Objectives: Unsafe abortion is a public health concern because of its impact on maternal morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to document on induced abortion in Yaounde, Cameroon. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Six antenatal clinics in Yaounde, Cameroon. Methods: Women attending ...
Two hundred and eighty-seven primigravid women attending antenatal clinic in private hospitals in Awka were sampled for malaria infection of the placenta in 2004. Thick blood films were prepared and examined using blood from the placenta, after delivery. The birth-weight of newborns by the primigravids were obtained ...
A delay in deciding to seek antenatal care is predominant among pregnant teenagers in Lesotho. This subsequently leads to delay in reaching treatment and in receiving adequate treatment. Early antenatal care attendance plays a major role in detecting and treating complications of pregnancy and forms a good basis for ...
A delay in deciding to seek antenatal care is predominant among pregnant teenagers in Lesotho. This subsequently ... 000 live births, and an infant mortality rate of 72 per 1 000 live births.1 Lesotho has a chronic shortage of doctors and nurses. Ac- cording to the ...... ternal-Newborn Nursing: Theory and. Practice. London: ...
Cross-sectional study of 262 randomly selected women that booked for antenatal care at the Federal Medical Centre Makurdi between 1 January 2007 to 30 April, 2007 was carried out. Information regarding age, parity, gestational age at booking, educational status and HIV sero-status of the clients were looked into.
Full Text Available The study determined the sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics of pregnant women which contribute to the risk of developing anaemia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit at the Bolgatanga Regional Hospital Antenatal Clinic. Anaemia was significantly associated (p<0.05 with younger maternal age, parity, gravidity, trimester of pregnancy, and source of drinking water. Multivariate logistic regression identified the following factors with adjusted odds ratios (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (CI: unemployment (aOR = 4.76 (CI: 2.26–11.33; p<0.0001, rural dwelling (aOR = 3.10 (CI: 2.16–4.91; p=0.0071, primigravida (aOR = 2.13 (CI: 1.34–3.18; p=0.0201, nulliparity (aOR = 1.92 (CI: 1.23–2.86; p=0.0231, first antenatal visit at second trimester (aOR = 1.71 (CI: 1.33–3.12; p=0.0149 and first antenatal visit at third trimester (aOR = 2.73 (CI: 1.24–4.35; p=0.0017, drinking from well and boreholes (aOR = 2.78 (CI: 2.27–5.21; p<0.0001, and the presence of domestic livestock (aOR = 2.15 (CI: 1.33–3.68; p=0.0019. This study has shown the various sociodemographic and obstetric factors which significantly contribute to anaemia in pregnancy.
A. W. Wekesa
Full Text Available Intestinal helminth infections during pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes including low birth weight and prenatal mortality. The infections are a major public health problem in developing countries. A hospital based survey was undertaken for six months to determine the infection prevalence, intensity, and risk factors. The study involved expectant women attending antenatal clinic. Stool samples were screened microscopically for helminth ova using Kato Katz technique. Information on risk factors was collected using semistructured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS. Epidemiological data was analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis. The overall prevalence of infection was 21 (13.8%. Ascariasis was the most prevalent 10 (6.5%, hookworm infection was 6 (3.9%, and trichuriasis was 2 (1.3%. Pregnant women aged below 29 years (OR = 3.63, CI = 0.87–11.75 and those with primary level of education (OR = 3.21, CI = 0.88–11.75 were at a higher risk of infection compared to those aged ≥ 29 years with secondary level of education. Hand washing was significantly associated with reduced likelihood of infection (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.06–0.57. It was concluded that intestinal helminth infections were prevalent among pregnant women. We recommended that all expectant women visiting antenatal clinics be screened for intestinal helminth infections and positive cases be advised to seek treatment.
Chiduo, M; Theilgaard, Z P; Bakari, V
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women in Tanga, Tanzania. Retrospective data on syphilis and HIV status during 2008-2010 were collected from antenatal clinic (ANC) records. Prospective data were...... collected from HIV-infected (n = 105) and HIV-uninfected pregnant women (n = 100) attending ANCs between April 2009 and August 2010. Syphilis prevalence showed a declining trend (3.1%, 1.4% and 1.3%), while HIV prevalence was stable (6.1%, 6.4% and 5.4%) during 2008-2010. HIV-infected women had...... significantly higher prevalence of trichomoniasis (18.8% versus 5.0%; P women. There were no statistically significant...
Ajibola Idowu, MBBS, FWACP
Full Text Available Background: Information on factors associated with birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR is central in designing cost effective programs for reducing maternal deaths among women. This study assessed factors influencing BP/CR among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Ogbomoso, South West Nigeria. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study conducted between January and April, 2015. Systematic sampling technique was employed to recruit 400 women attending antenatal clinic at Bowen University Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. A pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection and data analysis was done using SPSS version 21. Chi-square test was used for bivariate analysis while binary logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Statistical significance was set at p <0.05. Results: More than half (51.3% of our respondents were in the 30-39 age category. Only 40.3% of these respondents were reported well prepared for births and were complication ready. The proportion of women who had BP/CR was significantly higher among those in the middle socio-economic group (51.6%, p<0.05, those who practiced Christianity (76.4%, p<0.05 and those from Yoruba ethnic group (80.1%, p<0.05. Respondents in lower socio-economic group were 42% less likely to have prepared for birth compared to women in the high socio-economic class (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.34-0.99. Conclusion and Global Health Implications: The proportion of Nigerian women in our sample who were well-prepared for birth and its complication was below average. There is need for more awareness programs on BP/CR; such programs should target all women especially the vulnerable group
Ezeonu, Paul O; Anozie, Okechukwu Bonaventure; Onu, Fidelis A; Esike, Chidi U; Mamah, Johnbosco E; Lawani, Lucky O; Onoh, Robinson C; Ndukwe, Emmanuel Okechukwu; Ewah, Richard Lawrence; Anozie, Rita Onyinyechi
The pain of childbirth is arguably the most severe pain that most women will endure in their lifetime. Epidural analgesia is widely used as an effective method of pain relief in labor. It provides almost complete relief of pain if administered timely, and does not affect the progress of the first stage labor. The objective of this study was to determine the awareness and utilization of epidural analgesia in labor in pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki (FETHA). This is a cross-sectional study involving 350 women attending the antenatal clinic between April 2016 and July 2016. A total of 335 questionnaires were correctly completed, and used for analysis. The average age and parity of the respondents were 27.6±8.2 years and 2.4±1.8, respectively. About 58.2% of respondents were civil servants, 98.5% were married, and 74.6% had a tertiary level of education. About 43.3% of the respondents are aware of the use of epidural analgesia in labor, but only 7.5% had used it; 95% of these were satisfied and desired to use it again. The reasons responsible for the poor uptake were desire to experience natural labor, cost, and fear of side effects. However, 70% of those who had not used it expressed the desire to use it. Epidural analgesia is one of the most effective methods of pain relief in labor. However, the present study indicates that knowledge and practice of epidural analgesia among parturients are low. Efforts should be made to raise awareness, dispel misconceptions, and subsidize the cost of providing this invaluable care in modern day obstetrics.
Niama, Roch Fabien; Loukabou Bongolo, Nadia Claricelle; Bayonne Kombo, Edith Sophie; Yengo, Ruth; Mayengue, Pembe Issamou; Mandingha Kosso, Etoka-Beka; Louzolo, Igor; Macosso, Lucette; Dzeret, Ghislain; Dzabatou Babeaux, Angélie Serge Patrick; Puruehnce, Marie-Francke; Parra, Henri Joseph
HIV and syphilis during pregnancy remain a public health concern especially in developing countries. Pregnant women attending antenatal clinics sites for the first time between September and December 2011 and who accepted to participate in the study were enrolled. The objective was to estimate the syphilis and HIV infection rate in this population. A study was conducted in 44 selected ANCs from 12 departments (5 urban and 7 rural). Pregnant women who accepted to participate in the study, attending selected sentinel ANCs sites for the first time between September and December 2011 were enrolled. To detect HIV antibodies, two consecutive ELISA assays were used (Genscreen Ultra HIV Ag/Ac, (BioRad, France) and Enzygnostic Intergral II (Siemens, GMBH, Marbug-Germany). In case of discordant results, the Western blot test II, HIV1 and 2 (Bio-Rad, Marne la Coquette, France) was used as the reference method. The RPR (Bio-Scan, Karnataka, India) test was performed to detect syphilis infection. The RPR positive results were confirmed using the TPHA test (Biotech, Cambridge, UK). Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 software. A total of 2979 pregnant women attending ANCs were enrolled. The global HIV infection rate was estimated to be 3.6% (CI: 95%; 3.0-4.4). As expected, HIV prevalence was significantly higher in women aged above 25 years (4.4% (3.4-5.6), p = 0.026) and those attending urban ANCs (5.04%, p syphilis occurrence was significantly higher among the single women compared to the married ones (4.4% VS 2.7%; p syphilis coinfection occurred in 22 cases (0.73%). The prevalence's of syphilis and HIV were relatively low. Marital status and sentinel site location were a risk factor associated with HIV and syphilis infections respectively. Therefore, substantial effort is needed to reinforce prevention strategies in this population to prevent mother-to-child and further horizontal transmissions of these infections.
Rashid, Abdul; Mohd, Rokiah
Depression, a type of mental disorder which is portrayed by marked alterations in mood, is associated with distress and/or impaired functioning. Poor social support is an important risk factor for depression in pregnancy. An extensive literature search failed to show any published study conducted in Malaysia on antenatal depressive symptoms and the risk of poor social support on it. The aim of the study was to determine the risk of antenatal depressive symptoms due to poor social support. This cross sectional study was conducted among 3000 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Penang, Malaysia. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to screen for antenatal depressive symptoms and the Oslo-3 Social Support Scale (OSS-3) was used to measure social support. Odds ratio and adjusted odds ratio were used to quantify the risk of antenatal depressive symptoms due to poor social support. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 20%. Using OSS-3 scale to gauge social support, most of the participants had moderate support (61.3%) followed by poor support (22%) and strong support (16.7%). Social support was found to be significantly associated with depressive symptoms in this study (OR 2.2, aOR 2.1, AR 45%). Considering that an expecting mother's psychological factors are important in the wellbeing of the mother and child, antenatal depression must be quickly identified. Screening pregnant women for social support can help identify women with higher risk of depression.
Gedefaw, Lealem; Ayele, Asrat; Asres, Yaregal; Mossie, Andualem
Background Anemia during pregnancy is a common problem which affects both the mother's and her child's health. The main aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of anemia among pregnant women. Methods We conducted a facility based cross-sectional study on 363 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic in Wolayita Soddo Otona Hospital from January to March 2014. Sociodemographic data were collected through questionnaire based interview. Four milliliter o...
Prevalence of Anaemia in Pregnant Women Attending the Antenatal Clinic in a Nigerian University Teaching Hospital. MA Lamina, TO Sorunmu. Abstract. Two thousand, six hundred and fifty pregnant Nigerian women attending the antenatal booking clinic of the Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital (OOUTH), ...
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of complications and adverse outcomes in mother and child. Childhood adverse experiences are known to have numerous negative physical and emotional sequelae. We aimed to examine if exposure to abuse and/or neglect in childhood increased the likelihood of pre-pregnancy obesity. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data including weight, height, mental health as measured by the General Health Questionnaire and exposure to childhood trauma as measured by the childhood trauma questionnaire was collected from 239 women attending antenatal care at an Australian tertiary hospital. RESULTS: More than one quarter of women were obese prior to pregnancy and approximately 20% of women self reported experiencing moderate to severe physical, sexual or emotional abuse. Almost 60% of women scored in the clinical range on the GHQ. Pre-pregnancy obesity in women attending antenatal care was associated with a self-reported history of emotional or physical abuse with those exposed to moderate or severe emotional or physical abuse having increased odds of being obese prior to pregnancy (O.R. and 95% CI: 2.40; 1.19-4.84 and 2.38; 1.18-4.79 respectively. There was no significant association between other forms of childhood maltreatment, demographic or current mental health status and pre-pregnancy obesity. CONCLUSIONS: The high rates of obesity, mental health problems and self reported childhood maltreatment in the Australian antenatal population are serious public health concerns due to the extra health risks conferred on mother and offspring. Exposure to physical or emotional abuse during childhood increases the likelihood of obesity in women attending antenatal care. Further research is required to determine reasons for this association.
Daulagala, Saluwadana Walawwe Pavithra Lakmini; Noordeen, Faseeha; Fara, Mohamed Mukthar Fathina; Rathnayake, Chathura; Gunawardana, Kapila
Varicella or chickenpox was not a notifiable disease until 2005 in Sri Lanka and only a few studies have been conducted on the epidemiology of VZV infection in the country. The anti-VZV IgG sero-prevalence among antenatal women is extremely limited and thus a selected group of antenatal clinic attendees were chosen to determine the exposure rate to VZV infection. Women attending the antenatal clinic at Teaching Hospital, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka were selected for the study and 3 mL of venous blood was collected from 181 participants and the demographic data was obtained through a pre-tested questionnaire. Sera of the women were then tested for the presence of anti-VZV IgG using ELISA (HUMAN Diagnostics, Germany). Data was analysed using the SPSS statistical software for Windows, Version 12.0. Of the 181 antenatal women who took part in the study, 141 were positive for anti-VZV IgG giving a sero-prevalence of 77.9% for the past exposure to VZV. Of the 141 anti-VZV IgG positive women, 43.3% (n = 61) were from urban, 41.8% (n = 59) were from rural and 14.9% (n = 21) were from estate populations (an ethnic population living in small settlements in the tea estates whose ancestors were brought from India during the British colonial period to work in the tea plantations in Sri Lanka). Out of the 88 antenatal women with a positive history for varicella, 85 (96.6%) were positive for anti-VZV IgG. The highest number of anti-VZV IgG positivity was seen in the 31-35 age group, which was 85.0% of the total number of antenatal women included in that category. An increase in the anti-VZV IgG sero-prevalence with increasing age was also noted in the study sample. Exposure rate of VZV infection as confirmed by anti-VZV IgG in the present study sample of antenatal women was 77.9%. Age specific, population based future sero-prevalence studies should be conducted in Sri Lanka to understand the anti-VZV IgG status in the country.
Cisse, Mamoudou; Sangare, Ibrahim; Lougue, Guekoun; Bamba, Sanata; Bayane, Dramane; Guiguemde, Robert Tinga
Malaria during pregnancy remains a serious public health problem. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors for malaria in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at two primary health facilities in Bobo-Dioulasso. We conducted a cross sectional study from September to December 2010 in two primary health facilities located in the periurban area of Bobo-Dioulasso. Pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (ANC) were included in the study after signing informed consent. For each participant, the social-demographic profile, malaria and obstetric histories were investigated through a questionnaire. Peripheral blood was collected and thick and thin blood smears were prepared to check Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia. Hemoglobin concentration was measured. The associations between age, parity, gestational age, schooling, number of ANC visits, use of IPTp-SP, use of insecticide-treated nets (ITN) and anemia with the occurrence of P. falciparum malaria infection during pregnancy were analyzed through logistic regression. During the period of study, 105 (18.1%) out of 579 pregnant women were infected by P. falciparum. The hemoglobin concentration mean was 10.5 ± 1.7/dL and was significantly lower in pregnant women with malaria infection (9.8 g/dL ±1.6) than in those who had no malaria infection (10.6 g/dL ±1.7) (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that, education (AOR 1.9, 95% CI = [1.2-3.2]), parity [primigravidae (AOR 5.0, 95% CI = [2.5-9.8]) and secundigravidae (AOR 2.1, 95% CI = [1.2-3.8])], and anaemia (AOR 2.1, 95% CI = [1.3-3.5]) were significantly associated with P. falciparum malaria infection. The use of IPTp-SP was not associated with P. falciparum malaria infection. P. falciparum malaria infection is common in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic and anaemia is an important complication. The results show that the use of IPTp-SP does not reduce the risk of malaria incidence during
Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection remains a global challenge, although there is currently a safe and effective vaccine available. HBV prevalence in Ghana is not well documented, but vary regionally from 4.8% to 12.3% in the general population, 10.8% to 12.7% in blood donors and about 10.6% in pregnant women. This puts Ghana among the high endemic countries in Africa. The study objective was to determine the sero-prevalence of HBs antigen (Ag and HBeAg among pregnant women in the Ho municipality. Two hundred and eight participants (pregnant women, attending Ho Municipal antenatal clinic were enrolled into the study. This study recorded a HBsAg seroprevalence rate of 2.4% among the pregnant women, with primigravida pregnant women recording (0.98% and multigravida (1.42%. The prevalence of HBsAg among the pregnant women can be classified as Low Intermediate; therefore there is still the need for routine screening of pregnant women during antenatal visits. Amongst HBsAg positives, HBeAg positivity was significantly high (40% of all HBsAg positive women, which suggests high chances of carrier and vertical transmission (mother to child state.
Luuse, Arnold; Dassah, Sylvester; Lokpo, Sylvester; Ameke, Louise; Noagbe, Mark; Adatara, Peter; Hagan, Oheneba; Binka, Fred
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global challenge, although there is currently a safe and effective vaccine available. HBV prevalence in Ghana is not well documented, but vary regionally from 4.8% to 12.3% in the general population, 10.8% to 12.7% in blood donors and about 10.6% in pregnant women. This puts Ghana among the high endemic countries in Africa. The study objective was to determine the sero-prevalence of HBs antigen (Ag) and HBeAg among pregnant women in the Ho municipality. Two hundred and eigh participants (pregnant women), attending Ho Municipal antenatal clinic were enrolled into the study. This study recorded a HBsAg sero-prevalence rate of 2.4% among the pregnant women, with primigravida pregnant women recording (0.98%) and multigravida (1.42%). The prevalence of HBsAg among the pregnant women can be classified as Low Intermediate; therefore there is still the need for routine screening of pregnant women during antenatal visits. Amongst HBsAg positives, HBeAg positivity was significantly high (40% of all HBsAg positive women), which suggests high chances of carrier and vertical transmission (mother to child) state.
Frimpong, Christiana; Makasa, Mpundu; Sitali, Lungowe; Michelo, Charles
Toxoplasmosis is a neglected zoonotic disease which is prevalent among pregnant women especially in Africa. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence and determinants of the disease among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH). A cross-sectional study was employed where 411 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at UTH were interviewed using closed ended questionnaires. Their blood was also tested for Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using the OnSite Toxo IgG/IgM Combo Rapid test cassettes by CTK Biotech, Inc, USA. The overall seroprevalence of the infection (IgG) was 5.87%. There was no seropositive IgM result. Contact with cats showed 7.81 times the risk of contracting the infection in the pregnant women and being a farmer/being involved in construction work showed 15.5 times likelihood of contracting the infection. Socio-economic status of the pregnant women also presented an inverse relationship (showed association) with the infection graphically. However, though there were indications of association between contact with cats, employment type as well as socioeconomic status of the pregnant women with the infection, there was not enough evidence to suggest these factors as significant determining factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in our study population. There is a low prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Lusaka, Zambia. Screening for the infection among pregnant women can be done once or twice during pregnancy to help protect both mother and child from the disease. Health promotion among women of child bearing age on the subject is of immense importance in order to help curb the situation. Further studies especially that of case-control and cohort studies should be carried out in the country in order to better ascertain the extent of the condition nationwide.
Full Text Available Pregnancy and childbirth were a time of unique vulnerability to violence victimization because of changes in women’s physical, social, emotional, and economic needs during pregnancy. This study aims to determine the factors associated with gender-based violence among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic (ANC. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 202 pregnant women attend antenatal ward of primary health care centre (PHC of Syangja district during September 2014 to December 2014 by using semi-structure questionnaire with face to face interviews. SPSS software was used for analysis the data. The prevalence of gender based violence (GBV among pregnant women was found to be 91.1%. The socio-demographic variables such as ethnicity, religious, the age of respondents, the age of marriage, occupation, and annual income had no association with the experience of different types of GBV (p>0.05. However, there was a statistically association between husband education (p=0.03, the age of marriage (p=0.039 and type of marriage (p=0.013 in case of psychological and economic violence whereas there was no statistically association between with other types of violence. In conclusion, gender based violence during pregnancy was a major prevalent public health problem is Syangja district of Nepal. Focus on age of marriage, types of marriage and education of husband may reduce gender based violence among the pregnant women. Women’s empowerment, economic autonomy, sensitization, awareness and needed of large-scale population-based surveys were the major recommendation of this study.
Taylor, Melanie M; Ebrahim, Shahul; Abiola, Nadine; Kinkodi, Didine Kaba; Mpingulu, Minlangu; Kabuayi, Jean Pierre; Ekofo, Felly; Newman, Daniel R; Peterman, Thomas A; Kamb, Mary L; Sidibe, Kassim
Screening and treatment for syphilis among pregnant women is the primary means of prevention of congenital syphilis. Sentinel surveillance for syphilis can inform these prevention efforts. We reviewed antenatal syphilis screening results to assess trends and to identify correlates of seropositivity among women attending antenatal care clinics in the Democratic Republic of Congo during 2011. Syphilis seropositivity among the 17,669 women attending the antenatal care clinics during 2011 was 4.2% (range 0.4%-16.9%). Syphilis seropositivity was significantly higher among women attending rural clinics (5.0%) as compared to urban clinics (3.0%) and those tested in antenatal care clinics in the provinces of Equateur (7.6%) and Orientale (7.7%) as compared to other provinces (p syphilis seroprevalence and national pregnancy estimates, we estimate that approximately 128,591 pregnant women countrywide would have tested seropositive for syphilis during 2011. Over 85,000 adverse pregnancy outcomes would have resulted from these maternal infections, assuming prenatal syphilis diagnosis and treatment were not available. The prevalence of syphilis was highest in rural areas, but exceeded 1% in every area, indicating a need to assure screening and treatment throughout Democratic Republic of Congo. These sentinel surveillance estimates can be used to guide national congenital syphilis prevention efforts. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Tadesse, Endale; Teshome, Million; Merid, Yared; Kibret, Belayhun; Shimelis, Techalew
Untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) during pregnancy may cause serious complications including pyelonephritis and delivery of premature or low-birth-weight infants. However, little is known about asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy in Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, bacterial agents, and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of the Hawassa Teaching and Referral Hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a total of 244 pregnant women with no sign and symptom of urinary tract infection from March 2012 to September 2012. Clean catch mid-stream urine samples were collected from all study participants using sterile containers. Urine samples were cultured using standard bacteriological methods. Identification of suspected colonies and antibiotic sensitivity testing were done. Out of 244 pregnant women, 46(18.8%) were positive for asymptomatic bacteriuria (Colony Forming Unit ≥ 105/mL). There was no difference in prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (p = 0.07) and trimester (p = 0.27).The most frequently isolated bacteria were coagulase negative Staphylococcus (32.6%), followed by Escherichia coli (26.1%), and Staphylococcus auerus (13%). The susceptibility rate of bacterial isolate was highest for norfloxacin (64.7%) and lowest for ampicillin (17.6%). The high prevalence of ASB in pregnant women warrant the need to screen all pregnant women and treat those infected with appropriate antimicrobial regimens in order to reduce its complications.
This study was carried out to determine the gestational age at ﬁrst antenatal attendance at our centre and ﬁnd out factors that inﬂuence it, with the aim of making suggestions that will encourage early booking for ANC. Subjects and Methods: Across-sectional study was carried out amongst pregnant women that came to book ...
Umare, Abdi; Seyoum, Berhanu; Gobena, Tesfaye; Haile Mariyam, Tamirat
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public health problem worldwide. Reports have shown that 68,600 people die of HBV infection and more than 300,000 deaths due to liver cancer secondary to hepatitis B every year globally. Women who are infected with HBV can vertically transmit the infection to their infants. This study aims to determine the prevalence of HBV infection and associated factors among pregnant women. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women who attended antenatal care clinic (ANC) for routine pregnancy check-up between 18 March 2015 and 15 May 2015. Data were collected by face to face interview using a pre-tested questionnaire. Serum was withdrawn for each study subject and used to test for Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between explanatory variables and outcome variable. The prevalence of HBV infection was found to be 6.9%. Interestingly, the history of abortion (AOR 10.9; 95% CI: 2.2-53.9), nose piercing (AOR 9.1; 95% CI: 1.34-61.79), surgical procedure (AOR 12.8; 95% CI: 1.68-97.06) and history of multiple sexual partners (AOR 16.8; 95% CI: 3.18-89.06) were significant predictors of HBV infection. This study determined that the prevalence of HBV infection among pregnant women was 6.9%, implying that it is high-intermediate endemic area, which is important public health issue needs to be addressed. History of abortion, nose piercing, surgical procedures and multiple sexual partners were significantly associated with this viral infection. Accordingly we advocate that health education programs on the mode of HBV transmission, high-risk behaviors and methods of preventions should be instituted at antenatal care clinics to raise the awareness of mothers and limit the spread of infection. It is also advisable to implement nosocomial infection prevention strategies to prevent the
Leonard T. Bikinesi
Full Text Available Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV is a significant and largely hidden public health problem for all women and, during pregnancy, can have significant effects on the health of both mother and the unborn baby. Previous Namibian studies suggest rates of IPV as high as 36%, although few studies have been conducted in primary care.Aim: To determine the prevalence of IPV amongst women attending antenatal care.Setting: Outapi primary care clinic, Namibia.Methods: A descriptive survey administering a validated questionnaire to 386 consecutive participants.Results: The mean age of the participants was 27.5 years (standard deviation = 6.8, 335 (86.8% were unmarried, 215 (55.7% had only primary school education and 237 (61.4% were in their third trimester. Overall, 51 participants (13.2% had HIV and 44 (11.4% had teenage pregnancies. The reported lifetime prevalence of IPV was 39 (10.1%, the 12-month prevalence was 35 (9.1% and the prevalence during pregnancy was 31 (8.0%. Emotional abuse was the commonest type of abuse in 27 (7.0%. The commonest specific abusive behaviour was refusing to provide money to run the house or look after the children whilst the partner spent money on his priorities (4.9%. Increased maternal age was associated with an increase in the occurrence of IPV.Conclusion: The reported lifetime prevalence of IPV was 10.1%, with emotional abuse being the commonest type of abuse. Increased age was associated with an increase in reported IPV. IPV is significant enough to warrant that healthcare providers develop guidelines to assist women affected by IPV in Namibia.
Getahun, Aneley; Baekalia, Margaret; Panda, Nixon; Lee, Alice; Puiahi, Elliot; Khan, Sabiha; Tahani, Donald; Manongi, Doris
To determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Honiara, Solomon Islands. This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in seven area health centers in Honiara. From March to June 2015, identification of eligible pregnant women in each site was conducted using systematic random sampling technique. A total of 243 pregnant women who gave written informed consent were enrolled. Standardized tool was used to record demographics, obstetric history and serology results. HBsAg and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) were tested using point-of-care rapid diagnostic test. All HBsAg positive samples were verified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean age of participants was 26 ± 6 years. The overall hepatitis HBsAg prevalence was 13.8% with higher rate (22%) reported in women between 30-34 years of age. Majority of HBsAg positive participants were Melanesians (29 out for 33). None of the pregnant women in the 15-19 years and ≥ 40 years tested positive for HBsAg. There was no statistically significant difference in HBsAg prevalence by age, ethnicity, education and residential location. The overall HBeAg seroprevalence was 36.7%. Women between 20-24 years of age had the highest rate of 54.5%. Low level of knowledge about hepatitis B vaccination was reputed. Overall, 54.6% of participants were not aware of their hepatitis B vaccination status and only 65.2% of mothers reported their child had been vaccinated. Hepatitis B is a disease of public health importance in Solomon Islands and emphasize the need for integrated preventative interventions for its control.
Ordinioha, B; Brisibe, S
As efforts to reduce maternal and childhood mortality rates continue to yield results in Nigeria, it is time to put more emphases on the health of children. Alcohol consumption is one of the few modifiable risk factors for poor pregnancy outcome. This study assessed the consumption of alcohol among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. This study was carried out using a descriptive cross-sectional study design, with data collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was used to collect information on the knowledge of the harmful effects of alcohol on the fetus, attitudes toward alcohol use by pregnant women, and alcohol use by the respondents. A total of 221 subjects were studied. The respondents had an average age of 29.5 ± 4.6 years, were mostly married (96.83%), Christians (94.57%), and had tertiary education (73.76%). Only, 51.58% of the respondents knew of the harmful effects of alcohol on the fetus; of whom, 62.29% were told by a health professional. More than half (59.28%) of the respondents had taken alcohol during the index pregnancy, about a third (39.40%) of whom drank alcohol on a regular basis, whereas 25.79% were binge drinkers. There were no statistically significant differences in the marital (P = 0.16) and educational status (P = 0.15) of the respondents who abstained from alcohol in the index pregnancy, compared with those who drank alcohol; although, statistically significant differences were observed in the age (P alcohol consumption among the pregnant women is high. Health education is, therefore, required to change the attitude of the public and the knowledge and behavior of the pregnant women.
Salamat A Isiaka-Lawal
Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are prevalent during pregnancy and may have adverse sequalae in both mother and fetus. Interactions between these infections and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV synergize and may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes and reverse the gains of prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV. Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of candidiasis, trichomoniasis, gonococcal infection, syphilis, and bacterial vaginosis in HIV pregnant women and compare with HIV negative controls. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was conducted during the period from April to December 2010 at the Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology of University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital and three Primary Health Centers in Ilorin. A total of 160 HIV positive pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were recruited, along with the same number of HIV negative matched controls. A structured proforma was used to collect information from patients, vaginal examination was performed and samples were taken from the endocervix and the posterior vaginal fornix with swab sticks. Results: STIs were recovered from 142 women, giving overall prevalence of 44.4%. HIV infected women had a higher prevalence (60% compared to uninfected (28.8%. The most prevalent STI was vaginal candidiasis (29.1%, followed by bacterial vaginosis (9.7%, and trichomoniasis (5.6%. The prevalence of candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, and trichomoniasis was higher among HIV positive pregnant women compared to HIV negative controls (P < 0.05. No woman had syphilis or gonorrhea. Conclusion: The prevalence of candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis was higher in HIV infected pregnant women compared to uninfected. Routine screening of HIV infected pregnant women for these organisms is advocated.
Smith, J W; Rogers, R E; Katz, B P; Brickler, J F; Lineback, P L; Van der Pol, B; Jones, R B
Two antigen detection systems (MicroTrak [MT], Syva Co., Palo Alto, Calif.; and Chlamydiazyme [CZ], Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.) were compared with semiquantitative culture for diagnosis of chlamydial infection in 1,059 patients. Cultures were done on microtiter plates and blind passaged once. Culture-negative but CZ- or MT-positive specimens were recultured. True positives were positive by either initial or repeat cultures. Of 827 nonpregnant and 231 pregnant patients, 9.1 and 12.1%, respectively, had positive cultures. Overall sensitivity of the initial culture was 48.5% without passage and 86.4% with passage. The sensitivity of CZ was 67%. The sensitivity of MT in our laboratory was 50%; however, further review of these specimens by Syva employees gave a combined sensitivity of 71.6%. MT and CZ were more sensitive for pregnant patients (MT, 84.6%; CZ, 85.7%) than for nonpregnant patients (MT, 65.5%; CZ, 60.0%). All the tests had specificities above 95%. Of the specimens that were positive after initial culture without subculture, MT-negative specimens had a mean of 3.7 inclusions in culture, and MT-positive specimens had a mean of 24.8 (P = 0.002); CZ-negative specimens had a mean of 4.3 inclusions, and CZ-positive specimens had a mean of 20.0 (P = 0.026). In addition, cultures of specimens from pregnant patients had more inclusions than did those from gynecology patients, but this was not statistically significant (P = 0.096). No method is ideal; however, MT and CZ were less sensitive than was this culture system for detecting chlamydial infection in patients in gynecology clinics and were of comparable sensitivity for pregnant patients.
Objectives: To determine the gestational age at which women register for antenatal care and the reason why they register at that time. Methods: A structured questionnaire was administered by trained personnel to the women attending the Thursday booking clinic in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano. The questionnaire ...
Gedefaw, Lealem; Ayele, Asrat; Asres, Yaregal; Mossie, Andualem
Anemia during pregnancy is a common problem which affects both the mother's and her child's health. The main aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of anemia among pregnant women. We conducted a facility based cross-sectional study on 363 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic in Wolayita Soddo Otona Hospital from January to March 2014. Sociodemographic data were collected through questionnaire based interview. Four milliliter of venous blood and five grams of fecal samples were collected from each pregnant woman. Hematological parameters were determined using CELL DYN 1800(®) (Abott, USA) Hematology analyzer. Stool samples were checked for intestinal parasites using both direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration techniques. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. Overall, the prevalence of anemia was 39.94% (95% CI: 34.7 - 45.2%), of which the majority (60%) had moderate anemia. The mean hemoglobin concentration was 11.55±2.97 g/dl. Age 15-24 years (AOR: 9.89, 95%CI:2.68-21.41), family size >5 (AOR:7.74, 95%CI:4.15-16.47), multigravida (AOR:2.66, 95%CI:1.1.31-4.53), having low income (AOR:5.81, 95%CI:2.93-14.11), current clinical illness (AOR: 6.38, 95%CI:3.13-13.00), intestinal parasitic infection (AOR:2.41, 95%CI:1.08-5.81), no history of contraceptive usage (AOR:5.02 95%CI:2.21-11.47), being in third trimesters (AOR:11.37, 95%CI:4.56-24.82), history of excess menstrual bleeding (AOR:9.82, 95%CI:3.27-21.35) and low body mass index (AOR:9.44, 95%CI:7.79-22.18) were identified as independent predictors of anemia among pregnant women. Anemia prevalence was found out to be moderate public health importance. Identified risk factors should be considered for prevention and control of anemia among pregnant women.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal care (ANC clinics serve as key gateways to screening and treatment interventions that improve pregnancy outcomes, and are especially important for HIV-infected women. By disaggregating data on access to ANC, we aimed to identify variation in ANC attendance by level of care and across vulnerable groups in inner-city Johannesburg, and document the impact of non-attendance on birth outcomes. Methods This record review of routine health service data involved manual extraction of 2 years of data from birth registers at a primary-, secondary- and tertiary-level facility within inner-city Johannesburg. Information was gathered on ANC attendance, HIV testing and status, pregnancy duration, delivery mode and birth outcomes. Women with an unknown attendance status were considered as not having attended clinic, but effects of this assumption were tested in sensitivity analyses. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify associations between ANC attendance and birth outcomes. Results Of 31,179 women who delivered, 88.7% (27,651 had attended ANC (95% CI = 88.3–89.0. Attendance was only 77% at primary care (5813/7543, compared to 89% at secondary (3661/4113 and 93% at tertiary level (18,177/19,523. Adolescents had lower ANC attendance than adults (85%, 1951/2295 versus 89%, 22,039/24,771. Only 37% of women not attending ANC had an HIV test (1308/3528, compared with 93% of ANC attenders (25,756/27,651. Caesarean section rates were considerably higher in women who had attended ANC (40%, 10,866/27,344 than non-attenders (13%, 422/3360. Compared to those who had attended ANC, non-attenders were 1.6 fold more likely to have a preterm delivery (95% CI adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.4–1.8 and 1.4 fold more likely to have a stillbirth (aOR 95% CI = 1.1–1.9. Similar results were seen in analyses where missing data on ANC attendance was classified in different ways. Conclusion Inner-city Johannesburg has an almost 5
Gumede, Siphamandla; Black, Vivian; Naidoo, Nicolette; Chersich, Matthew F
Antenatal care (ANC) clinics serve as key gateways to screening and treatment interventions that improve pregnancy outcomes, and are especially important for HIV-infected women. By disaggregating data on access to ANC, we aimed to identify variation in ANC attendance by level of care and across vulnerable groups in inner-city Johannesburg, and document the impact of non-attendance on birth outcomes. This record review of routine health service data involved manual extraction of 2 years of data from birth registers at a primary-, secondary- and tertiary-level facility within inner-city Johannesburg. Information was gathered on ANC attendance, HIV testing and status, pregnancy duration, delivery mode and birth outcomes. Women with an unknown attendance status were considered as not having attended clinic, but effects of this assumption were tested in sensitivity analyses. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify associations between ANC attendance and birth outcomes. Of 31,179 women who delivered, 88.7% (27,651) had attended ANC (95% CI = 88.3-89.0). Attendance was only 77% at primary care (5813/7543), compared to 89% at secondary (3661/4113) and 93% at tertiary level (18,177/19,523). Adolescents had lower ANC attendance than adults (85%, 1951/2295 versus 89%, 22,039/24,771). Only 37% of women not attending ANC had an HIV test (1308/3528), compared with 93% of ANC attenders (25,756/27,651). Caesarean section rates were considerably higher in women who had attended ANC (40%, 10,866/27,344) than non-attenders (13%, 422/3360). Compared to those who had attended ANC, non-attenders were 1.6 fold more likely to have a preterm delivery (95% CI adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.4-1.8) and 1.4 fold more likely to have a stillbirth (aOR 95% CI = 1.1-1.9). Similar results were seen in analyses where missing data on ANC attendance was classified in different ways. Inner-city Johannesburg has an almost 5% lower ANC attendance rate than national levels. Attendance is
Kirbak, Anthony Laku Stephen; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Omolo, Jared; Idris, Hakim; Usman, Abdulmumini; Mbabazi, William Baguma
Hepatitis B virus infection is a major public health problem worldwide and in Africa. This would be the first ever documented study on epidemiology of Hepatitis B infections in the newly formed Republic of South Sudan. This study was designed to estimate the sero-prevalence of Hepatitis B virus infection amongst pregnant women attending antenatal services in Juba. A cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic services in Juba Teaching Hospital, in the period between December 2012 and March 2013. Any pregnant woman, attending antenatal care services at Juba Teaching Hospital, was included if she was a resident of Juba County for at least 1 year before pregnancy. A Hepatitis B case was defined as any women participating in the study and was found to be positive for HbsAg and confirmed by ELISA. This study documented that the prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among pregnant women attending ANC in Juba was 11% (31 out of the 280 samples). Other samples tested were indeterminate (36%), naturally immune (27.1%), susceptible (23%) and the remaining 1.8% was immune due to vaccination. Significant risk factors for Hepatitis B infection were loss of partner (OR 4.4 and CI of 1.4-13.9) and history of Jaundice (OR 1.7 and CI of 1.2-2.1). These study findings show that only 29% of infants in Juba county are born to immune mothers (naturally or vaccine induced). The remaining 70% of babies would be at risk of infection, if a birth dose of Hepatitis B is not provided. We therefore recommended introduction of Hepatitis B Vaccine birth dose into routine infants' vaccination series to eliminate this risk.
Maina-Gathigi, L; Omolo, J; Wanzala, P; Lindan, C; Makokha, A
To determine utilization of iron and folic acid supplementation services among pregnant women in Kenya. A cross sectional study was conducted at Nyeri Hospital, a regional referral hospital in central Kenya. Women attending the antenatal clinic were selected through systematic sampling. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to collect information on utilization of folic acid and iron supplementation services. Women who ingested folic acid or iron supplements for >4 days in a week were considered "highly compliant". The health worker in-charge of the antenatal clinic was interviewed about the frequency of supplement stock-outs during the past year. Haemoglobin concentration was measured directly from one drop of capillary blood and measured using portable HEMOCUE B-Hb photometer. Of the 381 women interviewed, only 23.6 % obtained antenatal care in the first trimester; 69.3 and 51.2 % received folic acid and iron supplements, respectively. However, only half (45-58 %) received any information about supplementation. Most women were initiated on folic acid (80.7 %) or iron (67.7 %) after 12 and 16 weeks of gestation, respectively, well after the recommended time period. However, more than 80 % of those who received folic acid and iron were highly compliant. Stock-outs were common at the facility. Of 361 women tested for Hb level, the prevalence of anaemia (Hb levels Problems with supply chain management exacerbate the problem.
Kori, Bhupesh K; Singh, Kavita N; Sharma, Ravendra K; Sharma, Bhagwati S; Badkur, Poorva; Barde, Pradip V
The purpose of this study was to evaluate rubella susceptibility of pregnant women from central India as rubella infection can be devastating for the newborn if it occurs in the mother in the first trimester of pregnancy, which may lead to congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). There are very few studies about seroprevalence of rubella from India and none from central India. The study was conducted among women attending the obstetric department of a tertiary care hospital, in which 369 antenatal cases were tested for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibody for rubella and its titer. Data were analyzed using statistical tests. A total of 141 (38.2%) women were found susceptible to rubella. There was no significant difference in rubella susceptibility among different socioeconomic classes, ages, and gravidity. A large proportion of pregnant women were found to be rubella susceptible, posing immense threat of CRS to their newborns. A robust program for rubella immunization targeting young adult women is needed to avoid CRS.
Abdelrahim, Nada A; Ahmed, Hiba I; Fadl-Elmula, Imad M; Bayoumi, Magdi A; Homeida, Mamoun M
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major health threats affecting people globally; however, the burden of STIs is greatest in low-income countries. Since they are physiologically more vulnerable, women are mostly affected. The risk is increased dramatically during pregnancy leading to serious health complications that may affect the newborn. Underprivileged pregnant women attending antenatal clinics for routine checkups in displaced camps, a women's prison and several peripheral health centres were clinically and laboratory screened for trichomoniasis, chlamydial infections, gonorrhea and syphilis. A total of 426 women with an age range of 14-45 years were included. Clinical data, blood, cervical and vaginal swabs were collected. Conventional bacteriological and serological methods were applied. All attendees were HIV1/2-negative. The prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Treponema pallidum infections was found to be 7.8%, 4.9%, 0% and 5%, respectively. Although vaginal discharge, among other symptoms, is known to be the most significant indicator for STIs, our identified positive predictive value was only 14.1%. We conclude that use of syndromic approach for diagnosing and treating attendees of antenatal settings is of low clinical value and many easily curable STIs will be overlooked. Consequently, trichomoniasis, chlamydial infection and syphilis prevailed widely among this population.
Ngaira, Jacqueline Asundula Malungu; Kimotho, James; Mirigi, Isaac; Osman, Saida; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Lwembe, Raphael; Ochwoto, Missiani
Hepatitis B Viral Infection (HBV) remains one of the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally accounting for 38-53% of chronic liver diseases and about 686,000 deaths annually. The prevalence of HBV is 9-20% in Sub-Saharan Africa, and in Kenya it is 5-30% among the general population and 9.4% among pregnant women. This study was aimed at identifying the prevalence, awareness and risk factors associated with HBV infections among pregnant women attending Antenatal clinic (ANC) at Mbagathi District hospital, Nairobi. This was a cross-sectional study involving 287 pregnant women enrolled for three months (September to December 2014) from Nairobi and neighbouring counties. A structured questionnaire that captured social, demographic and explanatory variables was administered to the study participants. Blood samples were also drawn from the participants and tested for HBV using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) system. The study established that the prevalence of HBV infections among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Mbagathi District Hospital was 3.8% with highest infection rate among the 20-24 years age group. Seventy six (60.8 %) of the participants reported sexual encounters in less than a month before the interview of which 5 (7.6%) reported encounters involving other partners apart from their spouses. HBV awareness among the study participants was 12.2%. Before the interview, those with at least tertiary education (Mean =1.33, SD = 1.131), were more informed about HBV infection as compared to those with primary and secondary education (Mean = 0.63, SD = 0.722; (Mean =0.31, SD= 0.664). In regards to assessment of the risk factors; type of family (χ(²) =19.753 df2 ppregnant women attending Antenatal clinic (ANC) at Mbagathi District hospital, Nairobi was lower (3.8%) than the prevalence among pregnant women nationally (9.4%). These women also showed a low level of HBV awareness (12.2%.).
Plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnancy: prevalence of peripheral parasitaemia, anaemia and malaria care-seeking behaviour among pregnant women attending two antenatal clinics in Edo State, Nigeria.
Enato, E F O; Mens, P F; Okhamafe, A O; Okpere, E E; Pogoson, E; Schallig, H D F H
This study evaluated malaria care-seeking behaviour, as well as the prevalence of parasitaemia and anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of two tertiary healthcare facilities in Edo State, Nigeria. Malaria was highly prevalent in the study group (20% by microscopy and estimated 25% by PCR), but parasitaemia and incidence decreased with increasing number of pregnancies. Although the level of education of the study participants was relatively high, antimalarial control measures during pregnancy were found to be poorly utilised by the women and malaria care-seeking was often delayed. A minority of the interviewed pregnant women said they had received sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine-based intermittent preventive therapy (IPT) during current pregnancy. Moreover, the use of inferior antimalaria treatment (e.g. chloroquine) was frequent. The majority of the pregnant women, mainly primigravidae, were anaemic. Efforts to improve antimalaria healthcare must be intensified, targeting pregnant women, particularly the primigravidae and secundigravidae and the healthcare providers.
To explore the determinants of home delivery after attending antenatal services, this study employed a cross-sectional design and a non-probability purposive sampling technique. Findings of the study revealed that, majority (74.1%) of the women predominantly between the ages of 25-35 years, (29±6.4) quit antenatal care ...
Background: Despite antenatal care services being provided free of charge or sometimes at a minimal cost in Zambia, only 19% of women attend antenatal care by their fourth month of pregnancy, as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO). An estimated 21% of pregnant women in urban and 18% in rural ...
Lund, Stine; Nielsen, Birgitte B; Hemed, Maryam
pregnancy. METHODS: This study was an open label pragmatic cluster-randomised controlled trial with primary healthcare facilities in Zanzibar as the unit of randomisation. 2550 pregnant women (1311 interventions and 1239 controls) who attended antenatal care at selected primary healthcare facilities were......, more women attending antenatal care late in pregnancy and more women with antepartum complications identified and referred. Mobile phone applications may contribute towards improved maternal and newborn health and should be considered by policy makers in resource-limited settings....
Moges, Zinash; Amberbir, Alemayehu
One of the consequences of Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection in women is the transmission of the virus to their children. Voluntary counseling and testing is an entry point for prevention of mother to child transmission). This study therefore, investigated readiness to Voluntary counseling and testing service utilization and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics using a health belief model. Health institution based cross-sectional study supplemented with qualitative method was conducted at Debremarkos town from February 15 to March 25, 2008. A total of 418 Antenatal care clients were interviewed. In addition four focus group discussion and five in-depth interviews were performed. Out of 418 pregnant women 254(60.8%) had heard of, Voluntary counseling and testing of these 141 (55.5%) were not ready to use. R Voluntary counseling and testing eadiness of women to utilize Voluntary counseling and testing was significantly associated with knowledge on mother to child transmission, gravidity, gestational age, occupation and educational status. Most women 161 (63.4%) had low perceived susceptibility to HIV and 199(78.3%) had high perceived barrier to Voluntary counseling and testing. The qualitative result showed spouse's disapproval, fear of blood drawing and knowing HIV status, stigma and discrimination were mentioned as barriers. Among the HBM constructs, perceived susceptibility, benefit, barrier and self efficacy were important predictors of women's readiness to. Voluntary counseling and testing This study showed pregnant women's readiness to utilize is l Voluntary counseling and testing ow. It is useful hence, to implement Information Education Communication/Behavioral Change Communication strategies to increase readiness. The use of behavioral model will likely assist the intervention.
Background Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of HBV in the general Cameroonian population or among antenatal attendants. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, correlates and patterns of Hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Yaounde-Cameroon. Methods This was a cross-sectional multicenter study carried out in a referral hospital and two secondary hospitals in Yaounde, the capital of Cameroon. The study lasted 15 months (March 2011 to June 2012), and recruited 959 pregnant women. Patient recruitment was consecutive. The HBsAg was tested using the Monalisa HBsAg Ultra ELISA kit. Other hepatitis B markers were equally tested. We used the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 14.0 software to conduct a quantitative analysis of the derived data. Simple descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations, and proportions were used to describe the data. We tested for association in categorical variables using the chi-squared (χ2) test. The odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to summarise the strength of association between specific binary exposure and outcome variables. The level of statistical significance for the study was set at p hepatitis B infection (HBsAg) among antenatal clinic attenders in our setting was 7.7%. Amongst these women, just 5.4% were previously aware of their HBsAg status. The rate of HBV infectivity was high, with 28% of HBsAg positive women having evidence of HBeAg in their plasma, and up to 45.8% of these women lacking antibodies against hepatitis B e antigen (anti-HBe). About 41% of the pregnant women had had previous contact with HBV as evidenced by the positive status for anti-HBc. Just 2.7% of the pregnant women had previously been vaccinated against HBV. The mean age for HBsAg positivity in our setting was 26.9 ±4.7 years, and the most affected age group was the 25 – 29 years age group. There was no
Senadheera, D; Goonewardene, M; Mampitiya, I
In Sri Lanka the current prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy is estimated to be less than 20%. To determine the rate of anaemia defined as hemoglobin concentration < 11 g/dl, and the rate of iron deficiency using the best cut off level of serum ferritin, in women presenting for antenatal care. Three hundred and fifty consecutive pregnant women with gestations between 12 to 20 weeks, presenting to the Academic Obstetric Unit at the Teaching Hospital Mahamodera, Galle, Sri Lanka from 10.11.2014 to 13.01.2015 had their heamoglobin and hematocrit measured by flowcytometry and hydro-dynamic focusing methods using a Sysmex- XS-500i System and serum ferritin measured by electro-chemiluminescence method using a Cobas-e411 Analyzer. The rate of anaemia was calculated. The best cut off level of serum ferritin for the detection of anaemia was obtained using a Receiver Operator Characteristics (ROC) curve, and using this cut off, the rate of iron deficiency was calculated. The rate of anaemia was 16.6%. The best cut off level of serum ferritin for the detection of anaemia was < 30 μg/L (the area under the ROC curve was 0.77; 95% CI -0.72 to0.81), with a sensitivity of 78.3% (95% CI 65.8 - 87.9) and a specificity of 74% (95% CI 68.6 -79.0) in detecting anaemia. Using this cut off, 36.9% of the pregnant women had iron deficiency. Rates of anaemia (16.6%) and iron deficiency (36.9%) in pregnancy are at levels of mild to moderate public health significance respectively.
their first ANC visit by 4 months of pregnancy. A number of factors have been found to contribute to late initiation of Antenatal care among pregnant women and these may vary between rural and urban areas. Therefore, a study aimed at examining factors associated with late ANC attendance amongst pregnant women in ...
Gestational Age At First Antenatal Attendance In Sagamu, Western Nigeria. MA Lamina. Abstract. Objective: The importance of anatenatal care (ANC) in reducing and parental morbidity and mortality countries cannot be over – emphasized. The time of time visit for ANC is very crucial as the number of visit and the interval ...
Contraceptive‑seeking Behavior of Women Attending Antenatal Care in a Developing Country: A Veritable Tool for Slowing Population Growth. ... Background: The use of modern contraceptives has been embraced by developed nations as a means of achieving controlled growth rate. Nigeria, Africa's most populous nation ...
Kant, Shashi; Haldar, Partha; Lohiya, Ayush; Yadav, Kapil; Pandav, Chandrakant S
Daily requirement of iodine increases during pregnancy making pregnant women a high-risk group for iodine deficiency disorders. The limited available literature shows that even in iodine sufficient population, pregnant women are iodine deficient. The objective of this study is to assess the current iodine nutrition status among pregnant women in Ballabgarh, district Faridabad, Haryana. Pregnant women were recruited from antenatal clinic (ANC) of subdistrict hospital (SDH), Ballabgarh, Haryana. Consecutive sampling strategy was followed to recruit pregnant women, and women of all trimesters were included in the study. Urinary iodine estimation was done using simple microplate method, and salt iodine was estimated using iodometric titration. The study was approved by Institute Ethics Committee, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi. Out of the total 1031 pregnant women, 90.9% were using adequately iodized salt. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) salt consumption by the pregnant women was 8.3 (6.7, 11.1) g/day. Median (IQR) urinary iodine concentration (UIC) for the pregnant women was 260 (199, 323) μg/L. Only 13.5% of pregnant women had insufficient iodine intake (UIC 90% adequately iodized salt coverage in the study population.
Full Text Available Background: Daily requirement of iodine increases during pregnancy making pregnant women a high-risk group for iodine deficiency disorders. The limited available literature shows that even in iodine sufficient population, pregnant women are iodine deficient. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the current iodine nutrition status among pregnant women in Ballabgarh, district Faridabad, Haryana. Materials and Methods: Pregnant women were recruited from antenatal clinic (ANC of subdistrict hospital (SDH, Ballabgarh, Haryana. Consecutive sampling strategy was followed to recruit pregnant women, and women of all trimesters were included in the study. Urinary iodine estimation was done using simple microplate method, and salt iodine was estimated using iodometric titration. The study was approved by Institute Ethics Committee, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS, New Delhi. Results: Out of the total 1031 pregnant women, 90.9% were using adequately iodized salt. Median (interquartile range [IQR] salt consumption by the pregnant women was 8.3 (6.7, 11.1 g/day. Median (IQR urinary iodine concentration (UIC for the pregnant women was 260 (199, 323 μg/L. Only 13.5% of pregnant women had insufficient iodine intake (UIC 90% adequately iodized salt coverage in the study population.
Estimation of the incidence of bacterial vaginosis and other vaginal infections and its consequences on maternal/fetal outcome in pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in a tertiary care hospital in North India
Full Text Available Aims: This study was undertaken to estimate the incidence of bacterial vaginosis (BV and other vaginal infections during pregnancy and its association with urinary tract infections (UTI and its consequences on pregnancy outcome, maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Settings and Design: Prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: The present prospective cohort study was conducted on 200 women attending the antenatal clinic (ANC of a tertiary hospital. All pertinent obstetric and neonatal data covering antenatal events during the course of pregnancy, delivery, puerperium and condition of each newborn at the time of birth were collected. BV was detected by both Gram stain and gold standard clinical criteria (Amsel′s composite criteria. Statistical analysis used: Data were analyzed using SPSS version 9. Fischer′s exact test, chi square tests and Student′s′ test has been used for analysis. The probability of 5% was considered as significant for continuous variables such as age, period of gestation and birth weight. Odds ratio (OR and confidence interval (CI with 95% probability were determined. Results: The incidence of bacterial vaginosis was 41 in 200 patients. Adverse outcomes such as preterm labor, PROM and fetal complications were found more in pregnant women who had bacterial vaginosis (N=41, bacterial vaginosis with UTI (N=14 as compared to those without bacterial vaginosis (N=118. Conclusions: The incidence of poor pregnancy outcome was higher in bacterial vaginosis with UTI. Prevention of BV and UTI is cost effective to minimize the pregnancy-related complications and preterm labor to decrease in perinatal and maternal mortality and morbidity. We recommend all antenatal patients should be screened for the presence of bacterial vaginosis, other infections and UTI.
Performance of syndromic management for the detection and treatment of genital Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis among women attending antenatal, well woman and sexual health clinics in Papua New Guinea: a cross-sectional study.
Vallely, Lisa M; Toliman, Pamela; Ryan, Claire; Rai, Glennis; Wapling, Johanna; Gabuzzi, Josephine; Allen, Joyce; Opa, Christine; Munnull, Gloria; Kaima, Petronia; Kombuk, Benny; Kumbia, Antonia; Kombati, Zure; Law, Greg; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Wand, Handan; Siba, Peter M; Mola, Glen D L; Kaldor, John M; Vallely, Andrew J
Papua New Guinea (PNG) has among the highest estimated prevalences of genital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) of any country in the Asia-Pacific region. Diagnosis and treatment of these infections have relied on the WHO-endorsed syndromic management strategy that uses clinical presentation without laboratory confirmation to make treatment decisions. We evaluated the performance of this strategy in clinical settings in PNG. Women attending antenatal (ANC), well woman (WWC) and sexual health (SHC) clinics in four provinces were invited to participate, completed a face-to-face interview and clinical examination, and provided genital specimens for laboratory testing. We estimated the performance characteristics of syndromic diagnoses against combined laboratory diagnoses. 1764 women were enrolled (ANC=765; WWC=614; SHC=385). The prevalences of CT, NG and TV were highest among women attending ANC and SHC. Among antenatal women, syndromic diagnosis of sexually transmitted infection had low sensitivity (9%-21%) and positive predictive value (PPV) (7%-37%), but high specificity (76%-89%) and moderate negative predictive value (NPV) (55%-86%) for the combined endpoint of laboratory-confirmed CT, NG or TV. Among women attending WWC and SHC, 'vaginal discharge syndrome' had moderate to high sensitivity (72%-78%) and NPV (62%-94%), but low specificity (26%-33%) and PPV (8%-38%). 'Lower abdominal pain syndrome' had low sensitivity (26%-41%) and PPV (8%-23%) but moderate specificity (66%-68%) and high NPV (74%-93%) among women attending WWC, and moderate-high sensitivity (67%-79%) and NPV (62%-86%) but low specificity (26%-28%) and PPV (14%-33%) among SHC attendees. The performance of syndromic management for the detection and treatment of genital chlamydia, gonorrhoea and trichomonas was poor among women in different clinical settings in PNG. New diagnostic strategies are needed to control these infections and to prevent
High sero-prevalence of hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus infections among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Temeke municipal health facilities, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a cross sectional study.
Manyahi, Joel; Msigwa, Yohannes; Mhimbira, Francis; Majigo, Mtebe
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in pregnancy is associated with direct effect of pregnancy and potential viral transmission from mother to newborn. In Tanzania very little in known on prevalence of HBV infection and their associated factors among pregnant women in lower health facilities. The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of HBsAg, HIV and HBV-HIV co-infection among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Dar es Salaam. This cross sectional study was conducted in three Temeke municipal health-care facilities between May 2014 and June 2014. A total of 249 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (ANC) were consecutively enrolled in the study. A data collection tool was used to extract socio-demographic characteristics from ANC card. Commercial ARCHITECT® ci4100™ was used to assess HBsAg status and liver function (Alanine amino-transferase (ALAT). HIV status was determined by anti-HIV antibody test. Of 249 pregnant women enrolled the median age was 25 years (IQR 22-30) and most of them were married (72.4%). The overall prevalence of HBsAg and HIV were 8.03% (95% CI: 5.0-12.1%) and 17.2% (95% CI: 12.8-22.5%), respectively. HBV/HIV co-infection rate was 2.8% (95% CI; 1.3-5.4%). HBsAg positive rate was significantly high in women who were HIV positive (p pregnant women with HBsAg positive had abnormal ALAT. High prevalence of HBV and HIV infections among pregnant women were reported in this setting thus calls for the national expansion of the integration of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services for HBV infection.
ABSTRACT. Background: Antenatal care has been identified as pivotal to improving maternal and child health in Malawi. Though Malawian women consistently seek antenatal care, they rarely do so during their first trimester. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to antenatal care uptake among Malawian women ...
Marwa, Karol J; Njalika, Agnes; Ruganuza, Deodatus; Katabalo, Deogratias; Kamugisha, Erasmus
Self-medication is a universal challenge that requires attention because of the potential threat not only to the pregnant women but also to unborn child. Data on self-medication practice and predictors among pregnant women is lacking in Tanzania. Information on the effects of this practice to the pregnant woman and the foetus globally is also scanty. This was a cross sectional study which was conducted using face to face interview with 372 pregnant women at Makongoro health centre. Semi-structured questionnaires were used. Data were analysed using STATA 13 (Statistical Corporation, College Station, Texas, US). A total of 372 pregnant women participated in the study. The prevalence of self-medication among pregnant women was 172 (46.24%). There was a significant statistical association between self-medication and occupation (P value =0.01), gestation age (P Pregnant women who were unemployed, doing business and house wife were most likely to practice self-medication than employed pregnant women (P = 0.03; OR = 2.33; 95% CI, 1.06-5.31, P = 0.01; OR = 2.31; CI 1.21-4.41, P = Pregnant women with no formal education, incomplete primary education, primary education and secondary education were most likely to practice self-medication than pregnant women with college or university education (P pregnant women attending clinic were malaria 56 (32.56%, morning sickness 44 (25.55%) and headache 33(19.19%). Drugs commonly used in self-medication among pregnant women were ant malarial 42 (24.42%), antiemetics 59 (34.30%) and analgesics 33 (19.19%). Prevalence of self-medication among pregnant women is high in Tanzania. This is a threat to the safety of the developing foetus and the pregnant woman. Therefore there is a need of interventions to minimize the practice among pregnant women.
Full Text Available Purpose. To estimate the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM in a multiethnic population, assess the association between country of birth (COB and GDM, and assess whether the association varies by body mass index (BMI. Methods. A retrospective study of 5260 pregnant women attending Sunshine Hospital, Australia, between 1st July 2012 and 30th June 2013. We fitted logistic regression models to assess the association between COB and GDM. An interaction between BMI and COB was assessed by likelihood ratio test. Results. In the 4610 included in our analysis, most common were women born in Australia or New Zealand (ANZ, 1932, 41.9% and in Southeast Asia (922, 20%. GDM was diagnosed in 606 (13.2% women. After adjusting for confounders, women from East Asia were most likely to develop GDM (37, 24.0% and 5-fold more likely than women from ANZ (OR = 4.77, 95% CI: 3.12, 7.31, p<0.001. Women from other Asian countries had a 3-fold increased risk of GDM compared to women from ANZ. There was no evidence of an interaction by BMI (p=0.24. Conclusions. Women born in Asia have higher risk of GDM compared to women born in ANZ. These data provide support for including COB in GDM management policies.
McDonald, Rebecca; Karahalios, Amalia; Le, Thao; Said, Joanne
Purpose. To estimate the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a multiethnic population, assess the association between country of birth (COB) and GDM, and assess whether the association varies by body mass index (BMI). Methods. A retrospective study of 5260 pregnant women attending Sunshine Hospital, Australia, between 1st July 2012 and 30th June 2013. We fitted logistic regression models to assess the association between COB and GDM. An interaction between BMI and COB was assessed by likelihood ratio test. Results. In the 4610 included in our analysis, most common were women born in Australia or New Zealand (ANZ, 1932, 41.9%) and in Southeast Asia (922, 20%). GDM was diagnosed in 606 (13.2%) women. After adjusting for confounders, women from East Asia were most likely to develop GDM (37, 24.0%) and 5-fold more likely than women from ANZ (OR = 4.77, 95% CI: 3.12, 7.31, p < 0.001). Women from other Asian countries had a 3-fold increased risk of GDM compared to women from ANZ. There was no evidence of an interaction by BMI (p = 0.24). Conclusions. Women born in Asia have higher risk of GDM compared to women born in ANZ. These data provide support for including COB in GDM management policies.
of Antenatal care among pregnant women and these may vary between rural and urban areas. Therefore, a study ... conducted in Zambia, it was reported that maternal mortality ratio stood at 591 per 100 000 live births while ..... Adolescent Parenting: The Role of Cognitive. Readiness to Parent. Journal of Research on.
Malaria is a chronic parasitic disease that affects everybody but with pregnant women and children under the age of 5 years as its main target. The adverse complications of malaria in pregnancy makes it of immense public health importance. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of malaria among antenatal ...
Oct 3, 2014 ... preventive intervention that should be made widely available, accessible and affordable to all pregnant women. Key words: Antenatal care, anemia prevention, South‑South Nigeria, term pregnancy. Date of Acceptance: 03‑Oct‑ ... Excluded also were antepartum, preeclampsia, sickle cell disease patients ...
Department of Community Medicine, Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba, 1Department of Public Health Technology, Federal University .... facilities offering antenatal services.. Ethics information. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethical Committee of the Federal University of Technology, Owerri. Inclusion ...
DR ADDAH A.O
Sep 30, 2015 ... Perception of prenatal services by antenatal clinic attendees in a tertiary health facility in Nigeria. *Addah AO ... stakeholders alike. Key Words: Antenatal care services, Patients satisfaction, Antenatal visits, Perinatal mortality. .... The mean parity was 1.17 children/ woman, a median of 1 child/woman.
intensified and more focused utilization of resources aimed at .... effect. RESULTS SAMPLE DESCRIPTIONS. Table 1 shows the socio-demographic characteristics of pregnant women who participated in the study. A total number of .... Table 4: Predictors of Late ANC attendance in Mpongwe and Ndola-logistic regression.
This study assessed the prevalence of fever, malarial parasitemia and anemia among pregnant women attending PHC facilities in Kano, northern Nigeria. Methods: A ... anemia. Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPT) should be provided especially among primigravid, secondigravid and younger mothers at PHC centres.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most pertinent studies of inadequate antenatal care concentrate on the risk profile of women booking late or not booking at all to antenatal care. The objective of this study was to assess the outcome of pregnancies when free and easily accessible antenatal care has been either totally lacking or low in number of visits. Methods This is a hospital register based cohort study of pregnancies treated in Kuopio University Hospital, Finland, in 1989 – 2001. Pregnancy outcomes of women having low numbers (1–5 of antenatal care visits (n = 207 and no antenatal care visits (n = 270 were compared with women having 6–18 antenatal visits (n = 23137. Main outcome measures were: Low birth weight, fetal death, neonatal death. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were controlled for confounding factors (adjusted odds ratios, OR: s in multiple logistic regression models. Results Of the analyzed pregnant population, 1.0% had no antenatal care visits and 0.77% had 1–5 visits. Under- or non-attendance associated with social and health behavioral risk factors: unmarried status, lower educational level, young maternal age, smoking and alcohol use. Chorio-amnionitis or placental abruptions were more common complications of pregnancies of women avoiding antenatal care, and pregnancy outcome was impaired. After logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding, there were significantly more low birth weight infants in under- and non-attenders (OR:s with 95% CI:s: 9.18 (6.65–12.68 and 5.46 (3.90–7.65, respectively more fetal deaths (OR:s 12.05 (5.95–24.40 and 5.19 (2.04–13.22, respectively and more neonatal deaths (OR:s 10.03 (3.85–26.13 and 8.66 (3.59–20.86, respectively. Conclusion Even when birth takes place in hospital, non- or under-attendance at antenatal care carries a substantially elevated risk of severe adverse pregnancy outcome. Underlying adverse health behavior and possible abuse indicate close surveillance of the
Msyamboza, K. P.; Savage, E. J.; Kazembe, P. N.; Gies, S.; Kalanda, G.; D'Alessandro, U.; Brabin, B. J.
To evaluate the impact of a 2-year programme for community-based delivery of sulfadoxine-pyremethamine (SP) on intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy coverage, antenatal clinic attendance and pregnancy outcome. Fourteen intervention and 12 control villages in the catchment areas of
Verhoef, Talitha I; Daley, Rebecca; Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Chitty, Lyn S; Morris, Stephen
to estimate the costs to women, their friends and family for different antenatal tests in the Down's syndrome (DS) screening pathway. questionnaire-based costing study. eight maternity clinics across the UK. pregnant women (n=574) attending an appointment for DS screening, NIPT or invasive testing between December 2013 and September 2014. using data collected from the questionnaires we calculated the total costs to women by multiplying the time spent at the hospital and travelling to and from it by the opportunity costs of the women and accompanying person and adding travel and childcare costs. Assumptions about the value of opportunity costs were tested in one-way sensitivity analyses. The main outcome measure was the mean cost to the women and friends/family for each test (DS screening, NIPT, and invasive testing). mean costs to women and their family/friend were £33.96 per visit, of which £22.47 were time costs, £9.15 were travel costs and £2.34 were childcare costs. Costs were lowest for NIPT (£22), £32 for DS screening (£44 if combined with NIPT), and highest for invasive testing (£60). Sensitivity analysis revealed that variations around the value of leisure time opportunity costs had the largest influence on the results. there are considerable costs to women, their friends and family when attending different tests in the DS screening pathway. when assessing the cost-effectiveness of changes to this pathway, costs to women should be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential of antenatal care for reducing maternal morbidity and improving newborn survival and health is widely acknowledged. Yet there are worrying gaps in knowledge of the quality of antenatal care provided in Tanzania. In particular, determinants of health workers' performance have not yet been fully understood. This paper uses ethnographic methods to document health workers' antenatal care practices with reference to the national Focused Antenatal Care guidelines and identifies factors influencing health workers' performance. Potential implications for improving antenatal care provision in Tanzania are discussed. Methods Combining different qualitative techniques, we studied health workers' antenatal care practices in four public antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania. A total of 36 antenatal care consultations were observed and compared with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Participant observation, informal discussions and in-depth interviews with the staff helped to identify and explain health workers' practices and contextual factors influencing antenatal care provision. Results The delivery of antenatal care services to pregnant women at the selected antenatal care clinics varied widely. Some services that are recommended by the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines were given to all women while other services were not delivered at all. Factors influencing health workers' practices were poor implementation of the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines, lack of trained staff and absenteeism, supply shortages and use of working tools that are not consistent with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Health workers react to difficult working conditions by developing informal practices as coping strategies or "street-level bureaucracy". Conclusions Efforts to improve antenatal care should address shortages of trained staff through expanding training opportunities, including health worker
Early and consistent intervention with pregnant smokers can reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with smoking during pregnancy. A survey of 470 pregnant women was conducted to establish the care they received in relation to smoking whilst attending routine public antenatal appointments. The overall prevalence of smoking was 23.5%. Age, level of education and nationality were associated with smoking status with younger, less educated Irish women being most likely to smoke. Women attending for their first visit were much more likely to be asked about their smoking status 71 (85.5) versus 68 (17.8) and advised to quit if they were smokers 11 (73.3) versus 11 (15.7). None of the women were offered specific assistance to help them stop smoking or had a follow-up appointment arranged specifically to do with smoking. 167 women (35.6) were exposed to passive smoking in their own homes.
Full Text Available Fikir Asrie, Bamlaku Enawgaw, Zegeye Getaneh Department of Hematology and Immunohematology, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Introduction: Thrombocytopenia is a common hematologic abnormality during pregnancy. Pregnant women with thrombocytopenia have a higher risk of bleeding excessively during or after childbirth, particularly if they need to have a cesarean section or other surgical intervention during pregnancy, labor or in the puerperium. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of thrombocytopenia among pregnant women attending antenatal care service at Gondar University Hospital, northwest Ethiopia.Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was used to assess the prevalence of thrombocytopenia among pregnant women attending antenatal care service at Gondar University Hospital from January to April 2015. A total of 217 pregnant women were included in the study and a structured pretested questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic information, nutritional factors, obstetrics and gynecological factors, history and clinical condition. Blood samples were collected for platelet count and other platelet parameters, which were determined by using SysmexKX 21 automation. The data were entered to Epi info version 6 software and analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. Bivariable and multivariable statistical analyses were used to evaluate the effect of independent variable over the dependent variable. A p-value of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant.Result: A total of 217 women receiving antenatal care service at Gondar University Hospital participated in the study. Thrombocytopenia among 19 pregnant women showed a prevalence of 8.8%. The mean ± standard deviation platelet count was 238.85×109/L (±74.57. Thrombocytopenia was significantly associated with patients who lived rurally (crude odds ratio =4.3, 95
Peltzer, K; Pengpid, S
Battered women are exposed to multiple types and different severity of intimate partner abuse, however, little is known about the relationship between severity and different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) (physical, sexual, psychological, and danger) and symptoms of depression and suicidal behavior in a sample of women attending antenatal care or general outpatient hospital services in Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted among adult women who were consecutively sampled and screened for IPV in antenatal care and general outpatient clinics in nine randomly selected hospitals in two provinces in the central region. The measures included the "Severity of Violence Against Women Scale," "Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale 10," "Danger Assessment Scale," and one item for suicidal behavior. Hierarchical regressions were used to assess the effects of the different types of IPV on depression and suicidal behavior. Of the final sample (N = 207) that screened positive for IPV, 49.3% scored positive for depression, and 17.6% reported suicidal threats or attempts in the past 12 months. One type of IPV (sexual) was significantly associated with depression, whereas psychological abuse and femicide risk or danger was correlated with suicidal behavior. A high proportion of women with IPV suffered from depression and suicidal behavior. The study provides evidence of an association between the severity of IPV and mental health problems (depression and suicidal behavior). In assessing IPV, the different identified dimensions contributing to poor mental health should be incorporated.
Method: A retrospective study of clinical pelvimetry and outcome of labour in primigravidae. Results: The total number of primigravidae included in the study was 268 and of these, 74 were adjudged to have adequate pelvis at antenatal clinical pelvimetry. The APGAR scores at one and five minutes were significantly higher ...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antenatal care (ANC is a key strategy to improve maternal and infant health. However, survey data from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that women often only initiate ANC after the first trimester and do not achieve the recommended number of ANC visits. Drawing on qualitative data, this article comparatively explores the factors that influence ANC attendance across four sub-Saharan African sites in three countries (Ghana, Kenya and Malawi with varying levels of ANC attendance. METHODS: Data were collected as part of a programme of qualitative research investigating the social and cultural context of malaria in pregnancy. A range of methods was employed interviews, focus groups with diverse respondents and observations in local communities and health facilities. RESULTS: Across the sites, women attended ANC at least once. However, their descriptions of ANC were often vague. General ideas about pregnancy care - checking the foetus' position or monitoring its progress - motivated women to attend ANC; as did, especially in Kenya, obtaining the ANC card to avoid reprimands from health workers. Women's timing of ANC initiation was influenced by reproductive concerns and pregnancy uncertainties, particularly during the first trimester, and how ANC services responded to this uncertainty; age, parity and the associated implications for pregnancy disclosure; interactions with healthcare workers, particularly messages about timing of ANC; and the cost of ANC, including charges levied for ANC procedures - in spite of policies of free ANC - combined with ideas about the compulsory nature of follow-up appointments. CONCLUSION: In these socially and culturally diverse sites, the findings suggest that 'supply' side factors have an important influence on ANC attendance: the design of ANC and particularly how ANC deals with the needs and concerns of women during the first trimester has implications for timing of initiation.
Asrie, Fikir; Enawgaw, Bamlaku; Getaneh, Zegeye
Thrombocytopenia is a common hematologic abnormality during pregnancy. Pregnant women with thrombocytopenia have a higher risk of bleeding excessively during or after childbirth, particularly if they need to have a cesarean section or other surgical intervention during pregnancy, labor or in the puerperium. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of thrombocytopenia among pregnant women attending antenatal care service at Gondar University Hospital, northwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was used to assess the prevalence of thrombocytopenia among pregnant women attending antenatal care service at Gondar University Hospital from January to April 2015. A total of 217 pregnant women were included in the study and a structured pretested questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic information, nutritional factors, obstetrics and gynecological factors, history and clinical condition. Blood samples were collected for platelet count and other platelet parameters, which were determined by using SysmexKX 21 automation. The data were entered to Epi info version 6 software and analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. Bivariable and multivariable statistical analyses were used to evaluate the effect of independent variable over the dependent variable. A p-value of service at Gondar University Hospital participated in the study. Thrombocytopenia among 19 pregnant women showed a prevalence of 8.8%. The mean ± standard deviation platelet count was 238.85×10(9)/L (±74.57). Thrombocytopenia was significantly associated with patients who lived rurally (crude odds ratio =4.3, 95% confidence interval 1.48-12.76). The prevalence of thrombocytopenia was 8.8% predominantly with mild type of thrombocytopenia. Thrombocytopenia was higher among pregnant women who lived rurally. Therefore, health care providers should screen routinely for thrombocytopenia to avoid excessive bleeding during pregnancy, especially in women who live rurally.
Bayo, Pontius; Ochola, Emmanuel; Oleo, Caroline; Mwaka, Amos Deogratius
To determine the prevalence of the hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in two referral hospitals in northern Uganda. Cross-sectional observational study. Two tertiary hospitals in a postconflict region in a low-income country. Randomly selected 402 pregnant women attending routine antenatal care in two referral hospitals. Five women withdrew consent for personal reasons. Data were analysed for 397 participants. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity. Of 397 pregnant women aged 13-43 years, 96.2% were married or cohabiting. 47 (11.8%) tested positive for HBsAg; of these, 7 (14.9%) were HBeAg positive. The highest HBsAg positivity rate was seen in women aged 20 years or less (20%) compared with those aged above 20 years (8.7%), aOR=2.54 (95% CI 1.31 to 4.90). However, there was no statistically significant difference between women with positive HBsAg and those with negative tests results with respect to median values of liver enzymes, haemoglobin level, absolute neutrophil counts and white cell counts. HIV positivity, scarification and number of sexual partners were not predictive of HBV positivity. One in eight pregnant women attending antenatal care in the two study hospitals has evidence of hepatitis B infection. A significant number of these mothers are HBeAg positive and may be at increased risk of transmitting hepatitis B infection to their unborn babies. We suggest that all pregnant women attending antenatal care be tested for HBV infection; exposed babies need to receive HBV vaccines at birth. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Determinants of condom use among antenatal clinic attendees in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. ... Results: Of 1,585 women interviewed, 41% had their first sexual experience before age of 18 years and 82% had a history of having more than two sexual partners during their lifetime. Sixty two percent of women had never used ...
Objective. To determine the validity, predictive value and accuracy of the rapid plasma reagin card test performed on site to diagnose active syphilis in pregnant women so that immediate treatment can be offered to prevent congenital syphilis. Design. Open, descriptive study. Setting. Antenatal clinic, Mamelodi Hospital, ...
population of breast cancer patients in the country than in the west led to this study to determine the proportion of women who have a clinical breast examination at the booking visit for antenatal care in the. University of Calabar Teaching ... physical examination during pregnancy (Kauser. 2004). It has also been estimated ...
Jan 22, 2008 ... 2 SAMJ side-effects that are of particular concern to clinicians, which are. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and hepatitis, both of which may be fatal.3,4. In response to the large number of pregnant women requiring. ART, a specialised antenatal ARV clinic was established at. Johannesburg Hospital in July 2004 ...
The antenatal characteristics of 503 pregnant women attending maternal and child health clinics in Accra were studied to ascertain the influence of antenatal care on pregnancy outcome. Gestation age of first antenatal care attendance, duration of nutrients supplementation during pregnancy, infant birth-weight and level of ...
Factors Associated with Late Initiation of Antenatal Care among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at Public Health Centers in Kembata Tembaro Zone, Southern Ethiopia. T Tekelab, B Berhanu ...
Mwambe, Berno; Mirambo, Mariam M; Mshana, Stephen E; Massinde, Anthony N; Kidenya, Benson R; Michael, Denna; Morona, Domenica; Majinge, Charles; Groß, Uwe
Sero-positivity rates of the rubella virus among pregnant women vary widely throughout the world. In Tanzania, rubella vaccination is not included in the national immunization schedule and there is therefore no antenatal screening for this viral disease. So far, there are no reports on the sero-prevalence of rubella among pregnant women in Tanzania. As a result, this study was undertaken to establish the sero-positivity rate of rubella and rubella risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in Mwanza, Tanzania. From November 2012 to May 2013 a total of 350 pregnant women were enrolled and their serum samples collected and analyzed using the AXSYM anti-rubella virus IgG/IgM-MEIA test. Demographic and clinical data were collected using a standardized data collection tool. Data analysis was done using STATA version 12. Of 342 pregnant women tested for rubella antibodies, 317 (92.6%) were positive for anti-rubella IgG while only 1 (0.3%) was positive for IgM. Higher sero-positivity rates were found in the age group of 25-44 years. Furthermore, it was observed that with each year increase in age, the risk of contracting rubella increases by 12% (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.02-1.22, P = 0.019). Women involved in farming and business women were at a higher risk of contracting rubella infection compared to formally employed women (OR: 4.9, P = 0.011; OR 7.1, p = 0.003 respectively). In univariate analysis, the risk of contracting rubella virus infection was found to increase with gestational age with a statistical significance. Sero-positivity rates of rubella are high in Mwanza and are significantly associated with an increase in age and being a farmer or a business woman. Screening of rubella and immunization of women at risk are highly recommended in this area with a high non-immune rate against rubella virus.
Objective: A number of factors affect the clinic attendance compliance of the average adult Nigerian. The consequent default from treatment could affect the management outcome of such patients. This study was therefore, undertaken to evaluate the clinic attendance compliance pattern of adult hypertensive patients being ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians are a small, widely dispersed population. Regarding childbearing women and infants, inequities in service delivery and culturally unsafe services contribute to significantly poorer outcomes, with a lack of high-level research to guide service redesign. This paper reports on an Evaluation of a specialist (Murri antenatal clinic for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. Methods A triangulated mixed method approach generated and analysed data from a range of sources: individual and focus group interviews; surveys; mother and infant audit data; and routinely collected data. A retrospective analysis compared clinical outcomes of women who attended the Murri clinic (n=367 with Indigenous women attending standard care (n=414 provided by the same hospital over the same period. Both services see women of all risk status. Results The majority of women attending the Murri clinic reported high levels of satisfaction, specifically with continuity of carer antenatally. However, disappointment with the lack of continuity during labour/birth and postnatally left some women feeling abandoned and uncared for. Compared to Indigenous women attending standard care, those attending the Murri clinic were statistically less likely to be primiparous or partnered, to experience perineal trauma, to have an epidural and to have a baby admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, and were more likely to have a non-instrumental vaginal birth. Multivariate analysis found higher normal birth (spontaneous onset of labour, no epidural, non-instrumental vaginal birth without episiotomy rates amongst women attending the Murri clinic. Conclusions Significant benefits were associated with attending the Murri clinic. Recommendations for improvement included ongoing cultural competency training for all hospital staff, reducing duplication of services, improving co-ordination and communication between community and tertiary
Marcano-Belisario, José S; Gupta, Ajay K; O'Donoghue, John; Ramchandani, Paul; Morrison, Cecily; Car, Josip
Mobile devices may facilitate depression screening in the waiting area of antenatal clinics. This can present implementation challenges, of which we focused on survey layout and technology deployment. We assessed the feasibility of using tablet computers to administer a socio-demographic survey, the Whooley questions and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) to 530 pregnant women attending National Health Service (NHS) antenatal clinics across England. We randomised participants to one of two layout versions of these surveys: (i) a scrolling layout where each survey was presented on a single screen; or (ii) a paging layout where only one question appeared on the screen at any given time. Overall, 85.10% of eligible pregnant women agreed to take part. Of these, 90.95% completed the study procedures. Approximately 23% of participants answered Yes to at least one Whooley question, and approximately 13% of them scored 10 points of more on the EPDS. We observed no association between survey layout and the responses given to the Whooley questions, the median EPDS scores, the number of participants at increased risk of self-harm, and the number of participants asking for technical assistance. However, we observed a difference in the number of participants at each EPDS scoring interval (p = 0.008), which provide an indication of a woman's risk of depression. A scrolling layout resulted in faster completion times (median = 4 min 46 s) than a paging layout (median = 5 min 33 s) (p = 0.024). However, the clinical significance of this difference (47.5 s) is yet to be determined. Tablet computers can be used for depression screening in the waiting area of antenatal clinics. This requires the careful consideration of clinical workflows, and technology-related issues such as connectivity and security. An association between survey layout and EPDS scoring intervals needs to be explored further to determine if it corresponds to a survey layout effect
to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programme. Participants expressed fears that included stopping the treatment after delivery, the family neglecting the baby if the mother died, stigma, discrimination and domestic violence. The majority of the ...
Pell, C.; Meñaca, A.; Were, F.; Afrah, N.A.; Chatio, S.; Manda-Taylor, L.; Hamel, M.J.; Hodgson, A.; Tagbor, H.; Kalilani, L.; Ouma, P.; Pool, R.
Background: Antenatal care (ANC) is a key strategy to improve maternal and infant health. However, survey data from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that women often only initiate ANC after the first trimester and do not achieve the recommended number of ANC visits. Drawing on qualitative data, this
Study objective. To determine the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test as performed on site in an antenatal clinic to facilitate immediate diagnosis and treatment of maternal syphilis. Design. Open, descriptive study. Setting. Antenatal clinic ...
Prevalence of herbal medicine use and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care at public health facilities in Hossana Town, Southern Ethiopia: facility based cross sectional study.
Laelago, Tariku; Yohannes, Tadele; Lemango, Fiseha
The use of herbal medicine has been on increase in many developing and industrialized countries. More pregnant women use herbal remedies to treat pregnancy related problems due to cost-effectiveness of therapy and easy access of these products. We sought to assess the prevalence of herbal medicine use and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of public health facilities. Facility based cross sectional study was conducted among 363 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics from May to June 2015 at public health facilities in Hossana town, Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia. Pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data from each study subject. Bivariate logistic regression analysis was used to see significance of association between the outcome and independent variables. Odds ratios at 95 % CI were computed to measure the strength of the association between the outcome and the independent variables. P-value herbal medicine during current pregnancy . The herbal medicines commonly taken during current pregnancy were ginger (55.8 %), garlic (69.8 %), eucalyptus (11.6 %), tenaadam (rutachalenssis) (26.4 %), damakesse (ocimumlamiifolium) (22.8 %), feto (3.5 %) and omore (3.1 %). Being students (AOR: (5.68, 95 % CI: (1.53, 21.13), second trimester of pregnancy (AOR: 0.22, 95 % CI: (0.08, 0.76), sufficient knowledge on herbal medicine (AOR: 0.37, 95 % CI: (0.19, 0.79), no formal education (AOR: 4.41, 95 % CI: (1.11, 17.56), primary education (AOR: 4.15, 95 % CI: (1.51, 11.45) and secondary education (AOR: 2.55, 95 % CI: (1.08,6.03) were significantly associated with herbal medicine use. The findings of this study showed that herbal medicine use during pregnancy is a common experience. Commonly used herbal medicines during current pregnancy were garlic, ginger, tenaadam, damakasse and eucalyptus. Educational status, occupation, knowledge on herbal medicine and second trimester of pregnancy were the major factors
Abstract Study objective. To determine the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test as performed on site in an antenatal clinic to facilitate immediate diagnosis and treatment of maternal syphilis. Design. Open, descriptive study. Setting. Antenatal ...
Marinda Asiah Nuril Haya
Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Papua merupakan salah satu propinsi di Indonesia dengan angka kematian ibu tertinggi di Indonesia. Penolong persalinan terlatih dan asuhan antenatal (ANC merupakan salah satu faktor yang penting untuk menurunkan angka kematian ibu. Tujuan studi ini untuk mengidentifikasi pengaruh ANC dan beberapa faktor yang lain terhadap kemungkinan persalinan yang ditolong oleh perawat/bidan di Papua.Metode: Studi potong lintang dengan sampling purposif dilakukan terhadap perempuan yang mempunyai anak balita yang datang ke Posyandu pada 15-30 Januari 2014 di 24 desa wilayah pegunungan tengah Jayawijaya, Papua. Karakteristik demografi, praktek ANC dan persalinan didapatkan melalui wawancara. Subjek diklasifikasikan ke dalam 2 kelompok, yang bersalin didampingi perawat/bidan dan yang menolong sendiri atau ditolong keluarga. Analisis dilakukan dengan regresi Cox dengan waktu konstan. Hasil: Dari 469 subjek, 391 subjek yang dianalisis terdiri dari 280 subjek yang melahirkan ditolong sendiri/keluarga dan 111 subjek yang ditolong perawat/bidan. Subjek yang yang melahirkan di hutan atau kandang hina hanya 3 orang. Dibandingkan dengan yang tidak pernah ANC, subjek yang melakukan ANC di Posyandu 5,6 kali kemungkinan melahirkan ditolong perawat/bidan [risiko relatif suaian (RRa = 5,60; interval kepercayaan 95% (CI = 2,99-10,47]. Selain itu, subjek yang mendapatkan pemeriksaan ANC oleh bidan dan kunjungan ANC 4 kali memiliki kemungkinan lebih tinggi untuk melahirkan ditolong perawat/bidan, masing-masing 4,9 kali (RRa = 4,89; 95% CI = 2,70-8,86 dan 6,9 kali (RRa = 6.90; 95% CI = 3,59-13,27.Kesimpulan: Asuhan antenatal adalah cara untuk meningkatkan angka persalinan yang ditolong oleh tenaga tenaga perawat/bidan di Papua. (Health Science Indones 2014;2:60-6Kata kunci: asuhan antenatal, persalinan oleh perawat/bidan, PapuaAbstractBackground: Papua has one of the highest maternal mortality rates in Indonesia. Nurse/midwife birth attendants and regular
Emmanuel Ajuluchukwu Ugwa
Full Text Available Background: Vitamin C levels are low in pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to determine serum Vitamins C levels among pregnant women attending antenatal care at a General Hospital in Dawakin Kudu, Kano, and this can help further research to determine the place of Vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy. Methods: This was a prospective study of 400 pregnant women who presented for antenatal care in General Hospital Dawakin Kudu, Kano, Nigeria. Research structured questionnaire was administered to 400 respondents. Determination of serum Vitamin C was done using appropriate biochemical methods. Results: Vitamin C deficiency was found in 79.5% of the participants. The values for Vitamin C were 0.20 ± 0.18 mg/dl during the first trimester, 0.50 ± 0.99 mg/dl in the second trimester, and 0.35 ± 0.36 mg/dl in the third trimester and P = 0.001. Conclusions: There is a significant reduction in the serum Vitamins C concentration throughout the period of pregnancy with the highest levels in the second trimester. Therefore, Vitamin C supplementation is suggested during pregnancy, especially for those whose fruit and vegetable consumption is inadequate.
Sigalla, Geofrey Nimrod; Rasch, Vibeke; Gammeltoft, Tine
Background: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem with negative health consequences for women and their pregnancies. While social support has a protective effect against IPV and reduces health consequences of violence, its association with experiencing IPV during...... pregnancy remain less explored. In our study we aimed to determine the effect of social support on IPV during pregnancy among women attending antenatal care in Moshi, Tanzania Methods: The study was part of a prospective cohort study that assessed the impact of violence on reproductive health of 1......,116 participants. Pregnant women were enrolled below 24 weeks of gestation and followed until delivery. The experiences of social support and IPV during pregnancy were assessed at the 34th week of gestation. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between social support and IPV...
Sigalla, Geofrey Nimrod; Rasch, Vibeke; Gammeltoft, Tine
BACKGROUND: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem with negative health consequences for women and their pregnancies. While social support has a protective effect against IPV and reduces health consequences of violence, its association with experiencing IPV during...... pregnancy remain less explored. In our study we aimed to determine the effect of social support on IPV during pregnancy among women attending antenatal care in Moshi, Tanzania METHODS: The study was part of a prospective cohort study that assessed the impact of violence on reproductive health of 1......,116 participants. Pregnant women were enrolled below 24 weeks of gestation and followed until delivery. The experiences of social support and IPV during pregnancy were assessed at the 34(th) week of gestation. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between social support and IPV...
Naigaga, Mpolampola D A S; Guttersrud, Øystein; Pettersen, Kjell S
The aim of this paper is to describe how selected demographic characteristics 'explain' the observed variance in the distribution of maternal health literacy estimates in adolescents attending antenatal care in Uganda, as estimated by the 'Maternal health literacy scale'. By the age of 20 years, more than 60% of Ugandan females are mothers. In the Busoga region of Uganda, the percentage of pregnant adolescents and adolescent mothers is at its highest (above 30%). Validated questionnaire survey. The Maternal health literacy scale was administered to 384 adolescents aged 15-19 years attending antenatal care in Jinja and Iganga districts of the Busoga region during the period of July 2013-December 2013. The Mann-Whitney U test in SPSS21 was used to determine if the two levels of dichotomised person factors, i.e. demographic characteristics, relate to 'significantly' different mean maternal health literacy estimates, not strictly following the normal distribution, as measured by the Maternal health literacy scale. The person factors, age, education level, pregnancy order and prepregnancy awareness about conception, explained approximately 12% of the observed variance in maternal health literacy estimates. Prepregnancy awareness about conception was the single most contributory factor to the observed variance in estimated maternal health literacy levels. More research on women of childbearing age is warranted to explore the impact of further person factors on the maternal health literacy in pregnant adolescents. Using the person factors found to show 'significant' impact on maternal health literacy in pregnant adolescents, target-specific interventions aimed at improving maternal health literacy in pregnant adolescents can be formulated. By accounting for these factors in reproductive health policy designs, one might take preventive actions to curb the prevalence of adolescent pregnancies in both developing and developed countries. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pell, C; Meñaca, A; Were, F; Afrah, N.A; Chatio, S; Manda-Taylor, L; Hamel, M.J; Hodgson, A; Tagbor, H; Kalilani, L; Ouma, P; Pool, R
... (Ghana, Kenya and Malawi) with varying levels of ANC attendance. Methods: Data were collected as part of a programme of qualitative research investigating the social and cultural context of malaria in pregnancy...
Fanta, Wondimagegn; Worku, Alemayehu
In Gambella region, inhabitants owe socio-cultural factors that might favor refusal for HIV testing service utilization among Antenatal Care attendees. To assess determinants for refusal of HIV testing service utilization among ANC attendees in Gambella Region. A comparative cross sectional study was conducted among ANC attendees from March 2008 to May 2008 in four selected health facilities of Gambella region. Sample size of 332 participants (83 who refused HIV testing and 249 who accepted HIV testing) were taken for the study. The study was supplemented with four focus group discussions. Multivariate binary logistic regression was employed to control for confounding factors. When adjusted with other factors pregnant women with 2-3 live births in the past; who claimed divorce as a perceived response of their husband following HIV positive test result; who had not sought agreement from their husband for testing; disclosure of test for husband and being from certain ethnic group (E.g. Mejenger) were independent predictors for refusal of HIV testing among ANC attendees. Based on the findings, the following recommendations were forwarded: Provision of innovative information and education on the pre-test session for those pregnant women having two or more children; community involvement to tackle stigma; women empowerment; designing couple friendly counseling service; and fighting harmful traditional practices related with decision of HIV testing.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Gambella region, inhabitants owe socio-cultural factors that might favor refusal for HIV testing service utilization among Antenatal Care attendees. Objective To assess determinants for refusal of HIV testing service utilization among ANC attendees in Gambella Region. Methods A comparative cross sectional study was conducted among ANC attendees from March 2008 to May 2008 in four selected health facilities of Gambella region. Sample size of 332 participants (83 who refused HIV testing and 249 who accepted HIV testing were taken for the study. The study was supplemented with four focus group discussions. Multivariate binary logistic regression was employed to control for confounding factors. Results When adjusted with other factors pregnant women with 2–3 live births in the past; who claimed divorce as a perceived response of their husband following HIV positive test result; who had not sought agreement from their husband for testing; disclosure of test for husband and being from certain ethnic group (E.g. Mejenger were independent predictors for refusal of HIV testing among ANC attendees. Conclusion and recommendation Based on the findings, the following recommendations were forwarded: Provision of innovative information and education on the pre-test session for those pregnant women having two or more children; community involvement to tackle stigma; women empowerment; designing couple friendly counseling service; and fighting harmful traditional practices related with decision of HIV testing.
James, Sindiwe; Rall, Nadine; Strümpher, Juanita
Pregnancy in teenagers seems to be a challenge that might contribute to a struggle to fulfil the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals directly related to women's reproductive health and neonatal care. The challenge becomes worse as midwives and nurses find it difficult to fully supervise all these pregnancies, because teenagers stay away or default from clinic attendance. The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the perceptions of pregnant teenagers of the antenatal care (ANC) clinic environment and to recommend guidelines to midwifery operational managers for strategies to create teenager-friendly ANC clinic environments. The study applied a qualitative research design with explorative, descriptive and contextual research approaches. The ethical principles that guided this study were respect for the person, beneficence and justice. Semi-structured interviews utilising a predetermined interview schedule with a central open-ended question to address the study objectives were used. Data were collected from pregnant teenagers attending ANC clinics in Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality. Participants were unanimous in that they perceived the clinic environment as causing discomfort to them. Different reasons attributed to this experience were related to their young age. The age difference between themselves and other women attending the clinic made participants perceive themselves as inferior and as being treated as such at the clinic. They found this embarrassing and recommended having their own waiting area and additional midwives at the clinic so that they would not be subjected to humiliating scrutiny and disapproval from older pregnant women. Pregnant teenagers' recall of their experiences of the ANC clinic environment suggests that they perceive themselves as not being adequately cared for, as judged, and as forced to be in an environment that is insensitive to their needs. As a result some of their peers stayed away from the clinic and
Doku, David T; Neupane, Subas
Neonatal mortality is unacceptably high in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In these countries, where access to emergency obstetric services is limited, antenatal care (ANC) utilization offers improved maternal health and birth outcomes. However, evidence for this is scanty and mixed. We explored the association between attendance for ANC and survival of neonates in 57 LMICs. Employing standardized protocols to ensure comparison across countries, we used nationally representative cross-sectional data from 57 LMICs (N = 464 728) to investigate the association between ANC visits and neonatal mortality. Cox proportional hazards multivariable regression models and meta-regression analysis were used to analyse pooled data from the countries. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to describe the patterns of neonatal survival in each region. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, we found 55% lower risk of neonatal mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42-0.48] among women who met both WHO recommendations for ANC (first visit within the first trimester and at least four visits during pregnancy) in pooled analysis. Furthermore, meta-analysis of country-level risk shows 32% lower risk of neonatal mortality (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.61-0.75) among those who met at least one WHO recommendation. In addition, ANC attendance was associated with lower neonatal mortality in all the regions except in the Middle East and North Africa. ANC attendance is protective against neonatal mortality in the LMICs studied, although differences exist across countries and regions. Increasing ANC visits, along with other known effective interventions, can improve neonatal survival in these countries.
by reduction of bone mineral density (BMD). This study aimed to assess the prevalence of ... History of regular exercise by the respondents is statistically significant on the reduction of osteopenia and osteoporosis (P ... Keywords: Antenatal women, calcaneal bone, osteopenia, osteoporosis, osteoPro, Southeast Nigeria ...
Jan 30, 2018 ... by reduction of bone mineral density (BMD). This study aimed to assess the ... range. History of regular exercise by the respondents is statistically significant on the reduction of osteopenia and ... Keywords: Antenatal women, calcaneal bone, osteopenia, osteoporosis, osteoPro,. Southeast Nigeria.
Background: Nigeria bears a sizeable proportion of the global HIV burden; mother to child transmission as a major contributor and prevention of mother to child transmission the hope for a HIV-free generation. Objective: To find evaluate how booked antenatal attendees intend to utilize the labour and delivery services of the ...
Perumal, Nandita; Cole, Donald C; Ouédraogo, Hermann Z; Sindi, Kirimi; Loechl, Cornelia; Low, Jan; Levin, Carol; Kiria, Christine; Kurji, Jaameeta; Oyunga, Mary
Antenatal care (ANC) is a key strategy to decreasing maternal mortality in low-resource settings. ANC clinics provide resources to improve nutrition and health knowledge and promote preventive health practices. We sought to compare the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) among women seeking and not-seeking ANC in rural Kenya. Data from a community-based cross-sectional survey conducted in Western Province, Kenya were used. Nutrition knowledge (NKS), health knowledge (HKS), attitude score (AS), and dietary diversity score (DDS) were constructed indices. χ2 test and Student's t-test were used to compare proportions and means, respectively, to assess the difference in KAP among pregnant women attending and not-attending ANC clinics. Multiple regression analyses were used to assess the impact of the number of ANC visits (none, clinics while 39% had not. The mean (±SD) NKS was 4.6 (1.9) out of 11, HKS was 6.2 (1.7) out of 12, DDS was 4.9 (1.4) out of 12, and AS was 7.4 (2.2) out of 10. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and DDS were not significantly different between ANC clinic attending and non-attending women. Among women who attended ANC clinics, 82.6% received malaria and/or antihelmintic treatment, compared to 29.6% of ANC clinic non-attendees. Higher number of ANC clinic visits and higher maternal education level were significantly positively associated with maternal health knowledge. Substantial opportunities exist for antenatal KAP improvement among women in Western Kenya, some of which could occur with greater ANC attendance. Further research is needed to understand multi-level factors that may affect maternal knowledge and practices.
Derso, Adane; Nibret, Endalkachew; Munshea, Abaineh
Background Parasitic infections affect tens of millions of pregnant women worldwide, and directly or indirectly lead to a spectrum of adverse maternal and fetal/placental effects. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care center in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar city, northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted from November...
Dahl, V; Mellhammar, L; Bajunirwe, F; Björkman, P
A problem commonly encountered in programs for prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa is low rates of HIV test acceptance among pregnant women. In this study, we examined risk factors and reasons for HIV test refusal among 432 women attending three antenatal care clinics offering PMTCT in urban and semi-urban parts of the Mbarara district, Uganda. Structured interviews were performed following pre-test counselling. Three-hundred-eighty women were included in the study, 323 (85%) of whom accepted HIV testing. In multivariate analysis, testing site (Site A: OR = 1.0; Site B: OR = 3.08; 95%CI: 1.12-8.46; Site C: OR = 5.93; 95%CI: 2.94-11.98), age between 30 and 34 years (refusal. Testing sites operating for longer durations had higher rates of acceptance. The most common reasons claimed for test refusal were: lack of access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected women (88%; n=57), a need to discuss with partner before decision (82%; n=57) and fear of partner's reaction (54%; n=57). Comparison with previous periods showed that the acceptance rate increased with the duration of the program. Our study identified risk factors for HIV test refusal among pregnant women in Uganda and common reasons for not accepting testing. These findings may suggest modifications and improvements in the performance of HIV testing in this and similar populations.
Clouse, Kate; Schwartz, Sheree R; Van Rie, Annelies; Bassett, Jean; Vermund, Sten H; Pettifor, Audrey E
We investigated mobile phone usage amongst HIV-positive pregnant women attending antenatal services in a primary care clinic in Johannesburg (n = 50). We conducted a semi-structured interview and asked them about their mobile phone, Internet and email use. The median age of the women was 28 years, 36% had moved one or more times in the past year, and most were employed or recently employed, albeit earning low wages. Nearly all women (94%) reported that they did not share their phone and 76% of the SIM cards were registered to the woman herself. The median time with the current phone was one year (range 1 month-6 years) and the median time with the current phone number was three years (range 1 month-13 years). Even though 42% of the participants were from outside South Africa, they all had mobile phone numbers local to South Africa. About one-third of respondents reported Internet use (30%) and about one-fifth reported using email (18%). Overall, 20% accessed the Internet and 10% accessed email on their mobile phone. Mobile phone interventions are feasible amongst HIV-positive pregnant women and may be useful in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Email and Internet-based interventions may not yet be appropriate. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV is a serious cause of liver disease affecting millions of people throughout the world. When HBV is acquired during pregnancy, prenatal transmission can occur to the fetus. Therefore, this study is aimed at estimating seroprevalence and associated factors of HBV infection among pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinic (ANC of Arba Minch Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted on 232 pregnant women visiting ANC from February to April, 2015. Data regarding sociodemographic and associated factors were gathered using questionnaire. Serum samples were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. The overall seroprevalence of HBV infection was 4.3% (95% CI: 2.2–6.9%. Multivariate analysis showed that history of abortion (AOR = 7.775; 95% CI: 1.538–39.301 and having multiple sexual partners (AOR = 7.189; 95% CI: 1.039–49.755 were independent predictors of HBsAg seropositivity. In conclusion, the prevalence of HBV infection is intermediate. Therefore, screening HBV infection should be routine part of ANC; health information on having single sexual partner for women of childbearing age and on following aseptic techniques during abortion should be provided to health facilities working on abortion.
Objective: To assess attitude towards antenatal Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV) screening in Enugu, Nigeria. Method: A self-report questionnaire was administered to two hundred and nine women attending antenatal booking clinics at the University of Nigerian Teaching Hospital, Enugu. Results: The mean age was ...
Full Text Available Although ANC services are increasingly available to women in low and middle-income countries, their inadequate use persists. This suggests a misalignment between aims of the services and maternal beliefs and circumstances. Owing to the dearth of studies examining the timing and adequacy of content of care, this current study aims to investigate the timing and frequency of ANC visits in Ethiopia.Data was obtained from the nationally representative 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS which used a two-stage cluster sampling design to provide estimates for the health and demographic variables of interest for the country. Our study focused on a sample of 10,896 women with history of at least one childbirth event. Percentages of timing and adequacy of ANC visits were conducted across the levels of selected factors. Variables which were associated at 5% significance level were examined in the multivariable logistic regression model for association between timing and frequency of ANC visits and the explanatory variables while controlling for covariates. Furthermore, we presented the approach to estimate marginal effects involving covariate-adjusted logistic regression with corresponding 95%CI of delayed initiation of ANC visits and inadequate ANC attendance. The method used involved predicted probabilities added up to a weighted average showing the covariate distribution in the population.Results indicate that 66.3% of women did not use ANC at first trimester and 22.3% had ANC less than 4 visits. The results of this study were unique in that the association between delayed ANC visits and adequacy of ANC visits were examined using multivariable logistic model and the marginal effects using predicted probabilities. Results revealed that older age interval has higher odds of inadequate ANC visits. More so, type of place of residence was associated with delayed initiation of ANC visits, with rural women having the higher odds of delayed
Yasmin, Shamima; Mukherjee, Anindya; Manna, Nirmalya; Baur, Baijayanti; Datta, Mousumi; Sau, Manabendra; Roy, Manidipa; Dasgupta, Samir
There are many women "missing" due to an unfavourable sex ratio in India, which has strong patriarchal norms and a preference for sons. Female gender discrimination has been reported in health care, nutrition, education, and resource allocation due to man-made norms, religious beliefs, and recently by ultrasonography resulting in lowered sex ratio. The present study attempts to find out the level of awareness regarding sex determination and to explore preference of gender and factors associated among antenatal mothers attending a medical college in eastern India. Interviews were done by predesigned pretested proforma over 6 months. The data were analysed by SPSS 16.0 software for proportions with chi-squared tests and binary logistic regression analysis. Most women who were multigravida did not know about contraceptives; 1.8% of mothers knew the sex of the fetus in present pregnancy while another 34.7% expressed willingness; 13.6% knew of a place which could tell sex of the fetus beforehand; 55.6% expressed their preference of sex of the baby for present pregnancy while 50.6% of their husbands had gender preference. Gender preference was significantly high in subjects with: lower socioeconomic status (p=0.011); lower level of education of mother (p=0.047) and husband (p=0.0001); multigravida (p=0.002); presence of living children (p=0.0001); and husband having preference of sex of baby (p=0.0001). Parental education, socioeconomic background, and number of living issues were the main predictors for gender preference. Awareness regarding gender preference and related law and parental counselling to avoid gender preference with adoption of small family norm is recommended.
Ab Rahman, Norazida; Sivasampu, Sheamini; Mohamad Noh, Kamaliah; Khoo, Ee Ming
The world population has become more globalised with increasing number of people residing in another country for work or other reasons. Little is known about the health profiles of foreign population in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of the health problems presented by foreigners attending primary care clinics in Malaysia. Data were derived from the 2012 National Medical Care Survey (NMCS), a cross sectional survey of primary care encounters from public and private primary care clinics sampled from five regions in Malaysia. Patients with foreign nationality were identified and analysed for demographic profiles, reasons for encounter (RFEs), diagnosis, and provision of care. Foreigners accounted for 7.7 % (10,830) of all patient encounters from NMCS. Most encounters were from private clinics (90.2 %). Median age was 28 years (IQR: 24.0, 34.8) and 69.9 % were male. Most visits to the primary care clinics were for symptom-based complaints (69.5 %), followed by procedures (23.0 %) and follow-up visit (7.4 %). The commonest diagnosis in public clinics was antenatal care (21.8 %), followed by high risk pregnancies (7.5 %) and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (6.8 %). Private clinics had more cases for general medical examination (13.5 %), URTI (13.1 %) and fever (3.9 %). Medications were prescribed to 76.5 % of these encounters. More foreigners were seeking primary medical care from private clinics and the encounters were for general medical examinations and acute minor ailments. Those who sought care from public clinics were for obstetric problems and chronic diseases. Medications were prescribed to two-thirds of the encounters while other interventions: laboratory investigations, medical procedures and follow-up appointment had lower rates in private clinics. Foreigners are generally of young working group and are expected to have mandatory medical checks. The preponderance of obstetrics seen in public
Ukah, U Vivian; Mbofana, Francisco; Rocha, Beatriz Manriquez; Loquiha, Osvaldo; Mudenyanga, Chishamiso; Usta, Momade; Urso, Marilena; Drebit, Sharla; Magee, Laura A; von Dadelszen, Peter
In well-resourced settings, reduced circulating maternal-free placental growth factor (PlGF) aids in either predicting or confirming the diagnosis of preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, stillbirth, preterm birth, and delivery within 14 days of testing when preeclampsia is suspected. This blinded, prospective cohort study of maternal plasma PlGF in women with suspected preeclampsia was conducted in antenatal clinics in Maputo, Mozambique. The primary outcome was the clinic-to-delivery interval. Other outcomes included: confirmed diagnosis of preeclampsia, transfer to higher care, mode of delivery, intrauterine fetal death, preterm birth, and low birth weight. Of 696 women, 95 (13.6%) and 601 (86.4%) women had either low (preeclampsia, higher blood pressure, transfer for higher care, earlier gestational age delivery, delivery within 7 and 14 days, preterm birth, cesarean delivery, lower birth weight, and perinatal loss. In urban Mozambican women with symptoms or signs suggestive of preeclampsia, low maternal plasma PlGF concentrations are associated with increased risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes, whether the diagnosis of preeclampsia is confirmed. Therefore, PlGF should improve the provision of precision medicine to individual women and improve pregnancy outcomes for those with preeclampsia or related placenta-mediated complications. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Objective. To determine the validity, predictive value and accuracy of the rapid plasma reagin card test performed on site to diagnose active syphilis in pregnant women so that immediate treatment can be offered to prevent congenital syphilis. Design. Open, descriptive study. Setting. Antenatal clinic, Mamelodi Hospital, ...
Satisfaction with focused antenatal care service and associated factors among pregnant women attending focused antenatal care at health centers in Jimma town, Jimma zone, South West Ethiopia; a facility based cross-sectional study triangulated with qualitative study.
Chemir, Fantaye; Alemseged, Fessahaye; Workneh, Desta
Client satisfaction is essential for further improvement of quality of focused antenatal care and to provide uniform health care services for pregnant women. However, studies on level of client satisfaction with focused antenatal care and associated factors are lacking. So, the purpose of this study is to assess satisfaction with focused antenatal care service and associated factors among pregnant women attending focused antenatal care at health centers in Jimma town. A facility based cross-sectional study involving both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection was used from Feb 1-30/2013. Three hundred eighty nine pregnant women those come to the health centers were included in the study. A semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussion guide was employed to obtain the necessary information for this study. Quantitative data was analysed using SPSS for windows version 16.0. Logistic regression model was used to compare level of satisfaction by predictors' variables. Qualitative data was analyzed based on thematic frameworks to support the quantitative results. More than half of the respondents (60.4%) were satisfied with the service that they received. As to specific components, most of the respondents (80.7%) were satisfied with interpersonal aspects, and 62.2% were satisfied with organization of health care aspect. Meanwhile, 49.9% of the respondents were not satisfied with technical quality aspect and 67.1% were not satisfied with physical environment aspect. Multivariate logistic regression analysis result showed that type of health center, educational status of mother, monthly income of the family, type of pregnancy and history of stillbirth were the predictors of the level of satisfaction. The study found out that dissatisfaction was high in mothers utilizing service at Jimma health center, in mothers with tertiary educational level, in mothers with average monthly family income >1000 birr, in mothers with unplanned pregnancy and in
Objective: To determine feeding practices of mothers of infants 8 weeks of age or younger, attending the postnatal clinic at Ga-Rankuwa Hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional study of mothers attending the postnatal clinic at Ga-Rankuwa Hospital using a standardised interview schedule. Results: A total of 150 mothers were ...
Mengist, Hylemariam Mihiretie; Zewdie, Olifan; Belew, Adugna
Ethiopia is a developing country where intestinal helminthic infections are major public health problems. The burden of intestinal parasites, particularly the soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), is often very high in school children and pregnant women. Anemia, associated with STH, is a major factor in women's health, especially during pregnancy; it is an important contributor to maternal mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminthic infection and anemia among pregnant women attending ANC in East Wollega Zone, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in five health centers of East Wollega Zone of Oromia Region, Ethiopia between November 2015 and January 2016. The health centers were selected randomly and study participants were enrolled consecutively with proportions from all the health centers. Stool and blood specimens were processed using standard operating procedures in accordance with structured questionnaires. Logistic regression models were applied to assess the association between predictors and outcome variables. P values less than 0.05 were taken as significant levels. Results were presented in tables and figures. A total of 372 pregnant women were enrolled in this study with a median age of 25 years (range 17-40 years). The total prevalence of intestinal helminths was 24.7% (92/372) with the predominance of Hookworm (15.1%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (6.5%). Illiteracy [AOR, 95% CI 2.21 (1.3, 4.8), P = 0.042], absence of latrine [AOR, 95% CI 4.62 (1.7, 8.3), P = 0.013] and regular consumption of raw and/or unwashed fruit [AOR, 95% CI 3.30 (1.2, 6.3), P = 0.011] were significant predictors of intestinal helminthic infection. The overall prevalence of anemia was 17.5% (65/372) where mild anemia accounts for 80% of the total anemia. Anemia was significantly associated with the first trimester of gestation [AOR, 95% CI 2.82 (1.3, 6.2), P = 0.009], previous malaria infection [AOR, 95% CI 2.32 (1
Titaley, Christiana R; Hunter, Cynthia L; Heywood, Peter; Dibley, Michael J
Antenatal, delivery and postnatal care services are amongst the recommended interventions aimed at preventing maternal and newborn deaths worldwide. West Java is one of the provinces of Java Island in Indonesia with a high proportion of home deliveries, a low attendance of four antenatal services and a low postnatal care uptake. This paper aims to explore community members' perspectives on antenatal and postnatal care services, including reasons for using or not using these services, the services received during antenatal and postnatal care, and cultural practices during antenatal and postnatal periods in Garut, Sukabumi and Ciamis districts of West Java province. A qualitative study was conducted from March to July 2009 in six villages in three districts of West Java province. Twenty focus group discussions (FGDs) and 165 in-depth interviews were carried out involving a total of 295 respondents. The guidelines for FGDs and in-depth interviews included the topics of community experiences with antenatal and postnatal care services, reasons for not attending the services, and cultural practices during antenatal and postnatal periods. Our study found that the main reason women attended antenatal and postnatal care services was to ensure the safe health of both mother and infant. Financial difficulty emerged as the major issue among women who did not fulfil the minimum requirements of four antenatal care services or two postnatal care services within the first month after delivery. This was related to the cost of health services, transportation costs, or both. In remote areas, the limited availability of health services was also a problem, especially if the village midwife frequently travelled out of the village. The distances from health facilities, in addition to poor road conditions were major concerns, particularly for those living in remote areas. Lack of community awareness about the importance of these services was also found, as some community members perceived
Yuan, Jing; Li, Song; Xu, YeYe; Cong, Lin
Clinical analysis and genetic testing of a family with osteogenesis imperfecta type IV were conducted, aiming to discuss antenatal genetic diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta type IV. Preliminary genotyping was performed based on clinical characteristics of the family members and then high-throughput sequencing was applied to rapidly and accurately detect the changes in candidate genes. Genetic testing of the III5 fetus and other family members revealed missense mutation in c.2746G>A, pGly916Arg in COL1A2 gene coding region and missense and synonymous mutation in COL1A1 gene coding region. Application of antenatal genetic diagnosis provides fast and accurate genetic counseling and eugenics suggestions for patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type IV and their families.
Renu Gupta; Shaily Agarwal; Neetu Singh; Rimjhim Jain; Arti Katiyar; Almas siddiqui
Background: Nutrition is the fundamental pillar of human life. All human beings need a balanced amount of nutrients for proper functioning of body system. Inadequate nutrition during pregnancy has a negative impact on the pregnant mother as well as short and long term consequences on the newborn. This study aims to assess knowledge and attitude of antenatal women about maternal nutrition in pregnancy and highlights the need of interventions aimed at promoting awareness about healthy diet duri...
Anastasi, Erin; Borchert, Matthias; Campbell, Oona M R; Sondorp, Egbert; Kaducu, Felix; Hill, Olivia; Okeng, Dennis; Odong, Vicki Norah; Lange, Isabelle L
Thousands of women and newborns still die preventable deaths from pregnancy and childbirth-related complications in poor settings. Delivery with a skilled birth attendant is a vital intervention for saving lives. Yet many women, particularly where maternal mortality ratios are highest, do not have a skilled birth attendant at delivery. In Uganda, only 58 % of women deliver in a health facility, despite approximately 95 % of women attending antenatal care (ANC). This study aimed to (1) identify key factors underlying the gap between high rates of antenatal care attendance and much lower rates of health-facility delivery; (2) examine the association between advice during antenatal care to deliver at a health facility and actual place of delivery; (3) investigate whether antenatal care services in a post-conflict district of Northern Uganda actively link women to skilled birth attendant services; and (4) make recommendations for policy- and program-relevant implementation research to enhance use of skilled birth attendance services. This study was carried out in Gulu District in 2009. Quantitative and qualitative methods used included: structured antenatal care client entry and exit interviews [n = 139]; semi-structured interviews with women in their homes [n = 36], with health workers [n = 10], and with policymakers [n = 10]; and focus group discussions with women [n = 20], men [n = 20], and traditional birth attendants [n = 20]. Seventy-five percent of antenatal care clients currently pregnant reported they received advice during their last pregnancy to deliver in a health facility, and 58 % of these reported having delivered in a health facility. After adjustment for confounding, women who reported they received advice at antenatal care to deliver at a health facility were significantly more likely (aOR = 2.83 [95 % CI: 1.19-6.75], p = 0.02) to report giving birth in a facility. Despite high antenatal care coverage, a number of demand and supply side
Hibstu, Desalegn Tsegaw; Siyoum, Yadeshi Demisse
Obstetric danger signs are not the literal obstetric complications, merely symptoms that are well named by non-clinical personnel. The identification of these danger signs and its relation with complications during pregnancy would increase the capacity of women, their partners and families to seek for timely health care, following the appropriate steps to insure a safe birth and post-partum. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of obstetric danger signs and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Yirgacheffe town, Gedeo zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 15-April 15, 2016. Data on pregnant women were collected using a pre-tested and interviewer administered structured questionnaire from 342 women using systematic random sampling technique. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed using SPSS version 20.0 software. A total of 342 (90%) pregnant women were included in the study. The level of obstetric knowledge of danger signs was 21.9% (95% CI: 20.2-55.65%). Maternal education (AOR = 0.26, CI: 0.08, 0.88), paternal education (AOR = 0.13, CI; 0.04, 04) and time taken to reach health facilities on foot (AOR = 0.06, CI: 0.02, 0.17) were negatively associated factors while maternal age (AOR = 3.68, CI: 1.30, 10.46), paternal occupation (AOR = 4.65, CI: 1.82, 11.87), place of residence (AOR = 2.61, CI: 1.35, 5.04) were positively associated factors with knowledge of obstetric danger signs. Maternal and paternal education, maternal age, paternal occupation, place of residence and time taken to reach health facility on foot were the main factors for knowledge of obstetric danger signs. Increasing knowledge of key danger signs, creating and promoting income generating mechanisms need to be continuously done at the health facility and the community as it makes ready women and their families for prompt and appropriate decisions and measures in case
Ab Rahman, Norazida; Sivasampu, Sheamini; Mohamad Noh, Kamaliah; Khoo, Ee Ming
.... Little is known about the health profiles of foreign population in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of the health problems presented by foreigners attending primary care clinics in Malaysia...
Gemma HornSurgical Department, Perth Royal Infirmary, Perth, ScotlandIntroduction: Osteoporosis is a common disease that affects both women and men but is more prevalent in postmenopausal women. Reviews suggest that dietary-derived calcium is vital in maintaining adequate calcium balance. Sources of dietary calcium intake among adult patients attending an osteoporosis clinic were reviewed.Method: Two hundred and ninety-one patients attending an osteoporosis clinic were given an eleven-item fo...
Factors associated with self medication practice among pregnant mothers attending antenatal care at governmental health centers in Bahir Dar city administration, Northwest Ethiopia, a cross sectional study.
Abeje, Gedefaw; Admasie, Chanie; Wasie, Belaynew
Studies in different parts of the world indicate that there is high level use of self medication among pregnant women. But there are no scientific evidences on it and factors associated with it in Bahir Dar city administration. The aim of this study was therefore to assess level of self medication and identify factors associated with it among pregnant women attending ANC service at governmental health centers in Bahir Dar city administration. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from June 20-July 10, 2013. Data were collected using structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Back ward logistic regression model was used to assess level of association with self medication practice. A total of 510 pregnant women were included in the study. Of these, 25.1% reported self-medication during the current pregnancy. Self medication during pregnancy was significantly associated with gravida (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.4), maternal illness on the date of interview (AOR = 4.8, 95% CI: 2.9-8.0) and location of health facility (AOR = 4.6; 95% CI: 2.9-7.4). A considerable proportion of pregnant women practiced self-medication during their pregnancy with modern medications or traditional herbs. Mothers who were multi gravida, who had maternal illness on the date of interview and who were attending antenatal care were more likely to practice self medication.
Chan, Ka C; Chan, David B
Non-attendance represents a significant cost to many health systems, resulting in inefficiency, wasted resources, poorer service delivery and lengthened waiting queues. Past studies have considered extensively the reasons for non-attendance and have generally concluded that the use of reminder systems is effective. Despite this, there will always be a certain level of non-attendance arising from unforeseeable and unpreventable circumstances, such as illness or accidents, leading to unfilled appointments. This paper reviews current approaches to the non-attendance problem, and presents a high-level approach to fill last minute appointments arising out of unforeseeable non-attendance. However, no single approach will work for all clinics and implementation of these ideas must occur at a local level. These approaches include use of social networks, such as Twitter and Facebook, as a communication tool in order to notify prospective patients when last-minute appointments become available. In addition, teleconsultation using video-conferencing technologies would be suitable for certain last-minute appointments where travel time would otherwise be inhibiting. Developments of new and innovative technologies and the increasing power of social media, means that zero non-attendance is now an achievable target. We hope that this will lead to more evidence-based evaluations from the implementation of these strategies in various settings at a local level.
Conclusion: In view of large number of adolescent who attended the out-patient psychiatric clinic of this hospital, it was concluded that government should lay more emphasis on the improvement of the mental health status of adolescents by creating an enabling socio-economic environment through better youth employment ...
Background/objective: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterised by a clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors. It contributes to morbidity and mortality in adults. The objective of the study was to identify new cases and associated factors of MetS in patients attending a tertiary hospital staff clinic. Materials and methods: The ...
Candidiasis: A Study among Women Attending a. Primary Healthcare Clinic in Kwazulu‑Natal, South Africa ... leading women to seek advice in primary healthcare facilities. Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the .... a 0.22 μm Costar Spin‑X cellulose acetate filter membranes. (Sigma). The filtered soluble fraction was ...
Stroux, Lisa; Martinez, Boris; Coyote Ixen, Enma; King, Nora; Hall-Clifford, Rachel; Rohloff, Peter; Clifford, Gari D
Limited funding for medical technology, low levels of education and poor infrastructure for delivering and maintaining technology severely limit medical decision support in low- and middle-income countries. Perinatal and maternal mortality is of particular concern with millions dying every year from potentially treatable conditions. Guatemala has one of the worst maternal mortality ratios, the highest incidence of intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR), and one of the lowest gross national incomes per capita within Latin America. To address the lack of decision support in rural Guatemala, a smartphone-based system is proposed including peripheral sensors, such as a handheld Doppler for the identification of foetal compromise. Designed for use by illiterate birth attendants, the system uses pictograms, audio guidance, local and cloud processing, SMS alerts and voice calling. The initial prototype was evaluated on 22 women in highland Guatemala. Results were fed back into the refinement of the system, currently undergoing RCT evaluation.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Anemia is a global public health problem affecting both developing and developed countries; approximately 1.3 billion individuals suffer from it. Pregnant women are the most vulnerable groups to anemia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for anemia in pregnant women attending antenatal care in Azezo Health Center, Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Azezo Health Center from February to May 2011. Red blood cell morphology, Hgb level determination and intestinal parasites were assessed following the standard procedures. Socio-demographic data was collected by using a structured questionnaire. The data entered and analyzed by using the SPSS version 16.0 statistical software. P34, rural residence, history of malaria attack, hookworm infection and absence of iron supplements are significantly associated with increased risk of anemia. The most prevalent intestinal parasite among pregnant women was hookworm 18 (4.7%. Conclusion: In the present study, the prevalence of anemia was low when compared with the previous studies carried out in different countries including Ethiopia. More should be done in respect to the importance of regular visit to maternal care centres and health education promotion programs to succeed more. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(3.000: 137-144
I. E. Bakhlaev
Full Text Available Cervical cancer (CC morbidity is analyzed on the basis of the data of the Karelian cancer register over the period 1998-2007. During this period, 816 cases of CC were registered and 126 were found at an antenatal clinic (AC. Its early detection rate was ascertained to be 96% during screening at the AC. A comprehensive examination was made in 1742 women with various cervical diseases, of them 37.5% were infected with human papillomavirus (HPV. High-grade dysplasia and carcinoma in situ were diagnosed in 6.6% of the HPV-infected patients. Large-scale screening for HPV infection and pretumor disorders with their further treatment will aid in reduc- ing CC morbidity and mortality rates.
Petersen, Zaino; Nilsson, Maria; Steyn, Krisela; Emmelin, Maria
previous research has suggested that pregnant women prefer a person-centred approach for smoking cessation interventions. However few studies have illustrated the mechanism through which such an approach has an influence on quitting or reduction rates among pregnant women in resource poor settings. to explore the role of different components included in a smoking cessation intervention delivered to disadvantaged pregnant women with high smoking rates attending public health antenatal clinics in South Africa. a qualitative design consisting of focus-group discussion with women exposed to the intervention was used. Women were purposively selected from four antenatal clinics and one tertiary hospital to represent different experiences of the intervention. Focus group discussions with four groups of smokers and four groups of quitters were conducted and a total of 41 women were interviewed. Data were analysed using content analysis. the main theme describing the intervention effect that emerged from the interviews was, 'Making identification with change possible'. The categories 'An impulse for change', 'An achievable recipe', 'A physical reminder' and 'A compassionate companion' further described how each intervention component was perceived by women and how it contributed to behaviour change. behaviour change interventions that are directly informed by the target population with regards to its design, content and delivery offer great opportunities for positive behaviour change. Women positively evaluated all the components employed in this intervention but rated the social support they received from peer-counsellors as the overriding aspect of the intervention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Swartz, Holly A.; Frank, Ellen
Objective: To minimize barriers to care, ameliorate antenatal depression, and prevent postpartum depression, we conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of providing brief interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-B) to depressed, pregnant patients on low incomes in an obstetrics and gynecological (OB/GYN) clinic. Method: Twelve pregnant,…
Sisay Eshete Tadesse
Full Text Available Anemia affects around 38.2% and 22% of pregnant women at a global and national level respectively. In developing countries, women start pregnancy with already depleted body stores of iron and other vitamins with significant variation of anemia within and between regions.To identify the determinants of anemia among pregnant mothers attending antenatal care in Dessie town health facilities, northern central Ethiopia.A health facility based unmatched case control study was conducted among 112 cases and 336 controls from January to March 2016 G.C. The sample size was determined by using Epi Info version 220.127.116.11. Study subjects were selected using consecutive sampling technique. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, entered using Epi Data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression model was used to see the determinants of anemia. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR with 95% confidence interval (CI and p-value<0.05 were used to see the significant association.Failure to take dark green leafy vegetables per two weeks (AOR = 5.02, 95% CI: 2.16, 11.71, didn't take chicken per two weeks (AOR = 2.68, 95% CI: 1.22, 5.86, 1st trimester (AOR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.12, 3.84, 3rd trimester (AOR = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.53, 5.72, HIV infection (AOR = 6.78, 95% CI: 2.28, 20.18 and medication (AOR = 3.57 95% CI: 1.60, 7.98 were positively associated with anemia.Inadequate intake of dark green leafy vegetables, inadequate consumption of chicken, trimester of the current pregnancy, HIV infection and medication were the determinants of anemia among pregnant women. Therefore, anemia prevention strategy should include promotion of adequate intake of dark green leafy vegetables and chicken, increase meal pattern during the entire pregnancy and strengthen the prevention of mother to child HIV transmission/antenatal care programs.
Full Text Available To determine the extent to which women plan and prepare for pregnancy.Cross-sectional questionnaire survey of pregnant women attending three maternity services in London about knowledge and uptake of preconception care; including a robust measure of pregnancy planning, and phone interviews with a range of health care professionals.We recruited 1173/1288 (90% women, median age of 32 years. 73% had clearly planned their pregnancy, 24% were ambivalent and only 3% of pregnancies were unplanned. 51% of all women and 63% of those with a planned pregnancy took folic acid before pregnancy. 21% of all women reported smoking and 61% reported drinking alcohol in the 3 months before pregnancy; 48% of smokers and 41% of drinkers reduced or stopped before pregnancy. The 51% of all women who reported advice from a health professional before becoming pregnant were more likely to adopt healthier behaviours before pregnancy [adjusted odds ratios for greatest health professional input compared with none were 2.34 (95% confidence interval 1.54-3.54 for taking folic acid and 2.18 (95% CI 1.42-3.36 for adopting a healthier diet before pregnancy]. Interviews with 20 health professionals indicated low awareness of preconception health issues, missed opportunities and confusion about responsibility for delivery of preconception care.Despite a high level of pregnancy planning, awareness of preconception health among women and health professionals is low, and responsibility for providing preconception care is unclear. However, many women are motivated to adopt healthier behaviours in the preconception period, as indicated by halving of reported smoking rates in this study. The link between health professional input and healthy behaviour change before pregnancy is a new finding that should invigorate strategies to improve awareness and uptake of pre-pregnancy health care, and bring wider benefits for public health.
Stephenson, Judith; Patel, Dilisha; Barrett, Geraldine; Howden, Beth; Copas, Andrew; Ojukwu, Obiamaka; Pandya, Pranav; Shawe, Jill
To determine the extent to which women plan and prepare for pregnancy. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey of pregnant women attending three maternity services in London about knowledge and uptake of preconception care; including a robust measure of pregnancy planning, and phone interviews with a range of health care professionals. We recruited 1173/1288 (90%) women, median age of 32 years. 73% had clearly planned their pregnancy, 24% were ambivalent and only 3% of pregnancies were unplanned. 51% of all women and 63% of those with a planned pregnancy took folic acid before pregnancy. 21% of all women reported smoking and 61% reported drinking alcohol in the 3 months before pregnancy; 48% of smokers and 41% of drinkers reduced or stopped before pregnancy. The 51% of all women who reported advice from a health professional before becoming pregnant were more likely to adopt healthier behaviours before pregnancy [adjusted odds ratios for greatest health professional input compared with none were 2.34 (95% confidence interval 1.54-3.54) for taking folic acid and 2.18 (95% CI 1.42-3.36) for adopting a healthier diet before pregnancy]. Interviews with 20 health professionals indicated low awareness of preconception health issues, missed opportunities and confusion about responsibility for delivery of preconception care. Despite a high level of pregnancy planning, awareness of preconception health among women and health professionals is low, and responsibility for providing preconception care is unclear. However, many women are motivated to adopt healthier behaviours in the preconception period, as indicated by halving of reported smoking rates in this study. The link between health professional input and healthy behaviour change before pregnancy is a new finding that should invigorate strategies to improve awareness and uptake of pre-pregnancy health care, and bring wider benefits for public health.
Finch, C F; Kenihan, M A
To describe the sociodemographic profile of sports injury patients who attend sports medicine clinics for treatment and to describe their reasons for choosing to attend such clinics. Data were collected as part of a fully audited injury surveillance system implemented within sports medicine clinics. The study was conducted within five allied multidisciplinary sports medicine clinics in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. All patients initially presenting for treatment of a new sports or active recreation injury over the period August 1997 to August 1998 were eligible for this study, irrespective of the practitioner providing the treatment. Data were obtained on 6476 patients. The median age of the patients was 25.4 years (range 6.8--81.6) and most were male (69.8% of cases; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 68.7 to 70.9). Patients had both professional and non-professional backgrounds and were not just local suburb residents. Many patients had insurance cover for their injury treatment: 59.0% (95% CI 58.6 to 59.4) had some private health insurance and 46.6% (95% CI 45.4 to 47.8) had club/association insurance. The most common reasons for attending a clinic was its location (36.8%; 95% CI 36.5 to 37.1) and referral/recommendation (31.0%; 95% CI 30.7 to 31.3). Sports medicine clinics provide treatment for a broad spectrum of injured sports participants across a variety of sporting/recreation contexts. Although these clinics mainly serve the immediate geographic community, the sports speciality and expertise of a particular clinic can attract patients from further afield. This information can help sports medicine clinics to market their services more efficiently to meet the needs of their potential patients.
Mwangi, Martin N.; Roth, Johanna M.; Smit, Menno R.; Trijsburg, Laura; Mwangi, Alice M.; Demir, Ayşe Y.; Wielders, Jos P. M.; Mens, Petra F.; Verweij, Jaco J.; Cox, Sharon E.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Brouwer, Inge D.; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Andang'o, Pauline E. A.; Verhoef, Hans
Anemia affects most pregnant African women and is predominantly due to iron deficiency, but antenatal iron supplementation has uncertain health benefits and can increase the malaria burden. To measure the effect of antenatal iron supplementation on maternal Plasmodium infection risk, maternal iron
Mwangi, M.N.; Roth, J.M.; Smit, M.R.; Trijsburg, Laura; Mwangi, A.M.; Demir, A.Y.; Wielders, J.P.M.; Mens, P.F.; Verweij, J.J.; Cox, S.E.; Prentice, A.M.; Brouwer, I.D.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Andang'o, P.E.A.; Verhoef, J.C.M.
Importance Anemia affects most pregnant African women and is predominantly due to iron deficiency, but antenatal iron supplementation has uncertain health benefits and can increase the malaria burden. Objective To measure the effect of antenatal iron supplementation on maternal Plasmodium infection
Nyengidiki Kennedy Tamunomie
Full Text Available Background: Nigeria is the most populous nation in Africa and has a high fertility rate and low contraceptive prevalence. Various strategies have been developed to reduce the fertility rates, all aimed toward increasing contraceptive prevalence. Male sterilization is a safe, cheap, and effective method of contraception, but female perception and awareness of vasectomy may greatly affect its utilization. Objective: To determine the knowledge and attitude of antenatal patients in a Nigerian tertiary health facility toward vasectomy. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among antenatal clinic attendees. The participants were selected via systematic random sampling technique and a structured pretested questionnaire was used to assess their knowledge and attitude toward vasectomy. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 17 statistical software for windows XP and results were expressed in percentages. Results: One hundred and fifty respondents participated in the study, 83 (55.3% were aware of vasectomy, 59 (71.08% accepted it as a method of male contraception, and only 23 (38.98% approved its use for their spouse. The main source of information on vasectomy was from health workers 53 (63.86%. Almost half of the women (47.8% who accepted vasectomy did so because they felt men should also participate in family planning. Most of the women who disapproved of vasectomy cited it as an unpopular method. Conclusion: The approval of use of vasectomy by female partners is poor. Majority of these patients would not recommend it to their spouse as they have wrong perception of the procedure. Re-education of medical workers and wider public education through mass media may improve the approval of vasectomy by women for their spouses.
Amit Kumar Mishra, Smita Panda, Prakash Chandra Panda
Full Text Available Introduction: In INDIA almost 20000 people die (40% of world death each year from rabies. Most of these deaths could be prevented by post exposure prophylaxis with wound washing, rabies immunoglobulin & vaccination. Local wound management alone can reduce viral load by up to 80%. Objective: To study self-wound management practices in animal exposure patients before attending a tertiary level ARV clinic. Methodology: Data regarding wound management was collected by individual interview of patients attending the ARV clinic during OCT 2011 to MAR 2012. The data collected in the form of a questionnaire. Analysis of data was done in the Department Of Community Medicine, V.S.S. Medical College, Burla. Results: Total 493 cases of animal exposure were attended during the study period. Most common biting animal was dog (94.5%. 31% of cases were under the age of 10 years & 23% belongs to the age of 10-19 years. Male to female ratio was 3:1. Most of the cases (91% were of category III exposure. Immediate management of wound was practiced by 63-77% of cases before visiting ARV clinic; only 2% wash the wound with running water & soap for 15 minutes. 39% of cases applied Dettol/savlon at the wound side & other 38% applied turmeric, red chilli, kerosene, Band-Aid & ghee locally. Most cases (61% reported to ARV clinic within 24hours.
Johnson, Hope L; Ghanem, Khalil G; Zenilman, Jonathan M; Erbelding, Emily J
Studies in antenatal care clinics suggest that lower genital tract infections (LGTI) may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO). We sought to characterize antenatal care patterns and determine whether LGTI are independently associated with preterm birth and/or low-birth weight among a high-risk public sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic population. Electronic STD clinic medical records and state birth records were matched for 730 pregnant women age 13 to 49 tested for 5 treatable LGTI (bacterial vaginosis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, early syphilis, and trichomoniasis) in a case-control analysis. Cases were women with preterm and/or low-birth weight newborns; controls were women without APO. The association between LGTI and APO was assessed using logistic regression. Although pregnant women attending STD clinics reported high risk behaviors and were found to have high rates of LGTI (55%), most of these women were engaged in antenatal care (85%). Of the pregnant women, 22% experienced an APO (7% preterm birth, 4% low birth weight, and 12% preterm birth and low birth weight). In multivariate analyses, chlamydia was associated with low-birth weight (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-4.24), and gonorrhea was associated with preterm birth (aOR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.02-3.97), particularly when diagnosed during the first trimester (aOR: 2.95, 95% CI: 1.30-6.70). Our findings confirm the association of some LGTI with APO and suggest that timing of LGTI screening may affect outcomes. STD clinic visits represent a critical opportunity to target interventions aimed at improving pregnancy outcomes.
The relationship of antenatal clinic (ANC) attendance and factors that could affect intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) uptake among 339 parturient women was examined. Respondents were enrolled over a period of three months in a secondary healthcare facility within 24 hours of delivery. Demographic details, delivery ...
This is a cross sectional survey of 212 consecutive pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi to determine the attitude and perceptions of pregnant women towards routine ultrasound examination in pregnancy. One hundred and ninety-eight (93.4%) of the ...
Altogether 2 250 asymptomatic pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic were investigated for serological evidence of past exposure to rubella and cytomegalovirus (CMV) as well as for active primary infection or reinfection/ reactivation. Only 7 (0,3%) active rubella infections were diagnosed, none of them primary.
B. D. SCHOUB, S. JOHNSON, J. M. McANERNEY, N. K. BLACKBURN,. F. GUIDOZZI, D. BALLOT, A. ROTHBERG. Abstract Altogether 2 250 asymptomatic pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic were investigated for serological evidence of past exposure to rubella and cytomegalovirus (CMV) as well as for active.
We studied 270 patients attending the booking antenatal clinic recruited for three months in the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), Nigeria. Each patient was screened for malaria parasites using Giemsa's stain of thick and thin blood films on 2 ml venous blood. Parameters on the age, parity, gestation at ...
Anjulo, Antehun Alemayehu; Abebe, Tamrat; Hailemichael, Feleke; Mihret, Adane
Herpes simplex virus type-2 is the common cause of genital ulcer disease worldwide. Genital herpes infection is a major concern in pregnancy due to the risk of neonatal transmission. A Cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 2013 to September 2014 in randomly selected 28 health centers to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors of herpes simplex virus type-2 infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia. After taking written consent socio demographic, behavioral, obstetric history and family planning data along with blood samples were collected from 252 pregnant women using pre-structured questionnaire. Sera were tested using HerpeSelect-2 ELISA IgG. Data entry and analysis was done using Epi info 3.5.4 and SPSS 21.00 respectively. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify the risk factors associated with HSV-2 seropositivity. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The overall seroprevalence of HSV-2 infection was 32.1 % (81/252) among pregnant women in Wolaita zone. Independent predictors of HSV-2 infection includes daily laborer (AOR 1.293, 95 % CI: 1.033-1.739; p = 0.022), having one sexual partners (AOR 0.476, 95 % CI: 0 .250 -0.904; p = 0.023), history of STDs (AOR 2.822, 95 % CI: 1.50-5.289; p = 0.001) and use of contraceptive (AOR 2.602, 95 % CI: 1.407-4.812; p = 0.002). Overall seroprevalence of HSV-2 infection among pregnant women of Wolaita Zone is high. Awareness creation among high risk groups like women who have history of STD should be strengthened. Strengthening the quality of health service delivery and expansion of health service coverage is mandatory.
Linguissi, Laure Stella Ghoma; Nagalo, Bolni Marius; Bisseye, Cyrille; Kagoné, Thérése S; Sanou, Mahamoudou; Tao, Issoufou; Benao, Victoire; Simporé, Jacques; Koné, Bibiane
To evaluate the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and rubella among pregnant women at Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso. All patient sera were tested for rubella and toxoplasmosis anti-IgG using commercial ELISA kits (Platelia™ Rubella IgG and Platelia™ Toxo IgG). The presence of anti-rubella and anti-toxoplasmosis IgM in serum samples was tested using commercial ELISA kits Platelia Rubella IgM and Platelia Toxo IgM. Among all the pregnant women tested for toxoplasmosis and rubella, their prevalence were 20.3% and 77.0%, respectively. Pregnant women in the age group of 18-25 years showed the highest frequency of anti-toxoplasmosis (34.5%) and anti-rubella IgG (84.6%). The prevalence of anti-toxoplasma and anti-rubella IgG decreased between 2006 and 2008 from 32.7% to 12.1% and 84.6% to 65.0%, respectively. There was no significant association between age and the mean titer of anti-toxoplasmosis IgG among pregnant women. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and rubella is necessary in pregnant women in Burkina Faso because of the low immunization coverage rate of rubella and the high level of exposure to these two infections which can be harmful to the newborn if contracted by women before the third trimester of pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Smith, J. W.; Rogers, R. E.; Katz, B.P.; Brickler, J F; Lineback, P L; Pol, B; Jones, R B
Two antigen detection systems (MicroTrak [MT], Syva Co., Palo Alto, Calif.; and Chlamydiazyme [CZ], Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.) were compared with semiquantitative culture for diagnosis of chlamydial infection in 1,059 patients. Cultures were done on microtiter plates and blind passaged once. Culture-negative but CZ- or MT-positive specimens were recultured. True positives were positive by either initial or repeat cultures. Of 827 nonpregnant and 231 pregnant patients, 9.1 and 1...
Mwanri, A.W.; Kinabo, J.L.; Ramaiya, K.; Feskens, E.J.M.
Aim: Hypertension during pregnancy (HDP) is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal mortality worldwide. This study examined prevalence and potential risk factors for HDP among pregnant women in Tanzania. Methods: We examined 910 pregnant women, aged at least 20 years, mean gestational
Habib, Muhammad Atif; Raynes-Greenow, Camille; Nausheen, Sidrah; Soofi, Sajid Bashir; Sajid, Muhammad; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Black, Kirsten I
Unintended pregnancies are a global public health concern and contribute significantly to adverse maternal and neonatal health, social and economic outcomes and increase the risks of maternal deaths and neonatal mortality. In countries like Pakistan where data for the unintended pregnancies is scarce, studies are required to estimate its accurate prevalence and predictors using more specific tools such as the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancies (LMUP). We conducted a hospital based cross sectional survey in two tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan. We used a pre tested structured questionnaire to collect the data on socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive history, awareness and past experience with contraceptives and unintended pregnancies using six item the LMUP. We used Univariate and multivariate analysis to explore the association between unintended pregnancies and predictor variables and presented the association as adjusted odds ratios. We also evaluated the psychometric properties of the Urdu version of the LMUP. Amongst 3010 pregnant women, 1150 (38.2%) pregnancies were reported as unintended. In the multivariate analysis age 2 (AOR 1.4 1.2-1.8), having no knowledge about contraceptive methods (AOR 3.0 1.7-5.4) and never use of contraceptive methods (AOR 2.3 1.4-5.1) remained significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. The Urdu version of the LMUP scale was found to be acceptable, valid and reliable with the Cronbach's alpha of 0.85. This study explores a high prevalence of unintended pregnancies and important factors especially those related to family planning. Integrated national family program that provides contraceptive services especially the modern methods to women during pre-conception and post-partum would be beneficial in averting unintended pregnancies and their related adverse outcomes in Pakistan.
alterations, and superimposed fetal metabolism and its needs. Vitamin B6 has been recognized as an essential micronutrient involved in normal fetal development, and positive pregnancy outcomes. It is essential for homocysteine metabolism. Its deficiency may lead to hyperhomocysteinaemia (2), which is an established.
Department of Home Economics/Human Nutrition, Bunda. College of Agriculture, University of Malawi. T Nyirenda. BM Mtimuni, GS Cusack . Correspondence to : Dr. Gil Cusack. Lecturer. Bunda College of Agriculture. P.O. Box 219. Lilongwe. Maternity unit of Mitundu Rural Hospital were analyzed to assess the effect of ...
Parikh U R; Goswami H M; Mehta R C; Patel P S; Gonsai R N
Introduction: Hemoglobinopathies are a group of genetic disorders of hemoglobin in which there is abnormal production or structure of the hemoglobin molecule. Aim: The present study attempted to find out the occurrence of hemoglobinopathies and the spectrum of different types of hemoglobinopathies in the study population. Material & Method: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study based on records of screening program for hemoglobinopathies in the hematology...
Evans, B A; Bond, R A; Macrae, K D
In 1025 women attending a genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic, sexual experience had started at an increasingly early age during the past 30 years, from a mode of 19 in the early 1950s to 16 in the early 1980s. Up to the age of 40, sexually active older women had as many recent sexual partners as younger women. Oral intercourse (fellatio) was practised by 714 (70%) women, and 378 (37%) experienced ejaculation in the mouth. Anal intercourse was practised by 200 (20%) women and 90 (9%) experienced ejaculation in the anorectum. The prevalence of all these practices increased with age. Women attending a Family Planning Association (FPA) clinic reported a similar prevalence of these practices, and differed from GUM clinic women only in the number of sexual partners in the preceding year. In the GUM group, black women reported significantly fewer recent sexual partners than did white women, and significantly fewer black women practised oral intercourse or permitted anal penetration. Full anal intercourse with ejaculation into the anorectum was practised at least occasionally by 9% (80/873) of white and 8% (10/131) of black women. PMID:3346024
Rees, Gail; Brooke, Zoe; Doyle, Wendy; Costeloe, Kate
We have previously found high rates of poor iron and folate status in women who had delivered a low birthweight baby (LBW) in an ethnically diverse inner-city area of the UK. However, little was known of the nutritional status in the local general obstetric population. We therefore investigated biochemical measures of nutritional status in the first trimester of the first pregnancy. Routine blood samples collected at the antenatal booking clinic were analysed for haemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin, red cell folate (RCF) (n = 100) and erythrocyte transketolase activation coefficient (ETKAC) for thiamin status (n = 90). We found 9% of women in our sample had a low Hb level, 10% had a low serum ferritin and only one had a low RCF. This is a substantially lower number of women with biochemical deficiencies than we found previously in women three months after delivering a LBW baby. However, 34% had low thiamin status. Thiamin status was negatively correlated with gestational age at birth (r = -0.407, p nutritional status were observed between ethnic and socio-economic groups. Hb levels differed between ethnic (p = 0.001) and socio-economic groups (p = 0.02), with Africans and women in manual occupations/unwaged having the lowest Hb levels. RCF levels also differed between groups (p nutrition particularly in ethnic minorities and low income groups who are most at risk of adverse birth outcomes such as LBW.
Full Text Available This study examines the organization of discourse in antenatal classrooms in south-western Nigeria. Antenatal literacy classrooms are classes organized in hospitals and health centres for pregnant women to intimate them with the necessary health information needed in pregnancy. The data for this study were randomly selected from series of data recorded during some antenatal classes in some selected hospitals in Ile-Ife and its environs, all in south-western Nigeria. The data consist of tape recordings of the classroom sessions and observational notes. The study reveals that three categories of discourse act were most prominent in the data - informative, elicitation and directive. This shows that the antenatal educators were more active in the classes than the students. They maximized the use of their power in discourse, which gives them the [+ HIGHER] role. They therefore had the privilege to talk while the mothers listened. This places the pregnant women at the disadvantage of being passive learners, who cannot see the knowledge being passed across beyond the context of the class. Despite that they have access to information, they are not adequately empowered to influence the society with what they are being exposed to. Their perception of their role in the discourse was that of listeners. The findings have significant implications for health literacy programmes in Nigeria. It clearly shows that health literacy programmes, as we have observed in antenatal classrooms exist only as an aspect of functional health literacy - the aspect that recognizes that pregnant women need to know about their health by listening to experts. This makes the practice, as it is essentially transactional. The study concludes that for antenatal classrooms to achieve their goal of health security of pregnant women and their foetus, they have to be more interactive. There must be a departure from the lecture method used now to a method that actually involves the mothers.
Jaiteh Lamin ES
Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal care is widely established and provides an opportunity to inform and educate pregnant women about pregnancy, childbirth and care of the newborn. It is expected that this would assist the women in making choices that would contribute to good pregnancy outcome. We examined the provision of information and education in antenatal clinics from the perspective of pregnant women attending these clinics. Methods A cross sectional survey of 457 pregnant women attending six urban and six rural antenatal clinics in the largest health division in The Gambia was undertaken. The women were interviewed using modified antenatal client exit interview and antenatal record review questionnaires from the WHO Safe Motherhood Needs Assessment kit. Differences between women attending urban and rural clinics were assessed using the Chi-square test. Relative risks with 95% confidence intervals are presented. Results Ninety percent of those interviewed had attended the antenatal clinic more than once and 52% four or more times. Most pregnant women (70.5% said they spent 3 minutes or less with the antenatal care provider. About 35% recalled they were informed or educated on diet and nutrition, 30.4% on care of the baby, 23.6% on family planning, 22.8% on place of birth and 19.3% on what to do if there was a complication. About 25% of pregnant women said they were given information about the progress of their pregnancy after consultation and only 12.8% asked their provider any question. Awareness of danger signs was low. The proportions of women that recognised signs of danger were 28.9% for anaemia, 24.6% for hypertension, 14.8% for haemorrhage, 12.9% for fever and 5% for puerperal sepsis. Prolonged labour was not recognised as a danger sign. Women attending rural antenatal clinics were 1.6 times more likely to recognise signs of anaemia and hypertension as indicative of danger compared to women attending urban antenatal clinics. Conclusion
Pinol, A; Bergel, E; Chaisiri, K; Diaz, E; Gandeh, M
The World Health Organisation, in collaboration with four developing countries, is conducting a randomised controlled clinical trial to evaluate a new programme of antenatal care. In a city or region in Argentina, Cuba, Saudi Arabia and Thailand, 53 clinical units were randomly allocated to provide either the new programme or the programme currently in use. This paper describes the organisation of the data management system used to collect the data. Each woman participating in the trial is uniquely identified, and information such as her name, address and expected delivery date is recorded in the trial 'subject number list'. If the clinic belongs to the intervention group, information about the woman's eligibility is recorded on the classification form. Details of the outcome of the pregnancy are indicated on two additional case report forms: the antenatal hospital admission form and the summary form. When forms are completed by the investigators, they are submitted to the country data coordinating centre (CDCC). The CDCCs are responsible for the processing of the country study forms. This includes verification of the batch of forms, data capture into computer files, data verification, data validation, production of query sheets for data problems, maintenance and updating of study master files. All operations on data such as additions or modifications are performed using transaction processing. At monthly intervals, recruitment reports and transaction files are sent to the trial coordinating centre in Geneva. All transaction files are processed to accumulate data on the trial's consolidated master files. A monthly report including number of women recruited in the trial, adverse events reported by the countries, recruitment charts by clinic and analyses on eligible women in the intervention group is prepared and submitted to the data safety and monitoring committee. A workshop was organised in 1995, before the start of the trial, to introduce the data management
Roberts, J; Sealy, D; Marshak, H Hopp; Manda-Taylor, L; Gleason, P; Mataya, R
Approximately 90% of Malawian women attend antenatal care at least once during their pregnancies; however, most mothers first present during months five and six and do not adhere to the World Health Organization's recommended four visits. The objective of this study was to explore the role the patient-provider relationship has on antenatal care uptake. A qualitative study, consisting of interviews with 20 urban pregnant mothers and eight health workers, was conducted from September to December 2014. Two large tertiary care hospitals in the Central and Southern regions of Malawi were selected as study sites. Several factors influenced antenatal care attendance. Significant barriers reported included the patient-provider relationship, clinic wait times, family and friend support, distance from home to the clinic, transportation, cost, and number of visits. The patient-provider relationship appears to have a large impact on antenatal clinic participation. Mothers indicated that health workers often mistreat or demean them during visits. Additionally, health workers revealed that, due to staff shortages, patients often do not receive the care they deserve. The results of this study suggest that, in addition to other factors, healthcare provider attitudes influence antenatal clinic attendance. Improving the patient-provider relationship may increase antenatal clinic attendance and decrease pregnancy complications during pregnancy. Professional development opportunities and quality improvement programmes are would help improve patient care and health outcomes while the continued staff shortages in the country are addressed.
McQuaid, Fiona; Jones, Christine; Stevens, Zoe; Plumb, Jane; Hughes, Rhona; Bedford, Helen; Voysey, Merryn; Heath, Paul T; Snape, Matthew D
To explore factors influencing the likelihood of antenatal vaccine acceptance of both routine UK antenatal vaccines (influenza and pertussis) and a hypothetical group B Streptococcus (GBS) vaccine in order to improve understanding of how to optimise antenatal immunisation acceptance, both in routine use and clinical trials. An online survey distributed to women of childbearing age in the UK. 1013 women aged 18-44 years in England, Scotland and Wales. Data from an online survey conducted to gauge the attitudes of 1013 women of childbearing age in England, Scotland and Wales to antenatal vaccination against GBS were further analysed to determine the influence of socioeconomic status, parity and age on attitudes to GBS immunisation, using attitudes to influenza and pertussis vaccines as reference immunisations. Factors influencing likelihood of participation in a hypothetical GBS vaccine trial were also assessed. Women with children were more likely to know about each of the 3 conditions surveyed (GBS: 45% vs 26%, pertussis: 79% vs 63%, influenza: 66% vs 54%), to accept vaccination (GBS: 77% vs 65%, pertussis: 79% vs 70%, influenza: 78% vs 68%) and to consider taking part in vaccine trials (37% vs 27% for a hypothetical GBS vaccine tested in 500 pregnant women). For GBS, giving information about the condition significantly increased the number of respondents who reported that they would be likely to receive the vaccine. Health professionals were the most important reported source of information. Increasing awareness about GBS, along with other key strategies, would be required to optimise the uptake of a routine vaccine, with a specific focus on informing women without previous children. More research specifically focusing on acceptability in pregnant women is required and, given the value attached to input from healthcare professionals, this group should be included in future studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not
No significant relationship was found to exist between age and the haematocrit values. (F = 0.91, P > 0.05). Since pregnancy in sickle cell disease is associated with morbidity, proper antenatal monitoring and counselling will be necessary to prevent fatal outcomes. African Journal of Reproductive Health Vol. 9(3) 2005: ...
Vermeer, Julianne; Rice, Danielle; McIntyre, Amanda; Viana, Ricardo; Macaluso, Steven; Teasell, Robert
Background and purpose Depressive symptoms are common post-stroke. We examined stroke deficits and lifestyle factors that are independent predictors for depressive symptomology. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed for patients' post-stroke who attended outpatient clinics at a hospital in Southwestern Ontario between 1 January 2014 and 30 September 2014. Demographic variables, stroke deficits, secondary stroke risk factors and disability study measures [Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)] were analyzed. Results Of the 221 outpatients who attended the stroke clinics (53% male; mean age = 65.2 ± 14.9 years; mean time post-stroke 14.6 ± 20.1 months), 202 patients were used in the final analysis. About 36% of patients (mean = 5.17 ± 5.96) reported mild to severe depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 5). Cognitive impairment (CI), smoking, pain and therapy enrollment (p symptoms. Patients reporting CI were 4 times more likely to score highly on the PHQ-9 than those who did not report CI (OR = 4.72). While controlling for age, MoCA scores negatively related to depressive symptoms with higher PHQ-9 scores associated with lower MoCA scores (r= -0.39, p symptoms are common in the chronic phase post-stroke and were partially related to cognition, pain, therapy enrollment and lifestyle factors. Implications for Rehabilitation Stroke patients who report cognitive deficits, pain, tobacco use or being enrolled in therapy may experience increased depressive symptoms. A holistic perspective of disease and lifestyle factors should be considered while assessing risk of depressive symptoms in stroke patients. Patients at risk for depressive symptoms should be monitored at subsequent outpatient visits.
Plasmodium parasitaemia was determined among pregnant women attending Ante-Natal Clinic at Military Hospital Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria using the Standard parasitological technique. Venous blood was collected from 200 pregnant women, both thick and thin blood films were made on clean greese-free glass ...
Assessment of coverage of preventive treatment and insecticide-treated mosquito nets in pregnant women attending antenatal care services in 11 districts in Mozambique in 2011: the critical role of supply chain.
Salomão, Cristolde; Sacarlal, Jahit; Gudo, Eduardo Samo
Malaria during pregnancy is associated with poor maternal and pregnancy outcome and the World Health Organization recommends the administration of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and distribution of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) to all pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) services. This study was conducted with the aim to assess the uptake of IPTp and ITNs in pregnant women attending ANC services and correlate with ANC attendance and frequency of stock-outs in 22 health facilities Mozambique. A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and December 2011 in 22 health units in 11 districts situated in 11 provinces in Mozambique. Two health facilities were selected per district (one urban and one rural). Data were collected by reviewing logbooks of antenatal consultations as well as from monthly district reports. During the period under investigation, a total of 23,524 pregnant women attended their 1st antenatal care visits, of which 12,775 (54.3%) and 7581 (32.2%) received one and two doses of IPTp, respectively. In regard to ITNs, a total of 16,436 (69.9%) pregnant women received ITNs. Uptake of IPTp and ITNs by pregnant women at ANC services was higher in southern Mozambique and lower in districts situated in the northern part of the country. Stock-outs of SP and ITNs were reported in 50.0% (11/22) and 54.5% (12/22) of the health facilities, respectively. Coverage of IPTp and ITN in health facilities with stock-outs of SP and ITNs was much lower as compared to health facilities with no stock-outs. Altogether, data from this study shows that coverage of the 2nd dose of IPTp, as well as ITNs, was low in pregnant women attending ANC services in Mozambique. In addition, this data also shows that stock-outs of SP and ITNs were frequent and led to lower coverage of IPTp and ITN, representing a serious barrier for the accomplishment of targets. In conclusion, this study recommends that
Full Text Available Colleen Doyle,1–3 David Dunt,2 David Ames,1 Suganya Selvarajah11National Ageing Research Institute, Royal Melbourne Hospital Royal Park Campus, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; 2Centre for Health Policy, Programs and Economics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; 3Australian Catholic University, Fitzroy, Victoria, AustraliaBackground: There is good evidence for the positive benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR in the prevention of hospital admissions, lower mortality, and improved health-related quality of life. There is also increasing evidence about the impact of PR on mental health and, in particular, mood disorders. We aimed to identify how depression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients in Victoria, Australia, is being managed in PR, to identify the prevalence of depressive symptoms among COPD patients who attend PR, and to determine whether patients with depressive symptoms or anxiety symptoms dropped out of PR early.Method: Of 61 PR clinics, 44 were invited and 22 agreed to participate. Telephone interviews were conducted to see how depression and anxiety in COPD patients were being recognized and managed in these clinics. A total of 294 questionnaires were distributed to patients by clinic coordinators to determine the prevalence of anxiety/depression, as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Coordinators were contacted to provide information on whether respondents dropped out of rehabilitation early or continued with their treatment at 2–4 months post program.Results: Seven clinics were not aware of local guidelines on assessment/treatment/management of mood. Four clinics did not use any screening tools or other aids in the recognition and management of depression and/or anxiety. Overall, eight clinics participating in this study requested advice on suitable screening tools. The patient survey indicated that the mean depression score on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression
Malouf, Reem; Redshaw, Maggie
Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Women with previous prenatal loss are at higher risk of preterm birth. A specialist antenatal clinic is considered as one approach to improve maternity and pregnancy outcomes. A systematic review of quantitative, qualitative and mixed method studies conducted on women at high risk of preterm birth (PTB). The review primary outcomes were to report on the specialist antenatal clinics effect in preventing or reducing preterm birth, perinatal mortality and morbidity and women's perceptions and experiences of a specialist clinic whether compared or not compared with standard antenatal care. Other secondary maternal, infant and economic outcomes were also determined. A comprehensive search strategy was carried out in English within electronic databases as far back as 1980. The reviewers selected studies, assessed the quality, and extracted data independently. Results were summarized and tabulated. Eleven studies fully met the review inclusion criteria, ten were quantitative design studies and only one was a qualitative design study. No mixed method design study was included in the review. All were published after 1989, seven were conducted in the USA and four in the UK. Results from five good to low quality randomised controlled trials (RCTs), all conducted before 1990, did not illustrate the efficacy of the clinic in reducing preterm birth. Whereas results from more recent low quality cohort studies showed some positive neonatal outcomes. Themes from one good quality qualitative study reflected on the emotional and psychological need to reduce anxiety and stress of women referred to such a clinic. Women expressed their negative emotional responses at being labelled as high risk and positive responses to being assessed and treated in the clinic. Women also reported that their partners were struggling to cope emotionally. Findings from this review were mixed. Evidence from cohort studies
Groves, Allison K; Maman, Suzanne; Msomi, Sibekezelo; Makhanya, Nduduzo; Moodley, Dhayendre
Informed consent has historically been a cornerstone to ensuring autonomy during HIV testing. However, recent changes to global guidance on HIV testing have led to substantial debate on what policy provisions are necessary to ensure that consent remains meaningful in the context of testing. Despite disproportionate rates of testing during pregnancy, pregnant women's perspectives on the HIV testing process are underrepresented in the testing discourse. This study explores women's experiences with HIV testing and the consent process in a public antenatal clinic in South Africa. Qualitative interviews with 25 women were conducted at the clinic at either an antenatal visit or an infant immunization visit that followed HIV testing. Interviews were transcribed, translated, and coded for analysis. Women were categorized into one of the three groups based on their perceptions of choice in consenting for an HIV test. Matrices were used to allow for cross-category and cross-case comparison. Half of the women described having a clear choice in their decision to test. Others were less clear about their choice. Some women felt they had no choice in testing for HIV. None of the women stated that they were tested without having signed a consent form. We found that half of the women's narratives illustrated direct and indirect ways in which providers coerced them into taking an HIV test while receiving antenatal care. As the new guidance on HIV testing is implemented in different settings, it is critical to monitor women's testing experiences to ensure that a woman's right to make an informed, voluntary choice is not violated. Furthermore, models of testing that allow us to meet broader public health goals while simultaneously respecting women's autonomy are needed.
Wallace, S V; Carlin, E M
To identify men's knowledge and attitude to contraception and to determine whether there are differences in those men who have previous experience of termination of pregnancy (TOP) compared to those without experience. Cross-sectional survey by written questionnaire of male attenders at a genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic. In total 999 men, aged 15 to 70 years, completed questionnaires, 97.2% of those eligible. Over 96% of men wishing to avoid pregnancy with regular sexual partners were using contraception. However, with casual sexual partners 36% of men would not ensure that they were covered for contraception. The majority, 68.8%, of men did not have enough knowledge to access appropriate emergency contraception. Experience of a TOP was reported by 16.5% of men. Compared to men who did not have termination experience there were no differences in contraceptive use or their knowledge of emergency contraception. Use of contraception with regular sexual partners was good, but this was not the case with casual sexual partners or with respect to knowledge of emergency contraception. No significant differences were found in contraceptive use or attitudes between men with or without experience of TOP, but this may be influenced by several factors including the cross-sectional nature of the study. Improved targeting of men at the time of their partner's termination and the development of a National Sexual Health Strategy which takes into account men's needs may address this.
Azodo, C C; Chukwumah, N M; Ezeja, E B
To determine the incidence and causes of dentoalveolar abscess among children attending an outpatient dental clinic in Nigeria. This is a retrospective study of paediatric dental patients treated in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City from October 2010 to September 2011. The incidence of dentoalveolar abscess was 6.4% (53/824). However only 42 cases had their case notes retrieved for final research analysis. It occurred mostly in the lower right quadrant of the mouth. The affected children were majorly males and first or second child of monogamous family. A total 17 (40.5%) of the affected children were in the 6-11 years age group. This was the first dentist consultation among 35 (83.3%) of the children. The presenting complaint was toothache among two-thirds of the children. History of asthma, tonsillitis, peptic ulcer disease and previous surgery were medical history elicited from 6 (14.3) of the patients. The most implicated tooth was deciduous first molar. The causes of abscess include untreated dental caries 35 (83.3%), trauma 5 (11.9%), failed restoration 1 (2.4%) and periodontal diseases 1 (2.4%). Periapical radioluscency was predominant radiological finding among affected children. Tooth extraction was commonest treatment done. The incidence of dentoalveolar abscess among children was significant. The high frequency of untreated dental caries as the cause of dentoalveolar abscess indicates the need for school and community-based preventive strategies like encouraging infant oral health and preventive dentistry programs and early treatment intervention and dental health education.
Fatiregun, A. A.; Abegunde, V. O.
Maternal characteristics can affect a mother's decision to breastfeed. This study used a cross-sectional design to assess maternal variables and infant feeding patterns among nursing mothers attending an immunisation clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria. A total of 264 mothers who consecutively attended the immunisation clinic and met certain inclusion…
Increasing Partner Attendance in Antenatal Care and HIV Testing Services: Comparable Outcomes Using Written versus Verbal Invitations in an Urban Facility-Based Controlled Intervention Trial in Mbeya, Tanzania.
Full Text Available In many Sub-Saharan African settings male partner involvement in antenatal care (ANC remains low, although great benefits for maternal and infant health outcomes have been long recognised, in particular regarding the prevention of HIV transmission. Yet there is paucity on evidence regarding the effectiveness of strategies to increase male partner involvement. This controlled intervention trial in Ruanda Health Centre in Mbeya, Tanzania, assessed the effectiveness of invitation letters for male involvement in ANC. Pregnant women approaching ANC without partners received official letters inviting the partner to attend ANC. A control group was instructed to verbally invite partners. Partner attendance was recorded at two subsequent ANC visits. Rates for male partner return, couple voluntary counselling and testing (CVCT, and influencing factors were analysed. From 199 ANC clients in total, 97 were assigned to the invitation letter group; 30 of these (30.9% returned with their male partners for ANC. In the control group of 102 women, 28 (27.5% returned with their partner. In both groups CVCT rates among jointly returning couples were 100%. Partner return/CVCT rate was not statistically different in intervention and control group (OR 1.2, p = 0.59. Former partner attendance at ANC during a previous pregnancy was the only factor found to be significantly linked with partner return (p = 0.03. Our study demonstrates that rather simple measures to increase male partner attendance in ANC and CVCT can be effective, with written and verbal invitations having comparable outcomes. In terms of practicability in Sub-Saharan African settings, we recommend systematic coaching of ANC clients on how to verbally invite male partners in the first instance, followed by written invitation letters for partners in case of their non-attendance. Further studies covering both urban and rural settings will be more informative for effective translation into policy.
AJRH Managing Editor
The World Health Organization recommends four antenatal visits for pregnant women in developing countries. Cash transfers have been used to incentivize participation in health services. We examined whether modest cash transfers for participation in antenatal care would increase antenatal care attendance and delivery ...
This study explores into realized access to antenatal care utilisation in Uganda. This emanates from the fact that access to antenatal care is still a national nemesis, (National Service Delivery Survey Report, 2005). In Uganda, the Ministry of Health (MoH) recommends that a pregnant woman should attend antenatal care at ...
The traditional practices of cord care in Benin City include the use of hot compress (46.1%), menthol-containing balm, herbs, native chalk, petroleum jelly, palm oil, toothpaste (Close-up), salt, sand and saliva. The most common single agent for cord treatment was alcohol (methylated spirit). Conclusion: The attendant risks ...
McQuaid, Fiona; Pask, Sophie; Locock, Louise; Davis, Elizabeth; Stevens, Zoe; Plumb, Jane; Snape, Matthew D
Antenatal vaccination has become a part of routine care during pregnancy in the UK and worldwide, leading to improvements in health for both pregnant women and their infants. However, uptake remains sub-optimal. Other antenatal vaccines targeting major neonatal pathogens, such as Group B streptococcus (GBS), the commonest cause of sepsis and meningitis in the neonatal period, are undergoing clinical trials but more information is needed on how to improve acceptance of such vaccines. Qualitative study using focus groups and interviews; involving 14 pregnant women, 8 mothers with experience of GBS, and 28 maternity healthcare professionals. Questions were asked regarding antenatal vaccines, knowledge of GBS, attitudes to a potential future GBS vaccine and participation in antenatal vaccine trials. All participants were very cautious about vaccination during pregnancy, with harm to the baby being a major concern. Despite this, the pregnant women and parents with experience of GBS were open to the idea of an antenatal GBS vaccine and participating in research, while the maternity professionals were less positive. Major barriers identified included lack of knowledge about GBS and the reluctance of maternity professionals to be involved. In order for a future GBS vaccine to be acceptable to both pregnant women and the healthcare professionals advising them, a major awareness campaign would be required with significant focus on convincing and training maternity professionals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Whitworth, Melissa; Quenby, Siobhan; Cockerill, Ruth O; Dowswell, Therese
Background Amongst the risk factors for preterm birth, previous preterm delivery is a strong predictor. Specialised clinics for women with a history of spontaneous preterm delivery have been advocated as a way of improving outcomes for women and their infants. Objectives To assess using the best available evidence, the value of specialised antenatal clinics for women with a pregnancy at high risk of preterm delivery when compared with ‘standard’ antenatal clinics. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 June 2011). Selection criteria All published, unpublished, and ongoing randomised controlled trials (including cluster-randomised trials) examining specialised compared with standard antenatal clinic care for women with a singleton pregnancy considered at high risk of preterm labour. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Main results We included three trials with 3400 women, all carried out in the USA. All focused on specialised clinics for women at high risk of preterm birth. Gestational age at delivery, preterm delivery, or both were primary outcomes in all studies. The interventions in the three trials differed. Overall there was very little data on our prespecified outcomes. For most outcomes a single study provided data, hence there was not the statistical power to detect any possible differences between groups. There was no clear evidence that specialised antenatal clinics reduce the number of preterm births. Authors’ conclusions Specialised antenatal clinics are now an accepted part of care in many settings, and carrying out further randomised trials may not be possible. Any future research in this area should include psychological outcomes and should focus on which aspects of service provision are preferred by women. Such research could underpin further service development in this area. PMID:21901705
Sturm, P.D.J.; Connolly, C.E.; Khan, N.; Ebrahim, S.; Sturm, A.W.
Self-inserted vaginal tampons for the molecular diagnosis of non-ulcerative STIs were evaluated. Cervical and vaginal swabs, tampons and urines were collected from 185 first-time antenatal clinic attendees. Cultures and nucleic acid amplification assays (NAA) were performed. The sensitivity of PCR
Busari, Jamiu O.; Weggelaar, Nielske M.; Knottnerus, Andrieke C.; Greidanus, Petra-Marie; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.
The supervision of medical residents is a key responsibility of attending doctors in the clinical setting. Most attending doctors, however, are unfamiliar with the principles of effective supervision. Although inconsistent, supervision has been shown to be both important and effective for the
Diamond-Smith, Nadia; Sudhinaraset, May; Montagu, Dominic
The majority of women in sub-Saharan Africa now deliver in a facility, however, little is known about the quality of services for maternal and newborn basic and emergency care, nor how this is associated with patient's perception of their experiences. Using data from the Service Provision Assessment (SPA) survey from Kenya 2010 and Namibia 2009, we explore whether facilities have the necessary signal functions for providing emergency and basic maternal (EmOC) and newborn care (EmNC), and antenatal care (ANC) using descriptives and multivariate regression. We explore differences by type of facility (hospital, center or other) and by private and public facilities. Finally, we see if patient satisfaction (taken from exit surveys at antenatal care) is associated with the quality of services (specific services provided). We find that most facilities do not have all of the signal functions, with 46 and 27 % in Kenya and 18 and 5 % in Namibia of facilities have high/basic scores in routine and emergency obstetric care, respectively. We found that hospitals preform better than centers in general and few differences emerged between public and private facilities. Patient perceptions were not consistently associated with services provided; however, patients had fewer complaints in private compared to public facilities in Kenya (-0.46 fewer complaints in private) and smaller facilities compared to larger in Namibia (-0.26 fewer complaints in smaller facilities). Service quality itself (measured in scores), however, was only significantly better in Kenya for EmOC and EmNC. This analysis sheds light on the inadequate levels of care for saving maternal and newborn lives in most facilities in two countries of Africa. It also highlights the disconnect between patients' perceptions and clinical quality of services. More effort is needed to ensure that high quality supply of services is present to meet growing demand as an increasing number of women deliver in facilities.
Tang, Woung-Ru; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Fang, Chun-Kai; Fujimori, Maiko
Truth telling or transmitting bad news is a problem that all doctors must frequently face. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate if medical students' opinions of truth telling differed from their observations of attending physicians' actual clinical practice. The subjects were 275 medical clerks/interns at a medical center in northern Taiwan. Data were collected on medical students' opinions of truth telling, their observations of physicians' clinical practice, students' level of satisfaction with truth telling practiced by attending physicians, and cancer patients' distress level when they were told the truth. Students' truth-telling awareness was significantly higher than the clinical truth-telling practice of attending physicians (ptruth telling of attending physicians (mean ± SD=7.33 ± 1.74). However, our data also show that when cancer patients were informed of bad news, they all experienced medium to above average distress (5.93 ± 2.19). To develop the ability to tell the truth well, one must receive regular training in communication skills, including experienced attending physicians. This study found a significant difference between medical students' opinions on truth telling and attending physicians' actual clinical practice. More research is needed to objectively assess physicians' truth telling in clinical practice and to study the factors affecting the method of truth telling used by attending physicians in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
AJRH Managing Editor
1Global REACH, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA, 2Minority and Health Disparities International Research. Training Program ... pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Akwatia, Ghana (May-July 2010) to better understand the barriers to SBA and ..... attendees the day starts off with a group prayer,.
This study aim to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in a tertiary health institution in the middle belt of Nigeria. Stool samples of six hundred females, consisting of three hundred each of pregnant women and nonpregnant ladies (controls) were collected and ...
The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in 200 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic (ANC) of Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) between April and June 2003 was determined. Geimsa-stained thick and thin blood films were examined microscopically for malaria parasites; the parasite densities were ...
positive patients at CHBAH with a psychiatric diagnosis. Patients are thus able to attend one clinic for both their psychiatric treatment and their ART. In addition, patients have access to a full multidisciplinary team, including occupational therapists,.
A study on a stratified sample of 120 adult registered diabetic patients from the only two diabetes clinics in Ibadan, University College Hospital (UCH) and Ring Road Government Hospital and fifty (50) healthy adult nondiabetic volunteers as control, shows that 51.48% of the interviewees have never visited the dental clinic ...
Vale Francisco A.C.
Full Text Available We describe clinical and socio-demographic features of patients with dementia attended in a tertiary outpatient clinic during a three years period (56.9% of the total attendance. Most of them were men, white, from the local community, urban district. Nobody had a job at the moment, two thirds of them got social welfare benefit. They lived with their family, the caregiver being the spouse or a daughter. The education level was very low, a quarter of them being illiterate. They were referred mostly from the public health care service, by neurologists or psychiatrists due to cognitive disorders. Family history as well as individual history of previous neurological/psychiatric disorders were frequent, especially alcoholism, stroke, head trauma and dementia. The neurological exam showed abnormalities in two thirds of cases, chiefly extra-pyramidal and pyramidal signs. Alzheimer's disease was the most frequent cause, followed by cerebrovascular disorder; alcoholism and normal pressure hydrocephalus were also frequent causes. Most patients presented concomitant non-etiological neurological/psychiatric disorders, mainly alcoholism and depression, and non-neurological/psychiatric diseases, predominantly hypertension, cardiopathy and diabetes. Most patients had been referred under medication, frequently politherapy, including psychotropics.
E. L. Mc Goldrick
Full Text Available Abstract Background The ineffective implementation of evidence based practice guidelines can mean that the best health outcomes are not achieved. This study examined the barriers and enablers to the uptake and implementation of the new bi-national (Australia and New Zealand antenatal corticosteroid clinical practice guidelines among health professionals, using the Theoretical Domains Framework. Methods Semi-structured interviews or online questionnaires were conducted across four health professional groups and three district health boards in Auckland, New Zealand. The questions were constructed to reflect the 14 behavioural domains from the Theoretical Domains Framework. Relevant domains were identified by the presence of conflicting beliefs within a domain; the frequency of beliefs; and the likely strength of the impact of a belief on the behaviour using thematic analysis. The influence of health professional group and organisation on the different barriers and enablers identified were explored. Results Seventy-three health professionals completed either a semi-structured interview (n = 35 or on-line questionnaire (n = 38. Seven behavioural domains were identified as overarching enablers: belief about consequences; knowledge; social influences; environmental context and resource; belief about capabilities; social professional role and identity; and behavioural regulation. Five behavioural domains were identified as overarching barriers: environmental context and resources; knowledge; social influences; belief about consequences; and social professional role and identity. Differences in beliefs between individual health professional groups were identified within the domains: belief about consequences; social professional role and identity; and emotion. Organisational differences were identified within the domains: belief about consequences; social influences; and belief about capabilities. Conclusion This study has identified some of the
Jeppesen, Maja Haunstrup; Ainsworth, Mark Andrew
Non-attendance is a global health-care problem. The aim of the present study was 1) to investigate if a telephone reminder could reduce the non-attendance rate, 2) to study reasons for non-attendance and 3) to evaluate if a permanent implementation would be economically advantageous in a gastroenterology outpatient clinic like ours. This was a comparative intervention study with a historical control group in a gastroenterology outpatient clinic. The study lasted six months. Patients with a scheduled appointment in the first three-month period received no reminder (control group, n = 2,705). Patients in the following three-month period were reminded by telephone one weekday in advance of their appointment, when possible (intervention group, n = 2,479). Non-attending patients in the intervention group received a questionnaire. Based on the results, a financial cost-benefit analysis was made. In the intervention group, 1,577 (64%) patients answered the reminder telephone call. The non-attendance rate was significantly lower in the intervention group (6.1%) than in the control group (10.5%) (p < 0.00001). Only 1.3% of the patients who answered the reminder turned out to be non-attendees. The most common explanation for non-attendance in the intervention group was forgetfulness (39%). The reminder telephone call was cost-effective. In this outpatient clinic, telephone reminders were cost-effective and significantly reduced the non-attendance rate by 43%.
Blæhr, Emely; Søgaard, Rikke; Kristensen, Thomas
INTRODUCTION: Non-attended hospital appointments are receiving increasing attention in times when rapid access and efficient service delivery at public hospitals are on the agenda. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of non-attendance in a Danish outpatient setting and its...... association with user-level and provider-level characteristics. METHODS: The study was based on appointments scheduled from June 2013 to March 2015 at an orthopaedic and a radiologic outpatient clinic. Data on outcomes of cancellation on the part of the user or the provider, and non-attendance without giving......-attendance and thereby to improve the efficiency of Danish outpatient services. Future studies should investigate the effect of initiatives such as nudging and fines targeting the appointments that have the highest non-attendance rates. FUNDING: Danish Regions, the Danish Ministry of Health and the Central Denmark...
Deane, Richard P; Murphy, Deirdre J
Student attendance is thought to be an important factor in the academic performance of medical students, in addition to having important regulatory, policy, and financial implications for medical educators. However, this relationship has not been well evaluated within clinical learning environments. To evaluate the relationship between student attendance and academic performance in a medical student obstetrics/gynecology clinical rotation. A prospective cohort study of student attendance at clinical and tutorial-based activities during a full academic year (September 2011 to June 2012) within a publicly funded university teaching hospital in Dublin, Ireland. Students were expected to attend 64 activities (26 clinical activities and 38 tutorial-based activities) but attendance was not mandatory. All 147 fourth-year medical students who completed an 8-week obstetrics/gynecology rotation were included. Student attendance at clinical and tutorial-based activities, recorded using a paper-based logbook. The overall examination score (out of a possible 200 points) was obtained using an 11-station objective structured clinical examination (40 points), an end-of-year written examination comprising 50 multiple-choice questions (40 points) and 6 short-answer questions (40 points), and an end-of-year long-case clinical/oral examination (80 points). Students were required to have an overall score of 100 points (50%) and a minimum of 40 points in the long-case clinical/oral examination (50%) to pass. The mean attendance rate was 89% (range, 39%-100% [SD, 11%], n = 57/64 activities). Male students (84% attendance, P = .001) and students who failed an end-of-year examination previously (84% attendance, P = .04) had significantly lower rates. There was a positive correlation between attendance and overall examination score (r = 0.59 [95% CI, 0.44-0.70]; P sex, age, country of origin, previous failure in an end-of-year examination, and the timing of the rotation
Specific diagnoses recorded were depression (19.2%), generalised anxiety disorder (9.6%), harmful alcohol use (2.4%); dementia, somatoform disorder, phobia and delusional disorder each had a prevalence of 1.2%. Clinical and sociodemographic variables were not significantly associated with psychiatric morbidity.
Gardner, Lytt I.; Marks, Gary; Craw, Jason A.; Wilson, Tracey E.; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Moore, Richard D.; Mugavero, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Allan E.; Bradley-Springer, Lucy A.; Holman, Susan; Keruly, Jeanne C.; Sullivan, Meg; Skolnik, Paul R.; Malitz, Faye; Metsch, Lisa R.; Raper, James L.; Giordano, Thomas P.
Background. Retention in care for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients is a National HIV/AIDS Strategy priority. We hypothesized that retention could be improved with coordinated messages to encourage patients' clinic attendance. We report here the results of the first phase of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Health Resources and Services Administration Retention in Care project. Methods. Six HIV-specialty clinics participated in a cross-sectionally sampled pretest-posttest evaluation of brochures, posters, and messages that conveyed the importance of regular clinic attendance. 10 018 patients in 2008–2009 (preintervention period) and 11 039 patients in 2009–2010 (intervention period) were followed up for clinic attendance. Outcome variables were the percentage of patients who kept 2 consecutive primary care visits and the mean proportion of all primary care visits kept. Stratification variables were: new, reengaging, and active patients, HIV RNA viral load, CD4 cell count, age, sex, race or ethnicity, risk group, number of scheduled visits, and clinic site. Data were analyzed by multivariable log-binomial and linear models using generalized estimation equation methods. Results. Clinic attendance for primary care was significantly higher in the intervention versus preintervention year. Overall relative improvement was 7.0% for keeping 2 consecutive visits and 3.0% for the mean proportion of all visits kept (P < .0001). Larger relative improvement for both outcomes was observed for new or reengaging patients, young patients and patients with elevated viral loads. Improved attendance among the new or reengaging patients was consistent across the 6 clinics, and less consistent across clinics for active patients. Conclusion. Targeted messages on staying in care, which were delivered at minimal effort and cost, improved clinic attendance, especially for new or reengaging patients, young patients, and those with elevated
Boxall, E.; Skidmore, S.; Evans, C.; Nightingale, S.
A total of 3522 samples of serum, collected anonymously from women attending an antenatal clinic, was tested for hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody to hepatitis C. The prevalence of anti-HCV was low; only five confirmed positives were found (0.14%). The prevalence of hepatitis B overall was 0.56%, but was 1.04% in women from immigrant groups. Hepatitis B carriage is therefore four times more common than hepatitis C carriage in the antenatal population comprised of various ethnic origins...
Halvari, Anne E Münster; Halvari, Hallgeir; Williams, Geoffrey C; Deci, Edward L
To test the hypothesis that a Self-Determination Theory (SDT) intervention designed to promote oral health care competence in an autonomy-supportive way would predict change in caries competence relative to standard care. Further, to test the SDT process path-model hypotheses with: (1) the intervention and individual differences in relative autonomous locus of causality (RALOC) predicting increases in caries competence, which in turn would positively predict dental attendance; (2) RALOC negatively predicting dental anxiety, which would negatively predict dental attendance; (3) RALOC and caries disease referred to the dentist after an autonomy-supportive clinical exam directly positively predicting dental attendance; and (4) the intervention moderating the link between RALOC and dental attendance. A randomised two-group experiment was conducted at a dental clinic with 138 patients (Mage = 23.31 yr., SD = 3.5), with pre- and post-measures in a period of 5.5 months. The experimental model was supported. The SDT path model fit the data well and supported the hypotheses explaining 63% of the variance in dental attendance. Patients personality (RALOC) and hygienists promoting oral health care competence in an autonomy-supportive way, performance of autonomy-supportive clinical exams and reductions of anxiety for dental treatment have important practical implications for patients' dental attendance.
Background: HIV testing has been shown to be a crucial gateway to treatment, prevention, and support services; hence the urgent need to swiftly scale-up testing in a wide range of clinical encounters, as a means of controlling the pandemic. Fears have however been expressed that such swift scale-ups might result in ...
Nielsen, Dorthe; Rasmussen, Dlama Nggida; Sodemann, Morten
Non-western migrants and ethnic minority populations in western countries are particularly at risk of vitamin D deficiency due to darker skin color and low sun exposure. The aim of this study was to examine levels of 25-OH vitamin D in patients attending a Danish health clinic for migrants....... Patients attending the clinic represent a distinct group of migrants with longstanding, unresolved symptoms and often multiple illnesses. In this retrospective study, data on patient demographics and vitamin D levels were extracted from the medical records of 156 patients attending a Migrant Health Clinic...... in 2008-2011 who were considered at-risk for low vitamin D, mainly due to symptoms of diffuse pain in the muscles, bones or joints. Over the follow-up period of 1 year, the number of patients with vitamin D below 50 nmol/L decreased from 80 to 56 %. The median vitamin D level increased from 27 nmol...
Agnes T. Masango- Makgobela
Full Text Available Background: Many patients move from one healthcare provider or facility to another, disturbing the continuity that enhances holistic patient care.Objectives: To investigate the reasons given by patients for attending Karen Park Clinic rather than the clinic nearest to their homes.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted during 2010. Three hundred and fifty patients attending Karen Park Clinic were given questionnaires to complete, with the following variables: place of residence; previous attendance at the clinic nearest their home; services available at their nearest clinic; and their willingness to attend their nearest clinic in future.Results: Respondents were from Soshanguve (153; 43.7%, Mabopane (92; 26.3%, Garankuwa (29; 8.3% and Hebron (20; 5.7% and most were women (271; 77.4% aged 26–45 (177; 50.6%. Eighty per cent (281 of the patients had visited their nearest clinic previously and 54 of these (19.2% said they would not return. The reasons for this were: long waiting time (88; 25.1%; long queues (84; 24%; rude staff (60; 17%; and no medication (39; 11.1%.Conclusion: The majority of patients who had attended their nearest clinic were adamant that they would not return. It is necessary to reduce waiting times, thus reducing long queues. This can be achieved by having adequate, satisfied healthcare providers to render a quality service and by organising training for management. Patients can thus be redirected to their nearest clinic and the health centre’s capacity can be increased by procuring adequate drugs. There is a need to follow up on patients’ complaints about staff attitudes.
Full Text Available Introduction: In medical education, particularly in residency courses, most of the training occurs in real clinical environments. Workplace-based learning profoundly affects students’ knowledge, attitudes, and practice; therefore, it should be properly planned. Due to the extensiveness of the clinical environment and its importance in training residents, investigating how residents learn in these environments and detecting factors that influence effectiveness will help curriculum designers to promote residents’ learning by improving their learning environment. Therefore, our qualitative content analysis study, aimed to examine the experiences and perspectives of internal and surgical residents and their attending physicians about learning in clinical settings. Methods: This qualitative content analysis study was conducted through purposeful sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 internal and surgical residents and 15 of their attending physicians at educational hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Results: The main categories explored in this study were hidden curriculum, learning resources, and learning conditions. In the context of clinical environment and under its individual culture, residents learn professionalism and learn to improve their communication skills with patients and colleagues. Because of clinical obligations such as priority of treating the patients for education or workload of the attending physicians, residents acquire most of their practical knowledge from colleagues, fellows, or follow-up patients in different learning conditions (such as: educational rounds, morning reports and outpatient clinics. They see some of their attending physicians as role models. Conclusion: Changing cultural and contextual factors is of prime importance to promote a learning-oriented environment in a clinical setting. The present findings will help curriculum planners and attending physicians to improve
Bowen, Angela; Muhajarine, Nazeem
About 20 per cent of pregnant women experience antenatal depression (AD), which not only has deleterious effects on the woman and her baby but also increases the risk of developing postpartum depression. Nurses who understand the prevalence, signs and symptoms, and risk factors associated with AD can help to identify it and prevent the sequelae. The signs and symptoms of depression in pregnancy do not differ from depression at at any other time. However, AD may go undiagnosed because of a focus on maternal and fetal well-being and the attribution of complaints to the physical and hormonal changes associated with pregnancy. Risk factors include history of depression, lack of partner, marital difficulties, lack of social support, poverty, family violence, increased life stress, substance abuse, history of previous abortions, unplanned pregnancy, ambivalence toward the pregnancy and anxiety about the fetus. Most of the standard treatments for depression can be used in pregnant women, with the exception of some antidepressant medications. Supportive therapies--exercise, adequate nutrition, adequate sleep, and support from family and friends--are also indicated. Screening of women with known risk factors is crucial, but the authors suggest that the high overall prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy indicates a need for universal screening.
Kempny, Aleksander; Diller, Gerhard-Paul; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Alonso-Gonzalez, Rafael; Uebing, Anselm; Li, Wei; Babu-Narayan, Sonya; Swan, Lorna; Wort, Stephen J; Gatzoulis, Michael A
Adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) guidelines advise life-long, regular, follow up in predefined intervals for ACHD patients. However, limited data exist to support this position. We examine, herewith, compliance to scheduled outpatient clinic appointments and its impact on outcome. We examined 4461 ACHD patients (median age at entry 26.4years, 51% female) and their follow up records at our tertiary centre between 1991 and 2008. Clinic attendance was quantified from electronic hospital records. For survival analysis we employed the last clinic attendance before 2008 as starting of follow-up. Overall 23% of scheduled clinic appointments were not attended. The main predictors of clinic non-attendance (CNA) were younger age, non-Caucasian ethnicity, lower socioeconomic status, number of previous CNAs and the lack of planned additional investigation/s (e.g. echocardiography) scheduled on the same day. During a cumulative follow-up time of 48,828 patient-years, 366 (8.2%) patients died. Both, the number of CNAs (HR=1.08, 95% CI 1.05-1.12 per CNA, Pdisease complexity, functional class and socioeconomic status. Patient adherence to scheduled ACHD outpatient-clinics is associated with better survival. Identifying patients at an increased risk of CNA in a single tertiary centre is feasible. Our data provides previously lacking evidence supporting the practice of periodic assessment of ACHD patients at tertiary clinics. Non-attenders should be specifically targeted and receive counselling to modulate their increased risk of death. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
PURPOSE: This paper aims to determine the reasons why patients miss clinic appointments and to ascertain patients\\' views on the implementation of reminder systems and penalty fees to reduce the rates of did not attend (DNAs). Overall, the paper seeks to establish novel ways to run a more efficient out-patient department (OPD) service to improve waiting times and access for patients to limited neurology resources. DESIGN\\/METHODOLOGY\\/APPROACH: A questionnaire-based study was approved by the audit committee and was offered to 204 out-patients attending the neurology clinics over a three-month period (July to September 2009). The patients\\' demographic details and non-attendance records were reviewed. The paper aimed to ascertain, from the patients\\' perspective, why people failed to attend clinic appointments. Each participant was asked their views on how they felt their public hospital service might reduce the number of DNAs at their neurology OPD. FINDINGS: A total of 204 patients took part. Participants had a mean age of 31 years (range 25-75 years) with a modal peak in the 26 to 35 age bracket. Almost 10 per cent of those surveyed admitted to missing a hospital out-patient appointment in the past. The most common reason was that they simply "forgot" (28 per cent). DNA rates by age range were proportionally similar to the overall age profile of attenders. Over 55 per cent said they would like a pre-appointment reminder via a mobile telephone text message, 19 per cent preferred a pre-appointment telephone call, and 19 per cent an e-mail. Of those surveyed, 47 per cent said they would be willing to pay a fee on booking that could be refunded on attending for their appointment. The majority of these felt Euro 20 was the most appropriate amount (39 per cent). The rate of acceptance for various fee amounts was uniform across age ranges. Over half (52 per cent) said that they would agree to a "buddy" system whereby the appointment reminder was sent to the patient
Araya Mezgebo, Tadele; Niguse, Selam; Gebrekidan Kahsay, Atsebaha; Hailekiros, Haftamu; Berhe, Nega; Asmelash Dejene, Tsehaye
Hepatitis B virus infection is one of the leading causes of liver disease in the world. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of HBV infection and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Northern Ethiopia using a cross-sectional study design. A total of 328 pregnant women were included in this study. Clinical and socio-demographic data of the pregnant women were collected using a structured questionnaire by nurses or midwives during their ANC visit. For the detection of HBsAg, 5 mL of venous blood was collected from the pregnant women; serum was separated in the health facilities from the whole blood and was transported to Tigray Public Health Research Institute for analysis using. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0. (IBM). Association of variables with HBV infection was determined with multivariate analysis and P infection among the pregnant women was 5.5%. A statistical association of HBV infection with risk factors was seen on participants, who were making unprotected sexual practices with multiple partners (AoR = 6.4, 95%CI, 2-21, P = 0.03), on those who had HBV-infected person in their family (AoR = 8, 95%CI, 1-58, P = 0.02), and on those who had undergone surgical procedures (AoR = 6.8, 95%CI, 1-32, P = 0.022). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bos, JM; Fennema, JSA; Postma, MJ
Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of universal HIV screening of patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in Amsterdam. Design: Cost effectiveness analysis. Methods: A Bernoulli model for the secondary transmission of HIV was linked with epidemiological data on
Full Text Available Background. Regular clinic attendance for antiretroviral (ARV drug refills is important for successful clinical outcomes in HIV management. Methods. Clinic attendance for ARV drug refills and medication adherence using a clinic-based pill count in 392 adult patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART in a district hospital in Uganda were prospectively monitored over a 28-week period. Results. Of the 2267 total scheduled clinic visits, 40 (1.8% were missed visits. Among the 392 clients, 361 (92% attended all appointments for their refills (regular attendance. Clinic attendance for refills was statistically significantly associated with medication adherence with regular attendant clients having about fourfold greater odds of achieving optimal (≥95% medication adherence [odds ratio (OR=3.89, 95% CI: 1.48 to 10.25, exact P=.013]. In multivariate analysis, clients in age category 35 years and below were less likely to achieve regular clinic attendance. Conclusion. Monitoring of clinic attendance may be an objective and effective measure and could be a useful adjunct to an adherence measure such as pill counting in resource-constrained settings. Where human resource constraints do not allow pill counts or other time-consuming measures, then monitoring clinic attendance and acting on missed appointments may be an effective proxy measure.
Fiil Eldridge, Katrine; Giraldi, Annamaria
in their sexual life. Aim: To investigate how women at a fertility clinic desire and experience communication about sexual matters with doctors and to investigate the sexual function of these women. Methods: A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire survey of women attending a Danish fertility clinic over...... 4 months was performed. Descriptive statistics were calculated and presented as frequencies. Main Outcome Measure: Communication about sexual matters with doctors included the women’s comfort, preferred and actual frequency of discussion, and initiation of the conversation. Sexual function included...... for discussing sexual matters, and greater communication on this subject needs to be clinically implemented. Eldridge KE, Giraldi A. Communication About Sexual Matters With Women Attending a Danish Fertility Clinic. A Descriptive Study. Sex Med 2017;5:e196ee202....
Elder, J P; Salgado, R
A lottery system was used to improve attendance at four well baby clinics in four colonias in Tijuana, Mexico. Mothers earned one lottery ticket for each visit to each clinic during the intervention period. At the end of each month, ticket receipts were entered into drawings for one of three bags of groceries. The lottery system was evaluated within a "multiple baseline design" whereby the intervention was staggered across the four clinics on a month-by-month basis. Although attendance was not enhanced uniformly, an overall improvement of 25 percent was realized. The lottery system was at times hampered by administrative problems, such as the breakdown of a public address system used to announce the open hours of a clinic in one of the colonias.
Evans, Dylan J; Pillay, Anthony L
Over a 1-yr. period, 70 men attended district level clinical psychology services in Msunduzi, South Africa. The mean age was 35.9 yr., and 80% had secondary education. Only 65.7% attended of their own accord. 51% were unemployed, 71.4% had financial problems, 44.3% admitted to substance abuse, 74.3% reported relationship problems, and 14.3% admitted to being violent toward their partners. Suicidal ideation was the commonest referral problem, while mood disorder was the most frequent diagnosis. Clinicians estimated that 75.7% of these men had low self-esteem. 45.8% (34) perceived their partner as disengaged, enmeshed, or oppressive.
We examined whether modest cash transfers for participation in antenatal care would increase antenatal care attendance and delivery in a health facility in Kisoro, Uganda. Twenty-three villages were randomized into four groups: 1) no cash; 2) 0.20 United States Dollars (USD) for each of four visits; 3) 0.40 USD for a single ...
Background: Adequate utilization of antenatal health care services is associated with improved maternal and neonatal health outcomes. The World Health Organization recommends pregnant women to attend antenatal care services as early as in the first trimester. However, many women due to various reasons fail to meet ...
Kendurkar, Arvind; Kaur, Brinder; Agarwal, Anil Kumar; Singh, Harjeet; Agarwal, Vivek
Sexual disorders, which are usually influenced by multiple factors, are very prevalent across the globe but there are few studies which provide the pattern of help-seeking behavior in the Indian population. The study aims to present the pattern of sexual dysfunction in the patients attending a marriage and sex clinic from 1979 to 2005. Details are obtained from the records of the patients who attended the clinic. In accordance with the change in diagnostic classification, the data are presented: ICD-IX (for period 1979-1992) and ICD-X (for period 1993-2005). Out of a total of 1,242 patients, 566 patients attended the clinic during 1979 to 1992, and 676 patients during 1993 to 2005. More than half of the clinic population during the period was aged 20-29 years. Premature ejaculation is the most common complaint and the most commonly diagnosed clinical entity, followed by male erectile problems and culturally induced sexual behaviors such as dhat syndrome. Being more educated, married and from an urban background promotes help-seeking in tertiary care clinics but these findings may be due to selection bias. Sexual activity continues to be strongly influenced by culturally held beliefs. This influence is more troublesome for young and unmarried persons who have not changed over the period.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of and associated factors for glucose intolerance among antenatal clients at Kenyatta National Hospital at 24-36 weeks of gestation. Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital antenatal clinic. Subjects: One hundred and two (102) antenatal mothers ...
The susceptibility rate of bacterial isolate was highest for levofloxacin (83.6%), followed by nalidixic acid (64.2%) and nitrofurantoin (62.7%). The pathogens were least susceptible to co-trimoxazole (8.3%), ampilcillin (8.8%) and amoxicillin (10.4%) Conclusion: The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteria among the pregnant ...
Sidik, Sherina Mohd; Arroll, Bruce; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Ahmad, Rozali
Depression affects more women than men in Malaysia. The objective of this paper was to determine the prevalence of depression and its associated factors among women attending a government primary care clinic. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a government-funded primary care clinic in Malaysia. Consecutive adult female patients attending the clinic during the data collection period were invited to participate. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires (including the validated Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9], which was translated into the Malay language). A total of 895 female patients participated in the study (response rate 87.5%). The prevalence of depression (PHQ-9 scores ≥ 10) was 12.1%. Based on multiple logistic regression analysis, certain stressful life events were found to be associated with depression (p Malaysia should be aware of this prevalence when making diagnoses in primary care.
Charles Bitamazire Businge
Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of HIV among antenatal clients in South Africa has remained at a very high rate of about 29% despite substantial decline in several sub-Saharan countries. There is a paucity of data on risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers and women within the reproductive age bracket in local settings in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Objective: To establish the risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal clients aged 18–49 years attending public antenatal clinics in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa. Design: This was an unmatched case–control study carried out in public health antenatal clinics of King Sabata District Municipality between January and March 2014. The cases comprised 100 clients with recent HIV infection; the controls were 200 HIV-negative antenatal clients. Socio-demographic, sexual, and behavioral data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires adapted from the standard DHS5 women's questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the independent risk factors for HIV infection. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The independent risk factors for incident HIV infection were economic dependence on the partner, having older male partners especially among women aged ≤20 years, and sex under the influence of alcohol. Conclusions: Therefore, effective prevention of HIV among antenatal mothers in KSDM must target the improvement of the economic status of women, thereby reducing economic dependence on their sexual partners; address the prevalent phenomenon of cross-generation sex among women aged <20 years; and regulate the brewing, marketing, and consumption of alcohol.
Matemo, D; Kinuthia, J.; John, F.; Chung, M.; Farquhar, C; John-Stewart, G.; Kiarie, J.
The sensitivity and specificity of rapid HIV-1 tests may be altered during pregnancy and postpartum. We conducted a study to determine the prevalence and correlates of false-positive Abbott Determine™ and false-negative Uni-Gold™ rapid HIV-1 test results among antenatal and postnatal mothers attending a primary care clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. Mothers were tested for HIV-1 using Abbott Determine™ and non-reactive results were considered HIV-1 antibody negative. Reactive samples by Determine wer...
Hung, Susanna Lok Lam; Fu, Sau Nga; Lau, Po Shan; Wong, Samuel Yeung Shan
This study explored the views, barriers and facilitators of the poorly-educated elderly who were non-attendee of the nurse-led case manager clinic. The case managers provide assessment for diabetes complication screening and can refer patients to the appropriate multidisciplinary team in public outpatient primary care setting. We adopted qualitative research method by individual semi-structured face to face interviews. Nineteen Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects aged ≥ 60 who failed to attend the nurse-led case manager clinic were interviewed. They all came from a socially deprived urban district in Hong Kong. Content and thematic analysis was performed. Seven men and twelve women aged 60 to 89 were interviewed. Nine of them received no formal education and ten of them attended up to primary school. The reasons for non-attendance included attitude and poor knowledge towards diabetes complication screening and confusion of the nurse-led clinic as an educational talk. Most respondents could not understand the reason for the screening of diabetic complications, the concept of multidisciplinary care and the procedure and outcomes of nurse assessment. Five respondents were unable to follow multiple appointments because they could not read. Other reasons included physical barriers and comorbidity, family and financial constraint. They either had a tight daily schedule because of the need to take care of family members, or the family members who brought them to clinic had difficulty in attending multiple appointments. Enhanced understanding of the importance and procedure of diabetes multidisciplinary management, a flexible appointment system and a single clear appointment sheet may facilitate their attendance. Poorly-educated Chinese elderly with DM and their care givers faced physical, social and psychological barriers when attending the nurse-led case manager clinic. Strategies targeting on their low literacy include effective communication and education
Saronga, Happiness Pius; Duysburgh, Els; Massawe, Siriel; Dalaba, Maxwell Ayindenaba; Wangwe, Peter; Sukums, Felix; Leshabari, Melkizedeck; Blank, Antje; Sauerborn, Rainer; Loukanova, Svetla
QUALMAT project aimed at improving quality of maternal and newborn care in selected health care facilities in three African countries. An electronic clinical decision support system was implemented to support providers comply with established standards in antenatal and childbirth care. Given that health care resources are limited and interventions differ in their potential impact on health and costs (efficiency), this study aimed at assessing cost-effectiveness of the system in Tanzania. This was a quantitative pre- and post- intervention study involving 6 health centres in rural Tanzania. Cost information was collected from health provider's perspective. Outcome information was collected through observation of the process of maternal care. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for antenatal and childbirth care were calculated with testing of four models where the system was compared to the conventional paper-based approach to care. One-way sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine whether changes in process quality score and cost would impact on cost-effectiveness ratios. Economic cost of implementation was 167,318 USD, equivalent to 27,886 USD per health center and 43 USD per contact. The system improved antenatal process quality by 4.5% and childbirth care process quality by 23.3% however these improvements were not statistically significant. Base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of the system were 2469 USD and 338 USD per 1% change in process quality for antenatal and childbirth care respectively. Cost-effectiveness of the system was sensitive to assumptions made on costs and outcomes. Although the system managed to marginally improve individual process quality variables, it did not have significant improvement effect on the overall process quality of care in the short-term. A longer duration of usage of the electronic clinical decision support system and retention of staff are critical to the efficiency of the system and can reduce the invested
Bos, JM; van der Meijden, WI; Swart, W; Postma, MJ
HIV screening for attenders of clinics for sexually transmitted disease (STD) may identify individuals with high-risk sexual behaviour and avert HIV infections in partners. Extending our previous analysis in AIDS, we performed an economic evaluation of HIV screening of STD-clinic attenders in
Objective: To assess the perceived oral health, oral self-care habits, dental visit and self-reported oral health problems among pregnant women in Benin-City, Nigeria. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.
Ford, Jennifer S; Chou, Joanne F; Sklar, Charles A
Due to their heightened risk of developing late-occurring adverse outcomes, pediatric cancer survivors are advised to receive follow-up care in specialized Survivor Clinics. However, little is known about the impact of attending such clinics on psychosocial adjustment, knowledge, and morbidity. This study assesses the differences between those who attended a Survivorship Clinic and those who did not on knowledge, perception of risk, and psychosocial adjustment. We assessed 102 survivors who attended our Long-Term Follow-Up (LTFU) Clinic and 71 survivors never seen in a specialized clinic (non-LTFU). Participants were diagnosed at least 5 years prior to the assessment, were at least 20 years old, and had no evidence of active disease. Groups were matched on gender, age at cancer diagnosis, diagnosis, and race. On average, participants were currently 30 years of age and had been diagnosed with cancer around age 12. Most common reasons that non-LTFU survivors did not attend the clinic were "not aware" (71 %) or "not interested" (16 %). Survivors in each group were able to accurately report their cancer diagnosis, but few knew specific treatment information. There were no significant differences regarding survivors' perceptions of risk of future health problems with both groups similarly underestimating their risks. A significant minority in each group reported psychological or emotional problems (16-18 %), post-traumatic stress disorder (4.2-6.9 %), and/or psychological distress (7.8-19.7 %). Survivors are in need of continued education about their specific cancer treatments, recommended follow-up practices, the importance of survivorship care, and their specific risks for late effects. Among those childhood cancer survivors who do attend a Survivor clinic, a majority are in need of continued education about their specific cancer treatments, recommended follow-up practices, and risk of late effects. As many survivors of pediatric cancer appear to be unaware of
Patients had varying degrees of success with making changes to each dietary parameter. Multi-source diet analysis allowed us to develop tailored consultations. All patients made some positive dietary changes which may help prevent stone formation. The areas of least change were fluid (due to changes made prior to clinic attendance and vegetable protein. Our results support the need for continued dietetic input. These results should be re-audited to check that patients are maintaining the changes made.
Modupeoluwa Omotunde Soroye
Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to examine the clinical management of patients who attended a Nigerian teaching hospital with periodontal abscesses. Setting and Design: This is a retrospective study among patients who attended the Periodontics Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria, between January 2008 and December 2015. Patients and Methods: Information about the diagnosis was obtained from the departmental log book, and case notes were retrieved from record department. Data collection elicited information on age, sex, tribe, frequency of tooth brushing, dental attendance, medical history, clinical features, involved tooth/teeth, and treatment received. Statistical Analysis Used: Epi info version 3.5.1 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Patients aged between 15 and 87 years, with a mean age of 35.53 ± 19.30 years. Majority of patients were males, had minor ethnic extractions, had some form of education, first dental clinic attendees, indulged in once-daily toothbrushing, fully dentate, and had fair/poor oral hygiene. A total of 8.8% and 31.6% of the participants smoked cigarettes and consumed alcohol, respectively. A fifth of the participants had systemic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and peptic ulcer disease. Majority of the participants (91.2% had severe pain. About two-fifths had periodontal abscess around the incisors and the molars. The upper right quadrant was mostly involved (31.6%. Two-fifth of the patients had extraction done. Conclusion: Data from this study revealed periodontal abscess as a severely painful condition in naÏve dental patients, successfully treated mainly through extraction of the implicated tooth/teeth. This implies that oral health awareness and regular dental attendance may prevent its occurrence.
Matemo, D; Kinuthia, J; John, F; Chung, M; Farquhar, C; John-Stewart, G; Kiarie, J
The sensitivity and specificity of rapid HIV-1 tests may be altered during pregnancy and postpartum. We conducted a study to determine the prevalence and correlates of false-positive Abbott Determine and false-negative Uni-Gold rapid HIV-1 test results among antenatal and postnatal mothers attending a primary care clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. Mothers were tested for HIV-1 using Abbott Determine and non-reactive results were considered HIV-1 antibody negative. Reactive samples by Determine were re-tested by Uni-Gold. Vironostika HIV-1 and Uni-FORM II Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to confirm samples that had positive Abbott Determine and negative Uni-Gold. Among 2311 women who accepted HIV-1 testing, 1238 (54%) were tested antenatally and 1073 (46%) were tested postnatally. Of tested women, 274 (12%) women were reactive by Abbott Determine and on retesting with Uni-Gold 30 (11%) had indeterminate results. The prevalence of indeterminate results was significantly higher in antenatal women than in postnatal women (2% versus 1%, P = 0.03). In conclusion, indeterminate rapid HIV-1 test results are more common in the antenatal period and appropriate safeguards to confirm HIV-1 infection status should be implemented in antenatal programmes.
Faisal Hussain; Ajay Kumar Arya
AIM To assess the maternal knowledge, attitude and practices towards breast-feeding and to assess the effectiveness of antenatal maternal breast-feeding education for increasing breast-feeding initiation and duration. STUDY DESIGN A prospective clinical observational study performed for six-month period at a tertiary care hospital of Uttarakhand. METHODS 150 healthy pregnant women attending ANC Clinic and their newborns admitted in Department of Paediatrics and Obstetrics &...
Jowett, Sue; Bryan, Stirling; Mahé, Isabelle; Brieger, David; Carlsson, Jonas; Kartman, Bernt; Nevinson, Mark
Anticoagulation is used in patients with atrial fibrillation to reduce the risk of ischemic stroke. The therapy requires regular monitoring and, frequently, dose adjustment. This study aimed to determine the time and traveling costs that patients incur to themselves and society in attending anticoagulation clinics. A subset of patients from 105 primary and secondary care clinics allocated to the warfarin arm of SPORTIF III (patients from Australia, France, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the UK) completed a questionnaire. Patients indicated the type of transport used for clinic visits, and estimated traveling expenses. Patients were also asked to estimate total traveling and clinic attendance time, and to confirm whether they were currently employed and whether they had to give up time from work to attend the clinic. Time cost of companions was also taken into consideration. Cost per visit was calculated (euro, 2003 prices). Questionnaires for a total of 381 patients were analyzed, with the majority of patients from Sweden (n = 130) and the UK (n = 101). Mean cost to patients varied widely between countries, ranging from euro6.9 (France) to euro20.5 (Portugal) per visit. For most countries, time costs (value of lost working and leisure time) were the main driver of costs. Mean time cost to society ranged from euro5.6 (France) to euro31.7 (Portugal) per visit. Patients incur considerable costs when visiting anticoagulation clinics, and these costs vary by country. The results suggest the importance of taking a broad economic perspective when considering the cost-effectiveness of warfarin.
Forbes, Thomas A; McMinn, Alissa; Crawford, Nigel; Leask, Julie; Danchin, Margie
Vaccine hesitancy (VH) is an issue of global concern. The quality of communication between healthcare providers and parents can influence parental immunization acceptance. We aimed to describe immunization uptake following specialist immunization clinic (SIC) consultation for Australian children of VH parents as a cohort, and according to pre-clinic parental position on immunization. At a single tertiary pediatric SIC (RCH, Melbourne) a retrospective descriptive study classified VH families according to 3 proposed parental positions on immunization at initial clinic attendance. Immunization status at follow up was ascertained via the Australian Children's Immunization Register and National HPV Program Register and compared between groups. Of the VH cohort, 13/38 (34%) families were classified as hesitant, 21 (55%) as late/selective vaccinators and 4 (11%) as vaccine refusers. Mean follow up post-SIC attendance was 14.5 months. For the overall VH cohort, the majority chose selective immunization (42%) following SIC consultation. When analyzed by pre-clinic parental position on immunization, there was a trend for hesitant families to proceed with full immunization, selective families to continue selective immunization and refusing families to remain unimmunised (p < 0.0001). The most commonly omitted vaccines were hepatitis B (66%) and Haemophilus influenzae type B (55%), followed by the meningococcal C conjugate vaccine (53%) and measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (53%). Immunization outcome appears to correlate with pre-clinic parental position on immunization for the majority of families attending a SIC in Australia, with selective immunization the most common outcome. Tailored communication approaches based on parental position on immunization may optimise clinic resources and engagement of families, but require prospective research evaluation.
Marr, Kristin C; Agha, Mohammad; Sutradhar, Rinku; Pole, Jason D; Hodgson, David; Guttmann, Astrid; Greenberg, Mark; Nathan, Paul C
To determine if attendance at a specialized clinic for adult survivors of childhood cancer is associated with better rates of adherence to the Children's Oncology Group (COG) Long-term Follow-up (LTFU) guidelines for cardiomyopathy screening. We conducted a retrospective population-based study using administrative data in Ontario, Canada of 5-year survivors diagnosed between 1986 and 2005 at risk of therapy-related late cardiomyopathy. Patients were classified into three groups based on the recommended frequency of screening: annual, every 2 years, and every 5 years. Of 1811 eligible survivors followed for median 7.8 years (range 0-14.0), patients were adherent to screening for only 8.6% of their period of follow-up. Survivor clinic utilization had the strongest association with increased rates of adherence: when compared to no attendance, ≥ 5 clinic visits/10-year period had RR of adherence of 10.6 (95% CI 5.7-19.5) in the annual group, 3.3 (95% CI 2.3-4.8) in the every 2-year group, and 2.3 (95% CI 1.6-3.2) in the every 5-year group. Additional factors associated with increased adherence after adjusting for clinic attendance included annual assessment by a general practioner, female sex, diagnosis prior to 2003, and living in a rural area. In a model of specialized survivor care, increased clinic utilization is associated with improved patient adherence to COG LTFU cardiomyopathy screening guidelines. Specialized survivor clinics may improve health outcomes in survivors through improved adherence to screening. However, rates of adherence remain suboptimal and further multifacetted strategies need to be explored to improve overall rates of screening in adult survivors of childhood cancer.
Martín-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Fernández-Alonso, Cesáreo; Hormigo, Ana Isabel; Jiménez-Díaz, Gregorio; Roiz, Honan; Bermejo-Boixareu, Cristina; Rodríguez-Salazar, Jaime; Fernández Pérez, Cristina; Gil-Gregorio, Pedro
To determine the clinical profile and to develop a model to predict 90-day mortality in centenarian patients attended in emergency departments (ED). This was an observational, retrospective, multicentre cohort study including patients >99years attended in 5 ED in the Community of Madrid from January to December 2012. Demographic variables were recorded, as well as, comorbidities, cognitive, functional, social basal status, geriatric syndromes, acute episode, and hospital and social resources use, and 90-day mortality. The study included 209patients aged 101years (SD 1.7) of whom 161 (77.0%) were female. Sixty four (32.5%) had severe comorbidity (Charlson index≥3), 101 (49.8%) on multiple medication, 100 (52.6%) had cognitive impairment, 82 (42.3%) had severe functional dependence, 85 (40.7%) were institutionalised, and 190 (94.5%) had a geriatric syndrome. Dyspnoea (26.8%), followed by falls (12.4%) were the most common causes of attendance. One hundred and eighteen (56.5%) were admitted, and 58 out of 174 (33.3%) died in the first 90days. The model to predict 90-day overall mortality included male sex (OR 2.42 95% CI=0.97-6.04; P=.059), emergency care in the previous 3months (OR 4.08 95% CI=1.26-13.16; P=.019) and the hospitalization by index event (OR 8.63 95% CI=3.25-22.9; P<.001) and this model had an area under ROC curve of 0.776 (95% CI=0.70-0.85; P<.001). Centenarian patients attended in ED had a significant frailty and one in three cases died in the first 90days after being attended, and this was associated with male sex, emergency care in the previous 3months, and hospitalisation. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Ngxongo T.S. Patience
Full Text Available Background: Basic Antenatal Care (BANC is an approach that is used in the public health institutions of South Africa to provide health care services to pregnant women. The approach was introduced as a quality improvement strategy based on the belief that good quality Antenatal Care (ANC could reduce maternal and perinatal mortalities and improve maternal health.Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse pregnant women’s ANC records for evidence suggesting that the BANC principles of good care and guidelines were being applied.Setting: The study was conducted in the 12 primary health care clinics that were providing ANC services using the BANC approach in eThekwini district, KwaZulu-Natal.Methods: A cross-sectional quantitative design was used to conduct the study. Data were collected through retrospective record review of 1200 maternity case records of the pregnant women who had attended for ANC services three or more times and was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 21.0.Results: The majority of the processes detailed in the guidelines and principles of good care were evident in the records. However, several were missing or recorded in few reviews. These included the ANC plan, delivery plan, midwives’ counter signatures on the cards, assessment for foetal congenital abnormalities, and consent for HIV testing.Conclusion: The study identified evidence of incomplete application of the BANC principles of good care and guidelines in pregnant women’s antenatal care records which indicated that the BANC approach was not being successfully implemented. Recommendations were made with regards to policy development, institutional management and practise, nursing education, and further research to assist in successful implementation of the BANC approach in line with the guidelines and principles of good care.Keywords: antenatal care, antenatal visit, basic antenatal care, consultation, maternity case record.
Sewell, Justin L.; Kushel, Margot B.; Inadomi, John M.; Yee, Hal F.
Goals We sought to identify factors associated with gastroenterology clinic attendance in an urban safety net healthcare system. Background Missed clinic appointments reduce the efficiency and availability of healthcare, but subspecialty clinic attendance among patients with established healthcare access has not been studied. Study We performed an observational study using secondary data from administrative sources to study patients referred to, and scheduled for an appointment in, the adult gastroenterology clinic serving the safety net healthcare system of San Francisco, California. Our dependent variable was whether subjects attended or missed a scheduled appointment. Analysis included multivariable logistic regression and classification tree analysis. 1,833 patients were referred and scheduled for an appointment between 05/2005 and 08/2006. Prisoners were excluded. All patients had a primary care provider. Results 683 patients (37.3%) missed their appointment; 1,150 (62.7%) attended. Language was highly associated with attendance in the logistic regression; non-English speakers were less likely than English speakers to miss an appointment (adjusted odds ratio 0.42 [0.28,0.63] for Spanish, 0.56 [0.38,0.82] for Asian language, p gastroenterology clinic appointment, not speaking English was most strongly associated with higher attendance rates. Patient related factors associated with not speaking English likely influence subspecialty clinic attendance rates, and these factors may differ from those affecting general healthcare access. PMID:19169147
Moran, Lucy; O'Loughlin, Kieran; Kelly, Brendan D
Non-attendance at outpatient clinics is common and costly. This study aimed to determine if sending SMS ('short message service' or text message) reminders to patients before appointments reduced non-attendance. We collected outpatient data at Ballyfermot and Lucan Community Adult Mental Health Service, Dublin, Ireland during 6-month periods (a) immediately prior to the introduction of SMS reminders for outpatient appointments; (b) immediately following the introduction of SMS reminders; and (c) two and a half years later. In the 6-month period prior to SMS reminders, 2170 outpatient appointments were offered and there was a 22.2% non-attendance rate. In the 6-months following the introduction of SMS reminders, 2092 appointments were offered and the non-attendance rate fell to 13.9% (p < 0.001), with the lower non-attendance rate among those who did not receive SMS reminders (9.7%) rather than those who did (15.7%) (p = 0.0002). There were 98 appointment cancellations during this period (73% via SMS messaging). In the 6-month period two and a half years after the introduction of SMS reminders, 2474 appointments were offered and the non-attendance rate rose to 19.3%; this did not differ between those who received SMS reminders (19.3%) and those who did not (19.1%) (p = 0.38209) and was still lower than the rate prior to SMS reminders (p = 0.01321). During this period, 197 appointments were cancelled (75% via SMS messaging). The chief value of SMS reminders lies not in reminding patients of appointments but in providing a convenient way to cancel them, thus allowing more appointments to be offered.
Roex, Alphonse; Nikpoor, Payam; van Eerd, Eva; Hodyl, Nicolette; Dekker, Gus
The antenatal detection of fetal growth restriction is a focus point of antenatal care. If detected fetal demise may be prevented and perinatal complications could be managed more appropriately. To investigate whether introducing serial plotting on customised fundal height charts can increase the detection rate of small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses in low risk nulliparous women attending antenatal clinics in a public teaching hospital in Adelaide, South Australia. An observational study was employed to compare SGA detection rates, utilising data from an historical Control group compared to data collected after the study intervention. In the Control group the fundal height (FH) was measured for every antenatal visit and documented in the notes, but not plotted on a chart. The study intervention used serial FH plotting on customised charts, with a dedicated clinical practice guideline and regular audits to increase clinician awareness of the intervention. The antenatal detection rate of SGA was 31/125 (24.8%) in the Control group and 44/87 (50.6%) in the Intervention group (P customised charts supported by a clinical practice guideline resulted in a doubling of the antenatal detection of SGA in nulliparous pregnant women at low risk for SGA. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Sidik, Sherina Mohd; Arroll, Bruce; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity
This is the first study investigating anxiety among women attending a primary care clinic in Malaysia. The objective was to determine the factors associated with anxiety among these women. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a government-funded primary care clinic in Malaysia. Consecutive female patients attending the clinic during the data-collection period were invited to participate in the study. Participants were given self-administered questionnaires, which included the validated Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire (GAD-7) Malay version to detect anxiety. Of the 1023 patients who were invited, 895 agreed to participate (response rate 87.5%). The prevalence of anxiety in this study was 7.8%, based on the GAD-7 (score ≥8). Multiple logistic regression analysis found that certain stressful life events and the emotional aspect of domestic violence were significantly associated with anxiety (P<0.05). The prevalence of anxiety among women in this study is similar to that found in other countries. Factors found to be associated with anxiety, especially issues on domestic violence, need to be addressed and managed appropriately.
Jackson, Katie R; Booth, Peter G; Salmon, Peter; McGuire, James
To examine the effects of telephone prompting on attendance for the start of treatment and retention in treatment in a specialist alcohol clinic. The study setting was a specialist alcohol treatment clinic. Participants were 172 clients attending as out-patients. An ABABAB design was used with planned alternating conditions, respectively, with or without a telephone prompt the day before the client was due to attend, over a succession of six consecutive 4-week periods. Clients who were prompted were more likely to start treatment and attend further treatment sessions than clients who were not prompted. Telephone prompting is a simple and effective way to improve attendance for the start of treatment and retention in alcohol treatment.
Brotman, Rebecca M.; Erbelding, Emily J.; Jamshidi, Roxanne M.; Klebanoff, Mark A.; Zenilman, Jonathan M.; Ghanem, Khalil G.
Study Objective Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common infection and has been associated with adverse health outcomes, including preterm birth, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and acquisition and transmission of HIV. There are limited data on recurrent BV in adolescents. A relationship between the frequency of BV recurrence and specific risk factors might shed light on the pathophysiology of BV and lead to targeted interventions. Methods Design: Record-based historical clinic study. Setting: Adolescent visits to two sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics between 1990-2002. Participants: 254 girls who had ≥ 2 episodes of BV and at least 3 clinical visits, matched on clinic attendance frequency to 254 girls with only 1 documented BV episode and 254 girls with no history of BV. Main outcome measure: Risk factor differences between groups. Analysis: Multinomial logistic regression with robust estimator of the standard errors, accounting for repeated measures. Results 5,977 adolescent girls visited the clinics. 1509 (25%) had at least one episode of BV; of those, 303 (19.9%) had 2 or more BV episodes. Girls with a history of 1 BV episode and girls with a history of 2 or more BV episodes were more likely to be infected with Trichomonas vaginalis [OR 1.77, 95% CI: 1.17-2.67, OR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.05-2.34] and be diagnosed with PID [OR 1.50, 95% CI: 1.02-2.22, OR 2.05, 95% CI: 1.41-2.98] compared to girls with no BV history, respectively. Girls with a history of BV were also more likely to report active oral sex and lack of contraceptive use. Conclusion Adolescent girls who attend STD clinics have a high prevalence of BV. Although the association between BV and PID is not clearly causal, when one condition is diagnosed, evaluation and counseling for the other may reduce recurrence and sequelae. PMID:17673134
Yvette M Nel
Full Text Available Background. Evidence suggests that the presence of mental illness may be associated with poorer adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART. There is also a general understanding that patients initiated on ART as inpatients have poorer outcomes than those initiated as outpatients. Negative perceptions regarding future adherence may affect the clinical decision to initiate ART in hospitalised psychiatric patients. Attendance at clinic appointments is an indicator of medication adherence, and is easily measurable in a limited-resource setting. Objectives. The primary objective of this study was to examine the rate of attendance at the first clinic appointment post discharge from a period of psychiatric hospitalisation in HIV-positive psychiatric patients initiated on ART as inpatients. A secondary objective was to determine which factors, if any, were associated with clinic attendance. Methods. This study was a retrospective record review, conducted at the Luthando Neuropsychiatric HIV Clinic in Soweto, which is an integrated mental healthcare and ART clinic. Patients who were initiated on ART as psychiatric inpatients from 1 July 2009 to 31 December 2010, and subsequently discharged for outpatient follow-up at Luthando Clinic were included in the sample. Results. There were 98 patients included in the analysis. The sample was predominantly female. The rate of attendance was 80%. The attendant and non-attendant groups were similar in terms of demographic and clinical data. Significantly fewer non-attendant patients had disclosed their HIV status to their treatment supporter (p=0.01. Conclusion. Non-disclosure of HIV status needs to be further addressed in integrated psychiatric HIV treatment facilities in order to improve attendance. Female predominance in this setting should also be further investigated.
Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the spectrum and expression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA in patients attending the rheumatology clinic in Nizwa hospital, Oman.Methods: Subjects and methods: 66 patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology (ACR criteria for the diagnosis of RA were included in the study. The patients were either attending for the first time or were already diagnosed and attending for follow up. The demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological findings are reported.Results: Of the 66 patients studied, 16 were males and 50 were females. The mean age of patients at onset was 44.5 ±14.5 years, and the females were younger than males at presentation. 38 (57.57% were seropositive and two (3.03% only had rheumatoid nodules. The majority of the patients were considered as class 1 or 2 according to the ACR functional classification. The commonest extra-articular manifestation was anaemia (27.27% followed by keratoconjuctivitis sicca (24.42%. The upper limb joints were affected more than the lower limbs and the most commonly involved joint was the wrist (81% followed by the metacarpophalangeal (MCP (66.66% joints, the knee (57.57%, ankle (45.45%, elbow (42.42%, shoulder (42.42%, and the proximal interphalangeal (PIP (36.36% joints. The main associated diseases were hypertension (21%, ischemic heart disease (13.63% and diabetes mellitus (9.03%. Systemic features were predominantly morning stiffness (84.5% and fatigue (45.45%. Reported deaths were due to sepsis and cardiac arrhythmia. Thus 63 (95.45% of the patients were on conventional disease modifying antirheumatic drugs.Conclusions: Demographic characteristics were similar to those reported by others, the seropositivity rate and nodular form of the disease was less in the studied patients and the disease seemed milder than that reported in western countries.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Rising trends of male factor infertility has been reported worldwide. Lifestyle, food habits and even cell phone usage has been implicated in this. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of seminal abnormalities in infertile men attending the infertility clinic. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study of seminal parameters in male partners of infertile couples attending the infertility clinic in Institute of Maternal and Child Health, Calicut, between October 2015 and November 2016. RESULTS A total of 1072 semen analysis reports were reviewed. As per the reference standards set by the 2010 World Health Organization manual of semen analysis, normozoospermia was found in 4.9%, asthenoteratozoospermia in 56.6%, oligoasthenoteratospermia in 14.08%, severe oligoasthenospermia in 17.8% and azoospermia in 4.3%. Teratozoospermia was found in 1.58%. CONCLUSION Asthenoteratozoospermia was the commonest semen abnormality found in male partners of infertile couples. Severe male factor, that is, severe oligoasthenospermia and azoospermia together constitute around 22% of the abnormalities. Combined factor abnormalities are more prevalent than single factor abnormalities.
Alkhadra, Thamer; Preshing, William; El-Bialy, Tarek
Objectives: This study evaluated the prevalence of dental trauma for patients attending the emergency dental clinic at the University of Alberta Hospital between 2006-2009. Patients’ examination and treatment charts were reviewed. Methods: Total number of patients’ charts was 1893.The prevalence of different types of trauma was 6.4 % of the total cases (117 patients). Trauma cases were identified according to Ellis classification and as modified by Holland et al., 1988. Results: Logistic statistical model showed that 21.7% were Ellis class I trauma, 16.7% were Ellis class II trauma, and 6.7% were Ellis class III. In addition, 11.7 % presented with avulsion, 7.5 % presented with dentoalveolar fracture and 7.5% presented with sublaxation. Also, 17.55 % presented with tooth displacement within the alveolar bone, 3.3 % presented with crown fracture with no pulp involvement, 4.16 % presented with crown fracture with pulp involvement and 3.3 % presented with root fracture. In conclusion, the general prevalence of dentoalveolar trauma in patients attending the emergency clinic at the University of Alberta is less than other reported percentages in Canada or other countries. PMID:27398104
Baker, Joseph F; Devitt, Brian M; Lynch, Sam; Green, Connor J; Byrne, Damien P; Kiely, Patrick J
No information exists on the level of internet use among parents of pediatric patients with scoliosis. The internet may represent a medium through which to provide information to augment the outpatient consultation. The aim of this research was to establish the prevalence of internet use amongst a cohort of parents attending a pediatric scoliosis outpatient clinic. A previously used questionnaire (Baker et al., Eur Spine J, 19:1776-1779, 2010) was distributed to parents attending a dedicated scoliosis outpatient clinic with their children. Demographic data and details about use of the internet were collected. Fifty-eight percent of respondents had used the internet to search for information on scoliosis, and 94 % were interested in a local internet provided information provision. A positive history of corrective surgery and possession of health insurance were independent positive predictors of internet use. As surgeons we need to be aware of our patients' use of the internet, and there is the opportunity to use this medium to provide additional education.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Podoconiosis is a lymphoedema of non-infectious cause which results in long-term ill health in affected individuals. Simple, effective treatment is available in certain parts of Ethiopia, but evidence indicates that not all patients continue collecting treatment supplies from clinic sites once started. We used qualitative techniques to explore factors related to discontinued attendance at outreach clinics of a non-government organization in southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted in four clinic sites through unstructured in-depth interviews, key informant interviews and focus group discussions with the involvement of 88 study subjects. Results Discontinuation of clinic visits is common among podoconiosis patients. The reasons were: remoteness from the clinic sites, unrealistic expectation of ‘special’ aid, worry about increasing stigma, illness and misconceptions about treatment. Conclusions Several of these factors are remediable through community and individual information and education. Appropriate routes to deliver this information must be identified. Certain factors (such as distance to clinic sites and stigma require substantial expansion of services or liaison with village-level government health services.
Thomson, Gill; Dykes, Fiona; Singh, Gulab; Cawley, Lucinda; Dey, Paola
to offer a critical discussion from a public health perspective of service user's experiences of antenatal care services. a qualitative, descriptive study using 18 group (n = 86) and six individual semi-structured interviews (n = 6) with thematic networks analysis conducted. ninety-two participants recruited from organisations/groups who work with vulnerable populations and/or community groups were consulted in the North West of England. analysis from a public health perspective suggested four key areas: antenatal care attendance, the frequency of antenatal appointments, the location of antenatal care and the provision of risk information. The benefits of universal access to antenatal care were mainly evident to participants. The need for targeting those with identified clinical risk was valued, but participants expressed frustration at a 'one-size fits all' approach for others, which failed to adequately consider their psychosocial and educational needs. In some women, this failure prompted non-compliant behaviour. Concerns were somewhat compensated for by community-based antenatal services. inequities in antenatal care persist with service users from vulnerable population groups continuing to express that these services do not meet their needs. Neither a targeted approach based on clinical needs nor a population-based approach, which service users feel limits access, meet their expectations. Proportionate universalism offers a new paradigm in public health with level of service proportionate to need. Such an approach may facilitate health-care staff to meet the expectations of vulnerable families who may require more psychosocial and educational support. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shrestha, Monika; Shrestha, Sumina; Shrestha, Binjwala
Background Domestic violence during pregnancy is a public health problem which violates human rights and causes an adverse effect on both maternal and fetal health. The objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of domestic violence among the pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic, to explore the associated factors, and to identify the perpetrators of domestic violence. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 404 pregnant women in their third trimeste...
Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to investigate the types of dermatophytes and dermatophytosis in Elazığ region to provide appropriate information for therapy planning and public health prevention.Methods: A total of 652 patients who attending to outpatient clinic between June 2007 – May 2008 with clinical signs of dermatophytosis were included in this study. All samples, including with negative results on direct microscopy were cultivated in Sabouraud dextrose agar (Oxoid, mycobiotic agar (Acumedia and potato dextrose agar (Oxoid. Results: Dermatophytes were isolated in 142 (21.8% out of all samples. Of the isolates 70.4% were Trichophyton rubrum, 15.4% were Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 4.2% were , 4.2% were Microsporum canis, 2.8% were Epidermophyton floccosum, 2.11% were Trichophyton violaceum, 0.7% were Trichophyton tonsurans.Conclusion: Trichophyton rubrum was most frequently isolated dermatophytosis agent in Elazığ region.
Eldridge, Katrine Fiil; Giraldi, Annamaria
Several studies have shown that sexuality is an important aspect of life. Nevertheless, sexual matters are only rarely discussed between patients and doctors. Other studies have suggested that women undergoing fertility treatment compose a group of patients with low satisfaction in their sexual life. To investigate how women at a fertility clinic desire and experience communication about sexual matters with doctors and to investigate the sexual function of these women. A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire survey of women attending a Danish fertility clinic over 4 months was performed. Descriptive statistics were calculated and presented as frequencies. Communication about sexual matters with doctors included the women's comfort, preferred and actual frequency of discussion, and initiation of the conversation. Sexual function included participants' sexuality during the past year including certain sexual difficulties. Of the 201 participating women in the survey, most felt comfortable discussing sexual matters with doctors and preferred gynecologists for such discussions. There was a greater desire for communication than what was actually experienced by the women, and most wanted to initiate the conversation themselves. The women were less satisfied with their sexual life compared with a national control group, and they experienced sexual difficulties more often. There is an unmet desire of women in fertility treatment for discussing sexual matters, and greater communication on this subject needs to be clinically implemented. Eldridge KE, Giraldi A. Communication About Sexual Matters With Women Attending a Danish Fertility Clinic. A Descriptive Study. Sex Med 2017;5:e196-e202. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Olubukola, Adesina; Adesina, Oladokun
Untreated maternal syphilis is strongly associated with adverse birth outcomes, especially in women with high titre syphilis. The WHO recommends routine serological screening in pregnancy. Some workers have advised a reappraisal of this practice, having demonstrated low sero-prevalence in their antenatal population. In view of this, the aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of syphilis in the antenatal population presenting at a major hospital in south-west Nigeria. This was a cross sectional study of healthy pregnant Nigerian women attending Adeoyo Maternity Hospital in the capital of Oyo State. The case record of every pregnant woman presenting for their first antenatal clinic visit over a 4-month period (September 1st to December 31st 2006) was reviewed. During the study period, two thousand six hundred and seventy-eight women sought antenatal care. Three hundred and sixty-nine women (369; 13.4%) had incomplete records and were excluded from analysis. The records of the 2,318(86.6%) women with adequate records were subsequently reviewed. The mean age of the women was 27.4 years (± 5.34) and the mean gestational age 26.4 weeks (±6.36). The modal parity was 0. Only three patients were found to be reactive for syphilis giving a prevalence of 0.13%. The sero- prevalence value in this study is quite low and may justify the call to discontinue routine antenatal syphilis screening. However, a more rigorous screening program using diagnostic tests with higher sensitivity maybe necessary before jettisoning this traditional aspect of antenatal care.
Nathan, Paul C; Agha, Mohammad; Pole, Jason D; Hodgson, David; Guttmann, Astrid; Sutradhar, Rinku; Greenberg, Mark L
The purpose of the present study is to determine predictors of attendance at a network of publicly funded specialized survivor clinics by a population-based cohort of adult survivors of childhood cancer. We conducted a retrospective study linking data on eligible patients identified in a provincial pediatric cancer registry with health administrative databases to determine attendance at five specialized survivor clinics in the Canadian province of Ontario between 1999 and 2012. Eligible survivors were treated for cancer at ≤18 years between 1986 and 2005, had survived ≥5 years from their most recent pediatric cancer event, and contributed ≥1 year of follow-up after age 18 years. We assessed the impact of cancer type, treatment intensity, cumulative chemotherapy doses, radiation, socioeconomic status, distance to nearest clinic, and care from a primary care physician (PCP) on attendance using recurrent event multivariable regression. Of 7482 children and adolescents treated for cancer over the study period, 3972 were eligible for study inclusion, of which 3912 successfully linked to administrative health data. After a median of 7.8 years (range 0.2-14.0) of follow-up, 1695/3912 (43.3 %) had attended at least one adult survivor clinic visit. Significantly increased rates of attendance were associated with female gender, higher treatment intensity, radiation, higher alkylating agent exposure, higher socioeconomic status, and an annual exam by a PCP. Distance significantly impacted attendance with survivors living >50 km away less likely to attend than those living within 10 km (relative rate 0.77, p = 0.003). Despite free access to survivor clinics, the majority of adult survivors of childhood cancer do not attend. Alternate models of care need to be developed and assessed, particularly for survivors living far from a specialized clinic and those at lower risk of developing late effects.
Weithase, Alexandra; Vogel, Mandy; Kiep, Henriette; Schwarz, Sarah; Meißner, Laura; Herrmann, Janine; Rieger, Kristin; Koch, Christiane; Schuster, Volker; Kiess, Wieland
Background For several years the German healthy child clinics program has been a highly appreciated preventive measure and is subject to constant development. However, attendance depends on the families' sociodemographic situation. Findings are documented in a medical checkup booklet (the so-called Gelbes Heft). Currently, there is no procedure to use the data collected for epidemiological purposes nor to evaluate the pediatric prevention measures in Germany. Methods Between 2011 and 2016, we recruited 3480 study participants for our population-based cohort study LIFE Child in Leipzig. 90.6 % submitted their check-up booklets which were subsequently scanned, the data was digitalized and transmitted to a computerized form. Furthermore, data on social status (so-called Winkler-Index) were collected for each family using a structured questionnaire. The study population consisted of the families' oldest child for whom both data sets were available. Results The transmission of data from the check-up booklets was time-consuming and cost-intensive due to large datasets, uncoded diagnoses as well as the necessity of trained employees for transferring often illegible handwriting. Early diagnostic tests for children enjoy a high level of acceptance among all social classes. With increasing age, attendance rate decreases gradually. Only 83 % of the population with a lower social status attend the U9 test. The documentation of diagnoses in the check-up booklets was implausible because the frequency fluctuated heavily between the different check-up time points. With only less than 2 %, the documentation of psychosocial difficulties in a child was particularly surprising Conclusion It is not possible to draw conclusions regarding the prevalence of target diseases from the frequency of documented findings in the check-up booklets. In order to make the data both comparable and evaluable, documentation must be digitalized in the future. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Bator, Eli X; Gleason, Joseph M; Lorenzo, Armando J; Kanaroglou, Niki; Farhat, Walid A; Bägli, Darius J; Koyle, Martin A
Indirect expenses for accessing health care may place significant fiscal strain on Canadian families. Telemedicine alternatives, using email, telephone, and video conferencing, can mitigate such financial burdens by reducing travel and related costs. Our objectives were to assess costs that families incur visiting an outpatient pediatric surgical clinic, and family attitudes toward telemedicine alternatives. A survey was offered pre-consult to all families who attended pediatric urology and general surgery outpatient clinics over a three-month period. A total of 1032 of 1574 families screened participated (66.0%). Less than half (18.5%) of participants traveled over 200 km, and 32.9% spent over 4 hours in transit, round-trip. The proportion of participants who spent over $50 on travel and ancillary expenses was 33.0%. In 74.0% of families, 1 or more adults missed work. The proportion of families who perceived costs as somewhat high or high was 29.1%. Perceived cost was positively correlated to distance traveled, money spent, and missed work (ptraveled (p<0.01) were only weakly associated with greater willingness to substitute a clinic visit with video conferencing. Many families face high costs related to routine outpatient clinical visits, and there is a substantial willingness by them to access telemedicine alternatives, rather than the traditional face-to-face clinical visit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carter, M; Gallo, M; Anderson, C; Snead, MC; Wiener, J; Bailey, A; Costenbader, E; Legardy-Williams, J; Hylton-Kong, T
Objectives Although common worldwide, intravaginal cleansing is associated with poor health outcomes. We sought to describe intravaginal cleansing among women attending a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic in Jamaica. Methods We examined intravaginal cleansing (“washing up inside the vagina”, douching, and products or materials used) among 293 participants in a randomized trial of counselling messages at an STI clinic in Kingston. We focussed on information on intravaginal cleansing performed in the 30 days and three days preceding their baseline study visit. We describe reported cleansing behaviours and used logistic regression to identify correlates of intravaginal cleansing. Results Fifty-eight per cent of participants reported intravaginal cleansing in the previous 30 days, and 46% did so in the three days before baseline. Among those who cleansed in the previous 30 days, 88% reported doing so for hygiene unrelated to sex, and three-fourths reported generally doing so more than once per day. Soap (usually with water) and water alone were the most common products used for washing; commercial douches or detergents were reported infrequently. Intravaginal cleansing in the three days before the baseline visit was positively associated with having more than one sex partner in the previous three months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1, 3.2), and negatively associated with experiencing itching in the genital area at baseline (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4, 1.0). Conclusions A large proportion of women attending STI clinics in Jamaica engage in frequent intravaginal cleansing, indicating a need for clinicians to discuss this topic with them accordingly. PMID:24171329
Adenike O. Omosun
Full Text Available Background: Child adoption is a recommended alternative form of infertility management. Infertility is of public health importance in Nigeria and many other developing nations. This is a result of its high prevalence and especially because of its serious social implications as the African society places a passionate premium on procreation in any family setting. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of child adoption amongst women attending infertility clinics in teaching hospitals in Lagos State and to determine the factors that influence their attitude and practice towards it.Method: A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. Data were collected by using a structured questionnaire which was interviewer-administered. The study was conducted in the two teaching hospitals in Lagos State (LUTH [Lagos University Teaching Hospital] and LASUTH [Lagos State University Teaching Hospital] from amongst 350 women attending the gynaecological clinics. All the patients under management for infertility at the gynaecology clinics during the period of the study were interviewed.Results: Many respondents (85.7% had heard of child adoption and 59.3% of them knew the correct meaning of the term. More than half of the respondents (68.3% said that they could love an adopted child but less than half of them (33.7% were willing to consider adoption. Only 13.9% has ever adopted a child. The major reason given for their unwillingness to adopt was their desire to have their own biological child. Factors that were favourable towards child adoption were Igbo tribe identity, an age above 40 years, duration of infertility above 15 years, and knowing the correct meaning of child adoption.Conclusion: There is a poor attitude to adoption even amongst infertile couples. Interventions need to be implemented to educate the public on child adoption, to improve their attitude towards adoption and to make it more acceptable.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The internet is a relatively new medium of disseminating health information. Studies on Internet usage for health information are mainly done in developed countries and very few studies have been carried out in developing countries. Methods The Internet usage of patients who were attending specialist clinics in Teaching Hospital Karapitiya and Southern Hospital in Galle, Sri Lanka was investigated. The study was carried out on the following specialities; General Medicine, Pediatrics, General Surgery and Cardiothoracic surgery. Information was collected using an investigator-administered questionnaire while patients were waiting for a consultation. Results Three hundred and fifty five patients (or guardians in the Pediatric clinic participated in the study. One hundred seventy two (48.3% participants have heard about the Internet. There was a relationship between awareness of the Internet and age, educational level and the clinic attended. There was no difference of awareness depending on the gender or the hospital. Only three participants (0.97% have used the Internet to find information about their disease conditions. Close relatives searched the Internet about the conditions of two participants. Altogether, the Internet was used to search information on the disease condition of five participants (1.4%. Conclusion Very low usage of the Internet for health information retrieval in this study is probably due to low awareness of the Internet and low educational level. This low usage of Internet and the associated reasons shown in this study can be generalized to Sri Lanka and probably to other low-income countries that have lower educational level than Sri Lanka.
Chinyadza, E; Moyo, I M; Katsumbe, T M; Chisvo, D; Mahari, M; Cock, D E; Mbengeranwa, O L
Modified versions of the CAGE and WHO AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) questionnaires were used to investigate drinking habits of patients attending primary care clinics in Harare in 1989. The questionnaires were administered to 483 consecutive patients of whom 63 pc were male and 37 pc female. The results showed that 41 pc of the patients were current drinkers, and over 60 pc of them were drinking to and beyond "safe limits". Thirty nine pc of the current drinkers drank at least three or more times per week. On an average drinking day 66 pc of the male drinkers consume 10 or more units of alcohol per day. On heavy drinking days 38.5 pc of the drinkers or 16 pc of the total sample consume more than 21 units per day. These sessions occurred around paydays. Thirteen (13.2 pc) of those who consume more than 10 units per heavy drinking session exceeded the recommended frequency levels i.e. not more than three times per week. Seventy five pc of drinkers stated that they drink to socialize or for recreational purposes. About 60 pc of the current drinkers had tried unsuccessfully to cut down or stop drinking. The main reason for such an attempt reported by 92 pc of them was health problems. More current drinkers presented with STD and work-related injuries compared to non-drinkers. None of the current drinkers were asked about their drinking habits by the health workers who attended to them at the clinic. No diagnosis of alcohol dependence or an alcohol problem was made by the Primary Health Care worker at the clinic.
Nabbanja, Juliet; Gitta, Sheba; Peterson, Stefan; Rwenyonyi, Charles Mugisha
The aim of this study was to assess the orofacial manifestations and their influence on oral function in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive children attending Mildmay Clinic in Uganda. This was a cross-sectional study based on clinical examination, medical records and a structured questionnaire of 368 children aged between 1.5 and 17 years. The clinical examination for dental caries was based on decayed, extracted and filled teeth (deft) and decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) indices as defined by World Health Organisation. The soft tissue orofacial lesions were assessed using the classification and diagnostic criteria as described by the Collaborative Workgroup on the Oral Manifestations of Pediatric HIV Infections. Approximately 67.4% of the children were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The majority (77.4%) of the children had at least one orofacial lesion associated with HIV, pseudomembranous candidiasis being the most prevalent. Overall, 61.7% of the children with orofacial lesions reported at least one form of discomfort in the mouth. Discomfort was particularly associated with swallowing. The prevalence of orofacial lesions was significantly higher in children with poor oral hygiene and lower in those on HAART than in their respective counterparts. The CD4+ cell count, age and gender of the children did not significantly influence the distribution of orofacial lesions. The mean deft and DMFT scores were 11.8 and 2.7, respectively. The d- and D-components contributed 54.7 and 42.1%, respectively. Consumption of sugary snacks was directly associated with dental caries. Despite these children attending an HIV care centre of excellence, they have a high prevalence of orofacial manifestations associated with HIV. The majority of the children experienced discomfort in the oral cavity, particularly during swallowing.
Miranda, Angelica Espinosa; Lima, Bettina Moulin Coelho; Giami, Alain; Golub, Jonathan E; Talhari, Sinesio
Studies about sexual risk behaviors can provide information to support design strategies to control the spread of HIV infection. To assess sexual risk behaviors among women attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic in Vitória, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed among women attending an STD/AIDS reference center. Enrolled participants were interviewed and provided a blood sample to determine HIV status. A total of 276 women participated. among 284 selected; 109 (39.5%) were HIV-positive and 167 (60.5%) HIV-negative. Median age was 31 years (interquartile range (IQR)24-36) and 69% of women were between 18 and 34 years of age. Women reported high access to information about STD (87%) and AIDS (90%) but information about sexuality was less common (55%). HIV-positive women asked their partners to use condoms more often than HIV-negatives (31% vs. 5%, p=0.02), and were more likely to have used a condom at last intercourse (65% vs. 33%, psexual intercourse (99.6%) and needle sharing (99.2%) were most frequently answered correctly, while questions regarding risk of HIV transmission through blood donation (57%) were least. Though this population reports easy access to information and services for HIV/sexually transmitted diseases, most report little understanding of unsafe sexual behaviors, particularly HIV-negative women.
Rwakarema, Mechtilda; Premji, Shahirose S; Nyanza, Elias Charles; Riziki, Ponsiano; Palacios-Derflingher, Luz
Psychosocial health problems, specifically depression during pregnancy, can have negative impact on birth outcomes, postnatal mental health of the mother, and infant health. Antenatal depression is more prevalent among women in low- and middle-income countries than among women in high-income countries. Risk factors for antenatal depression reported in the literature relate to pregnant women in South Asia. Consequently, this study assessed depression in pregnancy and related psychosocial risk factors among select pregnant women residing in Mwanza region, Northern Tanzania. We analysed data from 397 pregnant women recruited from three antenatal clinics for the period June-August 2013 for this cross-sectional study. Women provided data at one time point during their pregnancy by completing the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and a structured questionnaire assessing psychosocial, demographic, and behavioural risk factors related to antenatal depression. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between risk factors examined and antenatal depression. Overall, 33.8 % (n = 134) of pregnant women had antenatal depression. Pregnancy-related anxiety was associated with antenatal depression (odds ratio (OR) 1.36, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.23 to 1.5). Pregnant women with poor relationship with partner and low/moderate socio-economic status had the highest OR for antenatal depression (82.34, 95 % CI 4.47, 1516.60) after adjusting for other covariates. Pregnant women with poor relationship with partner and high socio-economic status had an OR of 13.48 (95 % CI 1.71, 106.31) for antenatal depression. "Reference" pregnant women were those with very good relationship with partner and high socio-economic status. High proportion of self-reported depression among select pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Mwanza, Tanzania merit integrating depression assessment into existing antenatal care services. Health care providers
Benage, Matthew; Greenough, P Gregg; Vinck, Patrick; Omeira, Nada; Pham, Phuong
After more than three years of violence in Syria, Lebanon hosts over one million Syrian refugees creating significant public health concerns. Antenatal care delivery to tens of thousands of pregnant Syrian refugee women is critical to preventing maternal and fetal mortality but is not well characterized given the multiple factors obtaining health data in a displaced population. This study describes antenatal care access, the scope of existing antenatal care, and antenatal and family planning behaviors and practice among pregnant Syrian refugees in various living conditions and multiple geographic areas of Lebanon. A field-based survey was conducted between July and October 2013 in 14 main geographic sites of refugee concentration. The assessment evaluated antenatal services among a non-randomized sample of 420 self-identified pregnant Syrian refugee women that included demographics, gestational age, living accommodation, antenatal care coverage, antenatal care content, antenatal health behaviors, antenatal health literacy, and family planning perception and practices. In total, 420 pregnant Syrian refugees living in Lebanon completed the survey. Of these, 82.9% (348) received some antenatal care. Of those with at least one antenatal visit, 222 (63.8%) received care attended by a skilled professional three or more times, 111 (31.9%) 1-2 times, and 15 (4.3%) had never received skilled antenatal care. We assessed antenatal care content defined by blood pressure measurement, and urine and blood sample analyses. Of those who had received any antenatal care, only 31.2% received all three interventions, 18.2% received two out of three, 32.1% received one out of three, and 18.5% received no interventions. Only (41.2%) had an adequate diet of vitamins, minerals, and folic acid. Access, content and health behaviors varied by gestational age, type of accommodation and location in Lebanon. Standards of antenatal care are not being met for pregnant Syrian refugee women in
Four hundred consenting antenatal clinic attendees were serologically screened for evidence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Infection with this organism is underreported in many countries including Nigeria. In the antenatal clinic setting in most developing countries, antigen detection has found widespread application ...
Aim: This study aimed at determining the awareness about family planning amongst pregnant women presenting to the antenatal clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. Methodology: The study was conducted between December, 2007 and February, 2008 at the antenatal clinic of the hospital. Ethical ...
Obiora, C C; Dim, C C; Uzochukwu, B S C; Ezugwu, F O
The most predominant form of tobacco use is cigarette smoking, and it poses serious threats to maternal and child health. The magnitude of cigarette smoking in pregnancy in our environment is not well-known. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking among pregnant women in Enugu, Nigeria as well as their exposures and perceptions of cigarette smoking advertisement. Questionnaires were administered to a cross-section of pregnant women randomly selected from three hospitals in Enugu, South-East Nigeria, from May 2, 2012 to June 12, 2012. Analysis was both descriptive and inferential at 95% confidence levels. The prevalence of tobacco smoking in pregnancy was 4.5% (9/200). Over 90% of respondents admitted that cigarette smoking could harm both mother and unborn baby. In all, 79.5% (159/200) of respondents had seen or heard of advertisement for cigarette smoking as against 82.5% (165/200) that had seen or heard of antismoking advertisement (P = 0.444, odds ratio = 1.2 [95% confidence intervals: 0.74, 2.00]). The prevalence of cigarette smoking in pregnancy in Enugu, Nigeria was low, and there was high exposure to both pro-and anti-smoking advertisement. The awareness of harmful health effect of smoking was high but, that of the specific diseases associated with smoking in pregnancy was limited. Hence, antenatal classes and antismoking advertisement should be scaled-up to include maternal and peri-natal diseases/conditions associated with cigarette smoking.
Pulmonary disease remains the major cause of morbidity in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, of 115 patients attending a regional CF clinic we noted 16 cases (14%) with co-morbid conditions. Of this group, 4 of 115 patients (3.5%) had renal problems including both structural and functional defects and 4 (3.5%) had neurological disorders, 3 of which were types of epilepsy. Notably, 3 of 115 patients (2.6%) had different forms of neoplasia, all of which required significant surgical and\\/or chemotherapeutic intervention. There is now increasing evidence of the association between digestive tract malignancy and CF, which further complicates management of these already complex cases.
Vinod Kumar Viswanathan
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Tobacco is a public health problem globally and an important cause of preventable premature death in middle and low income countries. The government of India has taken several measures to ensure tobacco control and suggested that a systematic surveillance system is a key strategy in tobacco control. However the fact remains that people continue to smoke. This study was undertaken to understand the smoking patterns among patients attending a Pulmonology clinic and to assess their knowledge of smoking cessation methods. Data from this study can be used for planning and resource allocation of a smoking cessation clinic. The aim is to study the smoking patterns and the knowledge of cessation strategies and to analyse the willingness of the patients to quit smoking in patients attending a Pulmonology clinic. MATERIALS AND METHODS Around 489 patients visiting the Pulmonology clinic for 15 days were screened and patients with history of smoking habit were included in the study. 133 such patients were assessed with a structured questionnaire and results were analysed. RESULTS The prevalence of patients with smoking habits was 27.2%. The mean age of smoking initiation was 20.9 years of age. Percentage of beedi smokers (52.6% was much higher than the cigarette smokers (37.6%. The average number of cigarettes or beedis smoked per day was 16.6. Only 12.8% were aware of therapeutic options for nicotine de-addiction. Most of the patients had difficulty in smoking cessation. CONCLUSION Most of the patients lack health education regarding the ill effects of smoking or about smoking cessation strategies. Many of them still have inhibitions and fail to seek health services at the earliest, hence we should be able to bridge the gap and give due importance to information, education and communication (IEC activities. Creation of smoking cessation clinics with trained personnel offering various cessation strategies such as psychological counselling
Sukums, Felix; Mensah, Nathan; Mpembeni, Rose; Massawe, Siriel; Duysburgh, Els; Williams, Afua; Kaltschmidt, Jens; Loukanova, Svetla; Haefeli, Walter E; Blank, Antje
The QUALMAT project has successfully implemented an electronic clinical decision support system (eCDSS) for antenatal and intrapartum care in two sub-Saharan African countries. The system was introduced to facilitate adherence to clinical practice guidelines and to support decision making during client encounter to bridge the know-do gap of health workers. This study aimed to describe health workers' acceptance and use of the eCDSS for maternal care in rural primary health care (PHC) facilities of Ghana and Tanzania and to identify factors affecting successful adoption of such a system. This longitudinal study was conducted in Lindi rural district in Tanzania and Kassena-Nankana district in Ghana between October 2011 and December 2013 employing mixed methods. The study population included healthcare workers who were involved in the provision of maternal care in six rural PHC facilities from one district in each country where the eCDSS was implemented. All eCDSS users participated in the study with 61 and 56 participants at the midterm and final assessment, respectively. After several rounds of user training and support the eCDSS has been successfully adopted and constantly used during patient care in antenatal clinics and maternity wards. The eCDSS was used in 71% (2703/3798) and 59% (14,189/24,204) of all ANC clients in Tanzania and Ghana respectively, while it was also used in 83% (1185/1427) and 67% (1435/2144) of all deliveries in Tanzania and in Ghana, respectively. Several barriers reported to hinder eCDSS use were related to individual users, tasks, technology, and organization attributes. Implementation of an eCDSS in resource-constrained PHC facilities in sub-Saharan Africa was successful and the health workers accepted and continuously used the system for maternal care. Facilitators for eCDSS use included sufficient training and regular support whereas the challenges to sustained use were unreliable power supply and perceived high workload. However our
Munro, Christina H; Henniker-Major, Ruth; Homfray, Virginia; Browne, Rita
The incidence of congenital syphilis remains low in the UK, but the morbidity and mortality to babies born to women who are untreated for the condition make testing for the disease antenatally one of the most cost-effective screening programmes. Women attending North Middlesex Hospital, UK with a positive syphilis test at their antenatal booking visit are referred to St Ann's Sexual Health Clinic, London, for management and contact tracing. We were concerned that our initial audit revealed that a large proportion of women referred to our service never attended and recorded partner notification was poor. Following the implementation of recommendations, specifically the introduction of an electronic referral system, re-audit showed an improvement in attendance, contact tracing, documentation and communication.
Full Text Available Most HIV infections in Africa are acquired by married/cohabiting adults and WHO recommends couple's voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT for prevention. The handover from NGO-sponsored weekend CVCT to government-sponsored services in routine weekday antenatal care (ANC and individual voluntary testing and counseling (VCT services in Zambia's two largest cities from 2009-2015 is described.Government clinic counselors were trained to provide CVCT, and along with community health workers they promoted CVCT services in their clinic and surrounding areas. When client volume exceeded the capacity of on-duty staff in ANC and VCT, non-governmental organization (NGO subsidies were offered for overtime pay.Implementation of routine CVCT services varied greatly by clinic and city. The 12 highest volume clinics were examined further, while 13 clinics had CVCT numbers that were too low to warrant further investigation. In Lusaka, the proportion of pregnant women whose partners were tested rose from 2.6% in 2009 to a peak of 26.2% in 2012 and 24.8% in 2015. Corresponding reports in Ndola were 2.0% in 2009, 17.0% in 2012 and 14.5% in 2015. Obstacles to CVCT included: limited space and staffing, competing priorities, record keeping not adapted for couples, and few resources for promotion and increasing male involvement. Conflicting training models for 'partner testing' with men and women separately vs. CVCT with joint post-test counseling led to confusion in reporting to district health authorities.A focused and sustained effort will be required to reach a meaningful number of couples with CVCT to prevent heterosexual and perinatal HIV transmission. Establishing targets and timelines, funding for dedicated and appropriately trained staff, adoption of standardized data recording instruments with couple-level indicators, and expansion of community and clinic-based promotions using proven models are recommended.
Inambao, Mubiana; Kilembe, William; Canary, Lauren A; Czaicki, Nancy L; Kakungu-Simpungwe, Matilda; Chavuma, Roy; Wall, Kristin M; Tichacek, Amanda; Pulerwitz, Julie; Thior, Ibou; Chomba, Elwyn; Allen, Susan A
Most HIV infections in Africa are acquired by married/cohabiting adults and WHO recommends couple's voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) for prevention. The handover from NGO-sponsored weekend CVCT to government-sponsored services in routine weekday antenatal care (ANC) and individual voluntary testing and counseling (VCT) services in Zambia's two largest cities from 2009-2015 is described. Government clinic counselors were trained to provide CVCT, and along with community health workers they promoted CVCT services in their clinic and surrounding areas. When client volume exceeded the capacity of on-duty staff in ANC and VCT, non-governmental organization (NGO) subsidies were offered for overtime pay. Implementation of routine CVCT services varied greatly by clinic and city. The 12 highest volume clinics were examined further, while 13 clinics had CVCT numbers that were too low to warrant further investigation. In Lusaka, the proportion of pregnant women whose partners were tested rose from 2.6% in 2009 to a peak of 26.2% in 2012 and 24.8% in 2015. Corresponding reports in Ndola were 2.0% in 2009, 17.0% in 2012 and 14.5% in 2015. Obstacles to CVCT included: limited space and staffing, competing priorities, record keeping not adapted for couples, and few resources for promotion and increasing male involvement. Conflicting training models for 'partner testing' with men and women separately vs. CVCT with joint post-test counseling led to confusion in reporting to district health authorities. A focused and sustained effort will be required to reach a meaningful number of couples with CVCT to prevent heterosexual and perinatal HIV transmission. Establishing targets and timelines, funding for dedicated and appropriately trained staff, adoption of standardized data recording instruments with couple-level indicators, and expansion of community and clinic-based promotions using proven models are recommended.
Phillips, Erica; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Michaud, Lesly; Pierre, Gracia Lionel Fils; Vermeylen, Francoise; Pelletier, David
Antenatal care (ANC) is an important health service for women in developing countries, with numerous proven benefits. Global coverage of ANC has steadily increased over the past 30 years, in part due to increased community-based outreach. However, commensurate improvements in health outcomes such as reductions in the prevalence of maternal anemia and infants born small-for-gestational age have not been achieved, even with increased coverage, indicating that quality of care may be inadequate. Mobile clinics are one community-based strategy used to further improve coverage of ANC, but their quality of care delivery has rarely been evaluated. To determine the quality of care of ANC in central Haiti, we compared adherence to national guidelines between fixed and mobile clinics by performing direct observations of antenatal care consultations and exit interviews with recipients of care using a multi-stage random sampling procedure. Outcome variables were eight components of care, and women's knowledge and perception of care quality. There were significant differences in the predicted proportion or probability of recommended services for four of eight care components, including intake, laboratory examinations, infection control, and supplies, iron folic acid supplements and Tetanus Toxoid vaccine provided to women. These care components were more likely performed in fixed clinics, except for distribution of supplies, iron-folic acid supplements, and Tetanus Toxoid vaccine, more likely provided in mobile clinics. There were no differences between clinic type for the proportion of total physical exam procedures performed, health and communication messages delivered, provider communication or documentation. Women's knowledge about educational topics was poor, but women perceived extremely high quality of care in both clinic models. Although adherence to guidelines differed by clinic type for half of the care components, both clinics had a low percentage of overall services
Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Jacobson, Jerry O; Loya-Montiel, Itzel; Mendizabal-Burastero, Ricardo; Galindo-Arandi, César; Flores, Carlos; Chen, Sanny Y
Since 2007, Guatemala integrated STI clinical service with an HIV prevention model into four existing public health clinics to prevent HIV infection, known as the VICITS strategy. We present the first assessment of VICITS scale-up, retention, HIV and STI prevalence trends, and risk factors associated with HIV infection among Female Sex Workers (FSW) attending VICITS clinics in Guatemala. Demographic, behavioral and clinical data were collected using a standardized form. Data was analyzed by year and health center. HIV and STI prevalence were estimated from routine visits. Retention was estimated as the percent of new users attending VICITS clinics who returned for at least one follow-up visit to any VICITS clinic within 12 months. Separate multivariate logistic regression models were conducted to investigate factors associated with HIV infection and program retention. During 2007-2011 5,682 FSW visited a VICITS clinic for the first-time. HIV prevalence varied from 0.4% to 5.8%, and chlamydia prevalence from 0% to 14.3%, across sites. Attending the Puerto Barrios clinic, having a current syphilis infection, working primarily on the street, and using the telephone or internet to contact clients were associated with HIV infection. The number of FSW accessing VICITS annually increased from 556 to 2,557 (361%) during the period. In 2011 retention varied across locations from 7.7% to 42.7%. Factors negatively impacting retention included current HIV diagnosis, having practiced sex work in another country, being born in Honduras, and attending Marco Antonio Foundation or Quetzaltenango clinic sites. Systematic time trends did not emerge, however 2008 and 2010 were characterized by reduced retention. Our data show local differences in HIV prevalence and clinic attendance that can be used to prioritize prevention activities targeting FSW in Guatemala. VICITS achieved rapid scale-up; however, a better understanding of the causes of low return rates is urgently needed.
Full Text Available Since 2007, Guatemala integrated STI clinical service with an HIV prevention model into four existing public health clinics to prevent HIV infection, known as the VICITS strategy. We present the first assessment of VICITS scale-up, retention, HIV and STI prevalence trends, and risk factors associated with HIV infection among Female Sex Workers (FSW attending VICITS clinics in Guatemala.Demographic, behavioral and clinical data were collected using a standardized form. Data was analyzed by year and health center. HIV and STI prevalence were estimated from routine visits. Retention was estimated as the percent of new users attending VICITS clinics who returned for at least one follow-up visit to any VICITS clinic within 12 months. Separate multivariate logistic regression models were conducted to investigate factors associated with HIV infection and program retention.During 2007-2011 5,682 FSW visited a VICITS clinic for the first-time. HIV prevalence varied from 0.4% to 5.8%, and chlamydia prevalence from 0% to 14.3%, across sites. Attending the Puerto Barrios clinic, having a current syphilis infection, working primarily on the street, and using the telephone or internet to contact clients were associated with HIV infection. The number of FSW accessing VICITS annually increased from 556 to 2,557 (361% during the period. In 2011 retention varied across locations from 7.7% to 42.7%. Factors negatively impacting retention included current HIV diagnosis, having practiced sex work in another country, being born in Honduras, and attending Marco Antonio Foundation or Quetzaltenango clinic sites. Systematic time trends did not emerge, however 2008 and 2010 were characterized by reduced retention.Our data show local differences in HIV prevalence and clinic attendance that can be used to prioritize prevention activities targeting FSW in Guatemala. VICITS achieved rapid scale-up; however, a better understanding of the causes of low return rates is urgently
Crampin, Amelia Catharine; Jahn, Andreas; Kondowe, Masiya; Ngwira, Bagrey M; Hemmings, Joanne; Glynn, Judith R; Floyd, Sian; Fine, Paul E; Zaba, Basia
Antenatal clinic (ANC) surveillance is the primary source of HIV prevalence estimates in low-resource settings. In younger women, prevalence approximates incidence. Sexual behavior monitoring to explain HIV distribution and trends is seldom attempted in ANC surveys. We explore the use of marital history in ANC surveillance as a proxy for sexual behavior. Five ANC clinics in a rural African district participated in surveillance from 1999 to 2004. Unlinked anonymous HIV testing and marital history interviews (including age at first sex and socioeconomic variables) were conducted. Data on women aged sexual exposure before marriage and after first marriage increased the adjusted odds of infection with HIV by more than 0.1 for each year of exposure. Increasing years within a first marriage did not increase HIV risk. After adjusting for age, women in more recent birth cohorts were less likely to be infected. Marital status is useful behavioral information and can be collected in ANC surveys. Exposure in an ongoing first marriage did not increase the odds of infection with HIV in this age group. HIV prevalence decreased over time in young women. ANC surveillance programs should develop proxy sexual behavior questions, particularly in younger women.
Kidson, M A; Douglas, J C; Holwill, B J
To ascertain the frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in World War II veterans attending a psychiatric outpatient clinic in an Australian veterans' hospital and to compare veterans with and without PTSD according to certain psychological variables. Over a three-month period veterans were assessed at their next appointment by their treating doctors (psychiatrists or psychiatric registrars) for PTSD according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-III-R). At the same time they completed two questionnaires and provided information about their war experiences. The psychiatric outpatient department at Heidelberg Repatriation Hospital, Melbourne. One hundred and twenty World War II veterans attended during the three-month period and 108 (90%) agreed to participate and are included in this study. The treating doctors recorded the presence or absence and severity of veterans' symptoms of PTSD. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-60) and the Impact of Events Scale (IES) were then completed by participants under supervision. Forty-nine veterans (45%) were found to have active PTSD 45 years after the war. The presence of PTSD was significantly associated with the taking of casualties (an indicator of severity of war stress as reported by the veterans themselves) and with combat stress as rated by their treating doctors. The veterans with PTSD obtained significantly higher scores on both the GHQ-60 and the IES, and reported no significant reduction in symptoms of PTSD over the preceding 10 years. The presence of both an anxiety and a depressive disorder was substantially and significantly more common in the veterans who had PTSD. Overall, the study revealed a high frequency of PTSD and a strong persistence of this condition in psychiatric outpatients who were veterans of World War II.
Wong, Wing S; Chen, Phoon P; Yap, Jackequaline; Mak, Kan Hing; Tam, Barry Ka H; Fielding, Richard
The objective of this study was to examine the associations between chronic pain and psychiatric morbidity using interview-based assessments of psychiatric symptomatology. We compared the prevalence of common mental disorder (CMD; consistent with neurotic and somatic symptoms, fatigue, and negative affect), depression, and anxiety disorder(s), and associated factors with these psychiatric illnesses among Chinese patients with chronic pain attending specialist orthopedics clinic and multidisciplinary pain clinic. A total of 370 patients with chronic pain were recruited from an Orthopedics Clinic (N=185) and a Pain Clinic (N=185) in Hong Kong. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed using the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule. Individual scores for neurotic symptoms and neurotic disorders (including depression and four types of anxiety disorders) were also calculated. The reported lifetime prevalence rates of CMD were 35.3% and 75.3% for the Orthopedics and Pain Clinic samples, respectively. Rates of depression and anxiety disorders in the Pain Clinic (57.1% and 23.2%, respectively) were significantly higher than those in the Orthopedics sample (20.2% and 5.9%, respectively) (all P<0.001). Pain characteristics including number of pain sites, pain duration, pain intensity, and pain interference were all significantly associated with psychiatric morbidity after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Pain duration and litigation/compensation status consistently predicted concurrent pain intensity and disability. Chronic pain is associated with psychiatric morbidity. The higher rate of depression than anxiety disorder(s) among patients with chronic pain is consistent with previous studies that have found depression to be highly prevalent in chronic pain. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Poor nutrition status at the start of dialysis is associated with morbidity and mortality. Timely management of patients with ESKD pre-dialysis including providing nutrition intervention is important. The aim of this study was to describe the baseline nutritional status and dietary intake of patients attending the pre-dialysis assessment clinic. Of the 210 patient assessed, 60.5% were male; mean age was 65.7±13.6 years and mean GFR was 17.0±4.2 ml/min. 17.1% were underweight (BMI26 kg/m2. 39.5% were rated as malnourished (SGA score B&C and 18.5% were overweight/obese and malnourished. 26.7% had MAMC 10% less than 50th percentile of the standard. Mean energy and protein intakes were 23.4±6.9 kcal/kg IBW/d and 1.16±0.43 g/kg IBW/d with 65.5% and 15.6% did not meet the recommended intake of energy and protein respectively. 48% of patients experienced symptoms (e.g. poor appetite and nausea affecting dietary intake while 15.7% of patients self-imposed dietary restriction inappropriately due to misconception of nutrition requirements in ESKD. 41.4% and 85.2% did not consume adequate fruit and vegetables of 2 and 5 serves per day respectively based on the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Nutrient intake (prevalence % below the Recommended Daily Intake (DRI levels were: VitB1 (36.5%, VitB2 (43.5%, Niacin (3.9%, VitC (202%, VitE (41.0%, folate (83.2%, VitA (50.5%, Mg (94.5%, Fe (36.1%, Zn (70.8% and dietary fibre (83.3%. In conclusion, patients attended the current pre-dialysis assessment clinic presented with parameters indicative of poor nutritional health. This clinic may provide an opportunity to optimise nutritional status of ESKD patients before dialysis is required.
Full Text Available Background: Assessing individual’s readiness to change and targeting the intervention to the level of readiness may improve successful weight loss rates. This study aimed to assess readiness for weight loss in obese women using the trans theoretical model. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 90 volunteer apparently healthy obese women, in Ardabil, Iran. Participants completed the translated and validated University of Rhode Island Change Assessment questionnaire in their first visit. Subjects were categorized into one of the stages of change based on the highest of four z-transformed scale scores. The readiness to change score was calculated. Results: More than half of the participants were in early stages of weight loss and 24.5% were in the action stage. The readiness score in the precontemplation stage was significantly lower than the other stages, but no significant difference was observed among the contemplation, action and maintenance stages. The significant correlation was observed between the stages of change and waist-to-hip ratio (r=0.33, P<0.05. Conclusion: Obese women attending the nutrition clinic are in different stages to change for weight loss. Understanding person specific stages of change orientates the dietitian to use the most appropriate counseling strategies. Hence the stages and readiness to change should be considered before implementing any intervention in clinical settings for optimal outcomes.
Ghannadiasl, Fatemeh; Mahdavi, Reza; AsghariJafarabadi, Mohammad
Assessing individual's readiness to change and targeting the inter-vention to the level of readiness may improve successful weight loss rates. This study aimed to assess readiness for weight loss in obese women using the trans theoretical model. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 90 volunteer apparently healthy obese women, in Ardabil, Iran. Participants completed the translated and validated University of Rhode Island Change Assessment questionnaire in their first visit. Subjects were categorized into one of the stages of change based on the highest of four z-transformed scale scores. The readiness to change score was calculated. More than half of the participants were in early stages of weight loss and 24.5% were in the action stage. The readiness score in the precontemplation stage was significantly lower than the other stages, but no significant difference was observed among the contemplation, action and maintenance stages. The significant correlation was observed between the stages of change and waist-to-hip ratio (r=0.33, P<0.05). Obese women attending the nutrition clinic are in different stages to change for weight loss. Understanding person specific stages of change ori-entates the dietitian to use the most appropriate counseling strategies. Hence the stages and readiness to change should be considered before implementing any intervention in clinical settings for optimal outcomes.
Hoogenboom, Gabie; Thwin, May Myo; Velink, Kris; Baaijens, Marijke; Charrunwatthana, Prakaykaew; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose
Increasing the number of women birthing with skilled birth attendants (SBAs) as one of the strategies to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity must be partnered with a minimum standard of care. This manuscript describes the quality of intrapartum care provided by SBAs in Mae La camp, a low resource, protracted refugee context on the Thai-Myanmar border. In the obstetric department of Shoklo Malaria Research Unit (SMRU) the standardized WHO Safe Motherhood Needs Assessment tool was adapted to the setting and used: to assess the facility; interview SBAs; collect data from maternal records during a one year period (August 2007 - 2008); and observe practice during labour and childbirth. The facility assessment recorded no 'out of stock' or 'out of date' drugs and supplies, equipment was in operating order and necessary infrastructure e.g. a stand-by emergency car, was present. Syphilis testing was not available. SBA interviews established that danger signs and symptoms were recognized except for sepsis and endometritis. All SBAs acknowledged receiving theoretical and 'hands-on' training and regularly attended deliveries. Scores for the essential elements of antenatal care from maternal records were high (>90%) e.g. providing supplements, recording risk factors as well as regular and correct partogram use. Observed good clinical practice included: presence of a support person; active management of third stage; post-partum monitoring; and immediate and correct neonatal care. Observed incorrect practice included: improper controlled cord traction; inadequate hand washing; an episiotomy rate in nulliparous women 49% (34/70) and low rates 30% (6/20) of newborn monitoring in the first hours following birth. Overall observed complications during labour and birth were low with post-partum haemorrhage being the most common in which case the SBAs followed the protocol but were slow to recognize severity and take action. In the clinic of SMRU in Mae La refugee camp, SBAs were
Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO recommendation for regular tuberculosis (TB screening of HIV-positive individuals with Xpert MTB/RIF as the first diagnostic test has major resource implications.To develop a diagnostic prediction model for TB, for symptomatic adults attending for routine HIV care, to prioritise TB investigation.Cohort study exploring a TB testing algorithm.HIV clinics, South Africa.Representative sample of adult HIV clinic attendees; data from participants reporting ≥1 symptom on the WHO screening tool were split 50:50 to derive, then internally validate, a prediction model.TB, defined as "confirmed" if Xpert MTB/RIF, line probe assay or M. tuberculosis culture were positive; and "clinical" if TB treatment started without microbiological confirmation, within six months of enrolment.Overall, 79/2602 (3.0% participants on ART fulfilled TB case definitions, compared to 65/906 (7.2% pre-ART. Among 1133/3508 (32.3% participants screening positive on the WHO tool, 1048 met inclusion criteria for this analysis: 52/515 (10.1% in the derivation and 58/533 (10.9% in the validation dataset had TB. Our final model comprised ART status (on ART > 3 months vs. pre-ART or ART 1 symptom. We converted this to a clinical score, using clinically-relevant CD4 and BMI categories. A cut-off score of ≥3 identified those with TB with sensitivity and specificity of 91.8% and 34.3% respectively. If investigation was prioritised for individuals with score of ≥3, 68% (717/1048 symptomatic individuals would be tested, among whom the prevalence of TB would be 14.1% (101/717; 32% (331/1048 of tests would be avoided, but 3% (9/331 with TB would be missed amongst those not tested.Our clinical score may help prioritise TB investigation among symptomatic individuals.
Hanifa, Yasmeen; Fielding, Katherine L; Chihota, Violet N; Adonis, Lungiswa; Charalambous, Salome; Foster, Nicola; Karstaedt, Alan; McCarthy, Kerrigan; Nicol, Mark P; Ndlovu, Nontobeko T; Sinanovic, Edina; Sahid, Faieza; Stevens, Wendy; Vassall, Anna; Churchyard, Gavin J; Grant, Alison D
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation for regular tuberculosis (TB) screening of HIV-positive individuals with Xpert MTB/RIF as the first diagnostic test has major resource implications. To develop a diagnostic prediction model for TB, for symptomatic adults attending for routine HIV care, to prioritise TB investigation. Cohort study exploring a TB testing algorithm. HIV clinics, South Africa. Representative sample of adult HIV clinic attendees; data from participants reporting ≥1 symptom on the WHO screening tool were split 50:50 to derive, then internally validate, a prediction model. TB, defined as "confirmed" if Xpert MTB/RIF, line probe assay or M. tuberculosis culture were positive; and "clinical" if TB treatment started without microbiological confirmation, within six months of enrolment. Overall, 79/2602 (3.0%) participants on ART fulfilled TB case definitions, compared to 65/906 (7.2%) pre-ART. Among 1133/3508 (32.3%) participants screening positive on the WHO tool, 1048 met inclusion criteria for this analysis: 52/515 (10.1%) in the derivation and 58/533 (10.9%) in the validation dataset had TB. Our final model comprised ART status (on ART > 3 months vs. pre-ART or ART 1 symptom). We converted this to a clinical score, using clinically-relevant CD4 and BMI categories. A cut-off score of ≥3 identified those with TB with sensitivity and specificity of 91.8% and 34.3% respectively. If investigation was prioritised for individuals with score of ≥3, 68% (717/1048) symptomatic individuals would be tested, among whom the prevalence of TB would be 14.1% (101/717); 32% (331/1048) of tests would be avoided, but 3% (9/331) with TB would be missed amongst those not tested. Our clinical score may help prioritise TB investigation among symptomatic individuals.
BACKGROUND:: stress in pregnancy is common and impacts negatively on women, infants and families. A number of factors contribute to high levels of stress in pregnancy, including financial concerns, marital discord, low support systems and low socio-economic status. OBJECTIVES:: the aim of this study was to evaluate stress anxiety levels and depressive symptoms among low risk women in an area in Ireland that was particularly impacted by the 2008 economic crisis. DESIGN:: a quantitative descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Data were collected using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Perceived Stress Scale and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Data was collected at a single time during the second trimester. SETTING:: this paper reports a case study of one maternity service in Ireland. Participants included low risk pregnant women who were attending the hospital clinic for routine antenatal care. RESULTS:: of 150 questionnaires distributed, 74 completed questionnaires were returned indicating a 49.3% return rate. Findings indicated high levels of stress, anxiety and depressive symptomatology among participants. There were no significant difference in mean EPDS score for different age groups (F4,69=2.48, P=0.052), living arrangements (F4,68=0.90, P=0.5) or usual occupation (F4,69=1.45, P=0.2). A score of ≥12 was taken as indicative of probable antenatal depression and 86.5% of participants responded with a score of 12 or above. PSS scores were also high and more than three quarters of respondents scored ≥15 (75.6%) and more than a third had scores ≥20 (35.1%), out of a total score of 40. There was a significant difference in mean PSS score between the different age groups (F4,69=3.60, P=0.010) but not for living arrangements or usual occupation. A STAI score of ≥39 was taken as indicative of antenatal anxiety, and 74.3% of participants responded with a score of 39 or above. There were no significant differences in mean STAI
Om Prakash Giri
Full Text Available Background: Substance misuse is an increasing problem in urban and rural India. The utility of community-based interventions and preventive strategies are increasingly emphasized in this context. The drug de-addiction and treatment center, Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, has been running a drug de-addiction and treatment clinic at Kharar Civil Hospital, Kharar, District Mohali, Punjab, since 1998. As part of an effort to enhance this community outreach program, community-based drug awareness and treatment camps have been organized since March 2004 in villages in and around Tehsil Kharar of Mohali. Aim: To study the impact of the drug awareness and treatment camps on the attendance of patients at the community outreach drug de-addiction and treatment clinic at Kharar Civil Hospital. Methods: Sociodemographic and clinical variables, including treatment outcome-related variables, of patients attending the clinic at Kharar Civil Hospital, before and after the camps were compared. Discussion and Conclusion: The study showed a positive impact on drug awareness and treatment camps held in the community on outpatient attendance at a community outreach clinic, with attendance increasing more than 1.8 times.
Parkpinyo, Nichamon; Inthasorn, Perapong; Laiwejpithaya, Somsak; Punnarat, Tippawan
To determine the prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology, as diagnosed using a liquid-based cytology technique, in pregnant women attending the Antenatal Care (ANC) clinic at Siriraj Hospital. This cross-sectional study included 655 first-visit pregnant women who attended ANC clinic at Siriraj Hospital during June to November 2015 study period. After receiving routine antenatal care, cervical cytology screening was performed with the Siriraj liquid-based cytology technique. All specimens were reviewed by a certi ed cytopathologist using Bethesda System 2001 criteria. Patients with abnormal PAP results characterized as epithelial cell abnormalities were referred to a gynecologic oncologist for further management according to ASCCP Guidelines 2012. Mean age of participants was 28.9±6.2 years. Prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology was 3.4% (95% CI: 2.0-4.7). Among this group, there were ASC-US, ASC-H, LSIL, HSIL for 12(1.8%), 2(0.3%), 7(1.1%) and 1(0.2%), respectively. In 633 specimens of the normal group, infection was identified in 158 specimens (24.1%) which were caused by Candida spp. and Trichomonas vaginalis. Regarding patient perception about the importance of cervical cancer screening, although most women perceived screening to be important, 54% of participants had never been screened for cervical cancer. Rate of loss to follow-up in the postpartum period was as high as 41.8%. Prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology in pregnant women attending the ANC clinic at Siriraj Hospital was 3.4%. Inclusion of cervical cancer screening as part of antenatal assessment can help to identify precancerous lesions or cervical cancers in patients who might otherwise not be screened, thereby facilitating early treatment and improved patient outcomes.
This study aimed at assessing the pattern of family planning methods used by antenatal patients at Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. The study was conducted between December,2007 and February,2008 at the antenatal clinic of the hospital. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical committee of ...
This retrospective study was conducted at the maternity unit of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital Uyo. The aim was to determine the prevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women receiving antenatal care in the center. The voluntary counselling and testing register, the partner notification and antenatal clinic ...
Jeppesen, Maja Haunstrup; Ainsworth, Mark Andrew
INTRODUCTION: Non-attendance is a global health-care problem. The aim of the present study was 1) to investigate if a telephone reminder could reduce the non-attendance rate, 2) to study reasons for non-attendance and 3) to evaluate if a permanent implementation would be economically advantageous......,705). Patients in the following three-month period were reminded by telephone one weekday in advance of their appointment, when possible (intervention group, n = 2,479). Non-attending patients in the intervention group received a questionnaire. Based on the results, a financial cost-benefit analysis was made....... RESULTS: In the intervention group, 1,577 (64%) patients answered the reminder telephone call. The non-attendance rate was significantly lower in the intervention group (6.1%) than in the control group (10.5%) (p
Parejo Maestre, N; Lendínez-de la Cruz, J M; Bermúdez-Torres, F M; Gónzalez-Contero, L; Gutierrez-Espinosa de Los Monteros, M P; Espejo-Almazán María, T
The use of health services has seen a steep rise. The frequent users are responsible for significant economic, human and social impact. The objective is to analyze the characteristics of frequent attenders in our Health Center, in order to evaluate the possibility of taking corrective measures to improve the quality of care and efficiency in the use of resources. Descriptive observational study of a sample of 379 patients over 18 years old. The dependent variables were attendance (number of visits to their family doctor during the previous year), frequent attendance (10 or more visits to the family doctor in the last year), and persistent frequent attenders (10 or more visits to the family doctor in each of the last two years). Data were collected from medical records and by telephone interview. The mean attendance was 6.83 (95%CI: 6.13-7.53), frequent attendance reached 25.4% (95%CI: 21.4-29.6), and persistent frequent attenders, 1.6% (95%CI: 0.5-2.9). Frequent attendance was associated with sex, age, marital status, educational level, family structure, existence of chronic disease, use of anxiolytic and antidepressants, request for additional tests, and referrals to other specialists, proximity to the health center, and level of satisfaction with their family doctor. The low persistent frequent attenders found suggests that frequent attendance could be largely due to factors related to professional and organization. Studies are required to address the high level of consumption of psychotropic drugs, and improving professional skills in dealing with mental problems. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Resegue, Rosa; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini; Silva, Edina Mariko Koga da
Knowledge of risk factors associated with child development disorders is essential for delivering high-quality childcare. The objective here was to evaluate the relationships between risk factors and occurrences of developmental abnormalities among children attended at a reference clinic for children at risk of developmental abnormalities. Retrospective study at a multidisciplinary reference center, Embu, São Paulo. All cases followed up for more than three months between 1995 and 2003 were reviewed. The risk factors assessed were low birth weight, gestational age, length of stay in neonatal ward, perinatal asphyxia, mothers age 5 days, prematurity and mothers age 18 years and older. Low birth weight, history of perinatal asphyxia and mothers age continued to be significant in multivariate analysis. Special attention must be paid to the development of low birth weight infants and/or infants with histories of neonatal complications. Low birth weight is easily assessed and should be considered to be an important marker when defining guidelines for following up child development.
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Knowledge of risk factors associated with child development disorders is essential for delivering high-quality childcare. The objective here was to evaluate the relationships between risk factors and occurrences of developmental abnormalities among children attended at a reference clinic for children at risk of developmental abnormalities. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study at a multidisciplinary reference center, Embu, São Paulo. METHODS: All cases followed up for more than three months between 1995 and 2003 were reviewed. The risk factors assessed were low birth weight, gestational age, length of stay in neonatal ward, perinatal asphyxia, mother’s age 5 days, prematurity and mother’s age 18 years and older. Low birth weight, history of perinatal asphyxia and mother’s age continued to be significant in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Special attention must be paid to the development of low birth weight infants and/or infants with histories of neonatal complications. Low birth weight is easily assessed and should be considered to be an important marker when defining guidelines for following up child development.
Almualm, Yasmin; Alkaff, Sharifa Ezat; Aljunid, Syed; Alsagoff, Syed Sagoff
This study was carried out to determine the level of support towards the proposed National Health Insurance scheme among Malaysian patients attending specialist clinics at the National University of Malaysia Medical centre and its influencing factors. The cross sectional study was carried out from July-October 2012. 260 patients were selected using multistage sampling method. 71.2% of respondents supported the proposed National Health insurance scheme. 61.4% of respondents are willing to pay up to RM240 per year to join the National Health Insurance and 76.6% of respondents are of the view that enrolment in NHI should be made compulsory. Knowledge had a positive influence on respondent's support towards National Health Insurance. National Health Insurance when implemented in Malaysia can be used to raise funds for health care financing, increase access to health services and achieve the desired health status. More efforts should be taken to promote the scheme and educate the public in order to achieve higher support towards the proposed National Health Insurance. The cost to enroll in NHI as well as services to be included under the scheme should be duly considered. PMID:23985101
Tiong, Albert C D; Patel, Mahomed S; Gardiner, Joanne; Ryan, Rowena; Linton, Karen S; Walker, Kate A; Scopel, John; Biggs, Beverley-Ann
To identify the most common health issues diagnosed by general practitioners in newly arrived African refugees. Descriptive study based on a purposive sample of six GPs to collate data from medical records of patients from African countries who had attended their clinics for the first time between 1 January and 30 June 2005. Two community health centres and two private general practices in metropolitan Melbourne. African refugee patients who arrived in Australia after 1 June 2004 and were seen by the six participating GPs between 1 January and 30 June 2005. Demographic characteristics, laboratory test results and final diagnoses. Data were collected from 258 patient files. Most patients were from Sudan (57%) or Liberia (17%). Half were aged under 15 years. The most common health problems identified were inadequate vaccinations, nutritional deficiencies (vitamin D and iron), infectious diseases (gastrointestinal infections, schistosomiasis, and latent tuberculosis) and dental disease. Musculoskeletal, psychological and social problems were common in adults. 37% of patients were tested for latent tuberculosis, and 25% of these tested positive. African refugees require comprehensive health assessments for undiagnosed and untreated health problems. While most of the common diseases identified are non-communicable, if left untreated they will affect the long-term health and productivity of new settlers.
Full Text Available Objectives: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with a median lifetime prevalence of 14 per 1000 subjects. Sleep disorders could influence epileptic seizure. The most common sleep disorder is obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS which occurs in 2% of adult women and 4% of adult men in the general population. The aim of this study is to estimate the frequency of OSAS among patients with epilepsy and to study the seizure characteristics among those patients with co-morbid OSAS. Methods: Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of epilepsy who attended the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital neurology clinic were recruited for the study between June 2011 and April 2012. Patients were screened for OSAS by direct interview using the validated Arabic version of the Berlin questionnaire. Patients identified as high-risk underwent polysomnography. Results: A total of 100 patients with epilepsy (55 men and 45 women were screened for OSAS. Generalized and focal seizure was found in 67% of male and 27% of female patients. Six percent of the participants had epilepsy of undetermined type. Only 9% of the sample was found to have high risk of OSAS based on the Berlin questionnaire. No significant correlation was found between risk of OSAS, type of epilepsy, and anti-epileptic drugs. Conclusion: The risk of OSAS was marginally greater in patients with epilepsy compared to the general population with the overall prevalence of 9%.
Al-Abri, Mohammed; Al-Asmi, Abdullah; Al-Shukairi, Aisha; Al-Qanoobi, Arwa; Rmachandiran, Nandhagopal; Jacob, Povothoor; Gujjar, Arunodaya
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with a median lifetime prevalence of 14 per 1000 subjects. Sleep disorders could influence epileptic seizure. The most common sleep disorder is obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) which occurs in 2% of adult women and 4% of adult men in the general population. The aim of this study is to estimate the frequency of OSAS among patients with epilepsy and to study the seizure characteristics among those patients with co-morbid OSAS. Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of epilepsy who attended the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital neurology clinic were recruited for the study between June 2011 and April 2012. Patients were screened for OSAS by direct interview using the validated Arabic version of the Berlin questionnaire. Patients identified as high-risk underwent polysomnography. A total of 100 patients with epilepsy (55 men and 45 women) were screened for OSAS. Generalized and focal seizure was found in 67% of male and 27% of female patients. Six percent of the participants had epilepsy of undetermined type. Only 9% of the sample was found to have high risk of OSAS based on the Berlin questionnaire. No significant correlation was found between risk of OSAS, type of epilepsy, and anti-epileptic drugs. The risk of OSAS was marginally greater in patients with epilepsy compared to the general population with the overall prevalence of 9%.
Wright, Diane; Pincombe, Jan; McKellar, Lois
Listening to women as part of their antenatal care has been recognized as valuable in understanding the woman's needs. Conversations as part of routine antenatal interactions offer ideal opportunities for women to express themselves and for midwives to learn about the woman's issues and concerns. The antenatal visit and the convention of antenatal consultations for midwives have not been well explored or defined and much of what takes place replicate medical consultative processes. As a consequence, there is little to assist midwives construct woman-centred care consultations for their routine antenatal care practice. This study showed how some practices were better in promoting the woman's voice and woman-centred care in the hospital setting. Contemporary focused ethnography using both interview and observations, explored how midwives from six different public antenatal clinics in South Australia organized their antenatal care consultations with pregnant women. Thematic analysis of the data provided insights into professional interpretation of woman-centred practice. How midwives interacted with women during routine antenatal care events demonstrated that some practices in a hospital setting could either support or undermine a woman-centred philosophy. Individual midwives adopted practices according to their own perceptions of actions and behaviors that were considered to be in accordance with the philosophy of woman-centred care. Information arising from this study has shown ways midwives may arrange antenatal care consultations to maximize women's participation. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Polling, C; Tulloch, A; Banerjee, S; Cross, S; Dutta, R; Wood, D M; Dargan, P I; Hotopf, M
Self-harm is a significant public health concern in the UK. This is reflected in the recent addition to the English Public Health Outcomes Framework of rates of attendance at Emergency Departments (EDs) following self-harm. However there is currently no source of data to measure this outcome. Routinely available data for inpatient admissions following self-harm miss the majority of cases presenting to services. We aimed to investigate (i) if a dataset of ED presentations could be produced using a combination of routinely collected clinical and administrative data and (ii) to validate this dataset against another one produced using methods similar to those used in previous studies. Using the Clinical Record Interactive Search system, the electronic health records (EHRs) used in four EDs were linked to Hospital Episode Statistics to create a dataset of attendances following self-harm. This dataset was compared with an audit dataset of ED attendances created by manual searching of ED records. The proportion of total cases detected by each dataset was compared. There were 1932 attendances detected by the EHR dataset and 1906 by the audit. The EHR and audit datasets detected 77% and 76 of all attendances respectively and both detected 82% of individual patients. There were no differences in terms of age, sex, ethnicity or marital status between those detected and those missed using the EHR method. Both datasets revealed more than double the number of self-harm incidents than could be identified from inpatient admission records. It was possible to use routinely collected EHR data to create a dataset of attendances at EDs following self-harm. The dataset detected the same proportion of attendances and individuals as the audit dataset, proved more comprehensive than the use of inpatient admission records, and did not show a systematic bias in those cases it missed.
Guy, Rebecca; Hocking, Jane; Wand, Handan; Stott, Sam; Ali, Hammad; Kaldor, John
In the last few years there has been a steady uptake of mobile phone short message service (SMS) reminders to increase medical attendance rates. We undertook a review of studies that assessed the effectiveness of SMS reminders at increasing the uptake of appointments in health care settings. We reviewed studies which involved a comparison of appointment attendance rates between patients who did and did not receive SMS reminders published prior to June 2010. We used meta-analysis methods to calculate the overall effect on attendance rates, stratified by study design and clinic type. The review criteria were met by 18 reports, made up of eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 10 controlled observational studies. Across all studies, there was significant heterogeneity in the estimated effect measure of the relationship between use of SMS reminders and clinic attendance (I(2) = 90 percent; p < .01), so a summary effect estimate was not calculated. Stratification by study design showed that the heterogeneity was due to the observational studies. The summary effect from the RCTs was 1.48 (95% CI: 1.23-1.72) with no significant subgroup differences by clinic type (primary care clinics, hospital outpatient clinics), message timing (24, 48, and 72+ hours before the scheduled appointment), and target age group (pediatric, older). Short message service reminders in health care settings substantially increase the likelihood of attending clinic appointments. SMS reminders appear to be a simple and efficient option for health services to use to improve service delivery, as well as resulting in health benefits for the patients who receive the reminders. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Full Text Available Surajudeen Abiola Abdulrahman,1,2 Lekhraj Rampal,1 Norlijah Othman,3 Faisal Ibrahim,1 Kadir Shahar Hayati,1 Anuradha P Radhakrishnan4 1Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 2Department of Public Health Medicine, Penang Medical College, George Town, Penang, 3Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 4Infectious Disease Clinic, Hospital Sungai Buloh, Sungai Buloh, Selangor, MalaysiaBackground: Inconsistent literature evidence suggests that sociodemographic, economic, and system- and patient-related factors are associated with clinic attendance among the HIV-positive population receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART around the world. We examined the factors that predict outpatient clinic attendance among a cohort of HIV-positive patients initiating ART in Selangor, Malaysia.Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed secondary data on outpatient clinic attendance and sociodemographic, economic, psychosocial, and patient-related factors among 242 adult Malaysian patients initiating ART in Selangor, Malaysia. Study cohort was enrolled in a parent randomized controlled trial (RCT in Hospital Sungai Buloh Malaysia between January and December 2014, during which peer counseling, medication, and clinic appointment reminders were provided to the intervention group through short message service (SMS and telephone calls for 24 consecutive weeks. Data on outpatient clinic attendance were extracted from the hospital electronic medical records system, while other patient-level data were extracted from pre-validated Adult AIDS Clinical Trial Group (AACTG adherence questionnaires in which primary data were collected. Outpatient clinic attendance was categorized into binary outcome – regular attendee and defaulter categories – based on the number of missed scheduled outpatient clinic appointments within a 6-month
Eaton, Lisa; Kueck, Angela; Maksut, Jessica; Gordon, Lori; Metersky, Karen; Miga, Ashley; Brewer, Molly; Siembida, Elizabeth; Bradley, Alison
Sexual health is an important, yet overlooked, aspect of quality of life for gynecologic oncologic patients. Although patients with gynecologic cancer frequently report sexual health concerns, there are limited efforts to address these problems. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between mental health and sexual health needs to be prioritized. To examine multiple components of sexual health in patients with gynecologic cancer. For the present study, sexual health concerns (ie, sexual frequency, desire, response, and satisfaction; orgasm; and pain during sex; independent variables), beliefs about cancer treatments affecting sexual health (dependent variable), and mental health (ie, anxiety and depressive symptoms; dependent variables) of patients at a US gynecologic oncology clinic were assessed. Demographics; cancer diagnosis; positive screening results for cancer; sexual health histories including sexual frequency, desire, pain, orgasm, responsiveness, and satisfaction; and mental health including depression and anxiety symptoms. Most women reported experiencing at least one sexual health concern, and half the women screened positive for experiencing symptoms of depression and anxiety. Forty-nine percent of participants reported having no or very little sexual desire or interest in the past 6 months. Further, in mediation analyses, pain during sex was significantly and positively correlated with depressive symptoms (r = 0.42, P women for whether and to what extent they perceive cancer treatments affecting their sexual health could provide a brief, easily administrable, screener for sexual health concerns and the need for further intervention. Intervention development for patients with gynecologic cancer must include mental health components and addressing perceptions of how cancer treatments affect sexual health functioning. Eaton L, Kueck A, Maksut J, et al. Sexual Health, Mental Health, and Beliefs About Cancer Treatments Among Women Attending a
Stahlman, Shauna; Javanbakht, Marjan; Stirland, Ali; Guerry, Sarah; Gorbach, Pamina M
Methamphetamine (meth) use is a continuing problem in the United States and is associated with increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, few studies have examined the meth use/STI risk association among women. We conducted a cross-sectional study of women attending public sexually transmitted disease clinics in Los Angeles County, California, from 2009 to 2010. Routinely collected clinic intake data were used to compare the prevalence of meth use among women with different demographics/sexual behaviors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of meth use. There were 1.4% (n = 277) women who reported meth use, with a mean age of 29 years. Prevalence was highest among Whites and those reporting both male and female partners. Most women who reported meth use also reported polysubstance use. In a multivariable model controlling for age, race/ethnicity, condom use, having a new sex partner, and other illicit substance use, women who reported sex with an injection drug user were nearly 10 times more likely to report meth use as compared with those who did not (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 9.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.86-16.75). Other factors associated with meth use included sex with a recently incarcerated partner (AOR, 3.24; 95% CI, 2.16-4.86), anonymous partner (AOR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.54-4.04), and transactional sex (AOR, 3.26; 95% CI, 1.69-6.32). Women who tested positive for chlamydia/gonorrhea were 1.48 times more likely to use meth as compared with those who did not. Female meth users have high-risk behaviors that could increase their risk for STIs/HIV.
Heidecker, Bettina; Spencer, Rachel Maureen; Hayes, Victoria; Hall, Sarah; Parikh, Nisha; Stock, Eveline Oestreicher; Redberg, Rita
There are many occupational health hazards associated with long hours of air travel, including cosmic radiation exposure, circadian rhythm disruptions, prior and secondhand smoke exposure, for flight attendants who flew before smoking bans were initiated in the 1990s. Previous studies in flight attendants have found increased incidence of breast cancer and melanoma. However, there is little information on the relationship of airline travel and reproductive health in flight attendants. Secondhand smoke exposure has numerous negative health effects, such as increased cardiac events and respiratory infections, but its effect on reproductive health is not known. This study seeks to examine the role of secondhand smoke exposure on the miscarriage rate in flight attendants who flew before the smoking ban. Flight attendants who flew before the smoking ban and participating in a study of health effects of secondhand smoke were asked to complete a reproductive health survey. We compared miscarriage rates of flight attendants to the general population using 2010 data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In our cohort of 145 female flight attendants exposed to secondhand smoke, there were 45 miscarriages (26%), compared with a 17.1% rate in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report (P = .002). There was no difference in secondhand smoke exposure between the flight attendants with miscarriage and the group without miscarriage (P = .93). This study found an increased incidence of miscarriage in flight attendants, which was unrelated to secondhand smoke exposure. Other factors, such as circadian rhythm disruption and radiation, may be related to these reproductive health findings and require further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cartwright, B; Holloway, D; Grace, J; Robinson, J; Rymer, J
This service evaluation aimed to characterise the referrals to the premature ovarian failure clinic, including the type of referral and patient needs, in order to plan for future service provision. The majority of women seen in the clinic experienced idiopathic premature ovarian failure, were aged 30-39 and were nulliparous at the time of diagnosis. Our service requires to be tailored to their needs. For many women, this includes a fertility consultation in the clinic and this part of the service is well used. Our data support the long-term follow-up of women both on treatment and those who initially decline treatment. Most women who initially decline treatment accept it after a few clinic visits. This may be due to consistent advice on the benefits of oestrogen treatment or due to yearly bone scans showing a change in bone density. There was a high non-attendance rate in this group: 21% of appointments were not attended.
Disler, Rebecca T; Inglis, Sally C; Newton, Phillip J; Currow, David C; Macdonald, Peter S; Glanville, Allan R; Donesky, DorAnne; Carrieri-Kohlman, Virginia; Davidson, Patricia M
Self-management education for cardiopulmonary diseases is primarily provided through time-limited, face-to-face programs, with access limited to a small percentage of patients. Telecommunication tools will increasingly be an important component of future health care delivery. The purpose of this study was to describe the patterns of technology use in patients attending a cardiopulmonary clinic in an academic medical center. A prevalence survey was developed to collect data on participant demographics (age in years, sex, and socioeconomic status); access to computers, Internet, and mobile phones; and use of current online health support sites or programs. Surveys were offered by reception staff to all patients attending the outpatient clinic. A total of 123 surveys were collected between March and April 2014. Technological devices were a pervasive part of everyday life with respondents engaged in regular computer (102/123, 82.9%), mobile telephone (115/117, 98.3%), and Internet (104/121, 86.0%) use. Emailing (101/121, 83.4%), researching and reading news articles (93/121, 76.9%), social media (71/121, 58.7%), and day-to-day activities (65/121, 53.7%) were the most common telecommunication activities. The majority of respondents reported that access to health support programs and assistance through the Internet (82/111, 73.9%) would be of use, with benefits reported as better understanding of health information (16/111, 22.5%), avoidance of difficult travel requirements and time-consuming face-to-face appointments (13/111, 18.3%), convenient and easily accessible help and information (12/111, 16.9%), and access to peer support and sharing (9/111, 12.7%). The majority of patients did not have concerns over participating in the online environment (87/111, 78.4%); the few concerns noted related to privacy and security (10/15), information accuracy (2/15), and computer literacy and access (2/15). Chronic disease burden and long-term self-management tasks provide a
Full Text Available Background: Sexual dysfunctions (SD are among the most common psychiatric disorders leading to significant impairment in the quality of life. However, in spite of that, little data exist regarding the prevalence of these disorders, especially from Eastern India. Methodology: This study was a retrospective analysis of the data from patients attending a special clinic conducted in the Outpatient Department in a General Hospital Psychiatry Unit from an urban center in Eastern India over the calendar year of 2016, adhering the Prins criteria. Results: Of the 237 patients attending the clinic, 235 (99.2% were male and rest were female. The most common disorders reported included premature ejaculation (PME, erectile dysfunction (ED, comorbid ED and PME, lack of sexual desire, and dhat syndrome (DS. Comparison of the sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients of each disorder showed that patients with DS had a younger age and significantly lower history of nicotine use disorder. Conclusion: There is dearth of data regarding the prevalence of SD in clinical population from Eastern India. There is a high gender disparity among the patients attending the special clinic. The prevalence of the disorder in this clinic-based was similar to community studies conducted in India, but differed from studies conducted in Western countries. The major limitation was the cross-sectional design and limited generalizability of results.
Alosaimi, Fahad Dakheel; Altuwirqi, Maram Hani; Bukhari, Mujahid; Abotalib, Zeinab; BinSaleh, Saleh
No study has assessed psychiatric disorders among infertile men and women seeking fertility treatment in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, we sought to measure the rate of psychiatric disorders in this population. This was a cross-sectional observational study among patients attending infertility clinics at three referral hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between January 2013 and September 2014. 406 patients (206 women and 200 men) participated in the study. The approved Arabic version of the MINI tool was used to assess 18 common psychiatric illnesses. The response rate was 81%. Of the men surveyed, only 4.5% self-reported having a psychiatric disorder. Of the women surveyed, only 10.2% reported having a psychiatric disorder. However, using the MINI scale, psychiatric illness was documented in 30% of males and 36.9% of females. The most common diagnoses for both genders were depression (21.7%) and anxiety (21.2%). Significantly more females than males exhibited suicidality and depression. In contrast, significantly more males than females had bipolar disorders and substance-related disorders. A low monthly income among male and female participants and polygamy among female participants were significantly associated with psychiatric disorders. This study shows that a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders, particularly depression and anxiety, among infertile men and women in Saudi Arabia is associated with lower income and polygamy. This study highlights the importance of integrated care for alleviating the psychological burden of this unfortunate population and improving outcomes and quality of life. This study also encourages follow-up studies that aim to further understand the complex relationship between fertility and psychological well-being.
Cai, Jian; Lv, Huakun; Lin, Junfen; Chen, Zhiping; Fang, Chunfu; Han, Jiankang
Enteroviruses are responsible for hand, foot, and mouth disease, and have caused many deaths in China during recent years. But the natural history of enterovirus infection in children, especially asymptomatic children, is not yet clear. From April 2011 to May 2012, 505 stool and throat swab samples of children attending outpatients clinics in two hospitals were collected weekly to test for Enterovirus 71, Coxsackievirus A16, and other enterovirus nucleic acids by real-time RT-PCR. Two hundred sixty-four patients were enterovirus positive, the positive rate was 52.3%, 27.5% (22/80) in children without a rash and 56.9% (242/425) in children with a rash. Coxsackievirus A16 positive rate of male (24%, 61/254) was higher than that of female (15.2%, 26/171) (χ(2) = 4.87, P = 0.027). The highest positive rate of enterovirus infection was 63.5% in the 2-year-old age group. Comparing children with and without a rash, within the same age groups, no statistical difference was found (P > 0.05). The seasonal distribution of Enterovirus 71 had only one peak in May, but Coxsackievirus A16 had two peaks in April and October. In patients with a rash, the frequency of Enterovirus 71 was relatively high before July, and then that of Coxsackievirus A16 increased gradually. In the case of Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16, stool specimens had a higher positive rate than throat swab specimens' (χ(2) = 3.88, P = 0.05; χ(2) = 15.13, P < 0.001). Enterovirus infection was more frequent in males 2-3 year-old children, with the implicated virus varying by season. Targeted prevention and control measures should be carried out. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Adegbesan-Omilabu, M A; Okunade, K S; Gbadegesin, A; Olowoselu, O F; Oluwole, A A; Omilabu, S A
The objectives were to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and assess the major risk factors among Nigerian pregnant women. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out among pregnant women at the antenatal clinic of a Tertiary Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. A total number of 150 consenting pregnant women were selected for the study. A structured pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for the data collection. Sera were collected and tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). Of the 150 women screened during the study, 11 (7.3%) were seropositive for HBsAg. Of these 11 women, 4 (36.4%) were also positive for HBeAg. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean ages of participants who were seropositive for HBsAg and those who were negative for the virus (P=0.888). There were statistically significant differences in the seroprevalence of HBsAg recorded among respondents with previous surgery (odd ratio [OR]-2.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]-1.08-16.67; P=0.046), previously affected sibling or spouse (OR-5.03; 95% CI-1.11-25.27; P=0.001) and those with two or more lifetime sexual partners (OR-4.11; 95% CI-2.85-9.22; P=0.024). The sero-prevalence rate of HBV infection and also its infectivity is high in Lagos, Nigeria. These findings thus support the need for a nationwide policy of routine and widespread HBV screening among pregnant women.
Zafar, Ahmed A; Ehiri, John E; Anyanwu, Ebere C
This study was conducted to assess factors that influence use of antenatal care services with both quantitative and qualitative designs. Methods used were structured questionnaire interviews and focus group discussions in the Kampung District, Kampot Province in Cambodia with a volunteer sample of 260 postnatal mothers. The outcome measure was factors influencing use of antenatal care services. The results showed that first-time mothers (primigravidas) were more likely to use antenatal services than multiparous mothers (OR = 1.87; p = 0.001). Mothers with some school education used antenatal services more than those with no school education (OR = 2.0; p = 0.01). Mothers engaged in professional occupations by virtue of their higher levels of educational attainment were more likely to use antenatal services than those engaged in agriculture (OR = 2.54; p = 0.001). Use of antenatal care services was higher in the districts whose health centers were supported by a foreign nongovernmental organization as compared to other districts with no such support (OR = 2.44; p = 0.001). Although services were generally inadequate, those that existed were underutilized by the mothers. Major factors influencing use of services include distance, lack of transport, and lack of awareness of the benefits of antenatal care by the mothers, thus resulting in a general notion that antenatal care is only important when problems occur during pregnancy. It is concluded that for remote villages, mobile antenatal clinics should be provided to improve access, and greater emphasis should be placed on health educating the mothers about the potential benefits of antenatal care, with special attention to multiparous mothers and those from the lower socio-economic class, among whom use of antenatal services was lowest.
Ahmed A. Zafar
Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess factors that influence use of antenatal care services with both quantitative and qualitative designs. Methods used were structured questionnaire interviews and focus group discussions in the Kampung District, Kampot Province in Cambodia with a volunteer sample of 260 postnatal mothers. The outcome measure was factors influencing use of antenatal care services. The results showed that first-time mothers (primigravidas were more likely to use antenatal services than multiparous mothers (OR = 1.87; p = 0.001. Mothers with some school education used antenatal services more than those with no school education (OR = 2.0; p = 0.01. Mothers engaged in professional occupations by virtue of their higher levels of educational attainment were more likely to use antenatal services than those engaged in agriculture (OR = 2.54; p = 0.001. Use of antenatal care services was higher in the districts whose health centers were supported by a foreign nongovernmental organization as compared to other districts with no such support (OR = 2.44; p = 0.001. Although services were generally inadequate, those that existed were underutilized by the mothers. Major factors influencing use of services include distance, lack of transport, and lack of awareness of the benefits of antenatal care by the mothers, thus resulting in a general notion that antenatal care is only important when problems occur during pregnancy. It is concluded that for remote villages, mobile antenatal clinics should be provided to improve access, and greater emphasis should be placed on health educating the mothers about the potential benefits of antenatal care, with special attention to multiparous mothers and those from the lower socio-economic class, among whom use of antenatal services was lowest.
Introduction: Antenatal care (ANC) is important for both maternal and fetal health. However, the existing evidence from developing countries indicates that most pregnant women attending ANC in their late pregnancy. Little is known about the factors determining ANC booking and the content of care among pregnant women ...
Agatha Christine Onyango
Full Text Available Background. Nutritional status is an important determinant of HIV outcomes. Objective. To assess the nutrient intake and nutrient status of HIV seropositive patients attending an AIDS outpatient clinic, to improve the nutritional management of HIV-infected patients. Design. Prospective cohort study. Setting. Comprehensive care clinic in Chulaimbo Sub-District Hospital, Kenya. Subjects. 497 HIV sero-positive adults attending the clinic. Main Outcome Measures. Evaluation of nutrient intake using 24-hour recall, food frequency checklist, and nutrient status using biochemical assessment indicators (haemoglobin, creatinine, serum glutamate pyruvate (SGPT and mean corpuscular volume (MCV. Results. Among the 497 patients recruited (M : F sex ratio: 1.4, mean age: 39 years ± 10.5 y, Generally there was inadequate nutrient intake reported among the HIV patients, except iron (10.49 ± 3.49 mg. All the biochemical assessment indicators were within normal range except for haemoglobin 11.2 g/dL (11.4 ± 2.60 male and 11.2 ± 4.25 female. Conclusions. Given its high frequency, malnutrition should be prevented, detected, monitored, and treated from the early stages of HIV infection among patients attending AIDS clinics in order to improve survival and quality of life.
Blæhr, Emely; Søgaard, Rikke; Kristensen, Thomas
INTRODUCTION: Non-attended hospital appointments are receiving increasing attention in times when rapid access and efficient service delivery at public hospitals are on the agenda. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of non-attendance in a Danish outpatient setting and its...... notice were collected from administrative systems along with appointment characteristics. Logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Of the 54,987 and 31,538 appointments scheduled at the two departments, 4,524 (8%) and 5,479 (17%) were cancelled and 2,905 (5%) and 1,249 (4%) were...
Fletcher, Richard; Silberberg, Simone; Galloway, Deb
New fathers (men whose partners had recently given birth) were asked to indicate to what degree antenatal classes had prepared them for childbirth, for their role as support persons, and for lifestyle and relationship changes after the birth. These postbirth findings were compared with a previous exit survey of male attendants at antenatal classes in which fathers-to-be predicted that the antenatal classes had prepared them well on all fronts. The new fathers in this study, however, reported that the antenatal classes had prepared them for childbirth but not for lifestyle and relationship changes after the birth. Additionally, couples who attended antenatal classes were asked to what extent they were familiar with family-related services in the region and how often they had used these services since the birth of their baby. Fathers were less familiar than mothers with the family-related services. PMID:17273396
Cherniak, William; Anguyo, Geoffrey; Meaney, Christopher; Yuan Kong, Ling; Malhame, Isabelle; Pace, Romina; Sodhi, Sumeet; Silverman, Michael
In rural Uganda pregnant women often lack access to health services, do not attend antenatal care, and tend to utilize traditional healers/birth attendants. We hypothesized that receiving a message advertising that "you will be able to see your baby by ultrasound" would motivate rural Ugandan women who otherwise might use a traditional birth attendant to attend antenatal care, and that those women would subsequently be more satisfied with care. A cluster randomized trial was conducted across eight rural sub-counties in southwestern Uganda. Sub-counties were randomized to a control arm, with advertisement of antenatal care with no mention of portable obstetric ultrasound (four communities, n = 59), or an intervention arm, with advertisement of portable obstetric ultrasound. Advertisement of portable obstetric ultrasound was further divided into intervention A) word of mouth advertisement of portable obstetric ultrasound and antenatal care (one communitity, n = 16), B) radio advertisement of only antenatal care and word of mouth advertisement of antenatal care and portable obstetric ultrasound (one community, n = 7), or C) word of mouth + radio advertisement of both antenatal care and portable obstetric ultrasound (two communities, n = 75). The primary outcome was attendance to antenatal care. 159 women presented to antenatal care across eight sub-counties. The rate of attendance was 65.1 (per 1000 pregnant women, 95% CI 38.3-110.4) where portable obstetric ultrasound was advertised by radio and word of mouth, as compared to a rate of 11.1 (95% CI 6.1-20.1) in control communities (rate ratio 5.9, 95% CI 2.6-13.0, pultrasound by radio attendance was significantly improved. This study suggests that women can be motivated to attend antenatal care when offered the concrete incentive of seeing their baby.
Gari, Taye; Habte, Dereje; Markos, Endrias
Disclosure of Human Immune Virus (HIV) positive status may increase opportunities of obtaining social support, implementation of HIV risk reduction with partners and improving access to treatment and motivate partners for voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). Thus, status disclosure is an issue to be addressed for HIV prevention & treatment. The objective of this study is to determine the magnitude, outcome and determinants of HIV positive status disclosure to sexual partners among women people living with HIV/AIDS at Hawassa University Referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. A cross sectional survey was conducted on HIV positive women who were attending ART clinic at Hawassa University Referral Hospital from March to April 2008. Single population proportion formula was used to determine sample size. Convenient sampling was used to recruit patients. Using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire, data were collected through patient interview consecutively until the required number of patients was obtained over one month period. Statistical analysis was done to determine the magnitude and factors associated with HIV positive status disclosure. Overall 85.7% the women had disclosed their HIV positive status to their sexual partners. The common barriers reported for non disclosure of HIV status were fear of abandonment; fear of break-up in relationship and fear of stigma. The negative partner reaction reported by those women who disclosed to sexual partner in this study was found to be high (59.3%). Majority (77.9%) had sexual intercourse in the past 6 month. 9.1% of the women were pregnant since they tested for HIV and significant number of women reported inconsistent use of condom. Being married, being on ART for more than one year and knowing the HIV status of the partner were found to be predictors of HIV positive status disclosure. Even though, the magnitude of HIV positive status disclosure to sexual partner in this study is encouraging, risk behaviors and
Pearson, Sue; Nash, Toni; Ireland, Vanessa
The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms, diabetes self-management, and quality of life in people with diabetes and foot ulcers. Ulcer status, mortality and amputations were also assessed at six months follow-up. This was a cross-sectional survey of people attending outpatient podiatry clinics at a major tertiary referral hospital. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Diabetes self-care was assessed using the Summary of Diabetes Self Care Activities (SDSCA) measure. Health-related quality of life was measured using the physical component summary score (PCS) and the mental component summary score (MCS) of the SF-12. Of the 60 participants in the study 14 (23.3%) reported mild symptoms of depression (PHQ score 5-9) and 17 (28.3%) moderate to severe depressive symptoms (PHQ score > 9). Twenty-one (35%) met the criteria for previously recognized depression (on antidepressants and/or a diagnosis of depression in the last 12 months) and 17 (28.3%) for depression not previously recognized (PHQ > 4). Seventeen (28%) participants had been receiving antidepressant treatment for a median duration of 104 weeks (IQR 20, 494 weeks). Despite antidepressant treatment 12 participants (70.6% of those taking antidepressants) still reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms at the time of the study. Patients with PHQ scores > 4 reported poorer adherence to diabetes self-care activities including general diet, exercise, blood sugar monitoring and foot care when compared to those participants with PHQ scores 4 compared with no deaths and 2 amputations in participants with PHQ scores < 5. There was no association between depressive symptoms and ulcer healing or ulcer recurrence at the six-month follow-up. This study found a high prevalence of depressive symptoms both recognized and unrecognized in people with diabetes and foot ulcers. Depressive symptoms were associated with overall
Sutradhar, Rinku; Agha, Mohammad; Pole, Jason D; Greenberg, Mark; Guttmann, Astrid; Hodgson, David; Nathan, Paul C
Survivors of childhood cancer are at considerable risk of experiencing treatment-related adverse health outcomes. To provide survivors with specialized care focused on these risks during adulthood, the government of Ontario funded a provincial network of specialized survivor clinics in 1999. The aim of this study was to determine whether prior attendance at survivor clinics by adult survivors of childhood cancer was associated with rates of emergency department (ED) visits. This was a population-based, retrospective cohort study using multiple linked administrative health databases. The cohort consisted of all adult survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed between January 1, 1986 and December 31, 2005 in Ontario, Canada. A recurrent event regression model was used to evaluate the association between prior attendance at survivor clinics and the rate of ED visits; adjustments were made for individual, demographic, treatment, and provider characteristics. The study consisted of 3912 adult survivors of childhood cancer. Individuals who had at least 1 prior visit to a survivor clinic had a 19% decreased rate of ED visits in comparison with individuals who had not visited a survivor clinic (adjusted relative rate, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-0.85). Each additional prior visit to a survivor clinic was associated with a 5% decrease in the rate of ED visits (adjusted relative rate, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.93-0.96). These results were independent of whether or not survivors received care from a primary care physician. Attendance at a specialized survivor clinic was significantly associated with decreased ED visits among adult survivors of childhood cancer. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
Kuru, Ahmet Fevzi; Sahin, Hayrettin; Akay, Ali Ferruh; Bircan, Mehmet Kamuran
The purpose of this study was the assessment of the rates of premature ejaculation and desires for treatment in male patients 20 years and over attending urology outpatient clinic. All subjects included in the study were asked whether they had a complaint of premature ejaculation; if so, whether they had sought a doctor's assistance; if not, why they had not; why they did not mention their complaint during the first visit; whether they desired treatment; and if not, why they did not. A total of 1608 subjects were questioned. Premature ejaculation was present in 333 (20.7%). Premature ejaculation was the primary complaint of 33 of those attending the urology outpatient clinic. The most common reasons for not seeking a doctor's assistance were failure to see the condition as a problem, and embarrassment. Fifty four (16.2%) of these patients did not desire treatment. The most common reason for not desiring treatment was regarding it as unnecessary at present, and old age. The questioning of all men aged 20 and over attending urology outpatient clinic concerning premature ejaculation will greatly increase diagnoses and treatments.
Currie, Sinéad; Gray, Cindy; Shepherd, Ashley; McInnes, Rhona J
Regular physical activity (PA) can be beneficial to pregnant women, however, many women do not adhere to current PA guidelines during the antenatal period. Patient and public involvement is essential when designing antenatal PA interventions in order to uncover the reasons for non-adherence and non-engagement with the behaviour, as well as determining what type of intervention would be acceptable. The aim of this research was to explore women's experiences of PA during a recent pregnancy, understand the barriers and determinants of antenatal PA and explore the acceptability of antenatal walking groups for further development. Seven focus groups were undertaken with women who had given birth within the past five years. Focus groups were transcribed and analysed using a grounded theory approach. Relevant and related behaviour change techniques (BCTs), which could be applied to future interventions, were identified using the BCT taxonomy. Women's opinions and experiences of PA during pregnancy were categorised into biological/physical (including tiredness and morning sickness), psychological (fear of harm to baby and self-confidence) and social/environmental issues (including access to facilities). Although antenatal walking groups did not appear popular, women identified some factors which could encourage attendance (e.g. childcare provision) and some which could discourage attendance (e.g. walking being boring). It was clear that the personality of the walk leader would be extremely important in encouraging women to join a walking group and keep attending. Behaviour change technique categories identified as potential intervention components included social support and comparison of outcomes (e.g. considering pros and cons of behaviour). Women's experiences and views provided a range of considerations for future intervention development, including provision of childcare, involvement of a fun and engaging leader and a range of activities rather than just walking
Dowswell, Therese; Middleton, Philippa; Weeks, Andrew
Background Antenatal day care units have been widely used as an alternative to inpatient care for women with pregnancy complications including mild and moderate hypertension, and preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes. Objectives The objective of this review is to compare day care units with routine care or hospital admission for women with pregnancy complications in terms of maternal and perinatal outcomes, length of hospital stay, acceptability, and costs to women and health services providers. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (February 2009). Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing day care with inpatient or routine care for women with complicated pregnancy. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently carried out data extraction and assessed studies for risk of bias. Main results Three trials with a total of 504 women were included. For most outcomes it was not possible to pool results from trials in meta-analyses as outcomes were measured in different ways. Compared with women in the ward/routine care group, women attending day care units were less likely to be admitted to hospital overnight (risk ratio 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.34 to 0.62). The average length of antenatal admission was shorter for women attending for day care, although outpatient attendances were increased for this group. There was evidence from one study that women attending for day care were significantly less likely to undergo induction of labour, but mode of birth was similar for women in both groups. For other outcomes there were no significant differences between groups. The evidence regarding the costs of different types of care was mixed; while the length of antenatal hospital stays were reduced, this did not necessarily translate into reduced health service costs. While most women tended to be satisfied with whatever care they received, women preferred day care compared with
Mohammed, Hamish; Dabrera, Gavin; Furegato, Martina; Yin, Zheng; Nardone, Anthony; Hughes, Gwenda
Black Africans are one of the key risk groups for HIV in the UK and, among those living with HIV, an estimated 16% and 12% of black African heterosexual men and women, respectively, are undiagnosed and at risk of unknowingly transmitting HIV to their sex partners. Increased HIV test uptake is needed to address this, but there is limited information on how frequently HIV test refusal occurs among those attending sexual health clinics (SHCs). We identified factors associated with HIV test refusal among black African SHC attendees. Data on all SHC attendances in England in 2014 were obtained from the genitourinary medicine clinic activity dataset, the mandatory surveillance system for STIs. Analyses were restricted to attendances by HIV-negative black Africans, and bivariate and multivariable associations between demographic and clinical characteristics and HIV test refusal were assessed. All associations were determined using generalised estimating equations logistic regression, and adjusted ORs (aORs) with 95% CIs are reported. Black Africans made 80 743 attendances at SHCs in 2014 and refused an HIV test on 9021 (11.2%) occasions. HIV test refusal was significantly more likely in women (aOR (95% CI) 1.54 (1.46 to 1.62) vs heterosexual men), and those living in the most deprived areas (1.44 (1.24 to 1.67)), diagnosed with a new STI (1.26 (1.18 to 1.34)) or living in London (1.06 (1.01 to 1.12)). Test refusal was significantly less likely with increasing age (0.99 (0.99 to 0.99)) and men who have sex with men (0.52 (0.43 to 0.63) vs heterosexual men), and in those tested for HIV in the past year (0.85 (0.81 to 0.89)), born outside the UK (0.73 (0.69 to 0.77)) or those attending following partner notification (0.11 (0.03 to 0.38)). Targeted interventions are needed to improve HIV testing uptake and reduce undiagnosed HIV infection among black Africans attending SHCs, especially heterosexuals residing in deprived areas. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited
Behets, F M; Ward, E; Fox, L; Reed, R; Spruyt, A; Bennett, L; Johnson, L; Hoffman, I; Figueroa, J P
To assess sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among women attending Jamaican family planning clinics and to evaluate decision models as alternatives to STD laboratory diagnosis. Women attending two family planning clinics in Kingston were interviewed and tested for syphilis seroreactivity using toluidine red unheated serum test and Treponema pallidum haemagglutination, for gonorrhoea using culture, for chlamydial infection using enzyme linked immunoassay, and for trichomoniasis using culture. Urine was tested with leucocyte esterase dipstick (LED). The women were treated based upon a clinical algorithm. Computer simulations explored the use of risk inclusive decision models for detection of cervical infection and/or trichomoniasis. Among 767 women, 206 (26.9%) had at least one STD. The prevalence of gonorrhoea was 2.7%; chlamydial infection 12.2%; gonococcal and/or chlamydial cervical infection 14.1%; trichomoniasis 11.5%; syphilis seroreactivity 5.9%. The clinical algorithm was 3.7% sensitive and 96.7% specific in detecting cervical infection. Detection of cervical infection and/or trichomoniasis was 63.5% sensitive and 60.6% specific using LED and 57.7% sensitive and 46.2% specific using the risk inclusive algorithm employed in Jamaican STD clinics. Either cervical friability or LED (+) or family planning clinic attender less than 25 years old with more than one sexual partner in the past year was 72.5% sensitive and 53.3% specific. The positive predictive values of the STD clinic algorithm, LED, and two developed decision models ranged from 25.0% to 33.4% to detect cervical infection and/or trichomoniasis in these women. STDs were quite prevalent in these mainly asymptomatic family planning clinic attenders. None of the evaluated decision models can be considered a good alternative to case detection using laboratory diagnosis. Appropriate detection tools are needed. In the meantime, available STD control strategies should be maximised, such as promotion of
Oguntola, Adetunji Saliu; Olaitan, Peter Babatunde; Omotoso, Olutayo; Oseni, Ganiyu Oyediran
Introduction Prophylactic mastectomy (PM) is uncommon in our practice. This study documents the knowledge and attitude of patients and relation to prophylactic mastectomy. Methods Adults attending surgical outpatient unit were interviewed. Biodata, awareness of breast cancer, and attitude towards prophylactic mastectomy were inquired about and documented. Results Two hundred and forty eight (99 men and 149 women) were involved. Most, 75.6%, were age bracket 20-29 years and 77.2% had tertiary ...
El-Hassan, H; McKeown, K; Muller, A F
Patients attending for endoscopy are generally anxious and worried. To examine whether music reduced anxiety levels in patients attending for endoscopic procedures. Prospective randomized controlled trial of 180 patients (M:F 81:99). The effect of age (51 years) and procedure (gastroscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy) on anxiety levels (state-trait anxiety inventory) on arrival in the unit and immediately before the endoscopy procedure, after listening to music or no music (control group) for the same period. At baseline, anxiety levels were not influenced by age (51 years, n = 124:39.99 +/- 10.13 (P = 0.15) or procedure: gastroscopy, n = 87:39.43 +/- 9.9, flexible sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy: n = 93:41.86 +/- 9.75 (P = 0.98). No difference was found in anxiety scores in the control group (n = 88) at baseline and immediately pre-endoscopy (P = 0.243), but music led to a significant reduction in anxiety scores (n = 92), which was maintained for all age groups irrespective of procedure (all P Anxiety levels in patients attending for endoscopy were not influenced by age or procedure, but were significantly reduced by listening to music compared to controls. The availability of music within the endoscopy unit is a simple strategy that will improve the well-being of patients.
L. V. Kochorova
Full Text Available Relevance. Benign neoplasms of the gynecological field have a significant impact on reproductive health of the population. The efforts of the state authorities aimed at overcoming the demographic crisis; therefore, the questions of organization of medical care for women require special consideration.Goal of research – todevelop a system of measures to optimize the arrangement of medical care for women with benign neoplasms of the gynecological sphere and to evaluate its effectiveness.Materials and methods. In 2015-2016, the study of delivery of medical care of patients with benign neoplasms of the gynecological field was undertakenon the basis of the antenatal clinics of St. Petersburg. 2500 cases of treatment were analyzed with the involvement of experts. Completeness and validity of diagnostic and treatment activities, the degree of continuity in the work of health care organizations, the need of patients in treatment at different stages were estimated. Taking into account the obtained results on the basis of one of the districts organizational experiment to optimize the provision of health care to women was carried out, and further its effectiveness was evaluated: an opinion poll of 2190 patients was held, 3334 cases were analyzed according to the database of issued and paid bills and ambulatory medical records.Results. Optimization of delivery of outpatient medical care to patients with benign tumors of female genital sphere is possible by increasing the activity of their dynamic monitoring: information on the characteristics of the disease, monitoring of compliance with the schedule of doctor visits, which can increase the frequency of prophylactic visits from 1.2 to 1.8 per year (optimal frequency – no less than 1.56 visits per year. Increase of treatment efficiency is achieved by early medical rehabilitation – professional psychological support of patients. Adjusted volume of psychological problems of patients in connection with
Bailey, Cate; Poole, Norman; Blackburn, Daniel J
Subjective cognitive complaints are commonly encountered in primary care and often result in memory clinic referral. However, meta-analyses have shown that such concerns do not consistently correspond to objective memory impairment or predict future dementia. Memory clinic referrals are increasing, with greater proportions of patients attending who do not have dementia. Studies of interaction during memory clinic assessments have identified conversational profiles that can differentiate between dementia and functional disorders of memory. To date, studies exploring communication patterns for the purpose of diagnosis have not been reviewed. Such profiles could reduce unnecessary investigations in patients without dementia. To identify and collate signs and observable features of communication, which could clinically differentiate between dementia and functional disorders of memory. This was a systematic review and synthesis of evidence from studies with heterogeneous methodologies. A qualitative, narrative description and typical memory clinic assessment were employed as a framework. Sixteen studies met the criteria for selection. Two overarching themes emerged: 1) observable clues to incapacity and cognitive impairment during routine assessment and interaction, and 2) strategies and accounts for loss of abilities in people with dementia. Whether the patient attends with a companion, how they participate, give autobiographical history, demonstrate working memory, and make qualitative observations during routine cognitive testing are all useful in building a diagnostic picture. Future studies should explore these phenomena in larger populations, over longer periods, include dementia subtypes, and develop robust definitions of functional memory disorders to facilitate comparison. © British Journal of General Practice 2018.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antenatal care is a comprehensive antepartum programme which involves a coordinated approach to medical care , continuous risk assessment , and psychological support that optimally begins before conception and extends throughout the postpartum period and int erconceptional period .  One of major responsibility of obstetrician providing antenatal care is to identify high risk factors based on past history, examination and investigation results. The objective of antenatal care therefore is to assure that every wanted pregnancy results in the delivery of a healthy baby without impairing the mothers health .  In a 1914 study by Williams antenatal care reduced fetal mortality by 40%
Full Text Available Mervat M El-Rafie,1 Ghada M Khafagy,2 Marwa G Gamal31Department of Public Health, 2Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt; 3Family Health Unit, Ministry of Health, Cairo, EgyptBackground: Antenatal depression is not uncommon and is associated with a greater risk of negative pregnancy outcomes.Aim: Exploring the effect of exercise in preventing and treating antenatal depression.Methods: This was a prospective interventional controlled study carried out in 100 pregnant women treated at the Ain-Shams Family Medicine Center and Maadi Outpatient Clinic, Cairo, Egypt. The participants were divided into two groups (n=50 in the exercise group and n=50 in the control group. The exercise group regularly attended supervised sessions for 12 weeks. The activities in each session included walking, aerobic exercise, stretching, and relaxation. The control group completed their usual antenatal care. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D was used to assess depression symptoms at the first interview and immediately after the 12-week intervention.Results: Compared to the control group, the exercise group showed significantly improved depressive symptoms as measured with the CES-D after the 12-week intervention on the CES-D (P=0.001. Within groups, the exercise group demonstrated a significant improvement of depressive symptoms from baseline to intervention completion, while the control group demonstrated no significant changes over time.Conclusion: Exercise during pregnancy was positively associated with reduced depressive symptoms.Keywords: antenatal depression, pregnant women, exercise
Gandiya, Tariro; Dua, Anahita; King, Gerry; Mazzocco, Thomas; Hussain, Amir; Leslie, Stephen J
This study assessed the perceived usage of, and attitudes toward, communication technologies (mobile phone and texting, e-mail, and the World Wide Web) in patients attending a cardiology clinic with a view to guiding future health service redesign. This was performed in a remote regional hospital serving both urban and rural populations. A self-completion questionnaire was completed by a convenience sample of 221 patients attending a general cardiology clinic. The questions asked about patients' access to and use of technology at home. Data collected also included age, gender, travel time to the clinic, mode of travel, and whether the respondent was accompanied to the clinic. Appropriate statistical tests were used with significance taken at the 0.05 level. Age was the strongest predictor of use of communication technologies, with younger patients more likely to use e-mail, Web, mobile phone, and texting. However, frequency of use of e-mail was not related to age. It is encouraging that over 99% of patients used at least one communication technology. This study has highlighted that there may be several potential barriers to the widespread implementation of communication technologies in general cardiology patients. Cognizance should be taken of these findings when attempting service redesign.
Adeniyi, A A; Ogunbanjo, B O; Sorunke, M E; Onigbinde, O O; Agbaje, M O; Braimoh, M
Good oral health is a fungamental component of pregnant women overall health and quality of life. To determine the proportion of dental services utilisation and the reasons for non utilisation among women receiving antenatal care at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH). A cross-sectional study of all pregnant women receiving antenatal care in a Nigerian teaching hospital (LASUTH) between July and September 2008 was conducted. The study assessed the women's opinions on regular dental visits, dental visits during pregnancy, the frequency of utilization of oral health services before and during pregnancy and their reasons for non-attendance. Three hundred and forty two (342) pregnant women with age range 18 to 44 years (mean 30.37 +/- 4.5) participated in the study. Only 163 respondents (33.0%) reported ever visiting a dentist, 24 (7.0%) had done so just before or during the present pregnancy. Among the dental clinic attendees the commonest reason for attendance was pain (88 women or 53.9%). Majority (62%) of those who had never visited a dentist attributed their non-attendance to the absence of dental pain. There was a significant relationship between the respondent's age and the utilization of dental services (p dental services more often than their younger counterparts. Educational level and ethnic grouping were not significantly related to their use of dental services. A high proportion of women receiving antenatal care at LASUTH do not visit the dentist regularly. It is important to provide women in the reproductive age with information on the benefit of regular dental care especially during pregnancy.
Kenny, Dianna T; Faunce, Gavin
This study explored the impact of group singing on mood, coping, and perceived pain in chronic pain patients attending a multidisciplinary pain clinic. Singers participated in nine 30-minute sessions of small group singing, while comparisons listened to music while exercising. A short form of The Profile of Mood States (POMS) was administered before and after selected singing sessions to assess whether singing produced short-term elevations in mood. Results indicated that pre to post difference scores were significantly different between singing and control groups for only one of the 15 mood variables (i.e., uneasy). To test the longer term impacts of singing the Profile of Mood States, Zung Depression Inventory, Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, Pain Rating Self-Statement, and Pain Disability Questionnaire were administered immediately before and after the singing sessions. All inventories other than the POMS were re-administered 6 months later. One-way ANCOVAs indicated that participants who attended the singing sessions showed evidence of postintervention improvements in active coping, relative to those who failed to attend, when preintervention differences in active coping were controlled for. While the singing group showed marked improvements from pre to postintervention on all mood, coping, and perceived pain variables, these improvements were also observed among comparison participants. The results of this study suggest that active singing may have some benefits, in terms of enhancing active coping, though the limitations of the study and small effect sizes observed suggest that further research is required to fully explore such effects.
Callander, Denton; Read, Phillip; Prestage, Garrett; Minichiello, Victor; Chow, Eric P F; Lewis, David A; McNulty, Anna; Ali, Hammad; Hellard, Margaret; Guy, Rebecca; Donovan, Basil
Although sex work is frequently characterised as a practice with high risk for HIV and other STIs, little is known about the epidemiology of these infections among men who sell sex in Australia. This study reports the prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, infectious syphilis and HIV among men who have sex with men attending Australian publicly funded sexual health clinics and compares prevalence between sex workers and non-sex workers. From 2011 to 2014, de-identified patient data were extracted from 40 sexual health clinics in four Australian jurisdictions. The χ 2 and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to compare the prevalence of HIV and STIs among men attending these services who did and did not report sex work in the 12 months prior to consultation. All analyses were restricted to men who reported sex with other men and to each patient's first consultation at participating services. In total, 27 469 gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men attended participating clinics; 443 (1.6%) reported sex work. At first consultation, 18% of sex workers and 17% of non-sex workers were diagnosed with HIV or an STI (p=0.4): 13% of sex workers were newly diagnosed with chlamydia, 15% with gonorrhoea, 0.5% with infectious syphilis and 0.6% with HIV. After controlling for demographic and behavioural factors, sex work was not independently associated with an HIV or STI diagnosis. These findings provide estimates of HIV and STI prevalence among men who sell sex in Australia and they challenge assumptions of sex work as inherently risky to the sexual health of gay bisexual and other men who have sex with men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Khader, Ali; Ballout, Ghada; Shahin, Yousef; Hababeh, Majed; Farajallah, Loai; Zeidan, Wafaa; Abu-Zayed, Ishtaiwi; Kochi, Arata; Harries, Anthony D; Zachariah, Rony; Kapur, Anil; Shaikh, Irshad; Seita, Akihiro
In a primary healthcare clinic in Jordan to determine: (i) treatment outcomes stratified by baseline characteristics of all patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) ever registered as of June 2012 and (ii) in those who failed to attend the clinic in the quarter (April-June 2012), the number who repeatedly did not attend in subsequent quarters up to 1 year later, again stratified by baseline characteristics. A retrospective cohort study with treatment outcome data collected and analysed using e-health and the cohort analysis approach in UNRWA Nuzha Primary Health Care Clinic for Palestine refugees, Amman, Jordan. As of June 2012, there were 2974 patients with DM ever registered, of whom 2246 (76%) attended the clinic, 279 (9%) did not attend, 81 (3%) died, 67 (2%) were transferred out and 301 (10%) were lost to follow-up. A higher proportion of males and patients with undetermined or poor disease control failed to attend the clinic compared with those who attended the clinic. Of the 279 patients who did not attend the clinic in quarter 2, 2012, 144 (52%) were never seen for four consecutive quarters and were therefore defined as lost to follow-up. There were a few differences between patients who were lost to follow-up and those who re-attended at another visit that included some variation in age and fewer disease-related complications amongst those who were lost to follow-up. This study endorses the value of e-health and cohort analysis for monitoring and managing patients with DM. Just over half of patients who fail to attend a scheduled quarterly appointment are declared lost to follow-up 1 year later, and systems need to be set up to identify and contact such patients so that those who are late for their appointments can be brought back to care and those who might have died or silently transferred out can be correctly recorded. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Callegari, Fabiola Mesquita; Pinto-Neto, Lauro Ferreira; Medeiros, Charlla Jezus; Scopel, Camila Binsi; Page, Kimberly; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa
Our goal was to determine the prevalence of, and risk factors associated with, syphilis in HIV-infected patients who attend an AIDS outpatient clinic in Vitoria, Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional study-including interviews for demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics-and blood collection (venipuncture and fingerstick) for VDRL and treponemal tests (rapid test) in a total of 438 patients. The mean age was 43.0 years (SD = 11), and mean years of school was 8.1 (SD = 4.2). The prevalence of syphilis was 5.3 % (95 % CI 3.3-7.3). The treponemal test was positive in 18.9 % of participants. In multivariate analysis, prevalent syphilis infection was independently associated with male gender (AOR 4.6, 95 % CI 1.1-20.0), a history of male-male sex (AOR 1.8, 95 % CI 1.6-4.1), current use of antiretroviral therapy (AOR 5.5, 95 % CI 1.7-16.7), and history of treated syphilis infection (AOR 5.5, 95 % CI 2.0-15.8). Syphilis prevalence was high in patients living with HIV/AIDS who attend an AIDS clinic; therefore, routine sexually transmitted infections counseling and screening should be included in their care.
Kooiker, Marlou J G; Pel, Johan J M; van der Steen, Johannes
We recently introduced a method based on quantification of orienting responses toward visual stimuli to assess the quality of visual information processing in children. In the present study, we examined the relationship between orienting responses and factors that are associated with visual processing impairments in current clinical practice. Response time and fixation quality to visual features such as form, contrast, motion, and color stimuli were assessed in 104 children from 1 to 12 years attending special education for the visually impaired. Using regression analysis, we investigated whether these parameters were affected by clinical characteristics of children. Response times significantly depended on stimulus type. Responses to high-contrast cartoons were significantly slower in children with a clinical diagnosis of cerebral visual impairment. Fixation quality was significantly affected by visual acuity and nystagmus. The results suggest that the quantitative measurement of orienting responses is strongly related to cerebral visual impairment in children. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last 30 years the number of people who drink alcohol at harmful levels has increased in many countries. There have also been large increases in rates of sexually transmitted infections. Available evidence suggests that excessive alcohol consumption and poor sexual health may be linked. The prevalence of harmful alcohol use is higher among people attending sexual health clinics than in the general population, and a third of those attending clinics state that alcohol use affects whether they have unprotected sex. Previous research has demonstrated that brief intervention for alcohol misuse in other medical settings can lead to behavioral change, but the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of this intervention on sexual behavior have not been examined. Methods We will conduct a two parallel-arm, randomized trial. A consecutive sample of people attending three sexual health clinics in London and willing to participate in the study will be screened for excessive alcohol consumption. Participants identified as drinking excessively will then be allocated to either active treatment (Brief Advice and referral for Brief Intervention or control treatment (a leaflet on healthy living. Randomization will be via an independent and remote telephone randomization service and will be stratified by study clinic. Brief Advice will comprise feedback on the possible health consequences of excessive alcohol consumption, written information about alcohol and the offer of an appointment for further assessment and Brief Intervention. Follow-up data on alcohol use, sexual behavior, health related quality of life and service use will be collected by a researcher masked to allocation status six months later. The primary outcome for the study is mean weekly alcohol consumption during the previous three months, and the main secondary outcome is the proportion of participants who report unprotected sex during this period. Discussion Opportunistic
Kaadaaga, Henry Francisco; Ajeani, Judith; Ononge, Sam; Alele, Paul E; Nakasujja, Noeline; Manabe, Yukari C; Kakaire, Othman
Infertility is a public health problem associated with devastating psychosocial consequences. In countries where infertility care is difficult to access, women turn to herbal medicines to achieve parenthood. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with herbal medicine use by women attending the infertility clinic. This was a cross-sectional study of 260 women attending the infertility clinic at Mulago hospital. The interviewer administered questionnaire comprised socio-demographic characteristics, infertility-related aspects and information on herbal medicine use. The main outcome measure was herbal medicines use for infertility treatment. Determinants of herbal medicine use were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. The majority (76.2%) of respondents had used herbal medicines for infertility treatment. The mean age of the participants was 28.3 years ± 5.5. Over 80% were married, 59.6% had secondary infertility and 2/3 of the married participants were in monogamous unions. In a multivariable model, the variables that were independently associated with increased use of herbal medicine among infertile patients were being married (OR 2.55, CI 1.24-5.24), never conceived (OR 4.08 CI 1.86-8.96) and infertility for less than 3 years (OR 3.52 CI 1.51-8.821). Factors that were associated with less use of herbal medicine among infertile women were being aged 30 years or less (OR 0.18 CI 0.07-0.46), primary and no education (OR 0.12 CI 0.05-0.46) and living with partner for less than three years (OR 0.39 CI 0.16-0.93). The prevalence of herbal medicine use among women attending the infertility clinic was 76.2%. Herbal medicine use was associated with the participants' age, level of education, marital status, infertility duration, nulliparity, and duration of marriage. Medical care was often delayed and the majority of the participants did not disclose use of herbal medicines to the attending physician. Health professionals
Fung, Winnie; Robles, Omar
Even though syphilis can be prevented effectively and treated inexpensively, it has remained a global public health problem. Untreated congenital syphilis results in neonatal death, stillbirth, preterm birth, or congenital deformities. Many developing countries have recently instituted syphilis prevention programs in antenatal care, but there has not been a systematic study of the effects of such programs. This paper is the first to study antenatal testing laws initiated in the U.S. in 1938-1947 which mandated physicians and other persons permitted by law to attend to a pregnant woman to test her for syphilis. We use the variation in the timing of state antenatal testing laws to estimate the laws' effect on neonatal mortality rates and deaths due to preterm birth. Using 1931-1947 Vital Statistics data, we find that these laws decreased neonatal mortality rates of nonwhites by 3.15 per 1000 live births (a 8.6% reduction) while having no discernible impact on whites. The laws contributed to an 18% narrowing of the white-nonwhite neonatal mortality gap by 1947. Using 1950 U.S. Census data, we find that mandatory antenatal testing led to a 7% increase in the cohort size of nonwhite poor, which is consistent with the neonatal mortality results. We find universal antenatal testing to be very cost-effective, with an estimated $7600 cost (in 2013 dollars) per life-year saved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kinengyere, Patience; Kizito, Samuel; Kiggundu, John Baptist; Ampaire, Anne; Wabulembo, Geoffrey
Childhood visual impairment (CVI) has not been given due attention. Knowledge of CVI is important in planning preventive measures. The aim of this study was determine the prevalence, etiology and the factors associated with childhood visual impairment among the children attending the eye clinic in Mulago National Referral Hospital. This was a cross sectional hospital based study among 318 children attending the Mulago Hospital eye clinic between January 2015 to March 2015. Ocular and general history was taken and patient examination done. The data generated was entered by Epidata and analyzed by STATA 12. The prevalence of CVI was 42.14%, 134 patients with 49 patients (15.41%) having moderate visual impairment, 45 patients (14.15%) having severe visual impairment and 40 patients (12.58%) presenting with blindness. Significant predictors included; increasing age, delayed developmental milestones and having abnormal corneal, refractive and fundus findings. There is a high burden of visual impairment among children in Uganda. It is vital to screen all the children presenting to hospital for visual impairment. Majority of the causes of the visual impairment are preventable.
Full Text Available There has been a drastic rise of tuberculosis (TB infection across the world associated with the pandemic occurrence of HIV/AIDS. There are various determinants factors that increase the chance of TB infection among HIV positives (TB/HIV confection that varies contextually. This study aimed to assess the determinants of TB/HIV coinfection among adult HIV positives attending clinical care at two public health facilities in Nekemte, western Ethiopia. Unmatched case-control study was conducted from December 26, 2011, to February 29, 2012. Cases were 123 TB infected HIV positives, and controls were 246 non-TB infected HIV positives. Being divorced/widowed , 95% CI (1.70, 7.88, not attending formal education , 95% CI (2.20, 14.15, being underweight ( kg/m2 , 95% CI (2.18, 6.87, having history of diabetic mellitus , 95% CI (1.33, 9.94, and being in advanced WHO HIV/AIDS clinical staging , 95% CI (1.32, 3.98, were determinant factors associated with TB/HIV co-infection. Having a separate kitchen , 95% CI (0.28, 0.81 showed protective role. For most of these determinants interventions can be made at individual and institutional levels, whereas, factors like education and nutrition need societal level integrations.
Full Text Available Objective. To determine the frequency of nine sexually transmitted pathogens, coinfections and risk factors in patients attending obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Jalisco, Mexico. Materials and methods. Samples from 662 patients attending obstetrics and gynecology clinics were analyzed. Treponema pallidum, HIV, and HCV were detected by serology. HPV was detected by PCR, and its genotype was determined by RFLP. Trichomonas vaginalis, HSV-1, HSV-2, Mycoplasma genitalium, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and T. pallidum were detected by multiplex PCR. Results. By serology, HIV frequency was 6.8%, T. pallidum was 2.26%, and HCV was 0.15%. By PCR, HPV frequency was 13.9%, (more frequent genotype was 16, 33.7%, followed by T. vaginalis (14.2%, HSV-1 (8.5%, M. genitalium (2,41%, N. gonorrhoeae (2.11%, HSV-2 (1.8%, and T. pallidum (1.05%. Patients infected with T. vaginalis were more likely to have multiple coinfections (p = 0.01. Conclusion. The frequency of HPV, HVS-1, HSV-2, M. genitalium and T. vaginalis was lower than that reported. However, a high frequency of HIV, T. pallidum, and N. gonorrhoeae was detected. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21149/spm.v58i4.8024
Satterwhite, Catherine Lindsey; Grier, LaZetta; Patzer, Rachel; Weinstock, Hillard; Howards, Penelope P; Kleinbaum, David
Annual chlamydia screening is recommended for all sexually active women aged clinics reporting data to IPP. Using the clinic as the unit of analysis, a correlated, longitudinal data analysis with a random intercept was conducted among clinics reporting ≥3 years of data during the analysis timeframe. Sensitivity analyses were performed to address the impact of various clinic participation levels in addition to the assessment of various correlation structures. Over 5 million chlamydia tests were reported to IPP family planning clinics from 2004 to 2008. A majority of tests were conducted among white women (clinic-specific mean: 63.2%, interquartile range: 37.6%-91.5%); the clinic-specific mean percent of tests conducted among black women was 17.9% (interquartile range: 0.8%-25.7%). Overall chlamydia positivity from 2004 to 2008 was 7.0%. The odds ratio associated with a single year change (1.00; 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.00) suggested that chlamydia positivity did not change from 2004 to 2008, after controlling for clinic-specific population factors (age, race, test usage, and geography). Findings support previous analyses suggesting that chlamydia prevalence is not increasing despite apparent increasing rates based on case reports.
A prospective clinic based study involving 66 patients of both sexes and ages between 3 and 87yr seen at the newly established low vision clinic of the Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria over an eighteen-month period (March 2007-September 2008) was undertaken. The objective was to assess the causes of ...
Jeppesen, Maja Haunstrup; Ainsworth, Mark Andrew
in a gastroenterology outpatient clinic like ours. METHODS: This was a comparative intervention study with a historical control group in a gastroenterology outpatient clinic. The study lasted six months. Patients with a scheduled appointment in the first three-month period received no reminder (control group, n = 2...
Al-Dossary, Reem Nassar; Kitsantas, Panagiota; Maddox, P J
This study examined the impact of residency programs on clinical decision-making of new Saudi graduate nurses who completed a residency program compared to new Saudi graduate nurses who did not participate in residency programs. This descriptive study employed a convenience sample (N=98) of new graduate nurses from three hospitals in Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Clinical decision-making skills were measured using the Clinical Decision Making in Nursing Scale. Descriptive statistics, independent t-tests, and multiple linear regression analysis were utilized to examine the effect of residency programs on new graduate nurses' clinical decision-making skills. On average, resident nurses had significantly higher levels of clinical decision-making skills than non-residents (t=23.25, p=0.000). Enrollment in a residency program explained 86.9% of the variance in total clinical decision making controlling for age and overall grade point average. The findings of this study support evidence in the nursing literature conducted primarily in the US and Europe that residency programs have a positive influence on new graduate nurses' clinical decision-making skills. This is the first study to examine the impact of residency programs on clinical decision-making among new Saudi graduate nurses who completed a residency program. The findings of this study underscore the need for the development and implementation of residency programs for all new nurses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cutting, L E; Koth, C W; Denckla, M B
To further investigate cognitive deficits in children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF-1), children with NF-1 were compared to typical learning disabled clinic attenders (LD-clinic), all of whom had reading disabilities, as well as to a group with no disabilities (NoDx). Results indicated that both the NF-1 group and LD-clinic group had reading and reading-related deficits when compared to the NoDx group; however, the NF-1 group was more globally language impaired than the LD-clinic group. In addition, the NF-1 group scored significantly lower than the LD-clinic group, but not the NoDx group, on the visuospatial measures, thus confirming that children with NF-1 have visuospatial deficits not typical of a general LD-clinic population. The NF-1 group was not impaired in comparison to the NoDx group on certain language and visuospatial tasks that were previously found to be deficits in sibling pairwise matched designs; thus, the importance of considering genetic and familial context when studying the impact of genetic disorders on cognition was demonstrated.
Ogunrinde, Tunde Joshua; Opeodu, Olanrewaju Ige
Background: Good denture care practice by individuals using Removable Partial Denture (RPD) is an important component of oral health measures. An assessment of denture care practice of such individuals by dental care practitioners is necessary. Objective: To evaluate the denture care practice among prosthetics patients attending a tertiary Hospital Dental Centre in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to obtain information from RPD wearers that were willing to participate. The questionnaire assessed among other things, patients’ bio-data, frequency, techniques and device used for cleaning their dentures. Data was analyzed using Chi-square test (P denture wearers consisting of 100 (50.5%) males and 98 (49.5%) females participated in the study. Majority 110 (55.6%) cleaned their dentures once daily and toothbrush and pastes were used by 105 (53%) of the participants. More than 70% of the respondents removed their dentures at night. One hundred and sixty-six (83.8%) visited the dentist only when they needed treatment. There was a statistical significant relationship between frequency and technique of cleaning denture, and denture cleanliness (P dentures and cleaning the denture with rest of the teeth are ineffective in prevention of plaque accumulation. PMID:26229229
Chen, H Carrie; Fogh, Shannon; Kobashi, Brent; Teherani, Arianne; Ten Cate, Olle; O'Sullivan, Patricia
One clinical teaching challenge is the engagement of learners at different levels. Faculty development offerings mostly address general strategies applicable to all learners. This study examined how clinical faculty members develop the skills to work with different level learners. We conducted semi-structured interviews with medical school faculty members identified as excellent clinical teachers teaching multiple levels of learners. They discussed how they developed their approach to teaching different level learners and how their teaching evolved over time. We performed thematic analysis of the interview transcripts using open and axial coding. We interviewed 19 faculty members and identified three themes related to development of teaching practices: teacher agency and work-based learning of teaching strategies, developmental trajectory of clinical teachers, and interplay between clinical confidence and teaching skills. Faculty members were proactive in using on-the-job experiences to develop their teaching practices. Their teaching practices followed a developmental trajectory towards learner centeredness, and this evolution was associated with the development of clinical skills and confidence. Learning skills to teach multi-level learners requires workplace learning. Faculty development should include workplace learning opportunities and use a developmental approach that accounts for the trajectory of teaching as well as clinical skills attainment.
Mohammad Zafir Al-Shahri
Full Text Available Background : Epidemiology of cancer-related nonpain symptoms receives less attention in literature as compared with cancer pain. Objective : This paper aims at exploring the prevalence and severity of nonpain symptoms in cancer patients attending a palliative care (PC outpatient clinic. Materials and Methods : Over a 5 months period, consecutive adult cancer patients attending PC outpatient clinic at a tertiary hospital were evaluated for the presence and severity of 10 nonpain symptoms. Patients were grouped to new or follow-up cases and were also grouped according to performance status and cancer type. Prevalence and severity of symptoms were compared between groups using t test or analysis of variance as appropriate. Results : Fifty-one males and 73 females were interviewed. The most common cancer is female breast (27.4% followed by head and neck (15.3%. Majority of patients (67% were new to PC clinic. Patients had 5.1 nonpain symptoms on average, with most common symptoms being tiredness (79.8%, loss of appetite (71.8%, dry mouth (69.4%, anxiety (60.5%, and depression (50.8%. The least common symptoms were confusion and nausea (22.6% each. The median scores of severity were highest for tiredness, loss of appetite, dry mouth, and insomnia (5 points each. Symptoms were fewer among patients with good performance status (P = 0.002, whereas age, gender, cancer type, and encounter type were not associated with difference in symptom prevalence. Younger patients, females and those with poor performance status have shown a tendency toward higher severity scores for several symptoms. Conclusion : The significant prevalence and severity of nonpain symptoms among new and follow-up cancer patients seen in a PC outpatient clinic emphasizes the need for comprehensive assessment and routinely audited symptom management plans.
Tiro, Jasmin A; Pruitt, Sandi L; Bruce, Corinne M; Persaud, Donna; Lau, May; Vernon, Sally W; Morrow, Jay; Skinner, Celette Sugg
Adolescent HPV vaccination in minority and low income populations with high cervical cancer incidence and mortality could reduce disparities. Safety-net primary care clinics are a key delivery site for improving vaccination rates in these populations. To examine prevalence of HPV initiation (≥ 1 dose), completion (receipt of dose 3 within 12 months of initiation), and receipt of 3 doses in four safety-net clinics as well as individual-, household-, and clinic-level correlates of initiation. We used multilevel modeling to investigate HPV initiation among 700 adolescent females who sought primary care in four safety-net clinics in Dallas, Texas from March 2007 to December 2009. Data were abstracted from patients' paper and electronic medical records. HPV vaccine uptake varied significantly by clinic. Across clinics, initiation was 36.6% and completion was 39.7% among those who initiated. In the total study population, only 15.7% received all three doses. In multivariate, two-level logistic regression analyses, initiation was associated with receipt of other adolescent vaccines, influenza vaccination in the year prior to data abstraction, being sexually active, and having more chart documentation (presence of health maintenance questionnaire and/or immunization record). There was no association between initiation and age, race/ethnicity, or insurance status. In four urban safety-net clinics, HPV initiation rates paralleled 2008 national rates. The correlation of HPV initiation with other adolescent vaccines underscores the importance of reviewing vaccination status at every health care visit. HPV vaccine uptake in safety-net clinics should continue to be monitored to understand impact on cervical cancer disparities. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Poliquin, V; Decker, K; Altman, Ad; Lotocki, R
This retrospective study of all women who accessed the 2006 Manitoba Pap Test Week clinics was designed to determine factors associated with inadequate cervical cancer screening and changes in cervical cancer screening behavior. Data were acquired using the CervixCheck Manitoba registry and an ancillary database of demographic information collected from clinic attendees. The study included 1124 women. Of these, 53% (n = 598) were under-screened (no Pap test in the previous 2 years) prior to accessing the clinics. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.03), no doctor (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.05-1.54), and living in Canada clinics. Thirty-seven percent (n = 223) of under-screened women demonstrated improved screening status subsequent to the 2006 Pap Test Week (had a subsequent Papanicolaou [Pap] test performed within 2 years) and these women were more likely to live in an urban setting (P = 0.003), be younger (P clinic compared to having a Pap test performed elsewhere (37% versus 60%, P clinics whose screening status might be most modifiable.
Kancheya, N; Luhanga, D; Harris, J B; Morse, J; Kapata, N; Bweupe, M; Henostroza, G; Reid, S E
Three out-patient antenatal care (ANC) clinics in Lusaka, Zambia. To estimate tuberculosis (TB) prevalence in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected and symptomatic, non-HIV-infected pregnant women and explore the feasibility of routine TB screening in ANC settings. Peer educators administered TB symptom questionnaires to pregnant women attending their first ANC clinic visit. Presumptive TB patients were defined as all HIV-infected women and symptomatic non-HIV-infected women. Sputum samples were tested using smear microscopy and culture to estimate TB prevalence. All 5033 (100%) women invited to participate in the study agreed, and 17% reported one or more TB symptoms. Among 1152 presumed TB patients, 17 (1.5%) had previously undiagnosed culture-confirmed TB; 2 (12%) were smear-positive. Stratified by HIV status, TB prevalence was 10/664 (1.5%, 95%CI 0. 7-2.8) among HIV-infected women and 7/488 (1.4%, 95%CI 0.6-2.9) among symptomatic non-HIV-infected women. In HIV-infected women, the only symptom significantly associated with TB was productive cough; symptom screening was only 50% sensitive. There is a sizable burden of TB in pregnant women in Zambia, which may lead to adverse maternal and infant outcomes. TB screening in ANC settings in Zambia is acceptable and feasible. More sensitive diagnostics are needed.
Oguntola, Adetunji Saliu; Olaitan, Peter Babatunde; Omotoso, Olutayo; Oseni, Ganiyu Oyediran
Prophylactic mastectomy (PM) is uncommon in our practice. This study documents the knowledge and attitude of patients and relation to prophylactic mastectomy. Adults attending surgical outpatient unit were interviewed. Biodata, awareness of breast cancer, and attitude towards prophylactic mastectomy were inquired about and documented. Two hundred and forty eight (99 men and 149 women) were involved. Most, 75.6%, were age bracket 20-29 years and 77.2% had tertiary education. Only 26 (10.4%) of the respondents had previous history of breast diseases. 96.4% were aware of cancer of the breast while 113 (45.2%) of them were aware that breast cancer gene can be inherited from parents and 60 (24.2%) believe cancer of the breast can affect women with strong positive family history. Only 64 (25.6%) of them would agree to prophylactic mastectomy if found necessary. Reasons given for possible refusal to consent to PM include effect on beauty, (40%), psychological effect, (22.8%), non-curing of disease, (18%), possible surgical complications, (7.2%), and financial cost, (1.2%). Presence of unilateral breast cancer and high risk status constituted about 71% of suggested possible indications for PM while presence of any breast disease was suggested by only 7.3% of respondents. The profession or education of respondents did not have significance on their acceptance or rejection of PM. Awareness of prophylactic mastectomy is low among patients in this study. Education about breast cancer and methods of prevention need to be improved.
Smith, L E; Fabbri, S A; Pai, R; Ferry, D; Heywood, J T
The major costs associated with the management of congestive heart failure (CHF) are inpatient costs. Outcome studies are therefore important to establish whether intensive outpatient care for heart failure can reduce these costs while at the same time improving outcomes in this disabling disorder. Care delivered in a cardiomyopathy clinic might result in objective improvement in cardiac function and symptoms while reducing hospital admissions and emergency department visits. The outcomes of 21 patients treated for 6 months in a cardiomyopathy clinic are evaluated. New patients referred to the clinic with ejection fraction (EF) Heart Failure questionnaire was completed at initial and final visits. All patients underwent baseline and final echocardiogram, radionuclide left ventriculogram, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Patients were followed by a nurse practitioner and a cardiologist with maximization of standard treatment. Congestive heart failure-related hospitalizations and clinic and emergency room visits for both 6-month periods before and during the study were determined. There was significant (p Heart failure score increased 23 points; New York Heart Association class decreased from 2.6 to 2.2; EF increased from 0.24 to 0.36; diastolic and systolic left ventricular dimensions decreased from 65 to 59 mm and from 57 to 50 mm, respectively. The number of clinic visits increased 5-fold, whereas there were 86% (14 to 2, p = 0.017) and 100% (8 to 0, p = 0.002) reductions in the number of CHF hospitalizations and emergency visits. There was one death during follow-up. Managing patients in a cardiomyopathy clinic may result in a better quality of life, with both symptomatic improvement and decreased hospitalizations.
Francisco Gomez-Salazar; Abraham Campos-Romero; Humberto Gomez-Campaña; Cinthia Cruz-Zamudio; Mariano Chaidez-Felix; Nidia Leon-Sicairos; Jorge Velazquez-Roman; Hector Flores-Villaseñor; Secundino Muro-Amador; Alma Marlene Guadron-Llanos; Martinez-Garcia, Javier J.; Joel Murillo-Llanes; Jaime Sanchez-Cuen; Alejando Llausas-Vargas; Gerardo Alapizco-Castro
AIM: To assess the proportion of refractive errors in the Mexican population that visited primary care optometry clinics in fourteen states of Mexico. METHODS: Refractive data from 676 856 patients aged 6 to 90y were collected from optometry clinics in fourteen states of Mexico between 2014 and 2015. The refractive errors were classified by the spherical equivalent (SE), as follows: sphere+½ cylinder. Myopia (SE>-0.50 D), hyperopia (SE>+0.50 D), emmetropia (-0.50≤SE≤+0.50), and astigmatism...
Y. Ramesh Bhat
Full Text Available Antenatal Bartter syndrome (ABS is a rare autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder. The defective chloride transport in the loop of Henle leads to fetal polyuria resulting in severe hydramnios and premature delivery. Early onset, unexplained maternal polyhydramnios often challenges the treating obstetrician. Increasing polyhydramnios without apparent fetal or placental abnormalities should lead to the suspicion of this entity. Biochemical analysis of amniotic fluid is suggested as elevated chloride level is usually diagnostic. Awareness, early recognition, maternal treatment with indomethacin, and amniocentesis allow the pregnancy to continue. Affected neonates are usually born premature, have postnatal polyuria, vomiting, failure to thrive, hypercalciuria, and subsequently nephrocalcinosis. Hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, secondary hyperaldosteronism and hyperreninaemia are other characteristic features. Volume depletion due to excessive salt and water loss on long term stimulates renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system resulting in juxtaglomerular hyperplasia. Clinical features and electrolyte abnormalities may also depend on the subtype of the syndrome. Prenatal diagnosis and timely indomethacin administration prevent electrolyte imbalance, restitute normal growth, and improve activity. In this paper, authors present classification, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, complications, and prognosis of ABS.
Carter, J Y; Lema, O E; Mukunza, H K; Varia, H N; Munyere, A S; Watkins, W M; Watkins, K M
To assess the prevalence of anaemia in outpatients attending a rural health clinic in an area of seasonal malaria, during the low transmission season. Haemoglobin estimation and blood slide examination for malaria parasites were performed on 280 consecutive patients attending outpatient curative services at Entasopia Health Centre, Kajiado District, Kenya, between April-May 1996. Anaemia was defined according to World Health Organisation guidelines for age, sex and pregnancy status. In all groups except adult males, more than half of the patients tested had haemoglobin values below the lower reference limits, suggesting that anaemia is widely present in this population even during the low malaria season. Only 5% of patients were positive for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peripheral blood film examination suggested iron deficiency as the major cause of anaemia. Further studies to define the underlying causes of anaemia and to develop community strategies to prevent anaemia are required. The association between fever and anaemia and the use of pallor to diagnose anaemia, are discussed.
Neisha M. Rodriguez
Conclusion: Hyperopia is the most common refractive error and its prevalence and seems to increase among the aging population who visited the clinics. Further programs and studies must be developed to address the refractive errors needs of the adult Puerto Rican population.
Ledgerwood, David M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Hanson, Tressa; Godley, Mark D.; Petry, Nancy M.
Contingency management (CM) is effective in enhancing retention in therapy. After an 8-week baseline, four community-based substance abuse treatment clinics were exposed in random order to 16 weeks of standard care with CM followed by 16 weeks of standard care without CM or vice versa. In total, 75 outpatients participated. Patients who were…
Kopp, Svenny; Kelly, Kristina Berg; Gillberg, Christopher
Objective: Examine clinical correlates and distinguishing features of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), ADHD, and tic disorders in girls referred for social impairment, attention/academic deficits, and/or tics. Method: One hundred 3- to 18-year-old girls referred for social impairment and attention symptoms were assessed in detail. Sixty of these…
The factors found to affect TB development significantly were stage of HIV disease (p=0.000) and CD4 count level (P=0.021) of patients. The factor with the highest influence on TB development was the clinical stage of HIV disease (Odds ratio =6.013) and that of least influence was sex of patient (Odds ratio= 0.8319).
Gratrix, Jennifer; Plitt, Sabrina; Turnbull, LeeAnn; Smyczek, Petra; Brandley, Judith; Scarrott, Ron; Naidu, Prenilla; Bertholet, Lindsay; Chernesky, Max; Read, Ron; Singh, Ameeta E
Trichomonas vaginalis prevalence (2.8%) in female sexually transmitted infection clinic attendees was within the prevalence of chlamydia (5.8%) and gonorrhea (1.8%), while being very low for male attendees (0.2%). Correlates among women were indigenous ethnicity, other ethnicity, and being symptomatic.
Wilcox, Gabrielle; Schroeder, Meadow
Psychoeducational assessment involves collecting, organizing, and interpreting a large amount of data from various sources. Drawing upon psychological and medical literature, we review two main approaches to clinical reasoning (deductive and inductive) and how they synergistically guide diagnostic decision-making. In addition, we discuss how the…
Heredia-Pi, Ileana; Servan-Mori, Edson; Darney, Blair G; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Lozano, Rafael
To propose an antenatal care classification for measuring the continuum of health care based on the concept of adequacy: timeliness of entry into antenatal care, number of antenatal care visits and key processes of care. In a cross-sectional, retrospective study we used data from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2012. This contained self-reported information about antenatal care use by 6494 women during their last pregnancy ending in live birth. Antenatal care was considered to be adequate if a woman attended her first visit during the first trimester of pregnancy, made a minimum of four antenatal care visits and underwent at least seven of the eight recommended procedures during visits. We used multivariate ordinal logistic regression to identify correlates of adequate antenatal care and predicted coverage. Based on a population-weighted sample of 9 052 044, 98.4% of women received antenatal care during their last pregnancy, but only 71.5% (95% confidence interval, CI: 69.7 to 73.2) received maternal health care classified as adequate. Significant geographic differences in coverage of care were identified among states. The probability of receiving adequate antenatal care was higher among women of higher socioeconomic status, with more years of schooling and with health insurance. While basic antenatal care coverage is high in Mexico, adequate care remains low. Efforts by health systems, governments and researchers to measure and improve antenatal care should adopt a more rigorous definition of care to include important elements of quality such as continuity and processes of care.
Bergman, K; Sarkar, P; Glover, V; O'Connor, T G
Animal studies have shown that prenatal stress has persisting effects on several aspects of offspring development; more recent studies show that this effect may be eliminated by positive postnatal rearing. Human studies of prenatal anxiety/stress are now also beginning to document links between antenatal stress/anxiety and behavioural and cognitive development of the child; however, there is no human evidence as to whether the early caregiving environment moderates the effect of antenatal anxiety/stress on child outcomes. Antenatal and postnatal measures of stress were collected on 123 women who were recruited from an antenatal clinic. Laboratory-based assessment of the children's cognitive development and fearfulness were assessed when the children were aged 17 months. In addition, child-parent attachment quality was assessed using the Strange Situation. Attachment classification moderated the link between antenatal stress and observed fearfulness. The effect of antenatal stress on fearfulness was most accentuated in children with an Insecure/Resistant attachment classification; the significant antenatal stress x attachment classification interaction held after controlling for postnatal stress and obstetric, social and demographic factors. Attachment did not moderate the effects of antenatal anxiety on cognitive development. These findings provide the first human evidence that postnatal parenting may moderate the adverse effects of antenatal stress. These results raise developmental questions about the timing and effect of interventions to reduce the adverse effects of antenatal stress exposure.
Full Text Available V Poliquin,1 K Decker,2,3 AD Altman,1,2,4 R Lotocki1,2,4 1Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Manitoba, Canada; 2CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 3Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, 4Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Objective: This retrospective study of all women who accessed the 2006 Manitoba Pap Test Week clinics was designed to determine factors associated with inadequate cervical cancer screening and changes in cervical cancer screening behavior. Methods: Data were acquired using the CervixCheck Manitoba registry and an ancillary database of demographic information collected from clinic attendees. Results: The study included 1124 women. Of these, 53% (n = 598 were under-screened (no Pap test in the previous 2 years prior to accessing the clinics. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.03, no doctor (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.05–1.54, and living in Canada < 1 year (OR = 5.5, 95% CI 2.73–11.12 were associated with being under-screened prior to accessing the Pap Test Week clinics. Thirty-seven percent (n = 223 of under-screened women demonstrated improved screening status subsequent to the 2006 Pap Test Week (had a subsequent Papanicolaou [Pap] test performed within 2 years and these women were more likely to live in an urban setting (P = 0.003, be younger (P < 0.001, originate outside Canada (P = 0.006, have lived in Canada for less than 1 year (P = 0.006, and have had an abnormal Pap test result in 2006 (P < 0.001. Previously under-screened women were less likely to become adequately-screened subsequent to 2006 if they had a Pap test performed at a Pap Test Week clinic compared to having a Pap test performed elsewhere (37% versus 60%, P < 0.001. Conclusion: This study identified a subset of under
Tweed, A E; Salter, D P
Within psychotherapy process research, the effects of client non-attendance upon therapists has been neglected. The present study interviewed six clinical psychologists concerning their experiences of client non-attendance in health service practice in the UK. Their accounts were analysed using a grounded theory method. A core category was identified and termed 'responsibility'. This highlighted conflicting relationships between participants' responsibilities in several areas. A process model pertaining to non-attendance was also developed. Client non-attendance was seen to produce a level of disruption, experienced as an affective reaction and often experienced in terms of negative affect. In response, re-organizational strategies were used to restore equilibrium. Reasons are suggested as to why negative affective reactions were experienced. These include factors concerning therapeutic competency, but also reflect upon the profession's espousal of an 'all-knowing' expert identity. This is seen to be incongruent to the complexities of clinical practice.
Mafundikwa, A; Ndhlovu, C E; Gomo, Zar
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy in a diabetic clinic in a tertiary hospital setting in Zimbabwe. Descriptive cross sectional study. Diabetic clinic in a tertiary hospital. 75 insulin dependent diabetic consenting adults aged over 18 years. Consecutive sampling of 75 insulin dependent consenting subjects presenting at the Parirenyatwa Diabetic Clinic was conducted over a four month period. Patients were tested for proteinuria using dipsticks and were divided into dipstick positive and dipstick negative. The dipstick positive samples were sent to the laboratory for protein quantification. The dipstick negative samples were tested for microalbuminuria. Urine albumin creatinine ratios were utilised to quantify the proteinuria. Prevalence of overt proteinuria and the prevalence of microalbuminuria. Overt proteinuria was found in 16 (21%) patients. Microalbuminuria was found in 9 (12%) of the patients. Nephropathy was, therefore, found in 25 (33%). There is a high prevalence of diabetic nephropathy in adult patients with insulin dependent diabetis mellitus attending Parirenyatwa Diabetic Clinic.
Meynard, Anne; Genequand, Lydia Markham; Jeannot, Emilien; Wyler-Lazarevic, Claire-Anne; Cerutti, Bernard; Narring, Françoise
Adolescent vaccination coverage is very variable in European countries and data are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess immunization status and analyze potential variations according to sociodemographic variables in a youth clinic in Geneva, Switzerland. Immunization status was assessed retrospectively: Tetanus (number of doses or in absence of data tetanus antibodies) and measles as indicators of childhood coverage as well as hepatitis B and human papillomavirus. All new patients (N = 390) of Geneva University Hospital's youth clinic were included between January 2010 and June 2011. Vaccine coverage was low for all vaccines regardless of sex or origin. 89% of young people tested (mostly recent immigrants with no available data) had tetanus antibodies indicating adequate childhood immunization but hepatitis B and HPV coverage was low especially in recent immigrants. Systematic assessment allows better adolescent vaccine coverage and can improve safety by avoiding unnecessary dosis.
Mak, Kwok-Kei; Watanabe, Hiroko; Nomachi, Shinobu; Suganuma, Nobuhiko
This study compared the nutritional status before pregnancy, as well as dietary profiles and biomarkers during first trimester, between never-smokers and antenatal quitters among Japanese women. One hundred fifty pregnant women (79 never-smokers and 71 antenatal quitters) from two obstetrics and gynecology clinics were recruited in Japan. Subjects' prepregnancy nutritional status was indicated by their body mass index (BMI). In the first trimester, their dietary profiles were assessed by the Brief Diet-History Questionnaire (BDHQ) and pregnancy outcomes were screened by biomarker tests. Generalized linear regression was used to examine the differences of energy-adjusted dietary intakes and biomarker results between the two smoking groups, with adjustment of maternal age, BMI, gestation week, and parity. The results showed that antenatal quitters were more likely to have a prepregnancy underweight status than never-smokers. During the first trimester, antenatal quitters had significantly higher intakes of unsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants (vegetable lipids and isoflavone), and lower intakes of total cholesterol than never-smokers. Moreover, antenatal quitters had a significantly higher level of serum homocysteine (6.36 nmol/mL vs 4.88 nmol/mL) than never-smokers. In conclusion, antenatal quitters are more likely to have a poor nutritional status before pregnancy than never-smokers. Quitting smoking before pregnancy and having a good nutritional profile during the trimester may not sufficiently reverse the adverse effects of former smoking behaviors on pregnancy outcomes.
Full Text Available Major improvements in oral health have occurred in many developed countries over the last 30 years. However, oral diseases are still prevalent and their impact on both society and the individual are significant. The intraoral examination begins with an excursion around the oral cavity, noting its general architecture and function. It is important to monitor and maintain the overall health. The clinical examination, whether the first or regular recall examination, should be all inclusive.
Maryam Amirchaghmaghi; Javad Sarabadani; Farnaz Bidram; Hooman Ebrahimi
Major improvements in oral health have occurred in many developed countries over the last 30 years. However, oral diseases are still prevalent and their impact on both society and the individual are significant. The intraoral examination begins with an excursion around the oral cavity, noting its general architecture and function. It is important to monitor and maintain the overall health. The clinical examination, whether the first or regular recall examination, shoul...
Full Text Available Objectives: There is significant evidence that psychotherapy is a pivotal treatment for persons diagnosed with Axis I clinical psychiatric conditions; however, a psychotherapy service has only recently been established in the Omani health care system. This study aimed to investigate the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of attendees at a psychotherapy clinic at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: An analysis was carried out of 133 new referrals to the Psychotherapy Service at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, a tertiary care hospital. Results: The majority of referrals were females (59%, aged 18–34 years, employed (38%, had ≤12 years of formal education (51%, and were single (54%. A total of 43% were treated for anxiety disorders (including obsessive compulsive disorder, while 22% were treated for depression. A total of 65% were prescribed psychotropic medications. The utilisation of the Psychotherapy Service and its user characteristics are discussed within the context of a culturally diverse Omani community which has unique personal belief systems such as in supernatural powers (Jinn, contemptuous envy (Hassad, evil eye (Ain and sorcery (Sihr which are often used to explain the aetiology of mental illness and influence personal decisions on utilising medical and psychological treatments. Conclusion: Despite the low number of referrals to the Psychotherapy Service, there is reason to believe that psychotherapy would be an essential tool to come to grips with the increasing number of mental disorders in Oman.
Al-Sharbati, Zena; Hallas, Claire; Al-Zadjali, Hazar; Al-Sharbati, Marwan
There is significant evidence that psychotherapy is a pivotal treatment for persons diagnosed with Axis I clinical psychiatric conditions; however, a psychotherapy service has only recently been established in the Omani health care system. This study aimed to investigate the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of attendees at a psychotherapy clinic at a tertiary care hospital. An analysis was carried out of 133 new referrals to the Psychotherapy Service at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, a tertiary care hospital. The majority of referrals were females (59%), aged 18-34 years, employed (38%), had ≤12 years of formal education (51%), and were single (54%). A total of 43% were treated for anxiety disorders (including obsessive compulsive disorder), while 22% were treated for depression. A total of 65% were prescribed psychotropic medications. The utilisation of the Psychotherapy Service and its user characteristics are discussed within the context of a culturally diverse Omani community which has unique personal belief systems such as in supernatural powers (Jinn), contemptuous envy (Hassad), evil eye (Ain) and sorcery (Sihr) which are often used to explain the aetiology of mental illness and influence personal decisions on utilising medical and psychological treatments. Despite the low number of referrals to the Psychotherapy Service, there is reason to believe that psychotherapy would be an essential tool to come to grips with the increasing number of mental disorders in Oman.
Ikeoluwapo O. Ajayi
Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted in Primary Health Centers among pregnant women to elucidate adequacy of antenatal care across different socio demographic variables. Four hundred respondents were proportionately selected from 18 primary health centers using simple random sampling. Exit interviews were conducted using the adapted antenatal care exit interview form of the Safe Motherhood Needs Assessment package. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi square test. Adequacy of antenatal care in this study was measured by the single adequacy indicators which are duration of pregnancy at entry into antenatal care and number of antenatal visits; which are particularly suitable for developing countries. Age of respondents, means of transportation to the PHCs, occupation, location and level of education of the respondents were found to be determinants of whether the pregnant women attended their first antenatal visit in the first trimester, similarly, age of the respondents was a predictor of whether the women made up to four antenatal visits by their third trimester. Occupation and level of education were determinants of whether or not the pregnant women made their first antenatal visits at the first trimester. More respondents who were not working and those who were unskilled workers made their first antenatal visit at the first trimester compared to those who were skilled workers; work place policies and the fact that antenatal booking are made on weekdays and at work hours may hinder or be discouraging to the working class mothers.
Bar-On, Yaeli; Perry, Zvi H; Nof, Einav; Shiber, Asher; Risenberg, Klaris; Ben Zion, Itzhak
Until now, research on sexual behavior and HIV in Israel has been carried out mainly on the general population, and focused primarily on defining populations at risk, without adequate consideration given to the reasons bringing these populations to be tested, and their specific sexual behaviors. In Israel, one can choose whether to take an HIV test in confidential centers (giving one's name under medical confidentiality) or in anonymous centers (Israel AIDS Task Force in Tel Aviv and Beer Sheva, Levinsky Clinic in Tel Aviv and Haparsim Clinic in Haifa]. At least 21% of the clients of the anonymous testing centers in Israel belong to a high risk population in contrast to 2.6% in confidential clinics, and so, in this study, we hypothesize that characterization of sexual behavior patterns in anonymous testing centers might enable us to better characterize sexual behavior patterns in high risk populations. In this cross-sectional study, we used questionnaires distributed in the clinics by the Israel AIDS Task Force in order to characterize their clinic's clients. The questionnaires were completed by the Israel AIDS Task Force consultants during the consultation period at which the anonymous test was performed. Data collected included: gender, age, testing history, specific sexual behaviors and reasons for applying for the current test. A total of 926 questionnaires were collected; 29.9% of them were of female patients. The average age was 29.47 years (1±8.66]; 21.3% of the clients were men who have sex with men [MSM]; only 2.3% of the clients belonged to other high risk populations. In all groups, the majority of the patients reported high risk sexual behavior (any sexual contact without a condom) and the average age for the first test was much higher than the average age of first sexual intercourse common in Israel. Women reported more participation in unprotected vaginal intercourse than heterosexual men, and a substantial part of MSM reported performing unprotected
Pekkan, G; Kilicoglu, A; Hatipoglu, H
To evaluate the relationship between dental anxiety, general anxiety and depression levels in patients attending a university hospital dental clinic in Turkey. A cross sectional study. 250 first visit patients seeking dental treatment. Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used to assess the dental anxiety, general anxiety and depression level in these patients. The mean MDAS, BAI, and BDI scores were 10.5, 9.4, and 10.7, respectively. The prevalence of dental anxiety was found to be 20.8% (52/250) at the cut-off point > or = 15 and 6.8% (17/250) at the cut-off point > or = 19 according to MDAS score evaluation. MDAS and BAI scores were significantly higher in women (p or = 19 (p anxiety was positively correlated with patients' general anxiety level and was higher in women and at younger age.
Evans, B A; Bond, R A; MacRae, K D
To compare variables of sexual behaviour and incidence of genital infections among heterosexual men of different racial origins. A prospective cross sectional study of sexual behaviour reported by a standardised self administered questionnaire in new patients who presented for screening and diagnosis. A genitourinary medicine clinic in west London. 1212 consecutive heterosexual men newly attending in 1993-4. Variables relating to sociodemographic status, sexual behaviour, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and other genital infections stratified by racial origin. There were 941 evaluable heterosexual men of whom the majority were white (79%) and 17% were black. The black men comprised more teenagers (11% cf 2%; p fellatio (64% cf 96%; p fellatio, cunnilingus, or anal intercourse. However, there was no difference between the two racial groups in respect of numbers of sexual partners and condom use.
for other risk factors. Conclusion Risk factor profiles for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress differ but are interrelated. Antenatal depression was the strongest predictor of postnatal depression, and in turn postnatal depression was the strongest predictor for parenting stress. These results provide clinical direction suggesting that early identification and treatment of perinatal depression is important.
Full Text Available In rural Uganda pregnant women often lack access to health services, do not attend antenatal care, and tend to utilize traditional healers/birth attendants. We hypothesized that receiving a message advertising that "you will be able to see your baby by ultrasound" would motivate rural Ugandan women who otherwise might use a traditional birth attendant to attend antenatal care, and that those women would subsequently be more satisfied with care. A cluster randomized trial was conducted across eight rural sub-counties in southwestern Uganda. Sub-counties were randomized to a control arm, with advertisement of antenatal care with no mention of portable obstetric ultrasound (four communities, n = 59, or an intervention arm, with advertisement of portable obstetric ultrasound. Advertisement of portable obstetric ultrasound was further divided into intervention A word of mouth advertisement of portable obstetric ultrasound and antenatal care (one communitity, n = 16, B radio advertisement of only antenatal care and word of mouth advertisement of antenatal care and portable obstetric ultrasound (one community, n = 7, or C word of mouth + radio advertisement of both antenatal care and portable obstetric ultrasound (two communities, n = 75. The primary outcome was attendance to antenatal care. 159 women presented to antenatal care across eight sub-counties. The rate of attendance was 65.1 (per 1000 pregnant women, 95% CI 38.3-110.4 where portable obstetric ultrasound was advertised by radio and word of mouth, as compared to a rate of 11.1 (95% CI 6.1-20.1 in control communities (rate ratio 5.9, 95% CI 2.6-13.0, p<0.0001. Attendance was also improved in women who had previously seen a traditional healer (13.0, 95% CI 5.4-31.2 compared to control (1.5, 95% CI 0.5-5.0, rate ratio 8.7, 95% CI 2.0-38.1, p = 0.004. By advertising antenatal care and portable obstetric ultrasound by radio attendance was significantly improved. This study suggests that women can
Eke, C B; Obu, H A; Chinawa, J M; Adimora, G N; Obi, I E
There has been an increasing interest by couples in child adoption due to its acceptability in recent times in our locale. The enactment of the Child's Right Act in Nigeria has harmonized child adoption process across the nation. With the rising demand for babies from child care institutions by many Nigerian couples, there is need to ascertain their perception of child adoption. To evaluate the perception of child adoption among parents/care-givers of children attending Pediatric Clinics in Enugu. The parents and care-givers of children attending pediatrics out-patients clinics in Enugu, Enugu State, South East, Nigeria served as the respondents. Two hundred and fifty nine of them were selected by convenience sampling method after obtaining their informed written consent. The data were obtained using semi - structured questionnaire that was administered by an interviewer and subsequently analyzed using SPSS Version 15.0. Many caregivers (respondents) (94.2.7%) had heard of child adoption and 79.2% of them understood the actual meaning of the term child adoption. About 1.9% of them had adopted previously. Majority of the respondents (73.87%) prefers to adopt a child during its neonatal age with a slight preference for adoption of male babies. 15.1% and 8.9% of the respondents gave private hospitals and middle men, respectively, as sources of child adoption. Knowledge of the Government adoption laws and process was generally below average (49.2%) among the respondents. Continued advocacy and public enlightenment campaigns should be strengthened in order to harmonize adoption process in our setting.
Full Text Available Background: Trichomoniasis is a worldwide sexually transmitteddisease (STD, and is associated with important publichealth problems, including enhancement of HIV transmission.The prevalence of the parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis, dependson host factors such as age, sexual activity, number ofsexual partners and sexual behavior. The aim of the study wasto evaluate the prevalence of trichomoniasis in high-risk behaviorwomen, such as drug addicts and those who had multiplesexual partners, attending Gynecology Clinics in penitentiariesof Tehran province to help gynecologists with the diagnosisand treatment of the disease.Methods: Samples of posterior vaginal fornix discharges andurines of 450 women attending Gynecology Clinics of three prisonsin Tehran province were collected. All samples were examinedby direct smear and cultured in TYI-S-33 culture media.Results: 10.2% of subjects were positive for trichomoniasis.82.7% of infected patients were symptomatic individuals whocomplained of vaginal discharge and itching and/or burningsensation. Most of the infected women in the high risk behaviorgroup were drug users (54.3%. Physical examinationshowed that 50% of T. vaginalis positive subjects had a normalappearance of vagina and cervix. The peak prevalence (32.8%of the disease occurred in the age range of 31-40 years.Conclusion: T. vaginalis infection is commonly associatedwith other STDs, and is a marker of high-risk sexual behavior.Due to the side effects of the drugs used to treat the infection,it is suggested that the treatment be performed after definitediagnosis using a diagnostic method with a higher sensitivity.
Fatima, Tarannum; Acharya, Manisha Chhabra; Mathur, Umang; Barua, Prasanjeet
To assess demographic profile and functional outcomes of patients with keratoconus attending contact lens clinic at a tertiary eye care centre. Retrospective analysis of 77 patients (142 eyes) diagnosed with keratoconus attending contact lens clinic at Dr Shroff's Charity Eye Hospital, New Delhi, from January 2008 to December 2008 was done. Data on age, gender, slit lamp examination, keratometry, topography, visual acuity with log MAR conversion, degree of visual success, type of contact lens and fitting characteristics were obtained. One hundred and forty-two eyes of 77 patients were analyzed of which 49 (63%) were males and 28 (37%) were females; their median age was 24 years (15-36 years). Keratoconus reading based on keratometry was done. Twenty eyes (14.4%) were diagnosed to have mild keratoconus, 51 eyes (36.7%) had moderate, 45(32.4%) had advanced and 23 eyes (16.6%) had severe keratoconus. 113 eyes (79.5%) were visually rehabilitated with RGP lenses while 29 eyes (20.4%) fitted best with Rose-K lenses and in 1 patient (0.1%) Boston scleral lens was given in both eyes. With contact lens wear, visual acuity improved to 6/9 (0.18log MAR) or better in 91% (115 eyes) and 141 (99%) eyes improved to 6/18 (0.48log MAR) or better. We found that in India keratoconus presents at an early age as compared to the western population. Contact lenses offer a good modality to delay the requirement for penetrating keratoplasty. Newer philosophies for fitting contact lenses and newer materials can help in decreasing the contact lenses intolerance which still remains the major indication for undergoing penetrating keratoplasty.
Mugure, Gladys; Karama, Mohamed; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Karanja, Simon
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death in the world. Over 80% of CVD related deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Diabetes and hypertension, whose prevalence in Kenya is on the rise, are major risk factors for CVD. Despite this, studies indicate that awareness on the management of risk factors for CVD among diabetic/hypertensive patients in African populations is generally low. The aim of the study was to determine the risk factors for CVD among diabetic and/or hypertensive patients attending diabetes and hypertension management clinics in Korogocho and Viwandani slums of Nairobi. Data were collected using questionnaires administered to 206 diabetic/hypertensive patients attending the clinics between July 2010 and February 2011. A review of these patients' medical records was done to determine the history of CVD outcomes such as hypertensive heart diseases, stroke and peripheral arterial diseases. Majority (66.5%) of the study participants were females mainly in the 51-65 age category. The study findings revealed that 73 (33.4%) respondents had CVD outcomes. In addition, 41.8% of the respondents were not aware of the causes of diabetes/hypertension. Age category 51-65 years had the highest (43.8%) number of respondents with CVD. Sex of the respondents and awareness of the link between hypertension and CVD were significantly associated with CVD outcomes (p<0.05) among the respondents. Measures to improve awareness levels among patients at high risk of CVD outcomes are needed to complement other measures to reduce CVD risk among such patients.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs represent a serious global health burden. To date, few reports have addressed the prevalence of respiratory viruses (RVs in adults with ARTIs attending an emergency department (ED. Therefore, the potential impact of respiratory virus infections on such patients remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine the epidemiological and clinical profiles of common and recently discovered respiratory viruses in adults with ARTIs attending an ED in Beijing, a 1-year consecutive study was conducted from May, 2010, to April, 2011. Nose and throat swab samples from 416 ARTI patients were checked for 13 respiratory viruses using multiple reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR assays for common respiratory viruses, including influenza viruses (Flu A, B, and adenoviruses (ADVs, picornaviruses (PICs, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, parainfluenza viruses (PIVs 1-3, combined with real-time RT-PCR for human metapneumovirus (HMPV and human coronaviruses (HCoVs, -OC43, -229E, -NL63, and -HKU1. Viral pathogens were detected in 52.88% (220/416 of patient samples, and 7.21% (30/416 of patients tested positive for more than one virus. PICs (17.79% were the dominant agents detected, followed by FluA (16.11%, HCoVs (11.78%, and ADV (11.30%. HMPV, PIVs, and FluB were also detected (<3%, but not RSV. The total prevalence and the dominant virus infections detected differed significantly between ours and a previous report. Co-infection rates were high for HCoV-229E (12/39, 30.76%, PIC (22/74, 29.73%, ADV (12/47, 25.53% and FluA (15/67, 22.39%. Different patterns of clinical symptoms were associated with different respiratory viruses. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of RV involvement in adults with ARTIs attending an ED in China differs from that previously reported. The high prevalence of viruses (PIC, FluA, HCoVs and ADV reported here strongly highlight the need for the development of safe and
Gomez-Salazar, Francisco; Campos-Romero, Abraham; Gomez-Campaña, Humberto; Cruz-Zamudio, Cinthia; Chaidez-Felix, Mariano; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Velazquez-Roman, Jorge; Flores-Villaseñor, Hector; Muro-Amador, Secundino; Guadron-Llanos, Alma Marlene; Martinez-Garcia, Javier J.; Murillo-Llanes, Joel; Sanchez-Cuen, Jaime; Llausas-Vargas, Alejando; Alapizco-Castro, Gerardo; Irineo-Cabrales, Ana; Graue-Hernandez, Enrique; Ramirez-Luquin, Tito; Canizalez-Roman, Adrian
AIM To assess the proportion of refractive errors in the Mexican population that visited primary care optometry clinics in fourteen states of Mexico. METHODS Refractive data from 676 856 patients aged 6 to 90y were collected from optometry clinics in fourteen states of Mexico between 2014 and 2015. The refractive errors were classified by the spherical equivalent (SE), as follows: sphere+½ cylinder. Myopia (SE>-0.50 D), hyperopia (SE>+0.50 D), emmetropia (-0.50≤SE≤+0.50), and astigmatism alone (cylinder≥-0.25 D). A negative cylinder was selected as a notation. RESULTS The proportion (95% confidence interval) among all of the subjects was hyperopia 21.0% (20.9-21.0), emmetropia 40.7% (40.5-40.8), myopia 24.8% (24.7-24.9) and astigmatism alone 13.5% (13.4-13.5). Myopia was the most common refractive error and frequency seemed to increase among the young population (10 to 29 years old), however, hyperopia increased among the aging population (40 to 79 years old), and astigmatism alone showed a decreasing trend with age (6 to 90y; from 19.7% to 10.8%). There was a relationship between age and all refractive errors (approximately 60%, aged 50 and older). The proportion of any clinically important refractive error was higher in males (61.2%) than in females (58.3%; P<0.0001). From fourteen states that collected information, the proportion of refractive error showed variability in different geographical areas of Mexico. CONCLUSION Myopia is the most common refractive error in the population studied. This study provides the first data on refractive error in Mexico. Further programs and studies must be developed to address the refractive errors needs of the Mexican population. PMID:28546940
Full Text Available AIM: To assess the proportion of refractive errors in the Mexican population that visited primary care optometry clinics in fourteen states of Mexico. METHODS: Refractive data from 676 856 patients aged 6 to 90y were collected from optometry clinics in fourteen states of Mexico between 2014 and 2015. The refractive errors were classified by the spherical equivalent (SE, as follows: sphere+½ cylinder. Myopia (SE>-0.50 D, hyperopia (SE>+0.50 D, emmetropia (-0.50≤SE≤+0.50, and astigmatism alone (cylinder≥-0.25 D. A negative cylinder was selected as a notation. RESULTS: The proportion (95% confidence interval among all of the subjects was hyperopia 21.0% (20.9-21.0, emmetropia 40.7% (40.5-40.8, myopia 24.8% (24.7-24.9 and astigmatism alone 13.5% (13.4-13.5. Myopia was the most common refractive error and frequency seemed to increase among the young population (10 to 29 years old, however, hyperopia increased among the aging population (40 to 79 years old, and astigmatism alone showed a decreasing trend with age (6 to 90y; from 19.7% to 10.8%. There was a relationship between age and all refractive errors (approximately 60%, aged 50 and older. The proportion of any clinically important refractive error was higher in males (61.2% than in females (58.3%; P<0.0001. From fourteen states that collected information, the proportion of refractive error showed variability in different geographical areas of Mexico. CONCLUSION: Myopia is the most common refractive error in the population studied. This study provides the first data on refractive error in Mexico. Further programs and studies must be developed to address the refractive errors needs of the Mexican population.
Rodriguez, Neisha M; Romero, Angel F
To determine the prevalence of refractive conditions in the adult population that visited primary care optometry clinics in Puerto Rico. A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients examined at the Inter American University of Puerto Rico School of Optometry Eye Institute Clinics between 2004 and 2010. Subjects considered had best corrected visual acuity by standardized subjective refraction of 20/40 or better. The refractive errors were classified by the spherical equivalent (SE): sphere+½ cylinder. Myopia was classified as a SE>-0.50D, hyperopia as a SE>+0.50 D, and emmetropia as a SE between -0.50 and +0.50, both included. Astigmatism equal or higher than 0.25 D in minus cylinder form was used. Patients with documented history of cataract extraction (pseudophakia or aphakia), amblyopia, refractive surgery or other corneal/ocular surgery were excluded from the study. A total of 784 randomly selected subjects older than 40 years of age were selected. The estimated prevalence (95%, confidence interval) among all subjects was hyperopia 51.5% (48.0-55.0), emmetropia 33.8% (30.5-37.2), myopia 14.7% (12.1-17.2) and astigmatism 69.6% (68.8-73.3). Hyperopia was more common in females than males although the difference was not statistically significant. The mean spherical equivalent values was hyperopic until 70 y/o and decreased slightly as the population ages. Hyperopia is the most common refractive error and its prevalence and seems to increase among the aging population who visited the clinics. Further programs and studies must be developed to address the refractive errors needs of the adult Puerto Rican population. Copyright © 2012 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Ludman, Sian; Jafari-Mamaghani, Mehrdad; Ebling, Rosemary; Fox, Adam T; Lack, Gideon; Du Toit, George
There is limited information regarding the onset and sensitization patterns of pollen food syndrome (PFS) in children. The aim was to explore this within children referred to a specialist allergy clinic at a London Tertiary Hospital. A total of 54 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) were enrolled in equal numbers in three age groups; 0-5, 6-10, 11-15 years. Families completed a questionnaire on rhinitis, food symptoms and quality of life. Children underwent skin prick testing (SPT) to fresh fruits, nuts and a blood test for microarray analysis. Clinical diagnosis of PFS was made in 26/54 (48%), increasing with age (group 1 = 3 (17%), group 2 = 9 (50%), group 3 = 14 (78%) (p = 0.03)). Microarray demonstrates children aged 2.8 years sensitized to pan-allergens and 4.5 years symptomatic to pan-allergens. Peach, cherry, carrot and strawberry SPT had the highest sensitivity and NPV at 100%. The sensitivity of PR10 molecules on microarray was 92%, PPV 62% and NPV 87%. Microarray confirmed 69% of allergens on clinical history compared to 61% by SPT. Microarray and SPT had a 19% false-negative rate. The quality-of-life data showed moderate impact across all domains, and patients with PFS were significantly more likely to have increased anxiety over time spent preparing food (p = 0.029). We demonstrate that SAR occurs in children from 1.4 years and PFS from 4.5 years with a changing pattern of pan-allergen sensitization. Microarray and SPT have moderate concordance in confirming allergens. PFS impacts negatively on quality of life and should be assessed in all paediatric allergy patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Background: Anemia in pregnancy is one of the public health problems in the developed and developing world. If uncontrolled it is a major indirect cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. This is worst in settings with poor prenatal practices. Quality prenatal interventions therefore are expected to prevent or ...
Protein intake was significantly associated with Education (OR: 0.537; 95% CI: 0.318 – 0.907), income (OR: 0.049; 95% CI: 0.919 – 0.128) and perceived food shortage (OR: 0.617; 95% CI: 0.389 – 0.890). Energy intake was significantly associated with income (p=0.007, OR: 2.103; 95%CI: 1.225 – 3.608). Iron intake was ...
anémie chez les femmes enceintes qui fréquentent les ... proportion plus élevée de primigravid et secondigravid clients (61 % VS 39 %) et les jeunes femmes enceintes (54,6 % ..... as teenage mothers than those with higher gravidity and older.
Mar 3, 2012 ... FACILITIES IN BUNGOMA SOUTH DISTRICT, WESTERN KENYA. E. K. Shipala, BSc, MPH, ... Iron intake was significantly associated with perceived food ..... deficiency may generate anaemia (17) or even foetal neural tube ...
Mar 3, 2012 ... Child Health, School of Medicine, Moi University, Lecturer, Department of Nutrition, Masinde Muliro Univesity of Science and Technology, P. O. Box 190 ... stigma and have inadequate food to eat. These impacts negatively on ... had any physical disability, mental retardation, were unwilling to participate or ...
Wilkinson Shelley A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy is an ideal time to encourage healthy lifestyles as most women access health services and are more receptive to health messages; however few effective interventions exist. The aim of this research was to deliver a low-intensity, dietitian-led behavior change workshop at a Maternity Hospital to influence behaviors with demonstrated health outcomes. Methods Workshop effectiveness was evaluated using an RCT; ‘usual care’ women (n = 182 received a nutrition resource at their first antenatal visit and 'intervention' women also attended a one-hour ‘Healthy Start to Pregnancy’ workshop (n = 178. Dietary intake, physical activity levels, gestational weight gain knowledge, smoking cessation, and intention to breastfeed were assessed at service-entry and 12 weeks later. Intention-to-treat (ITT and per-protocol (PP analyses examined change over time between groups. Results Approximately half (48.3% the intervention women attended the workshop and overall response rate at time 2 was 67.2%. Significantly more women in the intervention met pregnancy fruit guidelines at time 2 (+4.3%, p = 0.011 and had a clinically-relevant increase in physical activity (+27 minutes/week compared with women who only received the resource (ITT. Women who attended the workshop increased their consumption of serves of fruit (+0.4 serves/day, p = 0.004, vegetables (+0.4 serves/day, p = 0.006, met fruit guidelines (+11.9%, p , had a higher diet quality score (p = 0.027 and clinically-relevant increases in physical activity (+21.3 minutes/week compared with those who only received the resource (PP. Conclusions The Healthy Start to Pregnancy workshop attendance facilitates improvements in important health behaviors. Service changes and accessibility issues are required to assist women's workshop attendance to allow more women to benefit from the workshop’s effects. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN
Binoy Kumar Mohanty
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pituitary tumours are relatively common endocrine tumours. They can present with symptoms related to hormone excess or hormone deficiency. They can also present with compressive symptoms like visual problems and headache. OBJECTIVE To study the various clinical presentations and endocrine profile of patients presenting with pituitary tumours to a tertiary care hospital. DESIGN Cross sectional study. MATERIAL AND METHODS We collected and analysed the clinical data including hormonal status of 33 consecutive patients who presented to our department from March 2014 to February 2016 for evaluation of pituitary tumours. RESULTS Majority of the subjects studied belonged to 40-50 years group (33.34%.The most common type of pituitary tumour in our population was non-functioning pituitary tumours (45.45%. The next common cause was somatotroph adenoma (27.27% followed by prolactinoma (15.15% and corticotroph adenomas (12.13%. There was significant male predominance (60.60% among total cases. Among all patients, headache (54.54% was most common presentation followed by features related to hormone excess (51.51%. CONCLUSIONS Pituitary tumours can present with variety of symptoms. A detailed endocrine workup is essential in each case to reach at correct diagnosis. In our cohort, non-functioning pituitary tumour was the most common tumour subtype.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Studying gender differences among suicide attempters is important for identifying gender-specific risk factors and for planning management and prevention. Our objective was to delineate gender differences among a well-defined group of suicide attempters. Materials and Methods: This record-based study was conducted among patients presenting to a Crisis Intervention Clinic in a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India. Information was gathered regarding sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Hopelessness was measured using Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS, and stress was evaluated using Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale (PSLES. Results: The sample comprised of 162 males and 137 females. Males were significantly older and were more likely to be employed as compared to females. Alcohol use was significantly more in males and number of men who attempted suicide under intoxication was significantly higher. Females had a greater proportion of attempts with the use of plant poisons and medication overdose. There was no significant difference between two genders on BHS though differences were noted on types of stresses reported on PSLES. Conclusion: Gender-specific differences were noted with regard to substance use, mode of attempt and types of stressors experienced. Identifying these factors might help us to design targeted interventions to prevent further attempts.
Farhi, Jacob; Ben-Haroush, Avi
Infertility is one of the most prevalent health disorders in young adults. To study the distribution of causes of infertility in couples referred to primary infertility clinics in Israel. Data for a 9 year period were derived from two clinics of major women's hospitals run by the country's largest health insurance fund. All patients were treated by one physician. Laparoscopy was not performed to rule out endometriosis. Of the 2515 couples identified, 1991 (79.2%) had a definitive diagnosis following complete workup (including hysterosalpingography). Mean age was 29.6 +/- 6.0 years; mean duration of infertility was 1.7 +/- 1.8 years. Primary infertility accounted for 65% of cases. Causes of infertility were male factor (45%), oligo-ovulation disorders (37%), and tubal damage (18%). Infertility factors were identified in the woman alone in 30.6% of cases and the man alone in 29.2%. Two combined infertility factors were found in 18% of patients, and three combined factors in 0.5%. The rate of unexplained infertility (which probably includes non-tubal endometriosis) was 20.7%. As male factor accounts for almost half of all cases of infertility in couples, sperm analysis is mandatory before any treatment.
Bennett, Linda Rae; Wiweko, Budi; Bell, Lauren; Shafira, Nadia; Pangestu, Mulyoto; Adayana, I B Putra; Hinting, Aucky; Armstrong, Gregory
This study investigated the reproductive knowledge and patient education needs of 212 female Indonesian infertility patients. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from July to September 2011 by married women, 18 to 45 years old, seeking infertility care from clinics in Jakarta, Surabaya and Denpasar. Participants were literate, the sample was highly educated, predominantly urban and primarily middle class or elite. Infertility consultants were cited as the most useful source of information by 65% of respondents, 94% understood that infertility results from male and female factors, 84% could distinguish between infertility and sterility, and 70% could identify their fertility window. However, demand for further knowledge of reproduction and infertility was expressed by 87%. Patients' knowledge of the causes and treatment of infertility was extremely poor. Two key causes of infertility, advanced age and untreated sexually transmissible infections, were not named. Only 19% of patients had received written information. The study revealed the need for expanded infertility patient education among women patients accessing fertility care in Indonesian clinics. Opportunities for education should be maximized within infertility consultations. A standardized infertility patient education curriculum should be developed, incorporating patients' priorities, as well as gaps in existing knowledge. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Danai Tavonga Zhou,1,2 Vitaris Kodogo,1 Kudzai Fortunate Vongai Chokuona,1 Exnevia Gomo,1 Olav Oektedalen,3 Babill Stray-Pedersen21Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Avondale, Zimbabwe; 2Institute of Clinical Medicine, University in Oslo, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 3Department of Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, NorwayAbstract: The chronic inflammation induced by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV contributes to increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD in HIV-infected individuals. HIV-infected patients generally benefit from being treated with antiretroviral drugs, but some antiretroviral agents have side effects, such as dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. There is general consensus that antiretroviral drugs induce a long-term risk of CHD, although the levels of that risk are somewhat controversial. The intention of this cross-sectional study was to describe the lipid profile and the long-term risk of CHD among HIV-positive outpatients at an HIV treatment clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe. Two hundred and fifteen patients were investigated (females n=165, mean age 39.8 years; males n=50; mean age 42.0 years. Thirty of the individuals were antiretroviral-naïve and 185 had been on antiretroviral therapy (ART for a mean 3.9±3.4 years. All participants had average lipid and glucose values within normal ranges, but there was a small difference between the ART and ART- for total cholesterol (TC and high-density lipoprotein (HDL.Those on a combination of D4T or ZDV/NVP/3TC and PI-based ART were on average oldest and had the highest TC levels. Framingham risk showed 1.4% prevalence of high CHD risk within the next ten years. After univariate analysis age, sex, TC/HDL ratio, HDL, economic earnings and systolic BP were associated with medium to high risk of CHD. After multivariate regression analysis and adjusting for age or sex only age, sex and economic earnings
Mittal, Mona; Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.
Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes, including sexual risk behavior. This cross-sectional study explored mediators of the relationship between IPV and risky sexual behavior in 717 women recruited from an STD clinic. Methods Participants were recruited from a public STD clinic in upstate New York as part of a randomized control trial (RCT) that was designed to evaluate several sexual risk reduction interventions. They completed an Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview in a private room. Results Among these women, 18% reported IPV in the past 3 months and 57% reported lifetime experience of IPV. Recent IPV was associated with greater sexual risk as measured by more episodes of unprotected sex (overall and with a steady partner). Although IPV was associated with depressive symptoms and drug use before sex, these variables did not mediate the relationship between IPV and sexual risk behavior. Conclusions The results indicate that IPV is common among women who attend an STD clinic and warrants increased attention. Research is needed to better understand the pathways linking IPV and HIV risk in women to optimize the design of effective interventions. PMID:21258269
Seo, Jun-Hyeok; Yang, Hye-Won; Joo, So-Young; Song, Su-Min; Lee, Yu-Ran; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Yoo, Eun Sang; Lee, Won Kee; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Won-Ja; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul
Trichomonas vaginalis, a causative agent of trichomoniasis, may trigger symptomatic or asymptomatic nongonococcal urethritis and chronic prostatitis in men. Despite the availability of highly sensitive diagnostic tests, such as nucleic acid amplification tests, including PCR, few prospective studies present data on male T. vaginalis infection in South Korea. In the present study, the prevalence of T. vaginalis and associated clinical conditions were evaluated in 201 male patients from a primary care urology clinic in South Korea. The prevalence of T. vaginalis infection in our cohort was 4% (8/201) by PCR. T. vaginalis infection was common in men older than 40 years (median age, 52 years). Among the 8 Trichomonas-positive patients, 87.5% (7/8) had prostatic diseases, such as prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia, and 25.0% (2/8) and 12.5% (1/8) were coinfected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium, respectively. Our results suggest that T. vaginalis infection is not rare in men attending primary care urology clinics in South Korea, especially in those older than 40 years, in whom it may explain the presence of prostatic disease. The possibility of T. vaginalis infection should be routinely considered in older male patients with prostatic diseases in South Korea.
Mittal, Mona; Senn, Theresa E; Carey, Michael P
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes, including sexual risk behavior. This cross-sectional study explored mediators of the relationship between IPV and risky sexual behavior in 717 women recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Participants were recruited from a public STD clinic in upstate New York as part of a randomized controlled trial that was designed to evaluate several sexual risk reduction interventions. They completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview in a private room. Among these women, 18% reported IPV in the past 3 months and 57% reported lifetime experience of IPV. Recent IPV was associated with greater sexual risk, as measured by more episodes of unprotected sex (overall and with a steady partner). Although IPV was associated with depressive symptoms and drug use before sex, these variables did not mediate the relationship between IPV and sexual risk behavior. The results indicate that IPV is common among women who attend an STD clinic and warrants increased attention. Research is needed to better understand the pathways linking IPV and HIV risk in women, to optimize the design of effective interventions.
Seo, Jun-Hyeok; Yang, Hye-Won; Joo, So-Young; Song, Su-Min; Lee, Yu-Ran; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Yoo, Eun Sang; Lee, Won Kee; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Won-Ja; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Chung, Dong-Il
Trichomonas vaginalis, a causative agent of trichomoniasis, may trigger symptomatic or asymptomatic nongonococcal urethritis and chronic prostatitis in men. Despite the availability of highly sensitive diagnostic tests, such as nucleic acid amplification tests, including PCR, few prospective studies present data on male T. vaginalis infection in South Korea. In the present study, the prevalence of T. vaginalis and associated clinical conditions were evaluated in 201 male patients from a primary care urology clinic in South Korea. The prevalence of T. vaginalis infection in our cohort was 4% (8/201) by PCR. T. vaginalis infection was common in men older than 40 years (median age, 52 years). Among the 8 Trichomonas-positive patients, 87.5% (7/8) had prostatic diseases, such as prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia, and 25.0% (2/8) and 12.5% (1/8) were coinfected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium, respectively. Our results suggest that T. vaginalis infection is not rare in men attending primary care urology clinics in South Korea, especially in those older than 40 years, in whom it may explain the presence of prostatic disease. The possibility of T. vaginalis infection should be routinely considered in older male patients with prostatic diseases in South Korea. PMID:25352707
Bazan, Jose A; Carr Reese, Patricia; Esber, Allahna; Lahey, Samantha; Ervin, Melissa; Davis, John A; Fields, Karen; Turner, Abigail Norris
Testing women for urogenital Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is common in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. However, women may not be routinely tested for rectal GC/CT. This may lead to missed infections in women reporting anal intercourse (AI). This was a retrospective review of all women who underwent rectal GC/CT testing from August 2012 to June 2013 at an STD clinic in Columbus, Ohio. All women who reported AI in the last year had a rectal swab collected for GC/CT nucleic acid amplification testing (n=331). Using log-binomial regression models, we computed unadjusted and adjusted associations for demographic and behavioral factors associated with rectal GC/CT infection. Participants (n=331) were 47% African-American, with median age of 29 years. Prevalence of rectal GC was 6%, rectal CT was 13%, and either rectal infection was 19%. Prevalence of urogenital GC and CT was 7% and 13% respectively. Among women with rectal GC, 14% tested negative for urogenital GC. Similarly, 14% of women with rectal CT tested negative for urogenital CT. In unadjusted analyses, there was increased rectal GC prevalence among women reporting sex in the last year with an injection drug user, with a person exchanging sex for drugs or money, with anonymous partners, and while intoxicated/high on alcohol or illicit drugs. After multivariable adjustment, no significant associations persisted, but a trend of increased rectal GC prevalence was observed for women women who reported AI in the last year had rectal GC or CT infection. Urogenital testing alone would have missed 14% of rectal infections. Standardized guidelines would increase rectal GC/CT testing in women and help detect missed infections.
Hall, Victoria; Charlett, André; Hughes, Gwenda; Brook, Gary; Maguire, Helen; Mercer, Catherine H; Coyne, Katherine; Cassell, Jackie; Crook, Paul
To determine whether the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games were associated with a change in the number of patients attending or diagnosed with a new sexually transmitted infection (STI) at sexual health clinics in London and Weymouth. We undertook an interrupted time-series analysis of surveillance data from the Genitourinary Medicine Clinic Activity Dataset (GUMCAD) collected at 33 genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics in London and Weymouth (where Games events were concentrated) between 2009 and 2012. Mixed-effects linear regression models of weekly attendance and diagnoses, incorporating temporal trends, bank holidays, categorical month and clinic closures, were used to test for the effect of the 'Olympic-Paralympic' period. We subdivided the 9-week 'Olympic-Paralympic' period (16 July 2012 to 17 September 2012) into five periods, including three Olympic weeks, two Paralympic weeks, pre-, post- and inter-Games weeks. We also compared characteristics of patients attending during the Olympic-Paralympic period and those attending during the same period in 2011. During the 3 weeks of the Olympics, there was a significant reduction in the number of new episode attendances (2020 fewer, 5.6% reduction (95% CI -8.2 to -2.9)) and the number of patients diagnosed with an STI (267 fewer, 4.8% reduction (95% CI -8.6 to -0.9)) compared to expected. There were no important differences in the profile of patients attending during the 2012 Olympic-Paralympic period and those attending during the same period in 2011. We conclude that a 'business-as-usual' approach to managing local sexual health clinics during the 2012 Olympic and Paralympics would have been appropriate. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Ste-Marie, Peter A; Shir, Yoram; Rampakakis, Emmanouil; Sampalis, John S; Karellis, Angela; Cohen, Martin; Starr, Michael; Ware, Mark A; Fitzcharles, Mary-Ann
Cannabinoids may hold potential for the management of rheumatic pain. Arthritis, often self-reported, is commonly cited as the reason for the use of medicinal herbal cannabis (marijuana). We have examined the prevalence of marijuana use among 1000 consecutive rheumatology patients with a rheumatologist-confirmed diagnosis and compared in an exploratory manner the clinical characteristics of medicinal users and nonusers. Current marijuana use, medicinal or recreational, was reported by 38 patients (3.8%; 95% CI: 2.8-5.2). Ever use of marijuana for medical purposes was reported by 4.3% (95% CI: 3.2-5.7), with 28 (2.8%; 95% CI: 1.9-4.0) reporting current medicinal use. Current medicinal users had a spectrum of rheumatic conditions, with over half diagnosed with osteoarthritis. Medicinal users were younger, more likely unemployed or disabled, and reported poorer global health. Pain report and opioid use was greater for users, but they had similar physician global assessment of disease status compared with nonusers. Medicinal users were more likely previous recreational users, with approximately 40% reporting concurrent recreational use. Therefore, less than 3% of rheumatology patients reported current use of medicinal marijuana. This low rate of use in patients with a rheumatologist-confirmed diagnosis is in stark contrast to the high rates of severe arthritis frequently reported by medicinal marijuana users, especially in Canada. Familiarity with marijuana as a recreational product may explain use for some as disease status was similar for both groups.
Pastuszak, Alexander W; Wenker, Evan P; Smith, Peggy B; Abacan, Allyssa; Lamb, Dolores J; Lipshultz, Larry I; Buzi, Ruth
The objective of this study was to assess the overall health, including sexual and reproductive health (SRH) knowledge and needs, sexual behaviors, and testicular health practices among young minority males. Anonymous questionnaires were administered to 18- to 25-year-old males receiving services at health clinics in a large southwestern U.S. city. The survey was completed by 258 males with a mean age of 20.8 years. Most young males (67.1%) identified as African American, and 32.9% as Hispanic. Results suggest study participants lack SRH knowledge related to pregnancy and condom effectiveness, and engage in risky sexual behavior including not using birth control at their last sexual encounter. Although 21.6% of participants had a sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the past year, approximately 80% perceived their STI/HIV risk as very low or low. Respondents had low engagement and lack of knowledge of testicular health practices. The majority of respondents (71.1%) reported having been in a physical fight one or more times and 18.1% reported being victims of intimate partner violence. These data support a need for comprehensive health services for minority young males.
Wallace, Amanda R; Blood, Emily A; Crosby, Richard A; Shrier, Lydia A
Despite developmental differences between young adults and adults, studies of condom use have not typically considered young adults as a distinct age group. This study sought to examine how condom use and its correlates differed between high-risk young adults and adults. Sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic patients (n = 763) reported STI history, contraception, negative condom attitudes, fear of partner reaction to condom use and risky behaviours. Past 3-month condom use was examined as unprotected vaginal sex (UVS) acts, proportional condom use and consistent condom use. Regression models tested associations of age group and potential correlates with each condom use outcome. Interaction models tested whether associations differed by age group. Proportional condom use was greater in young adults than adults (mean 0.55 vs. 0.47); UVS and consistent condom use were similar between age groups. Young adults with a recent STI reported less condom use, whereas for older adults, a distant STI was associated with less condom use, compared to others in their age groups. Negative condom attitudes were more strongly linked to UVS acts for younger versus older adults. STI prevention efforts for younger adults may be improved by intensifying counselling about condom use immediately following STI diagnosis and targeting negative condom attitudes. © The Author(s) 2014.
Green, Lisa M; Ratcliffe, Desi; Masters, Kathleen; Story, Lachel
The purpose of this study was to determine whether nurses could use a structured intervention to educate patients with wounds about foods that promote healing and whether this educational intervention could be provided in a cost-effective manner. Cross-sectional survey. The study was conducted at an outpatient wound care center located on a hospital campus in the Southern United States; 3 full-time nurses and 2 nurses employed on part-time status delivered the intervention. A nutrition education intervention was developed through collaborative efforts of a registered dietitian and a nurse. A cross-sectional survey design was used to (1) evaluate nurses' perceptions of the intervention and (2) identify barriers to implementation of the intervention. Direct costs related to materials and nursing time required to deliver the intervention were calculated. Participants indicated they were competent to deliver the structured intervention, and all were willing to continue its use. Survey results indicated that nurses believed the intervention was beneficial to their patients and they indicated that patients were responsive to the intervention. The intervention was found to be low cost ($8.00 per teaching session); no barriers to implementation of the intervention were identified. The results of this exploratory study suggest that a structured nutrition education intervention can be provided by nurses in outpatient wound clinics at low cost. Further study is needed to determine the impact of this intervention on nutritional intake and wound healing.
Clark, Christine A; Davidovits, Judith; Spitzer, Karen A; Laskin, Carl A
Routine investigation for recurrent pregnancy loss includes measurement of antiphospholipid antibodies under the perception that the lupus anticoagulant (LAC) is prevalent in this population. Our tertiary clinic sees ~250 new patients with recurrent pregnancy loss annually, in addition to those with systemic lupus erythematosus and/or antiphospholipid syndrome. We measure LAC using a 4-assay panel that expands on the 2 assays recommended by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostatis (ISTH) guidelines. Of 2257 patients tested for LAC during a 6-year period, 62 (2.7%) repeatedly tested positive. Only 5 patients (0.2%) had both a history of early recurrent miscarriage and LAC positivity. Patients with LAC had a significantly more frequent history of thrombosis (35.5% vs 2.4%). LAC was absent in an overwhelming majority of women with exclusively early recurrent pregnancy loss but was associated with sporadic stillbirth. Among our panel of assays, none was predominant, and an increasing number of positive assays was associated with an increased history of morbidity. Therefore, our results do not support the ISTH contention that 2 assays are sufficient to identify and describe patients with LAC. We found that a confirmed, repeated LAC was very infrequent even in a high-risk setting.
Alikaj, Valbona; Vyshka, Gentian; Spaho, Elga; Skëndi, Valmira; Suli, Anastas
The goal of this study was to investigate all the potential routes to Child/Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic-University Hospital Center (CAPC-UHC) in Tirana. The article provides demographic data, as well as further information on the types and amounts of services children/adolescents received during the process of seeking help related to different diagnoses. The study was conducted in CAPC-UHC in Tirana, during September 2006-September 2007. Data were collected from 162 children and their parents using Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and Pathways Encounter Form. The sample consisted of 53.1% (86) males and 46.9% (76) females. The mean age was 9.5+4.4 years. Out of the total number of cases that sought care to CAPC; 55, 6% were referred by parents themselves, while the rest were referred by others. There was a significant effect of gender to intervals from the onset of problem to the first career (F=10.803, p=0.001), as well as a significant effect of gender to total time intervals from the onset till the specialist of child mental health problem (F=6.742, p=0.01). This is the first study investigating the help seeking process to psychiatric care in CAPC Tirana-Albania and may serve as a good start in generating evidence based on child/adolescent mental health service. Further multicentre studies will enhance the values of the findings, since the present study was performed in a single service, and in a setting lacking previous works with similar scope that could have served as references.
Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: Substance abuse and opioid dependency refers to hazardous use of psychoactive substance .Prevention and treatment of opiate dependence has not been success-ful. Most effective drug in agonist treatment of opiates is methadone maintenance therapy (MMT.But the lack of cooperation of addicts in methadone maintenance therapy has always been a big problem to continue. The purpose of this study is to investigate the retention in the MMT. Materials & Methods: This historical cohort study analyzed the medical records of patients of Baharan hospital in Zahedan. All 912 cases of methadone maintenance clinic of Baharan hos-pital in Zahedan 2011-2012 were studied and the data were analyzed using SPSS. Tables and indexes were analyzed by the Chi-square test and survival curves were plotted using Kaplan–Meier method and analyzed by Log-Rank test. Results: This study reviewed records from 912 patients with a mean age of 34.67% and stan-dard deviation of 10.88 and the range of 15-86 years. 735 were male and 177 ware female. 1-moth retention rate was 71%, 3 months was 59%, 6 months was 47%, 1 year was 30% and 2 years was 17%. Kaplan-Meier median survival time of 8 months was estimated by relation-ship. Doses higher than 60 mg/d of methadone was associated with increased survival on MMT. Conclusion: Age increase, increase of employment time, increasing of the duration of drug abuse, increasing the daily dose of methadone, oral substance abuse increased retention rate and heroin abuse and smoking were associated with decrease retention rate of methadone maintenance therapy. So, with an emphasis on each of these factors effective steps can be taken to improve the cooperation of patients in MMT. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (1:30-36
Anastas Suli MD, Prof
Full Text Available Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate all the potential routes to Child/Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic-University Hospital Center (CAPC-UHC in Tirana. The article provides demographic data, as well as further information on the types and amounts of services children/adolescents received during the process of seeking help related to different diagnoses .Method: The study was conducted in CAPC-UHC in Tirana, during September 2006-September 2007. Data were collected from 162 children and their parents using Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ and Pathways Encounter Form. The sample consisted of 53.1% (86 males and 46.9% (76 females. The mean age was 9.5 + 4.4 years .Results: Out of the total number of cases that sought care to CAPC; 55, 6% were referred by parents themselves, while the rest were referred by others. There was a significant effect of gender to intervals from the onset of problem to the first career (F = 10.803, p=0.001, as well as a significant effect of gender to total time intervals from the onset till the specialist of child mental health problem (F = 6.742, p=0.01.Conclusions: This is the first study investigating the help seeking process to psychiatric care in CAPC Tirana-Albania and may serve as a good start in generating evidence based on child/adolescent mental health service. Further multicentre studies will enhance the values of the findings, since the present study was performed in a single service, and in a setting lacking previous works with similar scope that could have served as references.
Shrooti, Shah; Mangala, Shrestha; Nirmala, Pokharel; Devkumari, Shrestha; Dharanidhar, Baral
Background: Being a mother is considered by many women as their most important role in life. Women’s perceptions of their abilities to manage the demands of parenting and the parenting skills they posses are reflected by perceived maternal role competence. The present study was carried out to assess the perceived maternal role competence and its associated factors among mothers. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional research study was carried out on 290 mothers of infant in four immunization clinics of Dharan, Nepal. Data were collected using a standardized predesigned, pretested questionnaire (Parent sense of competence scale, Rosenberg’s self esteem scale, Maternity social support scale). The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and multiple regression analysis at 0.05 level of significance. Results: The mean score of the perceived maternal role competence obtained by mothers was 64.34±7.90 and those of knowledge/skill and valuing/comfort subscale were 31±6.01 and 33±3.75, respectively. There was a significant association between perceived maternal role competence and factors as the age of the mother (Pmaternal role competence and age at marriage (r=0.132, P=0.024), per capita income (r=0.118, P=0.045), self esteem (r=0.379, Psupport (r=0.272, Psupport persons (r=0.119, P=0.043). The results of the step wise multiple regression analysis revealed that the major predictor of perceived maternal role competence was self esteem. Conclusion: The factors associated with perceived maternal role competence were age, education, occupation, per capita income, self esteem, social support, and the number of support persons. PMID:27218107
Full Text Available Background: Being a mother is considered by many women as their most important role in life. Women’s perceptions of their abilities to manage the demands of parenting and the parenting skills they posses are reflected by perceived maternal role competence. The present study was carried out to assess the perceived maternal role competence and its associated factors among mothers. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional research study was carried out on 290 mothers of infant in four immunization clinics of Dharan, Nepal. Data were collected using a standardized predesigned, pretested questionnaire (Parent sense of competence scale, Rosenberg’s self esteem scale, Maternity social support scale. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and multiple regression analysis at 0.05 level of significance. Results: The mean score of the perceived maternal role competence obtained by mothers was 64.34±7.90 and those of knowledge/skill and valuing/comfort subscale were 31±6.01 and 33±3.75, respectively. There was a significant association between perceived maternal role competence and factors as the age of the mother (P<0.001, educational status (P=0.015, occupation (P=0.001 and readiness for pregnancy (P=0.022. The study findings revealed a positive correlation between perceived maternal role competence and age at marriage (r=0.132, P=0.024, per capita income (r=0.118, P=0.045, self esteem (r=0.379, P<0.001, social support (r=0.272, P<0.001, and number of support persons (r=0.119, P=0.043. The results of the step wise multiple regression analysis revealed that the major predictor of perceived maternal role competence was self esteem. Conclusion: The factors associated with perceived maternal role competence were age, education, occupation, per capita income, self esteem, social support, and the number of support persons.
Vaccarella, Salvatore; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Castro-Garduño, José Antonio; Cruz-Valdez, Aurelio; Díaz, Vicente; Schiavon, Rafaela; Hernández, Pilar; Kornegay, Janet R; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Franceschi, Silvia
Large studies of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men are few and mainly include high-risk groups. We interviewed 779 men who requested a vasectomy in 27 public clinics in 14 states of Mexico. Exfoliated cells were obtained from the scrotum, the shaft of the penis, the top of the penis including the coronal sulcus, the glans and the opening of the meatus. HPV testing was performed using biotinylated L1 consensus primers and reverse line blot. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) of being HPV-positive and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The prevalence of any type of HPV was 8.7%. HPV positivity was highest among men below age 25 (13.6%), and lowest among men aged 40 years or older (6.0%). The most commonly found HPV types were, in decreasing order, HPV59, 51, 6, 16 and 58. Lifetime number of sexual partners was associated with HPV positivity (OR for > or = 4 vs. 1 partner = 3.7, 95% CI: 2.0-6.8), mainly on account of the strong association with number of occasional and sex-worker partners. Condom use with both regular (OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.1-1.0) and sex-worker (OR = 0.1, 95% CI: 0.0-0.3) partners and circumcision (OR = 0.2, 95% CI: 0.1-0.4) were inversely associated with HPV positivity. HPV prevalence in Mexican men was similar to the prevalence found in Mexican women of the same age groups. The association between HPV positivity and lifetime number of sexual partners in the present low-risk male population is one of the strongest ever reported in studies in men. Condom use and circumcision were associated with a strong reduction in HPV prevalence. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The vast majority (>75% of Aboriginal people in the Northern Territory (NT live in remote or very remote locations. Children in these communities have high attendance rates at local Primary Health Care (PHC centres but there is a paucity of studies documenting the reason and frequency of attendance. Such data can be used to help guide public health policy and practice. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Clinic presentations during the first year of life were reviewed for 320 children born from 1 January 2001-31 December 2006. Data collected included reason for infectious presentation, antibiotic prescription and referral to hospital. The median number of presentations per child in the first year of life was 21 (IQR 15-29 with multiple reasons for presentation. The most prominent infectious presentations per child during the first year of life were upper respiratory tract infections (median 6, IQR 3-10; diarrhoea (median 3, IQR 1-5; ear disease (median 3, IQR 1-5; lower respiratory tract infection (median 3, IQR 2-5; scabies (median 3, IQR 1-5; and skin sores (median 3, IQR 2-5. CONCLUSIONS: Infectious diseases of childhood are strongly linked with poverty, poor living conditions and overcrowding. The data reported in our study were collected through manual review, however many remote communities now have established electronic health record systems, use the Key Performance Indicator System and are engaged in CQI (continuous quality improvement processes. Building on these recent initiatives, there is an opportunity to incorporate routine monitoring of a range of infectious conditions (we suggest diarrhoea, LRTI, scabies and skin sores using both the age at first presentation and the median number of presentations per child during the first year of life as potential indicators of progress in addressing health inequities in remote communities.
Kearns, Thérèse; Clucas, Danielle; Connors, Christine; Currie, Bart J; Carapetis, Jonathan R; Andrews, Ross M
The vast majority (>75%) of Aboriginal people in the Northern Territory (NT) live in remote or very remote locations. Children in these communities have high attendance rates at local Primary Health Care (PHC) centres but there is a paucity of studies documenting the reason and frequency of attendance. Such data can be used to help guide public health policy and practice. Clinic presentations during the first year of life were reviewed for 320 children born from 1 January 2001-31 December 2006. Data collected included reason for infectious presentation, antibiotic prescription and referral to hospital. The median number of presentations per child in the first year of life was 21 (IQR 15-29) with multiple reasons for presentation. The most prominent infectious presentations per child during the first year of life were upper respiratory tract infections (median 6, IQR 3-10); diarrhoea (median 3, IQR 1-5); ear disease (median 3, IQR 1-5); lower respiratory tract infection (median 3, IQR 2-5); scabies (median 3, IQR 1-5); and skin sores (median 3, IQR 2-5). Infectious diseases of childhood are strongly linked with poverty, poor living conditions and overcrowding. The data reported in our study were collected through manual review, however many remote communities now have established electronic health record systems, use the Key Performance Indicator System and are engaged in CQI (continuous quality improvement) processes. Building on these recent initiatives, there is an opportunity to incorporate routine monitoring of a range of infectious conditions (we suggest diarrhoea, LRTI, scabies and skin sores) using both the age at first presentation and the median number of presentations per child during the first year of life as potential indicators of progress in addressing health inequities in remote communities.
Sebelefsky, Christian; Karner, Denise; Voitl, Jasmin; Klein, Frederic; Voitl, Peter; Böck, Andreas
Our aim was to examine the internet health seeking behaviour of parents attending a general paediatric outpatient clinic. For this purpose, the proportion of parents going online to obtain child health information, the most commonly used online resources, and factors having an influence on internet usage were identified. This cross-sectional observational study was conducted at a general paediatric outpatient clinic in Vienna, Austria. Data collection was done by means of an anonymous questionnaire containing 14 items. A total number of 500 questionnaires were collected. Among parents visiting the outpatient clinic, 94.4% use the internet to obtain child health information in general and 21% to be informed about the reason for consultation. Most commonly used online resources are Google (91.4%), websites run by doctors (84.8%), Wikipedia (84.7%), health portals (76.4%), the outpatient clinic's homepage (76.4%), as well as health forums and communities (61.9%). Younger parents (p = 0.022) and parents of younger children (p parents with different completed educational levels (mothers: p = 0.078; fathers: p = 0.388) do not differ in this behaviour. Important reasons for high internet use might be the inexperience of young parents regarding child health as well as the frequent infections, vaccinations, and preventive check-ups which are associated with young age of children. In contrast to former findings relating to health seekers in general, internet usage of parents is independent of their sex and educational level. © The Author(s) 2015.
Michalczuk, R; Bowden-Jones, H; Verdejo-Garcia, A; Clark, L
Pathological gambling (PG) is a form of behavioural addiction that has been associated with elevated impulsivity and also cognitive distortions in the processing of chance, probability and skill. We sought to assess the relationship between the level of cognitive distortions and state and trait measures of impulsivity in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Thirty pathological gamblers attending the National Problem Gambling Clinic, the first National Health Service clinic for gambling problems in the UK, were compared with 30 healthy controls in a case-control design. Cognitive distortions were assessed using the Gambling-Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS). Trait impulsivity was assessed using the UPPS-P, which includes scales of urgency, the tendency to be impulsive in positive or negative mood states. Delay discounting rates were taken as a state measure of impulsive choice. Pathological gamblers had elevated impulsivity on several UPPS-P subscales but effect sizes were largest (Cohen's d>1.4) for positive and negative urgency. The pathological gamblers also displayed higher levels of gambling distortions, and elevated preference for immediate rewards, compared to controls. Within the pathological gamblers, there was a strong relationship between the preference for immediate rewards and the level of cognitive distortions (R2=0.41). Impulsive choice in the gamblers was correlated with the level of gambling distortions, and we hypothesize that an impulsive decision-making style may increase the acceptance of erroneous beliefs during gambling play.
Baldwin, Austin S; Denman, Deanna C; Sala, Margarita; Marks, Emily G; Shay, L Aubree; Fuller, Sobha; Persaud, Donna; Lee, Simon Craddock; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Wiebe, Deborah J; Tiro, Jasmin A
Self-persuasion is an effective behavior change strategy, but has not been translated for low-income, less educated, uninsured populations attending safety-net clinics or to promote human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. We developed a tablet-based application (in English and Spanish) to elicit parental self-persuasion for adolescent HPV vaccination and evaluated its feasibility in a safety-net population. Parents (N=45) of age-eligible adolescents used the self-persuasion application. Then, during cognitive interviews, staff gathered quantitative and qualitative feedback on the self-persuasion tasks including parental decision stage. The self-persuasion tasks were rated as easy to complete and helpful. We identified six question prompts rated as uniformly helpful, not difficult to answer, and generated non-redundant responses from participants. Among the 33 parents with unvaccinated adolescents, 27 (81.8%) reported deciding to get their adolescent vaccinated after completing the self-persuasion tasks. The self-persuasion application was feasible and resulted in a change in parents' decision stage. Future studies can now test the efficacy of the tablet-based application on HPV vaccination. The self-persuasion application facilitates verbalization of reasons for HPV vaccination in low literacy, safety-net settings. This self-administered application has the potential to be more easily incorporated into clinical practice than other patient education approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Singer, Richard; Cardenas, Gabriel; Xavier, Jessica; Jeanty, Yves; Pereyra, Margaret; Rodriguez, Allan; Metsch, Lisa R
We examined factors associated with dental anxiety among a sample of HIV primary care patients and investigated the independent association of dental anxiety with oral health care. Cross-sectional data were collected in 2010 from 444 patients attending two HIV primary care clinics in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Corah Dental Anxiety Scores and use of oral health-care services were obtained from all HIV-positive patients in the survey. The prevalence of moderate to severe dental anxiety in this sample was 37.8%, while 7.9% of the sample was characterized with severe dental anxiety. The adjusted odds of having severe dental anxiety were 3.962 times greater for females than for males (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.688, 9.130). After controlling for age, ethnicity, gender, education, access to dental care, and HIV primary clinic experience, participants with severe dental anxiety had 69.3% lower adjusted odds of using oral health-care services within the past 12 months (vs. longer than 12 months ago) compared with participants with less-than-severe dental anxiety (adjusted odds ratio = 0.307, 95% CI 0.127, 0.742). A sizable number of patients living with HIV have anxiety associated with obtaining needed dental care. Routine screening for dental anxiety and counseling to reduce dental anxiety are supported by this study as a means of addressing the impact of dental anxiety on the use of oral health services among HIV-positive individuals.
Xue, Yaohua; Zheng, Heping; Tang, Weiming; Mai, Zhida; Huang, Jinmei; Huang, Shujie; Qin, Xiaolin; Chen, Lei; Zheng, Lei
Studies rarely assessed the genotype distribution of chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in urine among men attending STD clinics (MSCs) in China. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of CT infection by examining urine samples among MSCs from different geographic areas of Guangdong province, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSCs from ten HIV sentinel surveillance sites in Guangdong province. CT DNA in men urine samples were extracted and detected by using the Roche cobas® 4800 CT/NG. The ompA genes were amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. The leukocyte esterase test was performed by routine urine analysis at local clinics. Of the 1903 samples, 163(8.6%, 95%CI3.8- 16.3%) were found to be positive for CT. The highest prevalence (10.5%) of CT infection was observed among participants aged 21-30. One hundred and thirty CT positive specimens (79.8%, 130/163) were successfully genotyped by nested PCR, resulting in eight genotypes. The most prevalent genotypes were D, E, F, and J, with proportions of 20.8%, 20.0%, 17.7%, and 16.9%, respectively. There was no significant difference in geographic area, leukocyte esterase test and genotype distribution. Promotion of detection and molecular epidemiology research is needed for effective and comprehensive prevention and control programs.
Silva, Leila Cristina Ferreira; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa; Batalha, Rosieny Santos; Sabino, Carolina Cristina Dantas; Dib, Elizabeth; Costa, Carolina Marinho da; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Talhari, Sinésio
This was a cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of and to identify risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women attending the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) clinic in the city of Manaus, Brazil, in 2009-2010. Participants answered a questionnaire containing demographic, epidemiological, and clinical data. A genital specimen was collected during examination to detect CT-DNA by hybrid capture, and blood samples were taken to determine CD4(+)T and HIV viral load. There were 329 women included in the study. Median age was 32 years (IQR=27-38) and median schooling was nine years (IQR=4-11). The prevalence of CT was 4.3% (95%CI: 2.1-6.5). Logistic regression analysis showed that age between 18-29 years [OR=4.1(95%CI: 1.2-13.4)] and complaint of pelvic pain [OR=3.7 (95%CI: 1.2-12.8)] were independently associated with CT. The use of condom was inversely associated with CT [OR=0.39 (95%CI: 0.1-0.9)]. The results showed that younger women who did not use condoms are at a higher risk for CT. Screening for sexually transmitted infections must be done routinely and safe sexual practices should be promoted among this population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
López-Colombo, Aurelio; Meléndez-Mena, Daniel; Sedeño-Monge, Virginia; Camacho-Hernández, José R; Vázquez-Cruz, Eduardo; Morales-Hernández, Eduardo R; Sosa-Jurado, Francisca; Márquez-Domínguez, Luis; Santos-López, Gerardo
Approximately 180 million persons (~2.8%) globally are estimated to be infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV prevalence in Mexico has been estimated to be between 1.2 and 1.4%. The aim of present work was to determine the prevalence of HCV infection in patients and family members attending two primary care clinics in Puebla, Mexico. Patients and their accompanying family members in two clinics were invited to participate in this study between May and September 2010. A total of 10,214 persons were included in the study; 120 (1.17%) persons were anti-HCV reactive. Of the reactive subjects, detection of viral RNA was determined in 114 subjects and 36 were positive (31%). The more frequent risk factors were having a family history of cirrhosis (33.1%) and having a blood transfusion prior to 1995 (29%). After a multiple logistic regression analysis only transfusion prior to 1995 resulted significant to HCV transmission (p = 0.004). The overall detected HCV genotypes were as follows: 1a (29%), 1b (48.5%), 2/2b (12.8%), and 3a (6.5%). The HCV prevalence in this population is in agreement with previous studies in other regions of Mexico.
Kuru, Ahmet Fevzi; Sahin, Hayrettin; Akay, Ali Ferruh; Bircan, Mehmet Kamuran
Erectile dysfunction is a common sexual function disorder in men. The aim of the present study was to determine the rates of erectile dysfunction and requests for treatment in male patients refered to our outpatient urology clinics and those accompanying them who were older than 20 years. The study comprised 2 groups: group 1 included male patients older than 20 years whom attend to the outpatient urology clinics, and group 2 included their companies whom were older than 20 years. Subjects were asked whether they had erectile dysfunction or not, if so whether they had been treated or not, if not then why, and whether they desired treatment or not at present. Erectile dysfunction was determined in 224 subjects (13.9%) in group 1, and 57 (8.5%) in group 2. It was found that approximately one half (49.1%) of patients with erectile dysfunction did not complain about this. The main reasons for this were failure to perceive sexual dysfunction as a problem, and shame. Of 281 men who determined to have erectile dysfunction, 71 indicated that they desired treatment. In those who did not desire treatment, the main reasons were failure to perceive it as a problem, and shame. These findings show that the doctor has a great responsibility in determining erectile dysfunction. Therefore discussions of sexual health should be made a routine part of doctor-patient discussions, and patients, especially those over 50, should be asked whether they have a complaint of erectile dysfunction.
Leila Cristina Ferreira Silva
Full Text Available This was a cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of and to identify risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected women attending the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS clinic in the city of Manaus, Brazil, in 2009-2010. Participants answered a questionnaire containing demographic, epidemiological, and clinical data. A genital specimen was collected during examination to detect CT-DNA by hybrid capture, and blood samples were taken to determine CD4+T and HIV viral load. There were 329 women included in the study. Median age was 32 years (IQR = 27-38 and median schooling was nine years (IQR = 4-11. The prevalence of CT was 4.3% (95%CI: 2.1-6.5. Logistic regression analysis showed that age between 18-29 years [OR = 4.1(95%CI: 1.2-13.4] and complaint of pelvic pain [OR = 3.7 (95%CI: 1.2-12.8] were independently associated with CT. The use of condom was inversely associated with CT [OR = 0.39 (95%CI: 0.1-0.9]. The results showed that younger women who did not use condoms are at a higher risk for CT. Screening for sexually transmitted infections must be done routinely and safe sexual practices should be promoted among this population.
Nagendran Jayavel Pandiyan
Full Text Available Introduction: Child′s behavior on dental visit depends on variables such as age, parental behavior, parental anxiety, medical/dental history, and dental procedures. Behavioral-screening questionnaire, such as the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ, can be used to preassess the child′s mental health status which further predicts child behavioral pattern in dental clinics. Aim: To measure emotional status among children of 3-14 years age group attending dental clinics. Methodology: A total of 176 parents of children aged 3-14 years were involved in this study. The child′s emotional and behavioral statuses were assessed using SDQ. Results: On analyzing the SDQ data, it was found that 80% of children came under the abnormal category whereas only 8% of children were found to be in normal category. Twelve percent of children came under borderline category. On the individual behavioral subsets scores, 13% were rated as abnormal on emotional subset, 40% on conduct problems, 12% on hyperactivity, and 29% on peer problems subset. Conclusion: Findings of this study suggest that incorporating tools to identify the current emotional state would give a clue and allow the dentist to develop a behavior guidance plan to accomplish the necessary oral health care. However, the results are preliminary; studies with larger sample should be done to validate the results among diverse populations.
Ibrahim A. Yakasai
Full Text Available Pre-eclampsia (PE is an important cause of maternal mortality. There have been several studies on risk factors assessment with conflicting reports across the globe on this disease; however, rigorous recent evaluation of these factors is uncommon in this region. The aim of the present study was to determine the risks factors in the early-onset PE in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH, Kano (Northern Nigeria. We conducted a case-control study in Nigeria between April 2009 and January 2010 to identify the risk factors associated with the early-onset PE in women attending antenatal clinic in AKTH. Information on socio-cultural characteristics, medical history, previous obstetrics history, level of stress at home, and type of family were obtained and recorded in a proforma designed for the study. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors for PE at 95% confidence level. Pregnant women with early-onset PE (150 in each case and control group. Risk factors associated with increased risk of early-onset PE were: history of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (PE/E in a previous pregnancy [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 2.09]; exposure to passive smoking (AOR 1.34; inadequate antenatal supervision (AOR 15.21; family history of hypertension in one or more 1st-degree relative (AOR 8.92; living in a joint family (AOR 6.93; overweight (120% to 150% of pre-pregnancy ideal body weight, AOR 4.65. Risk factors among women in Northern Nigeria are similar to those reported from other studies. Good antenatal cares, early detection, reduction of stressful conditions at home are the most important preventive measures of early-onset severe PE among these women.
Carpenter, Rhiannon Emma; Emery, Simon J; Uzun, Orhan; D'Silva, Lindsay A; Lewis, Michael J
Normal pregnancy is associated with marked changes in haemodynamic function, however the influence and potential benefits of antenatal physical exercise at different stages of pregnancy and postpartum remain unclear. The aim of this study was therefore to characterise the influence of regular physical exercise on haemodynamic variables at different stages of pregnancy and also in the postpartum period. Fifty healthy pregnant women were recruited and randomly assigned (2 × 2 × 2 design) to a land or water-based exercise group or a control group. Exercising groups attended weekly classes from the 20th week of pregnancy onwards. Haemodynamic assessments (heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume, total peripheral resistance, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and end diastolic index) were performed using the Task Force haemodynamic monitor at 12-16, 26-28, 34-36 and 12 weeks following birth, during a protocol including postural manoeurvres (supine and standing) and light exercise. In response to an acute bout of exercise in the postpartum period, stroke volume and end diastolic index were greater in the exercise group than the non-exercising control group (p = 0.041 and p = 0.028 respectively). Total peripheral resistance and diastolic blood pressure were also lower (p = 0.015 and p = 0.007, respectively) in the exercise group. Diastolic blood pressure was lower in the exercise group during the second trimester (p = 0.030). Antenatal exercise does not appear to substantially alter maternal physiology with advancing gestation, speculating that the already vast changes in maternal physiology mask the influences of antenatal exercise, however it does appear to result in an improvement in a woman's haemodynamic function (enhanced ventricular ejection performance and reduced blood pressure) following the end of pregnancy. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02503995. Registered 20 July 2015.
In this review of routinely collected data from five community health centres in the Johannesburg Health District, we assess timing of antenatal care and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in HIV-infected pregnant women before and after the introduction of nurse-initiated management of ART in antenatal clinics. There are ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly half the world’s babies are born at home. We sought to evaluate the training, knowledge, skills, and access to medical equipment and testing for home birth attendants across 7 international sites. Methods Face-to-face interviews were done by trained interviewers to assess level of training, knowledge and practices regarding care during the antenatal, intrapartum and postpartum periods. The survey was administered to a sample of birth attendants conducting home or out-of-facility deliveries in 7 sites in 6 countries (India, Pakistan, Guatemala, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya and Zambia. Results A total of 1226 home birth attendants were surveyed. Less than half the birth attendants were literate. Eighty percent had one month or less of formal training. Most home birth attendants did not have basic equipment (e.g., blood pressure apparatus, stethoscope, infant bag and mask manual resuscitator. Reporting of births and maternal and neonatal deaths to government agencies was low. Indian auxilliary nurse midwives, who perform some home but mainly clinic births, were far better trained and differed in many characteristics from the birth attendants who only performed deliveries at home. Conclusions Home birth attendants in low-income countries were often illiterate, could not read numbers and had little formal training. Most had few of the skills or access to tests, medications and equipment that are necessary to reduce maternal, fetal or neonatal mortality.
Full Text Available Background: Tobacco-attributable mortality in India is estimated to be at least 10%. Tobacco cessation is more likely to avert millions of deaths before 2050 than prevention of tobacco use initiation. Objective: To describe the clinico-epidemiological profile of attendees of a tobacco cessation clinic in a teaching hospital in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study of 189 attendees seen over 2 years in the Tobacco Cessation Clinic of a tertiary-care teaching hospital in Bangalore, with information on socio demographic characteristics, tobacco-use details, nicotine dependence, family/medical history, past quit attempts, baseline stage-of-change, and treatment initiated. Results: Only 5% were ′walk-in′ patients; 98% of attendees were smokers; 97% were males. The mean (±SD age of attendees was 48.0 (±14.0 years. Most participants were married (88%, and predominantly urban (69%. About 62% had completed at least 8 years of schooling. Two-thirds of smokers reported high levels of nicotine dependence (Fagerström score >5/10. About 43% of patients had attempted quitting earlier. Four-fifths (79% of tobacco-users reported a family member using tobacco. Commonly documented comorbidities included: Chronic respiratory disease (44%, hypertension (23%, diabetes (12%, tuberculosis (9%, myocardial infarction (2%, stroke (1%, sexual dysfunction (1% and cancer (0.5%. About 52% reported concomitant alcohol use. At baseline, patients′ motivational stage was: Precontemplation (14%, contemplation (48%, preparation/action (37% and maintenance (1%. Treatment modalities started were: Counseling alone (41%, nicotine replacement therapy alone (NRT (34%, medication alone (13%, and NRT+medication (12%. Conclusions: This is the first study of the baseline profile of patients attending a tobacco cessation clinic located within a chest medicine department in India. Important determinants of outcome have been captured for follow-up and prospective
Some of the important practices of Zulu traditional birth attendants in their care of pregnant women are summarized. This. information is valuable in constructing the format/content of appropriate antenatal health education for women from rural areas. The target group for antenatal health education should include the ...
Chan, Sum Yee; Jose, Sophie; King, Rebecca; Pakianathan, Mark R; Sabin, Caroline; Sadiq, S Tariq; Hay, Phillip E; Planche, Tim
Environmental contamination with DNA from Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) has previously been found in Genitourinary Medicine (GUM) clinics. There are no known cases of cross-contamination of clinical samples and no known nosocomial infections. We investigated whether diagnostic samples could become contaminated from the environment by running dummy sample and carrying out a patient-throughput analysis. A total of 29 748 patients attended clinics over a year. Of these, 2860 (9.6%) had a positive Chlamydia test result. (1) A run of dummy samples (60 urine samples and 10 swabs) were processed as normal clinic specimens. (2) Patient-throughput analysis: Patient numbers attending the GUM clinic on a given day was categorised as low, moderate or high. χ(2) Tests were used to look for associations between categorical variables and Chlamydia test positivity. A Poisson regression model was fitted to look at the effect of the number of people in the clinic on the number of positive results in a given day. As some clinics were only run on certain days of the week, a sensitivity analysis was later performed with attendances at non-daily clinics removed. All dummy samples tested negative and we did not find evidence of an association between daily Chlamydia positivity and clinic attendance. It is unlikely that environmental or cross-contamination of CT has lead to significant numbers of false positive results. Laboratories check for possible cross-contamination routinely. The extension of this simple routine practice to all clinical areas could provide quality assurance, improving confidence in the results in clinics.
Joester, Jenna; Vogler, Constance M; Chang, Kevin; Hilmer, Sarah N
Many older individuals suffer from difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep, and consequently use hypnosedative medication. The use of sleeping tablets, usually benzodiazepines (BZs) and the newer Z drugs such as zolpidem, is largely unnecessary and problematic since their efficacy is not maintained over an extended period of time and they increase the risk of falls. Withdrawing these medications is challenging because of their propensity for causing dependence and rebound insomnia. To describe the use of anxiolytic and hypnosedative medications by patients attending a falls clinic, determine the success of recommendations to cease or reduce use of these medications, and evaluate patient characteristics influencing the success of these recommendations. Patients with a first appointment at an Australian falls clinic between January 2006 and December 2008 were identified from letters written by the geriatrician or rehabilitation physician who ran the clinic. Patients who were taking a BZ/Z drug, had attended a follow-up appointment at least 2 months after their index appointment and had received a documented recommendation to alter their BZ/Z drug use at the index appointment were included in this study. The associations between compliance with the specialist physician's recommendation to alter the BZ/Z drug and BZ/Z drug dose, frequency and duration, patient's age, sex, residence, co-morbidities and number of regular medications were assessed. Inter-clinician variation in the proportion of patients receiving a follow-up appointment, recording of BZ/Z drug use and the proportion of patients given a recommendation to alter BZ/Z drug use were also analysed in the broader population of all patients receiving a first appointment at the falls clinic in the study period. Data from 302 patient records revealed that 21.5% of patients were using a BZ/Z drug and 27.8% were using any drug for its hypnosedative properties. Over the 3-year study period there was a reduction in
Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce the intolerable burden of malaria in pregnancy, the Ministry of Health in Uganda improved the antenatal care package by including a strong commitment to increase distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs and introduction of intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for pregnant women (IPTp-SP as a national policy in 2000. This study assessed uptake of both ITNs and IPTp-SP by pregnant women as well as antenatal and maternity care use with the aim of optimizing their delivery. Methods 769 post-partum women were recruited from a rural area of central Uganda with perennial malaria transmission through a cross-sectional, community-based household survey in May 2005. Results Of the 769 women interviewed, antenatal clinic (ANC attendance was high (94.4%; 417 (57.7% visiting initially during the 2nd trimester, 242 (33.5% during the 3rd trimester and 266 (37.1% reporting ≥ 4 ANC visits. About 537 (71% and 272 (35.8% received one or ≥ 2 IPTp-SP doses respectively. Only 85 (15.8% received the first dose of IPTp-SP in the 3rd trimester. ITNs were used by 239 (31.3% of women during pregnancy and 314 (40.8% delivered their most recent pregnancy outside a health facility. Post-partum women who lacked post-primary education were more likely not to have attended four or more ANC visits (odds ratio [OR] 3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–9.3. Conclusion These findings illustrate the need to strengthen capacity of the district to further improve antenatal care and maternity services utilization and IPTp-SP uptake. More specific and effective community health strategies to improve effective ANC, maternity services utilization and IPTp-SP uptake in rural communities should be undertaken.
Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Axelsen, Solveig Forberg
, and reduce fear during birth which in turn may decrease use of pain relief. Few randomised trials have examined the effect of attending antenatal education in small groups on use of epidural analgesia and among these conclusions are conflicting. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the effect......Background: Epidural analgesia is widely used as pain relief during labour but has negative side effects, such as prolonged labour and increased risk of obstetric interventions. Antenatal education in small groups may increase trust in own ability to cope at home in the early stages of labour...... of an antenatal education program in small classes on use of epidural analgesia. Methods: Data from the NEWBORN trial were used. A total of 1766 women from the Copenhagen area, Denmark were randomized to participate in either antenatal education in small groups or standard care. Data were analysed according...
Senn, Theresa E.; Walsh, Jennifer L.; Carey, Michael P.
Prior research shows that violence is associated with sexual risk behavior, but little is known about the relation between community violence (i.e., violence that is witnessed or experienced in one's neighborhood) and sexual risk behavior. To better understand contextual influences on HIV risk behavior, we asked 508 adult patients attending a publicly-funded STI clinic in the U.S. (54% male, Mage = 27.93, 68% African American) who were participating in a larger trial to complete a survey assessing exposure to community violence, sexual risk behavior, and potential mediators of the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation (i.e., mental health, substance use, and experiencing intimate partner violence). A separate sample of participants from the same trial completed measures of sexual behavior norms, which were aggregated to create measures of census tract sexual behavior norms. Data analyses controlling for socioeconomic status revealed that higher levels of community violence were associated with more sexual partners for men and with more episodes of unprotected sex with non-steady partners for women. For both men and women, substance use and mental health mediated the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation; in addition, for men only, experiencing intimate partner violence also mediated this relation. These results confirm that, for individuals living in communities with high levels of violence, sexual risk reduction interventions need to address intimate partner violence, substance use, and mental health to be optimally effective. PMID:27000155
García P, Daniela; San Martín P, Pamela
The Institutos Teletón care for 85% of the Chilean child population with neuromusculoskeletal disability, the large percentage concentrating in this population. However, there are no registers that enable a profile to be determined on this population. To determine the profile of patients attending the Instituto Teletón de Santiago during the year 2012. The sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed from the computerised records of the Instituto Teletón de Santiago on active patients who were seen during the year 2012. A total of 8,959 patients were seen during the study year in the Instituto Teletón de Santiago. As regards socioeconomic level, 33.3% were in extreme poverty, 28.7% to low-middle level. The main clinical diagnoses were cerebral palsy and other encephalopathies that also lead to motor disability, and accounted for 55.4% of the cases. As a result of determining this profile, it would be appropriate to encourage the need for a national register of the child population with disability, as well as their particular characteristics in order to make decisions on public policy, as a destination for funds or support programs. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Navarrete-Reyes, Ana Patricia; Medina-Rimoldi, Carlos Tonatiuh; Avila-Funes, José Alberto
Older adults frequently report problems of transportation. Little is known about the correlates of transportation deficiency in Latin America. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the correlates of subjective transportation deficiency (STD) among community-dwelling older adults attending a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City. Cross-sectional study of 228 participants aged ≥70 years being followed in any of the outpatient clinics of a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City. Data were obtained through a structured questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out in order to identify the correlates of STD. The mean age of the participants was 79.8 years (SD 6.4) and 67.1% were women. STD was present in 46% of participants. The multivariate logistic regression model showed that female sex, illiteracy, mobility disability and the use of an assistive walking device had an independent and statistically significant association with STD. Female sex, illiteracy, mobility disability and the use of an assistive walking device were independent correlates of STD in the present study. Identifying the frequency and correlates of transportation deficiency in vulnerable populations will allow for the identification and implementation of useful public policies, as well as for the optimization of prevention and treatment strategies in an attempt to preserve mobility and autonomy, especially in low- and middle-income countries where previous work on transportation deficiency is lacking. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1893-1898. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Thanh, Nguyen X; Akpinar, Ilke; Gratrix, Jennifer; Plitt, Sabrina; Smyczek, Petra; Read, Ron; Jacobs, Philip; Wong, Tom; Singh, Ameeta E
Adding universal rectal screening to urogenital screening should positively impact rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) incidence in affected populations. A dynamic Markov model was used to evaluate costs and outcomes of three rectal CT screening strategies among women attending sexually transmitted infection clinics in Alberta, Canada: universal urogenital-only screening (UG-only), additional selected (exposure-based) rectal screening (UG+SR), and additional universal rectal screening (UG+UR). The model included two mutually exclusive health states: infected and susceptible. Additionally, the model included two rounds of transmission: male sex partners of women infected with rectal-only CT and female sex partners of those men. CT complications impacting patients' quality of life (QALY) were considered. Alberta and Canadian data were used to estimate model inputs. We used a health care perspective, a time period of 10 years, and a discount rate of 3% for analyses. Compared to UG-only screening, the incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were CA$34,000 and CA$49,000 per QALY gained for UG+SR and UG+UR screening strategies, respectively. Compared to UG+SR, the ICER was CA$62,000 per QALY gained for the UG+UR strategy. Both adjunct selected and universal rectal screening strategies are cost effective compared to UG-only screening, and UG+UR screening is cost effective when compared to UG+SR screening.
Dauby, N; Suin, V; Jacques, M; Abady, M; VAN DEN Wijngaert, S; Delforge, M; DE Wit, S; Libois, A
Men who have sex with men (MSM) have an increased incidence of pathogens transmitted by the oro-fecal route. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging cause of acute hepatitis and fecal shedding is observed during primary infection. We investigated whether MSM are at increased risk of HEV infection. Subjects who attended a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Brussels and had an HIV test performed between 1 June 2014 and 15 January 2016 were identified. A total of 576 samples were retrospectively screened for both total HEV IgG and HEV RNA. Samples positive for IgG were tested for IgM. MSM proportion was 31·1% (179/576). Overall HEV IgG prevalence was 9·03% (52/576) and was identical in MSM and heterosexual subjects. Among the IgG positive samples, 2/52 (3·84%) samples (both women) were positive for anti-HEV IgM. No sample was positive for HEV RNA. Age over 35 was the only risk factor significantly associated with HEV seropositivity (OR 2·07; 95% CI 1·16-3·67). In conclusion, MSM were not found to have an increased prevalence of HEV as previously reported in other European countries suggesting distinct dynamics of HEV infection in this group across Europe and increased age was associated with a higher risk of seropositivity.
Lymphoedema is a chronic, incurable, debilitating condition, usually affecting a limb and causes discomfort, pain, heaviness, limited motion, unsatisfactory appearance and impacts on quality of life. However, there is a paucity of prevalence data on this condition. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of lymphoedema among persons attending wound management and vascular clinics in an acute tertiary referral hospital. Four hundred and eighteen patients meeting the inclusion criteria were assessed. A prevalence rate of 2.63% (n = 11) was recorded. Thirty-six percent (n = 4) had history of cellulitis and broken skin, 64% (n = 7) had history of broken skin and 36% (n = 4) had undergone treatment for venous leg ulcers. The most common co-morbidities were hypertension 55% (n = 6), deep vein thrombosis (DVT) 27% (n = 3), hypercholesterolemia 36% (n = 4) and type 2 diabetes 27% (n = 3). Quality of life scores identified that physical functioning was the domain most affected among this group. This study has identified the need to raise awareness of this condition among clinicians working in the area of wound management.
Morhason-Bello, Io; Ojengbede, Oa; Oladokun, A; Adedokun, Bo; Ajayi, A; Adeyanju, Aa; Ogundepo, O; Kareem, Oi
Chlamydial trachomatis infection is the most common cause of tubal infertility among women world-wide. Serological diagnosis of Chlamydial infection that may suggest previous, persistent or on-going infection is now incorporated into routine pre-treatment evaluation of infertile women including assisted conception. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and predictors of asymptomatic Chlamydial infection screening among infertile women and also to compare the screening outcome with findings on hysterosalpingogram (HSG). This was an observational study conducted among 132 infertile women that were attending Adeoyo Maternity Hospital Ibadan. A total volume of 2-3 ml of venous blood was collected for Chlamydia serology using ImmunoComb Bivalent immunoglobulin G kit (Code 50416002) and the results were compared with their HSG. Other information collected was socio-demographics and clinical parameters. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate tests were performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 15.0 (Chicago, IL USA) and statistical significance was set at (P infertile for 5 years or less. The prevalence of Chlamydial trachomatis was 20.5% (27/132). Bivariate analysis between the biosocial variables and serology result showed a significant association with education (P infertile women and it positively predict HSG blockage. The serological test may prove invaluable in predicting the presence of tubal blockage; therefore, prophylactic antibiotics may be justified to be included in their care.
Gray, Thomas; Li, Weiguang; Campbell, Patrick; Jha, Swati; Radley, Stephen
Coital incontinence is the involuntary leakage of urine during sexual intercourse and is divided into that occurring with penetration and that occurring with orgasm. Mechanisms of coital incontinence are poorly understood. The aim of this retrospective study was to measure the prevalence of coital incontinence and evaluate the association among various types of coital incontinence with stress urinary incontinence (SUI), overactive bladder (OAB) and impact on quality-of-life in women attending a urogynaecology clinic. A total of 2,312 women completed the electronic Personal Assessment Questionnaire-Pelvic Floor (ePAQ-PF) in advance of their urogynaecology consultation. Logistic regression and Spearman's rank-order correlation evaluated associations between types of coital incontinence and OAB and SUI. The Mann-Whitney test evaluated the relationship between coital incontinence and self-reported quality of sex life and self-avoidance and partner avoidance of sex. Subgroup analysis analysed outcomes in 84 women with coital incontinence undergoing treatment with tension-free vaginal tape (TVT). Prevalence of coital incontinence in the cohort was 30%. Symptoms of OAB (p incontinence (orgasm and penetration). In women with coital incontinence compared with those without, there was significant self-avoidance of sex (p incontinence symptoms 3 months post-operatively. Using an electronic questionnaire before consultation has identified coital incontinence to be a prevalent symptom, having a significant impact on the patient's sex life. Coital incontinence at orgasm and penetration are both significantly associated with SUI and OAB.
Grau, Lauretta E; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V; Shaboltas, Alla V; Skochilov, Roman V; Kozlov, Andrei P; Abdala, Nadia
Cultural adaptation is an important step in the process of implementing health promotion interventions that, having been proven to be effective in one culture, are being applied in another. This study describes the results of a formative investigation to culturally adapt a STI/HIV risk reduction intervention for use in St. Petersburg, Russia. Analyses of data from brief elicitation interviews, focus groups, community experts, and a pilot test of the adapted intervention identified environmental, cognitive-information processing, and affect-motivation factors that needed to be addressed during the adaptation process. The participant/counselor relationship was adapted to reflect a hierarchical (cf. collaborative) relationship in order to accommodate Russian expectations about patient interactions with healthcare experts. Key skills building activities (e.g., identification of personal risk behaviors, role-playing) were approached gradually or indirectly in order to maintain participants' engagement in the intervention, and close-ended questions were added to assist participants in understanding unfamiliar concepts such as "triggers" and self-efficacy. Information about the prevalence of HIV/STI infections and alcohol use included data specific to St. Petersburg to increase the personal relevance of these materials and messages. Intervention components were tailored to participants' risk reduction and informational needs. No gender differences that would have justified adaptation of the intervention approach or content were noted. Examples of specific adaptations and the key issues to attend to when adapting behavioral interventions for use in Russian clinical settings are discussed.
An indirect haemagglutination test for demonstration of gonococcal antibodies using gonococcal pili as antigen. II. Serological investigation of patients attending a dermato-venereological outpatients clinic in Copenhagen
Reimann, K; Lind, I; Andersen, Klaus Ejner
A total of 1223 serum specimens were obtained from 649 consecutive patients attending a dermatovenereological out-patient clinic in Copenhagen with a request for venereal disease control. The sera were examined for gonococcal antibodies by both a gonococcal complement fixation test (GCF) and an i...
Samal, Lipika; Hutton, Heidi E; Erbelding, Emily J; Brandon, Elizabeth S; Finkelstein, Joseph; Chander, Geetanjali
We sought to describe: (1) the prevalence of internet, cellular phone, and text message use among women attending an urban sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic, (2) the acceptability of health advice by each mode of information and communication technology (ICT), and (3) demographic characteristics associated with ICT use. This study is a cross-sectional survey of 200 English-speaking women presenting to a Baltimore City STI clinic with STI complaints. Participants completed a self-administered survey querying ICT use and demographic characteristics. Three separate questions asked about interest in receiving health advice delivered by the three modalities: internet, cellular phone, and text message. We performed logistic regression to examine how demographic factors (age, race, and education) are associated with likelihood of using each modality. The median age of respondents was 27 years; 87% were African American, and 71% had a high school diploma. The rate of any internet use was 80%; 31% reported daily use; 16% reported weekly use; and 32% reported less frequent use. Almost all respondents (93%) reported cellular phone use, and 79% used text messaging. Acceptability of health advice by each of the three modalities was about 60%. In multivariate analysis, higher education and younger age were associated with internet use, text messaging, and cellular phone use. Overall rate of internet use was high, but there was an educational disparity in internet use. Cellular phone use was almost universal in this sample. All three modalities were equally acceptable forms of health communication. Describing baseline ICT access and the acceptability of health advice via ICT, as we have done, is one step toward determining the feasibility of ICT-delivered health interventions in urban populations.
Singer, Richard; Cardenas, Gabriel; Xavier, Jessica; Jeanty, Yves; Pereyra, Margaret; Rodriguez, Allan; Metsch, Lisa R.
Objectives We examined factors associated with dental anxiety among a sample of HIV primary care patients and investigated the independent association of dental anxiety with oral health care. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected in 2010 from 444 patients attending two HIV primary care clinics in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Corah Dental Anxiety Scores and use of oral health-care services were obtained from all HIV-positive patients in the survey. Results The prevalence of moderate to severe dental anxiety in this sample was 37.8%, while 7.9% of the sample was characterized with severe dental anxiety. The adjusted odds of having severe dental anxiety were 3.962 times greater for females than for males (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.688, 9.130). After controlling for age, ethnicity, gender, education, access to dental care, and HIV primary clinic experience, participants with severe dental anxiety had 69.3% lower adjusted odds of using oral health-care services within the past 12 months (vs. longer than 12 months ago) compared with participants with less-than-severe dental anxiety (adjusted odds ratio = 0.307, 95% CI 0.127, 0.742). Conclusion A sizable number of patients living with HIV have anxiety associated with obtaining needed dental care. Routine screening for dental anxiety and counseling to reduce dental anxiety are supported by this study as a means of addressing the impact of dental anxiety on the use of oral health services among HIV-positive individuals. PMID:22547875
Noda, Angel A; Blanco, Orestes; Correa, Consuelo; Pérez, Lissette; Kourí, Vivian; Rodríguez, Islay
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and in particular genital ulcer disease (GUD) have a major impact on morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The World Health Organization recommends the use of syndromic guidelines for the treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in resource-constrained countries. Surveillance of autochthonous etiologies provides epidemiological information contributing to the prevention and treatment of STIs. We investigated the etiology and factors associated with GUD among male patients attending a STD clinic in Havana, Cuba. Swabs from genital ulcers of 113 male patients, collected from May 2012 to June 2015, were analyzed using PCR for herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, Treponema pallidum, Haemophilus ducreyi, and Chlamydia trachomatis. We also investigated the clinical and epidemiological characteristics associated with the presence of these pathogens in GUD. At least one of the pathogens was detected in 70% of patients. The occurrence of the pathogens was herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) (51.3%), T. pallidum (29.2%), and C. trachomatis (1.8%). Co-infections occurred as follows: T. pallidum-HSV-2 (10.6%), C. trachomatis-HSV-2 (0.9%) and C. trachomatis-T. pallidum (0.9%). Herpes simplex virus type 1 and H. ducreyi were not detected. Ages 15 to 40 years, HIV-positive serostatus, and no condom use were significant risk factors for the presence of HSV-2 in genital ulcers. Our preliminary results highlight the predominance of HSV-2 and T. pallidum as the leading GUD etiologies in the study population and identified risk factors associated with HSV-2. This information should help to inform guidelines for better management of GUD in Havana, Cuba.
K. Mostert Wentzel
Full Text Available Self-management is a vital element in the care of type 2diabetes patients. In turn, self-efficacy plays a major role in patients’ self-management. Self-efficacy is the patient’s personal judgement of his/herconfidence in performing aspects of diabetes self-management. This study investigated the level of self-efficacy of patients attending the Pretoria Academic Hospital Diabetes Clinic, in the light of high levels ofre-admission due to complications, suggesting low self-efficacy levels. Eighty type 2 diabetes patients, mean age of 59 years, completed thepublished IDEA LL baseline questionnaire, to establish a self-efficacyscore. Relationships between self-efficacy and demographic factors wereinvestigated using the chi-square test. The mean self-efficacy level of thesample population is excellent (mean = 85.44%.A lthough self-reported self-efficacy levels are excellent, in comparison to the Sarkar study (2006 in which participants only scored “fair”, it is speculated that self-efficacy is not transferred to self-management behaviour in thispopulation. Afrikaans and English speaking participants score significantly better than those from other language categories. There is a positive relationship between self-efficacy and level of education and employment status (tendedtowards significance with p values of 0.06 and 0.07 respectively. A lthough self-efficacy scores of clients at this tertiary level outpatient clinic are excellent, further research is necessary to quantify self-management strategies andto correlate these with self-efficacy levels.
Colón-López, Vivian; Del Toro-Mejías, Lizbeth M; Ortiz, Ana P; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Palefsky, Joel M
An HPV vaccine has been approved for men aged 9 to 26 in the US for the prevention of genital warts and anal cancer. The purpose of this study is to describe 1) HPV vaccine awareness, 2) willingness to get the HPV vaccine and 3) perceived susceptibility to HPV-related cancers and genital warts among men 18-26 years old who attend an STI clinic in San Juan, Puerto Rico (PR). A cross-sectional pilot study consisting of 206 HIV+/HIV- men. For purpose of this analysis, only those participants aged vaccinated against HPV. Fewer than a third knew about the HPV vaccine (28.3%). However, more than half (76.9%) were willing to be vaccinated against HPV. Information sources about the HPV vaccine included their female sexual partners (13.0%), a female sexual partner who received the vaccine (8.7%) and a male sexual partner (2.2%). Most participants'reported that the main reason that would increase their willingness to get vaccinated was if a physician recommend the vaccine (95.7%). Perceived susceptibility was low, particularly for anal and oral cancer. This pilot study shows poor awareness of the HPV vaccine, although willingness to getting the HPV vaccine was high among those who knew about the vaccine. Future studies should try to evaluate this paradox and study in depth willingness and barriers to vaccination among male sub-groups, such as men who have sex with men (MSM). These studies should also evaluate predictors of uptake of the HPV vaccine among men in this and other STI clinics in PR, in order to develop interventions to increase male vaccination.
Aduloju, Peter O; Olagbuji, Nelson B; Olofinbiyi, Ajayi B; Awoleke, Jacob O
The study evaluated the prevalence and predictors of intimate partner violence among infertile women attending infertility clinic of Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti. A cross sectional study of infertile women presenting at the clinic between 1st November 2012 and 31st October 2013 was done. A semi-structured questionnaire on violence was administered to 170 consecutive women who consented to participate. The data were analysed using SPSS 17 and significances test were performed on variables associated with violence with Student's t test and Chi square test. Logistic regression was done to determine predictive factors associated with intimate partner violence. The prevalence of intimate partner violence associated with infertility among the women was 31.2%. There were no significant differences in the age of the women, duration of marriage and duration of infertility between the women who had experienced violence and those who had not experienced it; p>0.05. Unemployment, polygamous marriage, husbands' social habits, primary infertility and prolonged duration of infertility were associated with violence in these women; pwomen and their husbands, their religion and ethnicity were not significantly associated with violence; p>0.05. However with logistic regression, the unemployment status of the women and prolonged duration of infertility were the predictors of violence against women with infertility in this study, p valuewomen reported psychological violence as the commonest form of violence experienced by them ever, since the diagnosis of infertility was made and in the past one year. All forms of violence experienced were aggravated by infertility in these women. Women with infertility are prone to intimate partner violence and this would further aggravate the challenges of infertility being faced by these women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gomez, D M; Gunarathna, C; Gunarathna, S; Gnanapragasam, K; Hanwella, Raveen
Mental illness contributes significantly to the global disease burden. There is great diversity in the manner in which mentally ill patients seek help as this is influenced by their beliefs and the opinion of the family-social support unit. The stigma associated with mental illness is a barrier to effective therapy in Sri Lanka where systematic public awareness programmes are minimal. To study the help-seeking behaviour and its impact on patients attending a psychiatry clinic of the National Hospital of Sri Lanka. A cross sectional study was carried out among 120 attendees of the psychiatry clinic of the National Hospital of Sri Lanka. Sample was selected using systematic sampling. Data was collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire. More than half the participants sought psychiatric care as their first help-seeking behaviour and found it significantly more useful than non-psychiatric care alternatives. The average time to seek psychiatric care, irrespective of the pathway to care, was less than one month. The recommendation of the family and the social support unit and perceiving that the symptoms were due to a mental illness were the key factors in determining help-seeking behaviour. The average expense on alternative care was zero. There was no significant difference on the impact to employment among those that chose psychiatry care initially from those that did not. Our findings suggest that mentally ill patients presenting to a tertiary care hospital in Colombo, are likely to seek psychiatric care early. This is probably due to better recognition and knowledge regarding available treatment.
Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Medley, Nancy; Darzi, Andrea J; Richardson, Marty; Habiba Garga, Kesso; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre
Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends at least four antenatal care (ANC) visits for all pregnant women. Almost half of pregnant women worldwide, and especially in developing countries do not receive this amount of care. Poor attendance of ANC is associated with delivery of low birthweight babies and more neonatal deaths. ANC may include education on nutrition, potential problems with pregnancy or childbirth, child care and prevention or detection of disease during pregnancy. This review focused on community-based interventions and health systems-related interventions. Objectives To assess the effects of health system and community interventions for improving coverage of antenatal care and other perinatal health outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (7 June 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomised trials and cluster-randomised trials. Trials of any interventions to improve ANC coverage were eligible for inclusion. Trials were also eligible if they targeted specific and related outcomes, such as maternal or perinatal death, but also reported ANC coverage. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Main results We included 34 trials involving approximately 400,000 women. Some trials tested community-based interventions to improve uptake of antenatal care (media campaigns, education or financial incentives for pregnant women), while other trials looked at health systems interventions (home visits for pregnant women or equipment for clinics). Most trials took place in low- and middle-income countries, and 29 of the 34 trials used a cluster-randomised design. We assessed 30 of the 34 trials as of low or unclear overall risk of bias. Comparison 1: One intervention versus no intervention We
Adamu, Y M; Salihu, H M
The objective of this study was to identify the sociocultural and economic factors that act as barriers to women's use of antenatal care services and hospital delivery in a rural community in Kano State, Northern Nigeria. The study was based on an interview of 107 pregnant women conducted by a trained midwife in the native language of the area. Findings indicate that the majority of women (88%) (CI = 81.8-94.2%) in the study area did not attend for antenatal care, and 96.3% (CI = 93.0-99.8%) had delivered or plan to deliver at home without a skilled attendant. Major barriers identified were economic, cultural and those related to the women's perception of their condition. The study recommends that poverty reduction and economic empowerment of rural women are prerequisites for any tangible improvement in the utilisation of antenatal care and obstetric delivery services.
David M. Kitchens
Full Text Available Radiologic imaging of the newborn detected prenatally with hydronephrosis should follow a systematic approach. Upper and lower urinary tract imaging should be performed in most cases in order to determine the etiology and gauge the use of future imaging. An overview of renal ultrasound, voiding cystourethrography, renal scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance urography in the setting of antenatal hydronephrosis are discussed.
97 antenatal clinic attendees were recruited in a study aimed to determine the prevalence of group B streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae) among pregnant women at the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre. Participants were interviewed using a standard questionnaire to gather demographic and other relevant ...
This study aimed at identifying factors that contribute to clients' satisfaction in a tertiary antenatal clinic in Plateau State. Methods: This was a facility-based, cross sectional study where 100 clients of reproductive age (15-45 years) were selected using systematic sampling technique. Data was collected using a structured, ...
Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among antenatal clinic attendees at a tertiary hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. SABRIA RASHID1*, CHARLES KILEWO2 and SAID ABOUD3. 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Muhimbili National Hospital, P.O. Box 65000, Dar es Salaam,. Tanzania. 2Department ...
The prevalence and antenatal determinants of cleft lip and palate were determined. Result: Cleft lip and palate were often encountered in clinical practice in Benin City with a prevalence of 1.35%. The results showed that orofacial clefts were commoner in females and that the combined unilateral cleft lip and palate was the ...
Md Mosfequr Rahman
Full Text Available To investigate the association between maternal pregnancy intention and professional antenatal and delivery care utilization.Our data were derived from the 2011 nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. We included antenatal and delivery care utilization data of the most recent live births for women for the previous three years (n = 4672. We used multilevel logistic regression models to assess the relationship between pregnancy intention and use of professional antenatal and delivery care, with adjustment for potential confounding variables.Approximately 13% and 16% of children were reported by their mothers as unwanted and mistimed at the time of conception, respectively. Among the women, 55% received at least one professional antenatal care service; 21% received four or more professional antenatal services, while 32% were attended by professionals during deliveries. Mothers of children whose pregnancies had been unwanted had a greater risk for not seeking professional antenatal and professional delivery care than those whose pregnancies had been wanted [1≥ ANC from professionals: AOR: 0.66; 95% CI:0.51-0.93; 4≥ ANC from professionals: AOR:0.56; 95% CI:0.37-0.84; and delivery care from professionals: AOR: 0.70; 95% CI:0.50-0.97]. Women who were married after age 18, had secondary or higher level of education, and were from the wealthiest households were more likely to utilize antenatal and delivery care.Unwanted pregnancy is significantly associated with lower utilization of professional antenatal and delivery care services in Bangladesh. Reducing unwanted births and promoting access to professional antenatal and delivery care are crucial for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs 3 in Bangladesh.
Cox, Janneke A; Kiggundu, Daniel; Elpert, Lana; Meintjes, Graeme; Colebunders, Robert; Alamo, Stella
To study temporal trends of mortality in HIV-infected adults who attended an HIV clinic in Kampala, Uganda, between 2002 and 2012. Descriptive retrospective study. Two doctors independently reviewed the clinic database that contained information derived from the clinic files and assigned one or more causes of death to each patient >18 years of age with a known date of death. Four cause-of-death categories were defined: 'communicable conditions and AIDS-defining malignancies', 'chronic non-communicable conditions', 'other non-communicable conditions' and 'unknown'. Trends in cause-of-death categories over time were evaluated using multinomial logistic regression with year of death as an independent continuous variable. 1028 deaths were included; 38% of these individuals were on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The estimated mortality rate dropped from 21.86 deaths/100 person years of follow-up (PYFU) in 2002 to 1.75/100 PYFU in 2012. There was a significant change in causes of death over time (pdeaths due to 'communicable conditions and AIDS-defining malignancies' decreased from 84% (95% CI 74% to 90%) to 64% (95% CI 53% to 74%) and the proportion of deaths due to 'chronic non-communicable conditions', 'other non-communicable conditions' and a combination of 'communicable and non-communicable conditions' increased. Tuberculosis (TB) was the main cause of death (34%). Death from TB decreased over time, from 43% (95% CI 32% to 53%) in 2002 to a steady proportion of approximately 25% from 2006 onwards (pdeaths from communicable conditions and AIDS-defining malignancies decreased and from non-communicable diseases, both chronic and non-chronic, increased. Nevertheless, communicable conditions and AIDS-defining malignancies continued to cause the majority of deaths, with TB as the main cause. Ongoing monitoring of cause of death is warranted and strategies to decrease mortality from TB and other common opportunistic infections are essential. Published by the BMJ Publishing
Introduction With the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and primary general care for people living with HIV (PLHIV) in resource limited settings, PLHIV are living longer, and HIV has been transformed into a chronic illness. People are diagnosed and started on treatment when they are relatively well. Although ART results in clinical improvement, the ultimate goal of treatment is full physical functioning and general well-being, with a focus on quality of life rather than clinical outcomes. However, there has been little research on the relationship of specific factors to quality of life in PLHIV. The objective of this study was to investigate factors associated with quality of life among PLHIV in Uganda receiving basic care and those on ART. Methods We enrolled 1274 patients attending an HIV outpatient clinic into a prospective cohort study. Of these, 640 received ART. All were followed up at 3 and 6 months. Health related quality of life was assessed with the MOS-HIV Health Survey and the Global Person Generated Index (GPGI). Multivariate linear regression and logistic regression with generalized estimating equations were used to examine the relationship of social behavioral and disease factors with Physical Health Summary (PHS) score, Mental Health Summary (MHS) score, and GPGI. Results Among PLHIV receiving basic care, PHS was associated with: sex (p=0.045) - females had lower PHS; age in years at enrollment (p=0.0001) - older patients had lower PHS; and depression (pART, PHS was associated with: study visit (p=0.01), with increase in time there was better PHS, and this also improved with increase in education level (p=0.002). Patients with WHO disease stage 3&4 had a lower PHS compared to patients at stage 1&2 (p=0.006), and depressed patients had lower PHS (pART. Regardless of treatment status, PLHIV with depression or low education level and female gender were at risk of having a poor quality of life. Clinicians and policy makers should be aware of
Olowookere, S A; Adewole, I F
Increased availability of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) screening test and more public enlightenment have resulted in more people coming forward to access counseling and testing at the HIV counseling and testing centers in Nigeria. Some of the clients however obtained indeterminate and false positive results leading to emotional disturbance and occasionally, dilemma to the attending physician. This article/case series looked at some of these situations and discussed how they were attended to.
Evans, B A; Kell, P D; Bond, R A; MacRae, K D
To compare variables of sexual behaviour and incidence of genital infections among women of different racial origins and lifestyles. A prospective cross sectional study of sexual behaviour reported by a standardised self administered questionnaire in new patients who presented for screening and diagnosis. A genitourinary medicine clinic in west London. 1084 consecutive women newly attending in 1992. Variables relating to sociodemographic status, sexual lifestyle, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and other genital infections stratified by racial origin. There were 948 evaluable women, of whom 932 (98.3%) were heterosexual and 16 (1.7%) were lesbian. Previous heterosexual intercourse was reported by 69% of lesbian women and their most frequent diagnosis was bacterial vaginosis (38%). The majority of heterosexual women were white (78%) and 16% were black. The black women were more likely to be teenagers (18% cf 8%; p = 0.0004) or students (28% cf 15%; p = 0.0008), and to have had an earlier coitarche (48% cf 38% before aged 17; p year (p = 0.004) and in total (p genital warts (3% cf 12% p = 0.002). Logistic regression showed that all these variables were independently associated with the black women. The Asian women (2%), none of whom had a sexually transmitted disease, had commenced intercourse later (mean 19.7 years) than both black women (mean 16.8 years) and white women (mean 17.6 years). Sexual intercourse commenced approximately 1 year earlier in the black women, who were more likely to have become pregnant, had children, and to have acquired a bacterial sexually transmitted infection than were the white women.
Jaam, Myriam; Mohamed Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham; Kheir, Nadir; Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Diab, Mohammad Issam; Awaisu, Ahmed
Studies conducted in Qatar have reported a high prevalence of diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy. These complications are often associated with poor medication adherence and uncontrolled diabetes. The objectives of this study were to determine the rate of medication adherence among patients with uncontrolled diabetes, and to compare the characteristics and identified barriers between patients with good and those with poor medication adherence. A cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted among patients living in Qatar with uncontrolled diabetes attending primary healthcare clinics from October 2016 to January 2017. An interviewer-administered questionnaire comprising three sections was utilized in the study: patients' characteristics, Adherence to Refill and Medications Scale in Diabetes (ARMS-D), and barriers to medication adherence. ARMS-D is a validated tool that is used to identify adherence level among patients with diabetes. Descriptive and inferential statistics including regression analysis were used for data analysis. A total of 260 patients were included in the analysis. Overall, 73% (n=191) were nonadherent to their diabetes medications (ARMS-D score above 11). Nonadherent patients reported the majority of the pre-determined barriers to medication adherence with forgetfulness being the most commonly reported barrier. Multivariate linear regression analysis found age, ethnicity, education level, income level and HbA1c to be independent predictors of adherence. The findings of this study reaffirm the notion that non-adherence to medications among patients with uncontrolled diabetes within primary care setting is higher than the general diabetes population. This high prevalence is concerning and necessitates urgent interventions. Nonetheless, an in-depth understanding of barriers to medication adherence often requires qualitative research approach as these barriers are very complex and multifactorial in nature. Copyright © 2017 Primary
Umar M Lawan
Full Text Available Background: Appropriate infant feeding is the key to optimum infant and child development and survival. This study investigates age-appropriate infant feeding practices and nutritional status of infants attending the immunization and child welfare clinic at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: Using a cross-sectional descriptive design, a sample of 300 sets of infants (age ≤12 months and caregivers was systematically selected and studied. The data were analyzed using the MINITAB ® 12.21 (USA statistical software. Results: All the infants studied were still on breast milk. Most of the mothers demonstrated correct body positioning (89.9 and attachment (78.7% during breastfeeding, and effective suckling was demonstrated in 77.0%. Interestingly, none of the infants was either exclusively breastfed for 6 months or currently on exclusive breastfeeding. Furthermore, only 64 (58.2% of the 110 infants that were more than 6 months of age had appropriately been started on complementary feeding from 6 months of age. Overall, most caregivers (88.7% had "fair" to "good" infant feeding practices. The practices were significantly associated with their level of education, and their relationship with the infants. Up to 40.0% and 73.7% of the infants had varying degrees of wasting and stunting respectively. Infant feeding practices and the age of the infants emerged as the only factors significantly associated with stunting, while both the caregivers′ practices and age of the infants emerged as significant predictors of wasting in the infants. Conclusion and Recommendations: Barely 3 years to the 2015 target of the millennium development goals (MDGs, infant feeding and nutritional status still poses a serious threat to the dream of realizing the MDG-4. The Ministry of Health and relevant developing partners in this region should as a matter of urgency, formulate and implement a strong community-based public health intervention program to
Thompson, Deborah L; Douglas, John M; Foster, Mark; Hagensee, Michael E; Diguiseppi, Carolyn; Barón, Anna E; Cameron, Jennifer E; Spencer, Timothy C; Zenilman, Jonathan; Malotte, C Kevin; Bolan, Gail; Kamb, Mary L; Peterman, Thomas A
The study sought to characterize the seroprevalence, seropersistence, and seroincidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 antibody, as well as the behavioral risk factors for HPV-16 seropositivity. Serologic data at baseline and at 6- and 12-month follow-up visits were used to examine the seroprevalence, seropersistence, and seroincidence of HPV-16 antibody in 1595 patients attending United States clinics treating sexually transmitted disease. Testing for antibody to HPV-16 was performed by capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using viruslike particles. The seroprevalence of HPV-16 antibody was 24.5% overall and was higher in women than in men (30.2% vs. 18.7%, respectively). In those who were HPV-16 seropositive at baseline, antibody response persisted to 12 months in 72.5% of women and in 45.6% of men. The seroincidence of HPV-16 antibody was 20.2/100 person-years (py) overall, 25.4/100 py in women, and 15.7/100 py in men. In multivariate analysis, the seroprevalence of HPV-16 antibody was significantly associated with female sex, age >20 years, and the number of episodes of sex with occasional partners during the preceding 3 months, whereas the seroincidence of HPV-16 antibody was significantly associated with female sex, age >20 years, baseline negative ELISA result greater than the median value, and the number of episodes of unprotected sex with occasional partners during the preceding 3 months. Sex- and age-related differences in both the seropositivity and seroincidence of HPV-16 antibody persisted after adjustment for behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors, and behavioral risk factors during the preceding 3 months were stronger predictors of the seroprevalence and seroincidence of HPV-16 antibody than was lifetime sexual behavior.
Hjerkinn, Bjørg; Lindbaek, Morten; Skogmo, Idar; Rosvold, Elin Olaug
Exposure to alcohol and illicit substances during pregnancy can have an impact on the child for the rest of his/her life. A Special Child Welfare Clinic (SCWC) in Norway provides care for pregnant women with substance abuse problems. Treatment and support are provided without replacement therapy. We performed a neuropsychological screening of 40 children aged four to 11 years whose mothers had attended the SCWC during pregnancy, and of a comparison group of 80 children of women without substance abuse problems. The children were presented with tests chosen from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, third version (WISC-III), Nepsy, Halstead-Reitan and Raven's Progressive Matrices, Coloured Version. The tests were grouped into five main domains; (1) learning and memory, (2) visual scanning, planning and attention, (3) executive function, (4) visuo-motor speed and dexterity and