attending Primary Care Clinics in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganczak, Maria; Dmytrzyk-Daniłów, Gabriela; Korzeń, Marcin; Drozd-Dąbrowska, Marzena; Szych, Zbigniew

    2016-06-01

    It is well known that community awareness of hepatitis B (HB) can lead to vaccination and testing. The study objectives were to assess the prevalence of HBV infection and knowledge of HB among adult patients attending randomly selected primary care clinics. A cross-sectional sero-survey was conducted in March 2013 in the Zgorzelec region, Poland, with the use of an investigator-developed questionnaire containing 22 questions regarding HB knowledge. Serum samples were assayed for anti-HBc total and anti-HBs with enzyme immunoassay. The prevalence of anti-HBc total among 410 participants (median age 56 years) was 10.3 % (95 % CI 7.6-13.8 %), nobody was aware of an infection. The main sources of HB knowledge were the media and medical staff. The mean knowledge score was 14.8 ± 4.9; 76.7 % of the respondents had scores >50 %. Particular gaps were detected relating to knowledge of unprotected sexual intercourse and MTCT; 45.6 % patients were not aware of the potential asymptomatic course of HBV infection, 41.2 % about chronic HB treatment. A patient's low educational level was negatively associated with a high knowledge level; the willingness for further education on HB and HBV vaccination in the past were independently associated with good knowledge. In conclusion, the HBV infection remains a public health threat in Poland, since the prevalence of infection markers in asymptomatic adult patients was high. Knowledge gaps call for awareness campaigns which may increase testing and diagnosis, audiences representing lower education level should be targeted first. Knowledge on HB might serve as an effective tool in decision making regarding vaccination. PMID:26699149

  20. An audit of first prescription of new patients attending a psychiatry walk-in-clinic in north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although almost all psychotropic medications available worldwide are readily available in India, there is meager data in this country on the prescription patterns of psychiatrists. Aim: To study the first prescription handed over to patients attending the psychiatry outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Data of all patients (for the period of January 1, 2009 to November 30, 2010; diagnosed with an ICD-10 diagnosis of F2-F4 were extracted from the computer-based registry and analyzed. Results: Ten thousand two hundred and fourteen (10 214 patients were diagnosed to have a diagnosis of F2-F4 ICD-10 category. In all diagnostic groups, olanzapine was the most commonly prescribed antipsychotic followed by risperidone. Very few patients (8% received typical antipsychotic medication. In all diagnostic groups, escitalopram was the most commonly prescribed antidepressant; other frequently prescribed antidepressants were sertraline, paroxetine, and venlafaxine. Among the mood stabilizers, valproate was preferred over lithium. In all the groups, more than half of the patients were prescribed benzodiazepines, clonazepam being the most commonly prescribed agent, followed by lorazepam. The mean number of psychotropic medications was highest in the bipolar disorder group. Very few patients received the combination of same group of drugs. Conclusions: Olanzapine, escitalopram, and clonazepam are the most commonly prescribed antipsychotic, antidepressants, and benzodiazepines, respectively. Valproate was preferred over lithium as a mood stabilizer. In general, the prescription trends were in accordance to the recommendations of various treatment guidelines, except for the use of benzodiazepines, which was higher.

  1. Metabolic Syndrome Among Obese Patients Attending the Medical Clinics of Three Reaching Hospitals at Sana's City, Yemen

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    Soumeah M. AL-Ghazan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Yemen faces major challenges in improving the health status of its population as it is entering an epidemiological transition with rising noncommunicable diseases e.g. obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. We designed this study to find out the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MS and its components among obese Yemeni patients.Methods: All obese (waist circumference >102 cm in male and >88 cm in female attending the outpatients medical clinics at the three teaching hospitals in Sana'a city, were examined and their blood pressure (BP, fasting samples of plasma glucose, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol were measured. The prevalence of MS obtained based on the Adult Treatment Panel III and presence of at least 3 of the following: systolic BP ≥130 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP ≥ 85 mm Hg or on treatment for high BP, fasting glucose ≥110 mg/dl or on diabetes treatment, triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl, and HDL cholesterol <40 mg/dl in men and <50 mg/dl in women.Results: 200 obese were identified during study period with an overall MS prevalence of 46%. The metabolic co-morbidities were raised BP (68%, high triglycerides (66%, reduced high density lipoprotein (64%, and raised fasting blood glucose (40%.Conclusion: Prevalence of MS is high among obese Yemeni patients and high BP was the commonest co-morbidity. These findings highlight an urgent need to develop strategies for prevention, detection, and treatment of MS that could contribute to decreasing the rising incidence of CVD and diabetes.

  2. An assessment of serum prolactin levels among infertile women with galactorrhea attending a gynecological clinic North-West Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwa, Emmanuel Ajuluchukwu; Ashimi, Adewale Olufemi; Abubakar, Mohammed Yusuf; Takai, Idris Usman; Lukman, Okunade Taiwo; Lawal, Hamzah Abdurrahman; Also, Muhammed Abubakar; Gift, Amadi Ngozi; Kiri, Halimat Muhammed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Galactorrhea is a common manifestation of hyperprolactinemia but may not always be present in women with hyperprolactinemia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the serum prolactin levels of infertile women presenting with galactorrhea and to determine the prevalence of hyperprolactinemia among them. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of serum prolactin levels of 63 female partners of infertile couples attending the gynecological clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Birnin Kudu, Jigawa State, Nigeria, who were found to have galactorrhea from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2013. Ethical clearance was obtained. Solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure serum prolactin. Sociodemographic characteristics were determined. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 statistical software. Absolute numbers and simple percentages were used to describe categorical variables. Similarly, quantitative variables were described using measures of central tendency (mean, median) and measures of dispersion (range, standard deviation) as appropriate. Results: The average age of the women was 27.9 ± 5.6 years. In half of the cases (50%), galactorrhea was associated with menstrual disturbances, mainly amenorrhea (23.3%). Although most (63.3%) of the clients had normal serum prolactin level despite being galactorrheic, averagely there was a marked elevation in serum prolactin of as high as 40.3 ± 52.3 ng/mL. Conclusion: We conclude, therefore, that the prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in this study was low when compared with other studies and that galactorrhea does not always indicate raised serum prolactin levels.

  3. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in antenatal women

    OpenAIRE

    Lavanya S; Jogalakshmi D

    2002-01-01

    A total of 500 antenatal women in their first or second trimesters were screened over a period of 2 years for asymptomatic bacteriuria. Out of them, 8.4% (42) were culture positive. A control group of 100 non-pregnant women, both married and unmarried, was also simultaneously screened. The control group yielded an overall culture positivity of 3% (4% in the married non-pregnant women and 2% in the unmarried women). Primigravida had highest percent culture positivit...

  4. CEREBRAL PALSY : ANTENATAL RISK FACTORS

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    Srinivasa Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth. Often the cause is unknown. AIM: To study the different antenatal maternal risk factors associated with cerebral palsy in the study group. MATERIA LS AND METHODS: Retrospective study was done to assess possible associated antenatal risk factors for cerebral palsy. Mothers of 100 cerebral palsy children were selected who are treated in Rani Chandramani Devi Hospital, a Government hospital in Visakhapa tn am, Andhra Pradesh State, India , from 2012 to 2014 and 100 controls, mothers of normal children were studied. Detailed antenatal history was obtained from the mothers of the children in both affected and control group. RESULTS: From the data, we conclude that the association of maternal anaemia with cerebral palsy is 7.3 times higher; association of maternal hypertension with cerebral palsy is 6.6 time higher, association with Pre - eclampsia is 6 times higher; association with Eclampsia is 8.6 times higher ; with antepartum haemorrhage, the association is 8.6 times higher and association of multiple pregnancy with cerebral palsy is 4.8 times higher than with controls. CONCLUSION: From this study of the role of antenatal risk factors, in the occurrence of cer ebral palsy in children it is concluded that the most common risk factor associated with cerebral palsy is the maternal anaemia and the other important risk factors associated being hypertension, pre eclampsia, eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage and multipl e births.

  5. Antenatal Bartter Syndrome: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Y Ramesh Bhat; Vinayaka, G.; Sreelakshmi, K.

    2012-01-01

    Antenatal Bartter syndrome (ABS) is a rare autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder. The defective chloride transport in the loop of Henle leads to fetal polyuria resulting in severe hydramnios and premature delivery. Early onset, unexplained maternal polyhydramnios often challenges the treating obstetrician. Increasing polyhydramnios without apparent fetal or placental abnormalities should lead to the suspicion of this entity. Biochemical analysis of amniotic fluid is suggested as elevated...

  6. CEREBRAL PALSY : ANTENATAL RISK FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa Rao; Vidyullatha; Subbalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth. Often the cause is unknown. AIM: To study the different antenatal maternal risk factors associated with cere...

  7. Oral mucosal lesions in skin diseased patients attending a dermatologic clinic: a cross-sectional study in Sudan

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    Salman Hussein

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background So far there have been no studies focusing on the prevalence of a wide spectrum of oral mucosal lesions (OML in patients with dermatologic diseases. This is noteworthy as skin lesions are strongly associated with oral lesions and could easily be neglected by dentists. This study aimed to estimate the frequency and socio-behavioural correlates of OML in skin diseased patients attending outpatient's facility of Khartoum Teaching Hospital - Dermatology Clinic, Sudan. Methods A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted in Khartoum from October 2008 to January 2009. A total of 588 patients (mean age 37.2 ± 16 years, 50.3% females completed an oral examination and a personal interview of which 544 patients (mean age 37.1 ± 15.9 years, 50% females with confirmed skin disease diagnosis were included for further analyses. OML were recorded using the World Health Organization criteria (WHO. Biopsy and smear were used as adjuvant techniques for confirmation. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (Version 15.0.1. Cross tabulation and Chi-square with Fisher's exact test were used. Results A total of 438 OML were registered in 315 (57.9%, males: 54.6% versus females: 45.6%, p Tongue lesions were the most frequently diagnosed OML (23.3%, followed in descending order by white lesions (19.1%, red and blue lesions (11% and vesiculobullous diseases (6%. OML in various skin diseases were; vesiculobullous reaction pattern (72.2%, lichenoid reaction pattern (60.5%, infectious lesions (56.5%, psoriasiform reaction pattern (56.7%, and spongiotic reaction pattern (46.8%. Presence of OML in skin diseased patients was most frequent in older age groups (62.4% older versus 52.7% younger, p Conclusions OML were frequently diagnosed in skin diseased patients and varied systematically with age, gender, systemic condition and use of toombak. The high prevalence of OML emphasizes the importance of routine examination

  8. Neuropsychological screening of children of substance-abusing women attending a Special Child Welfare Clinic in Norway

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    Skogmo Idar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to alcohol and illicit substances during pregnancy can have an impact on the child for the rest of his/her life. A Special Child Welfare Clinic (SCWC in Norway provides care for pregnant women with substance abuse problems. Treatment and support are provided without replacement therapy. Methods We performed a neuropsychological screening of 40 children aged four to 11 years whose mothers had attended the SCWC during pregnancy, and of a comparison group of 80 children of women without substance abuse problems. The children were presented with tests chosen from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, third version (WISC-III, Nepsy, Halstead-Reitan and Raven's Progressive Matrices, Coloured Version. The tests were grouped into five main domains; (1 learning and memory, (2 visual scanning, planning and attention, (3 executive function, (4 visuo-motor speed and dexterity and (5 general intellectual ability Results No children in the study had test results in the clinical range in any domain. Bivariate analyses revealed that children of short-term substance-abusing mothers (who stopped substance abuse within the first trimester had significantly lower test scores than the comparison group in three out of five domains (domain 2,3,4. Children of long-term substance abusers (who maintained moderate substance abuse throughout pregnancy had significantly lower test results than the comparison group in one domain of the test results (domain 1. All but one child in the long-term group were or had been in foster homes. Most children in the short-term group stayed with their mothers. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that foster care minimum 50% of life time was associated with better scores on domains (1 learning and memory, (2 visual scanning, planning and attention, and (3 executive functions, while no significant associations with test scores was found for substance abuse and birth before 38 weeks of gestation

  9. Contraception matters: indicators of poor usage of contraception in sexually active women attending family planning clinics in Victoria, Australia

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    Ong Jason

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unintended pregnancy (mistimed or unwanted remains an important health issue for women. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with risk of unintended pregnancy in a sample of Victorian women attending family planning clinics. Methods This cross-sectional survey of three Family Planning Victoria Clinics from April to July 2011 recruited women aged 16-50 years with a male sexual partner in the last 3 months, and not intending to conceive. The questionnaire asked about contraceptive behaviours and important factors that influence contraception use (identified from a systematic literature review. Univariate analysis was calculated for the variables of interest for associations with contraceptive use. An overall multivariate model for being at risk for unintended pregnancy (due to inconsistent or ineffective contraceptive use or non-use was calculated through backward elimination with statistical significance set at Results 1006 surveys were analyzed with 96% of women reporting contraception use in the last 3 months. 37% of women were at risk for unintended pregnancy due to imperfect use (61% inconsistent users; 31% ineffective methods or never using contraception (8%. On multivariate analysis, women at risk for unintended pregnancy compared with women not at risk were 1 partner in the last 3 months (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.3-4.6. These women were dissatisfied with current contraception (OR 2.5, 95% 1.8-3.5; felt “vulnerable” to pregnancy (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.6-3.0; were not confident in contraceptive knowledge (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.5-4.8; were unable to stop to use contraception when aroused (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-2.9 but were comfortable in speaking to a doctor about contraception (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.1. Conclusion Despite reported high contraceptive usage, nearly 40% of women were at risk for unintended pregnancy primarily due to inconsistent contraceptive use and use of ineffective

  10. ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIURIA AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING THE OUTPATIENT CLINIC OF CHITWAN MEDICAL COLLEGE TEACHING HOSPITAL, CHITWAN, NEPAL

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    Mamata Sharma Neupane

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Tract Infection (UTI refers to both microbial colonization of the urine and tissue invasion of any structure of the urinary tract. Pregnancy enhances the progression from asymptomatic to symptomatic bacteriuria which could lead to pyelonephritis and adverse obstetric outcomes such as prematurity, low-birth weight, and higher fetal mortality rates. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy; its causative agents and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, and also to determine the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria. The total number of participants who finished the study was 392. The mean age of the participants was 29.76 ± 6.71(range, 21-37 years. Of the 392 urine specimens processed, 102 (26.0% showed significant bacteriuria. The commonest organism causing bacteriuria was Escherichia coli. The sensitivity pattern of the isolated organisms revealed that all were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin at very high percentage. 200 (51.5% women had more than 5 pus cells in urine specimens from which 50 (12.75% had positive cultures. Women with higher number of pus cells in urine specimen had significantly higher asymptomatic bacteriuria (p < 0.0001.In conclusion, screening of bacteriuria in pregnancy and proper treatment must be considered as an essential part of antenatal care in Nepalese community. To prevent asymptomatic bacteriuria complications, all pregnant women should be screened at the first antenatal visit. A negative test for pyuria is not a reliable indicator of the absence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women.

  11. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Antenatal Depression among Omani Women in a Primary Care Setting; Cross-sectional study

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    Mohammed Al-Azri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to identify the prevalence of antenatal depression and the risk factors associated with its development among Omani women. No previous studies on antenatal depression have been conducted in Oman. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out between January and November 2014 in Muscat, Oman. Pregnant Omani women ≥32 gestational weeks who were attending one of 12 local primary care health centres in Muscat for routine antenatal care were invited to participate in the study (n = 986. An Arabic version of the validated self-administered Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale questionnaire was used to measure antenatal depression. A cut-off score of ≥13 was considered to indicate probable depression. Results: A total of 959 women participated in the study (response rate: 97.3%. Of these, 233 were found to have antenatal depression (24.3%. A bivariate analysis showed that antenatal depression was associated with unplanned pregnancies (P = 0.010, marital conflict (P = 0.001 and a family history of depression (P = 0.019. The adjusted odds ratio (OR after logistic multivariate regression analysis showed that antenatal depression was significantly associated with unplanned pregnancies (OR: 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.86 and marital conflict (OR: 13.83; 95% CI: 2.99–63.93. Conclusion: The prevalence of antenatal depression among the studied Omani women was high, particularly in comparison to findings from other Arab countries. Thus, antenatal screening for depression should be considered in routine primary antenatal care. Couples should also be encouraged to seek psychological support should marital conflicts develop during pregnancy.

  12. Survey of human immunodeficiency virus infection and sexually transmitted diseases in homosexual and bisexual men attending genitourinary medicine clinics in the UK during 1986-88. The British Cooperative Clinical Group.

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    A multicentre investigation was made into the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV infection amongst homosexual/bisexual (HS/BS) men attending genitourinary medicine clinics in the UK during the final quarters of 1986, 1987, and 1988. The results from individual clinics have been collated into regional groupings in order to assess geographical and temporal trends. A statistical analysis has also been performed on the data from 19 large teaching hospital clinics which contribute...

  13. Attitudes to routine HIV counselling and testing, and knowledge about prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV in eastern Uganda: a cross-sectional survey among antenatal attendees

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    Byamugisha Robert

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV testing rates have exceeded 90% among the pregnant women at Mbale Regional Referral Hospital in Mbale District, eastern Uganda, since the introduction of routine antenatal counselling and testing for HIV in June 2006. However, no documented information was available about opinions of pregnant women in eastern Uganda about this HIV testing approach. We therefore conducted a study to assess attitudes of antenatal attendees towards routine HIV counselling and testing at Mbale Hospital. We also assessed their knowledge about mother to child transmission of HIV and infant feeding options for HIV-infected mothers. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey of 388 women, who were attending the antenatal clinic for the first time with their current pregnancy at Mbale Regional Referral Hospital from August to October 2009. Data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire and analysed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Permission to conduct the study was obtained from the Makerere University College of Health Sciences, the Uganda National Council of Science and Technology, and Mbale Hospital. Results The majority of the antenatal attendees (98.5%, 382/388 had positive attitudes towards routine HIV counselling and testing, and many of them (more than 60% had correct knowledge of how mother to child transmission of HIV could occur during pregnancy, labour and through breastfeeding, and ways of preventing it. After adjusting for independent variables, having completed secondary school (odds ratio: 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-4.9, having three or more pregnancies (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4-4.5 and belonging to a non-Bagisu ethnic group (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.0-2.7 were associated with more knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding as one of the measures for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV. Out of 388 antenatal attendees, 386 (99.5% tested for HIV and 382 (98.5% received same-day HIV test results

  14. Health-related quality of life in patients with knee osteoarthritis attending two primary care clinics in Malaysia: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria Zainal F; Bakar Azman A; Hasmoni Hadzri M; Rani Fauzi A; Kadir Samiah A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among patients with osteoarthritis (OA) helps the health care provider to understand the impact of the disease in the patients' own perspective and make health services more patient-centered. The main aim of this study was to measure the quality of life among patients with symptomatic knee OA attending primary care clinic. We also aimed to ascertain the association between socio-demographic and medical status of patient...

  15. Bed net ownership, use and perceptions among women seeking antenatal care in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC: Opportunities for improved maternal and child health

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    Tabala Martine

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe malaria knowledge, attitudes toward malaria and bed net use, levels of ownership and use of bed nets, and factors associated with ownership and use among pregnant women attending their first antenatal care (ANC visit in Kinshasa, DRC. Methods Women attending their first ANC visit at one maternity in Kinshasa were recruited to take part in a study where they were given free insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs and then followed up at delivery and 6 months post delivery to assess ITN use. This study describes the baseline levels of bed net ownership and use, attitudes towards net use and factors associated with net use Results Among 351 women interviewed at baseline, 115 (33% already owned a bed net and 86 (25% reported to have slept under the net the previous night. Cost was reported as the reason for not owning a net by 48% of the 236 women who did not own one. In multivariable analyses, women who had secondary school or higher education were 3.4 times more likely to own a net (95% CI 1.6–7.3 and 2.8 times more likely to have used a net (95% CI 1.3–6.0 compared to women with less education Conclusion Distribution of ITNs in antenatal clinics in this setting is needed and feasible. The potential for ITN use by this target population is high.

  16. Maintenance of improved lipid levels following attendance at a cardiovascular risk reduction clinic: a 10-year experience

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    Glen J Pearson

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Glen J Pearson1,5, Kari L Olson6, Nicole E Panich1, Sumit R Majumdar2,5, Ross T Tsuyuki1,4, Dawna M Gilchrist2,5, Ali Damani4, Gordon A Francis3,5The MILLARR Study (Maintenance of Improved Lipid Levels Following Attendance at a Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic 1Department of Medicine, Divisions of Cardiology; 2General Internal Medicine; 3Endocrinology and Metabolism; Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences; 4University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 5Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic (CRRC, University of Alberta Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 6University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado, USA; 7Family Medicine (Private Practice, Calgary, Alberta, CanadaBackground: Specialty cardiovascular risk reduction clinics (CRRC increase the proportion of patients attaining recommended lipid targets; however, it is not known if the benefits are sustained after discharge. We evaluated the impact of a CRRC on lipid levels and assessed the long-term effect of a CRRC in maintaining improved lipid levels following discharge.Methods: The medical records of consecutive dyslipidemic patients discharged >6 months from a tertiary hospital CRRC from January 1991 to January 2001 were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was the change in patients’ lipid levels between the final CRRC visit and the most recent primary care follow-up. A worst-case analysis was conducted to evaluate the potential impact of the patients in whom the follow-up lipid profiles post-discharge from the CRRC were not obtained.Results: Within the CRRC (median follow-up = 1.28 years in 1064 patients, we observed statistically significant improvements in all lipid parameters. In the 411 patients for whom post-discharge lipid profiles were available (median follow-up = 2.41 years, there were no significant differences observed in low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC, or triglycerides since CRRC discharge; however, there

  17. Feeding practices among children attending child welfare clinics in Ragama MOH area: a descriptive cross-sectional study

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    Perera Priyantha J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feeding during early childhood is important for normal physical and mental growth as well as for health in later life. Currently, Sri Lanka has adopted the WHO recommendation of exclusive breastfeeding for six months, followed by addition of complementary feeds thereafter, with continuation of breastfeeding up to or beyond two years. This study was conducted to evaluate the current feeding practices among Sri Lankan children during early childhood. Methods This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in the Ragama Medical Officer of Health (MOH area. It was conducted between 10 August 2010 and 30 October 2010. Children between the ages of 24 and 60 months, attending child welfare clinics, were included in the study on consecutive basis. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data regarding sociodemographic characteristics and feeding practices. Results There were 208 boys and 202 girls in the study population. Of them, 255 (62.2% were exclusively breastfed up to 6 months. Younger children had a statistically significant, higher rate of exclusive breastfeeding compared to older children. Three hundred and fifty one (85.6% children had received infant formula, and it was started before the age of 6 months in 61 children, and in 212 before one year. Sugar was added to infant formula in 330 (80.4% children, and out of them 144 had sugar added within first year of life. Complementary foods were started before 4 months in 29 (7% children. Of the 410 children, 294 (71.7% were breastfed beyond 2 years and 41.6% of them were breastfed at regular intervals throughout the day. Three hundred and thirty eight (82.6% children were receiving overnight feeding of either breast milk or infant formula even after 2 years. Conclusions Though a high rate of exclusive breastfeeding was observed in this study population, there are many other issues related to feeding during the early years of life that need

  18. Integration of Antiretroviral Therapy Services into Antenatal Care Increases Treatment Initiation during Pregnancy: A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stinson, Kathryn; Jennings, Karen; Myer, Landon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy is critical to promote maternal health and prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT). The separation of services for antenatal care (ANC) and ART may hinder antenatal ART initiation. We evaluated ART initiation during pregnancy under different service delivery models in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using routinely collected clinic data. Three models for ART initiation i...

  19. Does antenatal fear of childbirth predict postnatal fear of childbirth? - A study of Japanese women

    OpenAIRE

    Takegata, Mizuki; Haruna, Megumi; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Shiraishi, Mie; Okano, Tadaharu; Severinsson, Ingeborg Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to determine whether antenatal fear of childbirth (expectation) could predict postnatal fear of childbirth (experience) by taking account of other antenatal psychological variables(anxiety and depression) as well as birth outcomes in Japanese women. A longitudinal observational study was conducted at a clinic in Tokyo, Japan, in 2011. Self-report questionnaires were distributed to 240 Japanese women at 37 gestational weeks (Time 1) and on the second day after delivery (Time 2)...

  20. Antenatal Receipt of Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine Does Not Exacerbate Pregnancy-Associated Malaria Despite the Expansion of Drug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum: Clinical Outcomes From the QuEERPAM Study

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Steve M.; Antonia, Alejandro L.; Chaluluka, Ebbie; Mwapasa, Victor; Feng, Gaoqian; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Meshnick, Steven R.; Rogerson, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Antenatal preventive administration of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine did not potentiate pregnancy-associated malaria morbidity despite expansion and fixation of drug-resistant malaria parasites. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine may be a safe component of malaria prevention programs without causing adverse effects on birth outcomes.

  1. 胎盘绒毛膜血管瘤的超声诊断与临床分析%Antenatal ultrasonography of placental chorioangioma and clinical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白洁; 韩瑾; 黄丹萍; 古聪敏

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨胎盘绒毛膜血管瘤的超声图像特征、临床意义及处理方法.方法 对19例胎盘绒毛膜血管瘤患者的超声资料及临床资料作回顾性分析.结果 19例经产后病理确诊为胎盘绒毛膜血管瘤的病例均在孕期超声准确诊断,孤立血管瘤表现为12例(63.2%),合并胎儿心脏增大者1例(5.3%),合并羊水过多4例(21.1%),其中2例(10.5%)同时合并胎儿生长受限,羊水过少2例(10.5%).结论 小的绒毛膜血管瘤一般影响不大,胎儿预后良好,大型血管瘤往往引起胎儿早产、生长受限、羊水过多等并发症,彩色多普勒超声可以辅助诊断胎盘绒毛膜血管瘤.%Objective To describe the ultrasonic characteristics of placental chorioangioma and evaluate the fetuses 'prognosis. Methods Clinical and ultrasonic data of 19 cases with placental chorioangioma were studied retrospectively . Results Nineteen cases confirmed by pathological examination were diagnosed during pregnancy period . There were 12(63.2% ) cases with isolated chorioangioma , 1 (5. 3% ) with fetal cardiac enlargement , 4 (21. 1% ) with polyhydramnios including 2 ( 10. 5% ) with fetal growth restriction, and 2 ( 10. 5% ) with oligohydramnios. Conclusion The majority of pregnancies with mild chorioangiomas are asymptomatic , and the prognosis is good. Pregnancies with giant chorioangiomas are usually associated with maternal and fetal complications , such as premature birth , growth restriction, polyhydramnios , and so on. Color Doppler ultrasonography is effective in assistant diagnosis of placental chorioangioma.

  2. Socio-economic and Demographic Determinants of Antenatal Care Services Utilization in Central Nepal

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    Srijana Pandey, PhD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The importance of maternal health services in lessening maternal mortality and morbidity as well as neonatal deaths has received substantial recognition in the past decade. The lack of antenatal care has been identified as a risk factor for maternal mortality and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors affecting attendance of antenatal care services in Nepal. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in Central Nepal. Using semi-structured questionnaire, interviews were conducted with married women aged between 15-49 years, who had delivered their babies within one year. Systematic random sampling method was used to select the sample. Results were obtained by frequency distribution and cross-tabulation of the variables. Results: More than half of the women were not aware of the consequences of lack of antenatal care. Age, education, income, type of family were strongly associated with the attendance at antenatal care service. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: In Nepal and in other developing countries, maternal mortality and morbidity continue to pose challenges to the health care delivery system. Variety of factors including socio-demographic, socio-economic, cultural and service availability as well as accessibility influences the use of maternal health services.

  3. Applying the theory of planned behaviour to explain HIV testing in antenatal settings in Addis Ababa - a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background To facilitate access to the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services, HIV counselling and testing are offered routinely in antenatal care settings. Focusing a cohort of pregnant women attending public and private antenatal care facilities, this study applied an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to explain intended- and actual HIV testing. Methods A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in Addis Ababa in 2009. The study involved first time antenatal attendees from public- and private health care facilities. Three Focus Group Discussions were conducted to inform the TPB questionnaire. A total of 3033 women completed the baseline TPB interviews, including attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intention with respect to HIV testing, whereas 2928 completed actual HIV testing at follow up. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, Fisher's Exact tests, Internal consistency reliability, Pearson's correlation, Linear regression, Logistic regression and using Epidemiological indices. P-values < 0.05 was considered significant and 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was used for the odds ratio. Results The TPB explained 9.2% and 16.4% of the variance in intention among public- and private health facility attendees. Intention and perceived barriers explained 2.4% and external variables explained 7% of the total variance in HIV testing. Positive and negative predictive values of intention were 96% and 6% respectively. Across both groups, subjective norm explained a substantial amount of variance in intention, followed by attitudes. Women intended to test for HIV if they perceived social support and anticipated positive consequences following test performance. Type of counselling did not modify the link between intended and actual HIV testing. Conclusion The TPB explained substantial amount of variance in intention to test but was less sufficient in explaining

  4. Applying the theory of planned behaviour to explain HIV testing in antenatal settings in Addis Ababa - a cohort study

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    Mirkuzie Alemnesh H

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To facilitate access to the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT services, HIV counselling and testing are offered routinely in antenatal care settings. Focusing a cohort of pregnant women attending public and private antenatal care facilities, this study applied an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB to explain intended- and actual HIV testing. Methods A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in Addis Ababa in 2009. The study involved first time antenatal attendees from public- and private health care facilities. Three Focus Group Discussions were conducted to inform the TPB questionnaire. A total of 3033 women completed the baseline TPB interviews, including attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intention with respect to HIV testing, whereas 2928 completed actual HIV testing at follow up. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, Fisher's Exact tests, Internal consistency reliability, Pearson's correlation, Linear regression, Logistic regression and using Epidemiological indices. P-values Results The TPB explained 9.2% and 16.4% of the variance in intention among public- and private health facility attendees. Intention and perceived barriers explained 2.4% and external variables explained 7% of the total variance in HIV testing. Positive and negative predictive values of intention were 96% and 6% respectively. Across both groups, subjective norm explained a substantial amount of variance in intention, followed by attitudes. Women intended to test for HIV if they perceived social support and anticipated positive consequences following test performance. Type of counselling did not modify the link between intended and actual HIV testing. Conclusion The TPB explained substantial amount of variance in intention to test but was less sufficient in explaining actual HIV testing. This low explanatory power of TPB was mainly due

  5. Effects of natural childbirth preparation versus standard antenatal education on epidural rates, experience of childbirth and parental stress in mothers and fathers: a randomised controlled multicentre trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bergström, M; Kieler, H; Waldenström, U

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of antenatal education focussing on natural childbirth preparation with psychoprophylactic training versus standard antenatal education on the use of epidural analgesia, experience of childbirth and parental stress in first-time mothers and fathers. Design Randomised controlled multicentre trial. Setting Fifteen antenatal clinics in Sweden between January 2006 and May 2007. Sample A total of 1087 nulliparous women and 1064 of their partners. Methods Natural gr...

  6. A randomized controlled trial of an antenatal intervention to increase exclusive breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Wong Cheung, Ka-lun; 黃張嘉倫

    2014-01-01

    In Hong Kong, while around 85% of mothers choose to breastfeed their infants, most discontinue within the first one to two months postpartum. This indicates that there is room for improving the current breastfeeding education. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a professional one-to-one antenatal breastfeeding support and education intervention on the exclusivity and duration of breastfeeding. A total of 469 primiparous women who attended the ante...

  7. Pulmonary tuberculosis among women with cough attending clinics for family planning and maternal and child health in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandwalo Eliud R

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB case detection in women has remained low in developing world. This study was conducted to determine the proportion of smear positive TB among women with cough regardless of the duration attending family Planning (FP and Maternal and child health (MCH clinics in Dar es Salaam. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in all three municipal hospitals of Dar es Salaam, between October 2007 and June 2008. All women with cough attending FP and MCH clinics were screened for TB by smear microscopy. Pearson chi-square was used to compare group difference for categorical variables. Risk factors for smear positive were estimated by logistics regression with 95% confidence intervals (CI given for odds ratios indicating statistically significant relationship if the CI did not include one. Results We enrolled a total of 749 TB suspects. Five hundred and twenty nine patients (70.6% were from MCH clinics. Mean (SD age was 27.6 (5.2 years. A total of 616 (82.2% patients were coughing for less than two weeks as compared to 133 (17.8%, who coughed for two or more weeks. Among 616 TB suspects, 14 (2.3% were smear positive TB patients, and of the 133 who had coughed for two or more weeks, 13 (9.8% were smear positive TB patients. Risk factors associated with smear positive results were having attended more than one visit to any facility prior to diagnosis (OR = 6.8; 95%CI 2.57–18.0 and having HIV/AIDS (OR = 4.4; 95%CI 1.65–11.96. Long duration of cough was not a risk factor for being smear positive (OR = 1.6; 95%CI 0.59–4.49. Conclusion The proportion of smear positive TB patients among women with cough attending MCH and FP was 3.8%. Visits to any health facility prior to Diagnosis and HIV infection were risk for having a smear positive TB.

  8. Impact of Male Partner Antenatal Accompaniment on Perinatal Health Outcomes in Developing Countries: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Carolina; Jennings, Larissa

    2015-09-01

    Encouraging male partners to accompany women to antenatal care (ANC) is an important first step in engaging men on maternal and newborn health. However, little is known regarding the impact of male partner antenatal accompaniment beyond HIV-related perinatal outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize the evidence on the influence of male accompaniment on non-HIV outcomes during pregnancy and into the postpartum period. Eligible studies were published in English from 2003 to 2013 and evaluated the effect of male antenatal accompaniment on perinatal health in a developing country. Four electronic databases and selected reference lists were searched. Out of 84 potential citations retrieved, seven publications were retained for the assessment of male antenatal accompaniment's influence using iterative thematic analysis. During pregnancy, male antenatal accompaniment positively impacted women's knowledge of danger signs, but did not affect birth preparedness, ANC utilization, or miscarriages. During labor and delivery, men's ANC presence was associated with increases in institutional delivery and skilled birth attendance, but with no effect for birth-related outcomes. During the early postnatal period, male antenatal accompaniment was associated with higher uptake of postnatal services, but with mixed effects on breastfeeding and newborn survival. Couples' increased communication on pregnancy care and men's subsequent motivation to ensure safe delivery may explain these observed benefits. Inadequate communication, late accompaniment, or partner type may explain the lack of influence on some outcomes. More efforts are needed to expand the implementation and evaluation of male involvement strategies to improve perinatal health. PMID:25656727

  9. Indicators of adherence to physiotherapy attendance among Saudi female patients with mechanical low back pain: a clinical audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Eisa Einas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among current musculoskeletal interventions used to treat low back pain (LBP, physiotherapy exercise has the highest evidence of effectiveness in avoiding recurrence and chronic disability. However, effectiveness of physiotherapy is thought to be directly related to the patients' adherence to physiotherapy. Since adherence is reported to be directly influenced by socio-cultural factors, this study was conducted to investigate factors related to patients' adherence in a group of Saudi female patients with LBP. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted on female LBP patients referred to the department of physiotherapy at a local tertiary hospital over a 12 month period. A total of 98 charts were reviewed. Two physiotherapists specialized in musculoskeletal rehabilitation collected information from the medical files. Data were classified in three categories: patients' personal demographics, patients' medical condition and history, and type of physiotherapy administered. Contingency tables and chi-square test were computed to test for differences in proportions. Spearman rank correlation coefficient was calculated to examine relationships among variables. Results Subjects who attended their scheduled appointments were classified as adherent (40%, and those who failed to attend 2 consecutive scheduled appointments and got discharged were classified as non-adherent (60%. Factors that significantly correlated with adherence included: age (r = 0.7, p Conclusion This study reveals an alarming level of non-adherence to physiotherapy among patients with LBP. It remains unclear as to what level of adherence is required to achieve beneficial effect of treatment. It is quite evident however, that early withdrawal from treatment would not allow the therapeutic benefits of the treatment to be realized. Future research should be directed toward developing strategies to improve adherence.

  10. Antenatal umbilical cord parameters and perinatal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athira Narayanan

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: No association between antenatal umbilical cord characteristics and perinatal outcome was found in pregnancies at high risk for poor perinatal outcome. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 1211-1215

  11. Health-related quality of life in patients with knee osteoarthritis attending two primary care clinics in Malaysia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Zainal F

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQOL among patients with osteoarthritis (OA helps the health care provider to understand the impact of the disease in the patients' own perspective and make health services more patient-centered. The main aim of this study was to measure the quality of life among patients with symptomatic knee OA attending primary care clinic. We also aimed to ascertain the association between socio-demographic and medical status of patients with knee OA and their quality of life. Methods A clinic based, cross sectional study using the Short Form-36 (SF-36 questionnaire was conducted in two primary care health clinics in Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia over a period of 8 months. The nurses and medical assistants were involved in recruiting the patients while the family physicians conducted the interview. Results A total 151 respondents were recruited. The mean age was 65.6 ± 10.8 years with females constituted 119 (78.8% of the patients. The mean duration of knee pain was 4.07 ± 2.96 years. Half of the patients were overweight and majority, 138 (91.4%, had at least one co-morbidity, the commonest being hypertension. The physical health status showed lower score as compared to mental health component. The domain concerning mental health components showed positive correlation with age. There was a significant negative correlation between age and physical functioning (p Conclusions This study has shown that patients with knee OA attending primary care clinics have relatively poor quality of life pertaining to the physical health components but less impact was seen on the patients' mental health.

  12. Serological profile of HSV-2 in patients attending STI clinic: Evaluation of diagnostic utility of HSV-2 IgM detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhry Shilpee

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was done to evaluate the serological profile of herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2 among patients attending sexually transmitted infections (STI clinic and to determine the utility of detecting HSV-2 IgM antibodies in such patients. A correlation of HSV-2 infection with other STI including HIV has also been attempted. Materials and Methods: Hundred consecutive patients who attended STI clinic, with one or more of the complaints as enunciated by WHO in syndromic approach for the diagnosis of STI, were included as subjects. All subjects were screened for common STI by standard laboratory procedures/ commercially available kits. HSV-1 and HSV-2 IgM antibody was detected by commercially available enzyme immuno assay kit in all patient′s sera. Sera were also tested for other STI, namely HIV, Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus and Treponema pallidum. Antigen detection for Chlamydia trachomatis was done in genital swabs of all patients by Bio-Rad Chlamydia Microplate EIA 31189 (United States kit. Results: Thirty patients were found to have genital herpes. In 17/30 (56.6% patients, HSV-2 serology was found to correlate with the clinical diagnosis. The coexistence of other infection in HSV-2 seropositive patients was detected in 8/30 patients. None of the patients having concomitant infections were clinically diagnosed accurately. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of IgM antibodies for the diagnosis of genital herpes was 73.91%, 90.91%, 70.83% and 92.91% respectively. Conclusion: HSV-2 IgM detection could only be used as a supportive test for the diagnosis of genital herpes . It needs to be emphasized that the sensitivity and positive predictive value scores are pointers for further improvement in the commercial assay systems and a large sample size may determine the broader utility of such systems.

  13. Antenatal umbilical cord parameters and perinatal outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Athira Narayanan; Priya Ballal; Nikil Shetty; Pralhad Kushtagi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of the study was to study the association between antenatally determined umbilical cord thickness and coiling index at/after 34 weeks of gestation and the measures of perinatal outcome. Methods: Umbilical cord thickness and coiling index were determined sonographically at or after 34 weeks of gestation in 100 singleton pregnancies. The influence of the antenatal cord findings was analyzed for their associations with measures of perinatal outcome in high and low ri...

  14. Ideal antenatal care-does it exist?

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Singh; Manash Biswas

    2016-01-01

    Antenatal care is systematic supervision of a pregnant mother and its objective is to ensure a normal pregnancy with delivery of a healthy baby from a healthy mother. It is quite effective in reduction of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Varied antenatal care protocols exist in the literature and all aim towards the same goal. This review endeavours to find out a protocol that is ideal and that suits every pregnant woman, every institute and every country in the world. The revi...

  15. Antenatal hypnosis training and childbirth experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Anette; Uldbjerg, Niels; Zachariae, Robert;

    2013-01-01

    Childbirth is a demanding event in a woman's life. The aim of this study was to explore whether a brief intervention in the form of an antenatal course in self-hypnosis to ease childbirth could improve the childbirth experience.......Childbirth is a demanding event in a woman's life. The aim of this study was to explore whether a brief intervention in the form of an antenatal course in self-hypnosis to ease childbirth could improve the childbirth experience....

  16. Knowledge and perception of human papilloma virus vaccine among the antenatal women in a Nigerian tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teddy E Agida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is a major health problem globally, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria inclusive. One of the preventive measures is the vaccination of teenagers against oncogenic human papilloma virus. The aim of this study was to find out the level of knowledge mothers possess about these vaccines and their willingness to administer vaccination to their teenage girls. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 255 consecutive women attending antenatal clinic at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja. They were given either a self-administered questionnaire or interviewer-administered questionnaire containing both closed and open-ended questions. Information recorded includes socio-demographic variables, knowledge of cervical cancer, knowledge of HPV/HPV vaccines and acceptance of these vaccines for their adolescent girls. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 26.9 years. Over 90% had at least secondary education. A total of 102 (40% had the knowledge of cancer of the cervix while 153 (60% had never heard about it. Overall, 236 (92.5% of them had no idea about the predisposing factors. The study showed that only 23 (9.0% out of the total respondents had heard about human papilloma virus (HPV infection. In the same vein, 20 (7.8% had knowledge about HPV vaccine. Among the respondents, who had the knowledge of HPV and vaccination, 18.2% and 23.4% of them had secondary and tertiary levels of education respectively. Overall, 160 (62.8% accepted that the vaccines could be administered to their teenage girls. Conclusions: Awareness of cervical cancer, HPV infections, and HPV vaccines is low among antenatal clinic attendees in Gwagwalada, Abuja. However, majority of them would want their girls vaccinated against HPV infections. There is a need for all stakeholders to step up awareness creation for improved HPV vaccination project in

  17. Factors predicting suicidal ideation in the preceding 12 months among patients attending a community psychiatric outpatient clinic.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anyansi, Tochukwu E

    2013-06-01

    Predictive factors are used to alert the clinician to the necessity of carrying out a suicide risk assessment in those patients whose demographic and clinical characteristics suggest the possibility of suicide.

  18. Sociodemographic characteristics and frequency of psychiatric disorders in Turkish pilgrims attended to psychiatry outpatient clinics during Hajj

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    Şakir Özen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The psychiatric problems of pilgrims fromnon-Arabic speaking countries have not been investigatedsufficiently. The aim of this study was to investigate thefrequency of psychiatric disorders and socio-demographiccharacteristics of Turkish pilgrims in psychiatry departmentof Turkish Mecca Hospital.Methods: A detailed psychiatric interview was performedon 294 Turkish Pilgrims who attended the outpatient clinicof the psychiatric unit at the Turkish hospital in Mecca,Saudi Arabia, during 2008 Hajj period. Information wascollected by using a semi-structured form and the patients’diagnoses were done according to the DSM-IV-TRcriteria.Results: The study group consisted of 175 women (59.5% and 119 men (40.5 % with the mean age of 53.0±13years. A total of 71 % patients had not traveled abroadpreviously, and 60% had received a former psychiatrictreatment. The commonest disorders were found asdepression (26.5%, adjustment disorder with anxiety(16.3% and panic disorder (14% in the patients. Anxietydisorders alone or co-morbid with any other psychiatricdisorder were found in 49% of the patients. Nine percentof the patients had symptoms of acute psychosis, schizophrenia,dementia or mania which could prevent pilgrimsfrom performing Hajj rituals. Suicide attempt, alcohol andillicit drug use were not detected.Conclusions: Previous psychiatric admission and absenceof any foreign travel experience were commonamong Turkish pilgrims who had sought psychiatric helpduring the Hajj. Psychiatric disorders seems to be relatedwith older age, low educational level, and having previousmedical and psychiatric problems.

  19. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in antenatal women

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    Lavanya S

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 500 antenatal women in their first or second trimesters were screened over a period of 2 years for asymptomatic bacteriuria. Out of them, 8.4% (42 were culture positive. A control group of 100 non-pregnant women, both married and unmarried, was also simultaneously screened. The control group yielded an overall culture positivity of 3% (4% in the married non-pregnant women and 2% in the unmarried women. Primigravida had highest percent culture positivity of 66.6%. The incidence was higher in less than 20 years age group i.e. 71.42%. Of the screening tests, Gram stained smear when compared with the standard loop method, showed the highest sensitivity of 95.2%. The specificity of the screening tests was high [Gram stained smear (98.6%, catalase test (97.1% and pus cell count(96.5%]. Escherichia coli was the most common organism isolated in the test and control groups. The organisms were sensitive to cephalexin, nitrofurantoin, amoxycillin and norfloxacin in decreasing order. Incidence of prematurity was 75% and that of low birth weight was 50% in untreated patients.

  20. Can the Theory of Planned Behavior predict dietary intention and future dieting in an ethnically diverse sample of overweight and obese veterans attending medical clinics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Denise N; Smith, Jane Ellen; Rinehart, Jenny K

    2016-04-01

    Obesity has become a world-wide epidemic; in the United States (U.S.) approximately two-thirds of adults are classified as overweight or obese. Military veterans' numbers are even higher, with 77% of retired or discharged U.S. veterans falling in these weight categories. One of the most common methods of changing one's weight is through dieting, yet little is known regarding the factors that facilitate successful dieting behavior. The current investigation tested the Theory of Planned Behavior's (TPB) ability to predict dietary intention and future dieting in a sample of 84 overweight and obese patients attending medical clinics at a Veterans Affairs Hospital in the southwestern part of the U.S. Participants primarily were male (92%) and ethnic/racial minorities (58%). Perceived need and anticipated regret were added to the standard TPB model. While the TPB predicted dietary intention, it did not significantly account for improved dietary behaviors. Anticipated regret significantly enhanced the basic TPB's ability to predict intention to diet, while perceived need did not. These findings highlight the difficulty in predicting sustained change in a complex behavior such as dieting to lose weight. The need for more work with older, overweight/obese medical patients attending veterans' facilities is stressed, as is the need for such work with male patients and ethnic minorities in particular. PMID:26792774

  1. Demand for antenatal care in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, J M; Lambo, E; Sambo, L G

    2000-01-01

    On May,24 1994, the then South African president, Mr. Nelson Mandela, declared that all health care for children under the age of 6 years, and pregnant women would be free. Unfortunately, there has been no significant decrease in maternal, perinatal and infant mortality. Thus, there is a need of research into the factors that influence the demand for antenatal services. The objectives of this paper are to (a) establish the determinants of individual pregnant women's choice to seek antenatal care; and (b) deal with potential endogeneity bias in the relationship between the decision to seek pre-natal care and perceived health status. The joint determination of consumption of antenatal care and pregnant woman's health status requires estimation of a simultaneous system. To help mitigate the simultaneity bias and avoid the inconsistency inherent in the application of Ordinary least Squares (OLS) method to simultaneous equations systems, we used Two-Stage Probit Maximum Likelihood Estimator Method. In the antenatal structural-form equation, the coefficients for TOILET, AGE, OCCUPATION, EMPLOYMENT, SMOKER, METHODS and QUALITY were statistically significant at P risk-lovers or risk-neutral are unlikely to consume preventive and promotive health care, including antenatal care. Thus, there is need to put in place incentives that would convert seemingly risk-lovers to risk-averters. (2) Programmes aimed at reducing women unemployment and general working conditions would improve use of pre-natal care. (3) Improvements in perceived quality of care at the health facilities that offer antenatal care is needed to boost the consumption of antenatal care and probably other forms of health care. PMID:17650027

  2. Evaluation of Diagnostic Algorithms and Risk Assessment Among Women Attending STD Clinics with Vaginal Discharge in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王千秋; 杨凭; 钟铭英; 王广聚

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the aetiologies of vaginal discharge syndromes, to calculate the performance of different management algorithms, and validate these algorithms in STD clinics in China. These algorithms were adopted from those proposed by the World Health Organization. Methods: A total of 315 consecutive patients with vaginal discharge were enrolled at three STD clinics. Cervical infection was defined as presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae on culture and/or Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction.Other laboratory tests included wet mount microscopy and pH testing of vaginal fluid. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of different algorithms were determined using standard methods. Results: Cervical infection was identified in 37.8% of patients (20.6% gonorrhea, 12.7% chlamydial infection, 4.4%gonorrhea in combination with chlamydial infection). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of algorithms A and B for the identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and/or Chlamydia trachomatis were respectively 71.4% and90.8%, 65.3% and 46.9%, 55.6% and 50.9%. Conclusions: The vaginal discharge algorithms could be applied for clinical management. Their sensitivities are acceptable. However, there is a need to further improve their specificity and positive predictive value. The two algorithms could be used in clinical settings with different facilities. These algorithms should also be validated in populations with lower disease prevalence.

  3. Prevalence and predictors of antenatal depressive symptoms among Chinese women in their third trimester: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Yingchun; Cui, Ying; Li, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression during pregnancy can be detrimental to both maternal and fetal health outcomes. A cross-sectional study was undertaken, with the goal of determining the prevalence and predicting factors associated with antenatal depressive symptoms during late pregnancy among Chinese women. Methods Participants were recruited during bookings for antenatal care at a maternal and child health hospital’s outpatient care clinics. Measurements included the Chinese version of Self-rating Depr...

  4. Timing of antenatal care and ART initiation in HIV-infected pregnant women before and after introduction of NIMART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coceka Nandipha Mnyani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this review of routinely collected data from five community health centres in the Johannesburg Health District, we assess timing of antenatal care and antiretroviral therapy (ART initiation in HIV-infected pregnant women before and after the introduction of nurse-initiated management of ART in antenatal clinics. There are important lessons to be learnt as we reflect on the South African prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programme.

  5. Red Cell Alloimmunization to Rhesus Antigen Among Pregnant Women Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman

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    Tamima Al-Dughaishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The detection of maternal alloimmunization against red cell antigens is vital in the management of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. We sought to measure the presence of allosensitization to Rhesus D (RhD antibodies in antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital and assess the fetal outcome in sensitized women. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of pregnant Omani women who registered at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital between June 2011 and June 2013. Pregnant women were tested for ABO blood type and were screened for RhD antigen and antibodies at their first antenatal clinic visit. In women who tested positive for the RhD antibodies, an antibody titer was performed to evaluate the severity of their case. Results: Data was available on 1,251 pregnant women who were managed and delivered at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. The prevalence of RhD negative pregnant women was 7.3%. Blood group O was the most common followed by A, B, and AB. The rate of RhD negative alloimmunization was 10%, and anti-D was the most common antibody detected. There were no stillbirths or neonatal deaths. Postnatal transfusion was necessary for only one baby. Conclusions: The prevalence of RhD negativity was comparable to other Asian countries. Previous RhD alloimmunization and history of miscarriages were the most common maternal medical history.

  6. Infant feeding practice and associated factors of HIV positive mothers attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics in Gondar Town health institutions, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muluye Dagnachew

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been estimated that 430,000 children under 15 years of age were newly infected with HIV in 2008, and more than 71% are living in sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of intervention to prevent mother-to-child transmission, 30-45% of infants born to HIV-positive mothers in developing countries become infected during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to assess infant feeding practice and associated factors of HIV positive mothers attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics of Northwest Ethiopia. Methods Institution based cross sectional study was conducted from January to May 2011 among all HIV positive mothers with less than two years old child attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics in Gondar Town health institutions. A structured pre-tested questionnaire using interview technique was used for data collection. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical package. Results A total of 209 HIV positive mothers were included in the study. Of these, 187 (89.5% had followed the recommended way of infant feeding practice while significant percentage (10.5% had practiced mixed breast feeding. In multivariate analysis, disclosure of HIV status with their spouse, insufficient breast milk and occupational status were found to be independently associated (p-value of Conclusions Higher proportion of respondents used the recommended way of infant feeding practice by WHO as well as by Ethiopian Ministry of Health. However, mixed feeding in the first 6 months of age, an undesirable practice in infant feeding, were reported in this study. Infant feeding education that is aligned to national policy should be strengthened in primary health care, particularly in situations where prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV is prioritized.

  7. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi women attending the infertility clinic in Central Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alfarraj, Dunia A.; Ali M. Somily; Alssum, Rasheed M.; Abotalib, Zeinab M.; El-Sayed, Amal A.; Al-Mandeel, Hazim H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) infection among Saudi women, its clinical presentation, and its association to infertility. Methods: This study was conducted between October 2012 and July 2013 at King Khalid University Hospital and King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Female patients aged between 19 and 46 years old with infertility problems seen at both hospitals were recruited to join the study. A separate gro...

  8. Use of antenatal services and delivery care among women in rural western Kenya: a community based survey

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    Rosen Daniel H

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving maternal health is one of the UN Millennium Development Goals. We assessed provision and use of antenatal services and delivery care among women in rural Kenya to determine whether women were receiving appropriate care. Methods Population-based cross-sectional survey among women who had recently delivered. Results Of 635 participants, 90% visited the antenatal clinic (ANC at least once during their last pregnancy (median number of visits 4. Most women (64% first visited the ANC in the third trimester; a perceived lack of quality in the ANC was associated with a late first ANC visit (Odds ratio [OR] 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0–2.4. Women who did not visit an ANC were more likely to have 90%, but provision of other services was low, e.g. malaria prevention (21%, iron (53% and folate (44% supplementation, syphilis testing (19.4% and health talks (14.4%. Eighty percent of women delivered outside a health facility; among these, traditional birth attendants assisted 42%, laypersons assisted 36%, while 22% received no assistance. Factors significantly associated with giving birth outside a health facility included: age ≥ 30 years, parity ≥ 5, low SES, 1 hour walking distance from the health facility. Women who delivered unassisted were more likely to be of parity ≥ 5 (AOR 5.7, 95% CI 2.8–11.6. Conclusion In this rural area, usage of the ANC was high, but this opportunity to deliver important health services was not fully utilized. Use of professional delivery services was low, and almost 1 out of 5 women delivered unassisted. There is an urgent need to improve this dangerous situation.

  9. Delay in termination of pregnancy among unmarried adolescents and young women attending a tertiary hospital abortion clinic in Trivandrum, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmini C V

    2013-05-01

    Unwed pregnancy among adolescents is a disturbing event in Indian belief-systems, and very young motherhood limits girls' social, economic and educational prospects. Girls who seek abortions are always at higher risk for delay in care seeking; this paper looks at the reasons why. It reports the experiences of 34 unmarried adolescent girls and young women, aged 10-24 years, who obtained induced abortion from a tertiary care abortion clinic over a period of seven months in 2004. Ten were below 19 years of age, the rest were 20-24 years. Only eight of the 34 pregnancies were mother. Only half knew about contraception, of whom two used condoms. Only two of the partners accompanied the girl to the abortion clinic and another two offered some financial support. Because of the conflict between wanting to have sex and feeling guilty about it, these young people experienced terrible distress in the course of unwanted pregnancy. Comparing the adolescents who attended the clinic in 2004 with those we have seen in 2012-2013, the paper shows that as regards the essentials, much has remained the same. PMID:23684207

  10. Antenatal Care Utilisation and Content between Low-Risk and High-Risk Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoh, Ping Ling; Hornetz, Klaus; Dahlui, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of antenatal care is to monitor and improve the wellbeing of the mother and foetus. The World Health Organization recommends risk-oriented strategy that includes: (i) routine care to all women, (ii) additional care for women with moderately severe diseases and complications, (iii) specialised obstetrical and neonatal care for women with severe diseases and complications. Antenatal care is concerned with adequate care in order to be effective. Measurement for adequacy of antenatal care often applies indexes that assess initiation of care and number of visits. In addition, adequacy of care content should also be assessed. Results of studies in developed settings demonstrate that women without risk factors use antenatal services more frequently than recommended. Such over-utilisation is problematic for low-resourced settings. Moreover, studies show that a substantial proportion of high-risk women had utilisation or content of care below the recommended standard. Yet studies in developing countries have seldom included a comparison between low-risk and high-risk women. The purpose of the study was therefore to assess adequacy of care and pregnancy outcomes for the different risk groups. Methods A retrospective study using a multistage sampling technique, at public-funded primary health care clinics was conducted. Antenatal utilisation level was assessed using a modified Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilisation index that measures the timing for initiation of care and observed-to-expected visits ratio. Adequacy of antenatal care content assessed compliance to routine care based on the local guidelines. Results Intensive or “adequate-plus” antenatal care utilisation as defined by the modified index was noted in over half of the low-risk women. On the other hand, there were 26% of the high-risk women without the expected intensive utilisation. Primary- or non-educated high-risk women were less likely to have a higher antenatal care utilisation

  11. Prevalence and type of drug-drug interactions involving antiretrovirals in patients attending a specialist outpatient clinic in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Seden

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Scale-up of HIV services in countries such as Uganda has resulted in a rapid increase in facilities offering antiretrovirals (ARVs and an increase in healthcare workers trained to deliver care. Consequently, evaluating medication safety is increasingly important in these settings. Data from developed countries suggest that drug-drug interactions (DDIs involving ARVs are common, occurring at rates of 14–58%. Few data are available from low resource settings, however a study of 996 Kenyan patients found that 33.5% were at risk of clinically significant DDIs. We evaluated the prevalence and type of ARV DDIs and the patients most at risk in an African outpatient setting. A random sample of patients taking current ARVs and accessing care at the Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University, Kampala was selected from the clinic database. The most recent prescription for each patient was screened for DDIs using www.hiv-druginteractions.org. Clinical significance of DDIs was assessed by two of us using a previously developed technique evaluating: likelihood of interaction, therapeutic index of affected drug and severity of potential adverse effect. From 1000 consecutive patients 99.6% were taking≥1 co-medication alongside their ARV regimen (mean 1.89. 24.5% had≥1 potential DDI, with a total of 335 DDIs observed. Of these, 255 DDIs were considered clinically significant, affecting 18.8% of patients. Only 0.3% of DDIs involved a contraindicated combination. There was a higher rate of potential DDIs observed in patients taking TB treatment (p=0.0047, who were WHO stage 3 or 4 (p=0.001, or patients taking ≥2 co-medications alongside ARVs (p<0.0001 (Fishers exact test. Patient age, gender, CD4 count and weight did not affect risk for DDIs. Co-medications commonly associated with potential DDIs were antibiotics (6.2% of 1000 patients, anthelminthics (4.6% and antifungals (3.5%. Potential DDIs involving ARVs occur at similar rates in resource

  12. Peripheral arterial disease among adult diabetic patients attending a large outpatient diabetic clinic at a national referral hospital in Uganda: a descriptive cross sectional study.

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    Raymond Mbayo Mwebaze

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is one of the recognised diabetic macro vascular complications. It is a marker of generalised systemic atherosclerosis and is closely associated with symptomatic coronary and cerebrovascular disease, hence significant morbidity and mortality. Among African adult diabetic populations, screening and diagnosis of PAD is frequently suboptimal. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated clinical factors of PAD in adult ambulatory diabetic patients attending the outpatient diabetic clinic of Mulago national referral and teaching hospital, Kampala Uganda. METHODS: In this descriptive cross sectional study, 146 ambulatory adult diabetic patients were studied. Information about their socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, fasting lipid profile status, blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c levels and presence of albuminuria was collected using a pre tested questionnaire. Measurement of ankle brachial index (ABI to assess for PAD, defined as a ratio less than 0.9 was performed using a portable 5-10 MHz Doppler device. Clinical factors associated with PAD were determined by comparing specific selected characteristics in patients with PAD and those without. RESULTS: The mean age/standard deviation of the study participants was 53.9/12.4 years with a male predominance (75, 51.4%. PAD was prevalent in 57 (39% study participants. Of these, 34 (59.6% had symptomatic PAD. The noted clinical factors associated with PAD in this study population were presence of symptoms of intermittent claudication and microalbuminuria. CONCLUSIONS: This study documents a high prevalence of PAD among adult ambulatory Ugandan diabetic patients. Aggressive screening for PAD using ABI measurement in adult diabetic patients should be emphasised in Uganda especially in the presence of symptoms of intermittent claudication and microalbuminuria.

  13. HIV/Tuberculosis Co-Infection among Patients Attending a Referral Chest Clinic in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, E. U.; Ishaleku, D.; Iheukwumere, C. C.

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) coinfection rate was investigated among patients referred to a chest clinic in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Out of the 344 patients who presented with respiratory problems at the clinic, 44.8% had M. tuberculosis infection, 24.7% HIV infection and 12.8% HIV/tubercle bacilli co-infection. Coinfection rate in HIV infected persons (HIV+) was 51.8 and 28.6% in those with M. tuberculosis infection. The relative risk of HIV positive persons being coinfected was 1.075, while it was 0.401 for TB infected persons. The estimated Odds Ratio (OR) shows that the risk of co-infection was 2.68 times higher among HIV+ persons than among those with tuberculosis. The attributable risk was 45% and shows the extent to which co-infection could be attributed to HIV infection. A key socio-economic variable, eating in groups, was significantly correlated with coinfection (r = 0.107; p< 0.05). The results of this study may provide a useful policy guide in the formulation of HIV and tuberculosis control measures in Nigeria.

  14. Estimating Gestational Age in Late Presenters to Antenatal Care in a Resource-Limited Setting on the Thai-Myanmar Border.

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    Kerryn A Moore

    Full Text Available Estimating gestational age in resource-limited settings is prone to considerable inaccuracy because crown-rump length measured by ultrasound before 14 weeks gestation, the recommended method for estimating gestational age, is often unavailable. Judgements regarding provision of appropriate obstetric and neonatal care are dependent on accurate estimation of gestational age. We determined the accuracy of the Dubowitz Gestational Age Assessment, a population-specific symphysis-fundal height formula, and ultrasound biometry performed between 16 and 40 weeks gestation in estimating gestational age using pre-existing data from antenatal clinics of the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit on the Thai-Myanmar border, where malaria is endemic. Two cohorts of women who gave birth to live singletons were analysed: 1 250 women who attended antenatal care between July 2001 and May 2006 and had both ultrasound crown-rump length (reference and a Dubowitz Gestational Age Assessment; 2 975 women attending antenatal care between April 2007 and October 2010 who had ultrasound crown-rump length, symphysis-fundal measurements, and an additional study ultrasound (biparietal diameter and head circumference randomly scheduled between 16 and 40 weeks gestation. Mean difference in estimated newborn gestational age between methods and 95% limits of agreement (LOA were determined from linear mixed-effects models. The Dubowitz method and the symphysis-fundal height formula performed well in term newborns, but overestimated gestational age of preterms by 2.57 weeks (95% LOA: 0.49, 4.65 and 3.94 weeks (95% LOA: 2.50, 5.38, respectively. Biparietal diameter overestimated gestational age by 0.83 weeks (95% LOA: -0.93, 2.58. Head circumference underestimated gestational age by 0.39 weeks (95% LOA: -2.60, 1.82, especially if measured after 24 weeks gestation. The results of this study can be used to quantify biases associated with alternative methods for estimating gestational age in the

  15. Influence of pregnancy perceptions on patterns of seeking antenatal care among women in reproductive age of Masaka District, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atekyereza, Peter R; Mubiru, Kenneth

    2014-10-01

    Maternal mortality remains a challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa including Uganda. Antenatal Care (ANC) is one of the recommended measures to improve maternal and child health. However, the influence of pregnancy definition and perception on patterns of seeking regular and timely antenatal care among women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) is not known. The objectives of this study were to: (i) understand the women's social definitions and perceptions on their pregnancy; (ii) understand the socio-cultural beliefs related to pregnancy among women of the reproductive age group; and, (iii) examine the influence of social definitions, perceptions and beliefs about pregnancy on women's antenatal care seeking behaviour patterns to inform the decentralised health care delivery system in Uganda. A total of 45 women, mothers and expectant women who were purposively selected from Kimanya sub county of Masaka district in Uganda participated in the study. Ten key informant interviews and four Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were also conducted. Key findings indicate that the women's socio-definitions and perceptions of pregnancy influence their seeking behaviour on antenatal health care. To the women with a positive orientation towards antenatal care, pregnancy provides joy, happiness, pride, promotes their social status and safe-guards their marriage. Pregnancy is rewarding with care, love, support and gifts. Women who shun antenatal care perceive pregnancy to be a source of misery, sadness, pain and suffering. It is an uncomfortable and regrettable experience. Women also hold socio-cultural beliefs on pregnancy, which are culturally constructed and rooted in taboos, rituals and practices of their communities. It is therefore important to sensitise women and those who attend to them when they are pregnant to understand these perceptions and definitions to motivate them to seek antenatal and postnatal care for better maternal and child health. PMID:26891521

  16. Post-stroke bacteriuria among stroke patients attending a physiotherapy clinic in Ghana: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkor, Eric S; Akumwena, Amos; Amoo, Philip K; Owolabi, Mayowa O; Aspelund, Thor; Gudnason, Vilmundur

    2016-01-01

    Background Infections are known to be a major complication of stroke patients. In this study, we evaluated the risk of community-acquired bacteriuria among stroke patients, the associated factors, and the causative organisms. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving 70 stroke patients and 83 age- and sex-matched, apparently healthy controls. Urine specimens were collected from all the study subjects and were analyzed by standard microbiological methods. Demographic and clinical information was also collected from the study subjects. For stroke patients, the information collected also included stroke parameters, such as stroke duration, frequency, and subtype. Results Bacteriuria was significantly higher among stroke patients (24.3%, n=17) than among the control group (7.2%, n=6), with a relative risk of 3.36 (confidence interval [CI], 1.40–8.01, P=0.006). Among the control group, all six bacteriuria cases were asymptomatic, whereas the 17 stroke bacteriuria cases comprised 15 cases of asymptomatic bacteriuria and two cases of symptomatic bacteriuria. Female sex (OR, 3.40; CI, 1.12–10.30; P=0.03) and presence of stroke (OR, 0.24; CI, 0.08–0.70; P=0.009) were significantly associated with bacteriuria. The etiology of bacteriuria was similar in both study groups, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. were the most predominant organisms isolated from both stroke patients (12.9%) and the control group (2.4%). Conclusion Stroke patients in the study region have a significantly higher risk of community-acquired bacteriuria, which in most cases is asymptomatic. Community-acquired bacteriuria in stroke patients appears to have little or no relationship with clinical parameters of stroke such as stroke subtype, duration and frequency. PMID:27051289

  17. Prevalence, correlates, attitude and treatment seeking of erectile dysfunction among type 2 diabetic Chinese men attending primary care outpatient clinics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wai Hon Lo; Sau Nga Fu; Carlos King Ho Wong; Ee San Chen

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence, correlates, attitude and treatment seeking behavior of erectile dysfunction(ED) in type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in the primary care setting, a multi‑center cross‑sectional survey using a structured anonymous self‑administered questionnaire was performed in 10 general outpatient clinics. Of the 603 subjects(91% response rate), the prevalence of ED men, as deifned by the International Index of Erectile Function, was 79.1%. Most subjects had mild ED(28.9%), followed by mild‑to‑moderate ED(27.9%), then moderate ED(13.4%) and severe ED(9%). Nearly 55% of those with ED did not consider themselves as having ED. Less than 10% of them had ever sought medical treatment, although 76.1% of them wished to receive management from doctor(s) should they be diagnosed with ED. They considered the most important management from doctors to be clinical assessment(41.7%), followed by management of potential underlying cause(37.8%), referral to specialist(27.5%), education(23.9%), prescription of phosphodiesterase type5 inhibitors(16.9%) and referral to counseling service(6.7%). The prevalence of ED was strongly associated with subjects who thought they had ED(odds ratio(OR)= 90.49(20.00–409.48, P<0.001)) and were from the older age group(OR=1.043(1.011–1.076,P=0.008)). In conclusion, ED is highly prevalent among T2DM men. The majority of them wanted management from doctors should they have ED, but only a minority would actually voice out the request. Screening of ED among T2DM men using structural questionnaire allowed the diagnosis of more than half of the ED cases, which otherwise would have gone undiagnosed.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors for female sexual dysfunction in women attending a medical clinic in south India

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    Singh J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reports from India on the prevalence and determinants of female sexual dysfunction (FSD are scant. Aims: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for FSD. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey in a medical outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: We administered a Tamil version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI to 149 married women. We evaluated putative risk factors for FSD. We elicited participant′s attributions for their sexual difficulties. Statistical Analysis: We estimated the prevalence of possible FSD and sexual difficulties from published FSFI total and domain cut-off scores. We used logistic regression to identify risk factors for possible FSD. Results: FSFI total scores suggested FSD in two-thirds of the 149 women (73.2%; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 65.5% to 79.6%. FSFI domain scores suggested difficulties with desire in 77.2%; arousal in 91.3%; lubrication in 96.6%; orgasm in 86.6%, satisfaction in 81.2%, and pain in 64.4%. Age above 40 years (odds ratios [OR] 11.7; 95% CI 3.4 to 40.1 and fewer years of education (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.3 were identified by logistic regression as contributory. Women attributed FSD to physical illness in participant or partner, relationship problems, and cultural taboos but none had sought professional help. Conclusions: Sexual problems suggestive of dysfunction, as suggested by FSFI total and domain scores, are highly prevalent in the clinic setting, particularly among women above 40 and those less educated, but confirmation using locally validated cut-off scores of the FSFI is needed.

  19. An assessment of antenatal care among Syrian refugees in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Benage, Matthew; Greenough, P Gregg; Vinck, Patrick; Omeira, Nada; Pham, Phuong

    2015-01-01

    Background After more than three years of violence in Syria, Lebanon hosts over one million Syrian refugees creating significant public health concerns. Antenatal care delivery to tens of thousands of pregnant Syrian refugee women is critical to preventing maternal and fetal mortality but is not well characterized given the multiple factors obtaining health data in a displaced population. This study describes antenatal care access, the scope of existing antenatal care, and antenatal and famil...

  20. An assessment of antenatal care among Syrian refugees in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Benage, Matthew; Greenough, P Gregg; Vinck, Patrick; Omeira, Nada; Pham, Phuong

    2015-01-01

    Background: After more than three years of violence in Syria, Lebanon hosts over one million Syrian refugees creating significant public health concerns. Antenatal care delivery to tens of thousands of pregnant Syrian refugee women is critical to preventing maternal and fetal mortality but is not well characterized given the multiple factors obtaining health data in a displaced population. This study describes antenatal care access, the scope of existing antenatal care, and antenatal and fami...

  1. Patients’ perspectives on antenatal group consultations: Identifying communicative strengths and weaknesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Matilde Nisbeth; Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary

    -patient communication unfolds in a group consultation with a midwife in order to identify its communicative strengths and weaknesses. Methods: Using a sequential multi-methods design, we performed eight individual interviews with pregnant women from a Danish antenatal clinic about their experiences of two group...

  2. High ANC Coverage and Low Skilled Attendance in a Rural Tanzanian district: A Case for Implementing a Birth Plan Intervention.

    OpenAIRE

    Cousens Simon; Campbell Oona; Requejo Jennifer; Magoma Moke; Filippi Veronique

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In Tanzania, more than 90% of all pregnant women attend antenatal care at least once and approximately 62% four times or more, yet less than five in ten receive skilled delivery care at available health units. We conducted a qualitative study in Ngorongoro district, Northern Tanzania, in order to gain an understanding of the health systems and socio-cultural factors underlying this divergent pattern of high use of antenatal services and low use of skilled delivery care. Sp...

  3. Development of a clinical decision support system using genetic algorithms and Bayesian classification for improving the personalised management of women attending a colposcopy room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bountris, Panagiotis; Topaka, Elena; Pouliakis, Abraham; Haritou, Maria; Karakitsos, Petros; Koutsouris, Dimitrios

    2016-06-01

    Cervical cancer (CxCa) is often the result of underestimated abnormalities in the test Papanicolaou (Pap test). The recent advances in the study of the human papillomavirus (HPV) infection (the necessary cause for CxCa development) have guided clinical practice to add HPV related tests alongside the Pap test. In this way, today, HPV DNA testing is well accepted as an ancillary test and it is used for the triage of women with abnormal findings in cytology. However, these tests are either highly sensitive or highly specific, and therefore none of them provides an optimal solution. In this Letter, a clinical decision support system based on a hybrid genetic algorithm - Bayesian classification framework is presented, which combines the results of the Pap test with those of the HPV DNA test in order to exploit the benefits of each method and produce more accurate outcomes. Compared with the medical tests and their combinations (co-testing), the proposed system produced the best receiver operating characteristic curve and the most balanced combination among sensitivity and specificity in detecting high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and CxCa (CIN2+). This system may support decision-making for the improved management of women who attend a colposcopy room following a positive test result. PMID:27382484

  4. Self-Disorders and Clinical High Risk for Psychosis: An Empirical Study in Help-Seeking Youth Attending Community Mental Health Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raballo, Andrea; Pappagallo, Elena; Dell' Erba, Alice; Lo Cascio, Nella; Patane', Martina; Gebhardt, Eva; Boldrini, Tommaso; Terzariol, Laura; Angelone, Massimiliano; Trisolini, Alberto; Girardi, Paolo; Fiori Nastro, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Anomalous subjective experiences involving an alteration of the basic sense of self (ie, Self-disorder [SD]) are emerging as a core marker of schizophrenia spectrum disorders with potential impact on current early detection strategies as well. In this study, we wished to field-test the prevalence of SD in a clinical sample of adolescent/young adult help-seekers at putative risk for psychosis attending standard community mental health facilities in Italy. Participants (n = 47), aged between 14 and 25, underwent extensive psychopathological evaluations with current semi-structured tools to assess Clinical High Risk (CHR) state (ie, Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes/Scale of Prodromal Symptoms [SIPS/SOPS], Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument-Adult/Child and Youth [SPI-A/CY]). SD aggregated in CHR subjects as compared to the non-CHR and revealed substantial association with sub-psychotic symptoms (SIPS), subjective experience of cognitive and cognitive-perceptual vulnerability (basic symptoms) and functional level (Global Assessment of functioning). Moreover, a combination of the 2 approaches (ie, CHR plus SD) enabled further "closing-in" on a subgroup of CHR with lower global functioning. The results confirm SD's relevance for the early profiling of youths at potential high risk for psychosis. PMID:26757754

  5. MAGNITUDE AND CAUSES OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT AND BLINDNESS AMONG CHILDREN ATTENDING PAEDIATRIC EYE CLINIC AT SANTHIRAM MEDICAL COLLEGE

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    Sanjeeva Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The number of blind years resulting from blindness in children is alarmingly high. Blindness in children can have a significant impact on their performance at school as well as their social interaction and future employment as visually impaired children have a long lifetime of blindness ahead of them. The consequences of visual impairment and blindness in children are an important public health issues with greater impact in developing countries, where 80% of the blindness in children occurs. The control of blindness in children is considered a high priority area within the World Health Organization’s VISION 2020 initiative. However many developing countries do not have the accurate information about the magnitude and causes of visual impairment and blindness in children, from which the scope and priorities for prevention and treatment can be identified. To date the established Pediatric Eye Clinic, which works as a Tertiary Eye Centre does not have baseline data on the magnitude and causes of visual impairment and blindness in children.

  6. Knowledge, attitudes and practices among people with chronic hepatitis B attending a hepatology clinic in Malaysia: A cross sectional study

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    Mohamed Rosmawati

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B (HBV is the leading cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices of people with chronic HBV and the associated factors. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at an outpatient adult hepatology clinic at a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur. A self-administered questionnaire was administered on a one-to-one basis to assess knowledge, attitudes, and lifestyle practices of people with chronic HBV. Results The response rate was 89% (n = 483/543. Participants had a mean age of 46.3 (±14.7 years and the mean duration of HBV from time of diagnosis was 12.2 (±8.8 years. The mean knowledge score was 12.57/20 (standard deviation: ±4.4, range: 0–19. Participants aged 30–39 years, with higher educational attainment, employed in professional jobs, longer duration of diagnosis and those without cirrhosis had significantly higher knowledge scores. Age, education level and duration of diagnosis were significant predictors of the knowledge score on standard multiple regression analysis. More than half of the participants were worried of spreading HBV infection to family and friends and worried since the diagnosis. A third of the participants (33.5% were embarrassed to reveal their diagnosis to the public but most of them (93.6% would inform their family. Those who reported feeling worried since their diagnosis were more likely to be middle-aged, of Malay ethnicity, have shorter duration of diagnosis of less than 10 years and have received therapy. About half of the participants (50.6% did not share dining utensils and the majority (93.2% believed that HBV can be transmitted by sharing of eating and drinking utensils. Older patients were significantly less likely to share utensils. Those who felt worried since diagnosis had significant higher knowledge of HBV. Conclusion The findings highlight the stigma and misconceptions that still

  7. Utilization of antenatal ultrasound scan and implications for caesarean section: a cross-sectional study in rural Eastern China

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    Huang Kun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal ultrasound scan is a widely accepted component of antenatal care. Studies have looked at the relationship between ultrasound scanning and caesarean section (CS in certain groups of women in China. However, there are limited data on the utilization of antenatal ultrasound scanning in the general population, including its association with CS. The purpose of this study is to describe the utilization of antenatal ultrasound screening in rural Eastern China and to explore the association between antenatal ultrasound scan and uptake of CS. Methods Based on a cluster randomized sample, a total of 2326 women with childbirth participated in the study. A household survey was conducted to collect socio-economic information, obstetric history and utilization of maternal health services. Results Coverage of antenatal care was 96.8% (2251/2326. During antenatal care, 96.1% (2164/2251 women received ultrasound screening and the reported average number was 2.55. 46.8% women received at least 3 ultrasound scans and the maximum number reached 11. The CS rate was found to be 54.8% (1275/2326. After adjusting for socio-demographic and clinical variables, it showed a statistically significant association between antenatal ultrasound scans and uptake of CS by multivariate logistic regression model. High husband education level, high maternal age, having previous adverse pregnant outcome and pregnancy complications during the index pregnancy were also found to be risk factors of choosing a CS. Conclusions A high use of antenatal ultrasound scan in rural Eastern China is found and is influenced by socio-demographic and clinical factors. Evidence-based guidelines for antenatal ultrasound scans need to be developed and disseminated to clinicians including physicians, nurses and sonographers. Guidance about the appropriate use of ultrasound scans should also be shared with women in order to discourage unreasonable expectations and demands. It

  8. Antenatally detected solid tumour of kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Panda, Shasanka Shekhar; Mandelia, Ankur; Gupta, Devendra Kumar; Singh, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Congenital renal tumours are rare and usually benign. Polyhydramnios is the most common mode of presentation. Although most cases have been diagnosed postnatally, with advances in imaging technology, an increasing number of cases are being detected on antenatal scans. We describe a case of solid tumour of kidney detected in the second trimester of pregnancy and managed by surgery in the postnatal period.

  9. Patterns of analgesic use, pain and self-efficacy: a cross-sectional study of patients attending a hospital rheumatology clinic

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    Greenfield Sheila

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people attending rheumatology clinics use analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories for persistent musculoskeletal pain. Guidelines for pain management recommend regular and pre-emptive use of analgesics to reduce the impact of pain. Clinical experience indicates that analgesics are often not used in this way. Studies exploring use of analgesics in arthritis have historically measured adherence to such medication. Here we examine patterns of analgesic use and their relationships to pain, self-efficacy and demographic factors. Methods Consecutive patients were approached in a hospital rheumatology out-patient clinic. Pattern of analgesic use was assessed by response to statements such as 'I always take my tablets every day.' Pain and self-efficacy (SE were measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC and Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES. Influence of factors on pain level and regularity of analgesic use were investigated using linear regression. Differences in pain between those agreeing and disagreeing with statements regarding analgesic use were assessed using t-tests. Results 218 patients (85% of attendees completed the study. Six (2.8% patients reported no current pain, 26 (12.3% slight, 100 (47.4% moderate, 62 (29.4% severe and 17 (8.1% extreme pain. In multiple linear regression self efficacy and regularity of analgesic use were significant (p Low SE was associated with greater pain: 40 (41.7% people with low SE reported severe pain versus 22 (18.3% people with high SE, p Conclusion Our study confirms that there is a strong inverse relationship between self-efficacy and pain severity. Analgesics are often used irregularly by people with arthritis, including some reporting severe pain.

  10. Frequency of HCV infection and its genotypes among patients attending a liver clinic and voluntary blood donors in a rural area of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and its genotypic distribution in a rural area of Sindh, Pakistan. Methodology: Retrospective study of patients attending the Free Liver Clinic (FLC), and investigated for detectable HCV antibodies (n=1638), and those screened for HCV infection prior to voluntary blood donation (n=804) at a teaching hospital, located in rural Sindh. All patients had HCV antibodies tested by ELISA. A total of 1022 patients, who tested 'reactive' to HCV antibodies, and who could financially afford to have HCV RNA tested by PCR, had their results analysed. A total of 200 patients also had their HCV genotyped and analysed. Results: Patients at FLC had a higher chance of being reactive for HCV antibodies, compared to voluntary blood donors (20% VS 14% - p = 0.004). HCV RNA was detectable in 904/1022 (88%) patients. Among type able genotypes, 125/166 (75%) had a single genotype, and 7 patients (4%) were infected with genotype 1, either alone (n=4) or in combination with 3a. Conclusions: One out of every five people tested in our FLC, and 14% of 'healthy' voluntary blood donors were seropositive for HCV antibodies. Genotype 1 is very rare in our region. (author)

  11. Opportunistic and other intestinal parasites among HIV/AIDS patients attending Gambi higher clinic in Bahir Dar city, North West Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abebe Alemu; Yitayal Shiferaw; Gebeyaw Getnet; Aregaw Yalew; Zelalem Addis

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the magnitude of opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections amongHIV/AIDS patients in Bahir Dar.Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted amongHIV/ AIDS patients attending Gambi higher clinic from April1- May30, 2009. Convenient sampling technique was employed to identify the study subjects and hence a total of248subjects were included. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data of patients. Stool samples were examined by direct saline, iodine wet mount, formol-ether sedimentation concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Results: Out of248 enrolled in the study,171(69.0%) (90 males and81 females) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. The highest rate of intestinal parasites were observed amongHIV/AIDS patients (80.3%, 151/188), and the infection rate of HIV negative individuals was 33.3% (20/60). Cryptosporidum parvum(43.6%),Isospora belli (15.5%) andBlastocystis hominis (10.5%)were opportunistic parasites that were found only inHIV/AIDS patients.Conclusions:Opportunistic parasite infections are common health problem among HIV/ AIDS patients in the study area. Therefore, early detection and treatment of these parasites are important to improve the quality of life ofHIV/AIDS patients.

  12. Epidemiological study of clinical characteristics of patients with PCOS attending infertility clinic and awareness of PCOS in a rural set up

    OpenAIRE

    Shubhada Jajoo; Riju Angik

    2013-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age group. It is a common diagnosis in women presenting with infertility. All the dimensions of PCOS have not been completely explored. In this study we studied the clinical features of PCOS and comparing with non-PCOS infertility patients and simultaneously studied the prevalence of PCOS in infertility patients and its awareness in a rural set up. Methods: It is a prospect...

  13. Awareness and knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection among high-risk men of Hispanic origin attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI clinic

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    Colón-López Vivian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital Human papilloma virus (HPV is one of the most commonly diagnosed Sexually Transmitted Infection (STIs in men and women. Knowledge about HPV infection among men is limited. This study aims to determine correlates of adequate knowledge of HPV infection among men who attend an STI clinic in Puerto Rico. Methods A cross-sectional study of 206 men was conducted at an STI clinic in San Juan, PR. Adequate knowledge was defined as a score of at least 70% of correct responses among those men who reported having ever heard of HPV. Variables that achieved statistical significance in the bivariate analysis (p Results Although 52.5% of men reported having heard of HPV infection before the survey, only 29.3% of this sub-group had an adequate knowledge of HPV. Most men did not know that HPV is a risk factor for anal (38.7%, penile (50.0% and oral (72.6% cancer. Factors associated with adequate knowledge of HPV in age-adjusted models were being men who have sex with men (MSM (OR=2.6;95%CI=1.1-6.1, self-report of genital warts (OR=3.2;95%CI=1.3-7.9 and herpes (OR=7.4;95% CI=2.2-25.1. MSM was marginally associated with adequate knowledge (OR=2.3;95% CI=0.9-5.9 and self-report of herpes remained significantly associated (OR=5.0;95%CI=1.3-18.4 in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions Awareness and knowledge of HPV was very low in this group of men. Interventions to increase knowledge and awareness in this group are necessary to promote preventive practices for HPV-related cancers in high-risk groups.

  14. Medication adherence and blood pressure control amongst adults with primary hypertension attending a tertiary hospital primary care clinic in Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel UP. Iloh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the case detection rates of hypertension increase in adult Nigerians, achieving target blood pressure (BP control has become an important management challenge.Objectives: To describe medication adherence and BP control amongst adult Nigerians with primary hypertension attending a primary care clinic of a tertiary hospital in a resource-poor environment in Eastern Nigeria.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 140 adult patients with primary hypertension who have been on treatment for at least 6 months at the primary care clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia. A patient was said to have achieved goal BP control if the BP was < 140 per 90 mmHg. Adherence was assessed in the previous 30 days using a pretested researcher-administered questionnaire on 30 days of self-reported therapy. Adherence was graded using an ordinal scoring system of 0–4; an adherent patient was one who scored 4 points in the previous 30 days. Reasons for non-adherence were documented.Results: Adherence to medication and BP control rates were 42.9% and 35.0% respectively. BP control was significantly associated with medication adherence (p = 0.03, antihypertensive medication duration ≥3 years (p = 0.042, and taking ≥ one form of antihypertensive medication (p = 0.04. BP at the recruitment visit was significantly higher than at the end of the study (p = 0.036. The most common reason for non-adherence was forgetfulness (p = 0.046. Conclusion: The rate of BP control amongst the study population was low, which may be connected with low medication adherence. This study urges consideration of factors relating to adherence alongside other factors driving goal BP control.

  15. A study on the present scenario of STD management in an urban clinic in Kolkata

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    Ghosh Sadhan Kumar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 4129 patients attended the STD clinic from 1996 to 1999. Of those 25.75% were STD cases. Male and female cases comprised 86% and 14% respectively. Majority were in the age group between 18 to 38 years. Choncroid was the commonest STD (37. 7%. Other STDs in order were syphilis (30. 66%, NGU (15.71%, gonorrhoea (7%, venereal wart (3.57%, candidiasis (2.53%, trichomonal vaginitis (1.6%, herpes genitalis (0.65% and LGV (0.47%. No case of Donovanosis or HIV was detected. 13.7% of STD cases were reactive for VDRL test and 8% of the antenatal attendents were strongly VDRL test reactive. The urethral discharge on gram staining was positive for gonococcus, in 29%. 68% of the clinic attendents were given safer sex education and served condom.

  16. Antenatal cytogenetic testing in Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Rosado, Luis A; Quiñones, Olga; Molina, Odalys; González, Nereida; del Sol, Marylin; Maceiras, Luanda; Bravo, Yomisleidy

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Antenatal cytogenetic testing was started in Havana in 1984, as a diagnostic option for fetal chromosome complement. The techniques applied are amniocyte culture, chorionic villus sampling, cordocentesis and fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells. OBJECTIVE Describe the results of antenatal cytogenetic testing in the cytogenetic laboratory of the Cuba's National Medical Genetics Center in Havana, from 1984 through 2012. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was carried out of the 22,928 pregnant women who had antenatal testing with conclusive results during the period 1984-2012. Information was obtained from laboratory databases for four antenatal diagnostic techniques. Variables studied were: antenatal diagnostic method, indications for genetic testing, type of chromosomal abnormality detected and couple's decision concerning pregnancy continuation if hereditary disease was diagnosed. Results were reported in absolute numbers and percentages. RESULTS Overall positivity was 2.8% (641 cases). Of the total, 20,565 samples were from amniocyte culture (558 positive cases, 2.7%); 1785 chorionic villus sampling (38 positive, 2.1%); 407 cord blood culture (28 positive, 6.9%); and 171 fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells (17 positive, 9.9%). Advanced maternal age was the predominant indication for amniocyte culture and chorionic villus sampling. Positivity was higher for the two less frequently used methods, cordocentesis (6.9% positivity) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (9.9%). The predominant chromosomal abnormality was Down syndrome, with 45.4% of cases detected (291/641; 279 pure lines and 12 mosaic trisomies), followed by Edward syndrome with 12% (77/641, 71 pure lines and 6 mosaics) and Patau syndrome 4.7% (30/641, 27 pure lines and 3 mosaics). Sexual aneuploidy with pure lines affected 6.9% of cases (44/641) and with mosaicism 4.7% (30/641). Structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 22.5% of cases

  17. Understanding why women adopt and sustain home water treatment: insights from the Malawi antenatal care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Siri; Foster, Jennifer; Kols, Adrienne

    2012-08-01

    In many settings in Africa, social marketing has proven more successful in generating brand recognition for chlorine water treatment products than in promoting their use. To promote household use of one such product in Malawi, WaterGuard, the Ministry of Health (MOH) and Population Services International (PSI) distributed free hygiene kits that included WaterGuard to pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in 2007. Follow-up surveys documented a sustained increase in WaterGuard use three years after the initial intervention. In 2010, PATH (www.path.org) conducted qualitative research on the factors motivating women to adopt, sustain, or discontinue use. To provide context, interviews were also conducted with their friends, relatives, and husbands. Interviews revealed that sustained use of WaterGuard does not necessarily imply consistent use. Most respondents reported switching back and forth between WaterGuard and stock chlorine distributed for free by the government, and many treated water seasonally rather than year-round. Qualitative findings suggest that two program strategies strongly influenced women's decisions to adopt, purchase, and continue using WaterGuard. First, positive, ongoing contacts with health care workers, especially during home visits, raised awareness of the need to treat water, encouraged trial use, and supported continuing use. Second, an extended free trial of the product overcame initial cost barriers and allowed women and their families to experience the health benefits of WaterGuard, appreciate its value and relevance to their lives, and get used to its taste. Social support-from like-minded relatives, friends, neighbors, health care workers, husbands, and children-was also a critical factor that promoted consistent, ongoing use of WaterGuard. The findings confirm the importance of interpersonal communication in prompting adoption of household water treatment and suggest that consumers assess the perceived value of a product, not

  18. A Comparative Study of Prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Antenatal Women from Urban and Rural Area of Pune, India

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    Kundap RP

    2016-05-01

    Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in urban and rural health training centres of a medical college in Pune. The antenatal women were the study subjects. A total of 180 ANC cases were recruited and studies from both the field practice area attending the outpatient clinics. Sociodemographic profile was recorded and anaemia was assessed using recently done haemoglobin reports in the present pregnancy. The study duration was 6 months. GCP and ethical guidelines were followed as advised for human studies. Results: The prevalence of IDA in the study population was 66%. (rural=81%, urban=51%. IDA prevalence was 54% in primigravida and the prevalence increased as gravid status increased. Iron deficiency anaemia was seen statistically significantly associated with residence, illiteracy, type of diet, and gravida status of the pregnant women. Conclusion: IDA has strong relation with residence (urban/rural, literacy level, social status, monthly income and dietary habits. " [Natl J Community Med 2016; 7(5.000: 351-354

  19. Young pregnant women's views on the acceptability of screening for chlamydia as part of routine antenatal care

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    Bilardi Jade E

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In pregnancy, untreated chlamydia infection has been associated with adverse outcomes for both mother and infant. Like most women, pregnant women infected with chlamydia do not report genital symptoms, and are therefore unlikely to be aware of their infection. The aim of this study was to determine the acceptability of screening pregnant women aged 16-25 years for chlamydia as part of routine antenatal care. Methods As part of a larger prospective, cross-sectional study of pregnant women aged 16-25 years attending antenatal services across Melbourne, Australia, 100 women were invited to participate in a face-to-face, semi structured interview on the acceptability of screening for chlamydia during pregnancy. Women infected with chlamydia were oversampled (n = 31. Results Women had low levels of awareness of chlamydia before the test, retained relatively little knowledge after the test and commonly had misconceptions around chlamydia transmission, testing and sequelae. Women indicated a high level of acceptance and support for chlamydia screening, expressing their willingness to undertake whatever care was necessary to ensure the health of their baby. There was a strong preference for urine testing over other methods of specimen collection. Women questioned why testing was not already conducted alongside other antenatal STI screening tests, particularly in view of the risks chlamydia poses to the baby. Women who tested positive for chlamydia had mixed reactions, however, most felt relief and gratitude at having had chlamydia detected and reported high levels of partner support. Conclusions Chlamydia screening as part of routine antenatal care was considered highly acceptable among young pregnant women who recognized the benefits of screening and strongly supported its implementation as part of routine antenatal care. The acceptability of screening is important to the uptake of chlamydia screening in future antenatal screening

  20. A qualitative study of women's experiences of communication in antenatal care: identifying areas for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Rosalind; Cartwright, Martin; Richens, Yana; Mahamed, Zuhura; Smith, Debbie

    2010-07-01

    To identify key features of communication across antenatal (prenatal) care that are evaluated positively or negatively by service users. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were used to explore communication experiences of thirty pregnant women from diverse social and ethnic backgrounds affiliated to a large London hospital. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Women reported a wide diversity of experiences. From the users' perspective, constructive communication on the part of health care providers was characterised by an empathic conversational style, openness to questions, allowing sufficient time to talk through any concerns, and pro-active contact by providers (e.g. text message appointment reminders). These features created reassurance, facilitated information exchange, improved appointment attendance and fostered tolerance in stressful situations. Salient features of poor communication were a lack of information provision, especially about the overall arrangement and the purpose of antenatal care, insufficient discussion about possible problems with the pregnancy and discourteous styles of interaction. Poor communication led some women to become assertive to address their needs; others became reluctant to actively engage with providers. General Practitioners need to be better integrated into antenatal care, more information should be provided about the pattern and purpose of the care women receive during pregnancy, and new technologies should be used to facilitate interactions between women and their healthcare providers. Providers require communications training to encourage empathic interactions that promote constructive provider-user relationships and encourage women to engage effectively and access the care they need. PMID:19554436

  1. High ANC coverage and low skilled attendance in a rural Tanzanian district: a case for implementing a birth plan intervention

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    Cousens Simon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, more than 90% of all pregnant women attend antenatal care at least once and approximately 62% four times or more, yet less than five in ten receive skilled delivery care at available health units. We conducted a qualitative study in Ngorongoro district, Northern Tanzania, in order to gain an understanding of the health systems and socio-cultural factors underlying this divergent pattern of high use of antenatal services and low use of skilled delivery care. Specifically, the study examined beliefs and behaviors related to antenatal, labor, delivery and postnatal care among the Maasai and Watemi ethnic groups. The perspectives of health care providers and traditional birth attendants on childbirth and the factors determining where women deliver were also investigated. Methods Twelve key informant interviews and fifteen focus group discussions were held with Maasai and Watemi women, traditional birth attendants, health care providers, and community members. Principles of the grounded theory approach were used to elicit and assess the various perspectives of each group of participants interviewed. Results The Maasai and Watemi women's preferences for a home birth and lack of planning for delivery are reinforced by the failure of health care providers to consistently communicate the importance of skilled delivery and immediate post-partum care for all women during routine antenatal visits. Husbands typically serve as gatekeepers of women's reproductive health in the two groups - including decisions about where they will deliver- yet they are rarely encouraged to attend antenatal sessions. While husbands are encouraged to participate in programs to prevent maternal-to-child transmission of HIV, messages about the importance of skilled delivery care for all women are not given emphasis. Conclusions Increasing coverage of skilled delivery care and achieving the full implementation of Tanzania's Focused Antenatal Care

  2. Cerebral malformations without antenatal diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral malformations are usually described following the different steps in development. Disorders of neurulation (dysraphisms), or diverticulation (holoprosencephalies and posterior fossa cysts), and total commissural agenesis are usually diagnosed in utero. In contrast, disorders of histogenesis (proliferation-differentiation, migration, organization) are usually discovered in infants and children. The principal clinical symptoms that may be a clue to cerebral malformation include congenital hemiparesis, epilepsy and mental or psychomotor retardation. MRI is the imaging method of choice to assess cerebral malformations. (orig.)

  3. Cerebral malformations without antenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Nadine J. [Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Hopital Timone, Marseille (France)

    2010-06-15

    Cerebral malformations are usually described following the different steps in development. Disorders of neurulation (dysraphisms), or diverticulation (holoprosencephalies and posterior fossa cysts), and total commissural agenesis are usually diagnosed in utero. In contrast, disorders of histogenesis (proliferation-differentiation, migration, organization) are usually discovered in infants and children. The principal clinical symptoms that may be a clue to cerebral malformation include congenital hemiparesis, epilepsy and mental or psychomotor retardation. MRI is the imaging method of choice to assess cerebral malformations. (orig.)

  4. Does an Antenatal Care make a difference?

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    Jaspinder Kaur

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Antenatal Care utilization and its effects among booked and unbooked women were studied retrospectively in Obstetrics-Gynaecology Department, Punjab Institute of Medical Sciences, Jalandhar (India during April- June, 2012. Demographic variables, obstetric history and event outcomes were explored. Unbooked (58% status was seen with primiparity, low socioeconomic status (p<0.01 and younger age (p<0.001; 20-25 yrs. 37.21% of unbooked mothers had Anemia (p<0.01 while fetuses of 24.14% mothers developed Fetal Distress. Incidence of Oligohydraminos, Pregnancy Induced Hypertension, Intrauterine Growth Retardation, Preterm Premature Rupture Of Membrane and Preterm Labour were higher among unbooked mothers. Unbooked status had higher Preterm (22.42% and Low Birth Weight babies (51.73%. Majority of mothers of moderate age (40.48%; 26-30yrs, high socioeconomic status (26.20% and multiparity (54.77% booked themselves. The lack of required antenatal care might have led to higher obstetric complications among unbooked mothers. Improving socioeconomic status and women literacy rate may increase the number of booked mothers which may provide them the needed antenatal care.

  5. Risk factors for postpartum depression in women living with HIV attending prevention of mother-to-child transmission clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yator, Obadia; Mathai, Muthoni; Vander Stoep, Ann; Rao, Deepa; Kumar, Manasi

    2016-07-01

    Mothers with HIV are at high risk of a range of psychosocial issues that may impact HIV disease progression for themselves and their children. Stigma has also become a substantial barrier to accessing HIV/AIDS care and prevention services. The study objective was to determine the prevalence and severity of postpartum depression (PPD) among women living with HIV and to further understand the impact of stigma and other psychosocial factors in 123 women living with HIV attending prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital located in Nairobi, Kenya. We used the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument - PLWHA (HASI - P). Forty-eight percent (N = 59) of women screened positive for elevated depressive symptoms. Eleven (9%) of the participants reported high levels of stigma. Multivariate analyses showed that lower education (OR = 0.14, 95% CI [0.04-0.46], p = .001) and lack of family support (OR = 2.49, 95% CI [1.14-5.42], p = .02) were associated with the presence of elevated depressive symptoms. The presence of stigma implied more than ninefold risk of development of PPD (OR = 9.44, 95% CI [1.132-78.79], p = .04). Stigma was positively correlated with an increase in PPD. PMTCT is an ideal context to reach out to women to address mental health problems especially depression screening and offering psychosocial treatments bolstering quality of life of the mother-baby dyad. PMID:27045273

  6. Multiplex immunoassay of lower genital tract mucosal fluid from women attending an urban STD clinic shows broadly increased IL1ß and lactoferrin.

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    Gregory T Spear

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than one million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs occur each day. The immune responses and inflammation induced by STDs and other frequent non-STD microbial colonizations (i.e. Candida and bacterial vaginosis can have serious pathologic consequences in women including adverse pregnancy outcomes, infertility and increased susceptibility to infection by other pathogens. Understanding the types of immune mediators that are elicited in the lower genital tract by these infections/colonizations can give important insights into the innate and adaptive immune pathways that are activated and lead to strategies for preventing pathologic effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 32 immune mediators were measured by multiplexed immunoassays to assess the immune environment of the lower genital tract mucosa in 84 women attending an urban STD clinic. IL-3, IL-1ß, VEGF, angiogenin, IL-8, ß2Defensin and ß3Defensin were detected in all subjects, Interferon-α was detected in none, while the remaining mediators were detected in 40% to 93% of subjects. Angiogenin, VEGF, FGF, IL-9, IL-7, lymphotoxin-α and IL-3 had not been previously reported in genital mucosal fluid from women. Strong correlations were observed between levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6, between chemokines IP-10 and MIG and between myeloperoxidase, IL-8 and G-CSF. Samples from women with any STD/colonization had significantly higher levels of IL-8, IL-3, IL-7, IL-1ß, lactoferrin and myeloperoxidase. IL-1ß and lactoferrin were significantly increased in gonorrhea, Chlamydia, cervicitis, bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies show that mucosal fluid in general appears to be an environment that is rich in immune mediators. Importantly, IL-1ß and lactoferrin are biomarkers for STDs/colonizations providing insights into immune responses and pathogenesis at this mucosal site.

  7. Clinical features and sociodemographic factors affecting Trichomonas vaginalis infection in women attending a central sexually transmitted diseases clinic in Sri Lanka

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    Sumadhya D Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Trichomoniasis is a relatively neglected area of research in Sri Lanka. Given the number of infections observed, an analysis of sociodemographic characteristics of patients would be valuable in prevention. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 359 newly registered women at a tertiary level sexually transmitted diseases clinic over a period of 18 months. Trichomoniasis was diagnosed by culture of vaginal swabs collected from the posterior fornix. Results: The prevalence of trichomoniasis in the sample was 7.2%. Of those who tested positive for trichomoniasis, 76% were in the age group of 21-45 years, 68% were married and living with a spouse and 60% were unemployed. A diagnosis of Trichomoniasis was associated with being married (OR, 1.6; CI, 0.56-4.41, age over 33 years (OR=1.3, CI, 0.55-2.9, being employed (OR, 1.3; CI, 0.56 - 2.94, having an education of less than ten years at school (OR, 3.0; CI 1.28-7.26 and not using condoms during the last sexual act (OR 2.0, CI 0.84-4.86. The risk was less among commercial sex workers (OR, 0.3, CI: 0.14-0.85, those with multiple sexual partners (OR, 0.2; CI; 0.073-0.408 and women reporting extramarital sexual relationships (OR, 0.3; CI, 0.128-0.733. Conclusions: Education on safe sex and recognition of symptoms is currently targeted at high risk groups such as commercial sex workers. Extending these programmes to the rest of the community will further reduce the risk of transmission of trichomonas.

  8. Hypnosis Antenatal Training for Childbirth (HATCh: a randomised controlled trial [NCT00282204

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    Baghurst Peter

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although medical interventions play an important role in preserving lives and maternal comfort they have become increasingly routine in normal childbirth. This may increase the risk of associated complications and a less satisfactory birth experience. Antenatal hypnosis is associated with a reduced need for pharmacological interventions during childbirth. This trial seeks to determine the efficacy or otherwise of antenatal group hypnosis preparation for childbirth in late pregnancy. Methods/design A single centre, randomised controlled trial using a 3 arm parallel group design in the largest tertiary maternity unit in South Australia. Group 1 participants receive antenatal hypnosis training in preparation for childbirth administered by a qualified hypnotherapist with the use of an audio compact disc on hypnosis for re-enforcement; Group 2 consists of antenatal hypnosis training in preparation for childbirth using an audio compact disc on hypnosis administered by a nurse with no training in hypnotherapy; Group 3 participants continue with their usual preparation for childbirth with no additional intervention. Women > 34 and Discussion If effective, hypnosis would be a simple, inexpensive way to improve the childbirth experience, reduce complications associated with pharmacological interventions, yield cost savings in maternity care, and this trial will provide evidence to guide clinical practice.

  9. Knowledge of and attitude to foot care amongst Type 2 diabetes patients attending a university-based primary care clinic in Nigeria

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    Rabi I. Ekore

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Individuals living with diabetes mellitus are at an increased risk of developing foot ulcers and cardiovascular complications or a neuropathy that may result in amputations. These complications have been shown to be already present in about 10% of diabetic patients at the time of diagnosis.Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the level of awareness and attitude to foot care among adult diabetic patients attending a university health centre (i.e. a primary care centre and to emphasise the ever-present need for health education and promotion and early complication detection (especially of foot problems among diabetic patients.Method: A descriptive cross-sectional, clinic-based study was carried out at the University of Ibadan Health Centre (Jaja Clinic. The study population consisted of consenting adult diabetic patients. Data were collected by the self-administration of structured questionnaires to eligible subjects and were analysed using the SPSS v.15software. Appropriate statistics were employed to analyse the collected data.Results: A total of 137 patients participated in the study and ranged in age from 37 to 75 years, with the mean ± SD age being 58.2 ± 9.2 years. Of the participants, 98 (71.5% were men and 39 (28.5%were women; all of the participants were married. The duration of illness ranged from 1 year to 20 years, with the median duration of illness being 3 ± 1.7 years. One hundred and twenty-six (92%patients had never received any education on foot care from their healthcare providers, while 11(8% had received some form of foot care education. Among those who had never received any foot care education, 92 (73% had been diabetic for 1–5 years, while the remaining 34 (27% had been diabetic for 6 – 20 years. Of the foot care measures that were known, 35 (25.5% patients knew to wash their feet daily and dry in between the toes thoroughly, 31 (22.6% knew not to go outdoors barefooted, 27 (19.7% checked

  10. Antenatal haemoglobinopathy screening in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yi Ling; Kidson-Gerber, Giselle

    2016-04-01

    Haemoglobinopathy screening should be performed in women with microcytic indices, women from high risk ethnic populations and those with unexplained anaemia. Early testing of women and their partners expedites appropriate management prior to and during pregnancy. Haemoglobinopathy screening is a multistep process beginning with a full blood count, ferritin assay, screening tests for haemoglobinopathies (ie, haemoglobin electrophoresis, high performance liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis) and assessment of clinical risk. Iron deficiency may obscure the diagnosis of β-thalassaemia trait. If possible, haemoglobinopathy testing should be performed when the woman is iron-replete. Genetic testing can be offered on the basis of the combined risk of the couple; but turnaround times are lengthy at present, hence the emphasis on early pregnancy or pre-conception screening. Screening processes vary between states and local health districts; a uniform approach to screening and genetic testing with a national registry to record results would improve management of this growing problem. PMID:27031395

  11. Mobile phones as a health communication tool to improve skilled attendance at delivery in Zanzibar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S; Hemed, M; Nielsen, Birgitte Bruun;

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Lund S, Hemed M, Nielsen B, Said A, Said K, Makungu M, Rasch V. Mobile phones as a health communication tool to improve skilled attendance at delivery in Zanzibar: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. BJOG 2012; DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03413.x. Objective......  To examine the association between a mobile phone intervention and skilled delivery attendance in a resource-limited setting. Design  Pragmatic cluster-randomised controlled trial with primary healthcare facilities as the unit of randomisation. Setting  Primary healthcare facilities in Zanzibar. Population......  Two thousand, five hundred and fifty pregnant women (1311 interventions and 1239 controls) who attended antenatal care at one of the selected primary healthcare facilities were included at their first antenatal care visit and followed until 42 days after delivery. All pregnant women were eligible...

  12. Prevalence of anemia in women with asymptomatic malaria parasitemia at first antenatal care visit at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Agan, TU; Ekabua, JE; Udoh, AE; Ekanem, EI; Efiok, EE; Mgbekem, MA

    2010-01-01

    Background: Anemia in pregnancy in malaria endemic areas is a public health challenge that has contributed either directly or indirectly to maternal morbidity and mortality in our environment. Anemia and malaria during pregnancy are highly preventable and treatable. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of anemia in asymptomatic malaria parasitemic women at first antenatal visit in a tertiary hospital facility. Method: The study was conducted at the antenatal clinic of ...

  13. Water Treatment and Handwashing Behaviors among Non-Pregnant Friends and Relatives of Participants in an Antenatal Hygiene Promotion Program in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Elizabeth T.; Sheth, Anandi; Menon, Manoj; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Weinger, Merri; Kudzala, Amose C.; Tauzie, Blessius; Masuku, Humphreys D.; Msowoya, Tapona E.; Quick, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Access to safe drinking water and improved hygiene are essential for preventing diarrheal diseases. To integrate hygiene improvement with antenatal care, free hygiene kits (water storage containers, water treatment solution, soap) and educational messages were distributed to pregnant women at antenatal clinics in Malawi. We assessed water treatment and hygiene practices of 275 non-pregnant friends and relatives of the hygiene kit recipients at baseline and follow-up nine months later to measu...

  14. Impact of Introducing Routine Antenatal Ultrasound Services on Reproductive Health Indicators in Mpigi District, Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawooya, Michael G; Nathan, Robert O; Swanson, Jonathan; Swanson, David L; Namulema, Edith; Ankunda, Racheal; Kirumira, Fred; Ddungu-Matovu, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The preponderance of global maternal and neonatal deaths occurs in low-resource countries. The risk factors that lead to these deaths are often detectable with ultrasound (US) and potentially preventable. We assessed the impact of performing US scanning during antenatal care (ANC) on reproductive health service utilization in a rural Ugandan district. This pragmatic comparative study was conducted in 2 constituencies of Mpigi district in Uganda. In the 5 intervention sites located in the Mawokota North constituency, facility midwives were trained in limited obstetric US scanning. They were equipped with solar-powered portable US machines and redeployed to offer US scanning as an integral component of ANC. The 5 control sites in the Mawokota South constituency offered the same ANC services without US scanning. We compared the difference in the first and fourth ANC attendance, facility deliveries, and referral of obstetric complications in the intervention and the control sites before and after the introduction of US. There was a 32% increase in the first ANC attendance at the intervention sites compared with 7.4% in the controls sites (P < 0.001). In the intervention sites, the fourth antenatal attendance increased by 147% compared with 0.6% decline in the control sites (P < 0.001). Referrals of high-risk pregnancies increased by 40.7% in the intervention sites compared with 25% in the control site. The number of births at the interventional sites increased by 34.1% compared with 29.5% in the control sites. Integration of limited obstetric US into routine ANC visits is associated with an increase in ANC attendance. PMID:26656991

  15. Predictors of Poor Pregnancy Outcomes Among Antenatal Care Attendees in Primary Health Care Facilities in Cross River State, Nigeria: A Multilevel Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameh, Soter; Adeleye, Omokhoa A; Kabiru, Caroline W; Agan, Thomas; Duke, Roseline; Mkpanam, Nkese; Nwoha, Doris

    2016-08-01

    Objectives Pregnancy carries a high risk for millions of women and varies by urban-rural location in Nigeria, a country with the second highest maternal deaths in the world. Addressing multilevel predictors of poor pregnancy outcomes among antenatal care (ANC) attendees in primary health care (PHC) facilities could reduce the high maternal mortality rate in Nigeria. This study utilised the "Risk Approach" strategy to (1) compare the risks of poor pregnancy outcomes among ANC attendees by urban-rural location; and (2) determine predictors of poor pregnancy outcomes among ANC attendees in urban-rural PHC facilities in Cross River State, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 among 400 ANC attendees aged 15-49 years recruited through multistage sampling. Data on risk factors of poor pregnancy outcomes were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires and clinic records. Respondents were categorised into low, medium or high risk of poor pregnancy outcomes, based on their overall risk scores. Predictors of poor pregnancy outcomes were determined by multilevel ordinal logistic regression. Results A greater proportion of the women in the rural areas were below the middle socio-economic quintile (75 vs. 4 %, p education (12 vs. 2 %, p outcomes than those in the rural facilities (64 vs. 50 %, p = 0.034). Pregnant women in the urban areas had decreased odds of being at high risk of poor pregnancy outcomes versus the combined medium and low risks compared with those in the rural areas (OR 0.55, 95 % CI 0.09-0.65). Conclusions for Practice Pregnant women attending antenatal care in rural PHC facilities are more at risk of poor pregnancy outcomes than those receiving care in the urban facilities. Health programmes that promote safe pregnancy should target pregnant women in rural settings. PMID:27004795

  16. Challenges of caring for children with mental disorders: Experiences and views of caregivers attending the outpatient clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam - Tanzania

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    Ambikile Joel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is estimated that world-wide up to 20 % of children suffer from debilitating mental illness. Mental disorders that pose a significant concern include learning disorders, hyperkinetic disorders (ADHD, depression, psychosis, pervasive development disorders, attachment disorders, anxiety disorders, conduct disorder, substance abuse and eating disorders. Living with such children can be very stressful for caregivers in the family. Therefore, determination of challenges of living with these children is important in the process of finding ways to help or support caregivers to provide proper care for their children. The purpose of this study was to explore the psychological and emotional, social, and economic challenges that parents or guardians experience when caring for mentally ill children and what they do to address or deal with them. Methodology A qualitative study design using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions was applied. The study was conducted at the psychiatric unit of Muhimbili National Hospital in Tanzania. Two focus groups discussions (FGDs and 8 in-depth interviews were conducted with caregivers who attended the psychiatric clinic with their children. Data analysis was done using content analysis. Results The study revealed psychological and emotional, social, and economic challenges caregivers endure while living with mentally ill children. Psychological and emotional challenges included being stressed by caring tasks and having worries about the present and future life of their children. They had feelings of sadness, and inner pain or bitterness due to the disturbing behaviour of the children. They also experienced some communication problems with their children due to their inability to talk. Social challenges were inadequate social services for their children, stigma, burden of caring task, lack of public awareness of mental illness, lack of social support, and problems with social life. The

  17. Antenatal care strengthening in jimma, ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Negussie, Dereje;

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We assessed how health system priorities matched user expectations and what the needs for antenatal care (ANC) strengthening were for improved maternal health in Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods. A questionnaire survey among all recent mothers in the study area was conducted to study the content...... of ANC and to identify the predictors of low ANC satisfaction. Further, a qualitative approach was applied to understand perceptions, practices, and policies of ANC. Results. There were no national guidelines for ANC in Ethiopia. Within the health system, the teaching of health professional students...

  18. [Effect of ladasten on antenatal and postnatal development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaeva, L I; Denisova, T D; Spasov, A A

    2012-01-01

    Positive effects of ladasten on both antenatal and postnatal development have been established in experiments on pregnant female rats. Under the action of this drug, the number of resorption events decreases and process of antenatal development of fetuses is activated. In the postnatal period, increased weight gain and accelerated physical development has been observed in the progeny of rats treated with ladasten. PMID:22702107

  19. Case report: Antenatal MRI diagnosis of esophageal duplication cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esophageal duplication cysts are classified as a subgroup of foregut duplication cysts. They are very rare and are predominantly detected in children. Antenatal detection is very rare. We report a case of an esophageal duplication cyst that was accurately identified antenatally by USG and MRI

  20. A study of anemia in women with asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia at their first antenatal care visit at the General Hospital, Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ekanem EI; Agan TU; Efiok EE; Ekott MI; Okodi E

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To assess the prevalence of anemia and asymptomatia malaria parasitemia and the effect of prior antimalarials therapy on the parasite density in pregnant women at their first antenatal visit at the secondary level health care facility in Nigeria. Methods:This cross sectional observational study was carried out in the antenatal clinic of General Hospital, Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria for 3 months period (1st June to 31st August, 2009). Five hundred and fourteen women attending their first antenatal registration visits in the hospital were recruited in the study. Socio-demographic information was obtained using pre-tested questionnaires. The malaria parasite was obtained by examining thick and thin blood films prepared on 2 glass slides while the hematocrit was obtained through 2 capillary tubes read by a Hawksleys microhematocrit reader. Results:A total of 514 pregnant women participated in the study with a mean maternal age of 21.4 years and a mean gestational age at booking of 18.3 weeks. The primigravid women booked at significantly lower gestational age than multigravidae (16.2 weeks vs 21.6 weeks). Most of the women (59.3%) were anemic, out of which 60.4%were primigravida. More than half of the women had moderate to high parasite density and only 6.8%had no malaria parasitemia. All patients with severe anemia were parasitemic. Out of the 479 (93.2%) women with parasitemia, a third had taken antimalarial drugs. A majority (60.3%) of those without prior antimalarial drugs had moderate to high density parasitemia. Conclusions:This study shows high prevalence of anemia in women with asymptomatic malarial parasitemia, particularly the primigravida. The severity of anemia is directly related to the density of malaria parasitemia. Those with effective antimalarial therapy appear to have low density parasitemia and therefore mild anemia. Routine screening for anemia and malaria parasites at booking, prompt parasite clearance and correction of anemia

  1. Social support and antenatal depression in extended and nuclear family environments in Turkey: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berksun Oguz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social support is strongly implicated in the aetiology of perinatal mental disorder: particularly the quality of the marital and family environment. Family structures are important under-researched potential modifiers. Turkey offers particular advantages for research in this area because of long-standing coexistence of Western and Middle Eastern family structures. We aimed to investigate associations between the quality of key relationships and depression in women in their third trimester of pregnancy, and the extent to which these associations were modified by family structure. Method Women attending antenatal clinics in their third trimester were recruited from urban and rural settings in Ankara. A nuclear family structure was defined as a wife and husband living alone or with their children in the same household, whereas a traditional/extended family structure was defined if another adult was living with the married couple in the same household. Depression was ascertained using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and social support was assessed by the Close Person Questionnaire with respect to the husband, mother and mother-in-law. Social support was compared between participants with/without case-level depression on the EPDS in linear regression models adjusted for relevant covariates, then stratified by nuclear/traditional family structure. Results Of 772 women approached, 751 (97.3% participated and 730 (94.6% had sufficient data for this analysis. Prevalence of case-level depression was 33.1% and this was associated with lower social support from all three family members but not with traditional/nuclear family structure. The association between depression and lower emotional support from the husband was significantly stronger in traditional compared to nuclear family environments. Conclusions Lower quality of relationships between key family members was strongly associated with third trimester depression

  2. [Biochemical antenatal screening for fetal anomalies.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torfadóttir, G; Jónsson, J J

    2001-05-01

    Biochemical antenatal screening started 30 years ago. Initially, the goal was to detect neural tube defects by measuring a-fetoprotein in maternal serum (MS-AFP) and amniotic fluid (AF-AFP). The serendipitous discovery of an association between low AFP maternal serum concentration and chromosomal anomalies resulted in increased research interest in biochemical screening in pregnancy. Subsequently double, triple or quadruple tests in 2nd trimester of pregnancy became widely used in combination with fetal chromosome determination in at risk individuals. In Iceland, antenatal screening for chromosomal anomalies has essentially been based on fetal chromosome studies offered to pregnant women 35 years or older. This strategy needs to be revised. Recently first trimester biochemical screening based on maternal serum pregnancy associated plasma protein A (MS-PAPP-A) and free b-human chorionic gonadotropin (MS-free b-hCG) and multivariate risk assessment has been developed. This screening test can be improved if done in conjunction with nuchal translucency measurements in an early sonography scan. PMID:17018982

  3. Antenatal syphilis screening using point-of-care testing in Sub-Saharan African countries: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kuznik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Untreated syphilis in pregnancy is associated with adverse clinical outcomes for the infant. Most syphilis infections occur in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, where coverage of antenatal screening for syphilis is inadequate. Recently introduced point-of-care syphilis tests have high accuracy and demonstrate potential to increase coverage of antenatal screening. However, country-specific cost-effectiveness data for these tests are limited. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of antenatal syphilis screening for 43 countries in SSA and estimate the impact of universal screening on stillbirths, neonatal deaths, congenital syphilis, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The decision analytic model reflected the perspective of the national health care system and was based on the sensitivity (86% and specificity (99% reported for the immunochromatographic strip (ICS test. Clinical outcomes of infants born to syphilis-infected mothers on the end points of stillbirth, neonatal death, and congenital syphilis were obtained from published sources. Treatment was assumed to consist of three injections of benzathine penicillin. Country-specific inputs included the antenatal prevalence of syphilis, annual number of live births, proportion of women with at least one antenatal care visit, per capita gross national income, and estimated hourly nurse wages. In all 43 sub-Saharan African countries analyzed, syphilis screening is highly cost-effective, with an average cost/DALY averted of US$11 (range: US$2-US$48. Screening remains highly cost-effective even if the average prevalence falls from the current rate of 3.1% (range: 0.6%-14.0% to 0.038% (range: 0.002%-0.113%. Universal antenatal screening of pregnant women in clinics may reduce the annual number of stillbirths by up to 64,000, neonatal deaths by up to 25,000, and annual incidence of congenital syphilis by up to 32

  4. Women's Autonomy and Skilled Attendance During Pregnancy and Delivery in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kc, Situ; Neupane, Subas

    2016-06-01

    Objectives This study aims to explore the association between women's autonomy and skilled attendance during pregnancy and delivery in Nepal. Methods We adopt data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS, 2011). We include only married women who gave birth in the 5 years preceding the survey (N = 4148). Women's autonomy was assessed on the basis of four indicators of decision making: healthcare, visiting friends or relatives, household purchases and spending earned money. Each indicator was dichotomized (yes/no) and then summarized into a single variable to measure overall autonomy. Next, we measured health attendance (skilled vs. unskilled) during antenatal and delivery care. The association between women's autonomy and skilled attendance was analysed using a logistic regression model. Results Most women had a medium (40 %) and high (35 %) level of overall autonomy. The proportion of women accessing skilled providers during antenatal and delivery care was 51 and 36 %. Women with autonomy in healthcare, visiting friends or relatives, making household purchases and spending money earned were associated with a higher likelihood of receiving care from skilled providers during antenatal care and delivery. An elevated probability of access to skilled attendance during antenatal (aOR 1.33; 95 % CI 1.10-1.59) and delivery care (aOR 1.38; 95 % CI 1.12-1.70) was reported among women with higher levels of overall autonomy. Conclusion Women's autonomy was significantly associated with the maternal health care utilization by skilled attendants. This study will provide insights for policy makers to develop strategies in improving maternal health. PMID:26979612

  5. A CLINICAL STUDY OF SELECTED PARAMETERS OF SMOKING HABIT AMONG PATIENTS ATTENDING PULMONOLOGY OPD IN KATURI MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL, GUNTUR DURING 2012 - 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Ramakrishna; Jaya Bharat Reddy

    2015-01-01

    200 patients attending Katuri Medical college Pulmonology OPD with a history of Tobacco smoking coming for various symptoms for various symptoms were analy sed regarding their smoking habits. Majority of them were the major bread earners of thei r families. Majority of them presented to the hospital in 4 th to 6 th decade of life. Male smokers were predominant but alternate modes of tobacco consumption and passi ...

  6. Uso antenatal do corticosteroide e hemorragia peri-intraventricular Antenatal corticosteroids and intraventricular hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo de F. Vinagre

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o uso antenatal do corticosteroide na prevenção da hemorragia peri-intraventricular. FONTES DE DADOS: Levantamento bibliográfico por meio do Pubmed e SciELO abrangendo os últimos 20 anos. Foram utilizadas as palavras chaves no idioma inglês: "cerebral hemorrhage", "steroids" e "newborn, infant". SÍNTESES DE DADOS: A hemorragia peri-intraventricular é uma importante patologia nos prematuros, sobretudo nos menores de 34 semanas, devido a suas graves sequelas neurológicas. Uma vez ocorrido o sangramento, não há tratamento específico. Desta forma, a prevenção torna-se o maior objetivo das pesquisas. O resultado da meta-análise de estudos randomizados demonstrou que o corticosteroide antenatal reduz a mortalidade e a incidência da doença de membrana hialina e da hemorragia peri-intraventricular. O efeito protetor na redução do risco da hemorragia peri-intraventricular não está completamente esclarecido. Além de acelerar a maturidade pulmonar, o corticosteroide antenatal estimula a maturação da microvasculatura da matriz germinativa, promove o espessamento da membrana basal, acelera a formação proteica nas junções firmes e estabiliza o fluxo sanguíneo cerebral. Também melhora as condições de nascimento dos fetos pré-termo. CONCLUSÕES: O uso antenatal do corticosteroide associado à implementação de melhores práticas de atendimento ao prematuro tem sido responsável pela evidente redução dos índices dessa doença. Apesar de comprovada eficácia e segurança, não é amplamente utilizado. Medidas devem ser tomadas para estimular seu uso como prática rotineira no atendimento de gestantes com risco de parto prematuro.OBJECTIVE: To conduct a literature review on the use of antenatal corticosteroids for the prevention of peri-intraventricular hemorrhage. DATA SOURCE: Bibliography search in Pubmed and SciELO databases covering the past 20 years using the following

  7. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and associated risk factors among antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Rajkumari

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB is the commonest bacterial infec-tion which requires medical treatment in pregnancy. Untreated ASB in 25-30% of can cases lead to pyelonephritis which may lead to increased risk of abortions, intrauterine fetal deaths, prematurity and low birth weight. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Gandhi Hospital over a period of ten months with 125 asymptomatic pregnant women in the age group of 15-35 years. The objectives of the study were to determine prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, to identify its risk factors and to compare the screening methods. Of the 125 pregnant women, significant bacteriuria was seen in 21 (16%. The prevalence of bacteriuria showed a rise with increasing maternal age and increasing gestational period. Anemics and hypertensives were at greater risk. The most common isolates were Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus (28% each. Culture proved to be the gold standard for diagnosis. Catalase and Nitrate reduction tests were used as screening methods with a sensitivity of 90.48% and 71.43% respectively. Multiple drug resistance was observed in Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates. Routine screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria is therefore recommended throughout pregnancy to avoid adverse fetal and maternal outcomes.

  8. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and associated risk factors among antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Aruna Rajkumari; Humera Qudsia Fatima Ansari

    2011-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is the commonest bacterial infec-tion which requires medical treatment in pregnancy. Untreated ASB in 25-30% of can cases lead to pyelonephritis which may lead to increased risk of abortions, intrauterine fetal deaths, prematurity and low birth weight. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Gandhi Hospital over a period of ten months with 125 asymptomatic pregnant women in the age group of 15-35 years. The objectives of the study were to determine prevalence o...

  9. Antenatal management of pregnancy complicated by diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Shabeen Naz; Masood, Yasir; Naim, Uzma; Razzak, Safina Abdul

    2016-09-01

    The prevalance of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide. It is estimated that 21 million women develop gestational diabetes out of which 1 in 7 births are affected. Women who have been previously diagnosed as GDM are at higher risk of developing diabetes in subsequent pregnancies and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) later in life. Babies born to mothers with gestational diabetes also have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes in their teens or early adulthood. Instead of risk stratification universal screening is essential in all pregnant women. Tight glycaemic targets are required for optimal maternal and foetal outcome. This article outlines the importance of pre-pregnancy counseling, antenatal management, screening and treatment of Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy (HIP). PMID:27582158

  10. Antenatal genetic studies in twin pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwine, F O; Cruikshank, D P; Brown, J

    1984-01-01

    The diagnosis of multiple gestation at the time of genetic amniocentesis is a routine occurrence. In a combined series of 2765 patients referred for antenatal genetic studies from the Medical College of Virginia and the University of Iowa, 34 twin pregnancies were encountered (1.2%). Twenty-six of the patients with twins were referred for advanced maternal age. The other indications were previous neural tube defects (1), previous trisomy 21 (2), known carriers of Tay Sachs disease (2), previous Turner's syndrome (1), family history of trisomy 21 (1), and one pregnancy was referred because of an abnormal ultrasound. Amniocentesis procedures, outcome of the twin pregnancies, and genetic counseling issues, are discussed. PMID:6741416

  11. Antenatal diagnosis of intestinal malrotation on fetal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biyyam, Deepa R. [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle Children' s Hospital, Seattle, WA (United States); Dighe, Manjiri [University of Washington Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Siebert, Joseph R. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Department of Laboratories, Seattle, WA (United States); University of Washington, Department of Pathology, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2009-08-15

    We report a case of intestinal malrotation without any associated GI tract complications diagnosed antenatally by fetal MRI. Antenatal US revealed a midline stomach. Subsequent fetal MRI confirmed the midline stomach and, in addition, revealed all loops of small bowel to the right of the midline and all large bowel to the left. All these features were consistent with intestinal malrotation. There was no abnormal bowel wall thickening, bowel dilatation, ascites or polyhydramnios. To our knowledge, this is a unique case of intestinal malrotation without associated GI tract complications diagnosed antenatally on fetal MRI. (orig.)

  12. Antenatal diagnosis of intestinal malrotation on fetal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of intestinal malrotation without any associated GI tract complications diagnosed antenatally by fetal MRI. Antenatal US revealed a midline stomach. Subsequent fetal MRI confirmed the midline stomach and, in addition, revealed all loops of small bowel to the right of the midline and all large bowel to the left. All these features were consistent with intestinal malrotation. There was no abnormal bowel wall thickening, bowel dilatation, ascites or polyhydramnios. To our knowledge, this is a unique case of intestinal malrotation without associated GI tract complications diagnosed antenatally on fetal MRI. (orig.)

  13. Postnatal follow-up of children having antenatal hydronephrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Biljana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of antenatal ultrasound for the evaluation of congenital anomalies in early pregnancy has become a common practice. Hydronephrosis is the most common anomaly observed. Antenatal interventions are experimental and done in advanced centers. Though there are defined criteria of intervention, it is still not clear as to who will benefit. Most patients will have relatively benign course, however identification of those who will have potentially serious postnatal problems permits early intervention. This study gives recommendations for the postnatal examination and follow-up of the newborns having hydronephrosis diagnosed on antenatal ultrasound.

  14. The frequency of atheromas in panoramic radiographs of patients with periodontal disease, 40 year and older attending the University Dental Clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of atheromas in panoramic radiographic in patients 40 years and older with periodontal diseases attending the Dental School 'Roberto Beltran Neira' in the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, during the period 2000 and 2004. The sample consisted of 217 random panoramic radiographic with no systematically selected subjects. Variables were analyzed using frequency tables and the chi-square test. Results showed the frequency of atheromas was of 17.1% and the highest number of atheromas appeared between the ages of 40 and 59 years, mostly of feminine sex. (author)

  15. Coping strategies as psychological risk factor for antenatal anxiety, worries, and depression among Greek women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourounti, Kleanthi; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Lykeridou, Katerina

    2013-10-01

    A range of psychosocial, medical, and demographic variables may influence pregnant women's psychological status. However the association between coping strategies, anxiety, worries, and depression during pregnancy is a relatively neglected area of research. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between coping strategies, antenatal anxiety, pregnancy worries, and depressive symptomatology after controlling for the effects of background variables. The study sample consisted of 163 pregnant women, with gestational age ranging from 11 to 26 weeks, attending antenatal screening at a Greek public hospital. Coping strategies were measured with Brief COPE, pregnancy worries were measured with Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS), anxiety was assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-X version), and depression was measured with Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated among all study variables, followed by hierarchical multiple linear regression. In the univariate analysis, low annual income, unemployment, conception after an IVF treatment, and a previous history of miscarriage were associated with anxiety, depression, and worries. Additionally, almost all coping strategies (denial, behavioral disengagement, self-blame, self-distraction, substance use, acceptance, positive reframing, active coping, and seeking emotional support) were significantly associated with antenatal anxiety, worries, and depression. Linear regression analysis showed that only previous history of miscarriage, conception after IVF, as well as denial, behavioral disengagement and acceptance coping strategies were significantly related to anxiety, worries and depressive symptomatology. The risk factors found in this study could help clinicians target anxiety and depression screening to high-risk populations of pregnant women. Provision of adequate training for obstetricians and midwives in the detection and

  16. Inequalities in advice provided by public health workers to women during antenatal sessions in rural India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singh

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Studies have widely documented the socioeconomic inequalities in maternal and child health related outcomes in developing countries including India. However, there is limited research on the inequalities in advice provided by public health workers on maternal and child health during antenatal visits. This paper investigates the inequalities in advice provided by public health workers to women during antenatal visits in rural India. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The District Level Household Survey (2007-08 was used to compute rich-poor ratios and concentration indices. Binary logistic regressions were used to investigate inequalities in advice provided by public health workers. The dependent variables comprised the advice provided on seven essential components of maternal and child health care. A significant proportion of pregnant women who attended at least four ANC sessions were not advised on these components during their antenatal sessions. Only 51%-72% of the pregnant women were advised on at least one of the components. Moreover, socioeconomic inequalities in providing advice were significant and the provision of advice concentrated disproportionately among the rich. Inequalities were highest in the case of advice on family planning methods. Advice on breastfeeding was least unequal. Public health workers working in lower level health facilities were significantly less likely than their counterparts in the higher level health facilities to provide specific advice. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of women were not advised on recommended components of maternal and child health in rural India. Moreover, there were enormous socioeconomic inequalities. The findings of this study raise questions about the capacity of the public health care system in providing equitable services in India. The Government of India must focus on training and capacity building of the public health workers in communication skills so that they can deliver

  17. Assessment of attitude towards use of emergency contraceptives among antenatal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Jaget Lakkawar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the wide availability of a range of modern contraceptives, unwanted and unplanned pregnancies continue to be a major problem in most of the developing countries like India. Situations such as unprotected sex, improper use of regular contraceptives, failure of barrier methods and sexual violence often lead to an unwanted pregnancy, which may warrant for unsafe abortions. Introduction of Emergency Contraception (EC over the counter in India in the recent past can help women to avoid unintended pregnancies. Methods: The present cross sectional study was designed to assess the awareness, level of knowledge and usage of EC among the women attending antenatal clinic. Systematic random sampling was used to select the participants for the study. 200 married women in age group between 18-35 years were interviewed through a pretested structured questionnaire to collect information on age, education, residential and socioeconomic status, obstetric profile, knowledge and usage of EC. Results: The average age of women included in the study was 24.2 years +/- 4.2. The knowledge and usage of EC among the participants was 11.5 % and 10.5% respectively. Age, education, socio-economic status, religion and parity had the significant role in knowledge and attitude towards EC. Clinician and electronic media were the most important source of information about EC. Knowledge about the brand name, time frame for usage and the side effects of EC were known to 60.8%, 43.4% and 17.9% of the participants respectively. Chemist and general practitioners were the first choice of places for obtaining the EC. Conclusions: Most importantly, the women who are most likely to need EC and those who are at high risk of an unintended pregnancy but not using any method of contraception have low level of knowledge about emergency contraception. There is a need for sustained efforts by the government and non-government organization including the media to clarify the

  18. Alcohol and Other Drug Use during Pregnancy among Women Attending Midwife Obstetric Units in the Cape Metropole, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petal Petersen Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the nature and extent of alcohol and other drug (AOD use among pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa, despite the very high levels of AOD use in this part of the country. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant women attending 11 Midwife Obstetric Units (MOUs in greater Cape Town. A two-stage cluster survey design was used. In total, 5231 pregnant women were screened to assess self-reported prevalence estimates. Of these, 684 (13.1% were intentionally subsampled and completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and provided a urine sample for biological screening. Urinalyses showed that 8.8% (95% CI: 6.7–10.9 of the subsample tested positive for at least one illicit drug. This is higher than the self-reported prevalence (3.6%. In addition, 19.6% (95% CI: 16.3–22.8 of the sub-sample tested positive for alcohol which is lower than the self-reported prevalence (36.9%. There are high levels of substance use among pregnant women attending public sector antenatal clinics. There is a need for routine screening for AOD use and appropriate responses depending on the women’s level of risk.

  19. Prenatal Depression: Screening and Referral for Women Who Are Low Income during Antenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestad, Renee; Lane, Sandra D; Hall, Meghan; Smith, Carrie J; Carter, D Bruce; Rubinstein, Robert A; Keefe, Robert H; Jones-Moore, Chevelle

    2016-10-01

    This study uses prenatal clinical chart reviews of 245 women who were screened for depression while receiving antenatal care services at an urban hospital-based clinic in Syracuse, New York. The results indicate that more than one half of the mothers who screened positive are not being adequately referred and followed-up on to ensure they are receiving proper treatment. Among the mothers who are not being successfully referred are women who are non-English speaking, facing multiple life stressors, and inadequately insured. Recommendations for colocating services that may ease the ongoing burdens of new motherhood are addressed. PMID:27286463

  20. The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Paternal Depression from the Antenatal to the Postpartum Period and the Relationships between Antenatal and Postpartum Depression among Fathers in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. W. Koh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Despite the fact that maternal perinatal mental health problems have been extensively studied and addressed to be a significant health problem, the literature on paternal perinatal mental health problems is relatively scarce. The present study aims at determining the prevalence of paternal perinatal depression and identifying the risk factors and the relationship between antenatal and postpartum depression. Methodology. 622 expectant fathers were recruited from regional maternal clinics. The expectant fathers were assessed using standardized and validated psychological instruments on 3 time points including early pregnancy, late pregnancy, and six weeks postpartum. Results. Results showed that a significant proportion of expectant fathers manifested depressive symptoms during the perinatal period. Paternal antenatal depression could significantly predict higher level of paternal postpartum depression. Psychosocial risk factors were consistently associated with paternal depression in different time points. Conclusions. The present study points to the need for greater research and clinical attention to paternal depression given that it is a highly prevalent problem and could be detrimental to their spouse and children development. The present findings contribute to theoretical basis of the prevalence and risk factors of paternal perinatal depression and have implications of the design of effective identification, prevention, and interventions of these clinical problems.

  1. [Agreement between information from the Pregnant Card and the mother's memory of antenatal care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Neto, Edson Theodoro dos; Leal, Maria do Carmo; Oliveira, Adauto Emmerich; Zandonade, Eliana; Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira da

    2012-02-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to verify agreement between information given by mothers after delivery and data recorded on Pregnant Cards about antenatal care under the Brazilian Unified National Health System in the Metropolitan Region of Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The study considered a population of 1,035 postpartum mothers interviewed in eight hospitals, where the cards were copied. The representativeness of the sample was guaranteed by stratification according to the proportion of births. Kappa and McNemar tests were carried out with the collected and processed information. Agreement levels regarding antenatal care were predominantly poor (kappa Mothers tend to: overestimate the number of antenatal visits (McNemar = 51.73; p-value = 0.001); affirm diseases during pregnancy, such as diabetes, anemia, hypertension and urinary infections; report the performance of laboratory tests; report the carrying out of clinical examinations. Results suggest the need to reflect on the type of data used for planning and implementing maternal and child public health polices, since data varies depending on the information source. PMID:22331152

  2. Antenatal and postnatal radiologic diagnosis of holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandaralage, Sahan P.S. [Gold Coast Hospital and Health Service, Southport, Queensland (Australia); Griffith University, School of Medicine, Southport, Queensland (Australia); Farnaghi, Soheil [Caboolture Hospital, Caboolture, Queensland (Australia); Dulhunty, Joel M.; Kothari, Alka [Redcliffe Hospital, Redcliffe, Queensland (Australia); The University of Queensland, School of Medicine, Herston, Queensland (Australia)

    2016-03-15

    Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency results in impaired activation of enzymes implicated in glucose, fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. Antenatal imaging and postnatal imaging are useful in making the diagnosis. Untreated holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency is fatal, while antenatal and postnatal biotin supplementation is associated with good clinical outcomes. Although biochemical assays are required for definitive diagnosis, certain radiologic features assist in the diagnosis of holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency. To review evidence regarding radiologic diagnostic features of holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency in the antenatal and postnatal period. A systematic review of all published cases of holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency identified by a search of Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science. A total of 75 patients with holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency were identified from the systematic review, which screened 687 manuscripts. Most patients with imaging (19/22, 86%) had abnormal findings, the most common being subependymal cysts, ventriculomegaly and intraventricular hemorrhage. Although the radiologic features of subependymal cysts, ventriculomegaly, intraventricular hemorrhage and intrauterine growth restriction may be found in the setting of other pathologies, these findings should prompt consideration of holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency in at-risk children. (orig.)

  3. Antenatal and postnatal radiologic diagnosis of holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency: a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency results in impaired activation of enzymes implicated in glucose, fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. Antenatal imaging and postnatal imaging are useful in making the diagnosis. Untreated holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency is fatal, while antenatal and postnatal biotin supplementation is associated with good clinical outcomes. Although biochemical assays are required for definitive diagnosis, certain radiologic features assist in the diagnosis of holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency. To review evidence regarding radiologic diagnostic features of holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency in the antenatal and postnatal period. A systematic review of all published cases of holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency identified by a search of Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science. A total of 75 patients with holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency were identified from the systematic review, which screened 687 manuscripts. Most patients with imaging (19/22, 86%) had abnormal findings, the most common being subependymal cysts, ventriculomegaly and intraventricular hemorrhage. Although the radiologic features of subependymal cysts, ventriculomegaly, intraventricular hemorrhage and intrauterine growth restriction may be found in the setting of other pathologies, these findings should prompt consideration of holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency in at-risk children. (orig.)

  4. Red Cell Alloimmunization to Rhesus Antigen Among Pregnant Women Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Tamima Al-Dughaishi; Yusra Al Harrasi; Maymoona Al-Duhli; Ikhlass Al-Rubkhi; Nihal Al-Riyami; Al-Riyami, Arwa Z.; Pathare, Anil V.; Vaidyanathan Gowri

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The detection of maternal alloimmunization against red cell antigens is vital in the management of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. We sought to measure the presence of allosensitization to Rhesus D (RhD) antibodies in antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital and assess the fetal outcome in sensitized women. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of pregnant Omani women who registered at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital between June 2011 and Ju...

  5. Educational intervention on Kangaroo Mother Care ( KMC among Antenatal care women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhani Desai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo assess the change in knowledge of antenatal women regarding kangaroo mother care (KMC after explaining the process and its benefits.Materials and methodAn educational interventional study on 120 antenatal women attending OPD of UHCs after informed verbal consent. A predefined questionnaire was modified and tested before the study.StatisticsAppropriate statistical tests were used whenever necessary.ResultsPost intervention, Knowledge regarding all the variables have significantly improved, e.g. time of stating KMC (from 43.3% to 90%, duration of each session 9.2% to 95.8%, frequency of KMC (10.8% to 89.2, clothing and positioning of mother (4.2% to 94.2% and 3.3% to 96.7% respectively as well as the baby (0 to 99.2% and 5.8% to 92.5% respectively.Knowledge regarding benefits to mother and baby has increased significantly after the intervention.Knowledge about comparison between different pairs of closely related variable regarding KMC also shows significant improvement. Doctors are more preferred source of information for KMC.Conclusion and recommendationSignificant improvement in knowledge about various aspects of the practice of KMC shows that the educational intervention is effective. A greater involvement and active role by the health workers and doctors would have a lasting impact.

  6. Effectiveness of HIV counseling services on knowledge, attitude, behavior and practice (KABP) among pregnant women attending PPTCT program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Tayebeh; Garg, S; Singh, M M; Malhotra, Sumit; Gupta, V K; Tripathi, R

    2009-09-01

    Counseling services is an important component of National AIDS Control Program which aims at creating awareness and promoting changes in reducing high risk behavior against HIV/AIDS. Pregnant women attending antenatal clinics are being counseled about HIV/AIDS under prevention of parent to child transmission (PPTCT) program. The objective of this study was to assess (KABP) regarding HIV/AIDS among pregnant women attending PPTCT program before and after counseling at Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. A Quasi-experimental study was conducted. Data was collected by interviewing 600 pregnant women attending ANC clinic during May 2006 to May 2007 using a pre-test and post-test interview schedule. About 69.2% of the pregnant women had heard about AIDS before the counseling. Knowledge regarding mother to child transmission of HIV was 53.5%. 38.2% knew that mother to child transmission can be reduced by drugs. The knowledge of pregnant women about AIDS was significantly different in pre-test (mean score = 15.3) and post test (mean score = 35.6) (P < 0.0001). Attitude of study participants towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) indicated that individuals with HIV should be allowed to work (79.9%) and all commercial sex workers should compulsorily be tested for HIV (55.1%). There was significant difference between in pre-test and post-test attitude about PLWHA and HIV testing (p < 0.0001). The condom use among the study participants significantly improved after counseling (1.2% in pre-test and 58.6% after counseling) (p < 0.0001). Counseling services were effective in increasing knowledge and changes in attitude and behavior among pregnant women and the efforts needs to be sustained. PMID:22010484

  7. Antenatal screening and the gendering of genetic responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Reed Kate

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study is to explore men's and women's perceptions of antenatal blood screening. The study will assess the impact of these perceptions on decision-making regarding diagnostic testing and selective abortion, and on parental feelings of genetic responsibility. By exploring gender and antenatal screening in this way, the research aims to contribute to our understanding of lay perceptions of genetic screening and increase our knowledge of the decision-maki...

  8. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Milgrom Jeannette; Leigh Bronwyn

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite...

  9. Postnatal follow-up of children having antenatal hydronephrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Biljana; Stojanović Vesna

    2008-01-01

    The application of antenatal ultrasound for the evaluation of congenital anomalies in early pregnancy has become a common practice. Hydronephrosis is the most common anomaly observed. Antenatal interventions are experimental and done in advanced centers. Though there are defined criteria of intervention, it is still not clear as to who will benefit. Most patients will have relatively benign course, however identification of those who will have potentially serious postnatal problems permits ea...

  10. A CLINICAL STUDY OF SELECTED PARAMETERS OF SMOKING HABIT AMONG PATIENTS ATTENDING PULMONOLOGY OPD IN KATURI MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL, GUNTUR DURING 2012 - 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available 200 patients attending Katuri Medical college Pulmonology OPD with a history of Tobacco smoking coming for various symptoms for various symptoms were analy sed regarding their smoking habits. Majority of them were the major bread earners of thei r families. Majority of them presented to the hospital in 4 th to 6 th decade of life. Male smokers were predominant but alternate modes of tobacco consumption and passi ve smoking are present in a majority of females. Majority of them are farmers, unemployed or semiskilled or unskilled with poor education and with low family incomes. A majority of them have high frequency of smoking tobacco per day Initiation of smoking o ccurred at less than 20 years of age. Majority presented with less than 40 pack years of smoking history.

  11. Monitoring Student Attendance Using Dashboard

    OpenAIRE

    Hasniza Yahya; Rina Md. Anwar

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that student attendance has positive relationship with academic achievement. However, the manual process of taking attendance using paper does not allow the teacher to easily view and monitor individual attendance. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the use of dashboard in managing and monitoring student attendance. By using the attendance dashboard, teacher can easily track the attendance of a student and take necessary actions when needed.

  12. Number and timing of antenatal HIV testing: Evidence from a community-based study in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasch Vibeke

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV testing for pregnant women is an important component for the success of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT. A lack of antenatal HIV testing results in loss of benefits for HIV-infected mothers and their children. However, the provision of unnecessary repeat tests at a very late stage of pregnancy will reduce the beneficial effects of PMTCT and impose unnecessary costs for the individual woman as well as the health system. This study aims to assess the number and timing of antenatal HIV testing in a low-income setting where PMTCT programmes have been scaled up to reach first level health facilities. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted among 1108 recently delivered mothers through face-to-face interviews following a structured questionnaire that focused on socio-economic characteristics, experiences of antenatal care and HIV testing. Results The prevalence of women who lacked HIV testing among the study group was 10% while more than half of the women tested had had more than two tests during pregnancy. The following factors were associated with the lack of antenatal HIV test: having two children (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.4, living in a remote rural area (aOR 7.8, 95% CI 3.4-17.8, late antenatal care attendance (aOR 3.6, 95% CI 1.3-10.1 and not being informed about PMTCT at their first antenatal care visits (aOR 7.4, 95% CI 2.6-21.1. Among women who had multiple tests, 80% had the second test after 36 weeks of gestation. Women who had first ANC and first HIV testing at health facilities at primary level were more likely to be tested multiple times (OR 2.9 95% CI 1.9-4.3 and OR = 4.7 95% CI 3.5-6.4, respectively. Conclusions Not having an HIV test during pregnancy was associated with poor socio-economic characteristics among the women and with not receiving information about PMTCT at the first ANC visit. Multiple testing during pregnancy prevailed; the second tests were often

  13. Attitudes of Patients in Developing Countries Toward Participating in Clinical Trials: A Survey of Saudi Patients Attending Primary Health Care Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lateefa O. Al-Dakhil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Clinical trials are experimental projects that include patients as subjects. A number of benefits are directly associated with clinical trials. Healthcare processes and outcomes can be improved with the help of clinical trials. This study aimed to assess the attitudes and beliefs of patients about their contribution to and enrolment in clinical trials. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used for data collection and analysis. A questionnaire was developed with six categories to derive effective outcomes. Results: Of the 2000 participants approached to take part in the study, 1081 agreed. The majority of the study population was female, well educated, and unaware of clinical trials. Only 324 subjects (30.0% had previously agreed to participate in a clinical trial. The majority (87.1% were motivated to participate in clinical trials due to religious aspects. However, fear of any risk was the principal reason (79.8% that reduced their motivation to participate. Conclusions: The results of this study revealed that patients in Saudi Arabia have a low awareness and are less willing to participate in clinical trials. Different motivational factors and awareness programs can be used to increase patient participation in the future.

  14. Impact of Attendance Policies on Course Attendance among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenneville, Tiffany; Jordan, Cary

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to investigate whether having a graded attendance policy would have an effect on course attendance among college students, and (b) to examine beliefs about education and attendance policies among college students. Results support the utility of graded attendance policies for increasing class attendance…

  15. The effectiveness of antenatal care programmes to reduce infant mortality and preterm birth in socially disadvantaged and vulnerable women in high-income countries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brocklehurst Peter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant mortality has shown a steady decline in recent years but a marked socioeconomic gradient persists. Antenatal care is generally thought to be an effective method of improving pregnancy outcomes, but the effectiveness of specific antenatal care programmes as a means of reducing infant mortality in socioeconomically disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women has not been rigorously evaluated. Methods We conducted a systematic review, focusing on evidence from high income countries, to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative models of organising or delivering antenatal care to disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women vs. standard antenatal care. We searched Medline, Embase, Cinahl, PsychINFO, HMIC, CENTRAL, DARE, MIDIRS and a number of online resources to identify relevant randomised and observational studies. We assessed effects on infant mortality and its major medical causes (preterm birth, congenital anomalies and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS Results We identified 36 distinct eligible studies covering a wide range of interventions, including group antenatal care, clinic-based augmented care, teenage clinics, prenatal substance abuse programmes, home visiting programmes, maternal care coordination and nutritional programmes. Fifteen studies had adequate internal validity: of these, only one was considered to demonstrate a beneficial effect on an outcome of interest. Six interventions were considered 'promising'. Conclusions There was insufficient evidence of adequate quality to recommend routine implementation of any of the programmes as a means of reducing infant mortality in disadvantaged/vulnerable women. Several interventions merit further more rigorous evaluation.

  16. Determinants of misconceptions about diabetes among Saudi diabetic patients attending diabetes clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alsunni, Ahmed A.; Waleed I Albaker; Ahmed Badar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the determinants of misconceptions about diabetes in patients registered with a diabetes clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was carried out at a diabetes clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia, from January to December 2012. A total of 200 diabetic patients were interviewed using a questionnaire comprising 36 popular misconceptions. The total misconception score was calculate...

  17. Rural Indonesia women’s traditional beliefs about antenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Yenita

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Indonesia Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR of 420/100.00 live births remains among the highest in East Asia while coverage of births assisted by skilled providers is still low. Traditional beliefs have been a key factor associated with the choice between midwives or traditional birth attendants (TBA and the low number of antenatal care visits in rural West Sumatra. Methods We conducted three focus groups with 16 women from rural West Java to describe their perception regarding issues related to traditional beliefs. Focus group discussions provided data for the content analysis. Results The majority of the 16 women interviewed was from Village Dago, West Java and had only an elementary school education. Their ages ranged from 19 to 40 years. Most were multiparous housewives with an income of IDR 918.750 per month, which was lower than the monthly income in West Java (IDR. 1.172.060. Emerging from the focus group discussion were four main themes regarding their pregnancy and traditional beliefs: 1 pregnancy was a normal cycle in women’s life (pregnancy is a natural phenomena, not a sickness; no recognition of danger signs during pregnancy and death of baby or mother during pregnancy was brought about by God’s will; 2 women followed the traditional beliefs (positive motivation to follow the traditional beliefs and fear of not following the traditional beliefs; 3 relying on TBA called paraji rather than midwife (parajis are kind, tolerant and patient and have more experience than midwives; more accessibility than midwives and encouragement of natural birth and 4 midwives are more secure than paraji; (they use a medical standard of care. Conclusions Women’s beliefs grounded in religion and tradition permeated the village culture making it difficult to counter their long held health practices with practices based on recent advances in health care. Use of TBA in this village was still dominant and women believed that following

  18. Barriers to utilization of antenatal care services in Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kumar eDeo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWorld Health Organization (WHO recommends at least four pregnancy check-ups for normal pregnancies. Ministry of Health and Population (MOHP Nepal has introduced various strategies to promote prenatal care and institutional delivery to reduce maternal and child deaths. However, maternal health service utilization is low in some selected and socio-economic and ethnic groups. Hence, this study aims to assess barriers to the recommended four antenatal care (4ANC visits in eastern Nepal.MethodsA cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted in Sunsari district. A total of 372 randomly selected women who delivered in the last year preceding the survey were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify barriers associated with 4ANC visits.ResultsMore than two-third women (69% attended at least 4ANC visits. The study revealed that women exposed to media had higher chance of receiving four or more ANC visits with an adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR=3.5, 95% CI: 1.2-10.1 in comparison to women who did not. Women from an advantaged ethnic group had more chance of having 4ANC visits than respondents from a disadvantaged ethnic group (aOR=2.4, 95% CI: 2.1-6.9. Similarly, women having a higher level of autonomy were nearly three times more likely (aOR= 2.9, 95%CI: 1.5-5.6 and richer women were twice (aOR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.1-5.3 as likely to have at least 4ANC visits compared to women who had a lower level of autonomy and were economically poor.ConclusionBeing from disadvantaged ethnicity, lower women?s autonomy, poor knowledge of maternal health service and incentive upon completion of ANC, less media exposure related to maternal health service, and lower wealth rank were significantly associated with fewer than the recommended 4ANC visits. Thus, maternal health programs need to address such socio-cultural barriers for effective health care utilization.

  19. Using mHealth to Improve Usage of Antenatal Care, Postnatal Care, and Immunization: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Watterson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile health (mHealth technologies have been implemented in many low- and middle-income countries to address challenges in maternal and child health. Many of these technologies attempt to influence patients’, caretakers’, or health workers’ behavior. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to determine what evidence exists for the effectiveness of mHealth tools to increase the coverage and use of antenatal care (ANC, postnatal care (PNC, and childhood immunizations through behavior change in low- and middle-income countries. The full text of 53 articles was reviewed and 10 articles were identified that met all inclusion criteria. The majority of studies used text or voice message reminders to influence patient behavior change (80%, n=8 and most were conducted in African countries (80%, n=8. All studies showed at least some evidence of effectiveness at changing behavior to improve antenatal care attendance, postnatal care attendance, or childhood immunization rates. However, many of the studies were observational and further rigorous evaluation of mHealth programs is needed in a broader variety of settings.

  20. Using mHealth to Improve Usage of Antenatal Care, Postnatal Care, and Immunization: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Jessica L; Walsh, Julia; Madeka, Isheeta

    2015-01-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) technologies have been implemented in many low- and middle-income countries to address challenges in maternal and child health. Many of these technologies attempt to influence patients', caretakers', or health workers' behavior. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to determine what evidence exists for the effectiveness of mHealth tools to increase the coverage and use of antenatal care (ANC), postnatal care (PNC), and childhood immunizations through behavior change in low- and middle-income countries. The full text of 53 articles was reviewed and 10 articles were identified that met all inclusion criteria. The majority of studies used text or voice message reminders to influence patient behavior change (80%, n = 8) and most were conducted in African countries (80%, n = 8). All studies showed at least some evidence of effectiveness at changing behavior to improve antenatal care attendance, postnatal care attendance, or childhood immunization rates. However, many of the studies were observational and further rigorous evaluation of mHealth programs is needed in a broader variety of settings. PMID:26380263

  1. Student Attendance Accounting Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Joseph M.

    In response to state legislation authorizing procedures for changes in academic calendars and measurement of student workload in California community colleges, this manual from the Chancellor's Office provides guidelines for student attendance accounting. Chapter 1 explains general items such as the academic calendar, admissions policies, student…

  2. Attending IBM & SAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马洁

    2007-01-01

    The delegation of China Acrobats Association, twelve people with Lin Jian, Vice President of China Acrobats Association as a director, went to America to attend the 79th Annual Convention of International Brotherhood of Magic (IBM) and the Magic Convention of Society of American Magicians 2007 from June 26th, 2007 to July 8th, 2007.

  3. The incidence and clinical symptomatology of Clostridium difficile infections in a community setting in a cohort of Danish patients attending general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søes, Lillian Marie; Holt, H M; Böttiger, B;

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is gradually being recognised as a cause of morbidity in the community. We investigated the incidence and clinical characteristics of CDI in a community setting and characterised the C. difficile strains by toxin gene profiling and polymerase chain reaction...

  4. The assessment of weight status in children and young people attending a spina bifida outpatient clinic: a retrospective medical record review

    OpenAIRE

    McPherson, Amy C.; Swift, Judy Anne; Yung, Emily; Lyons, Julia; Church, Paige

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Children with disabilities are two to three times more likely to become overweight or obese than typically developing children. Children with spina bifida (SB) are at particular risk, yet obesity prevalence and weight management with this population are under-researched. This retrospective chart review explored how weight is assessed and discussed in a children's SB outpatient clinic. METHOD: Height/weight data were extracted from records of children aged 2-18 with a diagnos...

  5. Non-adherence to diet and exercise recommendations amongst patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending Extension II Clinic in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Ganiyu, Adewale B.; Mabuza, Langalibalele H.; Nomsa H. Malete; Indiran Govender; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Extension II Clinic in Botswana have difficulty in adhering to the lifestyle modifications recommended by healthcare practitioners. Poor adherence to lifestyle recommendations leads to poor control of the condition and consequently to complications.Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine reasons for poor adherence to lifestyle recommendations amongst the patients. The objectives were to determine: reasons for pooradhere...

  6. Exploration of knowledge, attitudes and percepions regarding sexually transmitted infections among patients attending a primary health care clinic in Gauteng - Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.J. Molapo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections are a major public health problem in South Africa. The high incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in South Africa pose a serious threat to public health for two main reasons. Firstly, the long-term consequences of these infections are a major cause of loss of health or life, and secondly, sexually transmitted infections are important co-factors in driving the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS epidemic. The control and prevention of sexually transmitted infections has become an urgent priority. At a primary health care clinic, the nursing personnel experienced an increasing number of persons daily seeking treatment for sexually transmitted infections. The purpose of the study was therefore to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of people seeking treatment at Stanza Bopape Clinic regarding sexually transmitted infections. The study was a contextual, quantitative survey. The population was all patients (15 years and older who visited the clinic for a health-related problem during November 2004 to January 2005. The sampling method was convenient. The data gathering method was self-report using a structured questionnaire basic on current knowledge. The data analysis was done with descriptive statistics.

  7. HIV testing and treatment in the antenatal care setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coulter-Smith, S

    2012-02-01

    Routine linked HIV antenatal screening, with "opt-out", was introduced at the Rotunda in January 1998. This paper reviews the screening and subsequent pregnancy management and outcome in HIV positive women from 1998 to 2006. During this time 225 women (280 pregnancies) were HIV positive and 194 women subsequently delivered at the Rotunda, representing 233 liveborn infants. Overall anti-HIV prevalence was 0.42%, increasing from 0.06% in 1998 to 0.57% in 2006. Of 233 livebirths, 111 (48%) were delivered by spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD). HIV treatment was started pre-pregnancy in 14 (6%) pregnancies and antenatally in 208 (90%). The vertical transmission rate in mothers receiving >4 weeks of treatment was 0%. We conclude that routine antenatal HIV screening is effective and significantly benefits the health of mother and child.

  8. Antenatal information sources for maternal and infant diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Ruth; Brodribb, Wendy; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W

    2015-07-01

    This report describes information sources accessed by pregnant women around antenatal and early infant diet. Australian women in their first pregnancy (n = 277) responded to questionnaires online and on paper between June 2010 and March 2011 as part of the Feeding Queensland Babies Study. Antenatal information sources are reported for maternal diet, breastfeeding and formula-feeding. Pregnant women sought and encountered information for their own and their infants' diet from many sources. Health care professionals provided antenatal dietary information for 80% of respondents and infant feeding advice for 69%. Relatives or friends were the respondents' largest reported information source for infant feeding, reported by 78%. Information on artificial baby milk was accessed on television by 77% and on the internet by 52% of respondents. Health care professionals should proactively support clients' informational needs and address encountered nutrition misinformation. Further research is necessary to establish the nature and accuracy of dietary information in the mass media. PMID:26285323

  9. HIV testing and treatment in the antenatal care setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coulter-Smith, S

    2010-01-01

    Routine linked HIV antenatal screening, with "opt-out", was introduced at the Rotunda in January 1998. This paper reviews the screening and subsequent pregnancy management and outcome in HIV positive women from 1998 to 2006. During this time 225 women (280 pregnancies) were HIV positive and 194 women subsequently delivered at the Rotunda, representing 233 liveborn infants. Overall anti-HIV prevalence was 0.42%, increasing from 0.06% in 1998 to 0.57% in 2006. Of 233 livebirths, 111 (48%) were delivered by spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD). HIV treatment was started pre-pregnancy in 14 (6%) pregnancies and antenatally in 208 (90%). The vertical transmission rate in mothers receiving >4 weeks of treatment was 0%. We conclude that routine antenatal HIV screening is effective and significantly benefits the health of mother and child.

  10. Knowledge attitude and practices for antenatal care and delivery of the mothers of tea garden in Jalpaiguri and Darjeeling districts, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabir Kumar Manna, Debasis De and Debidas Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to access the influence of socioeconomic factors on antenatal care and delivery practices of the mother of North Bengal. A community based study was carried out among 1772 families of the 7 blocks of the two districts. Various socio economic factors were considered for the antenatal care and delivery practices. We also tried to find out the relationship between antenatal check up with perinatal mortality. The study shows that the muslim mothers, Scheduled tribe mothers, non -educated and mothers with higher age group are less interested about ANC. Family income 2000/- month showing 62.42% ANC coverage. We found that only 7.11% mother used Govt. hospital and 2.65% used private clinic. The mother with medical problems and obstetric problems has high ANC coverage. So, socioeconomic factors significantly influence the antenatal coverage and delivery practices. Hence initiative may be taken at Government and non government levels to raise knowledge, attitude and practices for the improvement of antenatal care and delivery practices of the mother at these zones.

  11. The effect of antenatal education in small classes on obstetric and psycho-social outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Axelsen, Solveig Forberg; Andersen, Stig Krøger;

    2014-01-01

    The aims of antenatal education contain both outcomes related to pregnancy, birth and parenthood. Both content and methods of antenatal education have changed over time without evidence of effects on relevant outcomes. The effect of antenatal education in groups, with participation of a small num......-analysis aims to assess the effects of antenatal education in small groups on obstetric as well as psycho-social outcomes....

  12. Adolescent mothers’ non-utilisation of antenatal care services in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Chaibva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent pregnancies are high risk obstetric occurrences. Antenatal care (ANC provides opportunities to recognise and treat obstetric complications, enhancing the pregnancy outcomes for mothers and babies. The purpose of the study was to identify factors influencing adolescents' non-utilisation of ANC services in Bulawayo. The Health Belief Model (HBM was used to contextualise the study. A quantitative, non-experimental, descriptive research design was adopted, using structured interviews to collect data. Purposive, non-probability sampling was used to conduct structured interviews with 80 adolescent mothers from the postnatal wards who had delivered their babies without attending ANC. Factors influencing these adolescent mothers’ non-utilisation of ANC services included socio-economic issues, individuals' perceptions about ANC, limited knowledge about ANC, policies and structural barriers. However, these adolescents knew that delivering their babies with skilled attendance could enhance the outcomes for the mothers and babies, would help secure documents to facilitate the acquisition of their children's birth certificates, and that obstetric complications required the services of skilled midwives/doctors. Policy-related issues, such as requiring national identity cards from pregnant adolescents (or from their spouses prohibited some of them from utilising ANC services. There is a need to improve adolescents’ reproductive health outreach (including ANC programmes and to offer free ANC services in Zimbabwe. Restrictive policies, such as the required identity cards of the pregnant adolescents (or their husbands, impacted negatively on the accessibility of ANC services and should be addressed as a matter of urgency in Bulawayo.

  13. EXPECTATION SCHOOL ATTENDANCE

    OpenAIRE

    BURGSTALLEROVÁ, Kateřina

    2011-01-01

    In a theoretical part of this work I will map on the basis of work with qoalifications literature the problem of inauguaration school attendance. Describ pre-school child from the porspective of development psychology, will mention posibility of adaptions problems.I will also try to quylify the diference between primary and preprimary education, and conception in document of education program. In practical part I will with aid of quality interview to find out, how is the expectation of future...

  14. Does Interpersonal Psychotherapy improve clinical care for adolescents with depression attending a rural child and adolescent mental health service? Study protocol for a cluster randomised feasibility trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villanueva Elmer V

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression amongst adolescents is a costly societal problem. Little research documents the effectiveness of public mental health services in mapping this problem. Further, it is not clear whether usual care in such services can be improved via clinician training in a relevant evidence based intervention. One such intervention, found to be effective and easily learned amongst novice clinicians, is Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT. The study described in the current paper has two main objectives. First, it aims to investigate the impact on clinical care of implementing Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Adolescents for the treatment of adolescent depression within a rural mental health service compared with Treatment as Usual (TAU. The second objective is to record the process and challenges (i.e. feasibility, acceptability, sustainability associated with implementing and evaluating an evidence-based intervention within a community service. This paper outlines the study rationale and design for this community based research trial. Methods/design The study involves a cluster randomisation trial to be conducted within a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service in rural Australia. All clinicians in the service will be invited to participate. Participating clinicians will be randomised via block design at each of four sites to (a training and delivery of IPT, or (b TAU. The primary measure of impact on care will be a clinically significant change in depressive symptomatology, with secondary outcomes involving treatment satisfaction and changes in other symptomatology. Participating adolescents with significant depressive symptomatology, aged 12 to 18 years, will complete assessment measures at Weeks 0, 12 and 24 of treatment. They will also complete a depression inventory once a month during that period. This study aims to recruit 60 adolescent participants and their parent/guardian/s. A power analysis is not indicated as an intra

  15. Prevalence of Depression and Anxiety among Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Attending the MS Clinic at Sheikh Khalifa Medical City, UAE: Cross-Sectional Study

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    Taoufik Alsaadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression and anxiety are reported to be prevalent in patients with MS, with prevalence rates ranging from 20% to 50%. Unfortunately, the rates, patterns, and risk factors are not well studied in our Middle East region, and, to our knowledge, not at all in UAE. Using standardized screening tools, we observed that 17% and 20% of 80 patients seen in MS clinic had scores consistent with major depression and anxiety disorders, respectively, at a rate that was not statistically different when compared to age and sex matched controls. None of the studied variables including duration of the disease, EDSS scores, age, gender, and the level of education had any significant correlation with the rates of both disorders. Almost two-thirds of the patients with scores consistent with major depression and anxiety were not on antidepressant and antianxiety medications.

  16. Determinants of misconceptions about diabetes among Saudi diabetic patients attending diabetes clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia

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    Ahmed A. Alsunni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the determinants of misconceptions about diabetes in patients registered with a diabetes clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was carried out at a diabetes clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia, from January to December 2012. A total of 200 diabetic patients were interviewed using a questionnaire comprising 36 popular misconceptions. The total misconception score was calculated and categorized into low (0-12, moderate (13-24 and high (25-36 scores. The association of misconception score with various potential determinants was calculated using Chi-square test. Step-wise logistic regression was applied to the variables showing significant association with the misconception score in order to identify the determinants of misconceptions. Results: The mean age was 39.62 ± 16.7 and 112 (56% subjects were females. Type 1 diabetics were 78 (39%, while 122 (61% had Type 2 diabetes. Insulin was being used by 105 (52.5%, 124 (62% were self-monitoring blood glucose and 112 (56% were using diet control. Formal education on diabetes awareness had been received by 167 (83.5% before the interview. The mean misconception score was 10.29 ± 4.92 with 115 (57.5% subjects had low misconception scores (15 years since diagnosis, no self-monitoring, no dietary control and no diabetes education were all significantly (P 15 years since diagnosis, no self-monitoring, no diet control and no education about diabetes.

  17. Non-adherence to diet and exercise recommendations amongst patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending Extension II Clinic in Botswana

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    Adewale B. Ganiyu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Extension II Clinic in Botswana have difficulty in adhering to the lifestyle modifications recommended by healthcare practitioners. Poor adherence to lifestyle recommendations leads to poor control of the condition and consequently to complications.Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine reasons for poor adherence to lifestyle recommendations amongst the patients. The objectives were to determine: reasons for pooradherence to dietary requirements, exercise recommendations, the support they had in adhering to the recommendations, and their understanding of the role of dietary and exercise requirements in the management of their condition.Method: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. The sample comprised of 105 participants. Data on participants’ baseline characteristics and adherence to dietary and exercise habits were analysed using the SPSS 14.0 version.Results: The sample of 104 participants comprised of 61 (58.7% women. The rates of nonadherence to diet and exercise were 37% and 52% respectively. The main reasons for nonadherence to diet were: poor self-discipline (63.4%; lack of information (33.3% and thetendency to eat out (31.7%. The main reasons for non-adherence to exercise were: lack of information (65.7%; the perception that exercise exacerbated their illness (57.6% and lack of an exercise partner (24.0%.Conclusion: There was a relatively high rate of non-adherence to both diet and exercise recommendations by patients suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus at Extension II Clinic,Botswana, with non-adherence to exercise recommendations more common.

  18. 男性性病门诊就诊者HIV感染状况的调查及分析%Investigating and analyzing the prevalence of HIV infection among male patients attending STD clinics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常晓; 连石; 张海萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand and analyze the prevalence and characteristic of HIV infection among male patients attending STD clinics. Methods The male patients who attended the STD clinics from Jan. 2009 to Dec. 2010 were questioned and tested for STD. And those who accepted the serological test voluntarily would be tested for HIV infection with ELISA, and would be confirmed with Western blot. Result Among the 1 653 patients, 332 were infected with STD, including syphilis(107), gonorrhea(56) , chlamydia infection(67), condyloroa acuminatum (72) and genital herpes(30). And 14 HIV infected patients co-infected with other STDs were MSM. The proportion of syphilis patients with HIV infection was 35. 29% (6/17) and the proportion of CA patients with HIV infection was 32. 0%(8/25). Conclusion STD patients from MSM are important high risk population who are susceptible to HIV infection. Enhanced HIV infection test should be clinically focused on male patients who ere infected with syphilis and CA around anus and are homosexual.%目的 了解综合医院性病门诊男性就诊者中,艾滋病病毒(HIV)的感染状况,分析其流行病学特征.方法 2009年1月-2010年12月,对性病门诊就诊的男性患者进行问卷调查及相应的性病学检测,对自愿接受HIV血清学检测者采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)进行HIV初筛,阳性者用蛋白印迹(WB)法进行确认.结果 1 653例就诊者中,发现梅毒107例,淋病56例,沙眼衣原体感染67例,尖锐湿疣72例,生殖器疱疹30例,共332例.共发现14例HIV感染者,均为男男性行为人群(MSM),且同时合并感染其他性病.梅毒患者合并HIV感染率为35.29% (6/17),尖锐湿疣患者的HIV感染率为32.0% (8/25).结论 MSM的性病患者是HIV感染的重要高危人群.对临床上有男男性行为的梅毒及肛周尖锐湿疣的患者,应加强HIV的检测.

  19. Lab Attendance and Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk Adair; Swinton, Omari H

    2012-01-01

    The benefits from attendance of lectures have been established in the literature. This paper focuses on attendance not of the lecture, but of smaller labs. These labs are 50 minutes one-day-a-week sessions to emphasis material covered during lecture. Using a 200-student Principles of Economics class that covers microeconomics with six different labs, we investigate the effect of lab attendance on exam performance by taking into account individual characteristics. We find that lab attendance b...

  20. Does class attendance still matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Abel Nyamapfene

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the impact of class attendance on academic performance in a second year Electronics Engineering course module with online notes and no mandatory class attendance policy. The study shows that class attendance is highly correlated to academic performance, despite the availability of online class notes. In addition, there is significant correlation between class attendance and non-class contact with the lecturer and between student performance in the first year of ...

  1. Barriers to HIV testing and characteristics associated with never testing among gay and bisexual men attending sexual health clinics in Sydney

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    Damian P Conway

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV diagnoses among gay and bisexual men have increased over the past decade in Australia. HIV point-of-care testing (POCT was introduced in Australia in 2011 as a strategy to increase HIV testing by making the testing process more convenient. We surveyed gay and bisexual men undergoing POCT to assess barriers to HIV testing and characteristics associated with not having previously tested for HIV (never testing. Methods: During 2011 and 2012, gay and bisexual men who were undergoing POCT at four Sydney sexual health clinics self-completed questionnaires assessing testing history and psychological and structural barriers to HIV testing. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to assess associations between patient characteristics and never testing. Results: Of 1093 participants, 981 (89.9% reported ever testing for HIV and 110 (10.1% never testing. At least one barrier to testing was reported by 1046 men (95.7%, with only 47 men (4.3% not reporting any barrier to testing. The most commonly reported barriers to testing were annoyance at having to return for results (30.2%, not having done anything risky (29.6%, stress in waiting for results (28.4%, being afraid of testing positive (27.5% and having tested recently (23.2%. Never testing was independently associated with being non-gay-identified (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–3.2, being aged less than 25 years (AOR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.6–3.8, living in a suburb with few gay couples (AOR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2–3.0, being afraid of testing HIV-positive (AOR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0–2.4, not knowing where to test (AOR: 3.8; 95% CI: 1.3–11.2 and reporting one or no sexual partners in the last six months (AOR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2–6.2. Conclusions: Barriers to HIV testing were commonly reported among the clinic-based gay and bisexual men in this study. Our findings suggest further health promotion and prevention strategies are needed to address the

  2. Low clinical relevance of risky alcohol consumption in a selected group of high adherent HIV-infected patients attended in the United Kingdom

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    Alicia Gonzalez Baeza

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of risky alcohol consumption, associated factors and its impact on the brain is not well established in clinically stable HIV patients. Materials and Methods: Within the PIVOT neurocognitive sub-study, effectively suppressed HIV-infected adults on either standard cART or ritonavir-boosted PI monotherapy completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT designed to detect risky alcohol consumption. They also completed a brief neuropsychological assessment (NPZ 5 composed by five measures. For this cross-sectional analysis, we calculated rates of hazardous (AUDIT=8–15 or harmful (AUDIT=16–19 consumption and likely dependence (AUDIT>20. We explored the association between risky alcohol intakes (AUDIT>8 and clinical/demographical variables, conducting logistic regressions when significant association was found (p<.05. Also, the association between cognitive performance and alcohol consumption was calculated and adjusted by potential confounders. Results: Of the 146 included participants, the majority were male (86.3%, white (81.5% and educated (mean years on formal education=15, SD=3.9. Average age was 47.6 years (SD=8.7, and 36.3% had risky consumption (29.5% hazardous, 6.2% harmful, 0.7% likely dependence. White ethnicity and male sex were positively associated with risky consumption (Table 1. After adjustments, white ethnicity remained significantly associated with risky consumption (1.64 [95% CI 0.34–2.95]; p=0.013. Better cognitive performance was associated with risky alcohol consumption in the univariate analysis (p<.001. After adjustment by ethnicity, sex and years of education, cognitive performance and risky alcohol consumption maintained significant association (0.45 [95% CI 0.19–0.70] p=0.001. Conclusions: Despite the substantially high prevalence of risky alcohol consumption, it was not associated with worse adherence, immunological or quality of life measures in this cohort of

  3. Barriers to HIV testing and characteristics associated with never testing among gay and bisexual men attending sexual health clinics in Sydney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Damian P; Holt, Martin; Couldwell, Deborah L; Smith, Don E; Davies, Stephen C; McNulty, Anna; Keen, Phillip; Cunningham, Philip; Guy, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV diagnoses among gay and bisexual men have increased over the past decade in Australia. HIV point-of-care testing (POCT) was introduced in Australia in 2011 as a strategy to increase HIV testing by making the testing process more convenient. We surveyed gay and bisexual men undergoing POCT to assess barriers to HIV testing and characteristics associated with not having previously tested for HIV (never testing). Methods During 2011 and 2012, gay and bisexual men who were undergoing POCT at four Sydney sexual health clinics self-completed questionnaires assessing testing history and psychological and structural barriers to HIV testing. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to assess associations between patient characteristics and never testing. Results Of 1093 participants, 981 (89.9%) reported ever testing for HIV and 110 (10.1%) never testing. At least one barrier to testing was reported by 1046 men (95.7%), with only 47 men (4.3%) not reporting any barrier to testing. The most commonly reported barriers to testing were annoyance at having to return for results (30.2%), not having done anything risky (29.6%), stress in waiting for results (28.4%), being afraid of testing positive (27.5%) and having tested recently (23.2%). Never testing was independently associated with being non-gay-identified (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–3.2), being aged less than 25 years (AOR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.6–3.8), living in a suburb with few gay couples (AOR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2–3.0), being afraid of testing HIV-positive (AOR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0–2.4), not knowing where to test (AOR: 3.8; 95% CI: 1.3–11.2) and reporting one or no sexual partners in the last six months (AOR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2–6.2). Conclusions Barriers to HIV testing were commonly reported among the clinic-based gay and bisexual men in this study. Our findings suggest further health promotion and prevention strategies are needed to address the

  4. Food assistance is associated with improved body mass index, food security and attendance at clinic in an HIV program in central Haiti: a prospective observational cohort study

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    Ivers Louise C

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few data are available to guide programmatic solutions to the overlapping problems of undernutrition and HIV infection. We evaluated the impact of food assistance on patient outcomes in a comprehensive HIV program in central Haiti in a prospective observational cohort study. Methods Adults with HIV infection were eligible for monthly food rations if they had any one of: tuberculosis, body mass index (BMI 2, CD4 cell count 3 (in the prior 3 months or severe socio-economic conditions. A total of 600 individuals (300 eligible and 300 ineligible for food assistance were interviewed before rations were distributed, at 6 months and at 12 months. Data collected included demographics, BMI and food insecurity score (range 0 - 20. Results At 6- and 12-month time-points, 488 and 340 subjects were eligible for analysis. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that at 6 months, food security significantly improved in those who received food assistance versus who did not (-3.55 vs -0.16; P Conclusions Food assistance was associated with improved food security, increased BMI, and improved adherence to clinic visits at 6 and 12 months among people living with HIV in Haiti and should be part of routine care where HIV and food insecurity overlap.

  5. Factor structure of the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28 from infertile women attending the Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility

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    Zahra Shayan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, infertility problems have become a social concern, and are associated with multiple psychological and social problems. Also, it affects the interpersonal communication between the individual, familial, and social characteristics. Since women are exposed to stressors of physical, mental, social factors, and treatment of infertility, providing a psychometric screening tool is necessary for disorders of this group. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the factor structure of the general health questionnaire-28 to discover mental disorders in infertile women. Materials and Methods: In this study, 220 infertile women undergoing treatment of infertility were selected from the Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility with convenience sampling in 2011. After completing the general health questionnaire by the project manager, validity and, reliability of the questionnaire were calculated by confirmatory factor structure and Cronbach's alpha, respectively. Results: Four factors, including anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction, depression, and physical symptoms were extracted from the factor structure. 50.12% of the total variance was explained by four factors. The reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was obtained 0.90. Conclusion: Analysis of the factor structure and reliability of General Health Questionnaire-28 showed that it is suitable as a screening instrument for assessing general health of infertile women.

  6. Enhancing normal labour by adopting antenatal physiotherapy: a prospective study

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    Rooplekha Chauhan

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: This highlights the very need for physiotherapy to be inculcated into the curriculum during antenatal period with conducive maternal and foetal outcome as it inflates the chances of normal deliveries and abate the rates of cesarean section and subsequent, which is the dire need of the day. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2672-2676

  7. Antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus

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    Subramanian, Subramanian; Sharma, Raju; Gamanagatti, Shivanand [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India); Agarwala, Sandeep [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Surgery, New Delhi (India); Gupta, Prerna; Kumar, Sunesh [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, New Delhi (India)

    2006-10-15

    Hydrometrocolpos is cystic dilatation of the vagina and uterus due to congenital vaginal obstruction. It may be secretory or urinary in character and manifests in the neonatal period with abdominal distension. Urinary hydrometrocolpos occurs in patients with urogenital sinus or cloacal anomaly. A rare case of antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus is presented. (orig.)

  8. Renal scintigraphy in infants with antenatally diagnosed renal pelvis dilatation

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    Ajdinović Boris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction and vesicoureteral reflux are the most frequent entities identified on the basis of antenatal hydronephrosis. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and pattern of abnormal renal scintigraphy findings in postnatal investigation of children with antenatal hydronephrosis. Methods. Twenty four infants (19 boys and five girls presented with antenatal hydronephrosis and mild to moderate hydronephrosis on ultrasound in newborn period were referred for renal scintigraphy. Ten patients with vesicoureteral reflux documented on micturating cystoureterography underwent 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy and 14 patients were subjected to 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy. Results. Anteroposterior pelvic diameter on ultrasound ranged from 11 to 24 mm. Renal DMSA scans identified congenital scars in two boys with bilateral reflux of grade V and unilateral reflux of grade III. Relative kidney uptake (RKU less than 40% was found in three, and poor kidney function (RKU less than 10% in two patients. Significant obstruction was shown on DTPA diuretic renal scintigraphy in 6/14 patients. Some slowing in dranaige (T1/2 greater than 10 minutes with no reduction in differential renal function was identified in three patients. Differential renal function less than 10% was obtained in one case. Conclusion. A high percent of abnormal renal scintigraphy findings was obtained. Renal scintigraphy was useful in determination of underlying cause of antenatally detected hydronephrosis.

  9. Antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrometrocolpos is cystic dilatation of the vagina and uterus due to congenital vaginal obstruction. It may be secretory or urinary in character and manifests in the neonatal period with abdominal distension. Urinary hydrometrocolpos occurs in patients with urogenital sinus or cloacal anomaly. A rare case of antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus is presented. (orig.)

  10. Antenatally diagnosed ovarian cyst with torsion managed laparoscopically

    OpenAIRE

    Singal A; Vignesh K; Paul Sarah; Matthai John

    2008-01-01

    Ovarian cyst are the most common intra-abdominal cyst in female neonate. With the help of ultrasound one can make an antenatal diagnosis. We present one such neonate, she was managed by laparoscopic excision. We conclude that neonatal laparoscopy is technically feasible for management of such cysts.

  11. Knowledge, attitude and practice study regarding anemia in antenatal women

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    Raksha M

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Assessments of knowledge and practice and health education are essential step towards prevention of anaemia in pregnancy. Educating antenatal women about the importance of diet and implementing this into practice will help in the prevention of anemia. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(7.000: 2101-2103

  12. Mothers' Antenatal Depression and Their Children's Antisocial Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Dale F.; Pawlby, Susan; Waters, Cerith S.; Perra, Oliver; Sharp, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Interviews of 120 British adolescents and their parents (80% of a random sample of antenatal patients drawn from a representative urban population and followed longitudinally) revealed that 40 (33%) had been arrested and/or had a diagnosis of "DSM-IV" conduct disorder by 16 years of age; of those, 18 (45%) had committed violent acts. Depression in…

  13. The effect of antenatal education in small classes on obstetric and psycho-social outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Axelsen, Solveig Forberg; Lauemøller, Stine Glenstrup;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aims of antenatal education are broad and encompass outcomes related to pregnancy, birth, and parenthood. Both form and content of antenatal education have changed over time without evidence of effects on relevant outcomes. The effect of antenatal education in groups, with...... impact of small group antenatal education on obstetric and psycho-social outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient evidence exists as to whether antenatal education in small classes is effective in regard to obstetric and psycho-social outcomes. We recommend updating this review following the emergence of well...

  14. Risky behaviours among young people living with HIV attending care and treatment clinics in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania: implications for prevention with a positive approach

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    Aisa Mhalu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevention with a positive approach has been advocated as one of the main strategies to reduce new instances of HIV infection. Risky sexual behaviours among people living with HIV/AIDS are the cornerstone for this approach. Understanding the extent to which infected individuals practice risky behaviours is fundamental in designing appropriate population-specific interventions. With the HIV infection transmission rates remaining high among young people in sub-Saharan Africa, continued prevention among them remains a priority. This study therefore seeks to describe the magnitude and determinants of risky sexual behaviours among young people living with HIV. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between June and July 2010 in selected Care and Treatment Clinics (CTCs in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 282 HIV-positive patients aged 15–24 were interviewed about their sexual behaviours using a questionnaire. Results: Prevalence of unprotected sex was 40.0% among young males and 37.5% among young females (p<0.001. Multiple sexual partnerships were reported by 10.6% of males and 15.9% of females (p<0.005. More than 50% of the participants did not know about the HIV status of their sexual partners. A large proportion of participants had minimal knowledge of transmission (46.7% males vs. 60.4% females and prevention (65.3% males vs. 73.4% females of sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Independent predictors of condom use included non-use of alcohol [adjusted odds ratio (AOR, 0.40 95% confidence interval (CI; 0.17–0.84] and younger age (15–19 years (AOR, 2.76, 95% CI: 1.05–7.27. Being on antiretroviral therapy (AOR, 0.38, 95% CI: 0.17–0.85 and not knowing partners’ HIV sero-status (AOR, 2.62, 95% CI: 1.14–5.10 predicted the practice of multiple sexual partnership. Conclusions: Unprotected sex and multiple sexual partnerships were prevalent among young people living with HIV. Less knowledge on STI and lack of HIV

  15. PERSEPSI IBU HAMIL TENTANG ANTENATAL CARE DAN PERSALINAN

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    Andryansyah Arifin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The antenatal care coverage for first visit was 92.72%. It meant that almost all pregnant mothers had ever contacted with health services. But the four time visits of pregnant mothers to health facilities reported only 75.6% and pregnant mothers who got standar antenatal care services was even lower just about 60,0%. The national target for 80.0% of deliveries by the health personals in year 2000 was only reached by Bali Province. For other provinces, particularly at rural areas in Java Provinces, the coverage of delivery was only 44.6%. The objectives of this study were to measure pregnant mothers' knowledge and perseption regarding pregnancy  and delivery cares, A cross sectional study was conducted at 20 health centers located in Jember and Kedin Dtstricts of East Java Province, in Semarang and Demak Districts of Central Java Province and in Lombok Tengah District of West Nusa Tenggara year 2003. There were 159 pregnant mothers randomly selected and the variable to be studied are collected by interviewed the pregnant mothers and observation during antenatal care delivery services. Results indicated that mothers' knowledge about pregnancy and delivery cares were very low. During antenatal care, pregnant mothers mentioned that they got very little information from midwives about pregnancy care and the importance of deliveries by healthy personals. Factors considered for choosing TBA for helping delivery were not only economtc factor but the TBA's nearness and provided that they more complete services than midwives. It is recommended that mtdwives have to improve their interpersonal communication skills and to provide better quality services to pregnant mothers.   Keywords: perception, antenatal care, deliveries by health personals

  16. 'Getting to Know Your Baby': delivering a universal antenatal home visit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Nicola; Owen, Julia

    2012-12-01

    Ashton, Leigh and Wigan Division, part of Bridgewater Community Healthcare NHS Trust was identified as a 'quasi' Early Implementer site. The organisation chose to focus on strengthening the health visitor parenting work in pregnancy and early months by providing health visitors with the current evidence base best practice in relation to skills and methods of working with families, and by way of doing this to develop clinical leadership in order to enable health visitors to lead service change. The health visitors involved developed, implemented and evaluated a piloted universal antenatal home visit. The aim of the visit was to build a supportive relationship between clients and the health visitor, using a motivational interviewing approach, to prepare them for parenthood and to promote bonding and attachment. It was anticipated that this would also create an opportunity for the early identification of any concerns or issues and the provision of support and referral if appropriate. The project was evaluated by parents and health visitors alike. Fourteen women and three men were seen during the pilot and although this was a relatively small number, due to the issues discussed, key themes were identified and positive feedback received from all involved. Health visitors stated this way of working empowered the parents as the visit was more parent-centred and less didactic. Following on from the original pilot further work was completed and it is now envisaged that a universal high quality antenatal contact will be delivered to all clients within our Trust in the very near future. PMID:23304893

  17. Assessment of applicability and transferability of evidence-based antenatal interventions to the Australian indigenous setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Philip R A; Shipp, Jessica J; Wellings, Susan H; Priest, Naomi; Francis, Daniel P

    2012-06-01

    There is a need for public health interventions to be based on the best available evidence. Unfortunately, well-conducted studies from settings similar to that in which an intervention is to be implemented are often not available. Therefore, health practitioners are forced to make judgements about proven effective interventions in one setting and their suitability to make a difference in their own setting. The framework of Wang et al. has been proposed to help with this process. This paper provides a case study on the application of the framework to a decision-making process regarding antenatal care in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in Queensland. This method involved undertaking a systematic search of the current available evidence, then conducting a second literature search to determine factors that may affect the applicability and transferability of these interventions into these communities. Finally, in consideration of these factors, clinical judgement decisions on the applicability and transferability of these interventions were made. This method identified several interventions or strategies for which there was evidence of improving antenatal care or outcomes. By using the framework, we concluded that several of these effective interventions would be feasible in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities within Queensland. PMID:21665868

  18. Assessment of reactivity of three treponemal tests in non-treponemal non-reactive cases from sexually transmitted diseases clinic, antenatal clinic, integrated counselling and testing centre, other different outdoor patient departments/indoor patients of a tertiary care centre and peripheral health clinic attendees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, many state reference centres for sexually transmitted infections perform only a single screening assay for syphilis diagnosis. In this study, Treponema pallidum haemagglutination (TPHA was performed on 1115 Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL/rapid plasma regain (RPR non-reactive and 107 reactive sera out of 10,489 tested by VDRL/RPR according to the National AIDS Control Organisation syphilis testing protocol. A total of 47 Specimens reactive in TPHA and non-reactive with VDRL test were subjected to fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption and enzyme-immunoassay. Seroprevalence considering both VDRL and TPHA positivity was highest (4.4% in sexually transmitted diseases clinic attendees than in other subject groups. Positivity by two treponemal tests in 24 (2.2% cases non-reactive by VDRL/RPR was representative of the fully treated patients or latent or late syphilis cases. The findings highlight that a suitable treponemal confirmatory test should be performed in all the diagnostic laboratories.

  19. Antenatal risk factors for postnatal depression: a prospective study of chinese women at maternal and child health centres

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    Siu Bonnie WM

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Risk factors for postnatal depression (PND are under-explored in the Chinese populations. There is increasing recognition of the importance of identifying predictive factors during the antenatal period for PND. The present study aimed to identify the risk factors for postnatal depression in a community cohort of Chinese women with special focus on the antenatal risk factors. Methods Eight hundred and five Chinese women were interviewed during their third trimester of pregnancy and at around 2 months postnatally. Putative risk factors for PND were collected and the diagnosis of PND was confirmed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. The 2-month postnatal depression status was used as the dependent variable for univariate and multivariate analyses against putative risk factors. Results Marital dissatisfaction (Relative Risk = 8.27, dissatisfied relationship with mother-in-law (Relative Risk = 3.93, antenatal depressive symptomatology (Relative Risk = 3.90, and anxiety-prone personality (Relative Risk = 2.14 predicted PND in Chinese women independently. Conclusions Chinese women tend to keep their own feelings and emotions and it is important to monitor Chinese pregnant women with these predictive risk factors so that PND can be identified early.

  20. Womens' opinions on antenatal care in developing countries: results of a study in Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnot Ubaldo

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The results of a qualitative study carried out in four developing countries (Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina are presented. The study was conducted in the context of a randomised controlled trial to test the benefits of a new antenatal care protocol that reduced the number of visits to the doctor, rationalised the application of technology, and improved the provision of information to women in relation to the traditional protocol applied in each country. Methods Through focus groups discussions we were able to assess the concepts and expectations underlying women's evaluation of concepts and experiences of the care received in antenatal care clinics. 164 women participated in 24 focus groups discussion in all countries. Results Three areas are particularly addressed in this paper: a concepts about pregnancy and health care, b experience with health services and health providers, and c opinions about the modified Antenatal Care (ANC programme. In all three topics similarities were identified as well as particular opinions related to country specific social and cultural values. In general women have a positive view of the new ANC protocol, particularly regarding the information they receive. However, controversial issues emerged such as the reduction in the number of visits, particularly in Cuba where women are used to have 18 ANC visits in one pregnancy period. Conclusion Recommendations to improve ANC services performance are being proposed. Any country interested in the application of a new ANC protocol should regard the opinion and acceptability of women towards changes.

  1. Clinical features and prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in infants attending a pediatric gastroenterology reference service Doença do refluxo gastroesofágico associada ao refluxo ácido em lactentes atendidos em um serviço de referência de gastroenterologia pediátrica

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Kar Ling Koda; Marcos J Ozaki; Kelly Murasca; Eliana Vidolin

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT: In infants, it is not always easy to distinguish between pathological and physiological gastroesophageal reflux based only on clinical criteria. In Brazil, studies about gastroesophageal reflux disease in infants are few and are even rare those that used prolonged esophageal pH monitoring for its evaluation. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical features of gastroesophageal reflux disease and to determine its prevalence in infants with gastroesophageal reflux attending a tertiary Pedia...

  2. Higher prevalence of sexual transmitted diseases and correlates of genital warts among heterosexual males attending sexually transmitted infection clinics (MSCs in Jiangmen, China: implication for the up-taking of STD related service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujie Huang

    Full Text Available Increasing burden of STDs is one of China's major public health concerns. However, only a limited number of studies have ever investigated the prevalence of these STDs, particular for genital warts and its correlates among heterosexual males attending STD clinics in China. In order to fill this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional study among MSCs in Jiangmen, China, between the years of 2009 and 2010.The eligible participants were recruited from several STD-clinics in public hospitals. We collected demographic information and behaviors of the participants. After HIV and syphilis testing, we further checked whether the participants had genital warts and genital herpes. In addition, urine samples were collected from part of the participants for CT and NG testing.Of the 533 eligible participants, over three-fifths were aged 35 or below, nearly three quarters had no college degree, over three-fifths were residence of Jiangmen. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, genital warts, genital herpes, CT and NG were 0.19%, 7.50%, 7.32%, 5.25%, 9.73% and 6.19%, respectively. Living with family members (versus living alone, no STD-related service in past year, experiencing STDs related symptoms in past year, and sex with FSWs in last three months were positively associated with genital warts, with adjusted ORs of 5.54 (95% CI 1.94-15.81, 2.26 (95% CI 1.08-4.74, 1.99 (95% CI 1.00-3.99 and 2.01 (95% CI 1.00-4.04, respectively.Our study indicates that the prevalence of STDs among MSCs in Jiangmen was high, which may further spread HIV among MSCs. Targeted interventions that focused on STDs related services uptake should be implemented urgently.

  3. Study on establishing performance assessment indicator system for clinical attending physicians%建立临床主治医师绩效考核指标体系的初步探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉; 周保利; 徐建立; 刘东国; 胡路; 张敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish a rounded attending physicians performance assessment indictor system. Methods: By Dephi method, the first and second grade indictors were revised and the weight was identified respectively. Results: After 2 rounds expert consultant, 10 first grade indexes namely as working quality, quantity, efficiency and satisfaction and complaints, theory knowledge inspection, basic skills assessment, personal growth, ability of finishing mandatory plan, knowledge about laws and regulation, 19 second grade indictors, 4 bonus indexes and 5 deduction indexes and their weight has been established. Conclusions: It is necessary establishing attending physician performance assessment indictor system. It is an effective way on improving the hospital clinical work quality and enhancing the efficiency and the solid foundation for the reform of the income distribution system and personnel system.%目的:针对临床主治医师层面,对建立主治医师的考核体系进行探讨,进而确立一套完整的主治医师绩效考核指标体系.方法:采用Delphi法,对一级及二级考核指标进行修改,并确定指标权重.结果:经两轮专家咨询,确定了工作质量、数量、效率、满意度及投诉、理论知识考核、基本技能考核、个人成长、完成指令性任务、法律法规等10项一级指标、19项二级指标、4项加分指标和5项减分指标,确定了各级指标的权重.结论:建立个性化的主治医师绩效考核体系势在必行,是提高医院临床工作质量、提升效率的有效手段,为分配制度改革和人事制度改革奠定坚实基础.

  4. PSYCHOLOGY OF FLIGHT ATTENDANT'S PROFESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana V. Filipieva

    2012-01-01

    The profession of a flight attendant appeared in aviation in the 1920s. Professional community of flight attendants is constantly growing with the growth of complexity of aviation technology, professional standards of passenger service and safety. The psychological scientific research was carried out by a psychologist who worked as a flight attendant. The study revealed the psychological content, demands, peculiarities in cabin crews' labor. A job description was accomplished. Temporal and sp...

  5. Lipoid Pneumonia in a Gas Station Attendant

    OpenAIRE

    Gladis Isabel Yampara Guarachi; Valeria Barbosa Moreira; Angela Santos Ferreira; Selma M. De A. Sias; Rodrigues, Cristovão C.; Graça Helena M. do C. Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    The exogenous lipoid pneumonia, uncommon in adults, is the result of the inhalation and/or aspiration of lipid material into the tracheobronchial tree. This is often confused with bacterial pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis due to a nonspecific clinical and radiologic picture. It presents acutely or chronically and may result in pulmonary fibrosis. We describe here a case of lipoid pneumonia in a gas station attendant who siphoned gasoline to fill motorcycles; he was hospitalized due to pr...

  6. Antenatal exposure following the Chernobyl accident: neuropsychiatric aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years follow-up investigation of intellectual development of 250 persons from Belarus exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident and a control group of 250 persons from non- and slightly contaminated regions has been conducted. Neuropsychiatry and psychological examinations were performed among persons of both groups at the age of 6-7, 0-12, and 15-16 years. Mean antenatal external dose among persons of exposed group is 10 ± 13 mGy, maximal dose - 91 mGy. No statistically significant correlation was found in exposed group between individual thyroid dose as well as individual antenatal external dose and IQ at the age of 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years

  7. Review of the antenatal and postnatal use of steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Julie; Kovacs, Lajos; Papageorgiou, Apostolos

    2014-05-01

    Antenatal and postnatal corticosteroids play an extremely important role in the management of premature infants. The antenatal administration of steroids has been universally implemented. They have not only been shown to reduce the incidence and severity of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), but also have an impact on the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and possibly retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) by reducing the need for supplemental oxygen due to improved lung function. The postnatal use of dexamethasone in ventilated infants has been adopted with caution, as there have been several reports of long-term neurodevelopmental complications with this therapy. Hence, changes in dosage and indications and the search for alternative therapies has emerged. Hydrocortisone appears to be a good alternative, with reassuring long-term evaluations thus far. PMID:24682835

  8. Dimensions of Quality of Antenatal Care Sservice at Suez, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman El Gammal, Hanan Abbas Abdo Abdel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The 5th millennium development goal aims at reducing maternal mortality by 75% by the year 2015. According to the World Health Organization, there was an estimated 358,000 maternal deaths globally in 2008. Developing countries accounted for 99% of these deaths of which three-fifths occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa. In primary health care (PHC), quality of antenatal care is fundamental and critically affects service continuity. Nevertheless, medical research ignores the issue and i...

  9. Antenatal Depression in East Asia: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Schatz, David Beck; Hsiao, Mei-Chun; Liu, Chia-Yih

    2012-01-01

    This current study's goal is to summarize the literature regarding Antenatal Depression (AD) in the East Asian countries of Taiwan, China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Japan, and Korea. The main search utilized a Pub med Chinese Electronic Periodical Service (CEPS) literature review using keywords 'AD', and 'Prenatal Depression' with searches for 'Japan', 'Korea', 'Taiwan', 'Hong Kong' and Macau'. The rates of AD in East Asia appear to be relatively close to those in the Western literature...

  10. Men's Violence against Women – a Challenge in Antenatal Care

    OpenAIRE

    Stenson, Kristina

    2004-01-01

    Men’s violence against women is a universal issue affecting health, human rights and gender-equality. In pregnancy, violence is a risk for both the mother and her unborn child. The overall aims were: to determine the prevalence of such violence in a Swedish pregnant population, to investigate pregnant women’s attitudes to questioning about exposure to violence, and to evaluate experience gained by antenatal care midwives having routinely questioned pregnant women regarding violence. All women...

  11. Antenatal psychosocial risk factors associated with adverse postpartum family outcomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, L. M.; Reid, A. J.; Midmer, D. K.; Biringer, A; Carroll, J C; Stewart, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the strength of the association between antenatal psychosocial risk factors and adverse postpartum outcomes in the family, such as assault of women by their partner, child abuse, postpartum depression, marital dysfunction and physical illness. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Cinahl, Famli, Psych Abstracts and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials were searched from relevant articles published from Jan. 1, 1980, to Dec. 31, 1993, with the use of MeSH terms "depression, involut...

  12. Barriers to antenatal syphilis screening in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Bocoum, Fadima Yaya; Kouanda, Seni; Zarowsky, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite advances in treatment and management, syphilis remains a major public health problem in Burkina Faso. Syphilis in pregnancy poses major health risks for the mother and the fetus and also increases the risk for HIV transmission. Despite its potential benefits, antenatal syphilis screening is often poorly implemented in many sub-Saharan African countries. The purpose of the study is to identify and understand barriers affecting health system performance for syphilis screeni...

  13. Antenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome with previous anomalous baby

    OpenAIRE

    Keerthi Kocherla; Vasantha Kocherla

    2014-01-01

    Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and...

  14. Attendance Policies, Student Attendance, and Instructor Verbal Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jason; Forbus, Robert; Cistulli, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The authors utilized an experimental design across six sections of a managerial communications course (N = 173) to test the impact of instructor verbal aggressiveness and class attendance policies on student class attendance. The experimental group received a policy based on the principle of social proof (R. B. Cialdini, 2001), which indicated…

  15. Antenatal screening and the gendering of genetic responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed Kate

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to explore men's and women's perceptions of antenatal blood screening. The study will assess the impact of these perceptions on decision-making regarding diagnostic testing and selective abortion, and on parental feelings of genetic responsibility. By exploring gender and antenatal screening in this way, the research aims to contribute to our understanding of lay perceptions of genetic screening and increase our knowledge of the decision-making process in screening. Research design This qualitative study will be based on semi-structured interviews with twenty pregnant women and twenty male partners in the post-industrial city of Sheffield, UK. All interviews will be taped, transcribed and analysed thematically using NVIVO, a qualitative software package. Discussion The findings of this study have relevance to existing debates on the social and ethical implications of reproductive genetics. A better understanding of male and female perceptions of the screening process could improve guidance and practice in antenatal screening and genetic counselling. It will also inform and contribute to the development of theory on gender and genetic screening.

  16. Utilization of antenatal services in apparel manufacturing factories in Bangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph B

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The apparel manufacturing industry in Karnataka has assumed gigantic proportions. A large majority of the workers in this industry are women in the reproductive age group. Some companies have recognized this situation and are taking proactive steps in providing a range of services to the women employees. The objective of this study was to identify the outcomes of the services that are provided to the pregnant women in seven factories belonging to one such company. The study attempted to contact all registered pregnant women who had returned to work, in an attempt to identify the positive features and lacunae in the services that were provided. The results showed that half the workers who had been provided services in the antenatal period had not returned to work. A majority of the workers had availed of adequate antenatal care and most of them had delivered in the local Employees State Insurance (ESI Hospital. Knowledge of antenatal care was generally good and most information had been received from the Health Care Providers (HCPs. The positive role of the HCPs in these factories has to be recognized and they should be provided with adequate support and training to perform their functions optimally.

  17. Analysis of HIV sentinel surveillance among male attenders of STD clinics in Taizhou City%泰州市性病门诊男性就诊者艾滋病哨点监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翔; 于明润; 潘龙

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析泰州市性病门诊男性就诊者艾滋病相关行为变化,及艾滋病病毒感染流行趋势,为艾滋病综合防治和科学干预提供信息和依据。方法:2010-2011年连续开展性病门诊男性就诊者综合监测,在监测期内以重复横断面调查的方法,对性病门诊男性就诊者人群进行问卷调查并采血。结果:2年间共监测性病门诊男性就诊者836例,检出HIV感染4例,感染率分别为0.7%和0.2%;梅毒感染54例感染率分别为6.1%和6.8%;丙肝感染1例。最近3个月与女性性工作者发生性行为比例分别为69.3%和54.6%,和临时性伴发生性行为比例分别为18.7%和21.9%。24.3%和17.9%的就诊者近一年有性病史,0.5%和0.2%与男性发生过肛交。就诊者艾滋病知晓率分别为70.6%和73.6%。艾滋病干预覆盖率分别为20.0%和18.4%。近1年参加过HIV检测比例分别为7.5%和6.1%。结论:泰州市性病门诊男性就诊者艾滋病流行处于较低水平,需要在进一步扩大干预覆盖面和提高HIV检测率的同时,加强艾滋病和梅毒综合防治工作。%Objective:To monitor the trend of behaviors changes related to HIV/AIDS epidemic and HIV prevalence among male attenders in STD(sexually transmitted diseases) clinics, and to provide information and basis for comprehensive HIV prevention and evaluation of intervention effectiveness. Methods:During the year of 2010 to 2011, a series of cross-sectional surveys were conducted, and blood samples were collected to test for HIV, syphilis and Hepatitis C. Results:A to-tal of 836 eligible male attendants completed questionnaires and blooding from 2010 to 2011,and the prevalence of HIV was 0.7%and 0.2%, 6.8%and 6.1%for syphilis, respectively. 69.3%and 54.6%attenders had sex with FSW (female sex workers). 18.7%and 21.9%had sex with casual sex partners. 24.3%and 17.9%reported having been diagnosed with STDs in last year. 0.5% and 0.2% had anal sex with men

  18. The Impact of Integration of Rapid Syphilis Testing during Routine Antenatal Services in Rural Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Fleming

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the integration of rapid syphilis tests (RSTs and penicillin treatment kits into routine antenatal clinic (ANC services in two rural districts in Nyanza Province, Kenya. In February 2011, nurses from 25 clinics were trained in using RSTs and documenting test results and treatment. During March 2011–February 2012, free RSTs and treatment kits were provided to clinics for use during ANC visits. We analyzed ANC registry data from eight clinics during the 12-month periods before and during RST program implementation and compared syphilis testing, diagnosis, and treatment during the two periods. Syphilis testing at first ANC visit increased from 18% (279 of 1,586 attendees before the intervention to 70% (1,123 of 1,614 attendees during the intervention (P<0.001; 35 women (3% tested positive during the intervention period compared with 1 (<1% before (P<0.001. Syphilis treatment was not recorded according to training recommendations; seven clinics identified 28 RST-positive women and recorded 34 treatment kits as used. Individual-level data from three high-volume clinics supported that the intervention did not negatively affect HIV test uptake. Integrating RSTs into rural ANC services increased syphilis testing and detection. Record keeping on treatment of syphilis in RST-positive women remains challenging.

  19. Pandemic of Pregnant Obese Women: Is It Time to Re-Evaluate Antenatal Weight Loss?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Davis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Obesity pandemic will afflict future generations without successful prevention, intervention and management. Attention to reducing obesity before, during and after pregnancy is essential for mothers and their offspring. Preconception weight loss is difficult given that many pregnancies are unplanned. Interventions aimed at limiting gestational weight gain have produced minimal maternal and infant outcomes. Therefore, increased research to develop evidence-based clinical practice is needed to adequately care for obese pregnant women especially during antenatal care. This review evaluates the current evidence of obesity interventions during pregnancy various including weight loss for safety and efficacy. Recommendations are provided with the end goal being a healthy pregnancy, optimal condition for breastfeeding and prevent the progression of obesity in future generations.

  20. Body Mass Index (BMI) in women booking for antenatal care: comparison between selfreported and digital measurements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: We set out to compare measurement of Body Mass Index (BMI) with selfreporting in women early in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: We studied 100 women booking for antenatal care in the first trimester with a normal ongoing pregnancy. Selfreported maternal weight and height were recorded and the Body Mass Index was calculated. Afterwards maternal weight and height were digitally measured and actual BMI was calculated. RESULTS: If selfreporting is used for BMI classification, we found that 22% of women were classified incorrectly when BMI was measured. 12% of the women who were classified as having a normal selfreported BMI were overweight and 5% classified as overweight were obese. Similar findings have been reported outside pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have implications for clinical practice, and for research studies exploring the relationship between maternal adiposity and pregnancy complications.

  1. Obesity, antenatal depression, diet and gestational weight gain in a population cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Molyneaux, Emma; Poston, Lucilla; Khondoker, Mizanur; Howard, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this paper are to examine: (1) the relationship between high pre-pregnancy BMI and antenatal depression; (2) whether BMI and antenatal depression interact to predict diet and gestational weight gain (GWG). Methods: Data came from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Underweight women were excluded. Pre-pregnancy BMI was self-reported and antenatal depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 18 and 32 weeks’ gestation ...

  2. Obesity, antenatal depression, diet and gestational weight gain in a population cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Molyneaux, E.; Poston, L; Khondoker, M.; Howard, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aims of this paper are to examine: (1) the relationship between high pre-pregnancy BMI and antenatal depression; (2) whether BMI and antenatal depression interact to predict diet and gestational weight gain (GWG). METHODS: Data came from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Underweight women were excluded. Pre-pregnancy BMI was self-reported and antenatal depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 18 and 32 weeks' gestation ...

  3. No Moderating Effect of 5-HTTLPR on Associations Between Antenatal Anxiety and Infant Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Braithwaite, Elizabeth C.; Ramchandani, Paul G.; O'Connor, Thomas G; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Glover, Vivette; Netsi, Elena; Evans, Jonathan; Meaney, Michael J.; Murphy, Susannah E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Maternal antenatal anxiety is associated with an increased risk of behavioral disturbances in offspring. Recent work has suggested that the effect of maternal antenatal anxiety on infant temperament at 6 months is moderated by the serotonin transporter polymorphism 5-HTTLPR, with carriers of the short allele more susceptible to the adverse behavioral outcomes of maternal antenatal anxiety. These findings, however, are yet to be replicated and extended beyond infancy. The aim of the ...

  4. Significance of Postnatal Follow-up of Infants with Vesicoureteral Reflux Having Antenatal Hydronephrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Fulya Kamit; Alkan Bal; Orhan Deniz Kara; Murat Anil; Onder Yavascan; Nejat Aksu; Murat Kangin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the frequency of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and degree of renal parenchymal damage as well as the parameters of growth, development and nutritional status in antenatal hydronephrosis cases with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR).Methods: Infants, whose antenatal ultrasonography (US) showed a fetal renal pelvic diameter of 5 mm or greater were investigated. Of the 277 infants with antenatal HN, 36 [56 renal units (RUs)] were diagnosed with VUR. All cases with VUR were eval...

  5. Antenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms are differentially associated with early childhood weight and adiposity

    OpenAIRE

    Ertel, Karen A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Gillman, Matthew W

    2010-01-01

    Antenatal depression is associated with small for gestational age, but few studies have examined associations with weight during childhood. Similarly few studies address whether antenatal and postpartum depression differentially affect child weight. Among 838 mother-child dyads in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study, we examined relationships of antenatal and postpartum depression with child weight and adiposity. We assessed maternal depression at mid-pregnancy and 6 months postpartum wi...

  6. Emerging quinolones resistant transfer genes among gram-negative bacteria, isolated from faeces of HIV/AIDS patients attending some Clinics and Hospitals in the City of Benin, Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enabulele IO

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of 1431 gram-negative bacilli from June 2001 to September 2005 were obtained from the faeces of 920 HIV/AIDS patients attending some Clinics and Hospitals in Benin City, Nigeria, were screened for quinolones resistance gene. The HIV/AIDS patients CD4 cells range was ≤14/mm3 ≥800/mm3 of blood. Out of the 1431 isolates, 343 (23.9% were resistance to quinolones with a MIC ≥4μg/ml for norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and pefloxacin while a MIC of ≥32 µg/ml for nalidixic acid. The screened isolates include Pseudomonas aeruginosa 64(18.7%, E coli 92(26.8%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 53(15.4%, Salmonella typhi 39(11.4%, Shigella dysenteriae 36(10.5%, Proteus mirabilis 34(9.9% and Serratia marcescens 25(7.3%. The average resistance of the isolates to the various quinolones ranged from 42.7% to 66.7%. Klebsiella were the most resistant isolates with a mean resistance of 66.7% while Proteus were the less resistant isolates with a mean resistance of 42.7%. Most isolates were resistant to Nalidixic acid followed by norfloxacin while the less resistant were to the pefloxacin. The frequency of qnr genes transfer to EJRifr as recipient ranged from 2 x 10-2 to 6 x 10-6 with an average of 2 plasmids per cell. The molecular weight of the plasmids ranged from <2.9kbp to <5.5 kbp. This indicated that plasmids allowed the movement of genetic materials including qnr resistant genes between bacteria species and genera in Benin City, Nigeria.

  7. “Telling my husband I have HIV is too heavy to come out of my mouth”: pregnant women's disclosure experiences and support needs following antenatal HIV testing in eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Rujumba

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Disclosure of HIV serostatus by women to their sexual partners is critical for the success of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT programme as an integrated service in antenatal care. We explored pregnant HIV-positive and HIV-negative women's partner disclosure experiences and support needs in eastern Uganda. Methods: This was a qualitative study conducted at Mbale Regional Referral Hospital in eastern Uganda between January and May 2010. Data collection was through in-depth interviews with 15 HIV-positive and 15 HIV-negative pregnant women attending a follow up antenatal clinic (ANC at Mbale Hospital, and six key informant interviews with health workers at the clinic. Data management was done using NVivo version 9, and a content thematic approach was used for analysis. Results: All HIV-negative women had disclosed their HIV status to their sexual partners but expressed need for support to convince their partners to also undergo HIV testing. Women reported that their partners often assumed that they were equally HIV-negative and generally perceived HIV testing in the ANC as a preserve for women. Most of the HIV-positive women had not disclosed their HIV status to sexual partners for fear of abandonment, violence and accusation of bringing HIV infection into the family. Most HIV-positive women deferred disclosure and requested health workers’ support in disclosure. Those who disclosed their positive status generally experienced positive responses from their partners. Conclusions: Within the context of routine HIV testing as part of the PMTCT programme, most women who test HIV-positive find disclosure of their status to partners extremely difficult. Their fear of disclosure was influenced by the intersection of gender norms, economic dependency, women's roles as mothers and young age. Pregnant HIV-negative women and their unborn babies remained at risk of HIV infection owing to the resistance of their

  8. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing among Non-Attenders Increases Attendance to the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enerly, Espen; Bonde, Jesper; Schee, Kristina; Pedersen, Helle; Lönnberg, Stefan; Nygård, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attendance to screening offers the best potential for improving the effectiveness of well-established cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling at home for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as an alternative to a clinical sampling can be a useful policy to increase attendance. To determine whether self-sampling improves screening attendance for women who do not regularly attend the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (NCCSP), 800 women aged 25-69 years in the Oslo area who were due to receive a 2nd reminder to attend regular screening were randomly selected and invited to be part of the intervention group. Women in this group received one of two self-sampling devices, Evalyn Brush or Delphi Screener. To attend screening, women in the intervention group had the option of using the self-sampling device (self-sampling subgroup) or visiting their physician for a cervical smear. Self-sampled specimens were split and analyzed for the presence of high-risk (hr) HPV by the CLART® HPV2 test and the digene® Hybrid Capture (HC)2 test. The control group consisted of 2593 women who received a 2nd reminder letter according to the current guidelines of the NCCSP. The attendance rates were 33.4% in the intervention group and 23.2% in the control group, with similar attendance rates for both self-sampling devices. Women in the self-sampling subgroup responded favorably to both self-sampling devices and cited not remembering receiving a call for screening as the most dominant reason for previous non-attendance. Thirty-two of 34 (94.1%) hrHPV-positive women in the self-sampling subgroup attended follow-up. In conclusion, self-sampling increased attendance rates and was feasible and well received. This study lends further support to the proposal that self-sampling may be a valuable alternative for increasing cervical cancer screening coverage in Norway. PMID:27073929

  9. [Antenatal diagnosis of placental acretism-percretism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghenbeck-Altamirano, Francisco Javier; Leis-Márquez, Teresa; Ayala-Yáñez, Rodrigo; Juárez-García, Luz del Carmen; García-Moreno, Carla

    2013-05-01

    Placental acretism is an adherencial pathology associated with a high maternal morbidity and mortality rates. Antepartum diagnosis is essential to plan a proper management and reduce serious complications. Risk factors in these patients include prior cesarean sections, uterine scars and placenta previa. Second level ultrasonography may detect placental acretism with high sensitivity and specificity; magnetic resonance imaging may play a complimentary role in the diagnosis of placental acretism when ultrasonographic findings are non-conclusive, specially when determining miometrium invasion in placental acretism (incretism, percretism). This paper reports the case of a patient treated at the ABC Medical Center of Santa Fe, in her second gestation with the diagnosis of an arcuate uterus, previous cesarean section and placenta previa who presented a vaginal bleeding during pregnancy; ultrasound evaluation, in the second trimester, identified a probable placental acretism, in the third trimester, the same technology suggested placenta percreta, complimentary magnetic resonance imaging supported this diagnosis, with probable invasion to bladder, bowel and abdominal wall muscles. Imaging studies were performed at the Hospital Angeles Lomas (Maternal Fetal Clinic). A diagnosis of placenta acreta-percreta, called for a multidisciplinary surgical team, availability of blood products and other resources to face probable complications associated to the obstetrical resolution. Maternal results were optimal since histopathological evaluation reported miometrial incretism, with placental invasion millimeters away from the uterine serosa. Most ultrasonographic studies evaluating the invasion degree of the placenta have small sample sizes, generating a greater degree of false positive or false negative observations. Therefore, we agree with other authors that in all acretism cases (independent of their invasion degree), a multidisciplinary surgical team should be assembled in

  10. Could a simple antenatal package combining micronutritional supplementation with presumptive treatment of infection prevent maternal deaths in sub-Saharan Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pittrof Rudiger

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing maternal mortality is a key goal of international development. Our objective was to determine the potential impact on maternal mortality across sub-Saharan Africa of a combination of dietary supplementation and presumptive treatment of infection during pregnancy. Our aim was to demonstrate the importance of antenatal interventions in the fight against maternal mortality, and to stimulate debate about the design of an effective antenatal care package which could be delivered at the lowest level of the antenatal health system or at community level. Methods We collated evidence for the effectiveness of antenatal interventions from systematic reviews and controlled trials, and we selected interventions which have demonstrated potential to prevent maternal deaths. We used a model-based analysis to estimate the total reduction in maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa which could be achieved by combining these interventions into a single package, based on a WHO systematic review of causes of maternal deaths. Results Severe hypertensive disorders, puerperal sepsis and anemia are causes of maternal deaths which could be prevented to some extent by prophylactic measures during pregnancy. A package of pills comprising calcium and iron supplements and appropriate anti-microbial and anti-malarial drugs could reduce maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa by 8% (range Conclusion Maternal mortality could be reduced by a combination of micronutrient supplementation and presumptive treatment of infection during pregnancy. Such an approach could be adopted in resource-poor settings where visits to antenatal clinics are infrequent and would complement existing Safe Motherhood activities.

  11. Satisfaction with Quality of Care Received by Patients without National Health Insurance Attending a Primary Care Clinic in a Resource-Poor Environment of a Tertiary Hospital in Eastern Nigeria in the Era of Scaling up the Nigerian Formal Sector Health Insurance Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Iloh, GUP; Ofoedu, JN; Njoku, PU; Okafor, GOC; Amadi, AN; Godswill-Uko, EU

    2013-01-01

    Background: The increasing importance of the concept of patients’ satisfaction as a valuable tool for assessing quality of care is a current global healthcare concerns as regards consumer-oriented health services. Aim: This study assessed satisfaction with quality of care received by patients without national health insurance (NHI) attending a primary care clinic in a resource-poor environment of a tertiary hospital in South-Eastern Nigeria. Subject and Methods: This was a cross-sectional stu...

  12. Depression during pregnancy: prevalence and risk factors among women attending a public health clinic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Depressão durante a gravidez: prevalência e fatores de risco em mulheres atendidas em uma unidade básica de saúde na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Krauss Pereira; Giovanni Marcos Lovisi; Daniel L. Pilowsky; Lúcia Abelha Lima; Leticia Fortes Legay

    2009-01-01

    Depression is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder during pregnancy and is associated with psychosocial and clinical obstetric factors. Despite being an important public health issue, there are few studies about this issue in Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out, involving 331 pregnant women attending a public primary health service over a one-year period in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. Participants were interviewed about their socio-demographic status, obstetric/medical conditi...

  13. Long-term Impact of Integration of Household Water Treatment and Hygiene Promotion with Antenatal Services on Maternal Water Treatment and Hygiene Practices in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Loharikar, Anagha; Russo, Elizabeth; Sheth, Anandi; Menon, Manoj; Kudzala, Amose; Tauzie, Blessius; Masuku, Humphreys D.; Ayers, Tracy; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Quick, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A clinic-based program to integrate antenatal services with distribution of hygiene kits including safe water storage containers, water treatment solution (brand name WaterGuard), soap, and hygiene education, was implemented in Malawi in 2007 and evaluated in 2010. We surveyed 389 participants at baseline in 2007, and found and surveyed 232 (60%) participants to assess water treatment, test stored drinking water for residual chlorine (an objective measure of treatment), and observe handwashin...

  14. The Study of HIV and Antenatal Care Integration in Pregnancy in Kenya: Design, Methods, and Baseline Results of a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Turan, Janet M.; Steinfeld, Rachel L.; Onono, Maricianah; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Woods, Meghan; Shade, Starley B.; Washington, Sierra; Marima, Reson; Penner, Jeremy; Ackers, Marta L.; Mbori-Ngacha, Dorothy; Cohen, Craig R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite strong evidence for the effectiveness of anti-retroviral therapy for improving the health of women living with HIV and for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), HIV persists as a major maternal and child health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. In most settings antenatal care (ANC) services and HIV treatment services are offered in separate clinics. Integrating these services may result in better uptake of services, reduction of the time to treatment initiati...

  15. Nutritional factors associated with antenatal depressive symptoms in the early stage of pregnancy among urban South Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukose, Ammu; Ramthal, Asha; Thomas, Tinku; Bosch, Ronald; Kurpad, Anura V; Duggan, Christopher; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2014-01-01

    Many women of reproductive age from developing countries have poor nutritional status, and the prevalence of depression during pregnancy is high. The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms in early pregnancy, and to identify the demographic and nutritional factors associated with these symptoms in a sample of urban South Indian pregnant women. This cross-sectional study was the baseline assessment of a prospective randomized controlled trial of vitamin B12 supplementation in urban pregnant south Indian women between the ages of 18 and 40 years ( www.clinicaltrials.gov : NCT00641862). 365 women in their first trimester of pregnancy were screened for depressive symptoms at an urban clinic in Karnataka, South India, using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10). Nutritional, clinical and biochemical factors were also assessed. Mean (SD) age of the cohort was 22.6 (3.7) years and mean (SD) BMI was 20.4 (3.3) kg/m(2). 121 (33 %) of the women in the 1st trimester had symptoms consistent with depression (K-10 score >6). In multivariate log binomial regression analysis, presence of antenatal depressive symptoms in the first trimester were positively associated with vomiting, prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.54 (95 % CI 1.10, 2.16) and negatively with anemia, PR = 0.67 (95 % CI 0.47, 0.96). Nutrient intakes, serum vitamin B12, methylmalonic acid, homocysteine and red cell folate levels were not associated with measures of depression. Antenatal depressive symptoms in early pregnancy are highly prevalent in urban Indian women and are more common in women with vomiting and without anemia. In this cross-sectional data, blood concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate were not associated with depressive symptoms. The relationship between nutritional status and depressive symptoms may require larger and longitudinal studies. PMID:23440491

  16. Antenatal MRI diagnosis of massive subchorionic hematoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rohini; Sharma, Raju; Jain, Tarun; Vashisht, Sushma

    2007-01-01

    Massive subchorionic hematoma is a large maternal blood clot, which separates the chorionic plate from the villous chorion [Kojima K, et al: Fetal Diagn Ther 2001;16:57-60]. It is an uncommon condition associated with poor perinatal prognosis and intrauterine growth retardation [Tan WH, et al: Fetal Diagn Ther 1997;76:381-383, Nishijima K, et al: Fetal Diagn Ther 2005;20:23-26]. Ultrasound may not be able to differentiate this condition from other placental abnormalities [Kojima K, et al: Fetal Diagn Ther 2001;16:57-60]. We report a case of massive subchorionic hematoma where the antenatal diagnosis was made on MRI. PMID:17652925

  17. Antenatal diagnosis of chorioangioma of the placenta: MR features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochizuki, Takao; Imai, Michiko; Isoda, Haruo [Hamamatsu Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    We report a case of chorioangioma of the placenta, in which MR findings were useful in establishing the antenatal diagnosis. Polyhydramnios and a placental tumor that was 5 cm in size were visualized. The tumor had relatively high signal intensities on proton density imaging and T2-weighted imaging and showed partially high intensity signal rims on T1-weighted imaging, especially when using a breath-holding technique. Magnetic resonance imaging has an important role in detection and diagnosis of these lesions, particularly the larger tumors, so that appropriate steps can be taken to deal with the complications that may accompany this tumor. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  18. 'Yummy Mummies': exploring sexuality in the antenatal and postnatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HaKyung Maria; Geraghty, Sadie

    2016-06-01

    Sexuality is often bound together with sexual function in contemporary sexual health literature; however, sexuality is a multidimensional phenomenon that has a broader historical concept and cultural meaning. In addition to a significant global decline in sexual function, women may experience decline in emotional satisfaction and physical pleasure up to 4.5 years after giving birth. Midwives have an important role in raising conversations about sexuality on a regular basis during antenatal visits, and informing couples about the decline of libido, desire and orgasm, which may lead to reduction in sexual intercourse frequency, particularly in the last trimester and puerperium. PMID:27451488

  19. Antenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome with previous anomalous baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerthi Kocherla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and monoamniotic twins who died at 14 weeks of gestation. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 1172-1175

  20. Determinants of folic acid knowledge and use among antenatal women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, R

    1999-06-01

    Although recommendations on folic acid use were issued by health authorities in a number of countries in the early 1990s, uptake of peri-conceptional folic acid is still disappointingly low. Regardless of food fortification policies, folic acid promotion will probably be required in most countries to optimize folate levels among women of child-bearing age. The aim of this study was to examine folic acid knowledge and use, and their determinants among antenatal women in the east of Ireland in 1997.

  1. Abnormally invasive placenta-prevalence, risk factors and antenatal suspicion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurn, L; Lindqvist, P G; Jakobsson, M; Colmorn, L B; Klungsoyr, K; Bjarnadóttir, R I; Tapper, A M; Børdahl, P E; Gottvall, K; Petersen, K B; Krebs, L; Gissler, M; Langhoff-Roos, J; Källen, K

    2016-01-01

    among obstetricians to identify and report on uterine rupture, peripartum hysterectomy, excessive blood loss, and AIP from 2009 to 2012 The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study (NOSS). METHODS: In the NOSS study, clinicians reported AIP cases from maternity wards and the data were validated against...... National health registries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence, risk factors, antenatal suspicion, birth complications, and risk estimations using aggregated national data. RESULTS: A total of 205 cases of AIP in association with laparotomy were identified, representing 3.4 per 10 000 deliveries. The single...

  2. Class attendance and university performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Anna-Lena; Lerche, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Using survey data collected at Göttingen University, Germany, this paper evaluates the effect of attending the lecture and/or tutorial on the grade achieved in two basic courses in business administration and economics. The analysis shows that going to class has no significant impact on student performance in most specifications. Although the identification of a causal effect may not be possible with the data at hand, the results suggest that, in the given framework, attending class and study...

  3. School attendance 1880-1939

    OpenAIRE

    Sheldon, Nicola; Professor Jane Humphries; Janet Howarth

    2008-01-01

    The thesis covers two sides of the truancy problem in the period following compulsory school attendance - the truanting children and their parents, and the local authorities charged with enforcing the law. The introduction covers current concerns about truancy and school attendance, which have increased in prominence since the 1980s. Chapter 2 reviews the historiography, which has mainly debated working-class attitudes towards compulsory schooling in the nineteenth century. Th...

  4. School attendance and parental disability

    OpenAIRE

    Raccanello, Kristiano; Garñudo Estrada, León; Herrera Escalante, Andrea; Uribe Cruz, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Socio economic problems exacerbate school drop-out that harms youths by limiting their knowledge and future development. Scholars have investigated both the variables linked to school attendance and the problems faced by impaired children. However, it has not yet been considered whether school attendance is harmed when parents are impaired. In order to partially fill this gap, we test the hypothesis that parental disability increases school drop-out through a sample of 598 youths between 14 a...

  5. Antenatal counselling as a tool to increase acceptability of postpartum intrauterine contraceptive device insertion in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelima Agarwal

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Acceptability of PPIUCD insertion was high in women counselled in antenatal period. Hence, it is suggested that counselling for PPIUCD should start in antenatal period. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1137-1141

  6. Impact of antenatal depression on perinatal outcomes and postpartum depression in Korean women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae Kyung Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal prenatal mental health has been shown to be associated with adverse consequences for the mother and the child. However, studies considering the effect of prenatal depressive symptoms are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of antenatal depressive symptoms on obstetric outcomes and to determine associations between antenatal and postpartum depressions. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study. The Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS questionnaire was completed by pregnant women receiving obstetrical care at Seoul St. Mary′s hospital in the third trimester of gestation. The electronic medical records were reviewed after delivery and perinatal outcomes were evaluated. The association between antenatal and postpartum depression was analyzed using the EPDS questionnaire, which was completed by the same women within 2 months of delivery. Results: Of the 467 participants, 26.34% (n = 123 had antenatal depressive symptoms, with EPDS scores of ≥10. There were no significant perinatal outcomes associated with antenatal depressive symptoms. During the postpartum period, 192 of the women in the initial study cohort were given the EPDS again as a follow-up. Of the 192 participants, 56 (29.17% scored >10. Spearman correlation coefficient between the antenatal and postpartum EPDS scores was 0.604, which was statistically significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Antenatal depression does not lead to unfavorable perinatal outcomes. However, screening for antenatal depression may be helpful to identify women at risk of postpartum depression.

  7. Integrating couple relationship education in antenatal education - A study of perceived relevance among expectant Danish parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Solveig Forberg; Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Due, Pernille;

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about which elements antenatal education should encompass to meet the needs of parents today. Psycho-social aspects relating to couple- and parenthood have generally not been covered in Danish antenatal education, although studies suggest that parents need this information. The aim...

  8. Group-based antenatal birth and parent preparation for improving birth outcomes and parenting resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koushede, Vibeke; Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Axelsen, Solveig Forberg;

    2013-01-01

    To examine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of group based antenatal education for improving childbirth and parenting resources compared to auditorium based education.......To examine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of group based antenatal education for improving childbirth and parenting resources compared to auditorium based education....

  9. Study of compliance with a new, targeted antenatal D immunization prevention programme in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjaer, M B; Perslev, A; Clausen, F B;

    2012-01-01

    A targeted routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis programme was implemented in Denmark where anti-D immunoglobulin is given based on the result from noninvasive antenatal screening for fetal RHD. Our objective was to evaluate compliance with this new programme right after its initiation. Materials and...

  10. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital in Kanchipuram: evaluation of screening tests and antibiotic susceptibility pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abirami Lakshmy Jayachandran

    2016-02-01

    Results: Out of the 120 samples 14 (11.66% were positive for asymptomatic bacteriuria. The Gram staining showed specificity and negative predictive value of 95.2% and 98.1% respectively. Pus cell count showed a specificity and negative predictive value of 96.29% and 98.11% respectively. Escherichia coli were the predominant species isolated 5 (35.7%. Among the gram negative bacteria, amikacin and nitrofurantoin showed a susceptibility of 90% and 80% each. All the staphylococcus aureus isolates showed 100% sensitivity for nitrofurantoin. Two Klebsiella spp and one Escherichia coli isolate were identified as ESBL producers. Among the S. aureus isolates 3 were identified as Methicillin resistant (MRSA. Conclusions: Urine culture should be performed for all pregnant women irrespective of the symptoms and should be treated promptly to prevent the complications arising out of ASB. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(2.000: 540-544

  11. The effect of antenatal education in small classes on obstetric and psycho-social outcomes - a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Axelsen, Solveig Forberg; Lauemøller, Stine Glenstrup; Andersen, Stig Krøger; Due, Pernille; Koushede, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    Background The aims of antenatal education are broad and encompass outcomes related to pregnancy, birth, and parenthood. Both form and content of antenatal education have changed over time without evidence of effects on relevant outcomes. The effect of antenatal education in groups, with participation of a small number of participants, may differ from the effect of other forms of antenatal education due to, for example, group dynamic. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the e...

  12. How much time is available for antenatal care consultations? Assessment of the quality of care in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousens Simon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women in Sub-Saharan African countries do not receive key recommended interventions during routine antenatal care (ANC including information on pregnancy, related complications, and importance of skilled delivery attendance. We undertook a process evaluation of a successful cluster randomized trial testing the effectiveness of birth plans in increasing utilization of skilled delivery and postnatal care in Ngorongoro district, rural Tanzania, to document the time spent by health care providers on providing the recommended components of ANC. Methods The study was conducted in 16 health units (eight units in each arm of the trial. We observed, timed, and audio-recorded ANC consultations to assess the total time providers spent with each woman and the time spent for the delivery of each component of care. T-test statistics were used to compare the total time and time spent for the various components of ANC in the two arms of the trial. We also identified the topics discussed during the counselling and health education sessions, and examined the quality of the provider-woman interaction. Results The mean total duration for initial ANC consultations was 40.1 minutes (range 33-47 in the intervention arm versus 19.9 (range 12-32 in the control arm p Conclusion Although the implementation of birth plans in the intervention health units improved provider-women dialogue on skilled delivery attendance, most recommended topics critical to improving maternal and newborn survival were rarely covered.

  13. Using Attendance Worksheets to Improve Student Attendance, Participation, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Edward

    2013-06-01

    As science instructors we are faced with two main barriers with respect to student learning. The first is motivating our students to attend class and the second is to make them active participants in the learning process once we have gotten them to class. As we head further into the internet age this problem only gets exacerbated as students have replaced newspapers with cell phones which can surf the web, check their emails, and play games. Quizzes can motivated the students to attend class but do not necessarily motivate them to pay attention. Active learning techniques work but we as instructors have been bombarded by the active learning message to the point that we either do it already or refuse to. I present another option which in my classroom has doubled the rate at which students learn my material. By using attendance worksheets instead of end of class quizzes I hold students accountable for not just their attendance but for when they show up and when they leave the class. In addition it makes the students an active participant in the class even without using active learning techniques as they are writing notes and answering the questions you have posed while the class is in progress. Therefore using attendance worksheets is an effective tool to use in order to guide student learning.

  14. Antenatal renal pelvic dilatation; the long-term outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, K.A. [Royal Aberdeen Children' s Hospital and Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, Foresterhill, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: k.duncan@nhs.net

    2007-02-15

    Aim: The purpose of this study was twofold: first to provide data for more accurate counselling of parents with regard to prognosis, and second, to ensure that by following a policy of selective micturating cystourethography (MCUG), significant pathology is not missed, in particular vesicoureteric reflux (VUR). (MCUG is only undertaken if the renal pelvic diameter (RPD) is {>=} 10 mm or if there is calyceal or ureteric dilatation.) Material and methods: Data were collected prospectively over a 6-year period. Pre and postnatal imaging findings were collected for all infants in whom a RPD of {>=} 5 mm was identified at any gestational age. The imaging records of all patients were reviewed in 2005 for evidence of pathology detected after re-presentation with symptoms. The age range at review varied from 2-8 years. Results: Complete data were available in 527 infants. The risk of significant pathology was related to the degree of antenatal renal pelvic dilatation varying from 6% for a RPD of 5 mm at 20 weeks gestation to 38% at 10mm. At 28-33 weeks gestation the risk varied from 5% at 5 mm to 15% at 10 mm. Subsequent imaging record review revealed only one patient with grade II VUR in the study population not picked up by our selective MCUG policy. Conclusion: The present study provides prognostic information that can be given to parents both antenatally and postnatally, and reassurance that a selective MCUG policy is appropriate.

  15. Antenatal renal pelvic dilatation; the long-term outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The purpose of this study was twofold: first to provide data for more accurate counselling of parents with regard to prognosis, and second, to ensure that by following a policy of selective micturating cystourethography (MCUG), significant pathology is not missed, in particular vesicoureteric reflux (VUR). (MCUG is only undertaken if the renal pelvic diameter (RPD) is ≥ 10 mm or if there is calyceal or ureteric dilatation.) Material and methods: Data were collected prospectively over a 6-year period. Pre and postnatal imaging findings were collected for all infants in whom a RPD of ≥ 5 mm was identified at any gestational age. The imaging records of all patients were reviewed in 2005 for evidence of pathology detected after re-presentation with symptoms. The age range at review varied from 2-8 years. Results: Complete data were available in 527 infants. The risk of significant pathology was related to the degree of antenatal renal pelvic dilatation varying from 6% for a RPD of 5 mm at 20 weeks gestation to 38% at 10mm. At 28-33 weeks gestation the risk varied from 5% at 5 mm to 15% at 10 mm. Subsequent imaging record review revealed only one patient with grade II VUR in the study population not picked up by our selective MCUG policy. Conclusion: The present study provides prognostic information that can be given to parents both antenatally and postnatally, and reassurance that a selective MCUG policy is appropriate

  16. GERIATRIC PATIENTS ATTENDING TERTIARY CARE PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Pereira, Yvonne Da; Estibeiro, Ajoy; Dhume, Rajesh; Fernandes, John

    2002-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to explore the Socio-demographic characteristics and clinical profile of patients aged 60 years and above, attending psychiatric services for the first time at the Institute of Psychiatry and Human Behaviour, Goa during 1993-1998. Hospital case files of six hundred and ninety-eight patients formed the study sample. Preliminary analysis revealed that 70% of the sample was between 60-69 years. Mean age was 65.8 years (Sd ±6.11). Sex ratio male to female was 38:62....

  17. 美沙酮维持治疗门诊服药人员的不安全性行为及其相关因素%Unsafe sexual behaviors and associated factors among clients attending methadone maintenance treatment clinics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欢; 陈涛; 庞琳; 刘恩武; 柔克明; 张洪波; 吴尊友

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解目前美沙酮维持治疗(MMT)门诊服药人员的不安全性行为状况及相关因素.方法 在重庆、广东、江苏三省(直辖市)6个MMT门诊,选取符合条件的服药人员进行问卷调查及尿液检测,收集研究对象的一般情况、性行为状况、美沙酮服药情况及多药滥用信息.结果 共调查1 202人,平均年龄(39.7±6.8)岁;其中男性占75.7%(910人),平均吸食海洛因年限(15.6±4.8)年.758人(63.1%)过去6个月有过性行为,其中10.2%(77/758)存在不安全性行为.男性、未婚单身/离异丧偶、与家人关系差、存在药物滥用、HIV阳性与不安全性行为的发生存在正向的统计学关联(P<0.05).结论 不安全性行为普遍存在于所调查的MMT门诊服药人员中,针对服药人员不安全性行为的健康教育和行为干预需要进一步加强.%Objective To understand the unsafe sexual behaviors among heroin addicts attending methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics and to analyze the associated factors. Methods A total of 1 202 clients from 6 MMT clinics from Chongqing, Guangdong and Jiangsu were included in the study. The information of social demographics, sexual behaviors, multi drug use-related behaviors was collected by a questionnaire survey and urine samples were tested to identify if heroin or methamphetamine or ecstasy or benzodiazepine or buprenorphine had been used. Results The average age of the 1 202 clients was (39.7 ± 6.8) years. Among them, 75.7% were males, the average year of using heroin was (15. 6 ± 4. 8)years. Among all the participants, 758(63. 1%) had sexual behavior in the last 6 months, and 10. 2%(77/758) had unsafe sexual behavior. In males, who were unmarried, divorced or widowed, or had a bad relationship with their families, or used multi drugs, HIV positive status was positively correlated with unsafe sexual behavior (P<0. 05). Conclusion The clients of MMT also have a high percentage of unsafe sexual

  18. Antenatal magnesium individual participant data international collaboration: assessing the benefits for babies using the best level of evidence (AMICABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary aim of this study is to assess, using individual participant data (IPD meta-analysis, the effects of administration of antenatal magnesium sulphate given to women at risk of preterm birth on important clinical outcomes for their child such as death and neurosensory disability. The secondary aim is to determine whether treatment effects differ depending on important pre-specified participant and treatment characteristics, such as reasons at risk of preterm birth, gestational age, or type, dose and mode of administration of magnesium sulphate. Methods Design The Antenatal Magnesium Individual Participant Data (IPD International Collaboration: assessing the benefits for babies using the best level of evidence (AMICABLE Group will perform an IPD meta-analysis to answer these important clinical questions. Setting/Timeline The AMICABLE Group was formed in 2009 with data collection commencing late 2010. Inclusion Criteria Five trials involving a total 6,145 babies are eligible for inclusion in the IPD meta-analysis. Primary study outcomes For the infants/children: Death or cerebral palsy. For the women: Any severe maternal outcome potentially related to treatment (death, respiratory arrest or cardiac arrest. Discussion Results are expected to be publicly available in 2012.

  19. Knowledge and performance of the Ethiopian health extension workers on antenatal and delivery care: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhanyie Araya

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recognition of the critical shortage of human resources within health services, community health workers have been trained and deployed to provide primary health care in developing countries. However, very few studies have investigated whether these health workers can provide good quality of care. This study investigated the knowledge and performance of health extension workers (HEWs on antenatal and delivery care. The study also explored the barriers and facilitators for HEWs in the provision of maternal health care. Methods In conducting this research, a cross-sectional study was performed. A total of 50 HEWs working in 39 health posts, covering a population of approximately 195,000 people, were interviewed. Descriptive statistics was used and a composite score of knowledge of HEWs was made and interpreted based on the Ethiopian education scoring system. Results Almost half of the respondents had at least 5 years of work experience as a HEW. More than half (27 (54% of the HEWs had poor knowledge on contents of antenatal care counseling, and the majority (44 (88% had poor knowledge on danger symptoms, danger signs, and complications in pregnancy. Health posts, which are the operational units for HEWs, did not have basic infrastructures like water supply, electricity, and waiting rooms for women in labor. On average within 6 months, a HEW assisted in 5.8 births. Only a few births (10% were assisted at the health posts, the majority (82% were assisted at home and only 20% of HEWs received professional assistance from a midwife. Conclusion Considering the poor knowledge of HEWs, poorly equipped health posts, and poor referral systems, it is difficult for HEWs to play a key role in improving health facility deliveries, skilled birth attendance, and on-time referral through early identification of danger signs. Hence, there is an urgent need to design appropriate strategies to improve the performance of HEWs by enhancing their

  20. Prevalencia de insuficiencia renal en pacientes que asisten a la clínica de falla cardiaca Prevalence of heart failure in patients attending to a heart failure clinic

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    Diego Rodríguez

    2011-06-01

    . Conclusiones: la prevalencia de insuficiencia renal determinada por la depuración de creatinina, es alta tanto en hombres como en mujeres evaluados en la clínica de falla cardiaca, lo cual conduce a replantear los esquemas de manejo dependiendo de la función renal ya que algunos de los medicamentos utilizados son nefrotóxicos o incrementan los niveles de potasio. Por lo tanto, la valoración de la función renal mediante la utilización de la depuración de creatinina por medio de la fórmula de Cockcroft, puede ser más conveniente que sólo basarse en la creatinina, por lo cual se recomienda realizarla en todos los pacientes que se estén siguiendo en las clínicas de falla cardiaca al igual que al considerar cambios en el esquema de manejo médico.Background: patients with heart failure have an increased morbidity to the extend that they present impaired renal function, taking as a predictor of adverse events the elevation of creatinine clearance. Methods: a descriptive analysis of patients attending the heart failure clinic of the Shaio Clinic from January 1997 until October 2009 was realized, in order to know their renal function through creatinine clearance using the Cockcroft formula. Risk factors taken into account were the presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking and dyslipidemia, and some drugs that can affect renal function, such as spironolactone, digitalis, angiotensin-converting enzyme and antagonists of angiotensin II receptors were also assessed, as well as the etiology correlated with creatinine clearance. Results: 1,123 patients were registered in the data base, of whom 557 (49.6% meet the inclusion criteria, and of these 461 (82.8% present impaired renal function. 301 (65% are males and 160 (35% female. Based on the creatinine clearance, the finding were: between 60-89 mL/min 172 patients (37.6%; between 30-59 mL/min 240 patients(51.8%; between 15-29 mL/min 42 patients (9.1%; less than 15 mL/min 7 patients(1.5%. Among the risk factors we