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Sample records for attachment iv sample

  1. 32 CFR Attachment 3 to Part 2800 - Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample 3 Attachment 3 to Part 2800 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES SECURITY PROCEDURES Pt. 2800, Att. 3 Attachment 3 to Part 2800—Sample EC25OC91.012 ...

  2. 32 CFR Attachment 5 to Part 855 - Sample Temporary Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Temporary Agreement 5 Attachment 5 to Part 855 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Pt. 855, Att. 5 Attachment 5 to Part 855—Sample Temporary...

  3. [Infants' attachment security in a vulnerable French sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereno, S; Guedeney, N; Dugravier, R; Greacen, T; Saïas, T; Tubach, F; Ulgen, S; Matos, I; Guédeney, A

    2017-04-01

    Attachment is a long lasting emotional link established between infants and their caregivers. The quality of early relationships allows infants to safely explore their environment and contribute to the establishment of a broad range of social skills. Several intervention programs targeting infant attachment have been implemented in different contexts, showing diverse degrees of efficacy. The present paper describes, for the first time, children's attachment quality distributions in a French multi-risk population, with a preventive intervention, usual or reinforced. In the CAPEDP study (Parenting and Attachment in Early Childhood: reducing mental health disorder risks and promoting resilience), a sub-sample of 117 women was recruited to assess the effects of this home-visiting program on children's attachment security. With that intent, the Strange Situation Paradigm was used when infants were between 12 and 16 months of age. In the intervention group, 63% (n=41) of the infants were coded as secure, while 15% (n=10) of them were coded as insecure-avoidant and 22% (n=14) as insecure-ambivalent/resistant. 56% (n=29) of control group infants (usual care) were coded as secure, while 27% (n=14) were coded as insecure-avoidant and 17% (n=9) as insecure-ambivalent/resistant. Even if the percentage of children with a secure attachment in the reinforced intervention group was higher than that of the control group, this difference did not reach the threshold of significance [Chi 2 (2)=2.40, P=0.30]. Intervention group distributions were closer to normative samples, and these distributions show the clinical impact of our program. In general, preventive interventions focused on attachment quality have moderate effects but, in our case, several factors might have contributed to lower the statistical impact of the program. Firstly, the control group cannot be considered has having received zero intervention for two reasons: (a) the French usual perinatal health system (Maternal

  4. Kinetic determination of Se(IV in pharmaceutical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. KOSTIC

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available A kinetic method is described for the determination of Se(IV based on its inhibiting effect on the Fe(III catalysis of the oxidation of C6H5COONa with hydrogen peroxide. The detection limit is 0.06 µg cm-3. The relative error ranges between 2.1 and 9.5 % for the concentration interval 0.26 to 2.6 µg cm-3. Kinetic equations are proposed for the investigated process. The effects of certain foreign ions upon the reaction rate were determined in order to assess the selectivity of the method. the method was applied for the determination of Se(IV in pharmaceutical samples.

  5. Rehabilitation of long-span Kennedy class IV partially edentulous patient with a custom attachment-retained prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithra Kumar Shetty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rehabilitation of a patient in the Kennedy class IV situation demands biomechanical balance and aesthetic improvement. The long-span condition complicates the problem because of the unavailability of sufficient number of abutments to support the prosthesis. Conventional removable prosthesis and fixed partial denture are not advised for the same reason. This report describes a novel technique for the fabrication of a custom attachment to retain prosthesis. An acrylic resin removable partial denture (RPD is retained by a custom attachment. The patrix part of the custom attachment is fabricated using molar bands, prefabricated circumferential clasp, and straight die pins. The matrix part of the attachment is constituted by the plastic sleeves of the straight die pins, which are embedded inside the tissue-fitting surface of the prosthesis. This article describes an inexpensive custom attachment for rehabilitating the long-span Kennedy class IV situation. The entire technique is reversible, inexpensive, and demands less skill compared to semi-precision and precision attachments.

  6. Adult attachment and psychotic phenomenology in clinical and non-clinical samples: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Berry, Katherine; Meijer, Carin J; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2014-06-01

    It has been argued that attachment theory could enhance our knowledge and understanding of psychotic phenomenology. We systematically reviewed and critically appraised research investigating attachment and psychotic phenomenology in clinical and non-clinical samples. We searched databases Pub Med, PsycINFO, Medline and Web of Science using the keywords. Attachment, Adult Attachment, Psychosis, Schizotypy and Schizophrenia and identified 29 studies assessing adult attachment in combination with psychotic phenomenology. The findings indicated that both insecure anxious and insecure avoidant attachment are associated with psychotic phenomenology. Insecurely attached individuals are more vulnerable to developing maladaptive coping strategies in recovering from psychosis. The importance of attachment experiences for processing social information, mentalization skills and developing social relationships, including therapeutic relationships, in samples with psychosis is also highlighted. Attachment style is a clinically relevant construct in relation to development, course and treatment of psychosis. Understanding the role of attachment in symptoms may help to gain insight into the development or persistence of symptoms. Associations between attachment and recovery style suggest that it may be helpful to improve attachment security in a context of therapeutic relationships or other social relationships before encouraging people to explore their experiences of psychosis. Associations between insecure attachment and impaired mentalization skills may help in understanding interpersonal difficulties and this knowledge can be used to improve recovery. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  7. The dynamics of attachment insecurity and paranoid thoughts: An experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitko, Katarzyna; Varese, Filippo; Sellwood, William; Hammond, Amy; Bentall, Richard

    2016-12-30

    It has been proposed that insecure attachment can have adverse effects on the course of psychosis once symptoms have emerged. There is longitudinal evidence that increased insecure attachment is associated with increased severity of psychotic symptoms. The present study examined whether in the flow of daily life attachment insecurity fluctuates, whether elevated stress precedes the occurrence of attachment insecurity, and whether elevated attachment insecurity precedes the occurrence of paranoia. Twenty clinical participants with a psychosis-spectrum diagnosis and twenty controls were studied over six consecutive days using the experience sampling method (ESM). The findings revealed that fluctuations in attachment insecurity were significantly higher in the clinical group, that elevated stress predicted a subsequent increase in attachment insecurity, and that elevated attachment insecurity predicted a subsequent increase in paranoia; this effect was not observed in auditory hallucinations once co-occurring symptoms were controlled for. Finally, although previous ESM studies have shown that low self-esteem precedes the occurrence of paranoia, attachment insecurity continued to predict paranoia even when self-esteem was controlled for. The findings suggest that attachment security may be associated with a lower risk of paranoia, and that psychological interventions should address attachment beliefs and work towards establishing a sense of attachment security. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Maternal interactive behaviour as a predictor of preschoolers' attachment representations among full term and premature samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljkovitch, Raphaële; Moran, Greg; Roy, Caroline; Jaunin, Lyne; Forcada-Guex, Margarita; Pierrehumbert, Blaise; Muller-Nix, Carole; Borghini, Ayala

    2013-05-01

    Associations between maternal sensitivity and child attachment have been established in many samples, but the strength of the association varies across populations. The sensitivity-attachment link has never been examined at the level of representations nor among premature samples. The present study is aimed at exploring associations between maternal interactive behaviour and children's attachment representations in a population of preterm and full-term infants. Maternal interactive behaviour was assessed at 6 and 18 months (Ainsworth Sensitivity Scale & Care Index) and children's attachment representations were measured at 42 months (Attachment Story Completion Task) in a sample of preterm (N=48) and full-term (N=23) infants. Maternal unresponsiveness at 6 months and sensitivity at 18 months explained 54% of the variance of disorganized attachment representations in the full-term group but was not significantly related to attachment patterns in the preterm group. These results corroborate previous work on the causes of disorganized attachment and also point to the need to consider the development of attachment differently for children evolving in specific developmental contexts. They especially stress the importance of distinguishing between risk factors associated with the mother as opposed to the child. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Parental PTSD, adverse parenting and child attachment in a refugee sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ee, Elisa; Kleber, Rolf J; Jongmans, Marian J; Mooren, Trudy T M; Out, Dorothee

    2016-01-01

    In contrast with traumatic experiences, there is a dearth of studies on the link between trauma symptoms, disconnected (frightened, threatening and dissociative) parenting behavior, extremely insensitive parenting behavior and child attachment. This study extends previous work on the impact of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on families by studying the unique contribution of disconnected and extremely insensitive parenting behavior on child attachment in a highly traumatized sample of 68 asylum seekers and refugees and their children (18-42 months). The results show that parental symptoms of PTSD are directly related to children's insecure attachment and disorganized attachment. The greatest proportion of the risk could be attributed to factors related to the dyad and not the family. A mediation effect of adverse parenting behavior was not confirmed. On the one hand the results indicate the need for an effective treatment of PTSD symptomatology while on the other hand the results indicate the need for clinical attention to insecure attachment relationships.

  10. Relationships between adult attachment style ratings and sleep disturbances in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, G Camelia; McWilliams, Lachlan A

    2015-07-01

    Recent research with small non-clinical and clinical samples suggests a positive association between attachment insecurity and sleep disturbances. The present study extends this line of research by exploring this relationship in a large sample of the U.S. population and by statistically adjusting for health conditions and psychiatric disorders as potential confounds. The data used were from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (N=5692). The main interview consisted of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview used to assess psychiatric diagnoses. Ratings of three adult attachment styles (viz., secure, avoidant, and anxious) were obtained along with self-reports of health conditions and four sleep disturbances (viz., difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, early morning awakening, and daytime sleepiness). Bivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that ratings of secure attachment were negatively associated with each sleep disturbance and ratings of insecure attachment were positively associated with each sleep disturbance. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between the attachment ratings and sleep disturbances while statistically controlling for sociodemographic variables, the presence of a health condition, and psychiatric disorders (viz., depressive disorders, bipolar disorders, anxiety disorders, alcohol/substance disorders, and attention deficit disorder). With one exception, the insecure attachment ratings continued to be positively associated with sleep disturbances. The findings demonstrate that attachment insecurity is related to sleep disturbances independent of health conditions and concurrent psychiatric disorders. Research aimed at delineating the mechanisms responsible for these associations is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Attachment Patterns and Complex Trauma in a Sample of Adults Diagnosed with Gender Dysphoria

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Giovanardi; Roberto Vitelli; Carola Maggiora Vergano; Alexandro Fortunato; Luca Chianura; Vittorio Lingiardi; Anna Maria Speranza

    2018-01-01

    The current study investigated attachment representations and complex trauma in a sample of gender dysphoric adults. Although it has been proven that the psychological wellbeing of gender diverse persons is largely mediated by family acceptance and support, research on their relationships with parental figures is scarce. A total of 95 adults took part in the study. The attachment distribution was as follows: 27% secure, 27% insecure and 46% disorganized. Regarding early traumas, 56% experienc...

  12. The Impact of Attachment Style on Sexual Satisfaction and Sexual Desire in a Sexually Diverse Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Kristen P; Patrick, Laura M; Murray, Sarah H

    2017-11-22

    Research has indicated that adult romantic attachment is influential and important to sexual and relationship satisfaction. Sexual desire, although not a direct focus of attachment literature, is highly related to sexual and relationship satisfaction, suggesting it may also be impacted by attachment style in romantic couples. However, the research conducted on sexual desire, sexual satisfaction, and attachment has been largely heterocentric, making it difficult to determine whether the findings documented in the literature thus far are relevant in a sexually diverse group of individuals. The current study aimed to better understand the way that attachment style may impact sexual desire, sexual satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction in a sample of sexually diverse men and women. In total, 955 individuals (63.4% cis-gender women, 30.7% cis-gender men, 6.0% genderqueer; 54.8% straight, 20.4% bisexual, 18.4% gay) participated in a web-based study examining relationship dynamics. In three multivariate regression models indicated that attachment style significantly predicted relationship satisfaction (29% of variance accounted for), sexual satisfaction (19% of variance accounted for), and sexual desire (4% of variance accounted for). Attachment style appears to be a more important contributing factor to satisfaction than desire amongst diverse sexual orientations. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.

  13. The contribution of social rank and attachment theory to depression in a non clinical sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puissant, Sylvia Pinna; Gauthier, Jean-Marie; Van Oirbeek, Robin

    2011-11-01

    This study explores the relative contribution of the overall quality of attachment to the mother, to the father and to peers (Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment scales), the style of attachment towards peers (Attachment Questionnaire for Children scale), the social rank variables (submissive behavior and social comparison), and sex and age variables in predicting the depression score (Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) on a non-psychiatric sample of 13-18 year old adolescents (n = 225). Results of our integrated model (adjusted R-Square of .50) show that attachment variables (overall quality of attachment to the father and to the mother), social rank variables (social comparison and submissive behavior), age and sex are important in predicting depressive symptoms during adolescence. Moreover, the attachment to peers variables (quality of attachment to peers, secure and ambivalent style of attachment) and sex are mediated by the social rank variables (social comparison and submissive behavior).

  14. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Labels for 2008 and Later Model Year Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Labels for 2008 and Later Model Year Vehicles IV Appendix IV to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. IV Appendix IV to Part 600...

  15. Female-perpetrated intimate partner violence and romantic attachment style in a college student sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, Holly K; Garcia, Marilyn; Pickett, Scott M

    2005-06-01

    The frequency, severity, and reciprocity of female-perpetrated intimate partner violence and its consequences (i.e., injuries) were investigated in a college sample of women (N = 457). Participants were classified into one of the following four groups on the basis of self-reported physical assault perpetration and victimization against their relationship partners: nonviolent, perpetrator-only, victim-only, and bidirectionally violent. Results showed that females in the bidirectionally violent group had a reportedly higher occurrence (although not always statistically significant) of perpetration and victimization than those in the perpetrator-only and victim-only groups. Additionally, a similar degree of reciprocity was indicated by females in bidirectionally violent relationships in terms of violence severity and the occurrence of injury. Adult romantic attachment style was also examined among a subset of females (N = 328), and bidirectionally violent females were found to have the highest reported levels of attachment anxiety. Further, females high in attachment anxiety and low in attachment avoidance were more likely to report perpetrating violence than females high in both styles. Implications for prevention are discussed.

  16. The role of attachment style in Facebook use and social capital: evidence from university students and a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jih-Hsuan

    2015-03-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) can be beneficial tools for users to gain social capital. Although social capital consists of emotional and informational resources accumulated through interactions with strong or weak social network ties, the existing literature largely ignores attachment style in this context. This study employed attachment theory to explore individuals' attachment orientations toward Facebook usage and toward online and offline social capital. A university student sample (study 1) and a representative national sample (study 2) showed consistent results. Secure attachment was positively associated with online bonding and bridging capital and offline bridging capital. Additionally, secure attachment had an indirect effect on all capital through Facebook time. Avoidant attachment was negatively associated with online bonding capital. Anxious-ambivalent attachment had a direct association with online bonding capital and an indirect effect on all capital through Facebook. Interaction frequency with good friends on Facebook positively predicted all online and offline capital, whereas interaction frequency with average friends on Facebook positively predicted online bridging capital. Interaction frequency with acquaintances on Facebook was negatively associated with offline bonding capital. The study concludes that attachment style is a significant factor in guiding social orientation toward Facebook connections with different ties and influences online social capital. The study extends attachment theory among university students to a national sample to provide more generalizable evidence for the current literature. Additionally, this study extends attachment theory to the SNS setting with a nuanced examination of types of Facebook friends after controlling extraversion. Implications for future research are discussed.

  17. Attachment Patterns and Complex Trauma in a Sample of Adults Diagnosed with Gender Dysphoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Giovanardi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated attachment representations and complex trauma in a sample of gender dysphoric adults. Although it has been proven that the psychological wellbeing of gender diverse persons is largely mediated by family acceptance and support, research on their relationships with parental figures is scarce. A total of 95 adults took part in the study. The attachment distribution was as follows: 27% secure, 27% insecure and 46% disorganized. Regarding early traumas, 56% experienced four or more traumatic forms. Further, gender dysphoric adults showed significantly higher levels of attachment disorganization and polyvictimisation, relative to controls. Comparisons of subgroups, defined by natal gender, showed that trans women, compared to control males, had more involving and physically and psychologically abusive fathers, and were more often separated from their mothers; trans men, relative to female controls, had more involving mothers and were more frequently separated from and neglected by their fathers. The research has several implications for treatment, clinical health psychology, family support and education.

  18. Serum Chrome levels sampled with steel needle vs. plastic IV cannula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Overgaard, Søren

    2010-01-01

    . This study aimed to test that theory. Method: We compared serum chromium values for two sampling methods, steel needle and IV plastic cannula, as well as sampling sequence in 16 healthy volunteers. Results: We found statistically significant chromium contamination from the steel needle with mean differences...... between the two methods of 0.073 ng/mL, for the first sample, and 0.033 ng/mL for the second. No difference was found between the first and second plastic sample. The first steel needle sample contained an average of 0.047 ng/mL more than the second. This difference was only borderline significant....... Conclusion: The chromium contamination from the steel needle is low, and sampling method matters little in MoM populations. If using steel needles we suggest discarding the first sample....

  19. Serum chromium levels sampled with steel needle versus plastic IV cannula. Does method matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Ø; Overgaard, Søren

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Modern metal-on-metal (MoM) joint articulations releases metal ions to the body. Research tries to establish how much this elevates metal ion levels and whether it causes adverse effects. The steel needle that samples the blood may introduce additional chromium to the sample thereby...... causing bias. This study aimed to test that theory. METHODS: We compared serum chromium values for two sampling methods, steel needle and IV plastic cannula, as well as sampling sequence in 16 healthy volunteers. RESULTS: We found statistically significant chromium contamination from the steel needle...... significant. CONCLUSION: The chromium contamination from the steel needle is low, and sampling method matters little in MoM populations. If using steel needles we suggest discarding the first sample....

  20. Relationship between the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (SCORS) and attachment style in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Michelle B; Siefert, Caleb J; Stewart, Rosemarie Vala; Hilsenroth, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    This present study examined the relationship between the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (SCORS) and two measures of adult attachment: the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) and the Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire-Revised (ECR-R). Forty-five patients (76% female) at a university-based outpatient treatment clinic participated in this study. We hypothesized that higher levels of attachment security would be associated with higher, more adaptive ratings on the SCORS variables. Results indicated that the SCORS Self-Esteem (SE) variable was significantly positively related to the RQ's Secure Attachment ratings and negatively related with the ECR-R's Anxious Attachment scale. Additionally, negative trends were noted between SE and the RQ's Fearful and Preoccupied Attachment scores. The SCORS Emotional Investments in Relationships and Affective Quality of Representations variables were associated with higher Secure scores and lower, more maladaptive Preoccupied scores on the RQ. It was also associated with greater attachment anxiety as measured by the ECR-R. Using both clinician (SCORS) and participant-rated measures (ECR-R and RQ), this study provides further understanding on how object representations and attachment style relate within a clinical sample. Results are discussed in light of prior research examining relationships between object relations and adult attachments, and clinical implications are also reviewed. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message: • Individuals with higher levels of attachment anxiety may enter therapy with more self-image problems. • Individuals with higher levels of attachment anxiety may enter therapy with more maladaptive expectations about relationships. • Patients who endorse high levels of attachment anxiety (e.g., fearful and preoccupied) may be more likely to present with Axis II complaints. • Examining a patient's attachment style and object relations using different

  1. HIGHER ORDER FACTOR STRUCTURE OF THE WISC-IV IN A CLINICAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SAMPLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Doug; Pardini, Dustin A.; Burns, Thomas G.; Stevens, Abigail B.

    2010-01-01

    A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted examining the higher order factor structure of the WISC-IV scores for 344 children who participated in neuropsychological evaluations at a large children’s hospital. The WISC-IV factor structure mirrored that of the standardization sample. The second order general intelligence factor (g) accounted for the largest proportion of variance in the first-order latent factors and in the individual subtests, especially for the working memory index. The first-order processing speed factor exhibited the most unique variance beyond the influence of g. The results suggest that clinicians should not ignore the contribution of g when interpreting the first-order factors. PMID:19132580

  2. Attachment Styles, Perceived Stress and Social Support in a Malaysian Young Adults Sample

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siamak Khodarahimi; Intan H.M. Hashim; Norzarina Mohd-Zaharim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the validity of an adult attachment style questionnaire, to understand the relationships between the type of attachment style in relation to self-perceived...

  3. Associations between attachment and psychopathology dimensions in a large sample of patients with psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Berry, Katherine; Meijer, Carin; de Haan, Lieuwe; Ponizovsky, Alexander M.

    2015-01-01

    Attachment theory is a powerful theoretical framework that complements and extents current models psychosis. We tested the hypothesis that attachment anxiety and avoidance are differentially associated with the severity of positive, negative and general psychopathology symptoms in patients with a

  4. Parental bonds and body dissatisfaction in a clinical sample: The mediating roles of attachment anxiety and media internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, Renee; Tasca, Giorgio A; Maxwell, Hilary; Balfour, Louise; Proulx, Genevieve; Bissada, Hany

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated an attachment theory model in which mother and father care were hypothesized to be indirectly related to body dissatisfaction mediated by attachment anxiety and media internalization. Participants were 232 women diagnosed with an eating disorder who completed a retrospective measure of parental bonds, and measures of attachment anxiety, media internalization, and body image. Mother care was negatively associated with body dissatisfaction, suggesting that recollection of mothers as less caring was directly related to poorer body image. Lower father care, was indirectly associated with greater body dissatisfaction mediated by higher attachment anxiety and higher media internalization. That is, women with an eating disorder who recollected fathers as less caring had higher attachment anxiety, which was related to greater internalizing of media-related thin ideals, that in turn was associated with poorer body image. Mothers and fathers may impact body dissatisfaction by differing mechanisms in clinical samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The connective tissue graft wall technique and enamel matrix derivative to improve root coverage and clinical attachment levels in Miller Class IV gingival recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchelli, Giovanni; Mazzotti, Claudio; Tirone, Federico; Mele, Monica; Bellone, Pietro; Mounssif, Ilham

    2014-01-01

    The case reports in this article describe a surgical approach for improving root coverage and clinical attachment levels in Miller Class IV gingival recessions. Two gingival recessions affecting maxillary and mandibular lateral incisors associated with severe interdental hard and soft tissue loss were treated. The surgical technique consisted of a connective tissue graft (CTG) that was placed below a coronally advanced envelope flap and acted as a buccal soft tissue wall of the bony defect treated with enamel matrix derivative (EMD). No palatal/lingual flap was elevated. In the first clinical case, 6 months after surgery a ceramic veneer was placed to correct tooth extrusion and improve the overall esthetic appearance. One year after the surgery in both cases, clinically significant root coverage, increase in buccal keratinized tissue height and thickness, improvement in the position of the interdental papilla, and clinical attachment level gain were achieved. The radiographs demonstrate bone fill of the intrabony components of the defects. This report encourages a novel application of CTG plus EMD to improve both root coverage and regenerative parameters in Miller Class IV gingival recessions.

  6. The SDSS-IV MaNGA Sample: Design, Optimization, and Usage Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, David A.; Bundy, Kevin; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Yan, Renbin; Blanton, Michael R.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Sánchez-Gallego, José R.; Drory, Niv; Jones, Amy; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Law, David R.; Li, Cheng; MacDonald, Nicholas; Masters, Karen; Thomas, Daniel; Tinker, Jeremy; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Brownstein, Joel R.

    2017-09-01

    We describe the sample design for the SDSS-IV MaNGA survey and present the final properties of the main samples along with important considerations for using these samples for science. Our target selection criteria were developed while simultaneously optimizing the size distribution of the MaNGA integral field units (IFUs), the IFU allocation strategy, and the target density to produce a survey defined in terms of maximizing signal-to-noise ratio, spatial resolution, and sample size. Our selection strategy makes use of redshift limits that only depend on I-band absolute magnitude (M I ), or, for a small subset of our sample, M I and color (NUV - I). Such a strategy ensures that all galaxies span the same range in angular size irrespective of luminosity and are therefore covered evenly by the adopted range of IFU sizes. We define three samples: the Primary and Secondary samples are selected to have a flat number density with respect to M I and are targeted to have spectroscopic coverage to 1.5 and 2.5 effective radii (R e ), respectively. The Color-Enhanced supplement increases the number of galaxies in the low-density regions of color-magnitude space by extending the redshift limits of the Primary sample in the appropriate color bins. The samples cover the stellar mass range 5× {10}8≤slant {M}* ≤slant 3× {10}11 {M}⊙ {h}-2 and are sampled at median physical resolutions of 1.37 and 2.5 kpc for the Primary and Secondary samples, respectively. We provide weights that will statistically correct for our luminosity and color-dependent selection function and IFU allocation strategy, thus correcting the observed sample to a volume-limited sample.

  7. Construct validity of the WISC-IV with a referred sample: direct versus indirect hierarchical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivez, Gary L

    2014-03-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) is one of the most frequently used intelligence tests in clinical assessments of children with learning difficulties. Construct validity studies of the WISC-IV have generally supported the higher order structure with four correlated first-order factors and one higher-order general intelligence factor, but recent studies have supported an alternate model in which general intelligence is conceptualized as a breadth factor rather than a superordinate factor (M. W. Watkins, 2010, Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition among a national sample of referred students, Psychological Assessment, Vol. 22, pp. 782-787; M. W. Watkins, G. L. Canivez, T. James, K. & R. Good, in press, Construct validity of the WISC-IVUK with a large referred Irish sample, International Journal of School and Educational Psychology). WISC-IV core subtest data obtained from evaluations to assess learning difficulties in 345 children (224 boys, 121 girls) were examined. One through four, first order factor models and indirect versus direct hierarchical models were compared using confirmatory factor analyses. The correlated four-factor Wechsler model provided good fit to these data, but the direct hierarchical model showed statistically significant improvement over the indirect hierarchical model and correlated four-factor model. The direct hierarchical model was judged the best explanation of the WISC-IV factor structure, with the general factor accounting for 71.6% of the common variance while the first order factors accounted for 2.4-10.3% of the common variance. Thus, the results with the present sample of referred children were similar to those from other investigations (G. E. Gignac, 2005, Revisiting the factor structure of the WAIS-R: Insights through nested factor modeling, Assessment, Vol. 12, pp. 320-329; G. E. Gignac, 2006, The WAIS-III as a nested factors model: A useful alternative to

  8. Attachment representations of school-aged Korean children: comparing family drawing and narrative assessments in a clinical and a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mi Kyoung; Chung, Unsun; Hazen, Nancy

    2018-02-01

    This study explored the links between two different methods of assessing children's attachment representations, a narrative task (the Manchester Attachment Story Task, MCAST) and a drawing task (the Family Drawing Task, FDT), in a clinical sample of 51 and a community sample of 45 Korean children aged 7-9. In both samples, attachment classifications derived from the MCAST were related to attachment classifications and global ratings derived from the FDT. In addition, rates of insecure attachment determined by MCAST classifications and by FDT global scales indicative of insecure attachment were higher in the clinical sample than the community sample. Variations in attachment patterns for these Korean samples are discussed in relation to Korean child-rearing customs. Results of this study contribute to the cross-cultural validation of both of these instruments, as well as extending our understanding of patterns of attachment in Korea from infancy to middle childhood.

  9. Attachment style, psychotic phenomena and the relationship with aggression: an investigation in a non-clinical sample

    OpenAIRE

    Whale, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Research has long suggested that there is a link between psychosis and aggression, but we continue to not fully understand that relationship. This paper aims to explore whether attachment, which is empirically linked to both psychosis and aggression, could be an important factor in understanding this relationship. Using a community sample, 213 participants participated in an online questionnaire and responded to measures of adult attachment, aggression and psychotic like events (PLE). Results...

  10. Preparation of carbon paste electrodes including poly(styrene) attached glycine-Pt(IV) for amperometric detection of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönmez, Soner; Arslan, Fatma; Sarı, Nurşen; Kurnaz Yetim, Nurdan; Arslan, Halit

    2014-04-15

    In this study, a novel carbon paste electrode that is sensitive to glucose was prepared using the nanoparticles modified (4-Formyl-3-methoxyphenoxymethyl) with polystyren (FMPS) with L-Glycine-Pt(IV) complexes. Polymeric nanoparticles having Pt(IV) ion were prepared from (4-Formyl-3-methoxyphenoxymethyl) polystyren, glycine and PtCl4 by template method. Glucose oxidase enzyme was immobilized to a modified carbon paste electrode (MCPE) by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. Determination of glucose was carried out by oxidation of enzymatically produced H2O2 at 0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Effects of pH and temperature were investigated, and optimum parameters were found to be 8.0 and 55°C, respectively. Linear working range of the electrode was 5.0×10(-6)-1.0×10(-3) M, R(2)=0.997. Storage stability and operational stability of the enzyme electrode were also studied. Glucose biosensor gave perfect reproducible results after 10 measurements with 2.3% relative standard deviation. Also, it had good storage stability (gave 53.57% of the initial amperometric response at the end of 33th day). © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Security of attachment and quality of mother-toddler social interaction in a high-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltigan, John D; Lambert, Brittany L; Seifer, Ronald; Ekas, Naomi V; Bauer, Charles R; Messinger, Daniel S

    2012-02-01

    The quality of children's social interactions and their attachment security with a primary caregiver are two widely studied indices of socioemotional functioning in early childhood. Although both Bowlby and Ainsworth suggested that the parent-child interactions underlying the development of attachment security could be distinguished from other aspects of parent-child interaction (e.g., play), relatively little empirical research has examined this proposition. The aim of the current study was to explore this issue by examining concurrent relations between toddler's attachment security in the Strange Situation Procedure and quality of mother-child social interaction in a high-risk sample of toddlers characterized by prenatal cocaine exposure and low levels of maternal education. Analyses of variance suggested limited relations between attachment security and quality of social interaction. Further research examining the interrelations among various components of the parent-child relationship is needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Attachment Representation and Sensitivity: The Moderating Role of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Refugee Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ee, Elisa; Jongmans, Marian J; van der Aa, Niels; Kleber, Rolf J

    2017-09-01

    It has been hypothesized that adult attachment representations guide caregiving behavior and influence parental sensitivity, and thus affect the child's socio-emotional development. Several studies have shown a link between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and reduced parental sensitivity, so it is possible that PTSD moderates the relationship between insecure attachment representations and insensitivity. In this study symptoms of PTSD (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire), parental sensitivity (Emotional Availability Scales), and attachment representations (Attachment Script Assessment) were assessed in 53 parents who were asylum seekers or refugees. Results showed that when parents were less able to draw on secure attachment representations, symptoms of PTSD increased the risk of insensitive parenting. These findings suggest that parental sensitivity is affected not just by attachment representations, but by a conjunction of risk factors including symptoms of PTSD and insecure attachment representations. These parents should therefore be supported to establish or confirm secure models of attachment experiences, to facilitate their ability interact sensitively and form a secure relationship with their children. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  13. Attachment and thought problems in an adolescent inpatient sample: The mediational role of theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Jessica R; Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla

    2017-10-01

    Previous research has documented increased incidence of insecure attachment and theory of mind (ToM) deficits in individuals experiencing psychotic disorders. ToM has been theorized as a possible mediator of the relation between attachment and psychosis (Korver-Nieberg et al., 2014). The current study sought to extend this area of research to adolescents for the first time by examining adolescent-parent attachment and ToM in inpatient adolescents. Participants were 362 inpatient adolescents and their parents; participants completed the Child Attachment Interview, Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition, Youth Self Report, and Child Behavior Checklist. Bivariate correlations indicated that attachment coherence (a marker of security) was significantly and positively correlated with ToM abilities, and that low attachment coherence and poor ToM performance were each associated with increased youth- and parent-reported thought problems. Mediational models indicated that ToM mediated the relation between insecure attachment and thought problems according to both parent- and self-report. The results of the current study provide support for a model in which impairments in ToM contribute to the frequently documented association between insecure attachment and emerging psychotic symptoms. Theoretical and clinical implications of these results are discussed, including the potential support for ToM-based interventions for early psychotic symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparability of DSM-IV and DSM-5 ASD Research Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazefsky, C.A.; McPartland, J.C.; Gastgeb, H.Z.; Minshew, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    DSM-5 criteria for ASD have been criticized for being too restrictive, especially for more cognitively-able individuals. It is unclear, however, if high-functioning individuals deemed eligible for research via standardized diagnostic assessments would meet DSM-5 criteria. This study investigated the impact of DSM-5 on the diagnostic status of 498 high-functioning participants with ASD research diagnoses. The percent of participants satisfying all DSM-5-requirements varied significantly with reliance on data from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS; 33%) versus Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R; 83%), highlighting the impact of diagnostic methodology on ability to document DSM-5 symptoms. Utilizing combined ADOS/ADI-R data, 93% of participants met DSM-5 criteria, which suggests likely continuity between DSM-IV and DSM-5 research samples characterized with these instruments in combination. PMID:23011251

  15. Parental PTSD, adverse parenting and child attachment in a refugee sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ee, Elisa; Kleber, Rolf J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069316929; Jongmans, Marian J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/258268743; Mooren, Trudy T.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/107551519; Out, Dorothee

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In contrast with traumatic experiences, there is a dearth of studies on the link between trauma symptoms, disconnected (frightened, threatening and dissociative) parenting behavior, extremely insensitive parenting behavior and child attachment. This study extends previous work on the

  16. Effectiveness of attachment based STEEP™ intervention in a German high-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, G J; Bohlen, U; Carlson, E A; Spangler, G; Frumentia Maier, M

    2016-10-01

    STEEP(TM) was one of the first attachment-based early intervention programs. The program applied findings from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study on Risk and Adaptation to the development of a supportive program for young high-risk mothers and their infants. STEEP's effectiveness was evaluated first in a randomized controlled study launched in 1987. The study showed effects of the one-year intervention on important individual and parenting variables, but not on quality of mother-infant attachment. In the current German study with young mothers at risk for abuse and neglect, a two-year adaptation of STEEP was evaluated within a quasi-experimental design. STEEP mother-infant pairs (N = 78) were compared with pairs who received standard services of the German Child Welfare System (GCWS, N = 29). Compared with GCWS pairs, significantly more mother-infant pairs in the intervention group showed secure attachment patterns in Ainsworth´s Strange Situation when the infants were 12 months of age. At the end of the intervention (infant age = 24 month), attachment security scores derived from Waters' Attachment Q-Sort were in the predicted direction and showed a medium effect size, but did not reach criteria of statistical significance. At both time points, the STEEP group showed significantly fewer signs of attachment disorganization than the comparison group.

  17. Correlates of self-reported adult attachment styles in a Dutch sample of married men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlsma, C.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Mutsaers, W.C M

    The relationships between attachment style, recollections of the family of origin, working model of self and others and current relational satisfaction were examined in a Dutch sample of married subjects from the general community. Measures were adapted from those developed by Hazan & Shaver (1987).

  18. A Behavior-Genetic Study of Parenting Quality, Infant Attachment Security, and Their Covariation in a Nationally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris

    2008-01-01

    A number of relatively small-sample, genetically sensitive studies of infant attachment security have been published in the past several years that challenge the view that all psychological phenotypes are heritable and that environmental influences on child development--to the extent that they can be detected--serve to make siblings dissimilar.…

  19. Determination of Tellurium(IV in Various Environmental Samples with Spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Reddy Prasad

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, simple and sensitive spectrophotometer method for the determination of traces and ultra traces of tellurium(IV were studied. These method were based on either the oxidation of leuco methylene green (LMG to its blue form of methylene green by tellurium in acidic medium, the formed dye shows an absorption maximum at 650 nm in acetate buffer medium (pH 3.0 to 5.0. Beer’s law were obeyed in the concentration range 0.4-2.5 µg mL-1, having molar absorptivity and Sandal’s sensitivity of 4.9×104 L mol-1 cm-2 , and 0.0026 µg cm-2, respectively. The optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameters were investigated to enhance the sensitivity of the present method. The tolerance limit of various ions with this method has been studied. The proposed method was applied for the analysis of tellurium in spiked, river, lake, spring, waste water samples, plant materials and soil samples. The results obtained by the proposed method were superior to the reported method. The performances of proposed methods were evaluated in terms of student’s ‘t’-test and variance ratio ‘f’-test which indicates the significance of proposed methods over reported methods.

  20. Attachment dimensions and group climate growth in a sample of women seeking treatment for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, Vanessa; Tasca, Giorgio A; Balfour, Louise; Bissada, Hany

    2011-01-01

    Adult attachment and group process research are emerging areas of research for treating eating disorders. In this study, we examined several aspects of group processes: the weekly growth of group therapy climate, the relationship between group climate growth and outcomes, and the impact of the group on individual experiences of group climate. Further, we assessed the relationship between adult attachment dimensions and these group processes. Women (n = 264) diagnosed with an eating disorder completed attachment scales pre-treatment, eating disorder symptom scales pre- and post-treatment, and group climate scales weekly during treatment. Treatment consisted of a specialized eating disorders group-based day hospital program with rolling admissions. Engaged group climate increased and Avoidance group climate decreased across weeks of treatment. Engaged group climate growth was associated with improved eating disorder symptoms post-treatment. Higher attachment avoidance at pre-treatment was related to lower Engaged group climate at week 1, and was related to a greater impact of the group on the individual's experience of group engagement. Clinicians might improve group processes and outcomes by tailoring interventions to individuals' attachment avoidance when treating women for eating disorders.

  1. Validation of a Spanish-language version of the ADHD Rating Scale IV in a Spanish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Valdivielso, M; Soutullo, C A; de Castro-Manglano, P; Marín-Méndez, J J; Díez-Suárez, A

    2017-07-14

    The purpose of this study is to validate a Spanish-language version of the 18-item ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV.es) in a Spanish sample. From a total sample of 652 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years (mean age was 11.14±3.27), we included 518 who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD and 134 healthy controls. To evaluate the factorial structure, validity, and reliability of the scale, we performed a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using structural equation modelling on a polychoric correlation matrix and maximum likelihood estimation. The scale's discriminant validity and predictive value were estimated using ROC (receiver operating characteristics) curve analysis. Both the full scale and the subscales of the Spanish-language version of the ADHD-RS-IV showed good internal consistency. Cronbach's alpha was 0.94 for the full scale and ≥ 0.90 for the subscales, and ordinal alpha was 0.95 and ≥ 0.90, respectively. CFA showed that a two-factor model (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity) provided the best fit for the data. ADHD-RS-IV.es offered good discriminant ability to distinguish between patients with ADHD and controls (AUC=0.97). The two-factor structure of the Spanish-language version of the ADHD-RS-IV (ADHD-RS-IV.es) is consistent with those of the DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 as well as with the model proposed by the author of the original scale. Furthermore, it has good discriminant ability. ADHD-RS-IV.es is therefore a valid and reliable tool for determining presence and severity of ADHD symptoms in the Spanish population. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. A new sensitive electrochemical method for the determination of vanadium(IV) and vanadium(V) in Benfield sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Munawar Saeed; Mohd Yusoff, Abdull Rahim bin; Shah, Afzal; Nafady, Ayman; Sirajuddin

    2015-01-01

    Vanadium(IV) and vanadium(V) can be determined by using differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry technique (DPCSV). Cupferron (ammonium N-nitrosophenylhydroxylamine) was used as ligand to form complex compounds with vanadium ions in Britton-Robinson buffer (BRB) solution. At concentration lower than 1.0×10(-6) M, both V(IV) and V(V) cupferron complexes showed a single cathodic peak at -0.576 V in BRB of pH 4; thus V(IV) and V(V) ions cannot be differentiated at low concentration. However, the ionic species of vanadium can be differentiated at high concentration in the presence of cupferron. Parameters including pH of BRB solution, initial potential and accumulation potential were optimized. Under the optimized parameters, the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.09 nM, and the peak current was linear in the concentration range 0.01-0.9 µM total vanadium ions. The determination of V(IV) and V(V) ions was carried out at higher concentration in the sample using calibration plot method. At higher concentration range of 10-60 µM V(IV) and V(V) ions were determined with LOD of 1.2 and 1.1 µM, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to 10,00,000 fold diluted Benfield sample and 0.6227 M total vanadium ions were determined. The determination of V(IV) and V(V) ions were also successfully carried out in artificial sample as well as Benfield sample (dilution factor, 10,000). The concentration of V(IV) and V(V) ions was 22.52 µM and 38.91 µM, respectively, giving total vanadium concentration of 0.6143 M in Benfield sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Membrane and core periplasmic Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence Type IV secretion system components localize to multiple sites around the bacterial perimeter during lateral attachment to plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Julieta; Cameron, Todd A; Zupan, John; Zambryski, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Type IV secretion systems (T4SS) transfer DNA and/or proteins into recipient cells. Here we performed immunofluorescence deconvolution microscopy to localize the assembled T4SS by detection of its native components VirB1, VirB2, VirB4, VirB5, VirB7, VirB8, VirB9, VirB10, and VirB11 in the C58 nopaline strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, following induction of virulence (vir) gene expression. These different proteins represent T4SS components spanning the inner membrane, periplasm, or outer membrane. Native VirB2, VirB5, VirB7, and VirB8 were also localized in the A. tumefaciens octopine strain A348. Quantitative analyses of the localization of all the above Vir proteins in nopaline and octopine strains revealed multiple foci in single optical sections in over 80% and 70% of the bacterial cells, respectively. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-VirB8 expression following vir induction was used to monitor bacterial binding to live host plant cells; bacteria bind predominantly along their lengths, with few bacteria binding via their poles or subpoles. vir-induced attachment-defective bacteria or bacteria without the Ti plasmid do not bind to plant cells. These data support a model where multiple vir-T4SS around the perimeter of the bacterium maximize effective contact with the host to facilitate efficient transfer of DNA and protein substrates. Transfer of DNA and/or proteins to host cells through multiprotein type IV secretion system (T4SS) complexes that span the bacterial cell envelope is critical to bacterial pathogenesis. Early reports suggested that T4SS components localized at the cell poles. Now, higher-resolution deconvolution fluorescence microscopy reveals that all structural components of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens vir-T4SS, as well as its transported protein substrates, localize to multiple foci around the cell perimeter. These results lead to a new model of A. tumefaciens attachment to a plant cell, where A. tumefaciens takes advantage of the multiple

  4. Construct Validity of the WISC-IV with a Referred Sample: Direct versus Indirect Hierarchical Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivez, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) is one of the most frequently used intelligence tests in clinical assessments of children with learning difficulties. Construct validity studies of the WISC-IV have generally supported the higher order structure with four correlated first-order factors and one higher-order…

  5. Determinants of maternal fetal attachment in women from a community-based sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.J.B.M.; Vreeswijk, C.M.J.M.; Braeken, J.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; Bakel, van H.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundMaternal fetal attachment (MFA) has been found to be an important predictor for the developing relationship between mother and child. During the last decades, research on determinants of MFA has yielded inconclusive and even contradictory results. Until now, a process model in which

  6. College Adjustment in a Multiethnic Sample: Attachment, Separation-Individuation, and Ethnic Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsner, Lydia; Pistole, M. Carole

    2003-01-01

    Two hundred fifty-two students completed the Parental Attachment Questionnaire, the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, the Multigenerational Interconnectedness Scales, and the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire, Results from Asian, Asian Indian, Black, Hispanic, and White participants revealed sex differences in predicting college…

  7. Adult attachment, intimacy and psychological distress in a clinical and community sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielage, SB; Luteijn, F; Arrindell, WA

    2005-01-01

    Attachment theory predicts that early experiences with caregivers affect the quality of individuals' later (romantic) relationships and, consequently, their mental health. The present study examined the role of intimacy in the current romantic relationship as a possible mediator of the relationship

  8. Fears of happiness and compassion in relationship with depression, alexithymia, and attachment security in a depressed sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Catarino, Francisca; Baião, Rita; Palmeira, Lara

    2014-06-01

    In a non-clinical population, fears of compassion and fear of happiness have both been found to be highly correlated with alexithymia and depression. This study sought to explore these processes and their links with adult attachment and social safeness and pleasure in a depressed group. A total of 52 participants suffering from moderate to severe depression completed measures of fears of happiness, compassion from others and for self, in addition to measures of alexithymia, attachment, social safeness, and depression, anxiety, and stress. Fears of compassion and happiness were highly correlated with alexithymia, adult attachment, and depression, anxiety, and stress. Fear of happiness was found to be the best predictor of depression, anxiety, and stress, whereas fear of compassion from others was the best predictor of adult attachment. A path analysis showed that fears of positive emotion fully mediate the link between alexithymia and depression. This clinical sample had higher mean scores in fears of positive emotions, alexithymia, and depression, anxiety, and stress than a previously studied student sample. This study adds to the evidence that fears of positive emotions are important features of mental health difficulties. Unaddressed, these fears can block positive emotions and may lead to emotional avoidance of positive affect thus contributing as blocks to successful therapy. Therapies for depression may therefore profitably assess and desensitize the fear of positive emotions. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Radioactivity concentrations and dose assessment for soil samples around nuclear power plant IV in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsuey-Lin; Lin, Chun-Chih; Wang, Tzu-Wen; Chu, Tieh-Chi

    2008-09-01

    Activity concentrations and distributions of natural and man-made radionuclides in soil samples collected around nuclear power plant IV, Taiwan, were investigated for five years to assess the environmental radioactivity and characterisation of radiological hazard prior to commercial operation. The activity concentrations of radionuclides were determined via gamma-ray spectrometry using an HPGe detector. Data obtained show that the average concentrations of the (238)U and (232)Th series, and (40)K, were within world median ranges in the UNSCEAR report. The (137)Cs ranged from 2.46 +/- 0.55 to 12.13 +/- 1.31 Bq kg(-1). The terrestrial absorbed dose rate estimated by soil activity and directly measured with a thermoluminescence dosemeter (excluding cosmic rays), and the annual effective doses, were 45.63, 57.34 nGy h(-1) and 57.19 microSv, respectively. Experimental results were compared with international recommended values. Since the soil in this area is an important building material, the mean radium equivalent activity, external and inhalation hazard indices and the representative level index using various models given in the literature for the study area were 98.18 Bq kg(-1), 0.27, 0.34 and 0.73, respectively, which were below the recommended limits. Analytical results demonstrate that no radiological anomaly exists. The baseline data will prove useful and important in estimating the collective dose near the new nuclear power plant under construction in Taiwan.

  10. Extraction chromatographic separation of platinum (IV) from real samples and associated elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokate, Sudarshan Jagdish; Kuchekar, Shashikant Raghunath

    2009-11-01

    The extraction behavior of platinum (IV) was studied with N-n-octylaniline as a function of different parameters, such as pH, concentrations of weak acids, mineral acids, reagents and elution time. A selective method was developed for the extraction chromatographic studies of platinum (IV) and its separation from several metal ions with N-n-octylaniline (liquid anion exchanger) as a stationary phase on silica gel. The quantitative extraction of platinum (IV) was observed with 0.067 mol/L N-n-octylaniline and 0.015 mol/L ascorbic acid at pH 1.0. Metal ion was stripped from the column with water and determined spectrophotometrically with stannous chloride method. The proposed method is free from the interference of a large number of cations and anions. Platinum (IV) was separated from pharmaceutical preparations, alloys and synthetic mixtures. Mutual separation scheme was developed for platinum (IV), palladium (II) and gold (III). The log-log plot of N-n-octylaniline concentration versus the distribution ratio indicates that the probable extracted species is [RR'NH2+] x Pt (C6H7O6)3-.

  11. Re-Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale in a Hungarian Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrek, Andrea; Kekecs, Zoltan; Hadhazi, Eva; Boukydis, Zack; Varga, Katalin

    2016-01-01

    To explore the factor structure of the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale (MFAS) and investigate its psychosocial and demographic correlates in a Hungarian sample. Cross-sectional survey. Sonography clinic in a metropolitan area. One hundred fourteen women over the age of 18 years in the second or third trimesters of pregnancy. Participants completed the Hungarian version of the MFAS and provided information on demographic, socioeconomic, and pregnancy-related factors. The internal consistency of the MFAS total scale was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha = .87). However, the reliability of the five subscales was low (alpha coefficients between .57 and .74), and the original five-factor model was not supported by the factor analyses. Married mothers had higher scores on the MFAS than participants who were unmarried, and uncertainty about the sex of the fetus was associated with lower attachment scores. Furthermore, gestational age showed a positive correlation with MFAS scores. No significant association was found between the total score on the MFAS and such factors as age, income, or education of the parents; whether the pregnancy was planned; method of conception; number of children born previously; prior perinatal losses; and circumstances of the mother's own birth. Our study showed that marital status, uncertainty about the sex of the fetus, and gestational age were associated with maternal-fetal attachment; however, more detailed analysis was not possible because of the instability of the subscales of the instrument. Further research is warranted on the underlying factors related to maternal-fetal attachment. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. EMP Attachment 1 DOE-SC PNNL Site Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Kirsten M.

    2011-11-10

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) is written for the radiological environmental air surveillance program for the DOE-SC PNNL Site, Richland Washington. It provides the requirements for planning sampling events, and the requirements imposed on the analytical laboratory analyzing the air samples. The actual air sampling process is in procedure EPRP-AIR-029. The rationale for analyte selection, media, and sampling site location has been vetted through the data quality objectives (DQO) process (Barnett et al. 2010). The results from the DQO process have been reviewed and approved by the Washington State Department of Health. The DQO process (Barnett et al. 2010) identified seven specific radionuclides for analysis along with the need for gross alpha and gross beta radiological analyses. The analytes are {sup 241}Am, {sup 243}Am, {sup 244}Cm, {sup 60}Co, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 233}U. The report also determined that air samples for particulates are the only sample matrix required for the monitoring program. These samples are collected on 47-mm glass-fiber filters.

  13. Quality of the relationship between origin of childhood perception of attachment and outcome of attachment associated with diagnosis of PTSD in adult Finnish war children and Finnish combat veterans from World War II (1939-1945) - DSM-IV applications of the attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Pentti Kalevi

    2015-06-01

    Using diagnoses exclusively, comparable evaluations of the empirical evidence relevant to the content can be made. The term holocaust survivor syndrome according to the DSM-IV classification encompasses people with diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorders and psychopathological symptoms exposed to the Nazi genocide from 1933-1945 identified by Natan Kellermann, AMCHA, Israel (1999). The relationships between disorders of affectionate parenting and the development of dysfunctional models on one hand, and various psychopathological disorders on the other hand were investigated. Multi-axial assessment based on PTSD diagnosis (APA, 2000) with DSM-IV classification criteria of holocaust survivor syndrome and child survivor syndrome earlier found in holocaust survivors was used as criteria for comparison among Finnish sub-populations. Symptoms similar to those previously described in association with holocaust survivor syndrome and child survivor syndrome were found in the population of Finnish people who had been displaced as children between 1939-1945. Complex PTSD syndrome is found among survivors of prolonged or repeated trauma who have coping strategies intended to assist their mental survival. Surviving Finnish child evacuees had symptoms at similar level to those reported among holocaust survivors, though Finnish combat veterans exhibited good mental adjustment with secure attachment.

  14. DSM-IV and DSM-5 Prevalence of Social Anxiety Disorder in a Population Sample of Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Björn; Sigström, Robert; Östling, Svante; Waern, Margda; Börjesson-Hanson, Anne; Skoog, Ingmar

    2016-12-01

    To examine the prevalence of social anxiety disorders (SAD) with (DSM-IV) and without (DSM-5) the person's own assessment that the fear was unreasonable, in a population sample of older adults. Further, to determine whether clinical and sociodemographic correlates of SAD differ depending on the criteria applied. Cross-sectional. General population in Gothenburg, Sweden. A random population-based sample of 75- and 85-year olds (N = 1200) without dementia. Psychiatric research nurses carried out a semi-structured psychiatric examination including the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale. DSM-IV SAD was diagnosed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. SAD was diagnosed according to DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria. The 6-month duration criterion in DSM-5 was not applied because of lack of information. Other assessments included the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), the Brief Scale for Anxiety (BSA), and the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). The 1-month prevalence of SAD was 2.5% (N = 30) when the unreasonable fear criterion was defined in accordance with DSM-IV and 5.1% (N = 61) when the DSM-5 criterion was applied. Clinical correlates (GAF, MADRS, and BSA) were worse in SAD cases identified by either procedure compared with all others, and ratings for those reporting unreasonable fear suggested greater (albeit nonsignificant) overall psychopathology. Shifting the judgment of how reasonable the fear was, from the individual to the clinician, doubled the prevalence of SAD. This indicates that the DSM-5 version might increase prevalence rates of SAD in the general population. Further studies strictly applying all DSM-5 criteria are needed in order to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling the dimensionality of DSM-IV alcohol use disorder criteria in a nationally representative sample of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlke, Sarah J; Hagman, Brett T; Cohn, Amy M

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the dimensionality of DSM-IV alcohol use disorder (AUD) criteria in a nationally representative sample of college students (N = 4,605) using latent variable techniques. We used data from the 2009 National Survey of Drug Use and Health and selected those who were currently enrolled in college and current drinkers. Confirmatory factor analysis provided support for a one-factor solution of the AUD criteria. Item Response Theory analyses indicated that the alcohol abuse and dependence criteria severity parameters were intermixed along the AUD severity continuum with high discrimination parameters. Findings support reformulating the current AUD diagnostic system for the DSM-V. Study's limitations are noted.

  16. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  17. Parent-teacher concordance for DSM-IV attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a clinic-referred sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsis, E M; McKay, K E; Schulz, K P; Newcorn, J H; Halperin, J M

    2000-03-01

    To examine concordance between parent and teacher reports of DSM-IV attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its symptoms. Parents and teachers of 74 clinically referred children were interviewed using the ADHD module of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Parent-teacher agreement for the diagnosis of ADHD and its subtypes, as defined in DSM-IV, as well as parent-teacher concordance of in-school ADHD symptoms, was examined. Agreement between parents and teachers was found to be relatively poor, with virtually no agreement for individual ADHD subtypes. Diagnoses based on either parent or teacher report frequently yielded a diagnosis of either inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive subtype of ADHD. However, when cross-informant data were used to form diagnoses, these subtypes became relatively rare, with most cases meeting criteria for ADHD combined type. In addition, parent reports of in-school behavior were more highly correlated with their own reports of their child's behavior at home than with teacher reports of their child's behavior in school. These data suggest that the diagnosis of ADHD inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive subtype based on data from a single informant may be of questionable validity, and they point to the importance of using multiple informants when diagnosing this disorder in clinically referred samples.

  18. Pilot Testing of a Sampling Methodology for Assessing Seed Attachment Propensity and Transport Rate in a Soil Matrix Carried on Boot Soles and Bike Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Nigel; Dietz, Kristina Charlotte; Bride, Ian; Passfield, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Land managers of natural areas are under pressure to balance demands for increased recreation access with protection of the natural resource. Unintended dispersal of seeds by visitors to natural areas has high potential for weedy plant invasions, with initial seed attachment an important step in the dispersal process. Although walking and mountain biking are popular nature-based recreation activities, there are few studies quantifying propensity for seed attachment and transport rate on boot soles and none for bike tires. Attachment and transport rate can potentially be affected by a wide range of factors for which field testing can be time-consuming and expensive. We pilot tested a sampling methodology for measuring seed attachment and transport rate in a soil matrix carried on boot soles and bike tires traversing a known quantity and density of a seed analog (beads) over different distances and soil conditions. We found % attachment rate on boot soles was much lower overall than previously reported, but that boot soles had a higher propensity for seed attachment than bike tires in almost all conditions. We believe our methodology offers a cost-effective option for researchers seeking to manipulate and test effects of different influencing factors on these two dispersal vectors.

  19. Item response theory analyses of DSM-IV and DSM-5 stimulant use disorder criteria in an American Indian community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilder, David A; Gizer, Ian R; Lau, Philip; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2014-02-01

    Native Americans experience some of the highest rates of DSM-IV stimulant dependence (SD) of all U.S. ethnic groups. This report compares DSM-IV and DSM-5 stimulant use disorder (SUD) diagnostic criteria in an American Indian community sample. Demographic information, stimulant (methamphetamine or cocaine) use, and lifetime DSM-IV and DSM-5 diagnoses were assessed in 858 adult American Indians. Item Response Theory (IRT) analyses were used to assess SUD criteria in both DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria sets along an underlying latent trait severity continuum and the effect of demographic variables on differential item functioning (DIF) in those criteria. The overall rate of DSM-IV SD was 33%, of DSM-IV SUD was 38%, and of DSM-5 SUD was 36% with no gender differences. All SUD symptoms in both the DSM-IV and DSM-5 datasets functioned on the moderate portion of the underlying severity continuum. "Craving" discriminated better than any other criterion at its level of severity in indicating the presence or absence of SUD. There was little DIF in groups defined by gender or any other demographic variable in either the DSM-IV or DSM-5 datasets. These findings indicate that in this American Indian sample, diagnostic criteria for DSM-IV and DSM-5 SUD function similarly in terms of severity and DIF and that the abolition of the DSM-IV distinction between stimulant abuse and dependence in DSM-5 is warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Attachment organization in a sample of incarcerated mothers: distribution of classifications and associations with substance abuse history, depressive symptoms, perceptions of parenting competency and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Jessica L; Goshin, Lorie; Joestl, Sarah; Clark, Juliette; Byrne, Mary W

    2010-07-01

    We report attachment classifications in a sample of pregnant women incarcerated in a state prison with a nursery program. Analyses were based on 69 women serving sentences for felony crimes who were followed from the birth of their child to completion of the prison nursery co-residence. They completed the Adult Attachment Interview shortly after entering the program and scales measuring depression, perceived parenting competency, and social support at study entry (Time 1) and program completion (Time 2). Incarcerated mothers had higher rates of insecure attachment than previous low-risk community samples. Compared with dismissing and secure mothers, preoccupied mothers reported higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower parenting competency, and lower satisfaction with social support at the conclusion of the nursery program. Higher scores on unresolved loss and derogation were associated with a history of substance abuse; higher scores on unresolved trauma were associated with depressive symptoms at program completion.

  1. Mind-Mindedness as a Multidimensional Construct: Appropriate and Nonattuned Mind-Related Comments Independently Predict Infant-Mother Attachment in a Socially Diverse Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles; de Rosnay, Marc; Arnott, Bronia; Leekam, Susan R.; Turner, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    In a socially diverse sample of 206 infant-mother pairs, we investigated predictors of infants' attachment security at 15 months, with a particular emphasis on mothers' tendency to comment appropriately or in a non-attuned manner on their 8-month-olds' internal states (so-called mind-mindedness). Multinomial logistic regression analyses showed…

  2. Big River Reservoir Project - Pawcatuck River and Narragansett bay Drainage Basins - Water and related Land Resources Study Volume IV. Attachment I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    to that area. The- tunnel ,i i . ,.y to prowJ . .elief ard v i w a I cannot condone i .L - t.i , iv,,,rsely affect the residents of Greenwood livi...stores), 488 apartments of the Del Rio Coro:-. Bulova Company,Ciba-Geigy Chemical, and in two industrial p;aks; ,’Jie of real property exceeds a low of 90...effects on fish larvae. This section does not consider future usos nr- 1 changing needs of society with respect to managing coastal zone areas. A e iasion

  3. Efficiency and limitation of periodic sample multiplication to reduce computational load in Monte Carlo simulations of electron swarms in gas under attachment-dominated conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Hirotake

    2018-03-01

    In Monte Carlo simulations of electron swarms, sample electrons were copied periodically so that a sufficient number of samples are obtained in equilibrium after relaxation even under a severe attachment-dominated condition where most electrons vanish during the relaxation. The final sampling results were equivalent to those sampled by a conventional method, and the computational time conventionally wasted for the tracking of vanishing electrons was reduced drastically. The time saved can be utilized for tracking more samples to reduce statistical fluctuation. The efficiency of this technique and its limitation are discussed quantitatively together with details on its implementation.

  4. Diagnostic criteria for bipolarity based on an international sample of 5,635 patients with DSM-IV major depressive episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angst, J; Gamma, A; Bowden, C L; Azorin, J M; Perugi, G; Vieta, E; Young, A H

    2012-02-01

    To assess the clinical validity of individual DSM-IV criteria for hypomania. In an international sample of 5,635 patients with major depressive episodes (Bridge Study), DSM-IV criteria for hypomania (stem questions, number and quality of symptoms, duration and exclusion criteria) were systematically assessed and their validity analysed on the basis of clinical data including family history, course, and other clinical characteristics. Three stem questions for hypomania, irritability, elevated mood and the added question of increased activity, showed comparable validity. The results support the current DSM-IV requirement for a higher symptom threshold (4 of 7 hypomanic symptoms) in cases of irritable mood. Longer durations of hypomanic episodes were associated with higher scores on all validators. The results did not support the DSM-IV durational requirements for hypomanic episodes (4 days) and manic episodes (7 days). Brief hypomanic episodes of 1, 2 or 3 days were valid and would meet validity criteria for inclusion. The three exclusion criteria in DSM-IV (hypomania due to the use of antidepressants or of other substances, or to other medical conditions) were found to exclude patients with bipolar depression and should therefore not be retained. These results support several revisions of the DSM-IV concept of hypomanic episodes: specifically, the inclusion of increased activity as a gate question, the inclusion of 1 or 2 to 3-day episodes and the elimination of all exclusion criteria.

  5. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Diagnoses (Kid-SCID): first psychometric evaluation in a Dutch sample of clinically referred youths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, J.; Muris, P.; Braet, C.; Arntz, A.; Beelen, I.

    2015-01-01

    The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Disorders (Kid-SCID) is a semi-structured interview for the classification of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. This study presents a first evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Kid-SCID in a Dutch sample of children

  6. Diagnostic concordance of DSM-IV and DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, María; Gómez, M M

    2016-05-01

    The present study aims to analyze diagnostic concordance between the DSM-IV and the DSM-5 for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria and their different groups of symptoms. Furthermore, analyses are conducted to establish the features of participants with no concordant diagnoses. The study assessed 166 people over 18 who had experienced at least one traumatic event. PTSD diagnosis was established using the Global Scale for Posttraumatic Stress (EGEP), a self-report measure to assess PTSD. The presence of cognitive avoidance was a determinant in the PTSD DSM-5 diagnosis (86% positive predictive value). The analysis of the non-concordant individuals revealed that individuals who were diagnosed according to the DSM-IV criteria but not the DSM-5 criteria were primarily indirect victims. Conversely, individuals who were diagnosed with the DSM-5 criteria and not with the DSM-IV criteria presented cognitive avoidance and alterations in cognition not included in the DSM-IV criteria. A within-subjects concordance analysis showed high agreement for PTSD diagnosis between the two classifications. Differences between the diagnoses are due to the new definition of C (avoidance) and D (negative alterations in cognitions and mood) in the DSM-5.

  7. A comparison of DSM-IV pervasive developmental disorder and DSM-5 autism spectrum disorder prevalence in an epidemiologic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Shin; Fombonne, Eric; Koh, Yun-Joo; Kim, Soo-Jeong; Cheon, Keun-Ah; Leventhal, Bennett L

    2014-05-01

    Changes in autism diagnostic criteria found in DSM-5 may affect autism spectrum disorder (ASD) prevalence, research findings, diagnostic processes, and eligibility for clinical and other services. Using our published, total-population Korean prevalence data, we compute DSM-5 ASD and social communication disorder (SCD) prevalence and compare them with DSM-IV pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) prevalence estimates. We also describe individuals previously diagnosed with DSM-IV PDD when diagnoses change with DSM-5 criteria. The target population was all children from 7 to 12 years of age in a South Korean community (N = 55,266), those in regular and special education schools, and a disability registry. We used the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire for systematic, multi-informant screening. Parents of screen-positive children were offered comprehensive assessments using standardized diagnostic procedures, including the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Best-estimate clinical diagnoses were made using DSM-IV PDD and DSM-5 ASD and SCD criteria. DSM-5 ASD estimated prevalence was 2.20% (95% confidence interval = 1.77-3.64). Combined DSM-5 ASD and SCD prevalence was virtually the same as DSM-IV PDD prevalence (2.64%). Most children with autistic disorder (99%), Asperger disorder (92%), and PDD-NOS (63%) met DSM-5 ASD criteria, whereas 1%, 8%, and 32%, respectively, met SCD criteria. All remaining children (2%) had other psychopathology, principally attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and anxiety disorder. Our findings suggest that most individuals with a prior DSM-IV PDD meet DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ASD and SCD. PDD, ASD or SCD; extant diagnostic criteria identify a large, clinically meaningful group of individuals and families who require evidence-based services. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Voltammetric determination of Se(IV) and Se(VI) in saline samples-Studies with seawater, hydrothermal and hemodialysis fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Paulo C. do, E-mail: npaulo@quimica.ufsm.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, C.P. 5051, 97105-970 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Jost, Cristiane L.; Carvalho, Leandro M. de; Bohrer, Denise [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, C.P. 5051, 97105-970 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Koschinsky, Andrea [School of Engineering and Science, Geosciences and Astrophysics, Jacobs University Bremen GmbH, P.O. Box 750561, D-28725 Bremen (Germany)

    2009-08-26

    Determination of Se(IV) and Se(VI) in high saline media was investigated by cathodic stripping voltammetry (CSV). The voltammetric method was applied to assay selenium in seawater, hydrothermal and hemodialysis fluids. The influence of ionic strength on selenium determination is discussed. The CSV method was based on the co-electrodeposition of Se(IV) with Cu(II) ions and Se(VI) determined by difference after sample UV-irradiation for photolytic selenium reduction. UV-irradiation was also used as sample pre-treatment for organic matter decomposition. Detection limit of 0.030 {mu}g L{sup -1} (240 s deposition time) and relative standard deviation (RSD) of 6.19% (n = 5) for 5.0 {mu}g L{sup -1} of Se(IV) were calculated. Linear calibration range for selenium was observed from 1.0 to 100.0 {mu}g L{sup -1}. Concerning the pre-treatment step, best results were obtained by using 60 min UV-irradiation interval in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/HCl medium. Se(VI) was reduced to the Se(IV) electroactive species with recoveries between 91.7% and 112.9%. Interferents were also investigated.

  9. Childhood abuse and neglect and insecure attachment states of mind in adulthood: Prospective, longitudinal evidence from a high-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, K Lee; Labella, Madelyn H; Martin, Jodi; Carlson, Elizabeth A; Roisman, Glenn I

    2017-05-01

    The present report used data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation to investigate the factor structure and childhood abuse and/or neglect related antecedents of adults' attachment states of mind in a high-risk sample. Adult Attachment Interviews (AAIs) were collected when participants were age 26 years (N = 164) and Current Relationship Interviews (CRIs) were collected from participants (N = 116) and their romantic partners when target participants were between ages 20 and 28 years (M = 25.3 years). For both the AAI and the CRI, exploratory factor analyses revealed that (a) attachment state of mind scales loaded on two weakly correlated dimensions reflecting dismissing and preoccupied states of mind and (b) ratings of unresolved discourse loaded on the same factor as indicators of preoccupied states of mind. Experiencing any subtype of abuse and/or neglect, especially during multiple developmental periods, and experiencing multiple subtypes of abuse and/or neglect during childhood were associated with risk for preoccupied (but not dismissing) AAI states of mind regarding childhood relationships with caregivers. Analyses focused on the particular subtypes, and perpetrators indicated that the predictive significance of childhood abuse/neglect for adult's AAI preoccupied states of mind was specific to experiences of abuse (but not neglect) perpetrated by primary caregivers. In addition, experiencing chronic or multiple subtypes of childhood abuse and/or neglect increased risk for dismissing (but not preoccupied) CRI states of mind regarding adult romantic partners.

  10. Post-traumatic stress disorder in DSM-5: estimates of prevalence and criteria comparison versus DSM-IV-TR in a non-clinical sample of earthquake survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmassi, C; Akiskal, H S; Yong, S S; Stratta, P; Calderani, E; Massimetti, E; Akiskal, K K; Rossi, A; Dell'Osso, L

    2013-12-01

    The latest edition of DSM (DSM-5) introduced important revisions to PTSD symptomatological criteria, such as a four-factor model and the inclusion of new symptoms. To date, only a few studies have investigated the impact that the proposed DSM-5 criteria will have on prevalence rates of PTSD. An overall sample of 512 adolescents who survived the L'Aquila 2009 earthquake and were previously investigated for the presence of full and partial PTSD, using DSM-IV-TR criteria, were reassessed according to DSM-5 criteria. All subjects completed the Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR). A DSM-5 PTSD diagnosis emerged in 39.8% of subjects, with a significant difference between the two sexes (pDSM-IV-TR. Most of the inconsistent diagnoses that fulfilled DSM-IV-TR criteria but not DSM-5 criteria can be attributed to the subjects not fulfilling the new criterion C (active avoidance). Each DSM-5 symptom was more highly correlated with its corresponding symptom cluster than with other symptom clusters, but two of the new symptoms showed moderate to weak item-cluster correlations. Among DSM-5 PTSD cases: 7 (3.4%) endorsed symptom D3; 151 (74%) D4; 28 (13.7%) both D3 and D4; 75 (36.8%) E2. The use of a self-report instrument; no information on comorbidity; homogeneity of study sample; lack of assessment on functional impairment; the rates of DSM-IV-TR qualified PTSD in the sample was only 37.5%. This study provides an inside look at the empirical performance of the DSM-5 PTSD criteria in a population exposed to a natural disaster, which suggests the need for replication in larger epidemiological samples. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Psychometric properties of a 20-item version of the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale in a sample of Italian expectant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busonera, Alessandra; Cataudella, Stefania; Lampis, Jessica; Tommasi, Marco; Zavattini, Giulio Cesare

    2016-03-01

    the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale (MFAS), a 24-item self-report questionnaire to measure the antenatal maternal feeling towards the unborn baby, was introduced by Mecca Cranley in 1981. Despite the widespread use of the questionnaire in clinical and research contexts, issues exist about its psychometric properties. An analysis of the literature showed the need for studies aimed at reviewing the MFAS by eliminating some items and modifying and "modernising" others. This study started from these suggestions and aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of a modified 20-item Italian version of the scale. the original MFAS was back translated and then administered to a pilot sample of 20 pregnant women in order to identify items hard to understand, inappropriate or ambiguous. On the basis of qualitative information derived from this pilot phase, we developed a 20-item Italian version of the MFAS that was later administered to a large sample of pregnant women. antenatal education classes carried out in public and private structures of Italian central and insular regions. a sample of 482 women in middle and late pregnancy, attending antenatal education classes between February 2013 and October 2014. the modified MFAS was administered together with other scales measuring maternal-fetal attachment, psychological well-being, relational variables. Internal consistencies were evaluated using Cronbach׳s alpha. Nomological validity was assessed via Pearson correlations. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to test the factor structure. the hypothesised relationships with external criteria were partially substantiated. Exploratory factor analyses suggested a three-dimensional structure. Confirmatory factor analyses provided general support for an oblique three-factor model. Internal consistency was adequate for the total scale and for two of the three subscales. the 20-item Italian version of the MFAS is a reliable measure of maternal attachment to

  12. Applicability of the ICD-11 proposal for PTSD: a comparison of prevalence and comorbidity rates with the DSM-IV PTSD classification in two post-conflict samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammel, Nadine; Abbing, Eva M.; Heeke, Carina; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization recently proposed significant changes to the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria in the 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Objective The present study investigated the impact of these changes in two different post-conflict samples. Method Prevalence and rates of concurrent depression and anxiety, socio-demographic characteristics, and indicators of clinical severity according to ICD-11 in 1,075 Cambodian and 453 Colombian civilians exposed to civil war and genocide were compared to those according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Results Results indicated significantly lower prevalence rates under the ICD-11 proposal (8.1% Cambodian sample and 44.4% Colombian sample) compared to the DSM-IV (11.2% Cambodian sample and 55.0% Colombian sample). Participants meeting a PTSD diagnosis only under the ICD-11 proposal had significantly lower rates of concurrent depression and a lower concurrent total score (depression and anxiety) compared to participants meeting only DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. There were no significant differences in socio-demographic characteristics and indicators of clinical severity between these two groups. Conclusions The lower prevalence of PTSD according to the ICD-11 proposal in our samples of persons exposed to a high number of traumatic events may counter criticism of previous PTSD classifications to overuse the PTSD diagnosis in populations exposed to extreme stressors. Also another goal, to better distinguish PTSD from comorbid disorders could be supported with our data. PMID:25989951

  13. Posttraumatic stress disorder according to DSM-5 and DSM-IV diagnostic criteria: a comparison in a sample of Congolese ex-combatants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Susanne; Koebach, Anke; Hinkel, Harald; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Compared to DSM-IV, the criteria for diagnosing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been modified in DSM-5. Objective The first aim of this study was to examine how these modifications impact rates of PTSD in a sample of Congolese ex-combatants. The second goal of this study was to investigate whether PTSD symptoms were associated with perpetrator-related acts or victim-related traumatic events. Method Ninety-five male ex-combatants in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo were interviewed. Both the DSM-IV and the DSM-5 PTSD symptom criteria were assessed. Results The DSM-5 symptom criteria yielded a PTSD rate of 50% (n=47), whereas the DSM-IV symptom criteria were met by 44% (n=42). If the DSM-5 would be set as the current “gold standard,” then DSM-IV would have produced more false negatives (8%) than false positives (3%). A minority of participants (19%, n=18) indicated an event during which they were involved as a perpetrator as their most stressful event. Results of a regression analysis (R 2=0.40) showed that, after accounting for the number of types of traumatic events, perpetrated violent acts were not associated with the symptom severity of PTSD. Conclusions The findings demonstrate that more diagnostic cases were produced with the DSM-5 diagnostic rules than were dropped resulting in an increase in PTSD rates compared to the DSM-IV system. The missing association between PTSD symptoms and perpetrated violent acts might be explained by a potential fascinating and excited perception of these acts. PMID:25720994

  14. Posttraumatic stress disorder according to DSM-5 and DSM-IV diagnostic criteria: a comparison in a sample of Congolese ex-combatants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Susanne; Koebach, Anke; Hinkel, Harald; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Compared to DSM-IV, the criteria for diagnosing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been modified in DSM-5. The first aim of this study was to examine how these modifications impact rates of PTSD in a sample of Congolese ex-combatants. The second goal of this study was to investigate whether PTSD symptoms were associated with perpetrator-related acts or victim-related traumatic events. Ninety-five male ex-combatants in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo were interviewed. Both the DSM-IV and the DSM-5 PTSD symptom criteria were assessed. The DSM-5 symptom criteria yielded a PTSD rate of 50% (n=47), whereas the DSM-IV symptom criteria were met by 44% (n=42). If the DSM-5 would be set as the current "gold standard," then DSM-IV would have produced more false negatives (8%) than false positives (3%). A minority of participants (19%, n=18) indicated an event during which they were involved as a perpetrator as their most stressful event. RESULTS of a regression analysis (R (2)=0.40) showed that, after accounting for the number of types of traumatic events, perpetrated violent acts were not associated with the symptom severity of PTSD. The findings demonstrate that more diagnostic cases were produced with the DSM-5 diagnostic rules than were dropped resulting in an increase in PTSD rates compared to the DSM-IV system. The missing association between PTSD symptoms and perpetrated violent acts might be explained by a potential fascinating and excited perception of these acts.

  15. Posttraumatic stress disorder according to DSM-5 and DSM-IV diagnostic criteria: a comparison in a sample of Congolese ex-combatants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Schaal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Compared to DSM-IV, the criteria for diagnosing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD have been modified in DSM-5. Objective: The first aim of this study was to examine how these modifications impact rates of PTSD in a sample of Congolese ex-combatants. The second goal of this study was to investigate whether PTSD symptoms were associated with perpetrator-related acts or victim-related traumatic events. Method: Ninety-five male ex-combatants in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo were interviewed. Both the DSM-IV and the DSM-5 PTSD symptom criteria were assessed. Results: The DSM-5 symptom criteria yielded a PTSD rate of 50% (n=47, whereas the DSM-IV symptom criteria were met by 44% (n=42. If the DSM-5 would be set as the current “gold standard,” then DSM-IV would have produced more false negatives (8% than false positives (3%. A minority of participants (19%, n=18 indicated an event during which they were involved as a perpetrator as their most stressful event. Results of a regression analysis (R 2=0.40 showed that, after accounting for the number of types of traumatic events, perpetrated violent acts were not associated with the symptom severity of PTSD. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate that more diagnostic cases were produced with the DSM-5 diagnostic rules than were dropped resulting in an increase in PTSD rates compared to the DSM-IV system. The missing association between PTSD symptoms and perpetrated violent acts might be explained by a potential fascinating and excited perception of these acts.

  16. Prevalence of DSM-IV and DSM-5 Alcohol, Cocaine, Opioid, and Cannabis Use Disorders in a Largely Substance Dependent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Kyle; Rennert, Lior; Lynch, Kevin G.; Farrer, Lindsay; Gelernter, Joel; Kranzler, Henry R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) will soon replace the DSM-IV, which has existed for nearly two decades. The changes in diagnostic criteria have important implications for research and for the clinical care of individuals with Substance Use Disorders (SUDs). METHODS We used the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism to evaluate the lifetime presence of DSM-IV abuse and dependence diagnoses and DSM-5 mild, moderate, or severe SUDs for alcohol, cocaine, opioids, and cannabis in a sample of 7,543 individuals recruited to participate in genetic studies of substance dependence. RESULTS Switches between diagnostic systems consistently resulted in a modestly greater prevalence for DSM-5 SUDs, based largely on the assignment of DSM-5 diagnoses to DSM-IV “diagnostic ophans” (i.e., individuals meeting one or two criteria for dependence and none for abuse, and thus not receiving a DSM-IV SUD diagnosis). The vast majority of these diagnostic switches were attributable to the requirement that only two of 11 criteria be met for a DSM-5 SUD diagnosis. We found evidence to support the omission from DSM-5 of the legal criterion due to its limited diagnostic utility. The addition of craving as a criterion in DSM-5 did not substantially affect the likelihood of an SUD diagnosis. CONCLUSION The greatest advantage of DSM-5 appears to be its ability to capture diagnostic orphans. In this sample, changes reflected in DSM-5 had a minimal impact on the prevalence of SUD diagnoses. PMID:22884164

  17. Prevalence of DSM-IV and DSM-5 alcohol, cocaine, opioid, and cannabis use disorders in a largely substance dependent sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Kyle; Rennert, Lior; Lynch, Kevin G; Farrer, Lindsay; Gelernter, Joel; Kranzler, Henry R

    2013-01-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) will soon replace the DSM-IV, which has existed for nearly two decades. The changes in diagnostic criteria have important implications for research and for the clinical care of individuals with Substance Use Disorders (SUDs). We used the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism to evaluate the lifetime presence of DSM-IV abuse and dependence diagnoses and DSM-5 mild, moderate, or severe SUDs for alcohol, cocaine, opioids, and cannabis in a sample of 7,543 individuals recruited to participate in genetic studies of substance dependence. Switches between diagnostic systems consistently resulted in a modestly greater prevalence for DSM-5 SUDs, based largely on the assignment of DSM-5 diagnoses to DSM-IV "diagnostic orphans" (i.e., individuals meeting one or two criteria for dependence and none for abuse, and thus not receiving a DSM-IV SUD diagnosis). The vast majority of these diagnostic switches were attributable to the requirement that only two of 11 criteria be met for a DSM-5 SUD diagnosis. We found evidence to support the omission from DSM-5 of the legal criterion due to its limited diagnostic utility. The addition of craving as a criterion in DSM-5 did not substantially affect the likelihood of an SUD diagnosis. The greatest advantage of DSM-5 for the diagnosis of SUDs appears to be its ability to capture diagnostic orphans. In this sample, changes reflected in DSM-5 had a minimal impact on the prevalence of SUD diagnoses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimating the Prevalence of Binge Eating Disorder in a Community Sample From the United States: Comparing DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossrow, Nicole; Pawaskar, Manjiri; Witt, Edward A; Ming, Eileen E; Victor, Timothy W; Herman, Barry K; Wadden, Thomas A; Erder, M Haim

    2016-08-01

    To estimate binge eating disorder (BED) prevalence according to DSM-5 and DSM-IV-TR criteria in US adults and to estimate the proportion of individuals meeting DSM-5 BED criteria who reported being formally diagnosed. A representative sample of US adults who participated in the National Health and Wellness Survey were asked to respond to an Internet survey (conducted in October 2013). Assessments included 3-month, 12-month, and lifetime BED prevalence based on DSM-5 and DSM-IV-TR criteria and demographics, psychiatric comorbidities, and self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). Descriptive statistics are provided. Prevalence estimates were calculated using poststratification sampling weights. Of 22,397 respondents, 344 (women, n = 242; men, n = 102) self-reported symptoms consistent with DSM-5 BED symptom criteria. The 3-month, 12-month, and lifetime DSM-5 prevalence estimates (95% CIs) projected to the US population were 1.19% (1.04%-1.37%), 1.64% (1.45%-1.85%), and 2.03% (1.83%-2.26%), respectively. The 12-month and lifetime projected DSM-IV-TR prevalence estimates were 1.15% (1.00%-1.32%) and 1.52% (1.35%-1.70%), respectively. Of respondents meeting DSM-5 BED criteria in the past 12 months, 3.2% (11/344) reported receiving a formal diagnosis. Compared with non-BED respondents, respondents meeting DSM-5 BED criteria in the past 12 months were younger (mean ± SD age = 46.01 ± 14.32 vs 51.59 ± 15.80 years; P DSM-5 BED criteria resulted in higher BED prevalence estimates than with DSM-IV-TR criteria. Most BED respondents did not report being formally diagnosed, indicating an unmet need in BED recognition and diagnosis. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  19. Feasibility and efficacy of an attachment-based intervention in a maltreatment sample in residential care: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casonato, Marta; Nazzari, Sarah; Frigerio, Alessandra

    2017-10-01

    The effects of the Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline on improving maternal sensitivity and sensitive discipline were investigated using a randomized control design in a pilot sample of mothers at high risk of maltreatment. The study included 12 mothers and their 10- to 36-month-old children placed in parental residential care, due to a guardianship order issued by the Youth Court. Both at pretest and post-test, maternal sensitivity and sensitive discipline were assessed during mother-child interaction via observational measures. Mothers who received the intervention showed a significant reduction in dysfunctional strategies of maternal discipline. Results highlight the usefulness and feasibility of a brief residential care-based intervention in such a risk sample, with promising implications for the prevention of child maltreatment.

  20. Product Attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugge, R.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of this doctoral research is the concept of product attachment for ordinary consumer durables. Product attachment is defined as the strength of the emotional bond a consumer experiences with a specific product. Specifically, the research investigated how this bond develops over time and

  1. DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 eating disorders in adolescents: prevalence, stability, and psychosocial correlates in a population-based sample of male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Karina L; Byrne, Susan M; Oddy, Wendy H; Crosby, Ross D

    2013-08-01

    The current study aimed to compare the prevalence, stability, and psychosocial correlates of DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 eating disorders, in a population-based sample of male and female adolescents followed prospectively from 14 to 20 years of age. Participants (N = 1,383; 49% male) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a prospective, population-based cohort study that has followed participants from prebirth to young adulthood. Detailed self-report questionnaires were used to assess eating disorder symptoms when participants were aged 14, 17, and 20 years. Comparisons between DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 were conducted using McNemar chi-square tests and Fisher's exact tests. Changes in eating disorder prevalence over time were considered using generalized estimating equations. Eating disorder prevalence rates were significantly greater when using DSM-5 than DSM-IV-TR criteria, at all time points for females and at age 17 only for males. "Unspecified"/"other" eating disorder diagnoses were significantly less common when applying DSM-5 than DSM-IV-TR criteria, but still formed 15% to 30% of the DSM-5 cases. Diagnostic stability was low for all disorders, and DSM-5 binge eating disorder or purging disorder in early adolescence predicted DSM-5 bulimia nervosa in later adolescence. Cross-over from binge eating disorder to bulimia nervosa was particularly high. Regardless of the diagnostic classification system used, all eating disorder diagnoses were associated with depressive symptoms and poor mental health quality of life. These results provide further support for the clinical utility of DSM-5 eating disorder criteria, and for the significance of binge eating disorder and purging disorder. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Age at onset of DSM-IV pathological gambling in a non-treatment sample: Early- versus later-onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W; Shaw, Martha; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2015-07-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a prevalent and impairing public health problem. In this study we assessed age at onset in men and women with PG and compared the demographic and clinical picture of early- vs. later-onset individuals. We also compared age at onset in PG subjects and their first-degree relatives with PG. Subjects with DSM-IV PG were recruited during the conduct of two non-treatment clinical studies. Subjects were evaluated with structured interviews and validated questionnaires. Early-onset was defined as PG starting prior to age 33years. Age at onset of PG in the 255 subjects ranged from 8 to 80years with a mean (SD) of 34.0 (15.3) years. Men had an earlier onset than women. 84% of all subjects with PG had developed the disorder by age 50years. Early-onset subjects were more likely to be male, to prefer action games, and to have substance use disorders, antisocial personality disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, trait impulsiveness, and social anxiety disorder. Later-onset was more common in women and was associated with a preference for slots and a history of sexual abuse. Age at onset of PG is bimodal and differs for men and women. Early-onset PG and later-onset PG have important demographic and clinical differences. The implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Simultaneous coprecipitation of lead, cobalt, copper, cadmium, iron and nickel in food samples with zirconium(IV) hydroxide prior to their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citak, Demirhan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-09-01

    A simple and new coprecipitation procedure is developed for the determination of trace quantities of heavy metals (lead, cobalt, copper, cadmium, iron and nickel) in natural water and food samples. Analyte ions were coprecipitated by using zirconium(IV) hydroxide. The determination of metal levels was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The influences of analytical parameters including pH, amount of zirconium(IV), sample volume, etc. were investigated on the recoveries of analyte ions. The effects of possible matrix ions were also examined. The recoveries of the analyte ions were in the range of 95-100%. Preconcentration factor was calculated as 25. The detection limits for the analyte ions based on 3 sigma (n=21) were in the range of 0.27-2.50 microgL(-1). Relative standard deviation was found to be lower than 8%. The validation of the presented coprecipitation procedure was performed by the analysis certified reference materials (GBW 07605 Tea and LGC 6010 Hard drinking water). The procedure was successfully applied to natural waters and food samples like coffee, fish, tobacco, black and green tea.

  4. Impact of Maternal Attachment Style on Mother to Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghaddam Hoseini V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.486.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.893.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.

  5. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Lens Search. IV. Statistical Lens Sample from the Fifth Data Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, Naohisa; /Wako, RIKEN /Tokyo U., ICEPP; Oguri, Masamune; /Natl. Astron. Observ. of Japan /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Shin, Min-Su; /Michigan U. /Princeton U. Observ.; Kayo, Issha; /Tokyo U., ICRR; Strauss, Michael A.; /Princeton U. Observ.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; /UC, Berkeley /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. Astron.; Morokuma, Tomoki; /Natl. Astron. Observ. of Japan; Becker, Robert H.; /LLNL, Livermore /UC, Davis; White, Richard L.; /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; /Ohio State U.; Gregg, Michael D.; /LLNL, Livermore /UC, Davis /Exeter U.

    2010-05-01

    We present the second report of our systematic search for strongly lensed quasars from the data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). From extensive follow-up observations of 136 candidate objects, we find 36 lenses in the full sample of 77,429 spectroscopically confirmed quasars in the SDSS Data Release 5. We then define a complete sample of 19 lenses, including 11 from our previous search in the SDSS Data Release 3, from the sample of 36,287 quasars with i < 19.1 in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 2.2, where we require the lenses to have image separations of 1 < {theta} < 20 and i-band magnitude differences between the two images smaller than 1.25 mag. Among the 19 lensed quasars, 3 have quadruple-image configurations, while the remaining 16 show double images. This lens sample constrains the cosmological constant to be {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.84{sub -0.08}{sup +0.06}(stat.){sub -0.07}{sup + 0.09}(syst.) assuming a flat universe, which is in good agreement with other cosmological observations. We also report the discoveries of 7 binary quasars with separations ranging from 1.1 to 16.6, which are identified in the course of our lens survey. This study concludes the construction of our statistical lens sample in the full SDSS-I data set.

  6. Attachment Security and Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Lahav, Yael; Defrin, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The present study assesses for the first time, the possible disruption effect of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) with regard to the protective role of attachment on pain, among ex-POWs. While secure attachment seems to serve as a buffer, decreasing the perception of pain, this function may...... be disrupted by PTSS. The study sample included 104 subjects who were combat veterans of the 1973 Yom Kippur War comprising of 60 male ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs) and 44 comparable male combat veterans. Both attachment and pain were investigated experimentally in the laboratory and via questionnaires. We...

  7. Aggression And Attachment Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Verma

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of the present study is to examine the factors related aggression in Iranian and Indian school children. Method: Attachment security (dependency, availability, and total considered as the variable. The KSS questionnaire was administrated students in the 5th grade; 300 were Iranian and 300 were Indian consisted of 150 boys and 150 girls. Results: Attachment security demonstrated significant negative correlations with aggression in the boys, girls and the total Iranian sample. The dependency on mothers was the only case with insignificant correlation.In the Indian sample, attachment security was also found to be significantly negatively correlated with aggression. The only exception was the correlation between mother's availability and aggression in girls, which was not significant Conclusion: It is important that parents treat their children in a tender, manner so that a secure attachment develop between them.

  8. ESO VERY LARGE TELESCOPE OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY OF BL LACERTAE OBJECTS. IV. NEW SPECTRA AND PROPERTIES OF THE FULL SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landoni, M.; Treves, A.; Barattini, M. [Universita degli Studi dell' Insubria. Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Falomo, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sbarufatti, B. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Emilio Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Decarli, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kotilainen, J., E-mail: marco.landoni@uninsubria.it [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA)-University of Turku, Vaeisaelaentie 20, FI-21500 Piikkioe (Finland)

    2013-04-15

    We present the last chapter of a spectroscopy program aimed at deriving the redshift or a lower limit to the redshift of BL Lac objects using medium-resolution spectroscopy. Here we report new spectra for 33 BL Lac object candidates obtained in 2008-2009, confirming the BL Lac nature of 25 sources and obtaining new redshifts for 5 objects. These new observations are combined with our previous data in order to construct a homogeneous sample of {approx}70 BL Lac objects with high-quality spectroscopy. All these spectra can be accessed at the Web site http://www.oapd.inaf.it/zbllac/. The average spectrum, beaming properties of the full sample, discussion of intervening systems, and future perspectives are addressed.

  9. SDSS-IV MaNGA: faint quenched galaxies - I. Sample selection and evidence for environmental quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Samantha J.; Masters, Karen L.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Westfall, Kyle B.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Bundy, Kevin; Drory, Niv; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Law, David; Nichol, Robert C.; Thomas, Daniel; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brownstein, Joel R.; Freischlad, Gordon; Gaulme, Patrick; Grabowski, Katie; Kinemuchi, Karen; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Daniel; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey; Wake, David A.

    2016-11-01

    Using kinematic maps from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey, we reveal that the majority of low-mass quenched galaxies exhibit coherent rotation in their stellar kinematics. Our sample includes all 39 quenched low-mass galaxies observed in the first year of MaNGA. The galaxies are selected with Mr > -19.1, stellar masses 109 M⊙ 1.9. They lie on the size-magnitude and σ-luminosity relations for previously studied dwarf galaxies. Just six (15 ± 5.7 per cent) are found to have rotation speeds ve, rot 5 × 1010 M⊙), supporting the hypothesis that galaxy-galaxy or galaxy-group interactions quench star formation in low-mass galaxies. The local bright galaxy density for our sample is ρproj = 8.2 ± 2.0 Mpc-2, compared to ρproj = 2.1 ± 0.4 Mpc-2 for a star-forming comparison sample, confirming that the quenched low-mass galaxies are preferentially found in higher density environments.

  10. [Mentalization and attachment transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhmann, Johann; Fritsch, Sophia; Lück, Monika; Stumpe, Anna; Taubner, Svenja; Vesterling, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The present study was investigating the predictive role of maternal mentalizing and general as well as depressive symptom burden for attachment security at the end of the first year on a sample of 44 mother-child-dyads from a low-risk community study. Maternal mentalizing was assessed in a multidimensional way as Reflective Functioning (off-line) and Mind-Mindedness (on-line). The design was longitudinal measuring maternal Mind-Mindedness from a videotaped mother-child-play-interaction at the age of three months. General and depressive symptom burden was assessed using the SCL-90-R when the children were nine months old. Maternal attachment and Reflective-Functioning, using the Adult-Attachment-Interview, as well as children's attachment behavior, using the Strange-Situation-Test, were investigated at the age of twelve months. Secure maternal attachment was associated with higher Reflective Functioning, higher frequency of Mind-Mindedness and lower general and depressive symptom burden. A moderation-analysis showed a statistical trend (p = .08) that the interaction of the frequency of mind-related comments, general symptom severity and maternal attachment has a predictive value for infantile attachment security. Results can be tentatively interpreted that mothers with insecure attachment who had a lower general symptom burden and who related to their three-months old babies with a high frequency of mind-related-comments were more likely to have securely attached children. Thus, results may serve as a groundwork for projects aiming to prevent the transmission of insecure attachment by strengthening maternal Mind-Mindedness and working on the reduction of maternal general symptom burden.

  11. Elemental Abundance Ratios in Stars of the Outer Galactic Disk. IV. A New Sample of Open Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, David; Carney, Bruce W.; Friel, Eileen D.

    2012-10-01

    We present radial velocities and chemical abundances for nine stars in the old, distant open clusters Be18, Be21, Be22, Be32, and PWM4. For Be18 and PWM4, these are the first chemical abundance measurements. Combining our data with literature results produces a compilation of some 68 chemical abundance measurements in 49 unique clusters. For this combined sample, we study the chemical abundances of open clusters as a function of distance, age, and metallicity. We confirm that the metallicity gradient in the outer disk is flatter than the gradient in the vicinity of the solar neighborhood. We also confirm that the open clusters in the outer disk are metal-poor with enhancements in the ratios [α/Fe] and perhaps [Eu/Fe]. All elements show negligible or small trends between [X/Fe] and distance ( 13 kpc) samples may have different trends with distance. There is no evidence for significant abundance trends versus age (history different from that of the solar neighborhood, we echo the sentiments expressed by Friel et al. that definitive conclusions await homogeneous analyses of larger samples of stars in larger numbers of clusters. Arguably, our understanding of the evolution of the outer disk from open clusters is currently limited by systematic abundance differences between various studies. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  12. Frequency of Aggressive Behaviors in a Nationally Representative Sample of Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadinejad, Morteza; Bahreynian, Maryam; Motlagh, Mohammad-Esmaeil; Qorbani, Mostafa; Movahhed, Mohsen; Ardalan, Gelayol; Heshmat, Ramin; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the frequency of aggressive behaviors among a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. This nationwide study was performed on a multi-stage sample of 6-18 years students, living in 30 provinces in Iran. Students were asked to confidentially report the frequency of aggressive behaviors including physical fighting, bullying and being bullied in the previous 12 months, using the questionnaire of the World Health Organization Global School Health Survey. In this cross-sectional study, 13,486 students completed the study (90.6% participation rate); they consisted of 49.2% girls and 75.6% urban residents. The mean age of participants was 12.47 years (95% confidence interval: 12.29, 12.65). In total, physical fight was more prevalent among boys than girls (48% vs. 31%, P bulling to other classmates had a higher frequency among boys compared to girls (29% vs. 25%, P bulling to others). Physical fighting was more prevalent among rural residents (40% vs. 39%, respectively, P = 0.61), while being bullied was more common among urban students (27% vs. 26%, respectively, P = 0.69). Although in this study the frequency of aggressive behaviors was lower than many other populations, still these findings emphasize on the importance of designing preventive interventions that target the students, especially in early adolescence, and to increase their awareness toward aggressive behaviors. Implications for future research and aggression prevention programming are recommended.

  13. Long-term effects on adult attachment in German occupation children born after World War II in comparison with a birth-cohort-matched representative sample of the German general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Marie; Kuwert, Philipp; Braehler, Elmar; Glaesmer, Heide

    2016-10-28

    Children born of war are a phenomenon of every conflict. At the end of World War II and thereafter, approximately 400,000 children were fathered by foreign soldiers and born to local women in Germany. Quantitative research on psychosocial consequences of growing up as German occupation child (GOC) has been missing so far. This study examines adult attachment and its association with current depression in GOC (N = 146) using self-report instruments: Adult Attachment Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire. Data were compared to a birth-cohort-matched representative sample of the German population (BCMS; N = 786). GOC differ in both attachment dimensions (less comfortable with closeness/intimacy, lowered ability to depend on others) and adult attachment (more dismissive and fearful) compared to BCMS. Insecure adult attachment is associated with current depression. GOC grew up under difficult circumstances (e.g. poverty, adverse events, and stigmatization). Even decades later they display more insecure attachment in current relationships. Findings underline the complex and long-term impact of their developmental conditions on attachment and current mental health.

  14. Association of Dietary Behaviors with Physical Activity in a Nationally Representative Sample of Children and Adolescents: the CASPIAN- IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Safiri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional health and adequate physical activity (PA, especially in childhood and grow periods, have a substantial role in health. This study assessed the association of dietary behaviors (main courses and snacks intake with PA in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: Using multistage random cluster sampling method, a representative sample of 14,880 school students were selected from urban and rural areas of 30 provinces of Iran. Through a validated questionnaire, daily consumption of main course ( breakfast, lunch, and dinner as well as daily consumption of different snacks and health foods ( fast foods, milk, vegetables, dry fruits, fresh fruits, sweetened beverages, salty snacks and sweets were recorded for every participants. Information of past week weekly frequency of leisure time PA was collected. Results: Overall, 13,486 out of 14,880 students (response rate: 90.6% participated in this survey. Participants consisted of 6,640 (49.2% girls and 75.6% urban residents; their mean and standard deviation (SD age was 12.47 (3.36 years. Daily consumption of fresh fruits (odds ratio [OR]: 1.35, 95%confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-1.52, dried fruits (OR: 1.21; 95%CI: 1.06-1.40, vegetable (OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.24-1.56, and milk (OR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.21-1.52 increased the odds of high PA compare to low PA in adjusted model.  Skipping the breakfast, lunch and dinner decreased the odds of moderate and high PA compare to low PA (P

  15. Frequency of aggressive behaviors in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Sadinejad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to explore the frequency of aggressive behaviors among a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Methods: This nationwide study was performed on a multi-stage sample of 6-18 years students, living in 30 provinces in Iran. Students were asked to confidentially report the frequency of aggressive behaviors including physical fighting, bullying and being bullied in the previous 12 months, using the questionnaire of the World Health Organization Global School Health Survey. Results: In this cross-sectional study, 13,486 students completed the study (90.6% participation rate; they consisted of 49.2% girls and 75.6% urban residents. The mean age of participants was 12.47 years (95% confidence interval: 12.29, 12.65. In total, physical fight was more prevalent among boys than girls (48% vs. 31%, P < 0.001. Higher rates of involvement in two other behaviors namely being bullied and bulling to other classmates had a higher frequency among boys compared to girls (29% vs. 25%, P < 0.001 for being bullied and (20% vs. 14%, P < 0.001 for bulling to others. Physical fighting was more prevalent among rural residents (40% vs. 39%, respectively, P = 0.61, while being bullied was more common among urban students (27% vs. 26%, respectively, P = 0.69. Conclusions: Although in this study the frequency of aggressive behaviors was lower than many other populations, still these findings emphasize on the importance of designing preventive interventions that target the students, especially in early adolescence, and to increase their awareness toward aggressive behaviors. Implications for future research and aggression prevention programming are recommended.

  16. Determination of V(IV) and V(V) by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry following selective solid-phase extraction and the study on the change in the oxidation state of vanadium species in seawater during the sample storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukatsuka, Isoshi; Shimizu, Yutaka; Ohzeki, Kunio

    2002-09-01

    The changes in the oxidation state of vanadium in artificial and natural seawater samples were studied by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) with a direct injection of a resin suspension. V(IV) and V(V) were extracted as the complex with Chromazurol B and with N-cinnamoyl-N-2,3-xylylhydroxylamine, respectively, using a suspension of an anion-exchange resin and determined by ETAAS independently. The detection limits of both methods were 0.02 ng ml(-1) for 40 ml of a sample solution. The recovery tests for an artificial seawater sample spiked with V(IV) and/or V(V) were carried out carefully. The results showed that the recoveries of V(IV) or V(V) were 99.2-109% and the standard deviations were 1-6%. The total V was also determined after V(V) was reduced by ascorbic acid. In artificial seawater at pH 7.8, V(V) was stable but V(IV) was oxidized rapidly. In acidified artificial seawater (pH 2.0), V(IV) was oxidized slowly but only a small tendency of such reduction of V(V) was observed. In a natural seawater sample, V(IV) was not detected. The acidification of the natural seawater sample resulted in the reduction of V(V).

  17. Attachment Styles and Risky Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Mohammadalipoor

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Current challengeable life, faces young with varied damages. The Purpose of this research was appointment of role of attachment styles in the risky behaviors of students. Method: the method of the project was attachment in descriptive ones. 273 people of students were selected via several stage cluster sample, and answered to questionner of adult attachment and risky behaviors. Results: Results of analyses of data showed that secure attachment style related with risky behaviors negatively and ambivalence attachment style and avoidant attachment style related with risky behaviors positively. Conclusion: Therefore is emphasized on the importance of instruction of families in the field of creation of secure relationship with children and also importance of plans for heighten secure attachment by counseling centers of university.

  18. EFFICACY OF THE 20-WEEK CIRCLE OF SECURITY INTERVENTION: CHANGES IN CAREGIVER REFLECTIVE FUNCTIONING, REPRESENTATIONS, AND CHILD ATTACHMENT IN AN AUSTRALIAN CLINICAL SAMPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Anna; McMahon, Catherine A; Sweller, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Circle of Security is an attachment theory based intervention that aims to promote secure parent-child attachment relationships. Despite extensive uptake of the approach, there is limited empirical evidence regarding efficacy. The current study examined whether participation in the 20-week Circle of Security intervention resulted in positive caregiver-child relationship change in four domains: caregiver reflective functioning; caregiver representations of the child and the relationship with the child; child attachment security, and attachment disorganization. Archived pre- and postintervention data were analyzed from 83 clinically referred caregiver-child dyads (child age: 13-88 months) who completed the Circle of Security intervention in sequential cohorts and gave permission for their data to be included in the study. Caregivers completed the Circle of Security Interview, and dyads were filmed in the Strange Situation Procedure before and after the intervention. Results supported all four hypotheses: Caregiver reflective functioning, caregiving representations, and level of child attachment security increased after the intervention, and level of attachment disorganization decreased for those with high baseline levels. Those whose scores were least optimal prior to intervention showed the greatest change in all domains. This study adds to the evidence suggesting that the 20-week Circle of Security intervention results in significant relationship improvements for caregivers and their children. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  19. Impact of Maternal Attachment Style on Mother to Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Moghaddam Hoseini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.

     

    Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.

     

    Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.48±6.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.89±3.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.

     

    Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.

  20. The S(IV)-type Asteroids as Ordinary Chondrite Parent Body Candidates: Implications for the Completeness of the Meteorite Sample of Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffey, M. J.

    1995-09-01

    The discrepancy between the abundance of ordinary chondrites (OCs) among the meteorites and the rarity of unambiguously similar assemblages in the asteroid belt has been a major point of discussion within and between the asteroid and meteorite communities. Various resolutions to this apparent paradox have been proposed [e.g., 1-5], including: 1) interpretations of S-type asteroid spectra are incorrect due to space weathering effects; 2) ordinary chondrites derive from a few rare but favorably situated parent bodies; 3) OCs come from a residual population of small unheated mainbelt asteroids; 4) shock effects darken OC parent body surfaces disguising them as C-type asteroids, and 5) OCs come from inner solar system planetesimals ejected to the Oort cloud which have been recently perturbed into Earth-crossing orbits. Although none of these possibilities has yet been rigorously excluded, recent investigations suggest that the resolution of the apparent paradox lies in some combination of the first three options. For option 3, the discovery of a small mainbelt asteroid with an OC-like spectrum indicates OC-assemblages among the smaller mainbelt asteroids [6], although their abundance is still low in the current sample [7]. For option 2, the mineralogical survey indicated that while most S-asteroids could be rigorously excluded on mineralogical criteria, the S(IV) subtype of this class has silicate compositions within the OC range [8]. The S(IV)-objects are concentrated near the 3:1 secular resonance at 2.5 AU providing an efficient escape into Earth-crossing orbits. Unfortunately for a simple resolution of the OC parent body question, S(IV) spectra still exhibit weaker silicate features and redder spectral slopes than OC assemblages. Although significant uncertainties remain, optical alteration of asteroid surfaces interpreted from the Galileo images of Ida and Gaspra may reconcile the mismatch between OC and S(IV) spectra [option 1]. Although only a subset of the S(IV

  1. Machiavellianism and Parental Attachment in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Machiavellianism is a well-studied topic in several branches of psychology. Still, it has received little attention from a developmental perspective. Previous retrospective studies linked Machiavellianism to poor parental care, but actual reports of adolescents who live in their family of origin have been ignored so far. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between Machiavellianism and parental attachment in adolescence and possible sex differences based on life history theory. An adolescent sample (N = 376; 17.27 ± .77 years of age completed the Mach-IV and the maternal and paternal versions of revised Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA-R. According to our results, significant sex differences emerged in the relationship between Machiavellianism and attachment to parents. For girls, maternal alienation proved to be the only significant predictor of Machiavellianism, whereas for boys, low intensity and quality of verbal communication with father predicted higher levels of Machiavellianism. Results are discussed from an evolutionary perspective of socialization and from the perspective of emotion regulation.

  2. Comparison of DSM-5 Classifications of Alcohol Use Disorders With Those of DSM-IV, DSM-III-R, and ICD-10 in a General Population Sample in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Andreas; Hallgren, Mats; Forsman, Mikael; Forsell, Yvonne

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to employ the criteria for alcohol use disorder (AUD), according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), in a general population sample and to compare the diagnostic classifications and prevalence with those of DSM-IV, DSM-III-R, and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10). We used a stratified random sample of 1,091 participants (ages 18-64) in Stockholm County, who were interviewed between 1998 and 2002. A semistructured interview was conducted using Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry. Diagnoses were made according to DSM-5, DSM-IV, DSM-III-R, and ICD-10. Agreement was studied using Cohen's κ. The prevalence of DSM-5 AUD was 11.0%, with corresponding dependence or abuse/harm diagnosis being 8.7% for DSM-IV, 8.5% for DSM-III-R, and 4.9% for ICD-10. With the shift from DSM-IV to DSM-5, 3.2% of those with no disorder were reclassified as mild AUD, whereas 28.9% of those with DSM-IV abuse were reclassified as having no disorder. The majority of the "new cases" had two DSM-IV dependence criteria, and few endorsed the new DSM-5 craving criteria. Cohen's κ between DSM-5 AUD and dependence or abuse/harm was as follows: DSM-IV, .84, DSM-III-R, .83, and ICD-10, .62. These findings were lower than the κ between the older systems: between DSM-IV and DSM-III-R, .98, between DSM-IV and ICD-10, .70, and between DSM-III-R and ICD- 10, .72. In the present study population, there were more undiagnosed DSM-IV cases being diagnosed as AUD using DSM-5 than vice versa, but in total the number of cases increased moderately when going from DSM-IV to DSM-5. Concerning reliability, there are substantial to almost perfect agreements between DSM-5 classifications of AUDs and those of DSM-IV, DSM-III-R, and ICD-10.

  3. Asteroids IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.

    . Asteroids, like planets, are driven by a great variety of both dynamical and physical mechanisms. In fact, images sent back by space missions show a collection of small worlds whose characteristics seem designed to overthrow our preconceived notions. Given their wide range of sizes and surface compositions, it is clear that many formed in very different places and at different times within the solar nebula. These characteristics make them an exciting challenge for researchers who crave complex problems. The return of samples from these bodies may ultimately be needed to provide us with solutions. In the book Asteroids IV, the editors and authors have taken major strides in the long journey toward a much deeper understanding of our fascinating planetary ancestors. This book reviews major advances in 43 chapters that have been written and reviewed by a team of more than 200 international authorities in asteroids. It is aimed to be as comprehensive as possible while also remaining accessible to students and researchers who are interested in learning about these small but nonetheless important worlds. We hope this volume will serve as a leading reference on the topic of asteroids for the decade to come. We are deeply indebted to the many authors and referees for their tremendous efforts in helping us create Asteroids IV. We also thank the members of the Asteroids IV scientific organizing committee for helping us shape the structure and content of the book. The conference associated with the book, "Asteroids Comets Meteors 2014" held June 30-July 4, 2014, in Helsinki, Finland, did an outstanding job of demonstrating how much progress we have made in the field over the last decade. We are extremely grateful to our host Karri Muinonnen and his team. The editors are also grateful to the Asteroids IV production staff, namely Renée Dotson and her colleagues at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, for their efforts, their invaluable assistance, and their enthusiasm; they made life as

  4. The Impact of Social Support and Attachment Style on Quality of Life and Readiness to Change in a Sample of Individuals Receiving Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaiola, Alan A; Fulmer, Barbara A; Stout, David

    2015-01-01

    A basic principle within the addictions treatment field is that social support is a vital ingredient in the recovery process. This study examines the nature of social support in a sample of opioid-dependent men and women who are currently being treated in a medication-assisted treatment program (methadone). This research examines the types of social support behaviors that the opioid-dependent individuals consider helpful and explores whether attachment style (i.e., secure, ambivalent, or anxious attachment) was a determining factor in whether social support was perceived as helpful. The dependent variables included readiness to change addictive behaviors and abstinence from other mood-altering drugs. Participants (N = 159) completed a demographic questionnaire, the Significant Others Scale, the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Assessment, the Readiness to Change Scale, and an Attachment Style Questionnaire. The demographic questionnaire included subjective ratings of self-improvement. Social support predicted perceived improvement in all of the areas examined (e.g., health, family/social relationships) and abstinence; however, attachment style did not predict improvement or with readiness to change. Social support is an important factor in one's recovery from substance use disorders. Yet attachment style (i.e., anxious, avoidant, or secure) did not predict abstinence or overall improvement in functioning.

  5. Childhood socio-economic status and the onset, persistence, and severity of DSM-IV mental disorders in a US national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Breslau, Joshua; Green, Jennifer Greif; Lakoma, Matthew D; Sampson, Nancy A; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2011-10-01

    Although significant associations between childhood socio-economic status (SES) and adult mental disorders have been widely documented, SES has been defined using several different indicators often considered alone. Little research has examined the relative importance of these different indicators in accounting for the overall associations of childhood SES with adult outcomes. Nor has previous research distinguished associations of childhood SES with first onsets of mental disorders in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood from those with persistence of these disorders into adulthood in accounting for the overall associations between childhood SES and adult mental disorders. Disaggregated data of this sort are presented here for the associations of childhood SES with a wide range of adult DSM-IV mental disorders in the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), a nationally-representative sample of 5692 adults. Childhood SES was assessed retrospectively with information about parental education and occupation and childhood family financial adversity. Associations of these indicators with first onset of 20 DSM-IV disorders that included anxiety, mood, behavioral, and substance disorders at different life-course stages (childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, and mid-later adulthood) and the persistence/severity of these disorders were examined using discrete-time survival analysis. Lifetime disorders and their ages-of-onset were assessed retrospectively with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Different aspects of childhood SES predicted onset, persistence, and severity of mental disorders. Childhood financial hardship predicted onset of all classes of disorders at every life-course stage with odds-ratios (ORs) of 1.7-2.3. Childhood financial hardship was unrelated, in comparison, to disorder persistence or severity. Low parental education, although unrelated to disorder onset, significantly predicted disorder persistence and severity

  6. Association between junk food consumption and mental health in a national sample of Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Hoda; Kelishadi, Roya; Heshmat, Ramin; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ranjbar, Shirin Hasani; Ardalan, Gelayol; Payab, Moloud; Chinian, Mohammad; Asayesh, Hamid; Larijani, Bagher; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of high energy and low nutritional content foods, which are known as junk foods, has increased. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between junk food intake and mental health in a national sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Data were obtained from a surveillance system entitled CASPIAN-IV (Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non communicable Disease) study of school students, ages 6 to 18 y in Iran. The students and their parents completed two sets of reliable questionnaires obtained from Global School Health Survey translated to Persian. The student questionnaire comprised several questions such as psychiatric distress (worry, depression, confusion, insomnia, anxiety, aggression, and worthless) and violent behaviors (physical fighting, being a victim, and bullying). The junk foods consisted of sweets, sweetened beverages, fast foods, and salty snacks. In the sample of 13 486 children and adolescents, the frequency of junk food consumption was significantly associated with psychiatric distress (P junk foods (P 0.05). Additionally, the results of logistic regression showed that daily consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks significantly increased the odds of self-reported psychiatric distress. Also, daily consumption of salty snacks was significantly associated with violent behavior, including physical fighting (odds ratio [OR], 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-1.60), being a victim (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.04-1.37), and bullying (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.32-1.82). Junk food consumption may increase the risk for psychiatric distress and violent behaviors in children and adolescents. Improvement of eating habits toward healthier diets may be an effective approach for improving mental health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The relationships between problematic internet use, alexithymia levels and attachment characteristics in a sample of adolescents in a high school, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolat, Nurullah; Yavuz, Mesut; Eliaçık, Kayı; Zorlu, Adil

    2017-10-25

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between attachment characteristics, alexithymia and problematic internet use (PIU) in adolescents. The study was performed on 444 high school students (66% female and 34% male). Internet Addiction Test (IAT), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Short Form of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (s-IPPA) scales were used. The adolescents who scored ≥50 on IAT were considered as the PIU group and IPPA scores (r = -.392), and a negative weak relationship between IAT and s-IPPA scores (r = -.208). S-IPPA scores were significantly lower in the PIU group compared to the controls (p IPPA scores and TAS-20 significantly predict the PIU development (p < .05). The results indicate that alexithymia increases the risk of PIU and higher attachment quality is a protective factor for both alexithymia and PIU. These results suggest that it is important to focus on the insecure attachment patterns and alexithymic characteristics when studying adolescents with PIU.

  8. Application of DSM-5 criteria for autism spectrum disorder to three samples of children with DSM-IV diagnoses of pervasive developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Marisela; Bishop, Somer L; Duncan, Amie; Hus, Vanessa; Lord, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Substantial revisions to the DSM-IV criteria for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been proposed in efforts to increase diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. This study evaluated the proposed DSM-5 criteria for the single diagnostic category of autism spectrum disorder in children with DSM-IV diagnoses of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) and non-PDD diagnoses. Three data sets included 4,453 children with DSM-IV clinical PDD diagnoses and 690 with non-PDD diagnoses (e.g., language disorder). Items from a parent report measure of ASD symptoms (Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised) and clinical observation instrument (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) were matched to DSM-5 criteria and used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the proposed DSM-5 criteria and current DSM-IV criteria when compared with clinical diagnoses. Based on just parent data, the proposed DSM-5 criteria identified 91% of children with clinical DSM-IV PDD diagnoses. Sensitivity remained high in specific subgroups, including girls and children under 4. The specificity of DSM-5 ASD was 0.53 overall, while the specificity of DSM-IV ranged from 0.24, for clinically diagnosed PDD not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), to 0.53, for autistic disorder. When data were required from both parent and clinical observation, the specificity of the DSM-5 criteria increased to 0.63. These results suggest that most children with DSM-IV PDD diagnoses would remain eligible for an ASD diagnosis under the proposed DSM-5 criteria. Compared with the DSM-IV criteria for Asperger's disorder and PDD-NOS, the DSM-5 ASD criteria have greater specificity, particularly when abnormalities are evident from both parents and clinical observation.

  9. The German Environmental Survey on Children 2003-2006 (GerES IV). Sample and study description; Der Kinder-Umwelt-Survey 2003-2006 (KUS). Stichprobe und Studienbeschreibung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Christine; Seiwert, Margarete; Becker, Kerstin; Conrad, Andre; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Rossau / Berlin (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The German Environmental Survey on Children (GerES IV) carried out by the German Federal Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt, UBA) provides representative population data to describe health-related environmental exposure of 3 to 14 year old children in Germany and environment-related effects on the children's health. In addition, the conjunction of GerES IV with the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (German acronym: KiGGS), conducted by the Robert Koch Institute (RKI), makes it possible to study the relationship between environmental influences and adverse health effects. From May 2003 to May 2006, a random sample of 1,790 children aged 3 to 14 from 150 locations, and their parents, participated in GerES IV and in KiGGS. 77.3% of the selected children participated in KUS. Since participation in GerES IV was limited to children that had previously participated in KiGGS, total response in GerES IV resulted in 52.6%. Response rates did not differ significantly between western and eastern Germany, different community sizes, age groups and genders. The basic study programme included sampling of blood, morning urine, tap water and house dust as well as extensive questionnaire-based interviews. In addition, sub-groups were studied with regard to ''hearing capacity, noise and stress hormones'', ''chemical compounds in indoor air'' and ''biological pollutants indoors''. A key element of the field work in GerES IV was a home visit to carry out measurements, collect samples - except for blood sampling, which took place in KiGGS and do the interview. The quality of the field work, of data collection and evaluation, and of the chemical, biological and physical analyses was successfully evaluated by internal and external quality assurance. (orig.)

  10. Prevalence of DSM-IV disorders in a population-based sample of 5- to 8-year-old children : the impact of impairment criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the impact of impairment criteria on the prevalence and patterns of comorbidity of child DSM-IV disorders. The validity of these impairment criteria was tested against different measures of mental health care referral and utilization. We interviewed parents of 1,154 children

  11. Correlates of appearance and weight satisfaction in a U.S. National Sample: Personality, attachment style, television viewing, self-esteem, and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Sandhu, Gaganjyot; Morse, Patrick J; Swami, Viren

    2016-06-01

    We examined the prevalence and correlates of satisfaction with appearance and weight. Participants (N=12,176) completed an online survey posted on the NBCNews.com and Today.com websites. Few men and women were very to extremely dissatisfied with their physical appearances (6%; 9%), but feeling very to extremely dissatisfied with weight was more common (15%; 20%). Only about one-fourth of men and women felt very to extremely satisfied with their appearances (28%; 26%) and weights (24%; 20%). Men and women with higher body masses reported higher appearance and weight dissatisfaction. Dissatisfied people had higher Neuroticism, more preoccupied and fearful attachment styles, and spent more hours watching television. In contrast, satisfied people had higher Openness, Conscientious, and Extraversion, were more secure in attachment style, and had higher self-esteem and life satisfaction. These findings highlight the high prevalence of body dissatisfaction and the factors linked to dissatisfaction among U.S. adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Qualitative Exploration of the Use of Attachment Theory in Adult Psychological Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Eilish; Danquah, Adam; Berry, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest into how attachment theory can inform psychotherapeutic practice with adults. This study aimed to explore how a group of therapists with an interest in attachment theory use it in their work with adult clients. A cross-sectional qualitative design was adopted. Sampling, data collection and analysis procedures were guided by grounded theory principles. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 12 therapists from a variety of training backgrounds. Data were coded and developed into thematic categories. Six primary themes were identified to describe how attachment theory influenced the clinical practice of the sample through the following: (i) complementing other therapeutic models; (ii) providing a framework to understand the development of clients' mental health problems; (iii) working with different attachment styles; (iv) thinking about the therapeutic relationship as an attachment relationship; (iv) influencing the different stages of the therapeutic process; and (vi) influencing clinical service design and delivery. It is concluded that attachment theory can play a significant role in influencing the practice of therapists and can be usefully adopted to complement therapeutic processes irrespective of the therapist's dominant clinical orientation. Further research is needed to explore the views of clinicians from different theoretical orientations and to investigate the security of the client-therapist attachment within the context of therapeutic change processes. Attachment theory may have implications for practice across a range of different types of therapy and may help therapists to bridge apparent differences between modality-specific formulation and techniques. Attachment theory can be used to understand the development of mental health problems. Therapists should assess and formulate clients' attachment styles, and these formulations should guide therapeutic approaches. Attachment theory provides a comprehensive

  13. Adult separation anxiety and unsettled infant behavior: Associations with adverse parenting during childhood and insecure adult attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhoff, Jane; Barnett, Bryanne; Eapen, Valsamma

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of Adult Separation Anxiety Disorder (ASAD) and Adult Separation Anxiety (ASA) symptoms in a sample of first-time mothers with an unsettled infant during the first postpartum year. Eighty-three primiparous women admitted to a residential parent-infant program participated in a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV diagnosis and questionnaires assessing ASA symptoms, adult attachment and childhood parenting experiences. Nurses recorded infant behavior using 24-hour charts. The prevalence of ASAD in this sample was 19.3% and women with ASAD were, on average, more likely to be diagnosed with depression and anxiety disorders, report aversive parenting experiences during childhood and show adult attachment style insecurity. Both ASAD and ASA symptoms were predicted by adult attachment anxiety, and ASAD was associated with unsettled infant behavior. Attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance mediated relations between parental over-control and ASAD diagnosis, and between parental abuse and ASAD diagnosis. Attachment anxiety mediated the relation between parental over-control and ASA symptoms, and attachment avoidance mediated the relations of parental over-control and parental abuse with ASA symptoms. This study highlights the prevalence of ASAD among first time mothers experiencing early parenting difficulties and the roles of childhood parenting experiences and adult attachment style in the development of the disorder. This points to the importance of introducing universal screening for ASAD in postnatal settings, and for the development of targeted interventions. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Immunohistochemical assessment of collagen types I, III, IV and VI in biopsy samples of the bovine uterine wall collected during the oestrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, A

    2000-01-01

    Uterine biopsies were collected at cycle days 1 (oestrous), 8, 15 and 19 in six cows. Unfixed cryostat sections were used to immunolocalise collagen types I, III, IV and VI by an indirect FITC method. Collagen I was sparsely found in the endometrium where it formed a fine meshwork of thin fibres directly below the surface epithelium, clearly visible only at cycle days 8 and 15. Collagen III formed the bulk of connective tissue fibres and was arranged in fine aggregates within the superficial endometrial stroma, while in the deeper areas it consisted of many thick fibre bundles. Collagen IV was found in basement membranes underlying all endometrial epithelia. Furthermore, it surrounded smooth muscle cells of blood vessels. A few single fibrils also stained positively within the endometrial stroma, more numerous at cycle days 1 and 19 as compared to days 8 and 15. Collagen VI formed a mesh of fine and pericellularly situated fibrils within the endometrial stroma. The contribution of the collagen types studied to the connective tissue of caruncles, blood vessels, lymph follicles, and myometrium is also reported. The results of the present study indicate that the connective tissue of the bovine uterine wall is composed of different collagen types, which exhibit a characteristic distribution pattern each. The day of cycle may influence amounts and organisation of collagen types I and IV as demonstrated here at the light-microscopical level. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  16. A sputnik IV saga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Charles A.

    2009-12-01

    The Sputnik IV launch occurred on May 15, 1960. On May 19, an attempt to deorbit a 'space cabin' failed and the cabin went into a higher orbit. The orbit of the cabin was monitored and Moonwatch volunteer satellite tracking teams were alerted to watch for the vehicle demise. On September 5, 1962, several team members from Milwaukee, Wisconsin made observations starting at 4:49 a.m. of a fireball following the predicted orbit of Sputnik IV. Requests went out to report any objects found under the fireball path. An early morning police patrol in Manitowoc had noticed a metal object on a street and had moved it to the curb. Later the officers recovered the object and had it dropped off at the Milwaukee Journal. The Moonwarch team got the object and reported the situation to Moonwatch Headquarters at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. A team member flew to Cambridge with the object. It was a solid, 9.49 kg piece of steel with a slag-like layer attached to it. Subsequent analyses showed that it contained radioactive nuclei produced by cosmic ray exposure in space. The scientists at the Observatory quickly recognized that measurements of its induced radioactivity could serve as a calibration for similar measurements of recently fallen nickel-iron meteorites. Concurrently, the Observatory directorate informed government agencies that a fragment from Sputnik IV had been recovered. Coincidently, a debate in the UN Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space involved the issue of liability for damage caused by falling satellite fragments. On September 12, the Observatory delivered the bulk of the fragment to the US Delegation to the UN. Two days later, the fragment was used by US Ambassador Francis Plimpton as an exhibit that the time had come to agree on liability for damage from satellite debris. He offered the Sputnik IV fragment to USSR Ambassador P.D. Morozov, who refused the offer. On October 23, Drs. Alla Massevitch and E.K. Federov of the USSR visited the

  17. Prevalence of DSM-IV disorders in a population-based sample of 5- to 8-year-old children: the impact of impairment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2015-11-01

    This study determined the impact of impairment criteria on the prevalence and patterns of comorbidity of child DSM-IV disorders. The validity of these impairment criteria was tested against different measures of mental health care referral and utilization. We interviewed parents of 1,154 children aged 5-8 years in-depth using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, to establish DSM-IV diagnosis. These children were randomly selected or oversampled based on Child Behavior Checklist ratings from a large population-based study (N = 6,172). Referral data were extracted from the psychiatric interview as well as from a follow-up questionnaire. The results showed an overall prevalence of DSM-IV disorders of 31.1 % when impairment was not considered. This rate declined to 22.9 % when mild impairment was required and declined even further, to 10.3 %, for more severe levels of impairment. Similarly, the overall comorbidity rate declined from 8.5 to 6.7 and 2.7 % when mild and severe impairment were required, respectively. Virtually all children who attained symptom thresholds for a specific disorder, and had been referred to a mental health care professional because of the associated symptoms, also had mild impairment. The requirement of severe impairment criteria significantly increased diagnostic thresholds, but for most disorders, this definition captured only half of the clinically referred cases. In conclusion, prevalence was highly dependent upon the criteria used to define impairment. If severe impairment is made a diagnostic requirement, many children with psychiatric symptoms and mild impairment seeking mental health care will be undiagnosed and possibly untreated.

  18. An evaluation of ICD-11 posttraumatic stress disorder criteria in two samples of adolescents and young adults exposed to mass shootings: factor analysis and comparisons to ICD-10 and DSM-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haravuori, Henna; Kiviruusu, Olli; Suomalainen, Laura; Marttunen, Mauri

    2016-05-12

    The proposed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria for the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 11th revision are simpler than the criteria in ICD-10, DSM-IV or DSM-5. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ICD-11 PTSD factor structure in samples of young people, and to compare PTSD prevalence rates and diagnostic agreement between the different diagnostic systems. Possible differences in clinical characteristics of the PTSD cases identified by ICD-11, ICD-10 and DSM-IV are explored. Two samples of adolescents and young adults were followed after exposure to similar mass shooting incidents in their schools. Semi-structured diagnostic interviews were performed to assess psychiatric diagnoses and PTSD symptom scores (N = 228, mean age 17.6 years). PTSD symptom item scores were used to compose diagnoses according to the different classification systems. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the proposed ICD-11 PTSD symptoms represented two rather than three factors; re-experiencing and avoidance symptoms comprised one factor and hyperarousal symptoms the other factor. In the studied samples, the three-factor ICD-11 criteria identified 51 (22.4%) PTSD cases, the two-factor ICD-11 identified 56 (24.6%) cases and the DSM-IV identified 43 (18.9%) cases, while the number of cases identified by ICD-10 was larger, being 85 (37.3%) cases. Diagnostic agreement of the ICD-11 PTSD criteria with ICD-10 and DSM-IV was moderate, yet the diagnostic agreement turned to be good when an impairment criterion was imposed on ICD-10. Compared to ICD-11, ICD-10 identified cases with less severe trauma exposure and posttraumatic symptoms and DSM-IV identified cases with less severe trauma exposure. The findings suggest that the two-factor model of ICD-11 PTSD is preferable to the three-factor model. The proposed ICD-11 criteria are more restrictive compared to the ICD-10 criteria. There were some differences in the clinical characteristics of the PTSD cases

  19. An enhanced cerium(IV)-rhodamine 6G chemiluminescence system using guest-host interactions in a lab-on-a-chip platform for estimating the total phenolic content in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Haddabi, Buthaina; Al Lawati, Haider A J; Suliman, FakhrEldin O

    2016-04-01

    Two chemiluminescence-microfluidic (CL-MF) systems, e.g., Ce(IV)-rhodamine B (RB) and Ce(IV)-rhodamine 6G (R6G), for the determination of the total phenolic content in teas and some sweeteners were evaluated. The results indicated that the Ce(IV)-R6G system was more sensitive in comparison to the Ce(IV)-RB CL system. Therefore, a simple (CL-MF) method based on the CL of Ce(IV)-R6G was developed, and the sensitivity, selectivity and stability of this system were evaluated. Selected phenolic compounds (PCs), such as quercetin (QRC), catechin (CAT), rutin (RUT), gallic acid (GA), caffeic acid (CA) and syringic acid (SA), produced analytically useful chemiluminescence signals with low detection limits ranging from 0.35 nmol L(-1) for QRC to 11.31 nmol L(-1) for SA. The mixing sequence and the chip design were crucial, as the sensitivity and reproducibility could be substantially affected by these two factors. In addition, the anionic surfactant (i.e., sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) can significantly enhance the CL signal intensity by as much as 300% for the QRC solution. Spectroscopic studies indicated that the enhancement was due to a strong guest-host interaction between the cationic R6G molecules and the anionic amphiphilic environment. Other parameters that could affect the CL intensities of the PCs were carefully optimized. Finally, the method was successfully applied to tea and sweetener samples. Six different tea samples exhibited total phenolic/antioxidant levels from 7.32 to 13.5 g per 100g of sample with respect to GA. Four different sweetener samples were also analyzed and exhibited total phenolic/antioxidant levels from 500.9 to 3422.9 mg kg(-1) with respect to GA. The method was selective, rapid and sensitive when used to estimate the total phenolic/antioxidant level, and the results were in good agreement with those reported for honey and tea samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Variations in Early Attachment Mechanisms Contribute to Attachment Quality: Case Studies Including Babies Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witting, Andrea; Ruiz, Nina; Ahnert, Lieselotte

    2016-01-01

    Three boys (an extremely preterm, a moderate preterm twin and a full-term toddler; all 12 to 15 months old) were selected from a large sample to investigate mechanisms of parent-child attachments, specifically of babies born preterm. Attachments were observed at home with the Attachment-Q-Sort (AQS) as well as in the lab with the Strange Situation…

  1. Depression and attachment problems.

    OpenAIRE

    Pettem, O; West, M.; Mahoney, A; Keller, A

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics related to attachment of 42 depressed psychiatric patients and 42 non-depressed psychiatric controls. The depressed subjects demonstrated an anxious pattern of attachment, characterized by either intense care-seeking in relation to their attachment figure or angry withdrawal from their attachment figure when their desire for security was frustrated. The results are discussed in terms of Bowlby's attachment construct.

  2. Adult attachment styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Žvelc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment primarily described early relationships between a child and his caretakers. In the last twenty years there is a growing interest in adult attachment research. Theories and research findings of adult attachment stem from two different methodological approaches. The first approach measures adult attachment through Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main, 1991 where the attachment is assessed through the narratives of adult people of their early child experiences with their primary caretakers. The second approach measures adult attachment with the help of self-evaluative questionnaires, developed by (a Hazan and Shaver (1987 who started this approach in the field of personality and social psychology, and (b Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991. Research shows that there is significant correlation between early and adult attachment style. Attachment styles are passed from generation to generation. Basic adult attachment styles are: securely attached, preoccupied, fearful-avoidant, dismissing-avoidant and disorganized. Previous research using Barholomew and Horowitz (1991 Relationship Questionnaire on 176 Slovenian students showed that 48% students are securely attached, 29% are fearful-avoidant, 10% are dismissing-avoidant, and 13% have preoccupied attachment style. Theory of attachment is very useful for understanding the behavior and subjective experiences of children and adults. It is applicable to different contexts (psychotherapy, counseling, education .... The paper proposes further research focused on integration of adult attachment styles and types of object relations measured by Test of object relations (Žvelc, 1998 and Pictorial test of Separation and Individuation (Žvelc, 2003.

  3. Reassessment of patients with Eating Disorders after moving from DSM-IV towards DSM-5: a retrospective study in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualandi, Malvina; Simoni, Marzia; Manzato, Emilia; Scanelli, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    To compare the relative prevalence of eating disorders moving from DSM-IV to DSM-5, and to reassess the overall medical impairment in the revised diagnostic classes. We applied DSM-5 to 206 patients (age 15-56 years) previously studied and classified according to DSM-IV. Medical impairment was classified as low, medium, or high, based on a cumulative score of clinical severity (SCS), computed as the sum of specific weights assigned to different pathological conditions and their ascertained prognostic impact. Application of DSM-5 produced a decrease in Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) by 17 %, an increase in anorexia (AN) by 14 % and bulimia (BN) by 2.4 %; 44.6 % of EDNOS migrated to AN, 8 % to BN, and 30.8 % was reclassified as Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorders (OSFED). Mean SCS was higher in AN than in other diagnoses independent of classification. Differently from EDNOS, no high score was found in OSFED. BMI (OR 0.74, 95 % CI 0.56-0.98) and duration of amenorrhea >1 year (OR 6.63, 95 % CI 1.29-34.16) resulted significantly associated with the risk for medium-high SCS level in AN classified with DSM-5. The results confirmed that DSM-5 reduces the number of EDNOS. DSM-5 seems to better represent the clinical picture in OSFED than in EDNOS. The clinical relevance of BMI and duration of amenorrhea should be considered even more now that they are no longer used as diagnostic hallmarks of AN.

  4. Attachment style and adjustment to divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yárnoz-Yaben, Sagrario

    2010-05-01

    Divorce is becoming increasingly widespread in Europe. In this study, I present an analysis of the role played by attachment style (secure, dismissing, preoccupied and fearful, plus the dimensions of anxiety and avoidance) in the adaptation to divorce. Participants comprised divorced parents (N = 40) from a medium-sized city in the Basque Country. The results reveal a lower proportion of people with secure attachment in the sample group of divorcees. Attachment style and dependence (emotional and instrumental) are closely related. I have also found associations between measures that showed a poor adjustment to divorce and the preoccupied and fearful attachment styles. Adjustment is related to a dismissing attachment style and to the avoidance dimension. Multiple regression analysis confirmed that secure attachment and the avoidance dimension predict adjustment to divorce and positive affectivity while preoccupied attachment and the anxiety dimension predicted negative affectivity. Implications for research and interventions with divorcees are discussed.

  5. Association of children's obesity with the quality of parental-child attachment and psychological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Fatemeh; Kelishadi, Roya; Jafari, Nasim; Kaveh, Zabihollah; Isanejad, Omid

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of children's obesity with parental attachment and psychological variables as impulsivity, self-control and efficiency of eating control. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 202 obese students aged 9-13 years selected by multistage cluster sampling from different areas of Isfahan, Iran. Three questionnaires were considered to be answered by the students and one for their parents. The students completed the following questionnaires: (i) Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment-Revised version for Children (IPPA-R); (ii) Impulsivity Scale (IS); (iii) Efficiency of Eating Control; and (iv) Self-control Rating Scale (SCRS). The quality of children's attachment had direct effects on self-efficacy of eating management and on obesity by mediating of self-efficacy of eating. Moreover, attachment had direct effect on self-control and impulsivity, and in turn through these psychological variables, it had indirect effects on self-efficacy of eating management. The findings of this study underscore the importance of parent-child attachment quality. It can be suggested that childhood obesity can be prevented and managed with creating a secure attachment bond between children and parents and increasing perceived self-efficacy eating management in children. © 2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Machiavellianism and Adult Attachment in General Interpersonal Relationships and Close Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Ináncsi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Up to the present, the relationship between Machiavellianism and adult attachment has remained a question to be answered in the psychological literature. That is why this study focused on the relationship between Machiavellianism and attachment towards significant others in general interpersonal relationships and in intimate-close relationships. Two attachment tests (Relationship Questionnaire and long-form of Experiences in Close Relationship and the Mach-IV test were conducted on a sample consisting of 185 subjects. Results have revealed that Machiavellian subjects show a dismissing-avoidant attachment style in their general interpersonal relationships, while avoidance is further accompanied by some characteristics of attachment anxiety in their intimate-close relationships. Our findings further refine the relationship between Machiavellianism and dismissing-avoidant attachment. Machiavellian individuals not only have a negative representation of significant others, but they also tend to seek symbiotic closeness in order to exploit their partners. This ambitendency in distance regulation might be particularly important in understanding the vulnerability of Machiavellian individuals.

  7. Machiavellianism and Adult Attachment in General Interpersonal Relationships and Close Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ináncsi, Tamás; Láng, András; Bereczkei, Tamás

    2015-02-01

    Up to the present, the relationship between Machiavellianism and adult attachment has remained a question to be answered in the psychological literature. That is why this study focused on the relationship between Machiavellianism and attachment towards significant others in general interpersonal relationships and in intimate-close relationships. Two attachment tests (Relationship Questionnaire and long-form of Experiences in Close Relationship) and the Mach-IV test were conducted on a sample consisting of 185 subjects. Results have revealed that Machiavellian subjects show a dismissing-avoidant attachment style in their general interpersonal relationships, while avoidance is further accompanied by some characteristics of attachment anxiety in their intimate-close relationships. Our findings further refine the relationship between Machiavellianism and dismissing-avoidant attachment. Machiavellian individuals not only have a negative representation of significant others, but they also tend to seek symbiotic closeness in order to exploit their partners. This ambitendency in distance regulation might be particularly important in understanding the vulnerability of Machiavellian individuals.

  8. On the Reconstruction of a Weak Phase-Amplitude Object. IV New Sampling Theorems for Object Reconstruction even for Non-Isoplanatic Imaging. I. One Dimensional Object Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, H.A.; Hoenders, B.J.

    1974-01-01

    New inversion procedures are derived for one-dimensional object reconstruction which use sampling values of known distributions. Whittaker-Shannon sampling is derived as a special case. The theorems apply to optical imaging with aberrations which violate the isoplanacy condition. Also a

  9. ADHD symptoms across the lifespan: a comparison of symptoms captured by the Wender and Barkley Scales and DSM-IV criteria in a population-based Swedish sample aged 65 to 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldberg-Kjär, Taina; Johansson, Boo

    2015-05-01

    The aim was to compare different scales capturing ADHD symptoms for older individuals' self-reports about childhood and current ADHD symptomatology. An additional aim was relating these results to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) ADHD criteria. The 25-item Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) administered in a population-based sample of 1,599 individuals aged 65 to 80. Two subsamples each with 30 individuals were randomly drawn based on their Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) scores, and studied using the Wender Riktad ADHD Symtom Skala (WRASS), interview assessed Barkley Scales, and DSM-IV ADHD criteria. Higher WURS and WRASS scores were related to higher Barkley Childhood and Current Symptoms Scales Scores. Also, reporting more symptoms on these scales was related to meeting DSM-IV criteria for childhood and current ADHD. The results support significant persistence of ADHD symptoms when using different scales designed for the capture of childhood and current ADHD symptomatology. Further studies of ADHD in a lifespan perspective are encouraged. © 2013 SAGE Publications.

  10. Attachment and Related Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Morsunbul

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Attachment which is defined as strong emotional bond people develop for significant others have been investigated by researchers for long years. Attachment theory proposes that attachment patterns developed in the first stages of life are carried onto next stages of life with internal working models. Additionally it is also proposed that attachment patterns are important to determine individual’s social-emotional competence. This study aims to review how attachment patterns differ according to life stages, continuity/discontiniuty of attachment patterns developed in the first stages of life and evaluate the relations between attachment patterns and social-emotional competence. The basic features of social relations model, relationship between attachment patterns and identity development, and risk taking behavior in adolescence have also been investigated in this review.

  11. The Modern RPG IV Language

    CERN Document Server

    Cozzi, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This updated, classic work on the RPG language covers all the new functions and features that have been added since 2003, including new op codes and built-in functions, new chapters on free-format RPG IV and Web programming interfaces, information on implementing XML within RPG IV, and expanded information on procedures. This reference guide takes both novice and experienced RPG IV programmers through the language, from its foundation to its most advanced techniques. More than 100 charts and tables, as well as 350 real-life code samples of functions and operations are included, showing readers

  12. Attachment styles and contingencies of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E; Crocker, Jennifer; Mickelson, Kristin D

    2004-10-01

    Previous research on attachment theory has focused on mean differences in level of self-esteem among people with different attachment styles. The present study examines the associations between attachment styles and different bases of self-esteem, or contingencies of self-worth, among a sample of 795 college students. Results showed that attachment security was related to basing self-worth on family support. Both the preoccupied attachment style and fearful attachment style were related to basing self-worth on physical attractiveness. The dismissing attachment style was related to basing self-worth less on others' approval, family support, and God's love.

  13. Attachment theory: A review of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of attachment is numerous and versatile. They differ according to problems addressed, methodology applied (longitudinal studies, studies with horizontal designs, different instruments used, different methods of data analysis, and characteristics of samples involved (concerning age socio/economic status, family ecology. The research is commonly relied on the core assumptions of the theory itself, and the shared characteristic is orientation to explore complex phenomena of human experience and functioning. From the vast variety of research only those who most directly test the basic assumptions of the attachment theory are focused and addressed in the paper: representation of patterns of attachment in the childhood and adulthood, stability and change of attachment security from infancy to early adulthood, transgenerational transmission of attachment characteristics, the place and the role of attachment behavioral system in the personality development. The aim of the paper is to highlight the basic research and theory issues and directions, and illustrate them with concrete research date.

  14. Sample problems for the novice user of the AMPX-II system. [For generating coupled multigroup neutron--gamma libraries, in FORTRAN IV for IBM 360/91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, W.E. III; Roussin, R.W.; Petrie, L.M.; Diggs, B.R.; Comolander, H.E.

    1979-01-01

    Contents of the IBM version of the APMX system distributed by the Radiation Shielding Information Center (APMX-II) are described. Sample problems which demonstrate the procedure for implementing AMPX-II modules to generate point cross sections; generate multigroup neutron, photon production, and photon interaction cross sections for various transport codes; collapse multigroup cross sections; check, edit, and punch multigroup cross sections; and execute a one-dimensional discrete ordinates transport calculation are detailed. 25 figures, 9 tables.

  15. The first 62 AGNs observed with SDSS-IV MaNGA - I. Their characterization and definition of a control sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembold, Sandro B.; Shimoia, Jáderson S.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Riffel, Rogério; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Mallmann, Nícolas D.; do Nascimento, Janaína C.; Moreira, Thales N.; Ilha, Gabriele S.; Machado, Alice D.; Cirolini, Rafael; da Costa, Luiz N.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Santiago, Basílio X.; Schneider, Donald P.; Wylezalek, Dominika; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Pan, Kaike; Müller-Sánchez, Francisco

    2017-12-01

    We report the characterization of the first 62 Mapping Nearby Galaxies at the Apache Point Observatory active galactic nuclei (AGNs) hosts and the definition of a control sample of non-active galaxies. This control sample was selected in order to match the AGN hosts in terms of stellar mass, redshift, visual morphology and inclination. The stellar masses are in the range 9.4sample is mostly comprised low-luminosity AGN, with only 17 'strong AGN' with L([O III]λ 5007°_A ≥ 3.8× 10^{40} erg s^{-1}. The inner 1-3 kpc of the control sample galaxies are dominated by the oldest (≥ 4 Gyr) component, with a small contribution of intermediate age and young stars (<940 Myr). Examining the relationship between the stellar population properties and L([O III]}), we find that with increasing L([O III]), the AGN exhibit a decreasing contribution from the oldest stellar population relative to control galaxies and an increasing contribution from the younger components (∼40 Myr). We also find a correlation of the mean age differences (AGN-control) with L([O III]), in the sense that more luminous AGNs are younger than the control objects, while the low-luminosity AGNs are older. These results support a connection between the growth of the galaxy bulge via formation of new stars and the growth of the Supermassive Black Hole via accretion in the AGN phase.

  16. No-migration variance petition. Appendix B, Attachments E--Q: Volume 4, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    Volume IV contains the following attachments: TRU mixed waste characterization database; hazardous constituents of Rocky flats transuranic waste; summary of waste components in TRU waste sampling program at INEL; total volatile organic compounds (VOC) analyses at Rocky Flats Plant; total metals analyses from Rocky Flats Plant; results of toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) analyses; results of extraction procedure (EP) toxicity data analyses; summary of headspace gas analysis in Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) -- sampling program FY 1988; waste drum gas generation--sampling program at Rocky Flats Plant during FY 1988; TRU waste sampling program -- volume one; TRU waste sampling program -- volume two; and summary of headspace gas analyses in TRU waste sampling program; summary of volatile organic compounds (V0C) -- analyses in TRU waste sampling program.

  17. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from BARUNA JAYA IV in the Banda Sea, Ceram Sea or Seram Sea and others from 1998-02-19 to 1998-03-05 (NCEI Accession 0157460)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157460 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from BARUNA JAYA IV in the Banda Sea, Ceram Sea or Seram Sea, Flores...

  18. Frequency, Causes, and Places of Unintentional Injuries in a Nationally Representative Sample of Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Qorbani, Mostafa; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeel; Ardalan, Gelayol; Moafi, Mohammad; Mahmood-Arabi, Minoosadat; Heshmat, Ramin; Jari, Mohsen

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to assess the frequency, causes, and places of injuries in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents, as well as the referral, places allocated for injured individuals. This nationwide study was conducted in 2011-2012 among 13486 elementary, secondary and high-school students who were selected by random cluster stratified multistage sampling from 30 provinces in Iran. The Global School-based Health Survey questionnaire of the World Health Organization was used. The study participants consisted of 50.8% boys, 75.6% urban resident with a mean age of 12.5 years. Overall, 20.25% of participants reported that they were minimally injured once in the last 12 months; this prevalence was higher in boys than in girls (25.74% vs. 14.58%, respectively, P places for injured individuals (32.31% and 22.38%, respectively). Most of the school injuries occurred during play or sport activities (45.92%). Prevention of unintentional injuries should be considered as a health priority. Appropriate preventive strategies should be enhanced at homes and schools.

  19. Parenting self-efficacy: links with maternal depression, infant behaviour and adult attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhoff, Jane; Barnett, Bryanne

    2013-04-01

    This study examined predictors of parenting self-efficacy (PSE) in a sample of first-time mothers during the first year after childbirth and evaluated the effect of a brief, intensive, mother-infant residential intervention on PSE and infant behaviour. 83 primiparous women with infants aged 0-12 months admitted to a residential parent-infant program participated in a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV diagnosis of depressive and anxiety disorders and completed questionnaires assessing psychological distress, adult attachment and childhood parenting experiences. During their residential stay, nurses recorded infant behaviour using 24-hour charts. Results showed PSE to be inversely correlated with maternal depression, maternal anxiety and attachment insecurity. Low levels of parental abuse during childhood, avoidant attachment, male infant gender and depressive symptom severity were found to predict low PSE. Major depression mediated the relation between attachment insecurity and PSE, but there were no links between PSE and infant behaviour. After the intervention, there was a significant improvement in PSE, with abusive parenting during childhood and depressive symptom severity being predictive of change. This study highlights the links between maternal psychopathology and maternal background factors such as childhood parenting experiences and attachment style in the development of postnatal PSE. Directions for future research are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Frequency, Causes, and Places of Unintentional Injuries in a Nationally Representative Sample of Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Qorbani, Mostafa; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeel; Ardalan, Gelayol; Moafi, Mohammad; Mahmood-Arabi, Minoosadat; Heshmat, Ramin; Jari, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study aims to assess the frequency, causes, and places of injuries in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents, as well as the referral, places allocated for injured individuals. Methods: This nationwide study was conducted in 2011-2012 among 13486 elementary, secondary and high-school students who were selected by random cluster stratified multistage sampling from 30 provinces in Iran. The Global School-based Health Survey questionnaire of the World Health Organization was used. Results: The study participants consisted of 50.8% boys, 75.6% urban resident with a mean age of 12.5 years. Overall, 20.25% of participants reported that they were minimally injured once in the last 12 months; this prevalence was higher in boys than in girls (25.74% vs. 14.58%, respectively, P < 0.001), without significant difference in urban (20.11%) and rural (20.69%) areas. Most of them (39.92%) were injured at homes or house yards with higher prevalence in girls than in boys (48.61% vs. 35.17%, respectively, P < 0.001) and in rural than in urban areas (27.30% vs. 20.89%, respectively, P < 0.001). Schools were reported as the second prevalent site of injury occurrence (22.50%). Emergency departments and physician offices were the most prevalent referral places for injured individuals (32.31% and 22.38%, respectively). Most of the school injuries occurred during play or sport activities (45.92%). Conclusions: Prevention of unintentional injuries should be considered as a health priority. Appropriate preventive strategies should be enhanced at homes and schools. PMID:25400879

  1. Personality and Attachment in Transsexual Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingiardi, Vittorio; Giovanardi, Guido; Fortunato, Alexandro; Nassisi, Valentina; Speranza, Anna Maria

    2017-07-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the associations between personality features and attachment patterns in transsexual adults. We explored mental representations of attachment, assessed personality traits, and possible personality disorders. Forty-four individuals diagnosed with gender identity disorder (now gender dysphoria), 28 male-to-female and 16 female-to-male, were evaluated using the Shedler-Westen assessment procedure-200 (SWAP-200) to assess personality traits and disorders; the adult attachment interview was used to evaluate their attachment state-of-mind. With respect to attachment, our sample differed both from normative samples because of the high percentage of disorganized states of mind (50% of the sample), and from clinical samples for the conspicuous percentage of secure states of mind (37%). Furthermore, we found that only 16% of our sample presented a personality disorder, while 50% showed a high level of functioning according to the SWAP-200 scales. In order to find latent subgroups that shared personality characteristics, we performed a Q-factor analysis. Three personality clusters then emerged: Healthy Functioning (54% of the sample); Depressive/Introverted (32%) and Histrionic/Extroverted (14%). These data indicate that in terms of personality and attachment, GD individuals are a heterogeneous sample and show articulate and diverse types with regard to these constructs.

  2. Mapping the Personality Psychopathology Five domains onto DSM-IV personality disorders in Dutch clinical and forensic samples: implications for DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellbom, Martin; Smid, Wineke; de Saeger, Hilde; Smit, Naomi; Kamphuis, Jan H

    2014-01-01

    The Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) model represents 5 broadband dimensional personality domains that align with the originally proposed DSM-5 personality trait system, which was eventually placed in Section III for further study. The main objective of this study was to examine the associations between the PSY-5 model and personality disorder criteria. More specifically, we aimed to determine if the PSY-5 domain scales converged with the alternative DSM-5 Section III model for personality disorders, with a particular emphasis on the personality trait profiles proposed for each of the specific personality disorder types. Two samples from The Netherlands consisting of clinical patients from a personality disorder treatment program (n = 190) and forensic psychiatric hospital (n = 162) were used. All patients had been administered the MMPI-2 (from which MMPI-2-RF PSY-5 scales were scored) and structured clinical interviews to assess personality disorder criteria. Results based on Poisson or negative binomial regression models showed statistically significant and meaningful associations for the hypothesized PSY-5 domains for each of the 6 personality disorders, with a few minor exceptions that are discussed in detail. Implications for these findings are also discussed.

  3. Joint Association of Active and Passive Smoking with Psychiatric Distress and Violence Behaviors in a Representative Sample of Iranian Children and Adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Babaki, Amir Eslami Shahr; Qorbani, Mostafa; Ahadi, Zeinab; Heshmat, Ramin; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ardalan, Gelayol; Ataie-Jafari, Asal; Asayesh, Hamid; Mohammadi, Rasool

    2015-10-01

    Mental health and smoking have been receiving increasing attention in adolescents all over the world. Although some studies have assessed the independent association of active/passive smoking with mental health, joint association of active and passive smoking with mental health remains unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the joint association of smoking status (active and passive smoking) with psychiatric distress and violent behaviors in Iranian children and adolescents. In this national survey, 13,486 students, aged 6-18 years, living in rural and urban areas of 30 provinces of Iran were selected via multistage, cluster sampling method. Psychiatric distress (including worthless, angriness, worrying, insomnia, confusion, depression, and anxiety), violence behaviors (including bullying, victim, and physical fight), and smoking status (nonsmoker, only passive smoker, only active smoker, and active and passive smoker) were assessed. The questionnaire was prepared based on the World Health Organization Global School-based Student Health Survey (WHO-GSHS). Data were analyzed by the Stata package. Psychiatric distress and violent behaviors had linearly positive association with smoking status (p trend passive smoking besides active tobacco use were at increased risk of having angriness (odds ratio (OR) 2.55, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.86-3.48), worrying (OR 1.66, 95 % CI 1.24-2.20), and anxiety (OR 1.99, 95 % CI 1.52-2.61) and victim (OR 1.77, 95 % CI 1.34-2.33) and bully behaviors (OR 3.08, 95 % CI 2.33-4.07). The current findings suggest that active and passive tobacco smoking has synergistic effect on psychiatric distress. Since majority of smokers with psychiatric distress do not receive mental health services or counseling on smoking, strategies to address mental health problems and smoking prevention should be included as a part of school health services.

  4. Convergence and Divergence in Attachment Style Across Male and Female College Students' Friendships and Romantic Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Van Uitert, Victoria Jean

    2009-01-01

    Attachment representations in friendship and romantic relationship contexts were examined in a sample of 398 college students. Analyses examined patterns of attachment style in both relationship contexts, divergence and convergence in attachment style, and links between attachment representations and negative peer and romantic relationship experiences (i.e., relational and physical victimization and betrayal). The majority of participants reported more secure attachment representations, relat...

  5. [Attachment in autistic children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivantürk, Berna

    2004-01-01

    Autistic disorder is a neuropsychiatric disorder which begins in the first years of life with delays and deviance in social, communicative and cognitive development and with restricted repertoire of activities and interests. It is thought that autistic children do not form attachments to parents or caregivers because of their difficulties in social interaction. Yet, the findings of the studies demonstrate evidences for the existence of attachment between autistic children and their caregivers. The aim of the present study is to review the studies that examine the attachment behaviors in autism. Autistic children show similar attachment behaviors when compared to children with normal development, children with other psychiatric disorders, children with Down syndrome and mentally retarded children. Children with autism prefer their mothers to strangers and attempt to remain close to them as much as other children. However they do not engage in attention sharing behaviors such as pointing or showing objects. They also do not seem to recognize the meaning of facial expressions and emotions. Although autism does not exclude the development of secure attachment relationships, it may delay the development of secure attachment and change the behavioral patterns related with attachment security. It is concluded that the awareness of the parents and the clinicians might help to establish treatment alternatives that preserve and improve the attachment behaviors of autistic children.

  6. Attachment Theory and Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rose; Shapiro, Shauna; Treleaven, David

    2012-01-01

    We initiate a dialog between two central areas in the field of psychology today: attachment theory/research and mindfulness studies. The impact of the early mother-infant relationship on child development has been well established in the literature, with attachment theorists having focused on the correlation between a mother's capacity for…

  7. Attachment and psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, N.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis was to further our understanding of current psychosocial models by introducing attachment as a relevant developmental framework. Firstly, attachment theory provides a psychosocial model for a developmental pathway to psychosis. Secondly, after expression of psychotic

  8. Attachment in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. BehnazH

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Removable and fixed prosthesis are fabricated for reasons of appearance, mastication, speech clarity and general well - being. At the same time, they must preserve remaining theeth. Alveolar bone, Ginginal tissue and tooth position by bringing the forces acting on the removavle prosthesis within the limits of tissue tolerance. Satisfying these objectives may reqiure the use of single crowns of fixed partial denture with specific contours and attachments that provide the necessary support and retention for the prosthesis."nHowever, before any detailde discussion can takeplace, it is desirble to divide attachments into groups. Several classifications have been divised, based mainly on the attributes claimed for the devices by the attachment manufactures."nSince the function severed by an attachment depend entirely upon the manner in which it is used and function in the mouth are complex and by no means completely understood, the classification of prefabricated attachments used in this title has been based on their shape.

  9. Late-life attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mélanie; Rahioui, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Old age is likely to cause a crisis in one's life because of the vulnerabilities it brings up, acting as stressful elements disrupting the elder's feeling of security. It leads to the activation of what is called his attachment system, consisting in attachment styles and interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. To recover a higher sense of safety, the elder would refer to his attachment figures, that is to say closed people paying attention to him, showing towards him availability and consideration. However older adults particularly see their tolerance threshold lowered, regarding an accumulation of losses (true or symbolic) and stressful events within their lifetime. In a psychological and organic exhaustion phenomenon, the risk is to wear out the interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. These are as much vulnerabilities that may increase psychiatric decompensation, including depression. To resolve the tension of this period and to found a necessary secure feeling, the elder will have to redesign the attachment links previously settled and proceed to adjustments to this new context. The need of relational closeness comes back in the elders' attachment behaviour, counting on attachment figures not only to help their loneliness or dependency, but essentially to support them in a narcissist and affective way. That is why attachment theory enlightens the late life period, such as the new challenges older adults have to face. Many studies recognize its value in understanding the transition to old age, but without proposing conceptualization. We aim first to focus on attachment conception to say how much it is relevant with elderly, and then to describe specific terms of attachment within this population in order to better understand those patients. To finish, we must think about new therapeutic proposals taking into consideration the attachment perspective for a better understanding of old age transition.

  10. Intergenerational Transmission of Internalizing Behavior: The Role of Maternal Psychopathology, Child Responsiveness and Maternal Attachment Style Insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, Corinna; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Zietlow, Anna-Lena

    Maternal depression and anxiety disorders are risk factors for the development of internalizing disorders in offspring. Maternal attachment has been discussed as one factor accounting for transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate child internalizing behavior at preschool age on a symptomatic and behavioral level and possible links to maternal mental health over time and maternal attachment style insecurity in a sample of postpartum depressed and anxious mothers. Child internalizing behavior at preschool age was rated by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), and during a mother-child free-play situation. We focused on child responsiveness as it has been linked to child internalizing behavior. Maternal attachment style insecurity was tested to mediate the link between maternal mental health (assessed postpartum and at preschool age with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders, SCID-I) and child internalizing behavior/child responsiveness. Of the overall sample (n = 58), 28 women were diagnosed with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV, and 30 were healthy controls. Data were collected 3-9 months after delivery and at preschool age (mean = 4.6 years). At preschool age, children of postpartum depressed and anxious mothers were rated significantly higher on child internalizing behavior by mothers, fathers, and additional caregivers compared to the control group. Child internalizing behavior rated by mothers was influenced by current psychiatric symptoms; maternal attachment style insecurity did not mediate this link. During interaction, children in the clinical group displayed significantly less child responsiveness compared to the control group. Maternal attachment style insecurity mediated the relationship between maternal mental health over time and child responsiveness. The results emphasize the need for interventions focusing on mother-child interaction and

  11. Predictors of Child Molestation: Adult Attachment, Cognitive Distortions, and Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric; Riggs, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual model derived from attachment theory was tested by examining adult attachment style, cognitive distortions, and both general and victim empathy in a sample of 61 paroled child molesters and 51 community controls. Results of logistic multiple regression showed that attachment anxiety, cognitive distortions, high general empathy but low…

  12. Precursors and sequelae of attachment in foster children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, M.; Schuengel, C.

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on attachment of foster children by examining factors associated with attachment relationships of children raised from birth by the same parents. The sample included 61 children between 26 to 88 months of age and their foster caregivers. Attachment security and caregiver

  13. Epistemological Development and Attachment in European College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Carla; Soares, Isabel; Silva, Carolina; Bastos, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Epistemological development and attachment theory have been independent frameworks for understanding psychological development. This study examined the association between epistemological development (using the Measure of Epistemological Reflection) and attachment (using the Adult Attachment Interview) in a sample of 60 pre- and postgraduated…

  14. Diaquatetrabromidotin(IV trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ye

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [SnBr4(H2O2]·3H2O, forms large colourless crystals in originally sealed samples of tin tetrabromide. It constitutes the first structurally characterized hydrate of SnBr4 and is isostructural with the corresponding hydrate of SnCl4. It is composed of SnIV atoms octahedrally coordinated by four Br atoms and two cis-related water molecules. The octahedra exhibit site symmetry 2. They are arranged into columns along [001] via medium–strong O—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the two lattice water molecules (one situated on a twofold rotation axis while the chains are interconnected via longer O—H...Br hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  15. Adult attachment and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Lønfeldt, Nicole Nadine; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have...... rarely been examined together. Examining emotion dysregulation within the context of anxiety disorders through an attachment theory framework will lead to a better understanding of the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. In the present study we combined theoretically and empirically derived...... knowledge to examine the mediating role of emotion regulation between attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) and anxiety symptoms....

  16. Apolipoprotein A-IV: a protein intimately involved in metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Fei; Kohan, Alison B.; Lo, Chun-Min; Liu, Min; Howles, Philip; Tso, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of the physiological roles of apoA-IV in metabolism, and to underscore the potential for apoA-IV to be a focus for new therapies aimed at the treatment of diabetes and obesity-related disorders. ApoA-IV is primarily synthesized by the small intestine, attached to chylomicrons by enterocytes, and secreted into intestinal lymph during fat absorption. In circulation, apoA-IV is associated with HDL and chylomicron remnants, but ...

  17. Maternal self-confidence postpartum and at pre-school age: the role of depression, anxiety disorders, maternal attachment insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Schlüter, Myriam Kim; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Müller, Mitho; Reck, Corinna

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of maternal postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DMS-IV on maternal self-confidence throughout infancy and early childhood. Exploratively, associations between maternal attachment insecurity and maternal self-confidence at pre-school age were examined. The sample (N = 54) of this prospective longitudinal study was comprised of n = 27 women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV criteria and n = 27 healthy women without present or history of mental health disorders or psychotherapy. Data was collected in the postpartum period (M = 60.08 days) and at pre-school age (M = 4.7 years). Subjects were recruited between 2004 and 2011 in South Germany. Data revealed a significant difference in maternal self-confidence between clinical and control group at child's pre-school age: Women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorder scored lower on maternal self-confidence than healthy controls, but only if they had current SCID-diagnoses or partly remitted symptoms. According to explorative analyses maternal attachment insecurity turned out to be the strongest predictor of maternal self-confidence at pre-school age besides maternal mental health status. The results emphasize the impact of attachment insecurity and maternal mental health regarding maternal self-confidence leading to potential adverse long-term consequences for the mother-child relationship. Attachment based interventions taking maternal self-confidence into account are needed.

  18. Attachment security and immunity in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, Angelo; Battisti, Francesca; Tarsitani, Lorenzo; Baldassari, Maurizio; Copertaro, Alfredo; Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Biondi, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Attachment security is associated with health and possibly autonomic and endocrine reactivity to stress, however the relationship between attachment style and immune function has not yet been investigated. A random sample of 61 female nurses provided a blood sample and completed the Perceived Stress Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire. Immune measures included immunophenotypic analysis, lymphocyte proliferative response to Phytohemagglutinin, and NK cell cytotoxicity (NKCC). Statistical analysis focused on the relationship between attachment-related anxiety or avoidance and immune measures. Multiple regression was used to control for perceived stress and support, alexithymia, health-related behaviors possibly influencing immunity, and use of anti-inflammatory drugs, tobacco or alcohol. Attachment-related anxiety was not associated with any immune parameter. Attachment-related avoidance was associated with lower NKCC. This association was independent from the number of circulating NK cells, which suggests a change in cell functionality. Perceived stress was also associated with lower NKCC. This study suggests a link between attachment security and immunity. While our findings should be interpreted with great caution and need replication, they are consistent with previous work suggesting that insecure attachment may be a risk factor for health and may relate to biological processes relevant to health.

  19. Reactive Attachment Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment plan Reactive Attachment Disorder and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder are serious clinical conditions. However, close and ongoing ... you find Facts for Families © helpful and would like to make good mental health a reality, consider donating to the ...

  20. Breastfeeding, sensitivity, and attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, John R; Britton, Helen L; Gronwaldt, Virginia

    2006-11-01

    Our goal was to test the hypothesis that breastfeeding is associated with enhanced infant-mother attachment and its antecedent maternal sensitivity. Breastfeeding intent and practice were assessed by questionnaires administered to 152 mothers between 32 weeks of gestation and 12 months postpartum. Early maternal sensitivity was measured by the Sensitivity to Cues subscale of the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training Feeding Scale at 3 months, and quality of the mother-infant interaction was measured by the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training Feeding Scale at 6 months. Security of attachment was evaluated by the Ainsworth Strange Situation at 12 months. A direct relationship between attachment security and breastfeeding practice was not identified. The quality of the mother-infant interaction at 6 months, rather than the type of feeding, predicted security of attachment. However, mothers who chose to breastfeed displayed greater sensitivity in dyadic interactions with their infants 3 months postnatally than those who chose to bottle feed, and intended breastfeeding duration prenatally correlated with sensitivity 3 months postpartum. Although a path analysis failed to demonstrate contributions of early breastfeeding duration to either sensitivity or security, it did substantiate a significant path between prenatal breastfeeding intent and attachment security mediated by sensitivity. In addition, multivariate analyses revealed that early sensitivity among breastfeeding mothers was an independent predictor of the duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding during the first year. Although the quality of the dyadic interaction in infancy, rather than feeding type, is predictive of attachment security, mothers who choose to breastfeed display enhanced sensitivity during early infancy that, in turn, may foster secure attachment. Among breastfeeding mothers, higher sensitivity is associated with longer duration of breastfeeding during the first postpartum year

  1. Attachment and social adjustment: relationships to suicide attempt and major depressive episode in a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunebaum, Michael F; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Mortenson, Lindsey Y; Burke, Ainsley K; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, J John

    2010-06-01

    To study two aspects of interpersonal function - attachment security and social adjustment - in relation to suicide attempt and major depressive episode (MDE) during naturalistic follow-up of up to one year after presentation with MDE. 136 adults who presented with a DSM-IV MDE completed the Adult Attachment Scale and the Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report at study entry. Based on follow-up interviews at three months and one year, we used survival analysis to investigate the relationship of scores on these measures with time to a suicide attempt and time to recurrent MDE. Less secure/more avoidant attachment predicted increased risk of suicide attempt during the 1-year follow-up (Wald chi(2)=9.14, df=1, p=0.003, HR=1.16, 95% CI=1.05 to 1.27). Poorer social adjustment predicted increased risk of recurrent MDE (Wald chi(2)=6.95, df=1, p=0.008, HR=2.36, 95% CI=1.25 to 4.46), and that in turn increased the risk of a suicide attempt (z=4.19, df=1, pdisorder is a potential therapeutic target to prevent suicidal behavior. Enhancing social adjustment may reduce relapse in major depressive disorder and thereby reduce risk of a suicide attempt. Study limitations include small sample size and use of a self-report attachment scale. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Maternal Emotional Availability and Its Association with Maternal Psychopathology, Attachment Style Insecurity and Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Maria; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Träuble, Birgit; Sodian, Beate; Reck, Corinna

    High maternal emotional availability (EA) positively affects various domains of child development. However, the question of which factors promote or hinder maternal EA has not been investigated systematically. The present study investigated several maternal characteristics, namely maternal psychopathology, maternal attachment style insecurity, and theory of mind (ToM) as possible factors that influence maternal EA. The sample was comprised of 56 mothers and their preschool-aged children. Half of the mothers were diagnosed with postpartum depression and or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV, and the other half were healthy controls. The results showed that both low maternal attachment style insecurity and high ToM skills significantly predicted maternal EA sensitivity, independently from maternal postpartum and concurrent psychopathology and education. Moreover, maternal attachment style insecurity fully mediated the link between maternal postpartum psychopathology and sensitivity. The findings suggest that maternal attachment style security can buffer negative effects of maternal psychopathology on maternal sensitivity in the mother-child interaction. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Assessing attachment: convergent validity of the adult attachment interview and the parental bonding instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassis, K; Owens, M; Adam, K S; West, M; Sheldon-Keller, A E

    1999-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether or not the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) can provide information about parent-child attachment that is comparable to information obtained from the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), a more complex measure of attachment. One hundred and thirty emotionally and/or behaviourally disturbed adolescents (73 male, 57 female; ages 13-19 years, x = 15.3 +/- 1.47 years) participating in a study of attachment and suicidality completed the PBI and the AAI. Data from these measures were compared within participants. Maternal care and overprotection on the PBI differed significantly by AAI attachment classification (F3,122 = 2.79, p = 0.012), with autonomous participants showing the most optimal and unresolved participants the least optimal PBI results. Maternal love and maternal involvement/role reversal on the AAI were significant predictors of maternal care and maternal overprotection, respectively, on the PBI (R2 = 0.15; R2 = 0.16). These predictions improved when AAI scales measuring idealisation and involving anger towards the mother were included in the regression analyses (R2 = 0.35; R2 = 0.20). Autonomous participants on AAI showed the highest scale correlations across instruments. Attachment information obtained from the PBI and the AAI is comparable in participants with optimal attachment histories, but not in participants showing idealisation or anger towards their mothers. Caution is, therefore, advisable when using the PBI to obtain attachment information in clinical samples where suboptimal attachment histories are likely.

  4. Electron attachment to indole and related molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modelli, Alberto; Jones, Derek; Pshenichnyuk, Stanislav A.

    2013-11-01

    Gas-phase formation of temporary negative ion states via resonance attachment of low-energy (0-6 eV) electrons into vacant molecular orbitals of indoline (I), indene (II), indole (III), 2-methylen-1,3,3-trimethylindoline (IV), and 2,3,3-trimethyl-indolenine (V) was investigated for the first time by electron transmission spectroscopy (ETS). The description of their empty-level structures was supported by density functional theory and Hartree-Fock calculations, using empirically calibrated linear equations to scale the calculated virtual orbital energies. Dissociative electron attachment spectroscopy (DEAS) was used to measure the fragment anion yields generated through dissociative decay channels of the parent molecular anions of compounds I-V, detected with a mass filter as a function of the incident electron energy in the 0-14 eV energy range. The vertical and adiabatic electron affinities were evaluated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level as the anion/neutral total energy difference. The same theoretical method is also used for evaluation of the thermodynamic energy thresholds for production of the negative fragments observed in the DEA spectra. The loss of a hydrogen atom from the parent molecular anion ([M-H]-) provides the most intense signal in compounds I-IV. The gas-phase DEAS data can provide support for biochemical reaction mechanisms in vivo involving initial hydrogen abstraction from the nitrogen atom of the indole moiety, present in a variety of biologically important molecules.

  5. A literature update on maternal-fetal attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusen, Jeanne L

    2008-01-01

    To critically review and synthesize original research published since 2000 designed to measure factors that influence maternal-fetal attachment. EBSCOhost Research Databases that included PubMed, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS were searched for journal articles published in the past 7 years (2000-2007) that examined variables thought to increase, decrease, or cause no change in level of maternal-fetal attachment. Keyword searches included maternal-fetal attachment, parental attachment, and prenatal attachment. Twenty-two studies were selected that met the inclusion criteria of original research, clear delineation of the measurement of maternal-fetal attachment, measurement of maternal-fetal attachment during pregnancy, and inclusion of women or couples, or both. Studies measuring maternal-fetal attachment included a broad range of variables as potential risk or protective factors, or both. Factors associated with higher levels of maternal-fetal attachment included family support, greater psychological well-being, and having an ultrasound performed. Factors such as depression, substance abuse, and higher anxiety levels were associated with lower levels of maternal-fetal attachment. The large majority of studies reviewed were limited by small, homogenous samples deemed insufficient to detect significant differences, inconsistent measurement of maternal-fetal attachment during gestational periods, and cross-sectional designs. Further research is essential to identify factors influencing maternal-fetal attachment. Specifically, research needs to be conducted on larger sample sizes of greater racial and ethnic diversity.

  6. Autism and Attachment: The Attachment Q-Sort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutgers, Anna H.; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.

    2007-01-01

    Children with autism are able to show secure attachment behaviours to their parents/caregivers. Most studies on attachment in children with autism used a (modified) Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to examine attachment security. An advantage of the Attachment Q-Sort (AQS) over the SSP is that it can be attuned to the secure-base behaviour of…

  7. Stressful life experiences and attachment in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihić Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this paper aimed to explore relations between stressful life experiences and attachment in adolescence. The sample included 279 adolescents of both sexes, who were students of first two years at the University of Novi Sad. Attachment styles were assessed by RQ (Relationship Questionnaire, Bartolomew & Horowitz, 1991, and stressful experiences by Risk Scale (Grossman et al., 1990. The average score on the Risk scale indicated that participants had relatively small number of stressful events; but majority had at least two stressful experiences. The most frequent event was loss of family member (61,2% of participants and traffic accident (40,6% of participants. Participants with secure and insecure attachment styles had similar number of stressful experiences in their lives. Difference between these groups was significant only in the case stressors that origin from the characteristics of the family and intrafamilial relations, which was more frequent experience in participants with insecure attachment styles. However, the results showed that stressful experiences may have negative influence on security of attachment, i.e. on positivity of model of self. The highest and statistically significant contribution was made by separation from family and by family characteristics. The results are discussed in context of attachment theory and previous research data on effects of stressful and traumatic events on security of attachment.

  8. Love attitudes and attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Brenlla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Love styles described by Lee are Eros (passionate love, Ludus (game-pla- ying love, Storge (friendship love, Mania (possessive, dependent love, Pragma (logical, “shopping list” love and Agape (all-giving, selfless love. Based on those types, Hendrick and Hendrick developed a 42-ítem rating questionnaire with 7 items measuring each love style (Love Attitudes Scale. Beside, inform about frequency in love relationships and attachment style. The purpose of this study was analyze the reliability and factor structure of the Love Attitudes Scale and to investigate the association between love attitudes and the attachment style. The results (N=280 participants indicate adequate internal consistency (alfa = 0,73. The items were intercorrelated and factored. The best solution extracted six factors using varimax rotation and all six factors accounted 41% of the total variance. Secure attachment was related positively to eros. 

  9. Pain, Affect, and Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Eduard Scheidt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Various psychodynamic processes may underlie the development of psychogenic pain disorder such as conversion, the displacement of affect, or narcissistic defenses. However, many of the processes suggested are related to a disorder of affect regulation. The term affect regulation in psychoanalytic literature refers to phenomena which are often described by the concept of alexithymia. Empirical observations suggest that alexithymia is correlated to insecure attachment, especially an insecure dismissing representation of attachment. Psychodynamic psychotherapy in psychogenic pain disorder should focus on the reintegration of split-off affects which may provoke intensive counter-transference and which in order to be used therapeutically must be linked to attachment experiences within and outside of the therapeutic relationship.

  10. Chronic family adversity and infant attachment security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, D S; Vondra, J I

    1993-10-01

    A beginning step in the prevention of psychopathology in children is the identification of conditions and events associated with a disproportionately high incidence of behavior problems. Rutter, Cox, Tupling, Berger and Yule (1975a, British Journal of Psychiatry, 126, 493-509) have reported a dramatic increase in the probability of children's adjustment difficulties as a function of multiple family stressors. However, this association has never been tested with infants. Among instruments of infant behavior, attachment classification has been found to be a significant predictor of later adjustment problems, particularly among low-income samples. The present investigation examines the relation between six significant familial stressors and infant attachment security in a sample of 100 low-income parent-infant dyads. Family stressors included parental criminality, maternal depressive symptomatology, maternal personality risk, overcrowding in the home, and the quality of the relationship with a significant other. Cumulative family adversity was found to differentiate secure from insecure infants, but only among families with three or four stressors present. There also was moderate support for one hypothesis derived from attachment theory, namely that stressors more closely associated with maternal functioning are more common among families with insecurely attached infants. Conceptual links between stressors and attachment are discussed, including pathways by which chronic stressors may interfere with the formation and maintenance of secure mother-infant attachment relations.

  11. Attachment and Women's Faith Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Eun Sim

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between human attachment and God attachment, particularly in Christian women's experiences of faith. It is based on the attachment perspective as a conceptual framework. The main aim was to evolve an attachment-theoretical approach to women's faith development and to offer a complementary path to interpret…

  12. Ladder attachment platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swygert,; Richard, W [Springfield, SC

    2012-08-28

    A ladder attachment platform is provided that includes a base for attachment to a ladder that has first and second side rails and a plurality of rungs that extend between in a lateral direction. Also included is a user platform for having a user stand thereon that is carried by the base. The user platform may be positioned with respect to the ladder so that it is not located between a first plane that extends through the first side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction and a second plane that extends through the second side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction.

  13. Phenotypes of Non-Attached Pseudomonas aeruginosa Aggregates Resemble Surface Attached Biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alhede, Morten; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    conditions. However, microscopic investigations of samples isolated from sites of chronic infections seem to suggest that some bacteria do not need to be attached to surfaces in order to establish chronic infections. In this study we employed scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy......, RT-PCR as well as traditional culturing techniques to study the properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates. We found that non-attached aggregates from stationary-phase cultures have comparable growth rates to surface attached biofilms. The growth rate estimations indicated that, independently...... the physiological states of the aggregates and particular matrix components. Bacterial surface-attachment and subsequent biofilm formation are considered hallmarks of the capacity of microbes to cause persistent infections. We have observed non-attached aggregates in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients; otitis...

  14. Quick-attach clamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vano, A. E.

    1968-01-01

    Clamp of the slideable jaw type can be applied to moving lines such as cables or ropes. The clamp has a trigger-operated jaw that can be attached to a redrop parachute on a moving tow cable. The trigger mechanism maintains the jaws retracted in the housing until they are released for clamping.

  15. Organisational Attachment Among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    most studied in industrial and organisational psychology and in the sociology of work and occupations. Some of .... employee differences in job satisfaction and organisation attachment. In this study, the following job .... were studied. These are subsid- iaries of multinational corporations based in Europe and North America.

  16. Attachment and autism: parental attachment representations and relational behaviors in the parent-child dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seskin, Lynn; Feliciano, Eileen; Tippy, Gil; Yedloutschnig, Ruby; Sossin, K Mark; Yasik, Anastasia

    2010-10-01

    While attachment research has demonstrated that parents' internal working models of attachment relationships tend to be transmitted to their children, affecting children's developmental trajectories, this study specifically examines associations between adult attachment status and observable parent, child, and dyadic behaviors among children with autism and associated neurodevelopmental disorders of relating and communicating. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was employed to derive parental working models of attachment relationships. The Functional Emotional Assessment Scale (FEAS) was used to determine the quality of relational and functional behaviors in parents and their children. The sample included parents and their 4- to 16-year-old children with autism and associated neurodevelopmental disorders. Hypothesized relationships between AAI classifications and FEAS scores were supported. Significant correlations were found between AAI classification and FEAS scores, indicating that children with autism spectrum disorders whose parents demonstrated secure attachment representations were better able to initiate and respond in two-way pre-symbolic gestural communication; organize two-way social problem-solving communication; and engage in imaginative thinking, symbolic play, and verbal communication. These findings lend support to the relevance of the parent's state of mind pertaining to attachment status to child and parent relational behavior in cases wherein the child has been diagnosed with autism or an associated neurodevelopmental disorder of relating and communicating. A model emerges from these findings of conceptualizing relationships between parental internal models of attachment relationships and parent-child relational and functional levels that may aid in differentiating interventions.

  17. God attachment, mother attachment, and father attachment in early and middle adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Tick Ngee; Yow, Amanda Shixian

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined the interplay of attachment to God, attachment to mother, and attachment to father with respect to adjustment (hope, self-esteem, depression) for 130 early and 106 middle adolescents in Singapore. Results showed that the parental attachments were generally linked (in expected directions) to adjustment. God attachment, however, had unique results. At the bivariate level, God attachment was only linked to early adolescents' self-esteem. When considered together with parental attachments (including interactions), God attachment did not emerge as the key moderator in attachment interactions and yielded some unexpected results (e.g., being positively linked to depression). These results are discussed viz-a-viz the secure base and safe haven functions that God and parental attachments may play during adolescence.

  18. Influencias del apego a la madre en el vínculo con los pares en la adolescencia: Diferencias entre una muestra femenina clínica y no clínica Influences of mother attachment into peer relationship during adolescence: Difference between a clinical and non-clinical female sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica C. Vega

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone indagar tipos de apego a madre y pares en 83 mujeres de 12 a 18 años (Media: 14,63 años, DS 1,20 con Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria (n=30 y sin ellos (n=53 y analizar si el tipo de apego a madre se repite en pares. Se utilizó durante la fase clínica de un estudio bietápico (UBACyT 2008-2010, el Inventario de Apego a Padres y Pares (IPPA, Armsden & Greenberg 1987. Resultados: Los grupos clínico y control se diferencian significativamente en el apego a la madre (p The present study examines attachment types to mother and peer in eighty-three women of 12 -18 years old (Media:14,63 years, SD 1,20 with Eating Disorders (n=30 and without them (n=53. In order to research repeated tendencies in types of attachment to mother and peer, in 2009, the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA, Armsden & Greenberg 1987 was self-reported during the clinical phase of a two phases study (UBACyT 2008-2010. Results: Clinical and control groups present significantly differences in mother scale (p < .001, but marginal ones in peer scale. At the same time, inluences of mother attachment into peers´ were found. Conclusions: Results conirm the ethio-pathogenic relationship between mother-daughter in eating disorders but even there are tendencies repeated in both attachment mother-daughter, statistical indings are not enough to assure that insecure attachment with mother replicates with peer. Same study in a bigger sample should be done to conirm so.

  19. The role of sex, attachment and autonomy-connectedness in personality functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachrach, N.; Croon, M.A.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have found significant relationships among sex, attachment and autonomy-connectedness and DSM-IV personality characteristics. In the present study, we aimed to add to the current knowledge about attachment-related aspects of personality pathology, by examining the relationships of

  20. Mediators of the Link Between Adult Attachment and Mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon G. Caldwell

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to be mindfully aware of the present moment without judgment is associated with a number of positive psychological and physiological outcomes. Experiences in attachment relationships are related to specific cognitive-emotional patterns that may contribute to dispositional mindfulness. A sample of adults (N = 93 completed questionnaires regarding adult attachment, rumination, thought suppression, attentional control, and mindfulness. Attachment-related avoidance predicted lower levels of mindfulness, a relation mediated by thought suppression and poorer attentional control. Attachment-related anxiety also predicted lower levels of mindfulness, a relation mediated by rumination and poorer attentional control. The results suggest that in the context of insecure attachment relationships thought suppression and rumination defend against personal and interpersonal losses by deactivating (in the case of avoidance or hyperactivating (in the case of anxiety the attachment system. These habitual defensive patterns may be important links between adult attachment orientations and mindfulness.

  1. Parental rules, parent and peer attachment, and adolescent drinking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Family factors have been widely implicated in the development of adolescent drinking behaviors. These include parental attachment and parental rules concerning drinking behaviors. Moreover, throughout adolescence attachment to parents gives way to attachment to peers, and parental rules about alcohol use become less strict. The present study examined the relationship between parental and peer attachment, parental rules on drinking and alcohol use in a large sample (n = 1,724) of adolescents in the United Kingdom. Controlling for school grade (proxy for age), sex and the non-independence of respondents (clustering at school level) results showed that scores on a parental rules on drinking questionnaire were a significant statistical predictor when comparing moderate drinkers and abstainers, as well as moderate drinkers and problematic drinkers. Scores on both attachment scales were also significant, but only in the comparison between moderate and problematic drinkers, with lower attachment to parents and higher attachment to peers associated with problematic drinking.

  2. Parenting quality in drug-addicted mothers in a therapeutic mother-child community: the contribution of attachment and personality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palo, Francesca; Capra, Nicoletta; Simonelli, Alessandra; Salcuni, Silvia; Di Riso, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence shows that attachment is a key risk factor for the diagnosis and treatment of clinical diseases in Axis I, such as drug addiction. Recent literature regarding attachment, psychiatric pathology, and drug addiction demonstrates that there is a clear prevalence of insecure attachment patterns in clinical and drug addicted subjects. Specifically, some authors emphasize that the anxious-insecure attachment pattern is prevalent among drug-addicted women with double diagnosis (Fonagy et al., 1996). The construct of attachment as a risk factor in clinical samples of drug-addicted mothers needs to be studied more in depth though. The present explorative study focused on the evaluation of parenting quality in a therapeutic mother-child community using attachment and personality assessment tools able to outline drug-addicted mothers' profiles. This study involved 30 drug addicted mothers, inpatients of a therapeutic community (TC). Attachment representations were assessed via the Adult Attachment Interview; personality diagnosis and symptomatic profiles were performed using the Structured Clinical Interview of the DSM-IV (SCID-II) and the Symptom Check List-90-R (SCL-90-R), respectively. Both instruments were administered during the first six months of residence in a TC. Results confirmed the prevalence of insecure attachment representations (90%), with a high presence of U patterns, prevalently scored for dangerous and/or not protective experiences in infanthood. Very high values (>5) were found for some experience scales (i.e., neglect and rejection scales). Data also showed very low values (1-3) in metacognitive monitoring, coherence of transcript and coherence of mind scales. Patients' different profiles (U vs. E vs. Ds) were linked to SCID-II diagnosis, providing insightful indications both for treatment planning and intervention on parenting functions and for deciding if to start foster care or adoption proceedings for children.

  3. PARENTING QUALITY IN DRUG-ADDICTED MOTHERS IN A THERAPEUTIC MOTHER-CHILD COMMUNITY: THE CONTRIBUTION OF ATTACHMENT AND PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eDe Palo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence shows that attachment is a key risk factor for the diagnosis and treatment of clinical diseases in Axis I, such as drug addiction. Recent literature regarding attachment, psychiatric pathology and drug addiction demonstrates that there is a clear prevalence of insecure attachment patterns in clinical and drug addicted subjects. Specifically, some authors emphasize that the anxious-insecure attachment pattern is prevalent among drug-addicted women with double diagnosis (Fonagy et al., 1996. The construct of attachment as a risk factor in clinical samples of drug-addicted mothers needs to be studied more in depth though. The present explorative study focused on the evaluation of parenting quality in a therapeutic mother-child community using attachment and personality assessment tools able to outline drug-addicted mothers’ profiles. This study involved 30 drug addicted mothers, inpatients of a therapeutic community. Attachment representations were assessed via the Adult Attachment Interview; personality diagnosis and symptomatic profiles were performed using the Structured Clinical Interview of the DSM-IV (SCID-II and the Symptom Check List-90-R (SCL-90-R respectively. Both instruments were administered during the first six months of residence in a therapeutic community. Results confirmed the prevalence of insecure attachment representations (90%, with a high presence of U patterns, prevalently scored for dangerous and/or not protective experiences in infanthood. Very high values (>5 were found for some experience scales (i.e. neglect and rejection scales. Data also showed very low values (1-3 in metacognitive monitoring, coherence of transcript and coherence of mind scales. Patients’ different profiles (U vs. E vs. Ds were linked to SCID-II diagnosis, providing insightful indications both for treatment planning and intervention on parenting functions and for deciding if to start foster care or adoption proceedings for

  4. Attachment of Adolescents to Parents: Turkey Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkan Dogan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the attachment of adolescents to their parents according to geographical regions in Turkey and gender. The research group consisted of 6061 adolescents. With an age average of 15.53 years. The Inventory of Attachment to Parents and Friends- Brief Form (EABE was used as data acquisition tool. The results of the study indicated significant difference between the scores of students regarding the inventory of attachment to parents according to regions. Evaluating the findings regarding attachment to father and mother together, the findings were similar, and the attachment levels of adolescents in Middle Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia and Black Sea Region were found to be higher than the ones in other regions. This result may be related with socioeconomic, geographical and cultural structures of the regions. Examining the finding according to gender variable, the scores of male students are significantly lower than the scores of female students. As a result according to the data gained from a wide sample group; the main factors for the attachment of adolescents to their parents in Turkey are the geographical regions in Turkey and the gender. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 406-419

  5. Child-Parent Attachment Styles and Borderline Personality Disorder Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senija Tahirovic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on the attachment styles and their impact on human functioning and relationships (Bretherton, 1992. Some attachment styles have been associated with pathological way of human overall functioning, and it has already been observed that insecure attachment style in childhood may be associated with personality dysfunction (Brennan & Shaver, 1998. The purpose of this study is to investigate how people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD describe their attachment style to the primary caregivers from their memories from childhood. This study was conducted in Germany in an inpatient psychiatric clinic. Fifteen participants represented a convenience sample, of patients already diagnosed with BPD. For this study Adult Attachment Interview (AAI was used. The AAI is a semi-structured interview focusing on the early attachment experiences and their effects based on Attachment Theory.The results indicated that people diagnosed with BPD showed both preoccupied and dismissing child-parent attachment style,however it was the dismissing attachment style that dominated in our sample. The findings supported the hypothesis that participants who showed dismissing attachment style also used positive adjectives to describe the relationship  with their primary caregiver, and those with the preoccupied attachment style used negative adjectives to describe the relationship  with their primary caregiver. Even though, study was conducted with small number of participants, the study did provide evidence that there is a relationship between BPD and attachment styles in childhood. Threfore, the study offered contribution to the already existing knowledge and research findings regarding the influence of attachment style on BPD development. Keywords: Attachment, Personality disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, child, childhood

  6. Workspace appropriation and attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PAVALACHE-ILIE

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This literature synthesis presents a short history of the evolution of the concepts of space appropriation and place attachment, highlighting the difficulty of their operationalisation from a cultural point of view. The next subject brought into discussion is the relation between the affective dimension of the connection between a person and the work place and the behaviours which are prone to insure the proper functioning of organizations, such as the organizational civism and the organizational commitment.

  7. Leadership and attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresnahan, Christopher G; Mitroff, Ian I

    2007-09-01

    Comments on the six articles contained in the special issue of the American Psychologist (January 2007) devoted to leadership, written by W. Bennis; S. J. Zaccaro; V. H. Vroom and A. G. Yago; B. J. Avolio; R. J. Sternberg; and R. J. Hackman and R. Wageman. The current authors opine that the inclusion of attachment theory in the study of leadership could strengthen leadership theories as a whole.

  8. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2014.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  9. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2015.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  10. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2016.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  11. A systematic review of adult attachment and social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Ray P C; Dickson, Joanne M; Palmier-Claus, Jasper; Cunliffe, Alexandra; Taylor, Peter J

    2017-03-15

    Attachment has been implicated in the development of social anxiety. Our aim was to synthesise the extant literature exploring the role of adult attachment in these disorders. Search terms relating to social anxiety and attachment were entered into MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Risk of bias of included studies was assessed using and adapted version of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality assessment tool. Eligible studies employed validated social anxiety and attachment assessments in adult clinical and analogue samples. The review included cross sectional, interventional and longitudinal research. Of the 30 identified studies, 28 showed a positive association between attachment insecurity and social anxiety. This association was particularly strong when considering attachment anxiety. Cognitive variables and evolutionary behaviours were identified as potential mediators, concordant with psychological theory. Due to a lack of longitudinal research, the direction of effect between attachment and social anxiety variables could not be inferred. There was substantial heterogeneity in the way that attachment was conceptualised and assessed across studies. The literature indicates that attachment style is associated with social anxiety. Clinicians may wish to consider attachment theory when working clinically with this population. In the future, it may be useful to target the processes that mediate the relationship between attachment and social anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Topological characterisation and identification of critical domains within glucosyltransferase IV (GtrIV of Shigella flexneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Anesh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The three bacteriophage genes gtrA, gtrB and gtr(type are responsible for O-antigen glucosylation in Shigella flexneri. Both gtrA and gtrB have been demonstrated to be highly conserved and interchangeable among serotypes while gtr(type was found to be specific to each serotype, leading to the hypothesis that the Gtr(type proteins are responsible for attaching glucosyl groups to the O-antigen in a site- and serotype- specific manner. Based on the confirmed topologies of GtrI, GtrII and GtrV, such interaction and attachment of the glucosyl groups to the O-antigen has been postulated to occur in the periplasm. Results In this study, the topology of GtrIV was experimentally determined by creating different fusions between GtrIV and a dual-reporter protein, PhoA/LacZ. This study shows that GtrIV consists of 8 transmembrane helices, 2 large periplasmic loops, 2 small cytoplasmic N- and C- terminal ends and a re-entrant loop that occurs between transmembrane helices III and IV. Though this topology differs from that of GtrI, GtrII, GtrV and GtrX, it is very similar to that of GtrIc. Furthermore, both the N-terminal periplasmic and the C-terminal periplasmic loops are important for GtrIV function as shown via a series of loop deletion experiments and the creation of chimeric proteins between GtrIV and its closest structural homologue, GtrIc. Conclusion The current study provides the basis for elucidating the structure and mechanism of action of this important O-antigen modifying glucosyltransferase.

  13. Sexuality examined through the lens of attachment theory: attachment, caregiving, and sexual satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péloquin, Katherine; Brassard, Audrey; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Shaver, Phillip R

    2014-01-01

    Attachment researchers have proposed that the attachment, caregiving, and sexual behavioral systems are interrelated in adult love relationships (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007 ). This study examined whether aspects of partners' caregiving (proximity, sensitivity, control, compulsive caregiving) mediated the association between their attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) and each other's sexual satisfaction in two samples of committed couples (Study 1: 126 cohabiting or married couples from the general community; Study 2: 55 clinically distressed couples). Partners completed the Experiences in Close Relationships measure (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 ), the Caregiving Questionnaire (Kunce & Shaver, 1994 ), and the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction (Lawrance & Byers, 1998 ). Path analyses based on the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) revealed that caregiving proximity mediated the association between low attachment avoidance and partners' sexual satisfaction in distressed and nondistressed couples. Sensitivity mediated this association in nondistressed couples only. Control mediated the association between men's insecurities (attachment-related avoidance and anxiety) and their partners' low sexual satisfaction in nondistressed couples. Attachment anxiety predicted compulsive caregiving, but this caregiving dimension was not a significant mediator. These results are discussed in light of attachment theory and their implications for treating distressed couples.

  14. Effect of Attachment-Based Therapy on Behavioral Disorders in Girls with Attachment Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Jahanbakhsh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidimensional and complex nature of children`s behavioral disorders requires assessment and usage of modern treatments. The present study investigated the effects of attachment-based therapy on behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant in girl students of primary school who had attachment problems. Materials and Methods: This study is an empirical plan with pretest-posttest and control group. The target samples were 34 individuals of 388 second and fourth grade students of primary school that had highest scores on attachment problems and behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Evaluation implemented using Randolph attachment disorder questionnaire (RADQ and Ontario mental health test. Mothers were presented in 10 group sessions of attachment-based intervention and its effects investigated in their girl`s behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Results: Reduction rate of behavioral disorders general scores (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant of experimental group compared with control group showed significant decreases in posttest and three months follow up. Conclusion: The attachment based therapy offered for mothers of the girls with attachment problems was effective to reduction of behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant symptoms in their children and the mother`s continues attention to interventional methods showed more improvement in follow up evaluation.

  15. Association of attachment disorganization, attachment-related emotion regulation, and cortisol response after standardized psychosocial stress procedure: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrowski Katja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Attachment representations are related to maintaining biological homeostasis, including physiological stress and emotional regulation. Therefore, recent research has focused on attachment stress regulation and hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA axis reactivity. However, the attachment disorganization underlying emotion regulation associated with the HPA axis response has not yet been investigated. In our study, the attachment representation and the HPA-axis reactivity by cortisol level before and after the Trier Social Stress Test were assessed in a sample of 98 healthy non-clinical subjects. As expected, approximately 30% of this sample showed a disorganized attachment representation. The subjects’ unresolved attachment (breakdown of emotional regulation showed a prolonged cortisol recovery. No differences were found between the attachment patterns in the increase and the delta of the cortisol response. However, the cortisol reactivity differed significantly for the occurrence of emotional regulation. The subjects with a high occurrence of attachment-related emotion regulation showed a higher cortisol response than the subjects with an unresolved attachment and the ones with a low occurrence of attachment-related emotion regulation. Regulating the negative emotions of stressful situations may require more attention as it might lead to an increased activation of the physiological system.

  16. Next Steps in Attachment Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Thanks to the phenomenal success of attachment theory, great progress has been made in understanding child and adult relationships. The success of attachment theory opens the way to new research directions that can extend its successes even further. In particular, more work on the fundamental nature of attachment that respects recent biological research is important, as is concentrated effort on the related caregiving system.

  17. Introduction: attachment theory and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Kenneth N

    2013-11-01

    In this introduction to the JCLP: In Session 69(11) issue on attachment theory and psychotherapy, the key points of attachment theory (Bowlby, , , 1981) and its relevance to psychotherapy are briefly described. The aim of this issue is to provide case illustrations of how an attachment theory perspective and principles can expand our understanding of psychotherapy practice. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Next Steps in Attachment Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David C

    2012-12-01

    Thanks to the phenomenal success of attachment theory, great progress has been made in understanding child and adult relationships. The success of attachment theory opens the way to new research directions that can extend its successes even further. In particular, more work on the fundamental nature of attachment that respects recent biological research is important, as is concentrated effort on the related caregiving system.

  19. Adult attachment styles and the psychological response to infant bereavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Shevlin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on Bowlby's attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity. Objective: The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew's attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the relationship between the resultant attachment typology with a range of psychological trauma variables. Method: The current study was based on a sample of 445 bereaved parents who had experienced either peri- or post-natal death of an infant. Adult attachment was assessed using the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS while reaction to trauma was assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC. A latent profile analysis was conducted on scores from the RAAS closeness/dependency and anxiety subscales to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes. Emergent classes were used to determine if these were significantly different in terms of mean scores on TSC scales. Results: A four-class solution was considered the optimal based on fit statistics and interpretability of the results. Classes were labelled “Fearful,” “Preoccupied,” “Dismissing,” and “Secure.” Females were almost eight times more likely than males to be members of the fearful attachment class. This class evidenced the highest scores across all TSC scales while the secure class showed the lowest scores. Conclusions: The results are consistent with Bartholomew's four-category attachment styles with classes representing secure, fearful, preoccupied, and dismissing types. While the loss of an infant is a devastating experience for any parent, securely attached individuals showed the lowest levels of psychopathology compared to fearful, preoccupied, or dismissing

  20. To attach or not to attach? The effect of carrier surface morphology and topography on attachment of phoretic deutonymphs of Uropoda orbicularis (Acari)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajerlein, Daria; Adamski, Zbigniew; Kacalak, Wojciech; Tandecka, Katarzyna; Wiesner, Maciej; Jurga, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies on preferences of phoretic deutonymphs of Uropodina for attachment sites have shown that they frequently select smooth and hydrophobic surfaces. The aim of our study was to provide the detailed morphological and topographical characteristics of beetle body surfaces to which deutonymphs frequently attach and to verify how the presence of setae and surface sculpture affects deutonymph attachment. The study was conducted on Uropoda orbicularis (Müller, 1776) and its common beetle carriers: Aphodius prodromus (Brahm, 1790), Aphodius fimetarius (Linnaeus, 1758), Onthophagus nuchicornis (Linnaeus, 1758) and Margarinotus carbonarius (Hoffmann, 1803). Morphology and topography of elytra, femora, propygidia and pygidia of beetles were analysed mainly using SEM methods supported with CLSM and AFM techniques. The hypothesis that deutonymphs may attach to surfaces covered with setae, if seta density is low enough not to disturb mite movement, was tested. The study revealed that deutonymphs attach to surfaces of various types as follows: (i) smooth, (ii) hairy, i.e., covered with setae, (iii) flat and (iv) sculptured. Smooth body parts and body parts covered with setae of low density were most frequently and intensively occupied with deutonymphs. Surfaces of high seta density were avoided by mites. Within elytra of Aphodius beetles, deutonymphs definitely preferred flat surfaces of elytral intervals. On the contrary, densely punctuated propygidium and pygidium in M. carbonarius were heavily infested with deutonymphs. We conclude that carrier surface morphology and topography are important for Uropodina deutonymph attachment, but these two factors cannot fully explain the observed relation.

  1. Attachment models in incarcerated sex offenders: a preliminary Italian study using the adult attachment interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattagliano, Ignazio; Cassibba, Rosalinda; Costantini, Alessandro; Laquale, Giovanni Michele; Latrofa, Alessandra; Papagna, Sonia; Sette, Giovanna; Taurino, Alessandro; Terlizzi, Maria

    2015-01-01

    A group of sex offenders (clinical group: n = 19) was compared to a nonclinical sample matched by age, years of education, and gender (control group A: n = 19) to verify a higher incidence of insecure attachment models among sex offenders. In addition, we tested whether sex offenders were characterized by specific childhood experiences, compared to control adults (control group B: n = 19) with the same secure/insecure attachment classification. Results showed significant differences between offenders and control adults on both the AAI continuous score and the distribution of the two-way attachment classifications. Furthermore, sex offenders reported more intense experiences of rejection by the father figure and abuse in the family context during early childhood compared to not offenders subjects with the same attachment classification. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. The role of attachment in predicting CBT treatment outcome in children with anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walczak, Monika Anna; Normann, Nicoline; Tolstrup, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Child’s insecure attachment to parents and insecure parental attachment has been linked to childhood anxiety (Brumariu & Kerns, 2010; Manassis et al.,1994).Whether attachment patterns can predict treatment outcome, is yet to be investigated. We examined the role of children......’s attachment to parents, and parental attachment in predicting treatment outcome in anxious children receiving cognitive-behavioral treatment. Method: A total of 69 children aged 7-13 years were diagnosed at intake and post-treatment, using Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV (Silverman and Albano...... of maternal attachment anxiety and it was found to significantly add to the model (Exp(B) =.958, CI0.95= [ .925, .994]; p=.021), even while controlling for symptom severity. Discussion: Maternal attachment anxiety was found to have a significant role in predicting treatment outcome. These results suggest...

  3. Attachment is a dynamic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the study of recent scientific literature about the development of attachment, the author answers the following questions: which are the postulates the theory of attachment has about the stability of the patterns of attachment, which level of stability in the patterns of attachment from infancy to adulthood these studies illuminate and which factors significantly influence the (instability of the patterns of attachment in time. The theory of attachment assumes that normal circumstances elicit stability. Changes, however, can be the result of important events influencing the sensitivity of the object of attachment. Agreement has not yet been reached regarding the percentage of stability in the patterns of attachment. There is more agreement regarding attachment in adulthood than that in childhood. The results depend on the size and characteristics of the subjects of the research, the measuring instruments, type of data analysis etc. The author concludes that attachment is a dynamic system influenced by significant changes in life (the cognitive development of the child, external care, parents' divorce, different stressful situations. As the influence of stressful events on the individual person' s quality of attachment is examined, it is necessary to consider also his/her temperamental characteristics, role of other people in their lives, etc.

  4. Patterns of Attachment and Emotional Competence in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Livia; Del Giudice, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between patterns of attachment and emotional competence at the beginning of middle childhood in a sample of 122 seven-year-olds. A new battery of tasks was developed in order to assess two facets of emotional competence (emotion recognition and knowledge of regulation strategies). Attachment was related to…

  5. The Link between Types of Attachment and Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erozkan, Atilgan

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between childhood trauma and types of attachment and the predictive role of childhood trauma on types of attachment. The sample was composed of 911 (492 female; 419 male) university students at Mugla Sitki Kocman University, in Turkey. Data were collected using the brief screening version of the Childhood…

  6. Attachment, Acculturation, and Psychosomatic Complaints among Hispanic American University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chiachih D. C.; Scalise, Dominick A.; Barajas-Munoz, I. Alejandro; Julio, Kathy; Gomez, Ayleen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated adult attachment and acculturation frameworks of reported psychosomatic complaints related to perceived discrimination among a sample of Latino/Hispanic university students (N = 160). The model supported by the data suggests that attachment anxiety, acculturation toward the dominant cultural norms, and adherence to…

  7. Association between Adult Attachment Representations and Undergraduate Student Course Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Alisha M.; Scharfe, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Students' course evaluations often play an important role in career advancement for faculty. The authors examined the association between attachment representations of parents and course evaluations in a sample of 230 undergraduate students. They found a significant negative association between attachment anxiety with parents and course…

  8. Attachment styles, personality, and Dutch emigrants ' intercultural adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, W; Van Oudenhoven, JP; Van Der Zee, KI

    2004-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship of adult attachment styles with personality and psychological and sociocultural adjustment. A sample of 847 first-generation Dutch emigrants filled out measures for attachment styles, the Big Five, and indicators of psychological and sociocultural

  9. Gonococcal attachment to eukaryotic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, J.F.; Lammel, C.J.; Draper, D.L.; Brown, D.A.; Sweet, R.L.; Brooks, G.F.

    The attachment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to eukaryotic cells grown in tissue culture was analyzed by use of light and electron microscopy and by labeling of the bacteria with (/sup 3/H)- and (/sup 14/C)adenine. Isogenic piliated and nonpiliated N. gonorrhoeae from opaque and transparent colonies were studied. The results of light microscopy studies showed that the gonococci attached to cells of human origin, including Flow 2000, HeLa 229, and HEp 2. Studies using radiolabeled gonococci gave comparable results. Piliated N. gonorrhoeae usually attached in larger numbers than nonpiliated organisms, and those from opaque colonies attached more often than isogenic variants from transparent colonies. Day-to-day variation in rate of attachment was observed. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed the gonococcal attachment to be specific for microvilli of the host cells. It is concluded that more N. gonorrhoeae from opaque colonies, as compared with isogenic variants from transparent colonies, attach to eukaryotic cells grown in tissue culture.

  10. Relationships between attachment and marital satisfaction in married couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Gallerová

    2016-01-01

    four selfrepot questionnaires. The childhood attachment was measured by Attachment History Paragraphs (Granqvist & Kirkpatrick, 2004, adult attachment was measured by The Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 and satisfaction in marriage was measuredby two measures: Quality Marriage Index (Norton, 1983 and Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale (Schumm, Bollman, & Jurich, 1997.The research sample consisted of 78 heterosexual married couple, together 156 people. The average length of marriages is 20.76 years. Participants were instructed to complete the questionnaires independently. The relations between variables were examined by correlation analysis and cluster analysis. People with a secure attachment style and their partners were most satisfied with their marriages. Our study showed relation between dismissive attachment style and low level of marital satisfaction for the individual, and for the partner of the examined one. The results of our study did not suggest any relationship between childhood attachment and marital satisfaction. The results indicate that secure attachment style is related to higher level of relationship satisfaction, in spite of stressful situation or demanding changes which are occurring in marriage. People with insecure attachment style devote a lot of effort to reinforce marital and couple relationship stability during difficult situations in relationship. Connection between marital satisfaction and childhood attachment has not been proven. The reason may be that childhood attachment is not always totally stable and it can be changed by life experience or personal characteristics of the individual. Our research confirmed that attachment is related to satisfaction in marriage. Research of relationship between attachment and factors affecting marriage is very beneficial, because new finding in this topic can help in clinical practice.

  11. Mother-infant attachment in adoptive families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, L M; Brodzinsky, D M; Ramsay, D; Steir, M; Waters, E

    1985-12-01

    Data from 2 separate samples using the Strange Situation paradigm were combined to assess the quality of attachment relationships in adoptive and nonadoptive mother-infant pairs. Infants were between 13 and 18 months at the time of observation. Results indicated no differences in mother-infant attachment between nonadopted and intraracial adopted subjects or between intraracial and interracial adopted subjects. Interracial adoptive mother-infant pairs did show a higher incidence of insecure attachment in comparison to nonadoptive pairs. Mothers of interracial adopted infants also were less comfortable having others care for their babies and perceived less emotional support from extended family and friends for their decision to adopt a child prior to the actual adoption than did other mothers. No relation was found, however, between quality of mother-infant attachment and either perceived social support, infant developmental quotient, infant temperament, number of foster homes experienced by the infant, or infant's age at the time of adoption placement. It was suggested that the higher incidence of psychological problems found among adoptees in middle childhood and adolescence cannot be explained in terms of insecure attachment relationships during the infancy years.

  12. Attachment Theory in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Korstanje

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The following work is intended to a revision on attachment theory. The postulates of the theory of the sure base point that the system of exploration meets in narrow relation the system of conducts of attachment and the figure of the keepers. The conducts that characterize and symbolize the relation of the adult with the environment are carried back to the early age, in the moment in which the child develops the affective capacity. What difference does exist between someone who decides to journey to England and that one that one decides to travel to Mar del Plata? How it is possible to study this topic of on a manner trustworthy? These three questions were key to begin the investigation. Nevertheless, the matter began to find certain limitations linked to the methodology that had to be in use. It is possible to use careless they on the leisure scope, a theory which still demonstrates certain inconsistencies in its own clinical application?

  13. Parental divorce and adult children's attachment representations and marital status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Judith A; Treboux, Dominique; Brockmeyer, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore adult attachment as a means of understanding the intergenerational transmission of divorce, that is, the propensity for the children of divorce to end their own marriages. Participants included 157 couples assessed 3 months prior to their weddings and 6 years later. Participants completed the Adult Attachment Interview and questionnaires about their relationships, and were videotaped with their partners in a couple interaction task. Results indicated that, in this sample, adult children of divorce were not more likely to divorce within the first 6 years of marriage. However, parental divorce increased the likelihood of having an insecure adult attachment status. For women, age at the time of their parents' divorce was related to adult attachment status, and the influence on attachment representations may be more enduring. Among adult children of divorce, those who were classified as secure in their attachment representations were less likely to divorce in the early years of marriage than insecure participants.

  14. IV access in dental practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, J J

    2009-04-01

    Intravenous (IV) access is a valuable skill for dental practitioners in emergency situations and in IV sedation. However, many people feel some apprehension about performing this procedure. This article explains the basic principles behind IV access, and the relevant anatomy and physiology, as well as giving a step-by-step guide to placing an IV cannula.

  15. Adult Attachment as Mediator between Recollections of Childhood and Satisfaction with Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinnen, C.; Sanderman, R.; Sprangers, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with attachment theory, the present study investigates whether internal working models of attachment mediated the association between childhood memories and satisfaction about life in adulthood. A convenient sample of 437 participants completed questionnaires assessing a broad range of

  16. Mental representations of attachment in eating disorders: a pilot study using the Adult Attachment Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Lavinia; Guiducci, Valentina

    2009-07-01

    Mental representations of attachment in a sample of adults with Eating Disorders (ED) were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Sixty subjects participated in the study: 30 non-clinical and 30 clinical. The results obtained showed a specific distribution of attachment patterns in the clinical sample: 10% Free/Autonomous (F), 47% Insecure-Dismissing (Ds), 17% Insecure-Entangled/Preoccupied (E) and about 26% disorganized (CC/U). The two samples differed in their attachment pattern distribution and were significantly different on some coding system scales. Further information was obtained by analyzing differences between the three ED subtypes considered (i.e. Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder) and by investigating the differential role of the two parental figures in the definition of attachment representations. Results showed potential benefits in using the AAI coding system scales in addition to the main classifications in order to understand better the developmental issues involved in these disorders. Implications for developmental research and clinical nosology are discussed.

  17. Are adult attachment styles categorical or dimensional? A taxometric analysis of general and relationship-specific attachment orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, R Chris; Hudson, Nathan W; Heffernan, Marie E; Segal, Noam

    2015-08-01

    One of the long-standing debates in the study of adult attachment is whether individual differences are best captured using categorical or continuous models. Although early research suggested that continuous models might be most appropriate, we revisit this issue here because (a) categorical models continue to be widely used in the empirical literature, (b) contemporary models of individual differences raise new questions about the structure of attachment, and (c) methods for addressing the types versus dimensions question have become more sophisticated over time. Analyses based on 2 samples indicate that individual differences appear more consistent with a dimensional rather than a categorical model. This was true with respect to general attachment representations and attachment in specific relationship contexts (e.g., attachment with parents and peers). These findings indicate that dimensional models of attachment style may be better suited for conceptualizing and measuring individual differences across multiple levels of analysis. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Relationship duration moderates associations between attachment and relationship quality: meta-analytic support for the temporal adult romantic attachment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, Benjamin W; Smith, C Veronica; Webster, Gregory D

    2014-02-01

    Although research has examined associations between attachment dimensions and relationship outcomes, theory has ignored how these associations change over time in adult romantic relationships. We proposed the Temporal Adult Romantic Attachment (TARA) model, which predicts that the negative associations between anxious and avoidant attachment on one hand and relationship satisfaction and commitment on the other will be more negative as relationship durations increase. Meta-analyses largely confirmed that negative associations between both insecure attachment dimensions and both relationship outcomes were more negative among longer relationship durations in cross-sectional samples. We also explored gender differences in these associations. The present review not only integrates the literature on adult attachment and romantic relationship satisfaction/commitment but also highlights the importance of relationship duration as a key moderator of the associations among these variables. We discuss the broad implications of these effects and our meta-analytic findings for the TARA model, attachment theory, and romantic relationships.

  19. Dibromidodimethyldipyridineplatinum(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairéad E. Kelly

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [PtBr2(CH32(C5H5N2], the PtIV metal centre lies on a twofold rotation axis and adopts a slightly distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The structure displays weak intramolecular C—H...Br hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  20. Picturing Urban Green Attachments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders; Meilvang, Marie Leth

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore the cultural-political tensions and ambiguities of urban ecology, by way of following how activists move and translate between ‘familiar’ and ‘public’ engagements in the green city. Empirically, we locate our exploration in and around Nordhavnen (The North Harbor......), a large-scale sustainable urban development project in Copenhagen. Invoking Laurent Thévenot’s pragmatic sociology of ‘regimes of engagement’, we sketch a culturally sensitive approach to urban ecological activism, highlighting the critical moral capacities involved in building new forms of ‘commonality...... of urban politics as inclusive learning processes, more hospitable to a wider diversity of familiar attachments to cities and their ecologies....

  1. THERMOPHILE ENDOSPORES HAVE RESPONSIVE EXOSPORIUM FOR ATTACHMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PANESSA-WARREN,B.; TORTORA,G.T.; WARREN,J.; SABATINI,R.

    1999-08-01

    Recently studies examining the colonization of Clostridial pathogens on agar and human tissue culture cells, demonstrated that (C. sporogenes ATCC 3584, C. difficile ATCC 43594 [patient isolate], C. difficile ATCC 9689 [non-clinical], C. clostridioforme [patient isolate]) bacterial spores (endospores) of the genus Clostridia have an outer membrane that becomes responsive at activation and exhibits extensions of the exosporial membrane that facilitate and maintain spore attachment to a nutritive substrate during germination and initial outgrowth of the newly developed bacterial cell. Therefore this attachment phenomenon plays an important role in insuring bacterial colonization of a surface and the initial stages of the infective process. To see if other non-clinical members of this genus also have this ability to attach to a substrate or food-source during spore germination, and how this attachment process in environmental thermophiles compares to the clinical paradigm (in relation to time sequence, exosporial membrane structure, type of attachment structures, composition of the membrane etc...), sediment samples were collected in sterile transport containers at 4 geothermal sites at Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. Because spore forming bacteria will produce spores when conditions are unfavorable for growth, the samples were sealed and stored at 4 C. After 8 months the samples were screened for the presence of spores by light microscope examination using malachite green/safranin, and traditional endospores were identified in significant quantities from the Terrace Spring site (a 46 C lake with bacterial mats and a rapidly moving run-off channel leading to a traditional hot spring). The highest spore population was found in the top sediment and benthic water of the run-off channel, pH 8.1.

  2. Assessing Attachment Representations in Adolescents: Discriminant Validation of the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Manuela; George, Carol; Pokorny, Dan; Buchheim, Anna

    2017-04-01

    The contribution of attachment to human development and clinical risk is well established for children and adults, yet there is relatively limited knowledge about attachment in adolescence due to the poor availability of construct valid measures. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) is a reliable and valid instrument to assess adult attachment status. This study examines for the first time the discriminant validity of the AAP in adolescents. In our sample of 79 teenagers between 15 and 18 years, 42 % were classified as secure, 34 % as insecure-dismissing, 13 % as insecure-preoccupied and 11 % as unresolved. The results demonstrated discriminant validity for using the AAP in that age group, with no associations between attachment classifications and verbal intelligence, social desirability, story length or sociodemographic variables. These results poise the AAP to be used in clinical intervention and large-scale research investigating normative and atypical developmental correlates and sequelae of attachment, including psychopathology in adolescence.

  3. Using attachment theory in mentoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Kerri

    Attachment theory is a useful way to understand the bond between children and the people with whom they have emotional ties--usually caregivers. The theory can also help us to understand any adult relationship that provides closeness and a sense of attachment, especially in times of stress or need. Understanding the nature, cause and effect of the role and function of attachment from a training and development perspective, and different styles of attachment, may improve the quality of the mentoring experience for both mentors and mentees.

  4. Systemic therapy and attachment narratives: Attachment Narrative Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallos, Rudi; Vetere, Arlene

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines an integration of attachment theory with narrative theory and systemic theory and practice: Attachment Narrative Therapy (ANT). This integration offers a more powerful explanatory formulation of the development and maintenance of human distress in relationships, families and communities, and gives direction to psychotherapeutic intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. From security to attachment : Mary Ainsworth's contribution to attachment theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosmalen, Lenette (Lenny) van

    2015-01-01

    Even though John Bowlby (1907-1990) is generally regarded as the founder of attachment theory, Mary Ainsworth’s (1913-1999) contribution is considerable and goes beyond the design of the Strange Situation Procedure and the introduction of maternal sensitivity as decisive for a secure attachment

  6. Demographic factors related to maternal and child attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Isabel Giraldo Montoya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Postpartum is one of the decisive moments to strengthen the attachment between the mother and child relationship; however, there are demographic factors that can limit this interaction and become a disadvantage for the proper development of the child. Objective: Determine the demographic factors related to maternal child attachment in the postpartum during the year 2014. Materials and methods: An analytical transversal study was carried out with a sample of 117 mothers with their newborn. The instrument Mother-child relationship was used. The variables to determine attachment were: breastfeeding, interest, response, language and tact. They were evaluated on a numerical scale whose final score allowed to determine whether there was a healthy or at-risk attachment. A logistic regression model was implemented to explore the association between demographic variables and at-risk attachment. Results: The median age was 27 years with an interquartile range between 22 and 31. 54.7% lived in free union and 34.2% had fulfilled high school studies. Healthy attachment was presented in 80.3% of the mothers. Nevertheless, 60.7% had low initial motivation for breastfeeding which could lead to at-risk attachment. Statistical association between at-risk attachment, marital status and schooling was found, but the only variable that explained this association was the civil status: single (RP = 4.88 IC 95% P = 0.48. Conclusion: According to the multivariate model, at-risk attachment is associated with the civil status: single.

  7. Adult attachment security and college student substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassel, Jon D; Wardle, Margaret; Roberts, John E

    2007-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated strong links between quality of adult attachment styles and various forms of psychological distress. A burgeoning literature further points to a relationship between insecure attachment and drug use, particularly alcohol consumption. In the present study, we expanded upon the existing literature by examining the relationship between adult attachment style and use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana in a sample of 212 college students. Moreover, based on our previous work [Hankin, B.L., Kassel, J.D., and Abela, J.R.Z. (2005). Adult attachment dimensions and specificity of emotional distress symptoms: prospective investigations of cognitive risk and interpersonal stress generation as mediating mechanisms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 136-151.], we proposed a conceptual model positing that adult attachment style influences both frequency of drug use and stress-motivated drug use through its impact on dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. Initial correlational analyses indicated significant (positive) associations between anxious attachment (tapping neediness and fear of abandonment) and both drug use frequency and stress-motivated drug use. Simultaneous regression analyses revealed that, for drug use frequency, the influence of anxious attachment operated primarily through its effect on dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. Regarding drug use attributable to negative affect reduction, anxious attachment demonstrated direct, independent effects on both cigarette smoking and alcohol use. These findings highlight the potential importance of adult attachment styles as a risk factor for drug use among college students.

  8. Anorexia and Attachment: Dysregulated Defense and Pathological Mourning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    elisa edelvecchio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of Defensive exclusion (Deactivation and Segregated Systems in the development of early relationships and related to subsequent manifestations of symptoms of eating disorders was assessed using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP. Fifty-one DSM-IV diagnosed women with anorexia participated in the study. Anorexic patients were primarily classified as dismissing or unresolved. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of defensive exclusion were carried out. Results showed potential benefits of using the AAP defense exclusion coding system, in addition to the main attachment classifications, in order to better understand the developmental issues involved in anorexia. Discussion concerned the processes, such as pathological mourning, that may underlie the associations between dismissing and unresolved attachment and anorexia. Implications for developmental research and clinical nosology are discussed.

  9. [Attachment Representation and Emotion Regulation in Patients with Burnout Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söllner, Wolfgang; Behringer, Johanna; Böhme, Stephanie; Stein, Barbara; Reiner, Iris; Spangler, Gottfried

    2016-06-01

    Burnout describes a syndrome of exhaustion resulting from insufficient coping with work-related distress. We investigated if patients that are being clinically treated for burnout show insecure and unresolved attachment representation more often compared with healthy controls. 50 out of 60 consecutive burnout patients participated in the study. Mental representation of attachment was measured by using the Adult Attachment Interview. Additionally, we administered the Self Report Questionnaire to Assess Emotional Experience and Emotion Regulation and several burnout specific questionnaires. A population sample was used as control group. Burnout patients were classified as insecurely attached significantly more often than controls. Unresolved attachment status concerning loss or trauma was found significantly more often within the burnout sample. Patients with insecure attachment representation reported a lower subjective significance of work. Patients with avoidant insecure attachment showed more depersonalisation. Patients with unresolved loss/trauma reported less social support. They showed more passive-negative emotion experience and emotion regulation characterized by externalization. The results of the study suggest that an insecure or unresolved attachment representation might constitute an intrapersonal risk factor for the development of burnout syndrome. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. The Child Attachment Interview: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privizzini, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Attachment theory promoted an impressive body of research on the psychic developmental processes, resulting in studies on both typical and atypical development. Much of the diffusion of the attachment theory in the clinical field was related to the design of reliable instruments to evaluate the organization of attachment in infancy as well as in adulthood. Until recently, the lack of a suitable instrument to assess attachment in middle childhood as well as in adolescence hindered the expansion of research in these developmental phases during which the parent-child relationship takes on a different, albeit still crucial, role. The Child Attachment Interview (CAI), a measure that was recently designed to assess attachment at a representational level in middle childhood and adolescence, filled the measurement gap. The aim of the current review was to summarize previous empirical investigations concerning CAI in order to (a) provide an overview of the state of current research, (b) identify unanswered questions, and (c) propose future research directions. A narrative review was conducted to map the current research findings by searching for the term "Child Attachment Interview" in the Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and PsychINFO databases, followed by a search in Mendeley. Limits were set to exclude dissertations, chapters in books, and qualitative or theoretical papers, while empirical studies were included if they used the CAI and were published in English language, peer-reviewed journals by July, 2016. The review, which ultimately included 39 studies meeting the criteria, showed that the CAI is a reliable instrument to assess attachment organization in clinical and non-clinical samples, thus providing a worthwhile contribution to the investigation of the influence of the parent-child relationship beyond infancy and early childhood. Nevertheless, the review pointed out a number of relevant open issues, the most critical of which concerned the CAI coding and

  11. Predicting Preschoolers' Attachment Security from Parenting Behaviours, Parents' Attachment Relationships and Their Use of Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyl, Diana D.; Newland, Lisa A.; Freeman, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Associations between preschoolers' attachment security, parenting behaviours (i.e. parent-child involvement, parenting consistency and co-parenting consistency) and parenting context (i.e. parents' internal working models (IWMs) and use of social support) were examined in a sample of 235 culturally diverse families. The authors predicted that…

  12. Depressed parents' attachment: effects on offspring suicidal behavior in a longitudinal family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Erica K; Grunebaum, Michael F; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Melhem, Nadine; Burke, Ainsley K; Brent, David A; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, J John

    2014-08-01

    To investigate relationships of depressed parents' attachment style to offspring suicidal behavior. 244 parents diagnosed with a DSM-IV depressive episode completed the Adult Attachment Questionnaire at study entry. Baseline and yearly follow-up interviews of their 488 offspring tracked suicidal behavior and psychopathology. Survival analysis and marginal regression models with correlated errors for siblings investigated the relationship between parent insecure attachment traits and offspring characteristics. Data analyzed were collected 1992-2008 during a longitudinal family study completed January 31, 2014. Parental avoidant attachment predicted offspring suicide attempts at a trend level (P = .083). Parental anxious attachment did not predict offspring attempts (P = .961). In secondary analyses, anxious attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (P = .034) and, in offspring suicide attempters, was associated with greater intent (P = .045) and lethality of attempts (P = .003). Avoidant attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (P = .025) and major depressive disorder (P = .012). Parental avoidant attachment predicted a greater number of suicide attempts (P = .048) and greater intent in offspring attempters (P = .003). Results were comparable after adjusting for parent diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. Insecure avoidant, but not anxious, attachment in depressed parents may predict offspring suicide attempt. Insecure parental attachment traits were associated with impulsivity and major depressive disorder in all offspring and with more severe suicidal behavior in offspring attempters. Insecure parental attachment merits further study as a potential target to reduce risk of offspring psychopathology and more severe suicidal behavior. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  13. New mini dental implant attachments versus O-ring attachment after cyclic aging: Analysis of retention strength and gap space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatalla, Abdalbseet A; Song, Ke; Cao, Ying-Guang

    2017-06-01

    Overdenture as a treatment modality for both partially and fully edentulous patients is costeffective and less expensive. The purpose of the present study was to examine the newly fabricated attachments by comparing them with conventional O-ring attachment in vitro in terms of retention force and cyclic aging resistance. A total of 150 samples were prepared and divided into five groups according to the materials used (O-ring attachment, Deflex M10 XR, Deflex Classic SR, Deflex Acrilato FD, and flexible acrylic resin). The retention force of different attachments was measured by a mini dental implant after three subsequent aging (0, 63, and 126) cycles in the circumstances similar to the oral environment. The gap space between the head of the implant and the inner surface of the attachments was detected. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis with multiple comparisons test was applied for statistical analysis. The results showed that Deflex M10 XR had the highest retention force and the lowest gap space after cyclic aging; in addition, by comparing the relative force reduction, the lowest values were obtained in the O-ring attachment and the highest values in the flexible acrylic resin attachment. The retention force measured after cyclic aging for the Deflex M10 XR attachment was greatly improved when compared with the O-ring attachment and other types of attachment materials; in addition, the Deflex M10 XR attachment exhibited the minimum gap space between the inner surface and the mini dental implant head. In conclusion, Deflex M10 XR has the ability to withstand weathering conditions and retains its durable and retentive properties after aging when compared with other attachments.

  14. Mapping and measuring place attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Greg; Raymond, Christopher Mark; Corcoran, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The concept of place attachment has been studied extensively across multiple disciplines but only recently with empirical measurement using public participation GIS (PPGIS) and related crowd-sourcing mapping methods. This research trialed a spatially explicit method for identifying place attachment...

  15. Attachment, caring and prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erez, Ayelet

    2007-01-01

    The thesis focuses on 5 studies examining the role of adult attachment in volunteering by defining volunteerism as a form of caregiving. By that we suggest an effect of one behavioral system, attachment, on another, caring or prosocial behaviors in individual or group settings. Studies 1 and 2

  16. [The relationships of intelligence and memory assessed using the WAIS-IV and the WMS-IV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepach, A C; Daseking, M; Petermann, F; Waldmann, H C

    2013-11-01

    This study examines the relationships of intelligence and memory scores derived from WAIS-IV and WMS-IV. We were especially interested in the reciprocal predictive values of the test scales. A sample of 137 healthy adults with an age range between 16 and 69 years was assessed with the WAIS-IV and the WMS-IV. The test order was balanced. Pearson correlations were conducted on the subtest and scale level. A series of 14 linear regression models was tested with memory performance as predictor for intelligence and vice versa. A model including the 3 main memory scales of the WMS-IV was able to predict the global IQ best. It nevertheless explained only 46% of the variance. The memory and intelligence measures show significant relationships, but also represent distinct functions. WAIS-IV and WMS-IV complement one another. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Adult Attachment Style and Suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniati, Mario; Callari, Antonio; Pini, Stefano

    2017-09-01

    There is evidence in the literature that adverse early attachment experiences and subsequent attachment insecurities during adulthood would lead to pessimism, low self-esteem, hopelessness and, ultimately, to suicide risk. This paper aims to review finding on the link between attachment style and suicidality. We searched the literature using the database of the U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)-MedLine/Pubmed system from January 1992 until December 2016. We started with 1992 because, as far as we know, there are no published studies exploring the relationship between suicide and insecure attachment before that year. We considered reports published on the relationship between attachment style and suicidality. We applied several combinations of the following search terms: attachment, adult attachment style and suicidality, suicide, suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior or suicidal thoughts, and suicide attempts. We selected only English language studies. Research suggests that insecure attachment style, mostly anxious, and unresolved traumas are associated with an increased suicide risk. Few studies prospectively examined clinical course, comorbid psychiatric disorders, familial suicidality or other psychosocial factors. Further research is needed to highlight the nature of the link between attachment and suicidality. The presence of suicidal ideation and attempts might be a consequence of an underlying interaction between the emergence of psychiatrics symptoms, and the long-lasting presence of inadequate patterns of attachment. Within this context, Separation Anxiety Disorder, categorized in the DSM-5 as a condition not confined to childhood but as an anxiety disorder that may occur through the entire lifespan, might be the a key for the comprehension of this link. From a neurobiological point of view, the role of oxytocin remains unclear.

  18. Sex differences in romantic attachment: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Marco

    2011-02-01

    This article presents the first meta-analysis of sex differences in the avoidance and anxiety dimensions of adult romantic attachment, based on 113 samples (N = 66,132) from 100 studies employing two-dimensional romantic attachment questionnaires (Experiences in Close Relationships, Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised, and Adult Attachment Questionnaire). Overall, males showed higher avoidance and lower anxiety than females, with substantial between-study heterogeneity. Sex differences were much larger in community samples (bivariate D = .28) than in college samples (D = .12); web-based studies showed the smallest sex differences (D = .07) in the opposite direction. Sex differences also varied across geographic regions (overall Ds = .10 to .34). Sex differences in anxiety peaked in young adulthood, whereas those in avoidance increased through the life course. The relevance of these findings for evolutionary models of romantic attachment is discussed, and possible factors leading to underestimation of sex differences are reviewed.

  19. Transfer of attachment functions and adjustment among young adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Chan, Darius K-S; Teng, Fei

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the process of attachment transfer from parents to peers, as well as factors related to this transfer process among Mainland Chinese. A total of 147 Chinese college students (with a mean age of 21.44) completed questionnaires that measured attachment style, attachment transfer, attachment support from various figures, loneliness, positive/negative affects, and self-esteem. Major findings of the current study include the following: (a) Hazan and Shaver's sequential model of attachment transfer was generalized to the Chinese sample; (b) the extent of attachment transfer was found to be associated with participants' emotional states (loneliness and positive affect) and was a significant predictor of these emotional states beyond the effects of attachment style and attachment support. As one of the first studies exploring the phenomenon of attachment transfer among young Chinese adults, conceptual and applied implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. A review of attachment theory in the context of adolescent parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Serena Cherry; Sadler, Lois S

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review attachment theory and relate the attachment perspective to adolescent mothers and their children. Attachment theory explains positive maternal-infant attachment as a dyadic relationship between the infant and mother that provides the infant with a secure base from which to explore the world. With respect to cognitive, social, and behavioral domains, securely attached infants tend to have more favorable long-term outcomes, while insecurely attached infants are more likely to have adverse outcomes. Adolescent parenthood can disrupt normal adolescent development, and this disruption influences development of the emotional and cognitive capacities necessary for maternal behaviors that foster secure attachment. However, it appears that if specialized supports are in place to facilitate the process of developing attachment, infants of adolescent mothers can obtain higher rates of secure attachment than normative samples in this population. Copyright © 2011 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Predicting School Connectedness Based on Parent and Peers Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    الهه حجازی

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was investigated the relationship and predictability of school connectedness through parent and peers attachment in adolescence. For this reason, 387 male students of second grade of high school were chosen through cluster sampling method and completed a survey consisted of Parent Peers Attachment Inventory (IPPA and School connection Scale (SCS. The results of stepwise regression show predicting of school connectedness based on parent and peers attachment. Among attachment subscales, communication whit peers and parent have the most power to predict school connectedness. The relationship between Peers alienation and parent alienation with school connectedness is significantly negative.In general, secure attachment to parent and peers could be considered as a factor for school connectedness.

  2. The role of attachment in current and future parent caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karantzas, Gery C; Evans, Lynette; Foddy, Margaret

    2010-09-01

    Few studies have investigated how attachment bonds between older parents and their adult children influence adult children's provision of care and older parents' seeking of support from kin. The aim of this study was to investigate how the attachment orientations of adult children (N = 119) and older parents (N = 148) predict family caregiving and perceptions of carer burden. Across both samples (that were unrelated), attachment dimensions were associated with current and future caregiving and care receiving and perceptions of carer burden, even when accounting for demographic variables, parental dependence and filial obligation. Specifically, attachment avoidance was associated negatively with adult children's future care of parents and positively with burden. In contrast, attachment anxiety was positively associated with older parents' seeking current support, perceptions of carer burden, and intentions to seek future support.

  3. Perinatal Depression and Patterns of Attachment: A Critical Risk Factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Meuti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aims to verify if the presence and severity of perinatal depression are related to any particular pattern of attachment. Methods. The study started with a screening of a sample of 453 women in their third trimester of pregnancy, who were administered a survey data form, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and the Experience in Close Relationship (ECR. A clinical group of subjects with perinatal depression (PND, 89 subjects was selected and compared with a control group (C, regarding psychopathological variables and attachment patterns. Results. The ECR showed a prevalence of “Fearful-Avoidant” attachment style in PND group (29.2% versus 1.1%, p<0.001; additionally, the EPDS average score increases with the increasing of ECR dimensions (Avoidance and Anxiety. Conclusion. The severity of depression increases proportionally to attachment disorganization; therefore, we consider attachment as both an important risk factor as well as a focus for early psychotherapeutic intervention.

  4. Alcohol use disorder diagnoses in the criminal justice system: an analysis of the compatibility of current DSM-IV, proposed DSM-5.0, and DSM-5.1 diagnostic criteria in a correctional sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopak, Albert M; Metze, Amanda V; Hoffmann, Norman G

    2014-06-01

    This study explored the compatibility between the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse and dependence with the initial (DSM-5.0) and most recent (DSM-5.1) proposed diagnostic criteria. Data drawn from a structured clinical interview used in the assessment of 6,871 male and 801 female state prison inmates were analyzed according to the existing and proposed diagnostic formulations. The greatest congruence was observed in cases that received no diagnosis according to the DSM-IV-TR because these also received no diagnosis in the DSM-5.1. Most cases with a current dependence diagnosis received a severe designation according to the proposed criteria. However, those with an abuse diagnosis were divided across various DSM-5.1 severity levels. Some diagnostic criteria were nearly universally endorsed among those classified with the highest severity levels, which indicated that some criteria may serve as cardinal indicators of a severe alcohol use disorder (SAUD). Additional diagnostic criteria not yet suggested for inclusion in the DSM (i.e., preoccupation with alcohol use and alcohol use to relieve emotional distress) were also evaluated. Evidence demonstrated these two criteria served as functional indicators of alcohol use disorder (AUD). This assessment approach can be used to establish appropriate treatment objectives based on the severity of diagnosed AUDs. Meeting these treatment objectives, especially in a correctional population, may have important implications for future offending. Recommendations are made for prospective research in this area.

  5. Role Balance and Depression among College Students: The Moderating Influence of Adult Attachment Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Fons-Scheyd, Alia

    2008-01-01

    This study examined interrelationships among role balance perceptions, adult attachment orientations, and depression within an ethnically diverse, mixed-gender sample of college students. Adult attachment orientations--and particularly attachment avoidance--significantly interacted with students' role balance levels to predict their depression…

  6. A Longitudinal Examination of Parental Attachment, College Adjustment, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkhorst, Brittany B.; Yazedjian, Ani; Toews, Michelle L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the connection between the parent-adult child attachment relationship, adjustment, and achievement among a sample of 168 college students and explored how the attachment relationship changed over time. Our findings indicated the attachment variables were all positively related to adjustment to college during years one and three…

  7. The predictive value of different infant attachment measures for socioemotional development at age 5 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekens, S.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Bakel, H.J.A. van

    2009-01-01

    The predictive value of different infant attachment measures was examined in a community-based sample of 111 healthy children (59 boys, 52 girls). Two procedures to assess infant attachment, the Attachment Q-Set (applied on a relatively short observation period) and a shortened version of the

  8. Disturbances of Attachment and Parental Psychopathology in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Daniel S.; Willheim, Erica

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis As the field of attachment has expanded over the past four decades, the perturbations in the relational context which give rise to disturbances of attachment are increasingly, though by no means conclusively, understood. In Part I, this article reviews the historical and current state of research regarding normative attachment classification, the diagnosis of Reactive Attachment Disorder, and the proposed categories of Secure Base Distortions and Disrupted Attachment Disorder. In Part II, the article explores the role of parental psychopathology and the manner in which disturbed caregiver self-regulation leads to disturbances in the mutual regulation between caregiver and infant. The question of the relationship between particular types of maternal pathology and particular forms of attachment disturbance is examined through recent research on the association between maternal PTSD, Atypical Maternal Behavior, and child scores on the Disturbances of Attachment Interview (DAI). The authors present original research findings to support that the presence and severity of maternal violence-related PTSD were significantly associated with secure base distortion in a community pediatrics sample of 76 mothers and preschool-age children. Clinical implications and recommendations for treatment of attachment disturbances conclude the article. PMID:19486844

  9. Learning to trust: trust and attachment in early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fett, A-K J; Shergill, S S; Korver-Nieberg, N; Yakub, F; Gromann, P M; Krabbendam, L

    2016-05-01

    Distrust and social dysfunction are characteristic in psychosis and may arise from attachment insecurity, which is elevated in the disorder. The relationship between trust and attachment in the early stages of psychosis is unknown, yet could help to understand interpersonal difficulties and disease progression. This study aimed to investigate whether trust is reduced in patients with early psychosis and whether this is accounted for by attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety. We used two trust games with a cooperative and unfair partner in a sample of 39 adolescents with early psychosis and 100 healthy controls. Patients had higher levels of attachment anxiety, but the groups did not differ in attachment avoidance. Basic trust was lower in patients than controls, as indicated by lower initial investments. During cooperation patients increased their trust towards levels of controls, i.e. they were able to learn and to override initial suspiciousness. Patients decreased their trust less than controls during unfair interactions. Anxious attachment was associated with higher basic trust and higher trust during unfair interactions and predicted trust independent of group status. Discussion Patients showed decreased basic trust but were able to learn from the trustworthy behaviour of their counterpart. Worries about the acceptance by others and low self-esteem are associated with psychosis and attachment anxiety and may explain behaviour that is focused on conciliation, rather than self-protection.

  10. Attachment at work and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neustadt, Elizabeth A; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian

    2011-09-01

    This paper examines the relations between self-reported attachment orientation at work and personality, self-esteem, trait emotional intelligence (aka emotional self-efficacy), and independently assessed career potential and job performance. Self-report data were collected from 211 managers in an international business in the hospitality industry; independent assessments of these managers' job performance and career potential were separately obtained from the organization. A self-report measure of romantic attachment was adapted for application in the work context; a two-factor solution was found for this measure. Secure/autonomous attachment orientation at work was positively related to self-esteem, trait emotional intelligence, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, and also to job performance. Not only was secure/autonomous attachment orientation at work statistically predictive of job performance, but the new measure also made a distinct contribution, beyond conscientiousness, to this prediction.

  11. Attachment, ethology and adult psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sable, Pat

    2004-03-01

    This article discusses Bowlby's development of an ethological-evolutionary perspective, and its implications for psychotherapy with adults. According to Bowlby, attachment behavior is instinctive, having emerged throughout the course of evolution to ensure protection and actual survival. Because the environment affects how attachment behavior unfolds, adverse experiences can divert developmental pathways away from resilience, toward dysfunction and emotional distress. Psychotherapy offers the experience of an attachment relationship. Part of the process involves helping patients understand that feelings such as fear and anxiety are inherent responses to safeguard affectional relationships when they are endangered. As working models are re-appraised and revised, there is emphasis on clarifying the attachment experiences that may have intensified these natural feelings.

  12. Facilitating attachment after international adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Natalie L

    2009-01-01

    Americans have increasingly turned to international adoption (IA) as an alternative way to build a family. Unfortunately, IA families are often being developed under conditions of loss, and sometimes these families struggle to form healthy attachments to each other. Disordered attachment (the failure to form a reciprocal, loving bond between parent and child) can occur, and can have devastating consequences. In some instances, IA children have been relinquished into state foster care systems; other families simply struggle for years caring for a developmentally delayed child who appears to have no emotion for his/her adoptive family. Nurses are likely to have contact with IA families and can use their education about attachment and bonding to help facilitate attachment in these developing families. Swanson's caring theory provides a clinically useful guide to meet this need.

  13. Immunohistochemical investigation of alpha1 (IV) and alpha5 (IV) collagen chains in a broad spectrum of melanocytic tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatresooz, Pascale; Piérard, Gérald E

    2005-06-01

    Cells of melanocytic naevi and cutaneous malignant melanomas (MM) are surrounded by a basement membrane (BM). To scrutinize any difference between the deposits of alpha1 (IV) and alpha5 (IV) collagen chains in melanocytic naevi and MM. A total of 27 common melanocytic naevi, 11 dysplastic naevi, 21 atypical naevi (melanocytomas) including Spitz and non-Spitz types, as well as 24 MM were studied. Their phenotypic and functional characteristics defined by immunohistochemistry using a panel of antibodies, including those directed to the alpha1 (IV), alpha3 (IV) and alpha5 (IV) collagen chains. Almost all naevi and half the melanocytomas exhibited a strong positivity for the alpha1 (IV) collagen chain. By contrast, the remaining melanocytomas and MM presented a heterogeneous staining pattern for the alpha1 (IV) collagen chain. One third of the naevi, 23% of the MM without cutaneous micrometastasis and 83% of MM with cutaneous micrometastasis showed discrete cytoplasmic positivity for the alpha5 (IV) collagen chain. All other melanocytic tumours were negative for this antibody. Rare MM cells in transepidermal migration were stained with the anti-alpha1 (IV) or alpha5 (IV) collagen chain antibodies. No immunoreactivity for the alpha3 (IV) collagen chain was disclosed in any of the samples. We report the expression of alpha1 (IV) and alpha5 (IV) collagen chains in naevi and MM. The inconsistent staining pattern for alpha1 (IV) collagen chain in phenotypically atypical melanocytomas and in MM highlight the heterogeneity in both cell differentiation and stroma-tumour interactions. This biological aspect may be related to neoplastic progression and influence metastatic potential.

  14. Attachment to pets and interpersonal relationships: Can a four-legged friend replace a two-legged one?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Smolkovic

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present research is to investigate pet attachment and measure the connection between owner-pet attachment and interpersonal attachment characteristics of dog owners and cat owners, social support and loneliness. From a sample of 268 dog and 97 cat owners, significant differences on pet attachment appeared between pet owners’ gender, owners living location, kinds of pets and the length of ownership. The pedigree of pets influenced owner-pet attachment levels.

  15. Attachment Narratives in Refugee Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Haene, L.; Dalgård, Nina Thorup; Montgomery, E.

    2013-01-01

    J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study.......J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study....

  16. An exploratory study of attachment patterns in institutionalised children

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    M.A. This exploratory study drew primarily upon narrative interviews and projective tests and secondarily on collateral information taken from case files from a small sample of adolescents who were institutionalised as a result of neglect and abuse. The aim of this study was to explore and develop a better understanding of the nature of attachment patterns of institutionalised adolescents by looking at how attachment abuse, maternal deprivation and institutionalisation can be detrimental t...

  17. Attachment Hierarchies Among At Risk Teens and Psychological Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Dangaltcheva, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the degree to which teens at high risk for behaviour problems rely on friends and romantic partners rather than parents to meet attachment needs and whether this affected their psychological adjustment. Participants were 158 adolescents recruited from youth custody settings and a mental health facility. Attachment functions shifted from parents to peers much earlier compared to previously published results based on normative samples. Only 9% of participants preferred their ...

  18. The relationship between attachment, mentalization, and intellectual abilities in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banjac Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored the relationship between attachment, mentalization, and intelligence as it occurs in adolescence. Study participants were 345 students (123 males in their third year of high school. Participants were administered three standard tests of intelligence, the SM-ECR-R, and the recently developed Mentalization Questionnaire (MQ. The study also utilized earlier collected data from a sample of 284 employed adults. In line with our research hypothesis, attachment security and mentalization were positively related, with correlations ranging from small to moderate depending on the dimension inspected. Attachment anxiety was found to be higher in the adolescent than in the adult sample, and contrary to expectations was not significantly related to intelligence in the former group. Attachment avoidance did not correlate with intelligence in the total student sample, but did show a small negative association with analogical reasoning and the g-factor when the intellectually gifted were excluded from analyses. This latter group, as well as males from the student sample scored significantly higher on attachment avoidance than their respective comparison groups - intellectually average and female adolescents. Finally, mentalization was found to be positively related to intellectual ability and higher in a gifted than average-ability girls, b girls than boys, and c adults than adolescents. The results are discussed as shedding light on the peculiarities of the attachment system in adolescence, revealing specific associations between attachment avoidance, mentalization, and intellectual ability, highlighting gender differences in both attachment and mentalization, and adding to our understanding of the socioemotional characteristics of intellectually gifted students.

  19. [Evolution in styles of romantic and interpersonal attachment in depressed adult women during hospitalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, M; Chahraoui, K; Vinay, A; Jebrane, A; Bonin, B; Gisselmann, A; Larome, A

    2012-10-01

    Bowlby (1984) regarded attachment as a model of psychological vulnerability to depression. Since then, a large number of studies have considered vulnerability to depression in light of the idea of attachment style. Attachment styles correspond to two dimensions observed in relationships (anxiety and avoidance) evoking ideally the internal operating models of self and other respectively, as first described by Bowlby (1984). Two types of adult attachment styles are evaluated in our study: romantic attachment (Hazan and Shaver, 1987) and interpersonal attachment (Bartholomew and Horowitz, 1991). The existing literature indicates that depression is associated with the insecure attachment styles, in both romantic an interpersonal relationships. Nevertheless, a question remains concerning the nature of the link between attachment style and depression: are attachment styles stable and independent of the depression or are they modified as the depression evolves? The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between attachment and depression in adult women hospitalized for depression; following up the evolution in their romantic and interpersonal attachment styles from the beginning to the end of their hospitalization. The study population consisted of 50 women hospitalized for an episode of major depression (Axis I, DSM IV). Individuals exhibiting bipolar disorders and other pathologies linked to depression were not included in the population. Sixty-eight percent of the depressed women in our population had previously experienced depressive episodes and 42% of them also exhibited a personality disorder (Axis II, DSM IV). The clinical group participated in two psychological investigations, one at the beginning (T1) and one at the end of the hospitalization (T2), including each time a clinical interview during which the depression as well as the romantic (ECR, 1998) and interpersonal (RQ, 1991) attachment styles were evaluated. Our findings showed that

  20. Adult attachment and pain catastrophizing for self and significant other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Lachlan A; Holmberg, Diane

    2010-05-01

    A growing body of research indicates that attachment insecurity is associated with pain-related catastrophizing. Attachment anxiety has consistently been found to be positively associated with pain catastrophizing. In contrast, the relationship between attachment avoidance and pain catastrophizing has been less consistent. The current study was designed to (a) determine whether anxiety accounts for unique variance in catastrophizing beyond that contributed by the overlapping constructs of self-esteem and neuroticism and (b) clarify the relationship between avoidance and catastrophizing by investigating this relationship when controlling for attachment anxiety. The final objective was to investigate whether attachment is also related to catastrophizing about the pain of significant others. A convenient sample of individuals currently in a romantic relationship (N=148) completed self-report measures of attachment anxiety and avoidance, neuroticism, self-esteem, pain catastrophizing, and significant other pain catastrophizing. Multiple regression analyses indicated that attachment anxiety accounted for unique variance in pain catastrophizing and each of its lower-order components (i.e., rumination, magnification, helplessness), beyond that accounted for by the personality variables. Attachment avoidance was negatively associated with the rumination component of catastrophizing, but this association was only found after controlling for attachment anxiety. The attachment dimensions were also associated with some components of significant other pain catastrophizing. Anxiety was positively associated with the helplessness component of significant other pain catastrophizing, and avoidance was negatively associated with the rumination and helplessness components of significant other pain catastrophizing. Future research directions regarding the social context of pain are discussed. Copyright 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B

  1. The change in retentive force of magnetic attachment by abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanjin; Tawada, Yasuyuki; Hata, Yoshiaki; Watanabe, Fumihiko

    2008-07-01

    Magnets are frequently applied to removable dentures as retentive attachments. A magnet-retained removable overdenture might be slightly shifted from side to side by eccentric movement in the mouth, and the surface of magnetic attachment may be worn as a result. However, the relationship between the retentive force of magnetic attachment and its surface abrasion has not been reported. The purpose of this research is to investigate this relationship. Ten Mgfit DX 400 magnetic attachments for natural tooth roots were used for this experiment. The magnetic attachments were embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic resin, and ten pairs of specimens were fabricated. A 5-mm repeated gliding motion was applied on each pair of specimens until 30 000, 50 000, or 90 000 cycles had been achieved. The abrasion machine was under 5 kg loading, and the slide speed was 60 times/min. The retentive force of magnetic attachment was measured with a tension gauge at (1) before gliding; (2) after 30 000 gliding cycles; (3)after 50 000 gliding cycles; or (4) after 90 000 gliding cycles. The average change of retentive force of ten magnetic attachments after 30 000, 50 000, and 90 000 gliding cycles was 0.016 N, 0.003 N, and -0.008 N, respectively. The change was statistically analyzed using a paired-sample t test, which showed that the number of gliding cycles did not affect the retentive force of magnetic attachment significantly. The surface of magnetic attachment after gliding was observed by a microscope, and the abrasion of this attachment surface is clearly seen.

  2. Phenotypes of non-attached Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates resemble surface attached biofilm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Alhede

    Full Text Available For a chronic infection to be established, bacteria must be able to cope with hostile conditions such as low iron levels, oxidative stress, and clearance by the host defense, as well as antibiotic treatment. It is generally accepted that biofilm formation facilitates tolerance to these adverse conditions. However, microscopic investigations of samples isolated from sites of chronic infections seem to suggest that some bacteria do not need to be attached to surfaces in order to establish chronic infections. In this study we employed scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, RT-PCR as well as traditional culturing techniques to study the properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates. We found that non-attached aggregates from stationary-phase cultures have comparable growth rates to surface attached biofilms. The growth rate estimations indicated that, independently of age, both aggregates and flow-cell biofilm had the same slow growth rate as a stationary phase shaking cultures. Internal structures of the aggregates matrix components and their capacity to survive otherwise lethal treatments with antibiotics (referred to as tolerance and resistance to phagocytes were also found to be strikingly similar to flow-cell biofilms. Our data indicate that the tolerance of both biofilms and non-attached aggregates towards antibiotics is reversible by physical disruption. We provide evidence that the antibiotic tolerance is likely to be dependent on both the physiological states of the aggregates and particular matrix components. Bacterial surface-attachment and subsequent biofilm formation are considered hallmarks of the capacity of microbes to cause persistent infections. We have observed non-attached aggregates in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients; otitis media; soft tissue fillers and non-healing wounds, and we propose that aggregated cells exhibit enhanced survival in the hostile host environment, compared with non

  3. Exploring the Link among State of Mind Concerning Childhood Attachment, Attachment in Close Relationships, Parental Bonding, and Psychopathological Symptoms in Substance Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musetti, Alessandro; Terrone, Grazia; Corsano, Paola; Magnani, Barbara; Salvatore, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we have explored the link among styles of attachment and psychopathology in drug users. We know that insecure attachment predisposes the individuals the development of drug-addiction and psychopathological symptoms. However, we do not know which attachment is more frequent in drug users and which is related to particular psychopathological symptoms. The aim of the present work is to explore the relationship between childhood attachment state of mind, attachment in close relationships, parental bonding and psychopathology in sample of Italian substance users. We explored, in a sample of 70 drug users and drug-addicted patients, the childhood attachment state of mind measured by the Adult Attachment Interview, the attachment in close relationships by the Relationship Questionnaire and parental bonding measured by the Parental Bonding Instrument. The Symptom Check-List-90-R (SCL-90-R) measured psychopathological symptoms. We found that parental bonding, rather than state of mind concerning childhood attachment or attachment in close relationships, is related to the psychopathological manifestation of anxiety, hostility, depression, and paranoid ideation in the sample. The latter occurs frequently in our sample, independent of state of mind concerning child attachment, attachment in close relationships, and parental bonding, suggesting its role either as a factor that favors a bad image of the participants' own relationships or as a direct effect of consuming drugs. These results have clinical implications on suggesting ways of interventions that prevent drug-addiction, which should include the evaluation of attachment in the prodromic phases of substance use onset or rehabilitation programs to prevent and manage psychotic-like symptoms.

  4. Exploring the link among state of mind concerning childhood attachment, attachment in close relationships, parental bonding and psychopathological symptoms in substance users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Musetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn the present study, we have explored the link among styles of attachment and psychopathology in drug users. We know that insecure attachment predisposes the individuals the development of drug-addiction and psychopathological symptoms. However, we do not know which attachment is more frequent in drug users and which is related to particular psychopathological symptoms. The aim of the present work is to explore the relationship between childhood attachment state of mind, attachment in close relationships, parental bonding and psychopathology in sample of Italian substance users.MethodsWe explored, in a sample of 70 drug users and drug-addicted patients, the childhood attachment state of mind measured by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI, the attachment in close relationships by the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ and parental bonding measured by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI. The Symptom Check-List-90-R (SCL-90-R measured psychopathological symptoms.ResultsWe found that parental bonding, rather than state of mind concerning childhood attachment or attachment in close relationships, is related to the psychopathological manifestation of anxiety, hostility, depression and paranoid ideation in the sample. The latter occurs frequently in our sample, independent of state of mind concerning child attachment, attachment in close relationships and parental bonding, suggesting its role either as a factor that favors a bad image of the participants’ own relationships or as a direct effect of consuming drugs. ConclusionThese results have clinical implications on suggesting ways of interventions that prevent drug addiction, which should include the evaluation of attachment in the prodromic phases of substance use onset or rehabilitation programs to prevent and manage psychotic-like symptoms.

  5. Attachment figures when death is approaching: a study applying attachment theory to adult patients' and family members' experiences during palliative home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milberg, Anna; Friedrichsen, Maria

    2017-07-01

    Attachment theory is currently receiving much attention in relation to how adults cope with severe illness. The study aims were using the experiences of patients and family members to explore attachment figures (a central concept within the theory) during palliative home care. Twelve patients and 14 family members were interviewed during ongoing palliative home care. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Four types of attachment figures were identified: (i) family and friends, (ii) health care practitioners, (iii) pets and (iv) God. Both non-physical and physical contact with the attachment figures facilitated a sense of security. In addition, the patient/family members and their attachment figures were described by some as a "we", and when one part of the "we" felt insecure, this made the other also feel insecure. The patients' unstable and progressing illnesses constituted a threat to the patients' and family members' sense of security. The availability of the attachment figures made them feel secure, and they could then divert their attention from the patients' illnesses to other things in everyday life, e.g. socialising with family and friends. Some family members also had to cope with the loss of their own attachment figure, when the patient, who had previously been a source of security for them, was no longer able to offer protection and comfort due to the progression of the illness. Important aspects of attachment figures in the end-of-life context were identified, and their clinical implications will be discussed.

  6. Attachment styles and clinical correlates in people at ultra high risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Debra A; Stochl, Jan; Hodgekins, Joanne; Iglesias-González, Maria; Chipps, Penelope; Painter, Michelle; Jones, Peter B; Perez, Jesus

    2017-04-24

    Evidence suggests that attachment styles may influence subclinical psychosis phenotypes (schizotypy) and affective disorders and may play a part in the association between psychosis and childhood adversity. However, the role of attachment in the initial stages of psychosis remains poorly understood. Our main aim was to describe and compare attachment styles in 60 individuals at ultra high risk for psychosis (UHR) and a matched sample of 60 healthy volunteers (HV). The HV had lower anxious and avoidant attachment scores than the UHR individuals (p attachment. In the HV group, depression, anxiety, schizotypy paranoia, and social anxiety were correlated with insecure attachment. This difference and some discrepancies with previous studies involving UHR suggest that individuals at UHR may compose a heterogeneous group; some experience significant mood and/or anxiety symptoms that may not be explained by specific attachment styles. Nonetheless, measuring attachment in UHR individuals could help maximize therapeutic relationships to enhance recovery. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  7. The Role of Attachment in Body Weight and Weight Loss in Bariatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, Abigail; Hollywood, Amelia; Ogden, Jane; Hashemi, Majid

    2017-07-06

    The aim of this study is to explore the role of attachment styles in obesity. The present study explored differences in insecure attachment styles between an obese sample waiting for bariatric surgery (n = 195) and an age, sex and height matched normal weight control group (n = 195). It then explored the role of attachment styles in predicting change in BMI 1 year post bariatric surgery (n = 143). The bariatric group reported significantly higher levels of anxious attachment and lower levels of avoidant attachment than the control non-obese group. Baseline attachment styles did not, however, predict change in BMI post surgery. Attachment style is different in those that are already obese from those who are not. Attachment was not related to weight loss post surgery.

  8. A novel examination of atypical major depressive disorder based on attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Robert D; Atkinson, Leslie; Pedersen, Rebecca; Buis, Tom; Kennedy, Sidney H; Chopra, Kevin; Leung, Eman M; Segal, Zindel V

    2009-06-01

    While a large body of descriptive work has thoroughly investigated the clinical correlates of atypical depression, little is known about its fundamental origins. This study examined atypical depression from an attachment theory framework. Our hypothesis was that, compared to adults with melancholic depression, those with atypical depression would report more anxious-ambivalent attachment and less secure attachment. As gender has been an important consideration in prior work on atypical depression, this same hypothesis was further tested in female subjects only. One hundred ninety-nine consecutive adults presenting to a tertiary mood disorders clinic with major depressive disorder with either atypical or melancholic features according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders were administered a self-report adult attachment questionnaire to assess the core dimensions of secure, anxious-ambivalent, and avoidant attachment. Attachment scores were compared across the 2 depressed groups defined by atypical and melancholic features using multivariate analysis of variance. The study was conducted between 1999 and 2004. When men and women were considered together, the multivariate test comparing attachment scores by depressive group was statistically significant at p attachment scores, with a trend toward higher anxious-ambivalent attachment scores, than was melancholia. When women were analyzed separately, the multivariate test was statistically significant at p attachment scores differing significantly across depressive groups. These preliminary findings suggest that attachment theory, and insecure and anxious-ambivalent attachment in particular, may be a useful framework from which to study the origins, clinical correlates, and treatment of atypical depression. Gender may be an important consideration when considering atypical depression from an attachment perspective. Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  9. Attachment style predicts affect, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinbaum, Tamara; Kwapil, Thomas R; Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Chun, Charlotte A; Silvia, Paul J; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2015-01-01

    The way in which attachment styles are expressed in the moment as individuals navigate their real-life settings has remained an area largely untapped by attachment research. The present study examined how adult attachment styles are expressed in daily life using experience sampling methodology (ESM) in a sample of 206 Spanish young adults. Participants were administered the Attachment Style Interview (ASI) and received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times per day for 1 week to complete questionnaires about their current experiences and social context. As hypothesized, participants' momentary affective states, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning varied in meaningful ways as a function of their attachment style. Individuals with an anxious attachment, as compared with securely attached individuals, endorsed experiences that were congruent with hyperactivating tendencies, such as higher negative affect, stress, and perceived social rejection. By contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment, relative to individuals with a secure attachment, endorsed experiences that were consistent with deactivating tendencies, such as decreased positive states and a decreased desire to be with others when alone. Furthermore, the expression of attachment styles in social contexts was shown to be dependent upon the subjective appraisal of the closeness of social contacts, and not merely upon the presence of social interactions. The findings support the ecological validity of the ASI and the person-by-situation character of attachment theory. Moreover, they highlight the utility of ESM for investigating how the predictions derived from attachment theory play out in the natural flow of real life.

  10. Attachment style predicts affect, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning in daily life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinbaum, Tamara; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Chun, Charlotte A.; Silvia, Paul J.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2015-01-01

    The way in which attachment styles are expressed in the moment as individuals navigate their real-life settings has remained an area largely untapped by attachment research. The present study examined how adult attachment styles are expressed in daily life using experience sampling methodology (ESM) in a sample of 206 Spanish young adults. Participants were administered the Attachment Style Interview (ASI) and received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times per day for 1 week to complete questionnaires about their current experiences and social context. As hypothesized, participants’ momentary affective states, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning varied in meaningful ways as a function of their attachment style. Individuals with an anxious attachment, as compared with securely attached individuals, endorsed experiences that were congruent with hyperactivating tendencies, such as higher negative affect, stress, and perceived social rejection. By contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment, relative to individuals with a secure attachment, endorsed experiences that were consistent with deactivating tendencies, such as decreased positive states and a decreased desire to be with others when alone. Furthermore, the expression of attachment styles in social contexts was shown to be dependent upon the subjective appraisal of the closeness of social contacts, and not merely upon the presence of social interactions. The findings support the ecological validity of the ASI and the person-by-situation character of attachment theory. Moreover, they highlight the utility of ESM for investigating how the predictions derived from attachment theory play out in the natural flow of real life. PMID:25852613

  11. Validación de factores de la escala de personalidad maquiavélica mach iv en la ciudad de Mexicali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes Santiago Álvarez Salas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research is a proposal to update the Mach IV instrument incorporating new factors that explore dimensions of the Machiavellian personality not previously measured in the test, as proposed by McHoskey (1999. 4 items that comprise two factors which will join the Mach IV test, intrinsic and extrinsic goals are added. The anxiety factor which consists of 5 items in which the subject's ability to control their emotions in reference to the social sphere is explored is attached. 9 items that comprise two factors, self-oriented perfectionism and towards others are incorporated. Data from a sample of 325 people from 20-51 years of the city of Mexicali BC reported A correlational statistical analysis allowed the validation of new items incorporated in the instrument was conducted. In relation to previous research the importance of an update of Test stands.

  12. Activating Attachments Reduces Memories of Traumatic Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Bryant

    Full Text Available Emotional memories, and especially intrusive memories, are a common feature of many psychological disorders, and are overconsolidated by stress. Attachment theory posits that activation of mental representations of attachment figures can reduce stress and boost coping. This study tested the proposition that attachment activation would reduce consolidation of emotional and intrusive memories. Sixty-seven undergraduate students viewed subliminal presentations of traumatic and neutral images, which were preceded by subliminal presentations of either attachment-related images or non-attachment-related images; free recall and intrusive memories were assessed two days later. Participants with low avoidant attachment tendencies who received the attachment primes recalled fewer memories and reported fewer intrusions than those who received the non-attachment primes. Unexpectedly, those with high anxious attachment tendencies reported fewer memories. These findings generally accord with attachment theory, and suggest that consolidation of emotional memories can be moderated by activation of attachment representations.

  13. Clarifying the associations between individual differences in general attachment styles and psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Elliott; Sellbom, Martin; Wilkinson, Ross B

    2017-10-01

    The association between individual differences in general attachment styles and psychopathy is currently unclear, despite the potential utility attachment theory could provide regarding the interpersonal characteristics of psychopathy and the etiology of this construct. The purpose of the current investigation was to clarify these associations. For this purpose, we analyzed responses from an Australian community sample (N = 249) and a U.S. community sample (N = 292) containing validated measures of psychopathy (Triarchic Psychopathy Measure and Expanded-Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scales [Australian sample only]) and general attachment styles (Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised-General Short Form and Attachment Styles Questionnaire) to replicate our findings across measures and samples. The psychopathy domain of boldness was consistently negatively associated with insecure attachment styles. Psychopathy's affective domain (meanness, callousness) was consistently associated with avoidant attachment, whereas its behavioral domain (disinhibition, antisocial) was consistently associated with insecure attachment styles, particularly anxious attachment. Our findings suggest that there are consistent associations between individual differences in general attachment styles and psychopathy in adult samples and provides preliminary support for further consideration of attachment theory in psychopathy research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The clustering of the SDSS-IV extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey DR14 quasar sample: first measurement of baryon acoustic oscillations between redshift 0.8 and 2.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Metin; Baumgarten, Falk; Bautista, Julian; Beutler, Florian; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanton, Michael R.; Blazek, Jonathan A.; Bolton, Adam S.; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Brownstein, Joel R.; Burtin, Etienne; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Comparat, Johan; Dawson, Kyle S.; de la Macorra, Axel; Du, Wei; du Mas des Bourboux, Hélion; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Grabowski, Katie; Guy, Julien; Hand, Nick; Ho, Shirley; Hutchinson, Timothy A.; Ivanov, Mikhail M.; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Laurent, Pierre; Le Goff, Jean-Marc; McEwen, Joseph E.; Mueller, Eva-Maria; Myers, Adam D.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pan, Kaike; Pâris, Isabelle; Pellejero-Ibanez, Marcos; Percival, Will J.; Petitjean, Patrick; Prada, Francisco; Prakash, Abhishek; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio A.; Ross, Ashley J.; Rossi, Graziano; Ruggeri, Rossana; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Satpathy, Siddharth; Schlegel, David J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Slosar, Anže; Streblyanska, Alina; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tojeiro, Rita; Vargas Magaña, Mariana; Vivek, M.; Wang, Yuting; Yèche, Christophe; Yu, Liang; Zarrouk, Pauline; Zhao, Cheng; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Zhu, Fangzhou

    2018-02-01

    We present measurements of the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) scale in redshift-space using the clustering of quasars. We consider a sample of 147 000 quasars from the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) distributed over 2044 square degrees with redshifts 0.8 0 at 6.6σ significance when testing a ΛCDM model with free curvature.

  15. Dioxobridged complexes of molybdenum (IV) and tungsten (IV) with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Six new dioxobridged complexes of molybdenum (IV) and tungsten (IV) with N-alkylphenothiazines having the general formula M2O4(L)2(H2O)2 [where M = molybdenum or tungsten and L = N-alkylphenothiazines] have been synthesised. The complexes have been characterised on the basis of analytical, molar ...

  16. Possession attachment predicts cell phone use while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Joshua A; Shackleford, Crystal; Dieckmann, Nathan; Slovic, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Distracted driving has become an important public health concern. However, little is known about the predictors of this health-risking behavior. One overlooked risk factor for distracted driving is the perceived attachment that one feels toward his or her phone. Prior research has suggested that individuals develop bonds toward objects, and qualitative research suggests that the bond between young drivers and their phones can be strong. It follows that individuals who perceive a strong attachment to their phone would be more likely to use it, even when driving. In a nationally representative sample of young drivers (17-28 years), participants (n = 1,006) completed a survey about driving behaviors and phone use. Risk perception surrounding cell phone use while driving and perceived attachment to one's phone were assessed by administering factor-analytically derived scales that were created as part of a larger project. Attachment toward one's phone predicted the proportion of trips in which a participant reported using their cell phone while driving, beyond that accounted for by risk perception and overall phone use. Further, attachment predicted self-reported distracted driving behaviors, such as the use of social media while driving. Attachment to one's phone may be an important but overlooked risk factor for the engagement of potentially health-risking driving behaviors. Understanding that phone attachment may adversely affect driving behaviors has the potential to inform prevention and intervention efforts designed to reduce distracted driving behaviors, especially in young drivers. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Attachment and Personality Disorders Among Child Molesters: The Role of Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Carlo; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2017-07-01

    The present study investigated multivariate associations between attachment styles and personality disorders (PDs)-and the mediating role of trust-in a sample of child molesters ( n = 84) and a matched control group from the general community ( n = 80). Among child molesters, canonical correlation analysis revealed that two variates resembling avoidant and anxious attachment dimensions were associated with PD traits. Attachment avoidance was related to schizoid, schizotypal, and avoidant PDs, with a marginal contribution of antisocial PD. Attachment anxiety was related to borderline and histrionic PDs, with a marginal contribution of obsessive-compulsive PD. Paranoid and dependent PDs contributed to both variates. In the control group, a more general association between attachment insecurity and PDs emerged. Finally, mistrust significantly explained the associations between attachment and PDs in both samples. Future studies should examine whether treatment for PDs in child molesters could benefit from a focus on attachment and trust.

  18. Autoantibodies against basement membrane collagen type IV are associated with myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    McLeod, Olga; Dunér, Pontus; Samnegård, Ann; Tornvall, Per; Nilsson, Jan; Hamsten, Anders; Bengtsson, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Background: Collagen type IV is the major constituent of basement membranes underlying endothelial cells and is important for endothelial cell attachment and function. Autoantibodies against native collagen type IV have been found in various autoimmune diseases. Oxidation of LDL in the vascular wall results in the formation of reactive aldehydes, which could modify surrounding matrix proteins. Like oxidized LDL, these modified matrix proteins are likely to induce immune responses. We examined...

  19. Attachment and exploration in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J; Reis, Harry T

    2003-08-01

    In the present work, the relationship between attachment and exploration in adulthood is examined from both theoretical and empirical standpoints. Theoretically, attachment theory's exploration system is linked to R. W. White's (1959) concept of effectance motivation, and to the motive and goals constructs that are central to the achievement motivation literature. Empirically, 4 studies are presented that document a link between adult attachment (operationalized using categorical, continuous, and dimensional measures) and achievement motives (need for achievement and fear of failure) and achievement goals (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance, and approach relative to avoidance personal strivings). Mediational analyses establish the role of challenge construal, threat construal, and competence valuation in accounting for the observed relationships.

  20. Attachment Styles in a group of Patients with Terminal Renal Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pía Santelices-Álvarez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies indicate that attachment in adults is feasible with modificationsthroughout life, especially in situations of change, as is the experienceof chronic disease. This study aims to describe the attachment patterns ofa group of patients with end-stage renal disease. We studied a group of 22patients with this disease requiring dialysis, compared with a group of 22adults for non-clinical sample (without disease, matching the participantsaccording to sex and age. The results showed differences significant patternsof attachment in both groups. Clinically healthy individuals tend to havepredominantly a secure attachment pattern, while those patients on dialysistend to have a preoccupied attachment pattern.

  1. Parent characteristics linked with daughters' attachment styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmann, Peter R; Vendemia, Jennifer M C; Parnell, Michele M; Urbaniak, Geoffrey C

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated links between parent characteristics and daughters' attachment styles for 90 female undergraduates and their married biological parents. Parents with a secure attachment pattern were rated as more accepting, less controlling, more competent, and more consistent in showing love and affection to their daughter in contrast to parents with an insecure attachment pattern. Significant positive associations were found between mothers' fearful attachment scores and the fearful, preoccupied, and dismissive attachment scores of daughters. Daughters of matched secure parents were more likely to report a secure attachment style, while daughters of matched insecure parents were more likely to report an insecure attachment style.

  2. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Birman, Victor; Genin, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Attachment of dissimilar materials in engineering and surgical practice is a perennial challenge. Bimaterial attachment sites are common locations for injury, repeated injury, and mechanical failure. Nature presents several highly effective solutions to the challenge of bimaterial attachment that differ from those found in engineering practice. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology describes the attachment of dissimilar materials from multiple perspectives. The text will simultaneously elucidate natural bimaterial attachments and outline engineering principles underlying successful attachments to the communities of tissue engineers and surgeons. Included an in-depth analysis of the biology of attachments in the body and mechanisms by which robust attachments are formed, a review of current concepts of attaching dissimilar materials in surgical practice and a discussion of bioengineering approaches that are currently being developed. This book also: Provides the first comprehensive treatment of phys...

  3. Personality traits are related to intimate partner violence among securely attached individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buck, N.M.L.; Leenaars, P.E.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; van Marle, H.J.C.

    2014-01-01

    The general assumption has been that male batterers from clinical samples were mostly insecurely attached as compared to non-batterers. Recently, a large group was found (39.4 % of batterers in a clinical sample) whose main attachment style was secure. No previous studies have examined specifically

  4. Validity and reliability of the attachment insecurity screening inventory (AISI) 2-5 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, I.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/293037817; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Colonnesi, C.; Asscher, J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/288661834; Hoeve, M.; Noom, M.J.; Polderman, Nelleke; Kellaert-Knol, Marijke G.

    2016-01-01

    The Attachment Insecurity Screening Inventory (AISI) 2–5 years is a parent-report questionnaire for assessing attachment insecurity in preschoolers. Validity and reliability of the AISI 2–5 years were examined in a general sample (n = 429) and in a clinical sample (n = 71). Confirmatory factor

  5. Electron attachment to boron trichloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tav, Cumali; Datskos, Panos G.; Pinnaduwage, Lal A.

    1998-11-01

    Low-energy electron attachment to BCl3 was measured using an electron swarm technique. The parent negative ion, BCl3-, was observed within a narrow electron range close to thermal energy. Previous negative ion measurements in BCl3 discharges, which yielded seemingly inconsistent results, can be shown to be self-consistent based on the present observations.

  6. Adult attachment and psychosocial functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielage, Suzanne Brenda

    2006-01-01

    In the trilogy Attachment, Separation and Loss (1969, 1973, 1980), Bowlby theorized that early experiences with caregivers affect the quality of individuals’ later (romantic) relationships and, consequently, their mental health. The current thesis set out to examine the relationships between adult

  7. WEAVING THE FABRIC OF ATTACHMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Stewart

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is the Keynote Address given at the 5th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference in Vichy, France, April 21, 2011. In the article author describes development of secure attachment with the help of the case study.

  8. Attachment representation as predictor of internalizing problems in middle childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Halamová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The current study examines the relationship between the representation of attachment relationship with mother and internalizing problems in the developmental period of middle childhood. The purpose of the study was to analyze whether the quality of attachment predicts the intensity and seriousness of internalizing problems in middle childhood; and to examine whether the models are gender-specific. Methods: Participants in this study were 151 children aged 9-12 (M = 11.21, 77 boys and 74 girls, recruited from elementary schools in Nitra region. Children completed measures assessing the quality of attachment representation of the relationship with mother (selfreport questionnaire Security Scale, the tendency to react anxiously (self-report questionnaire Childen´s Manifest Anxiety Scale – CMAS, social anxiety (self-report questionnaire Scale of Classical Social Situational Anxiety – KSAT and depression (self-report questionnaire Children´s Depression Inventory – CDI. Results: Regression analysis indicated that secure attachment representation is a significant negative predictor of children's internalizing problems – manifest anxiety (ß = -.324, p 0.05 and ß = -.194, p > 0.05, respectively, but in the sample of girls, secure attachment representation was a significant negative predictor of both depressive symptoms (ß = -.296, p < .05 for Negative Mood; and ß = -.285, p < .05 for Anhedony. Other models, except for social anxiety, were statistically significant for both samples. In the sample of girls, the predictor accounted for 26.3% of variance in Negative Self Esteem (ß = -.512; p < .001, 18.9% of variance of the total of depression symptoms (ß = -.435; p < .001, 10.9% of variance in Ineffectiveness (ß = -.331; p < .05 and 10.5% of variance in manifest anxiety (ß = -.324; p < .05. The results were similar for the sample of boys. Attachment security accounted for 17.4% of variance in Negative Self Esteem (ß = -.435; p

  9. Life-time Romantic Attachment Style and Social Adaptation in Late-Onset Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Sergio; Naridze, Rachelle; Holm-Brown, Erika

    2012-01-01

    Background Measuring social adjustment (including attachment style and current social adaptation) in late-life depression may support planning secondary prevention, rehabilitation and treatment. Insecure attachment style is a risk factor for developing new depression, and social adjustment may constitute a problem after symptoms abatement. Few studies have examined attachment style and social adjustment in late-onset depression. Design Subjects 50 years of age and older with early-onset (n=35), late-onset DSM-IV unipolar depression (n=38) and never depressed volunteers (n=47) were assessed with a widely-used measure of attachment style (the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale). Social adjustment was measured using the Social Adjustment Scale. Results Both early- and late-onset patients with depression showed greater insecure attachment and poorer social adaptation compared to never depressed volunteers. No difference was found between early- and late-onset patients with depression on attachment style or social adjustment. There were no significant differences between late-life depression in remission or current on attachment or social adaptation. Conclusion Insecure attachment style may be a risk factor for late-life depression irrespective of the age of onset. Social maladaptation may persist among individuals with late-life depression in remission. PMID:22147292

  10. The role of sex, attachment and autonomy-connectedness in personality functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, Nathan; Croon, Marcel A; Bekker, Marrie H J

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have found significant relationships among sex, attachment and autonomy-connectedness and DSM-IV personality characteristics. In the present study, we aimed to add to the current knowledge about attachment-related aspects of personality pathology, by examining the relationships of these same variables with dimensions of pathological personality structure as conceptualized by Kernberg. The study was performed among 106 ambulatory patients from a Dutch mental healthcare institute. A path model based upon neo-analytical object relation theory and attachment theory was tested. We expected significant associations among sex, attachment, autonomy and aspects of personality functioning. Both insecure attachment styles as well as the autonomy-connectedness components of sensitivity to others (SO) and capacity of managing new situations predicted general personality dysfunctioning significantly. More specifically, reality testing was negatively predicted by the autonomy component of capacity of managing new situations, and aggression was significantly predicted by sex as well as both insecure attachment styles. We advise scientists as well as clinicians to be alert on sex differences in autonomy-connectedness and aspects of personality dysfunctioning. Taking sex-specific variations in attachment and autonomy into account next to a more explicit focus on insecure attachment styles and autonomy problems may enhance, the current relatively low, treatment effectiveness for personality pathology. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Bifidobacteria possess inhibitory activity against dipeptidyl peptidase-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Z; Luo, J Y; Zuo, F L; Yu, R; Zhang, Y; Ma, H Q; Chen, S W

    2016-03-01

    The incretin hormones are extremely rapidly metabolized by the ubiquitous enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV). Therefore, DPP-IV inhibitors which can prolong the incretin effect are the newest and promising drugs for management of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated whether Bifidobacteria colonizing the human gut possess DPP-IV inhibitory activity. Cell-free intracellular extracts of 13 Bifidobacterium strains isolated from breast-fed infant faecal samples were prepared and screened for DPP-IV inhibitory activity, and two Bifidobacterium strains-Bif. longum BBMN68 and Bif. lactis Bb12-were used as reference strains. Most of the strains showed varying levels of DPP-IV inhibitory property (7-27%). Strains of Bifidobacterium adolescentis IF1-11 and Bifidobacterium bifidum IF3-211 showed the greatest DPP-IV inhibitory activity (27 and 25%) as well as good in vitro probiotic properties. This initial finding suggested that new beneficial function of Bifidobacteria is strain-dependent and the strains or their components may have the potential application for management of type 2 diabetes via inhibiting gastrointestinal DPP-IV activity. Further investigations into the isolation and identification of the bioactive components of Bifidobacteria are warranted. Our results show that Bifidobacteria isolated from breast-fed infants' faecal samples possess DPP-IV inhibitory activity. Strains of Bifidobacterium bifidum IF3-211 and Bifidobacterium adolescentis IF1-11, which showed excellent DPP-IV inhibitory properties as well as good in vitro probiotic properties, are expected to be beneficial for application as anti-diabetic probiotics. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Examining attachment to God and health risk-taking behaviors in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Karissa D; Ellison, Christopher G; Loukas, Alexandra; Downey, Darcy L; Barrett, Jennifer B

    2012-06-01

    Drawing on insights from attachment theory, this study examined whether three types of attachment to God--secure, avoidant, and anxious--were associated with health-risk behaviors, over and above the effects of religious attendance, peer support, and demographic covariates, in a sample of 328 undergraduate college students. Contrary to prior theory, secure attachment to God is not inversely associated with recent alcohol or marijuana use, or substance use prior to last sexual intercourse. Instead, avoidant and anxious attachment to God are associated with higher levels of drinking; anxious attachment to God is associated with marijuana use; and avoidant attachment to God is associated with substance use prior to last sexual intercourse. These patterns are gender-specific; problematic attachment to God is linked with negative outcomes solely among men.

  13. The influence of leadership style on subordinates' attachment to the leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molero, Fernando; Moriano, Juan A; Shaver, Phillip R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the extent to which employees establish attachment bonds with their leaders and the effects these bonds have on organizational outcomes. A sample of 225 participants reported on their supervisor's leadership style (transformational, transactional, or passive-avoidant), their attachment bonds to this supervisor (anxious or avoidant), and four organizational variables (subordinate's satisfaction, identification with the organization, extra effort, and perceived leadership effectiveness). Results, analyzed using a Partial Least Squares (PLS) approach, indicated that (a) transformational leadership was negatively associated with employees' insecure (anxious or avoidant) attachment to their leader; (b) passive/avoidant leadership was positively associated with subordinates' insecure attachment to their leader; (c) transactional leadership was positively associated with employee's anxious attachment but not with their avoidant attachment; (d) avoidant, but not anxious, attachment to the leader was negatively associated with employee satisfaction, perceived leader effectiveness, employee's extra effort, and organizational identification.

  14. Self-compassion as a mediator between attachment anxiety and body appreciation: An exploratory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L; Piontkowski, Sarah; Hui, Kayi; Ziemer, Kathryn Schaefer; Garriott, Patton O

    2016-12-01

    Body appreciation has been found to be linked to interpersonal and intrapersonal factors, with attachment styles and self-compassion separately identified as important correlates. The present study examined these variables together in a model, and we hypothesized that maternal attachment anxiety was related to peer and romantic attachment anxiety, which, in turn, was associated with self-compassion and body appreciation. Using structural equation modeling, this cross-sectional study with a sample of 1306 incoming first year college women found that the proposed model explained 40% of the variance in body appreciation. Results further revealed that peer and romantic attachment anxiety mediated the relationships between maternal attachment anxiety and self-compassion, and that self-compassion mediated the associations between peer and romantic attachment anxiety and body appreciation. Self-compassion appears to hold a central role in explaining the relation between attachment anxiety and body appreciation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A review of the evidence regarding associations between attachment theory and experimentally induced pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Pamela Joy

    2013-04-01

    Theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that adult attachment and pain-related variables are predictably and consistently linked, and that understanding these links may guide pain intervention and prevention efforts. In general, insecure attachment has been portrayed as a risk factor, and secure attachment as a protective factor, for people with chronic pain conditions. In an effort to better understand the relationships among attachment and pain variables, these links have been investigated in pain-free samples using induced-pain techniques. The present paper reviews the available research linking adult attachment and laboratory-induced pain. While the diverse nature of the studies precludes definitive conclusions, together these papers offer support for associations between insecure attachment and a more negative pain experience. The evidence presented in this review highlights areas for further empirical attention, as well as providing some guidance for clinicians who may wish to employ preventive approaches and other interventions informed by attachment theory.

  16. Meta-analytic evidence for stability in attachments from infancy to early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin; Feussner, Christina; Ahnert, Lieselotte

    2013-01-01

    The present meta-analysis integrates results from 127 papers on attachment stability towards mothers and fathers, respectively, from infancy to early adulthood. More than twenty-one thousand attachments (n = 21,072) and 225 time intervals were explored, ranging from half a month to 29 years (348 months). An overall coefficient of r = .39 between times T1 and T2 was obtained, reflecting a medium-sized stability of attachment security. However, no significant stability was found in intervals larger than 15 years. Coefficients are higher for time intervals of less than two years compared to time spans of more than five years, if attachments were assessed beyond infancy using representational rather than behavioral measures and if normal middle class as opposed to at-risk samples were involved. Furthermore, securely attached children at risk were less likely to maintain attachment security whereas insecurely attached children at risk most likely maintained insecurity.

  17. Transmission of attachment across three generations: Continuity and reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautamäki, Airi; Hautamäki, Laura; Neuvonen, Leena; Maliniemi-Piispanen, Sinikka

    2010-07-01

    We followed a normative Finnish sample of primiparous mothers, fathers, and maternal grandmothers from pregnancy until the child was 3 years old (N = 32 families). The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was used to assess attachment in mothers, fathers and grandmothers during the last trimester of the mother's pregnancy. The Preschool Assessment of Attachment (PAA) was used to assess attachment in children at 3 years. Forty-seven percent of the 32 grandmother-mother-infant triads had the corresponding attachment classifications. Using EXACON for the analysis of single cells of 3 x 3 contingency tables with type-antitype classifications, and frequency tabulation of the major three-generation combinations, both triads indicating continuity across three generations (B/B/B 22% and A/A/A 19%) and reversal reactions (A/C/A and C/A/C 22%) were found. The results indicated continuity across three generations for Type B and for Type A and alternations from A to C and vice versa for insecure attachment. We discuss the implications of these findings for theory development and clinical work.

  18. Does reflective functioning mediate the relationship between attachment and personality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzaro, Maria Paola; Boldrini, Tommaso; Tanzilli, Annalisa; Muzi, Laura; Giovanardi, Guido; Lingiardi, Vittorio

    2017-10-01

    Mentalization, operationalized as reflective functioning (RF), can play a crucial role in the psychological mechanisms underlying personality functioning. This study aimed to: (a) study the association between RF, personality disorders (cluster level) and functioning; (b) investigate whether RF and personality functioning are influenced by (secure vs. insecure) attachment; and (c) explore the potential mediating effect of RF on the relationship between attachment and personality functioning. The Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP-200) was used to assess personality disorders and levels of psychological functioning in a clinical sample (N = 88). Attachment and RF were evaluated with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Reflective Functioning Scale (RFS). Findings showed that RF had significant negative associations with cluster A and B personality disorders, and a significant positive association with psychological functioning. Moreover, levels of RF and personality functioning were influenced by attachment patterns. Finally, RF completely mediated the relationship between (secure/insecure) attachment and adaptive psychological features, and thus accounted for differences in overall personality functioning. Lack of mentalization seemed strongly associated with vulnerabilities in personality functioning, especially in patients with cluster A and B personality disorders. These findings provide support for the development of therapeutic interventions to improve patients' RF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prediction of Addiction Potential in Youth According to Attachment Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Adroom

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aim is to predict the psychological inclination to drug use in youths by studying their attachment styles. Materials and Methods: The research sample includes male and female students of Zahedan Medical Science University with the average age of 19-24. The proportional cluster random sampling was used for selection of participant. The hypotheses were analyzed, using Pearson correlation method, regression analysis, one way variance analysis and t-test for two independent groups4T. Results: The results indicated positive relationships among addiction aptitude and insecure-avoidant attachment style and negative relationship between addiction aptitude and secure attachment style4T. Conclusion: It is necessary to focus training intervention and prevention on all students4T.

  20. Attachment styles, pain intensity and emotional variables in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñacoba, Cecilia; Perez-Calvo, Soledad; Blanco, Sheila; Sanroman, Lucía

    2017-09-08

    This study aims to explore the relations between attachment styles and pain intensity and certain emotional variables (anxiety, depression and alexithymia) in a sample of fibromyalgia patients, in comparison with healthy women. Data were collected from 146 women with fibromyalgia and 122 healthy women. The variables studied were attachment style, pain intensity, anxiety, depression and alexithymia dimensions. Patients with fibromyalgia showed lower percentages of secure attachment style (69.9% vs. 86%) whilst showing higher avoidant attachment (19.8% vs. 7.4%), as well as increased numbers of anxious-ambivalent attachment (10.3% vs. 6.6%) than healthy women (X2  = 9.915, p = .007). Also, fibromyalgia patients showed significantly higher scores in two of the insecure attachment factors (p attachment factor (p = .008) in comparison with healthy women. Higher scores of alexithymia were found in women showing anxious-ambivalent and avoidant attachment styles in comparison with those showing a secure attachment style, regardless of the group they belonged to. In fibromyalgia patients, higher anxiety (p = .005) was found among the women with anxious-ambivalent attachment styles (Mean = 15.15; SD = 1.15) in comparison with those with secure attachment style (Mean = 11.18; SD = .45). No relation was found between attachment style and pain intensity. Avoidant attachment seems to carry out a contradictory role and warrants further research. The results found seem to highlight the need for the Attachment-Diathesis Model of Chronic Pain to include attachment styles as a predictor of the emotional experience of pain in fibromyalgia patients. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  1. Trauma, attachment, and intimate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L; Gobin, Robyn L; Kaehler, Laura A

    2012-01-01

    Intimate relationships can both affect and be affected by trauma and its sequelae. This special issue highlights research on trauma, attachment, and intimate relationships. Several themes emerged. One theme is the exploration of the associations between a history of trauma and relational variables, with an emphasis on models using these variables as mediators. Given the significance of secure attachment for healthy relationships, it is not surprising that attachment emerges as another theme of this issue. Moreover, a key component of relationships is trust, and so a further theme of this issue is betrayal trauma (J. J. Freyd, 1996 ). As the work included in this special issue makes clear, intimate relationships of all types are important for the psychological health of those exposed to traumatic events. In order to best help trauma survivors and those close to them, it is imperative that research exploring these issues be presented to research communities, clinical practitioners, and the public in general. This special issue serves as one step toward that objective.

  2. Emotion regulation as a mediator in the relationship between attachment and depressive symptomatology: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sonia; Wells, Adrian; Wittkowski, Anja

    2015-02-01

    Attachment theory has been conceptualised as an emotion regulation theory. Research attributes the occurrence of depressive symptoms to a dysfunction of emotion regulation. Anxious attachment and avoidant attachment, which are two dimensions of insecure attachment, are hypothesised to lead to the development of hyperactivating and deactivating emotion regulation strategies. This systematic review examines the literature on the role of emotion regulation and its relationship with attachment and depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, we examined evidence for hyperactivating and deactivating strategies. Nineteen papers were identified. Adolescent studies demonstrated associations of varying strength and found unreliable and contradictory results for emotion regulation as a mediator. Conversely, adult studies provided strong evidence for emotion regulation as a mediator. The hypothesis that hyperactivating strategies mediate anxious attachment and depressive symptoms was consistently supported. Mixed evidence was provided for deactivating strategies as mediators to avoidant attachment and depressive symptomatology. Limitations of methodology and quality of studies are identified with particular attention drawn to problems with conceptual singularity and multicollinearity. Despite mixed variable findings, this review indicates that emotion regulation is a mediator between attachment and depression. Hyperactivating strategies, in particular, have been consistently noted as mediators for anxious attachment and depressive symptomatology, whereas evidence for deactivating strategies as mediators between avoidant attachment and depressive symptoms has been mixed. Future research should test the mediators of attachment and symptoms and examine theoretically grounded models of psychopathology, such as metacognitive and cognitive models using clinical samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Adult attachment's unique contribution in the prediction of postpartum depressive symptoms, beyond personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axfors, Cathrine; Sylvén, Sara; Ramklint, Mia; Skalkidou, Alkistis

    2017-11-01

    Personality traits such as neuroticism can help identify pregnant women at risk of postpartum depressive symptoms (PPDS). However, it is unclear whether attachment style could have an additional contribution to this risk elevation. This study aimed to examine the overlap of adult attachment insecurity and neuroticism/trait anxiety as PPDS predictors, taking into account baseline depressive symptoms. A Swedish population-based sample of pregnant women reported on adult attachment and either neuroticism (n = 1063) or trait anxiety (n = 555). Depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline, and at six weeks and six months postpartum. Correlations between attachment and neuroticism/trait anxiety were calculated. Generalized linear models of PPDS tested the effect of attachment anxiety and avoidance, adjusting for neuroticism/trait anxiety and baseline depression. Logistic regression models with combined high attachment anxiety and neuroticism/trait anxiety visualized their value as risk factors beyond antenatal depression. Attachment and neuroticism/trait anxiety were highly correlated (r = .55-.77). Attachment anxiety exerted a partially independent effect on PPDS at six weeks (p six months (p depressed, combined high attachment anxiety and high neuroticism or trait anxiety was predictive of PPDS at both assessment points. Low acceptance rate, exclusive use of self-reports. Beyond personality, attachment anxiety had a small independent effect on the risk of PPDS. Combining items of adult attachment and neuroticism/trait anxiety could prove useful in antenatal screening for high risk of PPDS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Eating disorders in adolescence: attachment issues from a developmental perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela eGander

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we review findings from an emerging body of research on attachment issues in adolescents with eating disorders from a developmental perspective. First, we will outline the crucial developmental changes in the attachment system and discuss how they might be related to the early onset of the disease. Then we will report on the major results from attachment studies using self-report and narrative instruments in that age group. Studies with a developmental approach on attachment will be analyzed in more detail. The high incidence of the unresolved attachment pattern in eating disorder samples is striking, especially for patients with anorexia nervosa. Interestingly, this predominance of the unresolved category was also found in their mothers. To date, these transgenerational aspects are still poorly understood and therefore represent an exciting research frontier. Future studies that include larger adolescent samples and provide a more detailed description including symptom severity and comorbidity would contribute to a better understanding of this complex and painful condition.

  5. Hormonal treatment reduces psychobiological distress in gender identity disorder, independently of the attachment style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizzi, Marco; Costa, Rosalia; Pace, Valeria; Todarello, Orlando

    2013-12-01

    Gender identity disorder may be a stressful situation. Hormonal treatment seemed to improve the general health as it reduces psychological and social distress. The attachment style seemed to regulate distress in insecure individuals as they are more exposed to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system dysregulation and subjective stress. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the presence of psychobiological distress and insecure attachment in transsexuals and to study their stress levels with reference to the hormonal treatment and the attachment pattern. We investigated 70 transsexual patients. We measured the cortisol levels and the perceived stress before starting the hormonal therapy and after about 12 months. We studied the representation of attachment in transsexuals by a backward investigation in the relations between them and their caregivers. We used blood samples for assessing cortisol awakening response (CAR); we used the Perceived Stress Scale for evaluating self-reported perceived stress and the Adult Attachment Interview to determine attachment styles. At enrollment, transsexuals reported elevated CAR; their values were out of normal. They expressed higher perceived stress and more attachment insecurity, with respect to normative sample data. When treated with hormone therapy, transsexuals reported significantly lower CAR (P stress (P stress in untreated transsexuals (P stress by attachment. Our results suggested that untreated patients suffer from a higher degree of stress and that attachment insecurity negatively impacts the stress management. Initiating the hormonal treatment seemed to have a positive effect in reducing stress levels, whatever the attachment style may be. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. Relationship between attachment style and symptom severity across the psychosis spectrum: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Sarah Christina; Hardy, Amy; Fornells-Ambrojo, Miriam

    2017-12-06

    There is growing evidence for the role of attachment in psychosis, however, to date there has been no quantitative review of the prevalence of insecure attachment in psychosis. The current study sought to systematically appraise studies investigating the prevalence of insecure attachment and the association with psychosis-spectrum experiences using meta-analytic techniques. A systematic search of studies carried out between January 1980 and 30th November 2015 found 25 papers eligible for inclusion. The meta-analysis showed that the prevalence of insecure attachment style was significantly higher in individuals with psychosis (76%) than in non-clinical samples (38%), with fearful attachment being the most prevalent. Across the continuum, there was a small but significant relationship between positive symptom severity and insecure attachment and a significant relationship between negative symptom severity and insecure attachment in the non-clinical analysis. This relationship was not found in the clinical group. The prevalence of insecure attachment appears to be high in psychosis, however, the relationship between symptom severity and attachment is small. Attachment theory may provide greater understanding of the development of positive symptoms than previously thought, however, research needs to include more at-risk samples and longitudinal research to fully understand the dynamics of this relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychological characteristics of future helping professionals: Empathy and attachment of psychology students

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrijević Aleksandar; Hanak Nataša; Milojević Sonja

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigated whether psychology students differ than students who have chosen non-helping professions in psychological features important for helping activities: attachment and empathy. The sample consisted of psychology students from Belgrade and Novi Sad (N=452) and students from several Belgrade University faculties for non-helping professions. The revised version of Attachment Questionnaire was used for assessment of attachment, while empathy was assessed by Empathy...

  8. Attachment and personality disorders among child molesters: The role of trust

    OpenAIRE

    Garofalo, C.; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated multivariate associations between attachment styles and personality disorders (PDs)—and the mediating role of trust—in a sample of child molesters (n = 84) and a matched control group from the general community (n = 80). Among child molesters, canonical correlation analysis revealed that two variates resembling avoidant and anxious attachment dimensions were associated with PD traits. Attachment avoidance was related to schizoid, schizotypal, and avoidant PDs, w...

  9. Anxiety, cortisol, and attachment predict plasma oxytocin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, Mattie; Van Peer, Jacobien M.; Korf, Jakob; Wijers, Albertus A.; Tucker, Don M.

    Oxytocin and attachment seem to interact in suppressing subjective anxiety and physiological stress responses. In this study we investigated the relationships between individual differences in trait attachment scores, state and trait anxiety, plasma cortisol, and plasma oxytocin levels in healthy

  10. Attachment theory: progress and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, R M Pasco; Roisman, Glenn I

    2017-06-01

    Attachment is a key subfield in the area of parenting and parent-child relationships research. In this brief overview, we summarise what we consider to be the state-of-the-art of attachment research, focusing primarily on the nature and significance of attachment in infancy and early childhood. We review 4 major topics that are central issues in the scientific literature on attachment: (1) the role of the environment in the development of attachment, (2) the intergenerational transmission of patterns of attachment, (3) the stability of attachment patterns through early adulthood, and (4) the role of attachment in adjustment and maladjustment. We conclude by highlighting several critical unresolved issues and priorities for future research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Measuring attachment and parental bonding in psychosis and its clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, S; Onwumere, J; Bissoli, S; Ruggeri, M; Kuipers, E; Valmaggia, L

    2016-04-01

    Attachment theory proposes that psychological functioning and affect regulations are influenced by the attachment we form with others. Early relationships with parents or caregivers lay the foundations for attachment styles. These styles are proposed to influence how we relate to others during our life can be modified by the relationships and events we experience in our lifespan. A secure attachment style is associated with a capacity to manage distress, comfort with autonomy and the ability to form relationships with others, whereas insecure attachment can lead to dysfunctional relationships, emotional and behaviour avoidance. Attachment theory provides a useful framework to inform our understanding of relationship difficulties in people with psychosis. This paper aims to complement recent systematic reviews by providing an overview of attachment theory, its application to psychosis, including an understanding of measurement issues and the clinical implications offered. A narrative review was completed of the measures of attachment and parental bonding in psychosis. Its clinical implications are also discussed. The paper also explores the link between insecure attachment styles and illness course, social functioning and symptomatology. The following questions are addressed: What are the key attachment measures that have been used within the attachment and psychosis literature? What are the results of studies that have measured attachment or parental bonding in psychosis and what clinical implications can we derive from it? What are some of the key questions for future research from these findings in relation to the onset of psychosis research field? The most commonly used measures of attachment in psychosis research are reviewed. Self-report questionnaires and semi-structured interviews have mainly been used to examine attachment styles in adult samples and in recent years comprise a measure specifically developed for a psychosis group. The review suggests that

  12. Children's Representations of Attachment Relationships in Family Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fury, Gail; Carlson, Elizabeth A.; Sroufe, L. Alan

    1997-01-01

    Investigated the representational model of self and attachment figures in family drawings of 8- to 9-year-olds in a high-risk, racially mixed sample. Found that specific signs and global rating scales were related to early relationship history. Even after contemporary influences of child intelligence, stress, and emotional functioning were…

  13. Cell attachment on diamond-like carbon coating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    in fabrication of the ophthalmic introcular lens and likely to have applications ranging from semi-permanent to permanent implants. 2. Experimental. PMMA samples with 6 mm dia. and 2 mm thickness were used as the substrates for cell attachment and chemical state analysis. They were cleaned sequentially in an.

  14. Past Peer Victimization and Current Adult Attachment in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Heather E.; Nickerson, Amanda B.; DeLucia, Janice

    2017-01-01

    The authors examined the potential long-term effects of peer victimization experiences during childhood on attachment quality in current adult relationships in a sample of 386 university students attending 2 northeastern universities. Findings included (a) no significant gender differences regarding verbal or relational peer victimization; (b)…

  15. Romantic Attachment and Relationship Functioning in Same-Sex Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Jonathan J.; Selterman, Dylan; Fassinger, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate links between dimensions of romantic attachment and relationship functioning in a cross-sectional sample of people in same-sex relationships, with the goals of replicating basic findings from research on heterosexual couples and advancing understanding of unique issues faced by same-sex couples. The…

  16. The influence of home and community attachment on firewise behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard T. Kyle; Gene L. Theodori; James D. Absher; Jinhee. Jun

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of residents’ attachment to their homes and community on their willingness to adopt Firewise recommendations. Our sample was drawn from a population residing in the wildland–urban interface where the threat of wildfire is acute. The Firewise recommendations concerned 13 activities affecting home design,...

  17. Attachment Theory, Foster Parents and Diversity Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Michael; Fleming, Ted

    2009-01-01

    relevance to attachment within the biological and foster family. Yet every foster parent has a childhood attachment history that influences their interpersonal relationships in adulthood. The primary concern of the foster parent and their supports is with the foster child. But as a result the foster parent may distract or block reflection on their own attachment history. This presentation will focus on attachment theory and the adult, with particular reference to the foster parent. The pre...

  18. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eMazzeschi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers’ postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with the subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers’ attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th month of gestation and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress three months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress three months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers

  19. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment, and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Radi, Giulia; Raspa, Veronica; Buratta, Livia

    2015-01-01

    The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers' postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers' attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th months of gestation) and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress 3 months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety) was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress 3 months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers.

  20. After Love: Attachment Styles and Grief Themes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistole, M. Carole

    1996-01-01

    Examines the association of attachment organization and recalled grief responses following the dissolution of a romantic relationship. Data based on college students' (N=118) responses resulted in four interpretable grief themes. Preoccupied attachment predicted self-reproach, fearful attachment predicted partner blame, whereas both fearful and…

  1. Attachment in rat pups, an experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Sigling, H.; Engeland, H. van; Spruijt, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    John Bowlby's attachment theory states that attachment behavior has been strengthened throughout evolution as a consequence of its adaptive value. We investigated the presence of attachment-like behavior in rat pups, by offering a choice between the home nest and a same aged other nest. Rat pups

  2. Attachment in Middle Childhood: Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Guy; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the substantial amount of research on infant, preschool, adolescent, and adult attachment, middle childhood has long been neglected by the international attachment research community. In the past two decades, however, there has been a steep increase in research focusing on middle childhood attachment. This article provides an overview…

  3. Loneliness and Attachment Patterns in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Diana Taylor; Baum, Steven K.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between loneliness and patterns of attachment in 47 college students. Results revealed a moderate to strong relationship between feeling lonely and early disrupted attachment, consistent with the notion that underlying attachment disorders may affect psychological development and social behavior. (JAC)

  4. Secondary Attachments and Adolescent Self Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams-Price, Carolyn; Greene, A. L.

    1990-01-01

    In a study examining attachments to celebrity figures, 79 male and female fifth, eighth, and eleventh graders and college sophomores described themselves and their favorite celebrities. It was found that such attachments are equally important to males and females, and that gender and age affect the nature of the attachment. (DM)

  5. CORRECTING LABIAL THICK AND HIGH ATTACHED FRENUM (CLINICAL OBSERVATION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Krusteva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Labial thick and high attached maxillary frenum is commonly regarded as contributing etiology for maintaining midline diastema and upper jaw delayed development. The surgical modalities used to solve this problem are known to be quite stressful for children. Dental lasers have recently been increasingly used to treat wide variety of problems in medicine. AIM: Using a high energy diode laser to remove a short, high attached frenum of the upper lip and present the results of the procedure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed frenectomy in 10 randomly selected patients of both sexes aged 7-9 years with short, thick frena of the upper lip. A Picasso soft tissue diode laser, class IV, power output 7 W, λ-810 nm was used for the procedure. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The healing process was uneventful, painless and without edemas developing in the soft tissues. No inflammation was found in the treated tissues. The children undergoing the procedure showed no fear. This was the reason why we preferred to use lasers as a modern therapeutic modality for soft tissue correction in the mouth.CONCLUSION: Using lasers to remove short, high attached maxillary labial frenum has the benefit of inducing less stress in children than that they experience if anaesthesia and surgery are administered. Anaesthesia with topical anaesthetics is used in the procedure. The postoperative period is free of pain and far from severe. This makes this technique particularly useful for children.

  6. The Role of Attachment and Maladaptive Emotion Regulation Strategies in the Development of Bulimic Symptoms in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Durme, Kim; Goossens, Lien; Bosmans, Guy; Braet, Caroline

    2017-07-29

    Following the theoretical propositions of the Emotion Regulation model of attachment, the current study investigated whether attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance might play a differential contributing role in the development of bulimic symptoms, through assumed differences in adopting specific maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in a sample of adolescents. Developmentally appropriate self-report questionnaires were administered to a community sample of 397 adolescents (Mean age: 14.02; 62.7% female) and this at 2 time points with a 1-year time lag. Results provided longitudinal evidence for the Emotion Regulation model of attachment in confirming the differential contributing role of the attachment dimensions on the development of bulimic symptoms in a sample of adolescents. More specifically, attachment anxiety seemed to be related to bulimic symptoms through rumination, while attachment avoidance through emotional control. These results may have clinical implications for assessment and treatment of bulimic symptoms in adolescents.

  7. Temperament, disordered attachment and parental sensitivity in foster care: Differential findings on attachment security for shy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Schipper, J.C.; Oosterman, M.; Schuengel, C.

    2012-01-01

    In a foster care sample, the moderating effect of temperamental shyness on the association between parental sensitivity and attachment quality was tested. The foster parents of 59 foster children (age M=57 months, SD=16.4) filled out the Child Behavior Questionnaire. To control for confounds,

  8. Attachment Style Predicts Affect, Cognitive Appraisals, and Social Functioning in Daily Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara eSheinbaum

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The way in which attachment styles are expressed in the moment as individuals navigate their real-life settings has remained an area largely untapped by attachment research. The present study examined how adult attachment styles are expressed in daily life using Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM in a sample of 206 Spanish young adults. Participants were administered the Attachment Style Interview and received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times per day for one week to complete questionnaires about their current experiences and social context. As hypothesized, participants’ momentary affective states, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning varied in meaningful ways as a function of their attachment style. Individuals with an anxious attachment, as compared with securely attached individuals, endorsed experiences that were congruent with hyperactivating tendencies, such as higher negative affect, stress, and perceived social rejection. By contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment, relative to individuals with a secure attachment, endorsed experiences that were consistent with deactivating tendencies, such as decreased positive states and a decreased desire to be with others when alone. Furthermore, the expression of attachment styles in social contexts was shown to be dependent upon the subjective appraisal of the closeness of social contacts, and not merely upon the presence of social interactions. The findings support the ecological validity of the Attachment Style Interview and the person-by-situation character of attachment theory. Moreover, they highlight the utility of ESM for investigating how the predictions derived from attachment theory play out in the natural flow of real life.

  9. Resource conservation and recovery act draft hazardous waste facility permit: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Attachments: Volume 4 of 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Volume IV contains the following attachments for Module IV: VOC monitoring plan for bin-room tests (Appendix D12); bin emission control and VOC monitoring system drawings; bin scale test room ventilation drawings; WIPP supplementary roof support system, underground storage area, room 1, panel 1, DOE/WIPP 91-057; and WIPP supplementary roof support system, room 1, panel 1, geotechnical field data analysis bi-annual report, DOE/WIPP 92-024.

  10. A Review on Attachment and Adolescent Substance Abuse: Empirical Evidence and Implications for Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Andreas; Bröning, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews research on the relation of attachment and substance use disorders (SUD) in adolescence. Based on a theoretical introduction, we review evidence for a possible general link between SUD and insecure attachment, for links between specific forms of SUD and specific patterns of attachment, and for studies on family patterns of attachment in adolescence. Using medical and psychological databases, we identified 10 studies on adolescent SUD and another 13 studies on adult SUD. Empirical evidence strongly supports the assumption of insecure attachment in SUD samples. With regard to specific patterns of attachment, results mainly point towards fearful and dismissing-avoidance, whereas single studies report preoccupied and unresolved patterns. Results indicate different patterns of attachment in different groups of substance abusers, that is, fearful-avoidant attachment in heroin addicts and more heterogeneous results in abusers of other substances. Explorative data suggest different types of insecure family attachment patterns, which might imply different functions of substance abuse and lead to different treatment recommendations. Methodological problems such as poor assessment of SUD and the use of different measures of attachment limit comparability. Although a lot of research is still needed to address the unknowns in the relation between attachment and SUD, there is strong evidence for a general link between SUD and insecure attachment. Data on connections between different patterns of attachment and different pathways towards SUD are less conclusive but mainly point to disorganized and externalizing pathways. Evidence suggests that fostering attachment security might improve the outcome of state-of-the-art approaches in both early interventional treatment and prevention. Implications for individual and family approaches are outlined.

  11. Transitions in Friendship Attachment During Adolescence are Associated With Developmental Trajectories of Depression Through Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephanie H; Heinze, Justin E; Miller, Alison L; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2016-03-01

    Forming secure friendship attachments during adolescence are important for mental health; few, however, have specifically examined the ways in which the transitions in attachment during adolescence may influence future mental health outcomes among African Americans. The present study examines how transitions in attachment in adolescence predicted changes in depression symptoms from late adolescents through adulthood in an African-American sample. We used growth curve modeling to examine the association between transitions in friendship attachment and changes in depression symptoms in adulthood. At age 16 years, 346 (64.0%) adolescents reported secure attachment with 195 (36.0%) reporting either avoidant or resistant attachment. At age 17 years, 340 (62.9%) reported secure attachment and 201 (37.2%) reported avoidant or resistant attachment. The largest percentage of participants (46.2%) reported stable-secure attachment across the two time points. Results of the growth model indicated that adolescents who reported a stable-secure attachment style had lower levels of depression symptoms during adulthood than those individuals who transitioned from secure-to-insecure, from insecure-to-secure, or were in the stable-insecure group. Interestingly enough, individuals in both the attachment transition groups had a faster declining rate of depression symptoms over time compared to the two stability groups. Data support existing research showing an association between transitions in attachment during adolescence and depression through adulthood. Furthermore, these study findings suggest there may be protective features associated with transitioning between attachment styles during adolescence on later depression, compared to African Americans who remain stable in their attachment style. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Preferred Attachment in Affiliation Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloznelis, Mindaugas; Götze, Friedrich

    2014-08-01

    Vertices of an affiliation network are linked to attributes and two vertices are declared adjacent whenever they share a common attribute. For example, two customers of an internet shop (or video-sharing website) are called adjacent if they have purchased (or downloaded) the same or similar items. Assuming that each newly arrived customer is linked preferentially to already popular items we obtain a preferred attachment affiliation network that evolves in time. We show that the fraction of customers having neighbours scales as for large . Here is the ratio between the two intensities: intensity of the flow of customers and that of the newly arriving items.

  13. THE RIEDER AUTOMATIC RIFLE ATTACHMENT

    OpenAIRE

    W.M. Bisset

    2012-01-01

    In March 1981, Mrs H. J. R. Rieder donated her husband's presentation British .303 SMLE Rifle No 1 Mark III (number M-45374) with the Rieder Automatic Rifle Attachment to the Military Museum at the Castle in Cape Town. With it were a number of photographs, letters, documents and plans concerning this once secret invention which was tested outside the Castle during the Second World War. Fortunately, the documents donated by Mrs Rieder include a list of the numbers of the 18 rifles to which Mr ...

  14. Do brain lesions in stroke affect basic emotions and attachment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinelli, Marina; Panksepp, Jaak; Gestieri, Laura; Maffei, Monica; Agati, Raffaele; Cevolani, Daniela; Pedone, Vincenzo; Northoff, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate basic emotions and attachment in a sample of 86 stroke patients. We included a control group of 115 orthopedic patients (matched for age and cognitive status) without brain lesions to control for unspecific general illness effects of a traumatic recent event on basic emotions and attachment. In order to measure basic emotions and attachment style we applied the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scale (ANPS) and the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ). The stroke patients showed significantly different scores in the SEEKING, SADNESS, and ANGER subscales of the ANPS as well as in the Relationship as Secondary Attachment dimension of the ASQ when compared to the control group. These differences show a pattern influenced by lesion location mainly as concerns basic emotions. Anterior, medial, left, and subcortical patients provide scores significantly lower in ANPS-SEEKING than the control group; ANPS-SADNESS scores in anterior, right, medial, and subcortical patients were significantly higher than those of the control group. ANPS-ANGER scores in posterior, right, and lateral patients were significantly higher than those in the control group; finally, the ANPS-FEAR showed slightly lower scores in posterior patients than in the control group. Minor effects on brain lesions were also individuated in the attachment style. Anterior lesion patients showed a significantly higher average score in the ASQ-Need for Approval subscale than the control group. ASQ-Confidence subscale scores differed significantly in stroke patients with lesions in medial brain regions when compared to control subjects. Scores at ANPS and ASQ subscales appear significantly more correlated in stroke patients than in the control group. Such finding of abnormalities, especially concerning basic emotions in stroke brain-lesioned patients, indicates that the effect of brain lesions may enhance the interrelation between basic emotions and attachment with

  15. How tight are beetle hugs? Attachment in mating leaf beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Dagmar; Tsipenyuk, Alexey; Varenberg, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Similar to other leaf beetles, rosemary beetles Chrysolina americana exhibit a distinct sexual dimorphism in tarsal attachment setae. Setal discoid terminals occur only in males, and they have been previously associated with a long-term attachment to the female's back (elytra) during copulation and mate guarding. For the first time, we studied living males and females holding to female's elytra. Pull-off force measurements with a custom-made tribometer featuring a self-aligning sample holder confirmed stronger attachment to female elytra compared with glass in both males and females; corresponding to 45 and 30 times the body weight, respectively. In line with previous studies, males generated significantly higher forces than females on convex elytra and flat glass, 1.2 times and 6.8 times, respectively. Convex substrates like elytra seem to improve the attachment ability of rosemary beetles, because they can hold more strongly due to favourable shear angles of legs, tarsi and adhesive setae. A self-aligning sample holder is found to be suitable for running force measurement tests with living biological samples.

  16. Free-format RPG IV

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This how-to guide offers a concise and thorough introduction to the increased productivity, better readability, and easier program maintenance that comes with the free-format style of programming in RPG IV. Although free-format information is available in IBM manuals, it is not separated from everything else, thereby requiring hours of tedious research to track down the information needed. This book provides everything one needs to know to write RPG IV in the free-format style, and author Jim Martin not only teaches rules and syntax but also explains how this new style of coding has the pot

  17. Quality of life and adolescents' communication with their significant others (mother, father, and best friend): the mediating effect of attachment to pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsa-Sambola, Ferran; Williams, Joanne; Muldoon, Janine; Lawrence, Alistair; Connor, Melanie; Currie, Candace

    2017-06-01

    The relationship between adolescents' communication with their significant others (mother, father, and best friend) and quality of life (KIDSCREEN) was investigated in 2262 Scottish adolescent pet owners. The variable attachment to pets was also tested and assessed as a mediator of this relationship. A positive relationship between adolescents' communication with their significant other (mother, father, and best friend) and quality of life decreased when controlling for attachment to dogs. In cat owners, a positive relationship between communication with a best friend and quality of life decreased when controlling for attachment to cats. In cat and dog owners, attachment to these pets predicted higher levels of quality of life. Higher attachment to dogs and cats was explained by good best friend (IV) and attachment to pets (DV) and best friends. Mediation effects of attachment to dogs and cats might be explained in terms of the caring activities associated with these types of pets.

  18. Mother-Child Attachment Representation and Relationships over Time in Mexican-Heritage Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Carollee; Vu, Jennifer A.; Hamilton, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Continuity and intergenerational transmission of representations of attachment were examined in a longitudinal sample of 88 Mexican immigrant mothers and their children who participated in the local intervention group of the Early Head Start Evaluation Study. The authors interviewed mothers with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Parent…

  19. Attachment Theory and Theory of Planned Behavior: An Integrative Model Predicting Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lac, Andrew; Crano, William D.; Berger, Dale E.; Alvaro, Eusebio M.

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that peer and maternal bonds play important but sometimes contrasting roles in the outcomes of children. Less is known about attachment bonds to these 2 reference groups in young adults. Using a sample of 351 participants (18 to 20 years of age), the research integrated two theoretical traditions: attachment theory and theory of…

  20. Peer Attachment, Coping, and Self-Esteem in Institutionalized Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Catarina Pinheiro; Matos, Paula Mena

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the contribution of peer attachment in predicting active coping and self-esteem in a sample of 109 institutionalized adolescents. It also explores the mediating role of social skills in the association between peer attachment, coping, and self-esteem. Structural equation modeling identified a model able to predict a positive…

  1. Changes in attachment security and mindfulness as predictors of changes in depression and general anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, David; Gillath, Omri; Deboeck, Pascal; Lang, K.M.; Kerr, Barb

    2017-01-01

    Two studies examined the role short-term changes in adult attachment and mindfulness play in depression and general anxiety. Study 1, using a sample of college students (n = 121) who were not engaged in any clinical intervention, showed that changes in attachment anxiety and security, but not in

  2. Attachment, Stress, Dyadic Coping, and Marital Satisfaction of Counseling Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuenfhausen, Kerrie K.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    A sample of 191 married students from 23 Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs-accredited programs participated in a survey designed to examine factors that affect the marital satisfaction of counseling graduate students. Results indicated that attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, and dyadic coping accounted…

  3. Examining Attachment to God and Health Risk-Taking Behaviors in College Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrett, J.; Horton, K.D.; Ellison, Ch.G.; Loukas, A.; Downey, D.L.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on insights from attachment theory, this study examined whether three types of attachment to God—secure, avoidant, and anxious—were associated with health-risk behaviors, over and above the effects of religious attendance, peer support, and demographic covariates, in a sample of 328

  4. College Student Binge Eating: Attachment, Psychological Needs Satisfaction, and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Suejung; Lee, Soonhee

    2017-01-01

    In this study we examine the mediating roles of psychological needs satisfaction (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness) and emotion regulation difficulties in the relationship between attachment insecurity (i.e., attachment anxiety and avoidance) and binge eating behavior in college students. A total sample of 820 college students…

  5. Adult Attachment, Parent Emotion, and Observed Parenting Behavior: Mediator and Moderator Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Emma K.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Tanaka, Akiko

    2004-01-01

    In a middle-class sample of mothers of 2-year-olds, adult attachment classifications measured in the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) were related to maternal self-reported emotional well-being and observed parenting behavior, and the potential mediating and moderating roles of maternal emotion were tested. Mothers classified as dismissing on the…

  6. Identity and Intimacy during Adolescence: Connections among Identity Styles, Romantic Attachment and Identity Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Pittman, Joe F.; Cadely, Hans Saint-Eloi; Tuggle, Felicia J.; Harrell-Levy, Marinda K.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca M.

    2012-01-01

    Integration of adult attachment and psychosocial development theories suggests that adolescence is a time when capacities for romantic intimacy and identity formation are co-evolving. The current study addressed direct, indirect and moderated associations among identity and romantic attachment constructs with a diverse sample of 2178 middle…

  7. Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism as Mediators of Adult Attachment Styles and Depression, Hopelessness, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnilka, Philip B.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Noble, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, anxious and avoidant adult attachment styles, depression, hopelessness, and life satisfaction among a sample of 180 undergraduate students. Maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationship between both forms of adult attachment and depression, hopelessness,…

  8. Attachment and Invasion of Neisseria meningitidis to Host Cells Is Related to Surface Hydrophobicity, Bacterial Cell Size and Capsule

    OpenAIRE

    Bartley, Stephanie N.; Yih-Ling Tzeng; Kathryn Heel; Lee, Chiang W.; Shakeel Mowlaboccus; Torsten Seemann; Wei Lu; Ya-Hsun Lin; Ryan, Catherine S.; Christopher Peacock; Stephens, David S.; Davies, John K.; Kahler, Charlene M.

    2013-01-01

    We compared exemplar strains from two hypervirulent clonal complexes, strain NMB-CDC from ST-8/11 cc and strain MC58 from ST-32/269 cc, in host cell attachment and invasion. Strain NMB-CDC attached to and invaded host cells at a significantly greater frequency than strain MC58. Type IV pili retained the primary role for initial attachment to host cells for both isolates regardless of pilin class and glycosylation pattern. In strain MC58, the serogroup B capsule was the major inhibitory determ...

  9. Grief and growth of bereaved siblings as related to attachment style and flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Orit; Katz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between attachment style, coping flexibility, military/non-military cause of death, levels of grief reactions and posttraumatic growth (PTG), in 150 bereaved adult siblings in Israel. Insecurely attached participants, 72% of the sample, reported more grief and less PTG than did securely attached ones. Highly avoidant individuals exhibited the least amount of PTG. Securely attached siblings were more flexible and flexibly coping participants reported less grief and higher PTG. Cause of death was not related to grief and PTG. Discussion of these findings yields conditions enabling PTG after a sibling loss.

  10. More than maternal sensitivity shapes attachment: infant coping and temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Marina; Santos, Pedro Lopes Dos; Beeghly, Marjorie; Tronick, Edward

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate the effect of a set of factors from multiple levels of influence: infant temperament, infant regulatory behavior, and maternal sensitivity on infant's attachment. Our sample consisted of 48 infants born prematurely and their mothers. At 1 and 3 months of age, mothers described their infants' behavior using the Escala de Temperamento do Bebé. At 3 months of age, infants' capacity to regulate stress was evaluated during Tronick's Face-to-Face Still-Face (FFSF) paradigm. At 9 months of age, mothers' sensitivity was evaluated during free play using the CARE-Index. At 12 months of age, infants' attachment security was assessed during Ainsworth's Strange Situation. A total of 16 infants were classified as securely attached, 17 as insecure-avoidant, and 15 as insecure-resistant. Mothers of securely attached infants were more likely than mothers of insecure infants to describe their infants as less difficult and to be more sensitive to their infants in free play. In turn, secure infants exhibited more positive responses during the Still-Face. Infants classified as insecure-avoidant were more likely to self-comfort during the Still-Face and had mothers who were more controlling during free play. Insecure-resistant exhibited higher levels of negative arousal during the Still-Face and had mothers who were more unresponsive in free play. These findings show that attachment quality is influenced by multiple factors, including infant temperament, coping behavior, and maternal sensitivity.

  11. Does maternal prenatal attachment predict postnatal mother-infant interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, A; Hägglöf, B

    2000-07-01

    The current study examined whether maternal prenatal attachment is associated with the mother-infant relationship. One hundred pregnant women and their infants at 12 weeks participated in the study. The sample was part of the Umeâ Child and Family Development project and was randomly recruited by midwives or health visitors. The expectant women completed a self-administered questionnaire, the PAI (the Prenatal Attachment Inventory) measuring prenatal attachment towards their unborn baby. At about 12 weeks postpartum, mothers and their infants were observed and videotaped during an en face interaction. The results revealed that maternal prenatal attachment towards the unborn baby is a good predictor of the early mother-infant relationship. Mothers who were high on the PAI-factor fantasy, for example, in general showed more involvement while interacting with their babies. Mothers rated highly on PAI-factors such as interaction and affection stimulated their infants by using more proximal stimulation, while those rated highly on differentiation of self with the unborn baby used more distal stimulation. Maternal responsive behaviour was only predicted by infant attentive behaviour. This study demonstrated that maternal prenatal attachment during the third trimester of pregnancy is associated with the postnatal maternal involvement, and can serve as an important diagnostic aid in identifying those women for whom the mother-child interaction is likely to be sub-optimal.

  12. Attachment styles and self-concept: basis for positive adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria S. Martínez Festorazzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The nature and characteristics of the primary bonds and attachment styles wwhich are established with parental figures and / or their surrogates in the first years of life, without doubt are one of the basis and models for later relationships. Intense changes will be produce particularly during adolescence in the parental bonds and the scenario, which defines and reinforces personal autonomy to be extended. In this way, self-concept is probably one of the most researched constructs in psychological tradition if we compare it with other psychological and contextual variables. Nevertheless, a few studies explore especially the relationship between attachment and self-concept in adolescents. The aim of this empirical study was to analyze the relationship between attachment styles and self-concept dimensions in adolescents, from a salutogenic approach in order to identify if certain attachment characteristics are associated with more positive aspects of self-concept. A sample of 583 adolescents aged 15- 18 years from public and private schools in Mar del Plata completed the AF5 and IPPA scales. Significant positive relationships were confirmed between secure attachment style and self- concept dimensions. These results provide empirical support to advance in the research about which characteristics are specifically related to positive and healthy development in adolescents. 

  13. Difference in place attachment between students in Helsinki and in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radusinović Dubravka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Place attachment refers to the process of human-place bonding; the bonding process includes both physical and social ties formed within an environment. In the last two decades, place attachment has been the subject of many studies, but there have not been many cross-cultural studies. The aim of this study was to determine differences in global attachment to house, neighbourhood and city among young people in Belgrade and Helsinki, with consideration of social and physical dimensions of place attachment. Additionally, the effects of gender on all types of place attachments were tested. Data were collected using the Place Attachment Scale (Hidalgo & Hernandez, 2001 and the Questionnaire on residential and socio-demographic characteristics of the sample. The instrument was translated into Serbian and Finnish, respecting the translation procedure for cross-cultural studies (Brislin, 1986 and administered to subjects in their native language. The study was conducted on the sample of two hundred students of psychology, comprising: 100 inhabitants of Belgrade, and 100 of Helsinki, balanced by gender (60% female, 40% male and age (average 24.4 years. The following results can be pointed out: 1 young people living in Belgrade show greater degree of global attachment to their city than young people living in Helsinki to their city, 2 young people from Belgrade also show greater social ties within their city and house, in relation to peers from Helsinki, 3 physical attachment to house and city is also significantly higher in young inhabitants of Belgrade. An interesting finding is 4 the existence of significant differences between men and women in the degree of global, social and physical attachment to house and physical attachment to city in the Serbian sample, and non-existence of differences in place attachment between men and women in the Finnish sample. The findings are interpreted within the Hofstede's five Cultural Dimensions.

  14. The relationship between women's attachment style and perinatal mood disturbance: implications for screening and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Catherine; Leight, Kristin L; Fang, Yixin

    2008-06-01

    To investigate women's attachment style in relation to risk for pregnancy-specific distress and perinatal depression. During the 2nd trimester, 186 women were evaluated for Axis I psychiatric disorders. In the 3rd trimester they self-reported: attachment style, pregnancy experience, current life stress, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. At 4 months post partum, a sub-sample of them (n = 56) repeated the self-report questionnaires. Wariness of attachments (high on fear dimension) was associated with greater 'hassles' compared to 'uplifts' in the assessment of pregnancy (r = 0.31, p attachment security was negatively related to this ratio (r = -0.31, p attachment fear (t = (150) -2.32, p attachment style on prenatal depressive symptoms (beta = 1.7, p attachment styles for postpartum depression (beta = -2.88, p attachment security uniquely contributed to the risk for postpartum depression, beyond depression during pregnancy (R2 change from 0.25 to 0.35). An approach to perinatal psychiatric disorders that includes psychological factors such as attachment could improve screening, and provide pregnant women with specifically-tailored psychosocial interventions focused on modifying attachment schemas.

  15. Prenatal depression predicts postpartum maternal attachment in low-income Latina mothers with infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Deborah F; Ettinger, Anna K; Mendelson, Tamar; Le, Huynh-Nhu

    2011-04-01

    Although maternal attachment is an important predictor of infant attachment security and other developmental outcomes, little is known about the formation of maternal attachment in the first few months of the infant's life, particularly among ethnic minority mothers. The current study examined the predictors of postpartum maternal attachment in a sample of 217 Latina women enrolled in a perinatal depression prevention trial. Mothers' attachment to their infants was measured at 6-8 weeks postpartum using the Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale. A variety of predictors of early attachment were explored including: depressive symptoms during pregnancy, pregnancy intention, feelings about the pregnancy, and the quality of the partner relationship. The strongest predictor of lower maternal attachment was depressive symptoms late in pregnancy; pregnancy intention was marginally predictive of attachment, with lower scores being associated with unwanted pregnancies. The study fills a critical gap in our understanding of the role of depressive symptoms during pregnancy in shaping mothers' early attachment to their infants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Attachment and parenting in adult patients with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, Angelo; Caroppo, Emanuele; Fabi, Elisa; Proietti, Serena; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Meldolesi, Giulio Nicolò; Martinotti, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The literature suggests that dysfunctional parenting and insecure attachment may increase risk of anxiety-related psychopathology. This study aimed at testing the association between anxiety disorders, attachment insecurity and dysfunctional parenting while controlling for factors usually not controlled for in previous studies, such as gender, age, and being ill. A sample of 32 non-psychotic inpatients with SCID-I diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, either alone or in comorbidity, was compared with two age- and sex-matched control groups consisting of 32 non-clinical participants and 32 in-patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Study measures included the Experience in Close Relationships questionnaire (ECR) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). The patients with anxiety disorders scored significantly higher on attachment-related anxiety and avoidance than patients with drug-resistant epilepsy and non-clinical participants. These findings were independent of comorbidity for mood disorders. ECR scores did not differ among diagnostic subgroups (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, other anxiety disorders). Patients with anxiety disorders scored significantly lower on PBI mother's care and borderline significantly lower on PBI father's care than patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Although limitations such as the relatively small sample size and the cross-sectional nature suggest caution in interpreting these findings, they are consistent with the few previous adult studies performed on this topic and corroborate Bowlby's seminal hypothesis of a link between negative attachment-related experiences, attachment insecurity, and clinical anxiety. Attachment theory provides a useful theoretical framework for integrating research findings from several fields concerning the development of anxiety disorders and for planning therapeutic interventions.

  17. Effect of hot water spray on broiler carcasses for reduction of loosely attached, intermediately attached, and tightly attached pathogenic (Salmonella and Campylobacter) and mesophilic aerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Singh, P; Lee, H C; Kang, I

    2013-03-01

    Chickens are known to harbor many bacteria, including pathogenic microorganisms such as Salmonella and Campylobacter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of hot water spray (HWS, 71°C for 1 min) in reducing bacterial contamination of prechilled broiler carcasses. For each of 4 replications, skin samples from 5 broilers were collected at 3 processing stages: after bleeding (feathers removed manually), after evisceration (with/without HWS), and after water chilling. Broiler skin was quantitatively assessed for loosely attached (by rinsing the skin), intermediately attached (by stomaching the rinsed skin), and tightly attached (by grinding the rinsed/stomached skin) mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB) and Campylobacter as well as for the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter. Broiler skins possessed 6.4 to 6.6 log cfu/g, 3.8 to 4.1 log cfu/g, and 2.8 to 3.5 log cfu/g of MAB populations after bleeding, evisceration, and chilling, respectively. The HWS resulted in more than 1 log unit of reduction in MAB immediately after evisceration and immediately after chilling regardless of microbial sampling method. Compared with MAB, the contamination of Campylobacter was low (1.7 to 2.6 log cfu/g) after bleeding, but the level was not reduced throughout the processing steps regardless of HWS. The application of HWS reduced the prevalence of Salmonella after chilling, but not for Campylobacter except for loosely attached cells. After hot water exposure, a partially cooked appearance was seen on both broiler skin and skinless breast surface. More research is required to effectively eliminate pathogenic organisms during processing and suppress any recovery of bacteria regardless of attachment type after chilling.

  18. Effects of Emotion Regulation Training on Attachment Style of Primiparous Pregnant Women with Insecure Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Tayebeh Reyhani; Aliye Shojafar; Morteza Modares Gharavi; Saeed Vaghee; Toktam Kazemeini; Shadi Shayan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pregnant women with insecure attachment style are at high risk of psychiatric disorders. Since emotions are the first coordinators of attachment behavior, emotion regulation training can alter maternal attachment style. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of emotion regulation training on the attachment styles of primiparous pregnant women with insecure attachment style. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of training programs on the headache of patients afte...

  19. Structural relationships among attachment insecurity, alexithymia, and body esteem in women with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Leah; Tasca, Giorgio A; Hill, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Patients with eating disorders tend to experience low levels of body esteem. To assess the psychosocial processes that may predict low body esteem in these individuals, we assessed the structural interrelations among attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, alexithymia, and body esteem in a cross-sectional sample of patients with eating disorders. We tested a model in which alexithymia mediates the relationship between attachment insecurity and body esteem. Participants were 300 women with anorexia nervosa (n = 109), bulimia nervosa (n = 130), and eating disorders not otherwise specified (n = 61) who completed pretreatment self-report questionnaires at intake for a day hospital treatment program. We found a direct and negative relationship between attachment anxiety and body esteem. Additionally, attachment avoidance had an indirect negative relationship to body esteem through alexithymia. These results indicate that therapists may attend to attachment insecurity and affective regulation strategies when addressing body image issues in patients with eating disorders. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The relationships between adult attachment, theoretical orientation, and therapist-reported alliance quality among licensed psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Sari; Shorey, Hal S

    2016-01-01

    Attachment anxiety has been depicted as an undesirable therapist characteristic based on findings that preoccupied therapists, relative to those with other attachment styles, report more ruptures in the therapeutic alliance. What has not been considered, however, is the extent to which attachment dynamics are related to theoretical orientations and how attachment styles and theoretical orientations combine to predict therapists' perceptions of the quality of their alliances. The present surveyed 290 licensed psychologists nationally. Results revealed that even within a sample of primarily secure psychologists, higher 15 levels of attachment anxiety correlated positively with the endorsement of psychodynamic orientations, and negatively with the endorsement of cognitive-behavioral orientations and self-reported alliance quality. Endorsement of cognitive-behavioral orientations, in turn, correlated positively with therapist-reported alliance quality. The results are discussed in terms of the extent to which attachment dimensions should be considered in therapists' understandings of their therapeutic alliances.

  1. Attachment style and its relationship to working alliance in the supervision of British clinical psychology trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Joanne M; Moberly, Nicholas J; Marshall, Yehuda; Reilly, James

    2011-01-01

    Although the supervisory relationship is thought to be critical in training clinical psychologists, little is known about factors affecting the supervisory alliance. We conducted an Internet survey of British clinical doctoral trainees (N = 259) in which participants rated their supervisory working alliance, parental style during childhood, pathological adult attachment behaviours and attachment style for themselves and their supervisors. Trainees' ratings of the working alliance were associated with perceptions of supervisors' attachment style, but not with perceptions of trainees' own attachment styles. Path analysis supported a causal chain linking parental indifference, compulsive self-reliance, insecure supervisor attachment style and lower ratings of the working alliance. Our results broadly replicate data from a US sample and suggest that attachment theory is helpful in understanding clinical supervisory processes. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Comparison of Attachment to Parents, Peers and Siblings in the Involved and Noninvolved Adolescents in Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    حلیمه بیابانی علی آباد

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare attachment to parents, peers and siblings among involved (bulling, victim, and bulling-victim and noninvolved in bullying in Yazd city. All of male and female students in the academic year 2013-2014 in Yazd included research population. A sample of 384 students were selected randomly through cluster sampling. Participants answered a sociometric questionnaire and also completed the Peer Relationship Questionnaire, the Inventory of Parents and Peer Attachment, and the Inventory of Siblings Attachment. Multivariate analysis (MANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in attachment to parents, peers and siblings between involved adolescents in bulling and noninvolved ones (p>0/0001. Regarding the attachment to parents, peers and siblings, noninvolved group scored higher than the involved groups. Also, among involved groups, the bully and the victim- bully groups received higher scores in attachment to mother prior to the peer attachment. Finally, the attachment to siblings in both groups was the lowest scores of attachment.

  3. Intergenerational transmission of attachment in abused and neglected mothers: the role of trauma-specific reflective functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Nicolas; Ensink, Karin; Bernazzani, Odette; Normandin, Lina; Luyten, Patrick; Fonagy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    There are still important gaps in our knowledge regarding the intergenerational transmission of attachment from mother to child, especially in mothers with childhood histories of abuse and neglect (CA&N). This study examined the contributions of reflective function concerning general attachment relationships, and specifically concerning trauma, as well as those of maternal attachment states of mind to the prediction of infant attachment disorganization in a sample of mothers with CA&N and their infants, using a 20-month follow-up design. Attachment and reflective functioning were assessed during pregnancy with the Adult Attachment Interview. Infant attachment was evaluated with the Strange Situation Procedure. The majority (83%) of infants of abused and neglected mothers were classified as insecure, and a significant proportion (44%) manifested attachment disorganization. There was a strong concordance between mother and child attachment, indicative of intergenerational transmission of attachment in parents with CA&N and their infants. Both unresolved trauma and trauma-specific reflective function made significant contributions to explaining variance in infant attachment disorganization. The findings of this study highlight the importance of trauma-specific mentalization in the intergenerational transmission of attachment by mothers with a history of childhood maltreatment, and provide new evidence of the importance of the absence of mentalization regarding trauma for infant attachment. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  4. 11. IV avati Draakoni galeriis...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Tanel Saare (sünd. 1979) näitus "Gott und huhn episode IV: seed shower". Eksponeeritakse väljavõtteid aktsioonidest aastatel 2000-2004 Turus, Nürnbergis, Berliinis, Lohusalus ja Soulis. Osa aktsioone toimus koos rühmitusega Non Grata

  5. Stochasticity of bacterial attachment and its predictability by the extended derjaguin-landau-verwey-overbeek theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Teck Wah R; Nguyen, Vu Tuan; McMeekin, Thomas; Fegan, Narelle; Dykes, Gary A

    2011-06-01

    Bacterial attachment onto materials has been suggested to be stochastic by some authors but nonstochastic and based on surface properties by others. We investigated this by attaching pairwise combinations of two Salmonella enterica serovar Sofia (S. Sofia) strains (with different physicochemical and attachment properties) with one strain each of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, S. enterica serovar Infantis, or S. enterica serovar Virchow (all with similar physicochemical and attachment abilities) in ratios of 0.428, 1, and 2.333 onto glass, stainless steel, Teflon, and polysulfone. Attached bacterial cells were recovered and counted. If the ratio of attached cells of each Salmonella serovar pair recovered was the same as the initial inoculum ratio, the attachment process was deemed stochastic. Experimental outcomes from the study were compared to those predicted by the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) theory. Significant differences (P attached ratios for serovar pairs containing S. Sofia S1296a for all different ratios were apparent for all materials. For S. Sofia S1635-containing pairs, 7 out of 12 combinations of serovar pairs and materials had attachment ratios not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the initial ratio of 0.428. Five out of 12 and 10 out of 12 samples had attachment ratios not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the initial ratios of 1 and 2.333, respectively. These results demonstrate that bacterial attachment to different materials is likely to be nonstochastic only when the key physicochemical properties of the bacteria were significantly different (P theory could successfully predict the attachment of some individual isolates to particular materials but could not be used to predict the likelihood of stochasticity in pairwise attachment experiments.

  6. Attachment and problem behavior of adolescents during residential treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, M.A.M.; Schuengel, C.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Attachment theory suggests that representations of previous attachment experiences may explain differences in psychosocial functioning. However, the nature of the association in clinical populations is unclear. Attachment representations were classified on the basis of Adult Attachment Interviews

  7. Networked Attached Devices at SNS

    CERN Document Server

    Blokland, W

    2003-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) diagnostic instruments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are based on the Network Attached Device (NAD) concept. Each pickup or sensor has its own resources such as timing, data acquisition and processing. NADs are individually connected to the network, thus reducing the brittleness inherent in tightly coupled systems. This architecture allows an individual device to fail or to be serviced or removed without disrupting other devices. This paper describes our implementation of the nearly 400 NADs to be deployed. The hardware consists of rack-mounted PCs with standard motherboards and PCI data-acquisition boards. The software environment is based on LabVIEW and EPICS. LabVIEW supports the agile development demanded by modern diagnostic systems. EPICS is the control system standard for the entire SNS facility. To achieve high performance, LabVIEW and EPICS communicate through shared memory. SNS diagnostics are developed by a multi-laboratory partnership including ORNL, BNL, LAN...

  8. History of perinatal loss and maternal-fetal attachment behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, Pegah; Simbar, Masumeh; Shams, Jamal; Ramezani-Tehrani, Fahimeh; Nasiri, Navideh

    2013-09-01

    Maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) is an important requirement for optimal maternal-infant adaptation. Current studies showed conflicting findings about whether a history of perinatal loss (fetal/neonatal death) affects maternal attachment in pregnancy. "Does a history of perinatal loss affect maternal-fetal attachment behaviors?" One hundred women with and without a history of PL were recruited using a convenience method of sampling, from prenatal care services affiliated to Shahid Behesti University of Medical Sciences. Data collected by questionnaires from a convenience sample of multiparous women in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy with no surviving children were compared with data from a selected cohort of primigravid women. The two groups of women were matched for health and literacy. The data collected included demographic characteristics and responses to 24 questions in five groups of behaviors on the Persian version of Cranly's Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale. Data were analyzed by SPSS 13 and using t, ANOVA, Chi square, Pearson correlation and Mann-Whitney tests. Finding showed that total score of MFA for women with a history of PL (68.95±9.20%) is not significantly different from this score for women without such a history (71.22±11.75%; pattachment behaviors related to "differentiation of self from fetus" in a subsequent pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa wild type, flagella and type IV pili mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, M.; Heydorn, Arne; Ragas, Paula Cornelia

    2003-01-01

    Biofilm formation by Gfp-tagged Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 wild type, flagella and type IV pili mutants in flow chambers irrigated with citrate minimal medium was characterized by the use of confocal laser scanning microscopy and comstat image analysis. Flagella and type IV pili were not necessary...... for P. aeruginosa initial attachment or biofilm formation, but the cell appendages had roles in biofilm development, as wild type, flagella and type IV pili mutants formed biofilms with different structures. Dynamics and selection during biofilm formation were investigated by tagging the wild type...... and flagella/type IV mutants with Yfp and Cfp and performing time-lapse confocal laser scanning microscopy in mixed colour biofilms. The initial microcolony formation occurred by clonal growth, after which wild-type P. aeruginosa bacteria spread over the substratum by means of twitching motility. The wild-type...

  10. Ti(IV) carrying polydopamine-coated, monodisperse-porous SiO2 microspheres with stable magnetic properties for highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Kouroush; Usta, Duygu Deniz; Çelikbıçak, Ömür; Pinar, Asli; Salih, Bekir; Tuncel, Ali

    2017-05-01

    A marked decrease in the saturation magnetization by the formation of functional shells around the magnetic core is an important disadvantage of magnetic core-shell nanoparticles. Another drawback of Ti(IV)-functionalized immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) sorbents is the acidic character of the binding medium used for Ti4+ attachment onto composite magnetic nanoparticles, which causes an additional decrease in the saturation magnetization owing to the chemical interaction between the acidic moiety and the magnetic core. An IMAC sorbent in the form of magnetic microspheres with superior and stable magnetic properties with respect to magnetic core-shell nanoparticles was designed for phosphopeptide enrichment. Magnetic, monodisperse-porous silica microspheres (MagSiO2) 6μm in size were synthesized by a new staged-shape template hydrolysis-condensation protocol. A porous-silica shell layer was generated around the microspheres to protect the magnetic core from the acidic medium during Ti4+ attachment (MagSiO2@SiO2). The MagSiO2@SiO2 microspheres were coated with a polydopamine shell (MagSiO2@SiO2@PDA) and Ti4+ was attached onto the composite microspheres (MagSiO2@SiO2@PDA@Ti(IV)). Formation of the PDA layer and Ti4+ attachment did not cause any significant decrease in the saturation magnetization. The platform exhibited excellent performance for phosphopeptide enrichment from the digests of phosphorylated proteins. Selectivity was investigated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The detection limit for phosphopeptide enrichment by the MagSiO2@SiO2@PDA@Ti(IV) microspheres from the tryptic digests of β-casein was 50 fmol/mL. Usability of the proposed magnetic sorbent with complex biological samples was demonstrated by successful enrichment of four phosphopeptides from human serum. The proposed sorbent showed stable performance over five repeated uses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Association Between Insecure Attachment and ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebo, Ole Jakob; Darling Rasmussen, Pernille; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Psychological theories have postulated an association between insecure attachment and ADHD. The objective of this study is to investigate possible association between insecure attachment and ADHD in children and adults. Method: Review of literature was performed using the Psyc......INFO, Medline, and EMBASE databases. Results: Twenty-nine studies were included in the review. Overall, the studies showed that parental attachment problems and environmental mediating factors were significantly associated with childhood ADHD. Adults with ADHD had a much higher incidence of insecure attachment...... styles than reported in the general population. Conclusion: There seems to be a clear association between ADHD and insecure attachment. It is likely that early intervention in the form of parent training and pharmacological treatment may prevent development of attachment problems. But such studies have...

  12. Place attachment and natural environmental risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonaiuto, Marino; Alves, Susana; De Dominicis, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about place attachment affecting natural environmental risk perception and coping. A systematic search of social science databases revealed 31 works (1996–2016) directly addressing place attachment in relation to different types of natural hazard risks (e.g., seismic, volcanic, etc.......). Across different contexts, the research shows: (a) positive and/or negative relationships between place attachment and natural environmental risk perception; (b) positive and/or negative relationships between place attachment and risk coping; and (c) mediating and moderating relationships. In particular......, results show that: (a) highly attached individuals perceive natural environmental risks but underestimate their potential effects; (b) highly attached individuals are unwilling to relocate when facing natural environmental risks and more likely to return to risky areas after a natural environmental...

  13. Association Between Insecure Attachment and ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebo, Ole Jakob; Darling Rasmussen, Pernille; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    styles than reported in the general population. Conclusion: There seems to be a clear association between ADHD and insecure attachment. It is likely that early intervention in the form of parent training and pharmacological treatment may prevent development of attachment problems. But such studies have......Objective: Psychological theories have postulated an association between insecure attachment and ADHD. The objective of this study is to investigate possible association between insecure attachment and ADHD in children and adults. Method: Review of literature was performed using the Psyc......INFO, Medline, and EMBASE databases. Results: Twenty-nine studies were included in the review. Overall, the studies showed that parental attachment problems and environmental mediating factors were significantly associated with childhood ADHD. Adults with ADHD had a much higher incidence of insecure attachment...

  14. The effects of attachment components on formal-operational thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukčević Branimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work our aim is to examine how the components of attachment influence the thinking development of adolescents in familial context. We investigated the components of attachment: unresolved family traumatisation, the use of external security base, fear of loss of external security base, negative self concept, negative other concept, capacity for mentalisation, low control of anger. We used a revised Questionnaire for Assessment of Adult and Adolescent Attachment (in original: UPIPAV-R. Formal operations were tested by Bond's Logical Operations Test. We examined the cultural-pedagogical status of the family, the parental mediation characteristic for the development of formal operations, and family property as the aspects of familial context. The sample consisted of 200 pupils aged 14 to 19. According to the attachment theory, secure attachment provides the feel of security in environment exploration, which is the ground of personality development. We assumed that components of attachment contribute formal-operational thinking development and change the influence of familial cultural-supportive tools. The findings show us that the culturalpedagogical status of the family improves formal operations development and unresolved family traumatisation has negative influence. Capacity for mentalisation has a positive indirect effect on thinking development through the influence of the cultural-pedagogical status of the family. The low control of anger has a negative indirect effect on thinking development; it increases the influence of unresolved family traumatisation. Negative self concept has indirect effects on thinking development through increasing this negative influence of unresolved family traumatisation and decreasing the role of familial cultural-supportive tools.

  15. Psychological variables and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Carlton S; Gutierrez, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The MMPI-2 and WAIS-IV are commonly used together in neuropsychological evaluations yet little is known about their interrelationships. This study explored the potential influence of psychological factors on WAIS-IV performance in a sample of 180 predominantly male veteran referrals that underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination in a VA Medical Center. Exclusionary criteria included failed performance validity testing and self-report distortion on the MMPI-2. A Principal Components Analysis was performed on the 15 MMPI-2 content scales, yielding three broader higher-order psychological dimensions: Internalized Emotional Dysfunction (IED), Externalized Emotional Dysfunction (EED), and Fear. Level of IED was not related to performance on the WAIS-IV Full Scale IQ or its four indexes: (Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed). EED was not related to WAIS-IV performance. Level of Fear, which encompasses health preoccupations (HEA) and distorted perceptions (BIZ), was significantly related to WAIS-IV Full Scale IQ and Verbal Comprehension. These results challenge the common use of high scores on the MMPI-2 IED measures (chiefly depression and anxiety) to explain deficient WAIS-IV performance. In addition, they provide impetus for further investigation of the relation between verbal intelligence and Fear.

  16. An Investigation into the Effects of Sprue Attachment Design on Porosity and Castability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    precious". Compared to Type IV gold alloys in removable partial dentures , base metal alloys (both cobalt-based and nickel-based) feature lower cost... removable partial dentures for nearly sixty years. The significant increase in the cost of gold and other noble metals during the 1970’s lead to an increase...the appropriate sprue attachment design which is to be utilized in crown and fixed partial denture castings. Conflicting results and conclusions

  17. Attachment style and interpersonal trauma in refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Naser; Schnyder, Ulrich; Schick, Matthis; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A

    2016-12-01

    Refugees can suffer many experiences that threaten their trust in others. Although models of refugee mental health have postulated that attachment securities may be damaged by refugee experiences, this has yet to be empirically tested. This study aimed to understand the relationship between the nature of traumatic experiences sustained by refugees and attachment styles. In a cross-sectional study, treatment-seeking refugees (N = 134) were assessed for traumatic exposure using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Attachment style was assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale. Whereas gender and severity of interpersonal traumatic events predicted avoidant attachment style (accounting for 11% of the variance), neither these factors nor non-interpersonal trauma predicted anxious attachment. Exposure to interpersonal traumatic events, including torture, is associated with enduring avoidant attachment tendencies in refugees. This finding accords with attachment theories that prior adverse interpersonal experiences can undermine secure attachment systems, and may promote avoidance of attachment seeking. This finding may point to an important process maintaining poor psychological health in refugees affected by interpersonal trauma. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  18. Attachment theory: Old and new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to present holistically the key concepts of attachment theory rediscovered for its potentials. The presented concepts include: narrow definition of attachment, behavioral control system of attachment, attachment working model and patterns of attachment. The concepts are presented in the context of child attachment theory and adult attachment theory, in addition to description of the development of attachment. Concepts, as well as developmental processes are presented from the stand point of pioneers in this field (John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth as well as from the standpoint of their successors (Everett Waters and Malcolm West. Compacted ness of the theory, possibilities for operationalization of its key concepts and its application to empirical studies of complex psychological issues that have never been scientifically explored, makes it a very prospective theory in view of possible integration of existing research findings and initiating new research and new practices in psychotherapy, social work and work in schools. The goal of this integral presentation of attachment theory is to highlight its benefits and possibilities for understanding and research complex field of human's psychosocial functioning.

  19. Overdenture locator attachments for atrophic mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Mahajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Implant-supported overdentures provide a good opportunity for dentists to improve oral health and quality-of-life of patients. Atrophic mandible poses a significant challenge to successful oral rehabilitation with dental implants. In this article, the fabrication of lower overdenture by two narrow platform implants is described with dual retentive, resilient, self-locating locator attachment system. The locator attachment system has the lowest profile in comparison with the ball and bar attachments and is versatile up to 40΀ of divergence between two implants. By using locators as attachments, we can meet functional, economic and social expectation of patients with ease and satisfaction.

  20. Alle har en historie, IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydegaard, Torbjørn

    Alle har en historie IV: Pædagogik med Freedom Writers lader et væld af pædagogiske facetter udspringe af den kendte skole-film Freedom Writers’ scener og handlinger. Der er både fokus på en almen tilgang til pædagogik og på Freedom Writer-metodikken, dels gennem de filmscener, der sættes til...

  1. Dibutylammonium bis(hydrogen methylphosphonato-κOtriphenylstannate(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tidiane Diop

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title organotin salt, (C8H20N[Sn(C6H53(CH4O3P2], contains two dibutylammonium cations and two stannate(IV anions consisting each of two monodentately bonding methyl hydrogenphosphate groups attached to an Sn(C6H5 unit. The overall coordination environment of the two SnIV atoms is trigonal–bipyramidal defined by three phenyl C atoms in equatorial positions and two methyl hydrogenphosphate O atoms at the apical sites. In the crystal, the stannate(IV anions are linked to each other via pairs of short O—H...O hydrogen bonds, leading to an infinite chain extending parallel to the b-axis direction. Neighbouring chains are linked by N—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the butylammonium cations, giving a two-dimensional structure parallel to the ab plane. The crystal under investigation was found to be twinned by reticular merohedry with twin fractions of 0.5342 (7:0.4658 (7.

  2. Ethnic group moderates the association between attachment and well-being in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Eva-Maria; Consedine, Nathan S

    2012-10-01

    Attachment styles are associated with well-being across the life span. Particularly in later life, when individuals face declining health and increasing dependency, patterns of attachment may relate to affective outcomes. However, few studies have empirically examined the attachment-well-being link at the end of the life span or considered whether ethnic group membership may moderate attachment-well-being links. Data from a sample of older adults (N = 1,116) were used to investigate how secure, dismissive, and fearful/avoidant styles predicted well-being in 4 ethnic groups; African Americans, European Americans, Eastern European immigrants, and English-speaking Caribbean immigrants. As expected, both secure and dismissive attachment dimensions were related to greater well-being, whereas fearful/avoidant attachment was associated with less. This positive impact of a secure attachment style of relating to others on well-being was stronger among African Americans and English-speaking Caribbeans compared with the European American and Eastern European immigrant groups. The negative impact of a fearful/avoidant attachment style of relating on well-being was buffered by being an English-speaking Caribbean but not for the other 3 groups. Results are interpreted in light of general and culture-specific premises of attachment. The article concludes with some implications and suggestions for future work.

  3. The role of both parents’ attachment pattern in understanding childhood obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Laghezza, Loredana; Radi, Giulia; Battistini, Dalila; De Feo, Pierpaolo

    2014-01-01

    Within the research area on the determinants of childhood obesity, a relatively new approach is the use of attachment theory to explore the mechanisms underlying children’s obesity risk, especially considered as emotion regulation strategies in parent–child relationship. Few are the empirical researches that have addressed this issue. The empirical investigations have used self-report measures to assess adult attachment. In attachment studies, the use of interview methods and/or performance-based instruments is advised to evaluate the entire range of possible adult attachment patterns and comprehensively explain the emotional strategies, correlates, and consequences of individual differences in attachment system functioning. The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which both parents’ attachment patterns serve as self-regulative mechanisms related to childhood overweight/obesity by the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) in a sample of 44 mothers and fathers of children referred for obesity. Insecure attachment was found as a risk factor both for mothers and fathers. Also unresolved/disorganization was found to play a significant role in childhood obesity. The role of father’s attachment was explored and findings suggested considering it in etiology and treatment of childhood obesity. PMID:25120507

  4. The mediating role of mentalizing capacity between parents and peer attachment and adolescent borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Emma; Sharp, Carla; Poulsen, Stig; Bo, Sune; Pedersen, Jesper; Simonsen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Insecure attachment is a precursor and correlate of borderline personality disorder. According to the mentalization-based theory of borderline personality disorder, the presence of insecure attachment derails the development of the capacity to mentalize, potentially resulting in borderline pathology. While one prior study found support for this notion in adolescents, it neglected a focus on peer attachment. Separation from primary caregivers and formation of stronger bonds to peers are key developmental achievements during adolescence and peer attachment warrants attention as a separate concept. In a cross-sectional study, female outpatients (M age 15.78=, SD = 1.04) who fulfilled DSM-5 criteria for BPD ( N  = 106) or met at least 4 BPD criteria ( N  = 4) completed self-reports on attachment to parents and peers, mentalizing capacity (reflective function) and borderline personality features. Our findings suggest that in a simple mediational model, mentalizing capacity mediated the relation between attachment to peers and borderline features. In the case of attachment to parents, the mediational model was not significant. The current study is the first to evaluate this mediational model with parent and peer attachment as separate concepts and the first to do so in a sample of adolescents who meet full or sub-threshold criteria for borderline personality disorder. Findings incrementally support that mentalizing capacity and attachment insecurity, also in relation to peers, are important concepts in theoretical approaches to the development of borderline personality disorder in adolescence. Clinical implications are discussed.

  5. The role of both parents’ attachment pattern in understanding childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eMazzeschi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the research area on the determinants of childhood obesity, a relatively new approach is the use of attachment theory to explore the mechanisms underlying children’s obesity risk, especially considered as emotion regulation strategies in parent-child relationship. Few are the empirical researches that have addressed this issue. The empirical investigations have used self-report measures to assess adult attachment. In attachment studies, the use of interview methods and/or performance-based instruments is advised to evaluate the entire range of possible adult attachment patterns and comprehensively explain the emotional strategies, correlates and consequences of individual differences in attachment system functioning. The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which both parents’ attachment patterns serve as self-regulative mechanisms related to childhood overweight/obesity by the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP in a sample of 44 mothers and fathers of children referred for obesity. Insecure attachment was found as a risk factor both for mothers’ and fathers’. Also unresolved/disorganization was found to play a significant role in childhood obesity. The role of father’s attachment was explored and findings suggested considering it in etiology and treatment of childhood obesity.

  6. The role of both parents' attachment pattern in understanding childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Laghezza, Loredana; Radi, Giulia; Battistini, Dalila; De Feo, Pierpaolo

    2014-01-01

    Within the research area on the determinants of childhood obesity, a relatively new approach is the use of attachment theory to explore the mechanisms underlying children's obesity risk, especially considered as emotion regulation strategies in parent-child relationship. Few are the empirical researches that have addressed this issue. The empirical investigations have used self-report measures to assess adult attachment. In attachment studies, the use of interview methods and/or performance-based instruments is advised to evaluate the entire range of possible adult attachment patterns and comprehensively explain the emotional strategies, correlates, and consequences of individual differences in attachment system functioning. The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which both parents' attachment patterns serve as self-regulative mechanisms related to childhood overweight/obesity by the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) in a sample of 44 mothers and fathers of children referred for obesity. Insecure attachment was found as a risk factor both for mothers and fathers. Also unresolved/disorganization was found to play a significant role in childhood obesity. The role of father's attachment was explored and findings suggested considering it in etiology and treatment of childhood obesity.

  7. [The Relationship Between Attachment Representations of Foster Parents and Foster Children and the Role of the Child's Sex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Katja; Kliewer-Neumann, Josephine; Bovenschen, Ina; Lang, Katrin; Zimmermann, Janin; Spangler, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    Children who have been placed in foster care after having experienced difficult family situations need to experience secure relationships. The development of a secure attachment model is regarded as a key protective factor for a healthy development. The present study examines predictors of attachment representations in a sample of 37 foster children aged three to eight years. Children's attachment representations were assessed using the Attachment Story Completion Task, and foster parents' attachment representations with the Adult Attachment Interview. Female foster children scored higher in secure attachment representations than males. Attachment representations of male foster children were positively influenced by a secure attachment representation of their primary foster parent and slightly by the duration of placement in the foster family as well as their age of placement but differently than expected. These results suggest that male foster children may be more vulnerable in their development of attachment representations and that foster parents' state of mind regarding attachment as well as the duration of the placement seem to have an impact on the development of attachment patterns in their foster children. This should be considered in the choice and counseling of foster parents.

  8. The formation of secure new attachments by children who were maltreated: an observational study of adolescents in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Michelle A; O'Connor, Thomas G; Briskman, Jacqueline A; Maughan, Barbara; Scott, Stephen

    2014-02-01

    Children who were maltreated and enter foster care are at risk for maladjustment and relationship disturbances with foster carers. A popular hypothesis is that prior attachment relationships with abusive birth parents are internalized and carried forward to impair the child's subsequent attachment relationships. However, the empirical base for this model is limited, especially in adolescence. We examined the attachment patterns of 62 adolescents with their birth parents and their foster parents; we compared them to a comparison sample of 50 adolescents in normal-risk families. Attachment was assessed using the Child Attachment Interview; adolescent-parent interaction quality was assessed from direct observation; disruptive behavior symptoms were assessed from multiple informants. Whereas nearly all of the adolescents in foster families exhibited insecure attachments to their birth mothers (90%) and birth fathers (100%), nearly one-half were classified as having a secure attachment with their foster mother (46%) and father (49%); rates of secure attachment toward foster parents did not differ significantly from the rate in comparison families. Within the foster care sample, attachment security to the foster mother was predicted from current observed relationship quality and the duration of current placement. In addition, attachment quality in foster adolescents was associated with fewer disruptive behavior symptoms, and this association was equally strong in foster and comparison families. Our findings demonstrate that there is substantial potential for maltreated children to change and develop subsequent secure attachments in adolescence.

  9. The Role of Depression and Attachment Styles in Predicting Students? Addiction to Cell Phones

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasempour, Abdollah; Mahmoodi-Aghdam, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study aimed at investigating the role of depression and attachment styles in predicting cell phone addiction. Methods In this descriptive correlational study, a sample including 100 students of Payame Noor University (PNU), Reyneh Center, Iran, in the academic year of 2013-2014 was selected using volunteer sampling. Participants were asked to complete the adult attachment inventory (AAI), Beck depression inventory-13 (BDI-13) and the cell phone overuse scale (COS). Find...

  10. The Relationship between Parenting Styles and Adult Attachment Styles from Jordan University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad M. Mahasneh; Zohair H. Al-Zoubi; Omar T. Batayenh; Mohammad S. Jawarneh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parenting styles and adult attachment styles. A random sample of (564) male and female students at the faculty of educational sciences was chosen selected. Two questionnaires on attachment styles and parenting styles were administered to the selected sample population during the academic year of 2012-2013. Results indicated significant positive correlations between the authoritative, negligent and authoritarian parenting styles...

  11. Concurrent validity of the DSM-IV scales Affective Problems and Anxiety Problems of the Youth Self-Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lang, NDJ; Ferdinand, RF; Oldehinkel, AJ; Ormel, J; Verhulst, FC

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the concurrent validity of the DSM-IV scales Anxiety Problems and Affective Problems of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) in a community sample of Dutch young adolescents aged 10-12 years. We first examined the extent to which the YSR/DSM-IV scales reflect symptoms of DSM-IV

  12. Simplistic Attachment and Multispectral Imaging with Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara G. Becker-Catania

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Advances in spectral deconvolution technologies are rapidly enabling researchers to replace or enhance traditional epifluorescence microscopes with instruments capable of detecting numerous markers simultaneously in a multiplexed fashion. While significantly expediting sample throughput and elucidating sample information, this technology is limited by the spectral width of common fluorescence reporters. Semiconductor nanocrystals (NC’s are very bright, narrow band fluorescence emitters with great potential for multiplexed fluorescence detection, however the availability of NC’s with facile attachment chemistries to targeting molecules has been a severe limitation to the advancement of NC technology in applications such as immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Here we report the development of simple, yet novel attachment chemistries for antibodies onto NC’s and demonstrate how spectral deconvolution technology enables the multiplexed detection of 5 distinct NC-antibody conjugates with fluorescence emission wavelengths separated by as little as 20 nm.

  13. Measuring Patients’ Attachment Avoidance in Psychotherapy: Development of the Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale (AATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new scale measuring patient-therapist attachment avoidance was developed. Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale is a new measure based on the Bartholomew model of adult attachment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991 and the Experience in Close Relationships Scale (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 to measure patients’ attachment avoidance towards therapists. With 112 patient-therapist dyads participating in the study, validation of a preliminary scale – measuring both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance in therapy – took place using therapists’ evaluations of patients’ relational behavior and patients’ self-reports about their attitude toward psychotherapy. Analysis of the data revealed six underlying scales. Results showed all six scales to be reliable. Validation of scales measuring attachment anxiety failed. The importance of Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale and its subscales is discussed.

  14. Attachment theory and reactive attachment disorder: theoretical perspectives and treatment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Lyons T

    2007-02-01

    Attachment theory and reactive attachment disorder (RAD). To highlight current perspectives on attachment theory, RAD, and treatment implications using a case study of an 8-year-old patient with RAD. Selected multidisciplinary literature related to attachment theory and RAD. The literature provides a body of work that substantiates the importance of early attachment relationships to human development and highlights gaps in our knowledge related to treatment of children with RAD. The quality of early attachment relationships is correlated with future personality and brain development. Attachment disturbances are associated with psychopathology in childhood and adulthood. Although evidence for the effective treatment of children with attachment disorders is minimal and inconclusive, the two major perspectives, developmental psychology and neuropsychoanalysis, offer guidelines for practice.

  15. Attachment and the Child in School. Part I: Attachment Theory and the 'Dependent' Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Heather

    2003-01-01

    This article uses the framework of attachment theory to describe a behavior pattern, the anxious resistant/ambivalent attachment pattern. Examples from educational practice illustrate the condition. Possible intervention approaches are suggested. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

  16. Smartphone attachment for stethoscope recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    With the ubiquity of smartphones and the rising technology of 3D printing, novel devices can be developed that leverage the "computer in your pocket" and rapid prototyping technologies toward scientific, medical, engineering, and creative purposes. This paper describes such a device: a simple 3D-printed extension for Apple's iPhone that allows the sound from an off-the-shelf acoustic stethoscope to be recorded using the phone's built-in microphone. The attachment's digital 3D files can be easily shared, modified for similar phones and devices capable of recording audio, and in combination with 3D printing technology allow for fabrication of a durable device without need for an entire factory of expensive and specialized machining tools. It is hoped that by releasing this device as an open source set of printable files that can be downloaded and reproduced cheaply, others can make use of these developments where access to cost-prohibitive, specialized medical instruments are not available. Coupled with specialized smartphone software ("apps"), more sophisticated and automated diagnostics may also be possible on-site.

  17. Coexistence in preferential attachment networks

    CERN Document Server

    Antunović, Tonći; Racz, Miklos Z

    2013-01-01

    Competition in markets is ubiquitous: cell-phone providers, computer manufacturers, and sport gear brands all vie for customers. Though several coexisting competitors are often observed in empirical data, many current theoretical models of competition on small-world networks predict a single winner taking over the majority of the network. We introduce a new model of product adoption that focuses on word-of-mouth recommendations to provide an explanation for this coexistence of competitors. The key property of our model is that customer choices evolve simultaneously with the network of customers. When a new node joins the network, it chooses neighbors according to preferential attachment, and then chooses its type based on the number of initial neighbors of each type. This can model a new cell-phone user choosing a cell-phone provider, a new student choosing a laptop, or a new athletic team member choosing a gear provider. We provide a detailed analysis of the new model; in particular, we determine the possibl...

  18. Parent attachment, childrearing behaviour, and child attachment: Mediated effect that predict externalizing behaviour in preschoolers.

    OpenAIRE

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Stievenart, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory provides an interesting background for thinking about externalizing behavior (EB) in early childhood and for understanding how parenting influences the child's outcomes. The study examined how attachment and parenting could be combined to explain preschoolers' EB. Data were collected from 117 preschoolers aged from 4 to 6 clinically referred for EB and their parents from a middle-high income population. Child attachment was measured with the Attachment Q-set; parent's rememb...

  19. The influence of the number and the type of magnetic attachment on the retention of mandibular mini implant overdenture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunjee; Shin, Soo-Yeon

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the retention of mini implant overdenture by the number, the type of magnetic attachment, and the directions of applied dislodging force. The experimental groups were designed by the number and type of magnetic attachment. Twenty samples were tested with Magden implants. Each attachment was composed of the magnet assembly in overdenture sample and the abutment keeper in a mandibular model. Dislodging forces were applied to the overdenture samples (50.0 mm/min) in 3 directions. The loading was repeated 10 times in each direction. The values of dislodging force were analyzed statistically using SPSS at 95% level of confidence. The retentive force of group 2 was greater than that of group 1 in both types of attachment in every direction (P type magnetic attachment was higher than that of cushion type attachment in both groups (P types (P types of attachment showed the lowest retentive force with anteriorposterior direction of dislodging force (P type of magnetic attachment. In both types of magnetic attachment, the greater retentive force was attained with more implants. Oblique retentive force of flat type magnetic attachment was greater than that of cushion type. Among all subgroups, anterior-posterior retentive force was the lowest among three different directions of dislodging force.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS IV does not affect intelligence. The life expectancy of individuals with MPS IV ... GM1-gangliosidosis and Morquio B patients: possible common origin for the prevalent p.R59H mutation among gypsies. ...

  1. performance characteristics of a cam turning attachment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    ABSTRACT. A modification of a cylindrical turning unit has been done to give a non- cylindrical turning attachment for production of irregular shapes, like cams on the lathe machine. To assess the performance of the attachment, cutting forces have been measured using a 'Sigma' Cutting Tool. Dynamometer. Furthermore ...

  2. Attachment of Salmonella spp. to pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine; Riber, Leise; Löfström, Charlotta

    2011-01-01

    Five strains of Salmonella, one wildtype and four knock-out mutants (the prg, flhDC, yhjH and fliC genes) were investigated based on their probability to attach and subsequently detach from a surface of pork fillet. The attachment followed by detachment was measured and modelled for two different...

  3. Adolescent Self-Esteem, Attachment and Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhal, Anubha; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sharma, Vidhi; Gupta, Priyanka

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To assess self-esteem, loneliness and attachment styles among adolescents and examine their association with each other and with age and gender. Method: Adolescents (55 males and 55 females) from a public school in Delhi, aged 10-13 years were administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (School Form), Attachment Scale and UCLA…

  4. Parent-Child Attachment and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumariu, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Given the centrality of both parent-child attachment and emotion regulation in children's development and adjustment, it is important to evaluate the relations between these constructs. This article discusses conceptual and empirical links between attachment and emotion regulation in middle childhood, highlights progress and challenges in the…

  5. Attachment Representations and Time Perspective in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; D'Alessio, Maria; Pallini, Susanna; Baiocco, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between attachment to parents and peers, time perspective and psychological adjustment in adolescence. 2,665 adolescents (M age = 17.03 years, SD = 1.48) completed self-report measures about parent and peer attachment, time perspective, sympathy and self-determination. Subjects were divided into four groups…

  6. Attachment style, family and romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, P G; Salter, K; Purves, D G

    2001-06-01

    In 1987 Hazan and Shaver showed that patterns of romantic love reflected attachment styles. In an extension of that study with 39 men and 33 women in college (ages 18-36 years), this research shows that family relationships may also affect romantic relationships indirectly through their association with attachment styles.

  7. Attachment Theory and Neuroscience for Care Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Thomas J; Dziadosz, Gregory M

    2016-09-01

    This article describes a model for care managers that is based on attachment theory supplemented by knowledge from neuroscience. Together, attachment theory and basic knowledge from neuroscience provide for both an organizing conceptual framework and a scientific, measureable approach to assessment and planning interventions in a care plan.

  8. Attachment and Socioemotional Problems in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Ellen; Lecompte, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we will evaluate the evidence concerning links between attachment and behavior problems in the middle childhood period. We will first provide a general introduction to the question of attachment and maladaptation in the middle childhood period, and then examine the recent empirical evidence with respect to both externalizing and…

  9. An Attachment Model of University Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steffen; Gore, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Students with high levels of connectedness to the university have been found to be more likely to complete their college degree than are students with low levels of university connectedness. This study examined the role of parental and peer attachment as distal predictors of school connectedness. As predicted, it was found that attachment style to…

  10. An Attachment Perspective on Anger among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Chiaki; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Extending John Bowlby's hypothesis that dysfunctional anger is a predictable outcome of insecure attachments to parents, this study investigated the relationship between current parent-adolescent attachment and both the experience and expression of anger. Participants included 776 students (379 boys and 397 girls) in grades 8-12. As predicted by…

  11. Attachment Parenting: A Style That Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, William

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of attachment parenting, which emphasizes parental commitment, a low-stress pregnancy, childbirth preparation, breast-feeding with child-led weaning, prompt response to the baby's crying, flexible sleeping arrangements, close-knit father-mother-baby functioning, and the avoidance of detachment parenting. Attachment parenting…

  12. Insecure attachment and anxiety in student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D H; Kim, S M; Zaichkowsky, L

    2013-06-01

    The main purpose of our research was to examine attachment type and competition anxiety in high school student athletes and general high school students. We recruited 465 student athletes and 543 general students to participate in our study. The Revised Korean version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (K-ECRS) and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) were given to all students. In χ2 tests, athletes showed attachment types in the following order of prevalence: fearful, dismissive, and preoccupied, compared to the fearful, preoccupied, and dismissive order observed in general students. In parametric, independent t-tests, athletes reported significantly higher cognitive anxiety scores, relative to general students. Further, athletes with insecure attachment compared to those with secure attachment reported higher cognitive anxiety scores and self-confidence scores. In both the athletes with insecure attachment and general students with insecure attachment groups, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was significantly correlated with CSAI-2 total score. In post hoc analysis in the athletes with insecure attachment group, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was also significantly correlated with the CSAI-2 cognitive anxiety subscale. These results suggest that anxious athletes with an insecure attachment style tend to exaggerate threats from both external and internal sources, which negatively affect their performances.

  13. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Adolescent Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Pasco; Shmueli-Goetz, Yael; Viding, Essi; Fonagy, Peter; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background: Twin studies consistently point to limited genetic influence on attachment security in the infancy period, but no study has examined whether this remains the case in later development. This study presents the findings from a twin study examining the relative importance of genetic and environmental influences on attachment in…

  14. Argument Status and PP-Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Julie E.; Blodgett, Allison

    2006-01-01

    Prepositional phrase attachment was investigated in temporarily ambiguous sentences. Both attachment site (noun phrase or verb phrase) and argument status (argument or adjunct) were manipulated to test the hypothesis that arguments are processed differently than adjuncts. Contrary to this hypothesis, some previous research suggested that arguments…

  15. Forgiveness and health: The role of attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawler-Row, K.A.; Hyatt-Edwards, L.; Wünsch, K.L.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Attachment was examined for its association to forgiveness and health. Young adults were interviewed about a time of conflict with a parent; during rest and interview periods, readings of blood pressure and heart rate were taken. Participants completed surveys of forgiveness, attachment,

  16. Relationship of Attachment Styles and Emotional Intelligence With Marital Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Abbasi, Amir Reza; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmoud; Aghamohammadiyan Sharbaf, Hamidreza; Karshki, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    The early relationships between infant and care takers are significant and the emotional interactions of these relationships play an important role in forming personality and adulthood relationships. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship of attachment styles (AS) and emotional intelligence (EI) with marital satisfaction (MS). In this cross-sectional research, 450 married people (226 male, 224 female) were selected using multistage sampling method in Mashhad, Iran, in 2011. Subjects completed the attachment styles questionnaire (ASQ), Bar-On emotional quotient inventory (EQ-i) and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire. The results indicated that secure attachment style has positive significant relationship with marital satisfaction (r = 0.609, P emotional intelligence and its components have positive significant relationship with marital satisfaction; thus, emotional intelligence and intrapersonal, adaptability and general mood components can significantly predict marital satisfaction (P stress management components cannot significantly predict marital satisfaction (P > 0.05). According to the obtained results, attachment styles and emotional intelligence are the key factors in marital satisfaction that decrease marital disagreement and increase the positive interactions of the couples.

  17. Attachment and emotion regulation in substance addictions and behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Ana; Jáuregui, Paula; Sánchez-Marcos, Inmaculada; López-González, Hibai; Griffiths, Mark D

    2017-12-01

    Background Risky behaviors have been related to emotional regulation and attachment, which may constitute risk factors for developing an addictive behavior. However, there may also be differences between substance and non-substance-related addictions. Aims This study aimed to examine the relationship of emotional regulation and attachment, with substance (alcohol and drug abuse), and non-substance-related addictions (gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use) in adolescents and emerging adults. The study also aimed to examine gender differences for such predictors. Methods The sample comprised 472 students aged 13-21 years recruited from high schools and vocational education centers. Results Findings demonstrated that emotion regulation was predictive of all addictive behaviors assessed in this study (alcohol and drug abuse, gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use), whereas attachment predicted non-substance-related addictions (gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use). In addition, gender differences were found, with females scoring significantly higher in maternal and peer attachment, whereas males scored significantly higher in gambling disorder and video game addiction. Conclusion The findings may be useful for preventive and clinical interventions conducted with youth regarding addictive behaviors.

  18. The Effect of Parenting Styles on Children Attachment Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    علي زينالي

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of parenting style on prediction of children's attachment style. To achieve this aim, the study investigates whether different parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful Leads to shaping various attachment styles (secure, fearful, preoccupied and dismissing in children? 508 high school adolescent boys and girls with the age range of 14-19 participated in this study and were selected through Stratified Random Sampling method. Data were gathered through Parenting Style Questionnaire (PSQ and Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ. In order to analyze the data, the researcher used Multiple Regression statistics. The results showed, Authoritative, authoritarian, neglectful and permissive parenting styles have positive and significant relationships with secure, preoccupied, fearful and dismissing attachment in children respectively and are considered as direct and significant predictor of them in children. The present study, with emphasize on fundamental role of parenting styles, recommend learning of authoritative parenting style and correction of authoritarian, neglectful and permissive parenting styles to parents in family setting.

  19. Attachment and family functioning in patients with internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şenormancı, Ömer; Şenormancı, Güliz; Güçlü, Oya; Konkan, Ramazan

    2014-01-01

    Although the Internet is used effectively in many areas of life, some users experience problems because of over-use due to a lack of control. The diagnostic criteria for Internet addiction include disruptions in family relationships, but adequate data on the attachment styles and family functioning associated with this condition are limited. This study aimed to investigate the attachment styles and family functioning of patients with Internet addiction. The sample included 30 male patients consecutively admitted to the Bakırköy Mental Health and Research Hospital Internet Addiction Outpatient Clinic, who were diagnosed in clinical interviews as having Internet addiction according to Young's (1998) criteria. Thirty healthy males who were matched with the experimental group in terms of sociodemographic characteristics were included as control subjects. Both groups provided sociodemographic data and completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire-r (ECR-r) and the Family Assessment Device (FAD). Patients with Internet addiction had higher BDI scores (PInternet addiction evaluated their family functioning as more negative and reported problems in every aspect addressed by the FAD. Scores on the FAD behaviour control, affective responsiveness, and problem-solving subscales (PInternet addiction have more anxious attachment styles as well as prominent disruptions in family functioning. Thus, it may be important to evaluate the attachment styles and family functioning of patients with Internet addiction. Indeed, comprehensive treatment approaches including other family members may make important contributions to treatment success. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Attachment and children's biased attentional processing: evidence for the exclusion of attachment-related information.

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    Eva Vandevivere

    Full Text Available Research in both infants and adults demonstrated that attachment expectations are associated with the attentional processing of attachment-related information. However, this research suffered from methodological issues and has not been validated across ages. Employing a more ecologically valid paradigm to measure attentional processes by virtue of eye tracking, the current study tested the defensive exclusion hypothesis in late childhood. According to this hypothesis, insecurely attached children are assumed to defensively exclude attachment-related information. We hypothesized that securely attached children process attachment- related neutral and emotional information in a more open manner compared to insecurely attached children. Sixty-two children (59.7% girls, 8-12 years completed two different tasks, while eye movements were recorded: task one presented an array of neutral faces including mother and unfamiliar women and task two presented the same with happy and angry faces. Results indicated that more securely attached children looked longer at mother's face regardless of the emotional expression. Also, they tend to have more maintained attention to mother's neutral face. Furthermore, more attachment avoidance was related to a reduced total viewing time of mother's neutral, happy, and angry face. Attachment anxiety was not consistently related to the processing of mother's face. Findings support the theoretical assumption that securely attached children have an open manner of processing all attachment-related information.

  1. Attachment and children's biased attentional processing: evidence for the exclusion of attachment-related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevivere, Eva; Braet, Caroline; Bosmans, Guy; Mueller, Sven C; De Raedt, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    Research in both infants and adults demonstrated that attachment expectations are associated with the attentional processing of attachment-related information. However, this research suffered from methodological issues and has not been validated across ages. Employing a more ecologically valid paradigm to measure attentional processes by virtue of eye tracking, the current study tested the defensive exclusion hypothesis in late childhood. According to this hypothesis, insecurely attached children are assumed to defensively exclude attachment-related information. We hypothesized that securely attached children process attachment- related neutral and emotional information in a more open manner compared to insecurely attached children. Sixty-two children (59.7% girls, 8-12 years) completed two different tasks, while eye movements were recorded: task one presented an array of neutral faces including mother and unfamiliar women and task two presented the same with happy and angry faces. Results indicated that more securely attached children looked longer at mother's face regardless of the emotional expression. Also, they tend to have more maintained attention to mother's neutral face. Furthermore, more attachment avoidance was related to a reduced total viewing time of mother's neutral, happy, and angry face. Attachment anxiety was not consistently related to the processing of mother's face. Findings support the theoretical assumption that securely attached children have an open manner of processing all attachment-related information.

  2. Attachment and Autism: Parental Attachment Representations and Relational Behaviors in the Parent-Child Dyad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seskin, Lynn; Feliciano, Eileen; Tippy, Gil; Yedloutschnig, Ruby; Sossin, K. Mark; Yasik, Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    While attachment research has demonstrated that parents' internal working models of attachment relationships tend to be transmitted to their children, affecting children's developmental trajectories, this study specifically examines associations between adult attachment status and observable parent, child, and dyadic behaviors among children with…

  3. Adult Attachment, Culturally Adjusted Attachment, and Interpersonal Difficulties of Taiwanese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Chih DC; Scalise, Dominick A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the applicability of Western adult attachment perspectives to interpersonal difficulties experienced by individuals with indigenous Chinese cultural backgrounds. A total of 275 Taiwanese university students completed self-report surveys of adult attachment, ideal attachment, and interpersonal problems. Culturally adjusted…

  4. Attachment anxiety predicts IL-6 and length of hospital stay in coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Tara; Poole, Lydia; Leigh, Elizabeth; Ronaldson, Amy; Jahangiri, Marjan; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying the association between adult attachment and health are not well understood. In the current study, we investigated the relationship between attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, inflammation, and length of hospital stay in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients. 167 CABG patients completed an attachment questionnaire prior to surgery, and blood samples were taken before and after surgery to assess inflammatory activity. We found that attachment anxiety predicted higher plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6) concentration, and this association was mediated by self-reported sleep quality. Anxious attachment also predicted longer hospital stays following CABG surgery, even after controlling for demographic and clinical factors. These data suggest that increased levels of IL-6 may be a process linking adult attachment anxiety with health outcomes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The Antimicrobial Activity of Porphyrin Attached Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lesley

    2008-03-01

    We are interested in testing the antimicrobial activity of a porphyrin that is attached to a polymer. The porphyrin (5-(4-carboxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris-(4-pryridyl)) was synthesized from methyl 4-formyl benzoate, 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde, and pyrrole and attached to a copolymer of polystyrene/poly(vinyl benzyl chloride), which was synthesized by free radical polymerization. The antimicrobial activity of the polymer-attached porphyrin was then determined for gram-negative E. Coli grown to 0.80 OD. In this procedure, glass slides were coated with polymer-attached porphyrin via dip-coating, and the E. Coli bacteria were plated in Luria Broth media. The plates were subsequently exposed to light overnight before they were incubated as porphyrins act as photo-sensitizers when irradiated with light. The polymer-attached porphyrin did exhibit antimicrobial activity and parameters that affect its efficiency will be discussed.

  6. Perceived parental attachment and achievement motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, M; Baruss, Imants

    2011-12-01

    A significant amount of research in attachment theory has been devoted to factors affecting academic achievement, but less attention has been given to the role of attachment in the relation between academic achievement and achievement motivation. The current preliminary study examined the role of perceived parental attachment in achievement motivation. Self-report data obtained from the Parental Attachment Questionnaire, Achievement Goals Questionnaire, and the Performance Failure Appraisal Inventory were collected from 50 university students with a mean age of 18.8 yr. Correlation and regression analyses indicated that parental facilitation of independence correlated significantly and negatively with fear of failure. Results yielded partial support for the hypothesis that performance-oriented goals are related to a fear of failure, whereas mastery-oriented goals are not. The results also suggest that high parental attachment in the case of high-frequency religious practitioners is related to an increased chance of acquiring a more avoidance-oriented achievement motivation.

  7. 21 CFR 1308.14 - Schedule IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule IV. 1308.14 Section 1308.14 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Schedules § 1308.14 Schedule IV. (a) Schedule IV shall consist of the drugs and other substances, by...

  8. Breastfeeding, Parenting, and Infant Attachment Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Benjamin G; Forste, Renata; Lybbert, Emily

    2018-01-31

    Objectives Infants and toddlers need secure attachments in order to develop the social competence required to successfully navigate later peer and adult relationships. Breastfeeding is a parenting factor that has been associated with child emotional development-specifically the attachment between children and their mothers. Yet, this link may simply be the result of other parenting behaviors that are associated with breastfeeding. Thus, our objective is to examine whether the link between infant attachment behaviors and breastfeeding endures when accounting for a broad array of in-depth measures of parenting. Methods We use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of children from 9 months to 2 years of age collected by the National Center for Education Statistics. Using Ordinary Least Squares regression, data analyses examine the association between the Toddler Attachment Sort-45 (TAS-45) measures of toddler-parent attachment (infant attachment security and temperamental dependency) and breastfeeding practices. We also examine individual items of the TAS-45 to isolate specific attachment behaviors that have the strongest associations with breastfeeding. Results We find an enduring link between children who are predominantly breastfed for six or more months and infant attachment security. However, we find no evidence that breastfeeding is linked to a child's temperamental dependency. Of the nine items used to examine infant attachment behaviors, we find that breastfed children are rated as having slightly higher scores on two measures ("warm and cuddly," "cooperative") and lower scores on one measure ("demanding/angry"). Conclusions for Practice Breastfeeding has an important link to the child's use of their caregiver as a secure base for exploration and a place of comfort when distressed (infant attachment security). Yet, breastfeeding does not appear to reduce a child's temperamental dependency or level of clinginess as measured by how demanding, fussy or

  9. Adult attachment, couple attachment, and children's adaptation to school: an integrated attachment template and family risk model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Philip A; Cowan, Carolyn Pape; Mehta, Neera

    2009-01-01

    Most attachment theorists assume that parenting style is the central mechanism linking the quality of parents' attachment with their parents and adaptation in their children. Outside the attachment tradition, family risk models assume that many family factors affect children's adaptation, chief among them being couple relationship quality. The present study tests an integrated model that considers both theoretical and empirical links between attachment theory and family risk research. Seventy-three fathers and mothers whose first child was about to make the transition to elementary school were administered the Adult Attachment Interview and a new Couple Attachment Interview. The parents were also observed in separate visits during kindergarten year in interaction with each other and with their child. At the end of first grade, we obtained children's academic achievement test results and teachers' checklist observations of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Structural equations revealed that a family risk model that includes information from working models of attachment and observations of couple interaction predicts substantial variation in children's adaptation to elementary school.

  10. The Titan IV launch vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Arthur C.; O'Neill, Stephen T.

    1989-09-01

    Titan launch vehicles have been contributing to the national space accomplishments for more than 20 years. As the U.S. space program has grown, the Titan family has expanded to meet the changing requirements. The dependability and versatility of Titan vehicles have been demonstrated by their selection for various missions, including strategic intercontinental ballistic missile weapon systems, manned Gemini space flights, NASA interplanetary missions, and critical national security programs. This article summarizes the Titan legacy and is an overview of the newest Titan family member - the Titan IV.

  11. Insightfulness and later infant attachment in clinically depressed and nonclinical mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsauer, Brigitte; Lotzin, Annett; Quitmann, Julia H; Becker-Stoll, Fabienne; Tharner, Anne; Romer, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between maternal insightfulness and sensitivity and subsequent infant attachment security and disorganization in clinically depressed and nonclinical mother-infant groups. Nineteen depressed mothers with infants ages 3 to 11 months participated in this study. Twenty nonclinical mother-infant dyads were matched to the clinical sample according to infant sex and age. Maternal depression was assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (American Psychiatric Association, 1994), insightfulness using the Insightfulness Assessment (IA), and sensitivity using the Maternal Sensitivity Scales (M.D.S. Ainsworth, 1969). IA classifications and subscales were considered separately. Later infant attachment was assessed by the Strange Situation Procedure (M.D.S. Ainsworth, M.C. Blehar, E. Waters, & S. Wall, 1978). Depressed mothers tended to have less securely attached children than did nonclinical mothers. Within the clinical sample, the insightfulness categories correlated slightly moderately with attachment security, but were not related to attachment disorganization. Within the nonclinical sample, the IA categories were slightly moderately associated with attachment security and with disorganization. On IA subscales, relationship patterns differed in clinically depressed and nonclinical mother-infant dyads. These findings provide the first evidence of the predictive power of the IA categorization and subscales on subsequent infant attachment. They also may allow the development of different foci of intervention for enhancing insightful caregiving. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  12. The relationship between attachment styles and internalizing or externalizing symptoms in clinical and nonclinical adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lacasa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies regarding the relationship between attachment and psychopathology during adolescence have been performed separately for clinical and nonclinical adolescents and have used different assessment measures, which together might produce a methodological bias that increases the association between attachment and psychopathology. With the aim of avoiding this bias, the present study used identical measures to explore the relationship between attachment styles and internalizing or externalizing symptoms in clinical and nonclinical samples of adolescents. The sample consisted of 258 adolescents, 129 clinical and 129 nonclinical, aged between 14 and 18 years. The adolescents in each sample were matched for age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Attachment was assessed using the CaMir Q-sort, and psychopathological symptoms were assessed by means of the Youth Self Report (YSR. The relationships between attachment and psychopathology were similar for clinical and nonclinical adolescents. A preoccupied attachment style predicted internalizing and externalizing symptoms, somatic complaints, anxious-fearful behavior, verbal aggression, attention-seeking behavior, and thinking problems. Compared to previous studies, this research has made it possible to identify broader, stronger, and more specific associations between preoccupied attachment style and psychopathological symptoms in adolescents.

  13. Prenatal attachment and other correlates of postnatal maternal attachment to twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damato, Elizabeth G

    2004-10-01

    To determine the relationship of prenatal attachment and other selected perinatal contextual variables (method of delivery, maternal self-reported health, depression, infant birthweight, need for neonatal intensive care unit [NICU] admission) to postnatal attachment in mothers of twins. Two hundred fourteen women were initially recruited from a national mothers of twins support group for a study of maternal prenatal attachment. Of the 168 women who agreed to be contacted after delivery, 142 returned completed questionnaires (82.7% response rate), with 139 study-eligible women included in the analysis for this report. Correlational design with longitudinal follow-up at 1 month after expected delivery date. Self-administered, mailed questionnaires completed by women with twin gestations prenatally and postnatally 1 month after their expected delivery dates. Descriptive analysis, correlations, and regression equations were performed. The Maternal Attachment Inventory. A modest correlation was found between prenatal and postnatal attachment ( r = 0.38, P Prenatal attachment and postpartum depression explained 26.1% of the variance in postnatal attachment ( F = 5.06, P prenatal attachment and postnatal attachment. The addition of these interaction terms nominally increased the adjusted R 2 to explain 27.9% to 29.6% of the variance in postnatal attachment. Although the study findings support a modest relationship between prenatal and postnatal attachment in mothers of twins, maternal depression was also significant in explaining postnatal attachment. Postpartum depression, having a cesarean delivery, and the experience of a NICU admission for 1 or both twins further influenced the relationship between prenatal attachment and postnatal attachment. When fostering attachment in mothers of twins, nurses should assess for symptoms of depression and pay particular attention to those women who have an infant requiring a NICU admission.

  14. Caregiving Antecedents of Secure Base Script Knowledge: A Comparative Analysis of Young Adult Attachment Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Ryan D.; Waters, Theodore E. A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Truitt, Warren; Waters, Harriet S.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2015-01-01

    Based on a sub-sample (N = 673) of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) cohort, this paper reports data from a follow-up assessment at age 18 years on the antecedents of secure base script knowledge, as reflected in the ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related difficulties are recognized, competent help is provided, and the problem is resolved. Secure base script knowledge was (a) modestly to moderately correlated with more well established assessments of adult attachment, (b) associated with mother-child attachment in the first three years of life and with observations of maternal and paternal sensitivity from childhood to adolescence, and (c) partially accounted for associations previously documented in the SECCYD cohort between early caregiving experiences and Adult Attachment Interview states of mind (Booth-LaForce & Roisman, 2014) as well as self-reported attachment styles (Fraley, Roisman, Booth-LaForce, Owen, & Holland, 2013). PMID:25264703

  15. The Relation of Health-Related Practices of Pregnant Women, Fatigue and Prenatal Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Nursan; Caka, Sinem Yalnizoglu; Topal, Sumeyra; Yuvaci, Hilal Uslu; Erkorkmaz, Unal

    2017-11-01

    To examine the relation of the health-related practices of expectant mothers during pregnancy and fatigue in mother and prenatal attachment. Descriptive study. Sakarya Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, between February and April 2016. The study sample consisted of pregnant women (at least 20-week gestation) aged 18 years or above (n=211) who applied to prenatal care services and agreed to participate in the study. The data were collected through a Personal Information Form, Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) and the Prenatal Attachment Inventory (PAI). The PAI medians of the participants were 55 [42-64], and the BFI medians were 30 [23-42], and a negative, statistically significant relationship was found between BFI and PAI (r= -0.184, p=0.007). Expectant mothers who develop positive health behaviors during pregnancy feel less fatigue and positively affect the prenatal attachment. It is important to evaluate prenatal attachment and identify the mother with low attachment scores.

  16. Mastery matters most: How mastery and positive relations link attachment avoidance and anxiety to negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paech, Juliane; Schindler, Ines; Fagundes, Christopher P

    2016-08-01

    Attachment avoidance and anxiety are associated with negative emotions. However, the mechanisms underlying these associations are not fully understood. We investigated environmental mastery and positive relations with others as two mechanisms behind the attachment-emotion link in a sample of 343 adults. As predicted, attachment avoidance and anxiety were related to greater fear, hostility, envy and depression through lower mastery. Contrary to our hypothesis, positive relations mediated only the attachment-depression link. In addition, by adopting a moderated mediation approach, we were able to show that mastery mattered most for individuals high on avoidance: The indirect effect of avoidance through lack of mastery on fear, hostility and depression (but not on envy) increased with higher avoidance scores. Contrary to our predictions, poor relationships did not matter more as sources of negative emotions as anxiety increased. These findings underscore that the emotional life of avoidantly attached individuals is especially jeopardised by poor mastery.

  17. Individual Differences in Work-Related Well-Being: The Role of Attachment Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Lanciano

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Integrating theories of adult attachment and well-being at the workplace, the present study tested the role of attachment style in predicting work-related well-being in terms of job satisfaction and job involvement, over and above dispositional trait measures (emotional traits and work-related traits. A sample of workers took part in a correlational study that explored the relationships among a adult attachment, b emotional traits, c work-related traits, and d work-related well-being indices. The results showed that both secure and anxious attachment style explained workers’ job involvement, whereas the secure and avoidant attachment styles explained workers’ job satisfaction. The current findings thus confirm and expand the literature's emphasis on studying the variables and processes that underlie people's mental health in the work setting, and have implications for assessing and promoting well-being in the workplace.

  18. Attachment and parental divorce: a test of the diffusion and sensitive period hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, R Chris; Heffernan, Marie E

    2013-09-01

    One of the assumptions of attachment theory is that disruptions in parental relationships are prospectively related to insecure attachment patterns in adulthood. The majority of research that has evaluated this hypothesis, however, has been based on retrospective reports of the quality of relationships with parents-research that is subject to retrospective biases. In the present research, the authors examined the impact of parental divorce-an event that can be assessed relatively objectively-on attachment patterns in adulthood across two samples. The data indicate that parental divorce has selective rather than diffuse implications for insecure attachment. Namely, parental divorce was more strongly related to insecure relationships with parents in adulthood than insecure relationships with romantic partners or friends. In addition, parental insecurity was most pronounced when parental divorce took place in early childhood. This finding is consistent with hypotheses about sensitive periods in attachment development.

  19. Associations between adult attachment characteristics, medical burden, and life satisfaction among older primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchmann, Helmut; Nolte, Tobias; Runkewitz, Kristin; Bayerle, Lisa; Becker, Simone; Blasczyk, Verena; Lindloh, Julia; Strauss, Bernhard

    2013-12-01

    We investigated whether attachment security, measured by the Adult Attachment Prototype Rating (AAPR), was correlated with life satisfaction, independent of sociodemographic characteristics, medical burden, and age-related coping strategies in a sample of 81 patients (69-73 years) recruited from the register of a general primary care practice. Furthermore, we examined whether patients classified as AAPR-secure reported better adjustment to medical burden in terms of higher life satisfaction than did insecure patients. Attachment security was independently related to life satisfaction. Moreover, the association between medical burden and lower life satisfaction was significantly stronger for insecure than for secure participants. Our findings indicate that interventions to improve attachment security or coping processes related to attachment could help older adults retain life satisfaction. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Effects of attachment and rearing behavior on anxiety in normal developing youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholst, Sonja; Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    A few studies have examined the relative contribution of insecure attachment and negative parental rearing behaviors on childhood anxiety, but none have examined if insecure attachment mediates the association between negative parental rearing behavior and anxiety. The present study investigated...... the direct, as well as the indirect, relation between attachment to parents, parental rearing behaviors and anxiety symptoms in a sample of 1134 normal developing children and adolescent. Attachment relation was measured by the Security Scale (SEC), negative parental rearing behavior was measured...... by the Rearing Behavior Questionnaire (RBQ), and anxiety was assessed using the Screen for Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised (SCARED-R). We found, in accordance with previous research, that insecure attachment, maternal rejection and overprotection, each accounted for a significant proportion...

  1. The longitudinal link between parenting and child aggression: the moderating effect of attachment security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Maeve; Pasalich, Dave S; McMahon, Robert J; Spieker, Susan J

    2014-10-01

    This study examined whether infant attachment security moderates the association between parenting in preschool and later aggressive behavior among a sample of children at high risk for developing conduct problems. Participants were 82 adolescent mother-child dyads recruited from the community. Infant attachment status at age 1 year was measured using the Strange Situation. When children were aged 4.5 years, mothers reported on their self-efficacy in regards to parenting, and mothers' positive parenting and criticism were coded from direct observations of parent-child interactions. In grade 1, mothers reported on their children's aggressive behavior. Infant secure attachment significantly moderated the association between observed maternal criticism and child aggression. That is, among insecurely attached children, higher levels of maternal criticism were associated with more severe aggression. This longitudinal finding suggests that a secure attachment may buffer the deleterious effects of harsh parenting on child aggression.

  2. Outcome of surgical treatment of type IV capitellum frac-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ajay Pal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: Fractures of the capitellum and trochlea constitute less than 1% of all elbow fractures and a shear fracture involving the capitellum and extending medially into most of the trochlea is rarely reported. Type IV capitellum fracture is still controversial in regard to its ra-diographic appearance, surgical approach and osteosynthesis. We report 10 cases of type IV capitellum fracture with a view to elucidating its clinical features and treatment outcome. Methods: We treated 10 patients of type IV capitellum fracture with a mean age of 32 years. A uniform surgical approach and postoperative rehabilitation were followed. Results: Nine patients presented to us after a mean of 4 days of injury and one patient was nonunion after 6 months of injury who had been treated conservatively by a bone setter. Double arc sign was absent in 6 cases. Intraopera-tively 6 capitellotrochlear fragments were devoid of soft Chin J Traumatol 2012;15(4:201-205 DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.1008-1275.2012.04.002 Punjab Civil Medical Services-I Mukerian, Punjab, In-dia (Singh AP Department of Orthopaedics, UCMS & GTB Hospital, Delhi, India (Dhammi IK and Garg V Swami Premanand Hospital, Mukerian, Punjab, India (Singh AP *Corresponding author: Tel: 98-72069734, Email: docajaypal@gmail.com C oronal shear fractures of distal end of humeral articular surface involve the capitellum and trochlea. These fractures are difficult to assess accurately on plain radiographs and the limited amount of subchondral bone available for stable internal fixation makes the operative treatment equally difficult. 1 Joint stiffness, instability and osteoarthrosis are complications resulting from treatment failures. 2 The major classification systems are proposed by Bryan and Dubberley et al. 3,4 Type IV fracture is a fracture involving the capitellum and extends to more than lateral half of the trochlea. 1 We report an analysis of ten cases of type IV capi-tissue attachments. By

  3. Assessing Attachment in Psychotherapy: Validation of the Patient Attachment Coding System (PACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talia, Alessandro; Miller-Bottome, Madeleine; Daniel, Sarah I F

    2017-01-01

    The authors present and validate the Patient Attachment Coding System (PACS), a transcript-based instrument that assesses clients' in-session attachment based on any session of psychotherapy, in multiple treatment modalities. One-hundred and sixty clients in different types of psychotherapy (cognitive-behavioural, cognitive-behavioural-enhanced, psychodynamic, relational, supportive) and from three different countries were administered the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) prior to treatment, and one session for each client was rated with the PACS by independent coders. Results indicate strong inter-rater reliability, and high convergent validity of the PACS scales and classifications with the AAI. These results present the PACS as a practical alternative to the AAI in psychotherapy research and suggest that clinicians using the PACS can assess clients' attachment status on an ongoing basis by monitoring clients' verbal activity. These results also provide information regarding the ways in which differences in attachment status play out in therapy sessions and further the study of attachment in psychotherapy from a pre-treatment client factor to a process variable. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The Patient Attachment Coding System is a valid measure of attachment that can classify clients' attachment based on any single psychotherapy transcript, in many therapeutic modalities Client differences in attachment manifest in part independently of the therapist's contributions Client adult attachment patterns are likely to affect psychotherapeutic processes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Longitudinal association between adolescent attachment, adult romantic attachment, and emotion regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascuzzo, Katherine; Cyr, Chantal; Moss, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Attachment security towards parents and peers in adolescence, and romantic attachment styles and emotion regulation strategies in young adulthood, were evaluated using an eight-year longitudinal design. Fifty-six young adults completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) at age 14, and then, at age 22, the Experience in Close Relationships (ECR) and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), an emotion regulation questionnaire concerning coping strategies, including task-oriented versus emotion-oriented foci. Results indicated that greater insecurity to parents and peers in adolescence predicted a more anxious romantic attachment style and greater use of emotion-oriented strategies in adulthood. Concurrently, anxious adult attachment style was related to more emotion-oriented strategies, whereas an avoidant attachment style was related to less support-seeking. Analyses also identified emotion-oriented coping strategies as a partial mediator of the link between adolescent attachment insecurity to parents and adult anxious attachment, and a complete mediator of the association between adolescent attachment insecurity to peers and adult anxious attachment. These findings support the core assumption of continuity in attachment theory, where relationships to parents influence close romantic relationships in adulthood.

  5. Attachment typologies and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression and anxiety: a latent profile analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherie Armour

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bartholomew (1990 proposed a four category adult attachment model based on Bowlby's (1973 proposal that attachment is underpinned by an individual's view of the self and others. Previous cluster analytic techniques have identified four and two attachment styles based on the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS. In addition, attachment styles have been proposed to meditate the association between stressful life events and subsequent psychiatric status. The current study aimed to empirically test the attachment typology proposed by Collins and Read (1990. Specifically, LPA was used to determine if the proposed four styles can be derived from scores on the dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, we aimed to test if the resultant attachment styles predicted the severity of psychopathology in response to a whiplash trauma. A large sample of Danish trauma victims (N=1577 participated. A Latent Profile Analysis was conducted, using Mplus 5.1, on scores from the RAAS scale to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes/subgroups. Class membership was used in a series of one-way ANOVA tests to determine if classes were significantly different in terms of mean scores on measures of psychopathology. The three class solution was considered optimal. Class one was termed Fearful (18.6%, Class two Preoccupied (34.5%, and Class three Secure (46.9%. The secure class evidenced significantly lower mean scores on PTSD, depression, and anxiety measures compared to other classes, whereas the fearful class evidenced significantly higher mean scores compared to other classes. The results demonstrated evidence of three discrete classes of attachment styles, which were labelled secure, preoccupied, and fearful. This is in contrast to previous cluster analytic techniques which have identified four and two attachment styles based on the RAAS.In addition, Securely attached individuals display lower levels of psychopathology post

  6. Attachment typologies and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety: a latent profile analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask; Shevlin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background Bartholomew (1990) proposed a four category adult attachment model based on Bowlby's (1973) proposal that attachment is underpinned by an individual's view of the self and others. Previous cluster analytic techniques have identified four and two attachment styles based on the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS). In addition, attachment styles have been proposed to meditate the association between stressful life events and subsequent psychiatric status. Objective The current study aimed to empirically test the attachment typology proposed by Collins and Read (1990). Specifically, LPA was used to determine if the proposed four styles can be derived from scores on the dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, we aimed to test if the resultant attachment styles predicted the severity of psychopathology in response to a whiplash trauma. Method A large sample of Danish trauma victims (N=1577) participated. A Latent Profile Analysis was conducted, using Mplus 5.1, on scores from the RAAS scale to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes/subgroups. Class membership was used in a series of one-way ANOVA tests to determine if classes were significantly different in terms of mean scores on measures of psychopathology. Results The three class solution was considered optimal. Class one was termed Fearful (18.6%), Class two Preoccupied (34.5%), and Class three Secure (46.9%). The secure class evidenced significantly lower mean scores on PTSD, depression, and anxiety measures compared to other classes, whereas the fearful class evidenced significantly higher mean scores compared to other classes. Conclusions The results demonstrated evidence of three discrete classes of attachment styles, which were labelled secure, preoccupied, and fearful. This is in contrast to previous cluster analytic techniques which have identified four and two attachment styles based on the RAAS.In addition, Securely attached individuals display

  7. Attachment insecurity and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder among inpatients with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltgen, Anika; Adler, Herman; Smith, Ryan; Rufino, Katrina; Frazier, Christopher; Shepard, Christopher; Booker, Kirk; Simmons, Diedra; Richardson, Leah; Allen, Jon G; Fowler, J Christopher

    2015-03-15

    Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is characterized by traits such as extreme rigidity, perfectionism, and controlling behavior, all of which have a negative impact on interpersonal functioning. Attachment theory provides a useful framework to elucidate the interpersonal dysfunction characteristic of OCPD; yet, there is a dearth of attachment research on OCPD in the context of severe mental illness. Attachment security and personality disorders were assessed in adult inpatients with severe mental illness. Propensity Score Matching (PSM) was used to match OCPD and control subjects on age, gender, number of psychiatric disorders, and number of criteria endorsed for borderline personality disorder. Consistent with hypotheses, the OCPD group (n=61) showed greater attachment avoidance than controls (n=61), and the avoidance was manifested in a predominance of the most insecure attachment style, fearful attachment. Correlations between attachment anxiety/avoidance with specific OCPD diagnostic criteria revealed that attachment avoidance was correlated with four of eight OCPD criteria across the full sample. Within the subset of OCPD patients, attachment avoidance was significantly correlated with OCPD criterion 3 (is excessively devoted to work and productivity to the exclusion of leisure activities and friendships). The use of self-report measure of attachment and the high burden of illness in the SMI population may not generalize to interview based assessment or outpatients, respectively. Findings attest to the severity of impairment in interpersonal functioning and attachment avoidance, in particular, is characteristic of OCPD patients. These results suggest that viable treatment targets include interpersonal functioning along with more classical features of OCPD such as perfectionism and obsessiveness in task performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Emotional distress and prenatal attachment in pregnancy after perinatal loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Deborah Smith

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the association of previous perinatal loss with parents' levels of depressive symptoms, pregnancy-specific anxiety, and prenatal attachment in a subsequent pregnancy, and to determine whether higher levels of depressive symptoms and pregnancy-specific anxiety were associated with prenatal attachment. A three-group comparative design was used to collect cross-sectional survey data. The sample consisted of 103 couples who were in the second trimester of pregnancy: 40 couples who had a perinatal loss in a previous pregnancy, 33 couples were pregnant for the first time, and 30 couples had a history of prior successful pregnancies. Structured questionnaires via in-person or telephone interviews were used to measure depressive symptoms, pregnancy-specific anxiety, and prenatal attachment. Couples with a history of perinatal loss had higher levels of depressive symptoms and pregnancy-specific anxiety than did couples with past successful pregnancies and no losses; mothers had higher levels of symptoms than did fathers in all groups, Couples with and without a history of perinatal loss did not differ in their level of prenatal attachment in the current pregnancy. These findings do not support the theory that depressive symptoms and pregnancy-specific anxiety affect subsequent parent-infant attachment in a pregnancy after perinatal loss. However, they do provide insight into the continuing influence of parents' previous loss experience on their depressive symptoms and pregnancy-specific anxiety in subsequent pregnancies. Families should be assessed to examine the potential long-term influence of emotional distress as a result of prior perinatal loss.

  9. Environmental and genetic influences on early attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gervai Judit

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attachment theory predicts and subsequent empirical research has amply demonstrated that individual variations in patterns of early attachment behaviour are primarily influenced by differences in sensitive responsiveness of caregivers. However, meta-analyses have shown that parenting behaviour accounts for about one third of the variance in attachment security or disorganisation. The exclusively environmental explanation has been challenged by results demonstrating some, albeit inconclusive, evidence of the effect of infant temperament. In this paper, after reviewing briefly the well-demonstrated familial and wider environmental influences, the evidence is reviewed for genetic and gene-environment interaction effects on developing early attachment relationships. Studies investigating the interaction of genes of monoamine neurotransmission with parenting environment in the course of early relationship development suggest that children's differential susceptibility to the rearing environment depends partly on genetic differences. In addition to the overview of environmental and genetic contributions to infant attachment, and especially to disorganised attachment relevant to mental health issues, the few existing studies of gene-attachment interaction effects on development of childhood behavioural problems are also reviewed. A short account of the most important methodological problems to be overcome in molecular genetic studies of psychological and psychiatric phenotypes is also given. Finally, animal research focusing on brain-structural aspects related to early care and the new, conceptually important direction of studying environmental programming of early development through epigenetic modification of gene functioning is examined in brief.

  10. Sample Proficiency Test exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, A; Gregg, H; Koester, C

    2006-02-05

    The current format of the OPCW proficiency tests has multiple sets of 2 samples sent to an analysis laboratory. In each sample set, one is identified as a sample, the other as a blank. This method of conducting proficiency tests differs from how an OPCW designated laboratory would receive authentic samples (a set of three containers, each not identified, consisting of the authentic sample, a control sample, and a blank sample). This exercise was designed to test the reporting if the proficiency tests were to be conducted. As such, this is not an official OPCW proficiency test, and the attached report is one method by which LLNL might report their analyses under a more realistic testing scheme. Therefore, the title on the report ''Report of the Umpteenth Official OPCW Proficiency Test'' is meaningless, and provides a bit of whimsy for the analyses and readers of the report.

  11. The relation of infant attachment to attachment and cognitive and behavioural outcomes in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan-hua; Xu, Xiu; Wang, Zheng-yan; Li, Hui-rong; Wang, Wei-ping

    2014-09-01

    In China, research on the relation of mother-infant attachment to children's development is scarce. This study sought to investigate the relation of mother-infant attachment to attachment, cognitive and behavioural development in young children. This study used a longitudinal study design. The subjects included healthy infants (n=160) aged 12 to 18 months. Ainsworth's "Strange Situation Procedure" was used to evaluate mother-infant attachment types. The attachment Q-set (AQS) was used to evaluate the attachment between young children and their mothers. The Bayley scale of infant development-second edition (BSID-II) was used to evaluate cognitive developmental level in early childhood. Achenbach's child behaviour checklist (CBCL) for 2- to 3-year-olds was used to investigate behavioural problems. In total, 118 young children (73.8%) completed the follow-up; 89.7% of infants with secure attachment and 85.0% of infants with insecure attachment still demonstrated this type of attachment in early childhood (κ=0.738, pdevelopment index (MDI) in early childhood than did infants with secure attachment, especially the resistant type. In addition, resistant infants were reported to have greater social withdrawal, sleep problems and aggressive behaviour in early childhood. There is a high consistency in attachment development from infancy to early childhood. Secure mother-infant attachment predicts a better cognitive and behavioural outcome; whereas insecure attachment, especially the resistant attachment, may lead to a lower cognitive level and greater behavioural problems in early childhood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Maladaptive trauma appraisals mediate the relation between attachment anxiety and PTSD symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Christin M; Rubin, David C; Siegler, Ilene C

    2016-05-01

    In a large sample of community-dwelling older adults with histories of exposure to a broad range of traumatic events, we examined the extent to which appraisals of traumatic events mediate the relations between insecure attachment styles and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. Participants completed an assessment of adult attachment, in addition to measures of PTSD symptom severity, event centrality, event severity, and ratings of the A1 PTSD diagnostic criterion for the potentially traumatic life event that bothered them most at the time of the study. Consistent with theoretical proposals and empirical studies indicating that individual differences in adult attachment systematically influence how individuals evaluate distressing events, individuals with higher attachment anxiety perceived their traumatic life events to be more central to their identity and more severe. Greater event centrality and event severity were each in turn related to higher PTSD symptom severity. In contrast, the relation between attachment avoidance and PTSD symptoms was not mediated by appraisals of event centrality or event severity. Furthermore, neither attachment anxiety nor attachment avoidance was related to participants' ratings of the A1 PTSD diagnostic criterion. Our findings suggest that attachment anxiety contributes to greater PTSD symptom severity through heightened perceptions of traumatic events as central to identity and severe. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Adult attachment, emotion dysregulation, and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marganska, Anna; Gallagher, Michelle; Miranda, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Differences in attachment style have been linked to both emotion regulation and psychological functioning, but the emotion regulatory mechanism through which attachment style might impact symptoms of depression and anxiety is unclear. The present study examined the explanatory role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between adult attachment style and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a sample of 284 adults. Secure attachment was associated with lower depression and GAD symptoms and lower emotion dysregulation, whereas insecure attachment styles were generally associated with higher depression and GAD scores and higher emotion dysregulation. Perceived inability to generate effective emotion regulation strategies mediated the relation between insecure attachment and both depression and GAD symptoms. Nonacceptance of negative emotions and inability to control impulsive behaviors emerged as additional mediators of the relation between insecure attachment styles and GAD symptoms. The differential contribution of attachment style and emotion regulation to the prediction of depression and GAD symptoms may reflect differences in vulnerability to depression and GAD. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  14. Changes in Relationship-Specific Attachment in Emotionally Focused Couple Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess Moser, Melissa; Johnson, Susan M; Dalgleish, Tracy L; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Wiebe, Stephanie A; Tasca, Giorgio A

    2016-04-01

    Emotionally focused couple therapy (EFT; Johnson, The practice of emotionally focused couple therapy (1st/2nd edition). Brunner-Routledge, New York, 2004) is an effective treatment of relationship distress (Johnson et al., Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 1999; 6, 67). However, less is known about EFT's impact on couples' relationship-specific attachment bond. Using hierarchical linear modeling with a sample of 32 couples, we examined session-by-session changes in couples' relationship-specific attachment anxiety and avoidance and pre- to posttherapy changes in their relationship-specific attachment behaviors. Couples significantly decreased in relationship-specific attachment avoidance, and those who completed a blamer softening significantly decreased in relationship-specific attachment anxiety. Couples' attachment behavior significantly increased toward security. Finally, session-by-session decreases in relationship-specific attachment anxiety and avoidance were significant associated with increases in relationship satisfaction across sessions. These results provide empirical support for the attachment-based assumptions of EFT. Video abstract accessible by clicking here. © 2015 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  15. Effect of Attachment Styles to Parents on Sexual Dysfunction Domains of Married Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nia, Anvar Sadat Nayebi; Salari, Parvin; Sharifi, Nasibeh; Nooghani, Hadi Jabbari

    2017-01-01

    According to Bowbly attachment theory, attachment of a baby and its main care provider, influences on social growth and the baby's feelings throughout its life. The present study was performed aim to determine the effect of attachment style to parents on domains of sexual dysfunction in married women. This cross-sectional study was carried out on two hundred married women who were fertile, and referred private and governmental gynecology clinics in Mashhad, Iran, in 2014. Data collection tools were three questionnaires; Demographic and marital questionnaire, Female sexual function index questionnaire, and Adult attachment style questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 (IBM© SPSS© Statistics version 20 using independent-samples t-test and logistic regression. The statistical tests were performed at the 95% confidence interval. Mean of safe attachment style to parents in all aspect of sexual dysfunction was significantly lower (p≤0.01), however, mean of distant attachment style to parents in all aspects of sexual dysfunction was significantly higher (p≤0.05). Secure and distance attachment style to the mother showed maximum power of prediction for sexual dysfunction, which indicates the importance of attachment to parents and its impact on adult relationships.

  16. Attachment orientation and sexual risk behaviour among young Black gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephanie H; Watkins, Daphne C; Calebs, Benjamin; Wilson, Patrick A

    This mixed methods study used an explanatory sequential design to examine the relationship between attachment and sexual behavior among young Black gay and bisexual men (YBGBM). Cross sectional online surveys and sex diaries were completed by a sample of YBGBM in New York City (n = 153) to assess the association between adult attachment insecurity and sexual risk behavior. The Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Revised (ECR-R) was used to assess three types of adult attachment (i.e., secure, anxious, and avoidant). Participants reported condomless sex encounters, as well as serodiscordant condomless anal sex encounters, as measures of sexual risk. Quantitative findings suggested that there were few associations between attachment type and sexual risk behavior; only men with attachment avoidance were likely to engage in condomless sex. However, qualitative findings illuminated some of the social complexities of the association between attachment in childhood, attachment in young adulthood and intimate partnerships, which could be linked to young adult sexual risk behavior. The study findings highlight the need for researchers to further examine the process by which individual differences in attachment orientation are related to YBGBM's sexual behavior.

  17. Attachment orientation and sexual risk behaviour among young Black gay and bisexual men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephanie H.; Watkins, Daphne C.; Calebs, Benjamin; Wilson, Patrick A.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed methods study used an explanatory sequential design to examine the relationship between attachment and sexual behavior among young Black gay and bisexual men (YBGBM). Cross sectional online surveys and sex diaries were completed by a sample of YBGBM in New York City (n = 153) to assess the association between adult attachment insecurity and sexual risk behavior. The Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Revised (ECR-R) was used to assess three types of adult attachment (i.e., secure, anxious, and avoidant). Participants reported condomless sex encounters, as well as serodiscordant condomless anal sex encounters, as measures of sexual risk. Quantitative findings suggested that there were few associations between attachment type and sexual risk behavior; only men with attachment avoidance were likely to engage in condomless sex. However, qualitative findings illuminated some of the social complexities of the association between attachment in childhood, attachment in young adulthood and intimate partnerships, which could be linked to young adult sexual risk behavior. The study findings highlight the need for researchers to further examine the process by which individual differences in attachment orientation are related to YBGBM’s sexual behavior. PMID:27570578

  18. Insatiable insecurity: maternal obesity as a risk factor for mother-child attachment and child weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel-Korndörfer, Anja; Sierau, Susan; Klein, Annette M; Bergmann, Sarah; Grube, Matthias; von Klitzing, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a rising health problem, and because parental obesity is a basic risk factor for childhood obesity, biological factors have been especially considered in the complex etiology. Aspects of the family interaction, e.g., mother-child attachment, have not been the main focus. Our study tried to fill this gap by investigating whether there is a difference between children of obese and normal weight mothers in terms of mother-child attachment, and whether mother-child attachment predicts child's weight, in a sample of 31 obese and 31 normal weight mothers with children aged 19 to 58 months. Mother-child attachment was measured with the Attachment Q-Set. We found that (1) children of obese mothers showed a lower quality of mother-child attachment than children of normal weight mothers, which indicates that they are less likely to use their mothers as a secure base; (2) the attachment quality predicted child`s BMI percentile; and (3) the mother-child attachment adds incremental validity to the prediction of child's BMI beyond biological parameters (child's BMI birth percentile, BMI of the parents) and mother's relationship status. Implications of our findings are discussed.

  19. Direct and indirect effects of contextual factors, caregiver depression, and parenting on attachment security in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Joyce; Gouze, Karen R; Lavigne, John V

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a multiple-level-of-analysis model of preschool attachment security and to determine the processes (direct and indirect) whereby factors from different domains (e.g., stress and parenting) are related to attachment during this period. This study examined the direct and indirect effects of stress, family conflict, caregiver depression symptoms, and parenting on attachment security in a large (N = 796) and diverse sample of 4-year-olds. This study used the 3-Boxes Task to assess aspects of parenting critical to sensitivity in the preschool period, labeling this construct sensitivity/scaffolding. Parent-report questionnaires were used to assess stress, conflict, caregiver depressive symptoms, parent support/engagement, and parent hostility/coercion. Direct observation (3-Boxes Task) was used to assess sensitivity/scaffolding and attachment (Attachment Q-Sort) based on a 2½-3 hour home visit. Results of structural equation modeling indicated a good overall fit for the model. Among the parenting variables, sensitivity/scaffolding had the strongest effect on attachment. Depressive symptoms had both direct and indirect effects (mediated by parenting). The effects of stress and family conflict were mediated by caregiver depression symptoms and parenting. These data show that a developmentally appropriate measure of sensitivity plays a significant role in attachment security in preschoolers. Thus, strategies designed to enhance sensitivity/scaffolding may increase child resilience by enhancing attachment security.

  20. Insecure Attachment, Dysfunctional Attitudes, and Low Self-Esteem Predicting Prospective Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety During Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Adabel; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2009-01-01

    This study extends the existing adult literature on insecure attachment as a predictor of depression and anxiety by examining these pathways in a sample of adolescents. In addition, dysfunctional attitudes and low self-esteem were tested as mediators of the association between insecure attachment and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Youth (N =350; 6th–10th graders) completed self-report measures of attachment, dysfunctional attitudes, self-esteem, and symptoms of depression and anxiety in ...

  1. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 77.1436 Section 77.1436... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached... anchor bolts, clamps, or wedges, provided that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist drum...

  2. Similarities and differences regarding changes in attachment preferences and attachment styles in relation to romantic relationship length: longitudinal and concurrent analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Tomotaka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kotrčová, Kristína; Fraley, R Chris

    2017-09-29

    This study examines whether attachment preferences and attachment styles with different figures (mother, father, romantic partner, and friends) change over the course of a romantic relationship. Study 1 employed a three-wave longitudinal sample of Czech young adults who were currently in a romantic relationship (N = 870; mean age = 21.57; SD = 1.51; 81% females). Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that, as romantic relationships progressed, attachment preferences for romantic partners increased and preferences for friends decreased. However, preferences for the mother or for the father did not change over time. The parallel pattern was found for attachment avoidance; as romantic relationships progressed, attachment avoidance with romantic partners decreased and avoidance with the best friend increased. Avoidance with mother or with father, however, did not change over time. Study 2 employed a cross-sectional international sample (n = 2,593; mean age = 31.99; SD = 12.13; 79% females). Multiple regression analyses replicated the findings of attachment avoidance in the longitudinal data.

  3. PREVENTION OF SPINAL DISORDERS IN CHILDRENI- IV GRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejаn Gojković

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Problem physical activities children younger school-age children, with the basic tasks research is construction kinesitherapy adequate prevention and avoid postural disorders spinal column, optimal ontogenetic level morphological( anthropological development.The main objective research is contents teaching physical education as well as and content that can be put in regular program teaching physical education with the basic task prevention potential and eliminate disorders spinal column, with auxiliary a harmonious biological development. The entities from which he was carried out sample size for this research is defined as population students male primary schools I- IV grade.The first and basic condition was that they are included in teaching physical education in the course of this research sample is taked 400 respondents.-according to the manner elections respondents sample was targeted selected.were taken I- IV grade elementary schools in Bijeljina, Teslic, Foca and Pale.

  4. Relations among perceived parental rearing behaviors, attachment style, and worry in anxious children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy M; Whiteside, Stephen P

    2008-01-01

    The present study extended the findings of Muris et al. [Muris, P., Meesters, C., Merckelbach, H., & Hulsenbeck, P. (2000). Worry in children is related to perceived parental rearing and attachment. Behavior Research and Therapy, 38, 487-497] regarding the relations between perceived parental rearing behaviors, self-reported attachment style, and worry in a community sample to a clinical sample of anxious children. Sixty-four children and adolescents, aged 7-18 years, with a primary anxiety disorder completed (a) the EMBU-C, a questionnaire measuring perceptions of parental rearing behaviors, (b) a single-item measure of attachment style, and (c) an index of worry severity. Findings revealed that child rated parental rearing behaviors, particularly parental rejection, were positively related to child worry. Self-reported attachment style was also related to worry, such that children who classified themselves as ambivalently attached reported higher levels of worry than did children who classified themselves as securely attached. Parenting style and attachment were found to make independent contributions to worry. The results are compared to those from Muris et al.'s community study, and implications for future research are discussed.

  5. Preschool children without 7-repeat DRD4 gene more likely to develop disorganized attachment style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffi, Justin; Moss, Ellen; Jolicoeur-Martineau, Alexia; Moss, Gal; Lecompte, Vanessa; Pascuzzo, Katherine; Babineau, Vanessa; Gordon-Green, Cathryn; Mileva-Seitz, Viara R; Minde, Klaus; Sassi, Roberto; Carrey, Normand; Kennedy, James L; Gaudreau, Helene; Levitan, Robert; Meaney, Michael; Wazana, Ashley

    2015-03-01

    The current paper aimed to explore the effects of birth weight and the 7-repeat allele in Exon III of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene on the development of disorganized attachment, a potential endophenotype of depression. Infants born with low birth weight have been shown to be at higher risk for later neurological impairments, psychological disorders or behavioural problems. The DRD4 gene is critical for the cognitive and emotional processes that are sub-served by neural circuits in the prefrontal cortex. This paper examined the main effect of birth weight and DRD4 on the development of disorganized attachment. Data was used from the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (MAVAN) project. The sample consisted of 251 mother-child dyads with complete data. Attachment style was assessed using the modified separation-reunion procedure. There was no main effect for birth weight on disorganized attachment, (b = -0.001, p = 0.998). There was, however, a main effect for the DRD4 7-repeat polymorphism on disorganized attachment (b = -1.120, p = 0.004). Compared to studies of similar design, the sample size in this study was relatively small. Additionally, a significant number of subjects did not have complete data. Children without the DRD4 7-repeat allele were more likely to have disorganized attachment than children with the DRD4 7-repeat allele. This indicates that the 7-repeate allele of the DRD4 gene may actually serve as a protective factor against disorganized attachment.

  6. Negative childhood experiences and adult love relationships: the role of internal working models of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Gerard; Maughan, Barbara

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated links between internal working models of attachment and the quality of adult love relationships in a high risk sample of women (n = 34), all of whom reported negative parenting in childhood. Half of the sample was identified as having a history of satisfying adult love relationships, while the remainder had experienced ongoing adult relationship problems. Measures of internal working models of attachment were made using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). A strong association was found between attachment classifications and the quality of adult love relationships. In addition, women with satisfying love relationships demonstrated significantly higher coherence of mind ratings than those with poor relationship histories. Insecure working models of attachment were associated with problems in adult love relationships. Although secure/autonomous attachment status was linked to optimal adult relationship outcomes, some women with a history of satisfying love relationships had insecure working models of attachment. These results suggest that the ways that adults process early experiences may influence later psychosocial functioning.

  7. Attachment representations, patterns of emotion regulation, and social exclusion in patients with chronic and episodic depression and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauriedl-Schmidt, C; Jobst, A; Gander, M; Seidl, E; Sabaß, L; Sarubin, N; Mauer, C; Padberg, F; Buchheim, A

    2017-03-01

    The experience of social exclusion (ostracism) is linked to the etiology and maintenance of depression. Most individuals experience emotional stress in states of social exclusion. Insecurely attached individuals, especially with an unresolved trauma, show maladaptive coping in response to social stress. The present study examines (a) the differences with regards to attachment representations in episodic (ED) and chronic depressive (CD) inpatients and (b) how ostracism affects their emotional reactions. Patients with CD (n=29) and ED (n=23) and healthy control subjects (n=29) were interviewed using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), a valid measure to assess attachment representation; and played a virtual ball tossing game simulating social exclusion (Cyberball). Multiple depression-related risk and protective factors were considered. We hypothesized that CD patients show the most severe attachment disorganization and are emotionally most affected by the social exclusion situation. Moreover, we explored the interaction between ostracism and attachment. Contradicting our hypotheses, ED and CD individuals were almost akin with regards to their attachment insecurity/disorganization and reactions to Cyberball. An emotionally altered reaction to social exclusion was identified in the insecure-disorganized depressive subgroup. Small sample size hampering further subgroup analyses. The ED sample may include single CD subjects with recent manifestation. The pattern of emotion regulation in the depressive groups matches with findings from clinical studies, including attachment research. The relationship between attachment representations and ostracism should be further investigated in larger samples of depressive individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The relationship between attachment style and placement of parents in adults' attachment networks over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julal, F S; Carnelley, K B; Rowe, A

    2017-08-01

    Using a bull's-eye hierarchical mapping technique (HMT), the present study examined placement of parents in adults' attachment networks over time. We hypothesized that attachment style would predict distance at which network members (mother, father, and romantic partner) would be placed from the core-self over time. Participants completed the HMT on two occasions, 12 months apart. Concurrently and over time, fathers were placed further from the core-self than mothers. Attachment style explained unique variance, beyond that accounted for by individual and relationship characteristics. Specifically, network members with whom participants reported greater attachment insecurity were placed further from the core-self concurrently. Mothers with whom participants reported greater attachment insecurity were placed further from the core-self over time. Unsatisfactory attachment relationships with father and partner and those marked by higher attachment insecurity were more likely to be excluded from attachment networks over time. Findings suggest that attachment style, relationship quality, romantic relationship status, and parents' marital status determine the placement of parents in adults' attachment networks.

  9. [The interpretation of attachment in the Szondi test and in the questionnaire processes of attachment theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török I, András; Vincze, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    [corrected] The Szondi-test is widely applied in clinical diagnostics in Hungary too, and the evidence resulting from the theory is that we can get information about attachment during its interpreting. Its validity is proven by empirical research and clinical experiences. By analyzing the modern attachment theory more thoroughly, it becomes clear in what ways the Szondi-test constellations regarding attachment are different from the classificationbased on questionnaires, allowing the discrete measurement of the attachment style. With the Szondi-test the classification to attachment style is more insecure, but if it is completed with exploration, it is more informative in vector C (vector of relation, attachment information), while short questionnaires make the classification to attachment style possible. In our empirical analysis we represent the integration of the above mentioned clinical and theoretical experiences. In the present analysis we compare the vector C and S constellation of the two-profile Szondi-test of 80 persons with the dimensions of ECR-R questionnaire and with Collins and Read's questionnaire classification regarding attachment style. The statistical results refer to the fact that there is a legitimacy to compare questionnaire processes allowing the discrete classification of attachment and the Szondi-test's information content regarding attachment. With applying the methods together, we get a unique, complementary section of the information relating to attachment. Comparing the two methods (projective and questionnaire) establishes the need of theoretical integration as well. We also make an attempt to explain Fraley's evolutionary non-adaptivity of avoidant attachment, in the case of whose presence adaptivity of early attachment, counterbalancing the exploration and security need, and providing closeness--farness loses its balance.

  10. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Adolescence represents a challenging transitional period where changes in biological, emotional, cognitive and social domains can increase the risk of developing internalised problems including subthreshold depression. Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family functioning may ...

  11. INSECURE ATTACHMENTS AND THEIR INTERMINGLING TRANSFERENCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Doris K

    2017-06-01

    There are least two different but interrelated motivational systems in human beings both of which begin in infancy: the attachment system and the separate, but interacting, psychodynamic system. Each of these systems is the basis of transference. A major focus of the paper is the affect-regulating feature of the attachment system. Infants' emotional states can be well-regulated or dysregulated as they emerge in interactions with their primary caregiver. Aberrant interactions of dysregulation typically lead to the development of insecure or disorganized attachments. Rudimentary transference fantasies initially emerge as the child makes sense or meaning about such maladaptive interactions. Our complex minds comprise multi-determined, personally organized fantasies which include those derived from both the attachment system and the psychodynamic one. I present a clinical description of how these two transference fantasies intersect in the mental life of a patient. A clinical case is offered whose focus is on enactments, transferences, and countertransference.

  12. Attachment organization in Arabic-speaking refugees with post traumatic stress disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    2016-01-01

    As a part of an ongoing clinical study of refugees with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the primary objective of the current study was to examine and describe the distribution of adult attachment patterns as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) in Arabic-speaking refugees....... A total of 43 adult male and female refugees with Iraqi and Palestinian backgrounds completed the AAI. Sixty-seven percent of the sample was classified as Unresolved with respect to loss or trauma and a substantial proportion of insecure attachment representations (14% Secure-Autonomous, 39% Dismissing...

  13. Influence of employees' attachment styles on their life satisfaction as mediated by job satisfaction and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reizer, Abira

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain better insight into the associations between attachment styles and employees' life satisfaction. This was achieved by examining the mediating roles of burnout and job satisfaction. Three hundred and thirty-nine employees, from a convenience community sample, participated in the current study. Results of the mediation model indicated that the associations between avoidance and life satisfaction were mediated by burnout and job satisfaction. However, the associations between attachment anxiety and life satisfaction were mediated by burnout but not by job satisfaction. Theoretical and practical implications for organizations and for attachment theory at work are discussed.

  14. God as an Attachment Figure : A Case Study of the God Attachment Language and God Concepts of Anxiously Attached Christian Youths in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Counted, Victor

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the role of the Christian God as an attachment figure, using the attachment language criteria of a strong and enduring affectionate bond. Respondents were 15 anxiously attached Christian youths, purposefully selected for in-depth interviews to explore their God attachment

  15. The Role of Depression and Attachment Styles in Predicting Students’ Addiction to Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Abdollah; Mahmoodi-Aghdam, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study aimed at investigating the role of depression and attachment styles in predicting cell phone addiction. Methods In this descriptive correlational study, a sample including 100 students of Payame Noor University (PNU), Reyneh Center, Iran, in the academic year of 2013-2014 was selected using volunteer sampling. Participants were asked to complete the adult attachment inventory (AAI), Beck depression inventory-13 (BDI-13) and the cell phone overuse scale (COS). Findings Results of the stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that depression and avoidant attachment style were the best predictors of students’ cell phone addiction (R2 = 0.23). Conclusion The results of this study highlighted the predictive value of depression and avoidant attachment style concerning students’ cell phone addiction. PMID:26885356

  16. The Role of Depression and Attachment Styles in Predicting Students' Addiction to Cell Phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Abdollah; Mahmoodi-Aghdam, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the role of depression and attachment styles in predicting cell phone addiction. In this descriptive correlational study, a sample including 100 students of Payame Noor University (PNU), Reyneh Center, Iran, in the academic year of 2013-2014 was selected using volunteer sampling. Participants were asked to complete the adult attachment inventory (AAI), Beck depression inventory-13 (BDI-13) and the cell phone overuse scale (COS). Results of the stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that depression and avoidant attachment style were the best predictors of students' cell phone addiction (R(2) = 0.23). The results of this study highlighted the predictive value of depression and avoidant attachment style concerning students' cell phone addiction.

  17. Emotion regulation: influences of attachment relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, J

    1994-01-01

    Emotion regulation and quality of attachment are closely linked. It has been proposed here that one influence on individual differences in emotion regulation may be a child's attachment history. Individuals characterized by the flexible ability to accept and integrate both positive and negative emotions are generally securely attached; on the other hand, individuals characterized by either limited or heightened negative affect are more likely to be insecurely attached. While acknowledging the role of infant temperament, I have focused on the role of social factors in examining the link between emotion regulation and attachment. The approach to emotion regulation taken here--that emotion regulation is adaptive in helping a child attain her goals--is esentially a functionalist approach (Bretherton et al., 1986; Campos et al., 1983), consistent with earlier views of emotions as important regulators of interpersonal relationships (Charlesworth, 1982; Izard, 1977). It has been proposed that patterns of emotion regulation serve an important function for the infant: the function of maintaining the relationship with the attachment figure. Emotion regulation has been described as serving this function in two ways. First, the function of maintaining the relationship is thought to be served when infant emotion regulation contributes to the infant's more generalized regulation of the attachment system in response to experiences with the caregiver. Infants who have experienced rejection (insecure/avoidant infants) are thought to minimize negative affect in order to avoid the risk of further rejection. Infants whose mothers have been relatively unavailable or inconsistently available (insecure/ambivalent infants) are thought to maximize negative affect in order to increase the likelihood of gaining the attention of a frequently unavailable caregiver. Both these patterns of emotion regulation help ensure that the child will remain close to the parent and thereby be protected

  18. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Nishola Rawatlal; Wendy Kliewer; Basil J Pillay

    2015-01-01

    Background. Adolescence represents a challenging transitional period where changes in biological, emotional, cognitive and social domains can increase the risk of developing internalised problems including subthreshold depression. Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family functioning may increase risk for depressive symptoms or may reduce such risk. Adolescent-parent attachment, adolescent-perceived support from parents and family functioning were examined as correlates...

  19. Attachment and the Development of Relationship Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn Seifert; Kathryn Seifert M

    2016-01-01

    Thoughtful observations and research can help society understand violence and enable us to find ways of preventing future instances of horrible events. Healthy, developmentally appropriate, and successful attachments need to be formed in order for children to grow up to be healthy adults. Violence appears to be, in part, the result of rejections or failed attachments at the three critical periods of human development: early childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood. Trauma and/or rejection ...

  20. Attachment of Agrobacterium to Plant Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Matthysse, Ann G.

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens binds to the surfaces of inanimate objects, plants, and fungi. These bacteria are excellent colonizers of root surfaces. In addition, they also bind to soil particles and to the surface of artificial or man-made substances, such as polyesters and plastics. The mechanisms of attachment to these different surfaces have not been completely elucidated. At least two types of binding have been described unipolarpolysaccharide-dependent polar attachment and unipolar polysac...

  1. Attachment Stimulates Exopolysaccharide Synthesis by a Bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Vandevivere, Philippe; Kirchman, David L.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that solid surfaces may stimulate attached bacteria to produce exopolymers. Addition of sand to shake-flask cultures seemed to induce exopolymer synthesis by a number of subsurface isolates, as revealed by optical microscopy. Several additional lines of evidence indicated that exopolymer production by attached cells (in continuous-flow sand-packed columns) was greater than by their free-living counterparts. Total carbohydrates and extracellular polysaccharid...

  2. Attachment Stimulates Exopolysaccharide Synthesis by a Bacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandevivere, P.; Kirchman, D. L.

    1993-07-28

    Addition of sand to shake-flask cultures seemed to induce exopolymer synthesis by a number of subsurface bacterial isolates, as revealed by optical microscopy. Several additional lines of evidence indicate that exopolymer production by attached cells (in continuous-flow, sand-packed columns) was greater than by their free-living counterparts. The mechanism by which attachment stimulated exopolymer synthesis did not involve changes of the specific growth rate, growth stage, or limiting nutrient.

  3. A Comprehensive Review of New Attachment Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Calculus attachment in cemental separations . J Periodontol 40: 125, 1969 . 34. Schaffer, E. M.: Histologic...121, 1965. 30. Zander, H. A.: The attachment of calculus to root surfaces. J Periodontol 24: 16, 1953. 31. Kopczyk, R. A., and Conroy, C. W.: The...periodontology. J Periodontol 40: 155, 1969 . 4. Waerhaug, J .: Review of Cohen: "Role of periodontal surgery." J Dent Res 50: 219, 1971. 5. Melcher,

  4. Tobacco Use and Attachment Style in Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Mary Heath; Weierbach, Florence; Cao, Yan; Phillips, Ken

    2017-07-01

    Tobacco has been recognized as the number one cause of preventable death in America and results in almost 5.2 million years of potential life lost each year. The use of tobacco products is highly correlated with pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, and other forms of chronic illness in America. New tobacco products are trending in the tobacco market such as the water pipe/hookah and e-cigarettes. With e-cigarettes and other newer forms of tobacco on the rise, it is important to look at the underlying factors for using all kinds of tobacco products as a means of prevention. Certain adult attachment styles (secure, preoccupied, dismissing-avoidant, and fearful-avoidant) in emotionally meaningful relationships could be indicators for physical illness, mental illness, and even addiction. This study investigated whether or not there is a relationship between tobacco use and attachment style. Based on a university-wide survey that was sent out at a university in Appalachia with 522 participants, demographic data revealed 68.5% (n = 358) did not currently use tobacco products. Of those who did currently use tobacco products 54.5% (n = 90) were male, 84.8% (n = 140) were undergraduate students, and 66.7% (n = 110) were between the ages of 18-25. For individuals who used tobacco 23.5% (n = 38) were in the secure attachment group, 27.8% (n = 45) were in the dismissing-avoidant attachment group, 30.2% (n = 49) were in the fearful-avoidant attachment group, and 18.5% (n = 30) were in the preoccupied attachment group. Chi Square analysis demonstrated that attachment style was significantly (p tobacco users and non-users revealing that there is a possibility for prevention of smoking initiation through the development of a secure attachment style.

  5. Adult Attachment Style, Hardiness, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Maddi, S. R. (2004). Hardiness: An operationalization of existential cour- age. Journal of Humanistic Psychology , 44, 279–298. doi: 10.1177...but not challenge, predict positive mood. These results suggest that more secure attachment style and psychological hardiness serve as resilience...S. (1978). Pat- terns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hill- sdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Ainsworth, M. D. S., & Wittig, B. A

  6. Aberrant attachment of orbicularis oculi: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehgal Ritu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A morphological peculiarity was observed in the form of an aberrant lateral bony attachment of the orbital part of the Orbicularis oculi muscle on the zygomatic bone, during routine dissection of a cadaver of an adult male of Indian origin. Fibers of this part of the muscle are not known to show any lateral attachment on bone. This paper discusses the presentation, probable embryological cause and clinical implications of this unusual finding.

  7. Exploring the causal effect of interpretation bias on attachment expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Winter, S.; Bosmans, G.; Salemink, E.

    2017-01-01

    Attachment theory implies that children's inclination to interpret attachment figures behavior as supportive and available causally influences children's trust in their attachment figure's availability. An experiment was conducted to test whether training children (8–12 years old) to interpret

  8. Anxious attachment may be a vulnerability factor for developing embitterment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, D.; Middendorp, H. van; Geenen, R.

    2012-01-01

    By predisposing to ego-defensive strategies in social situations, a negative attachment history may promote embitterment. The present study identified attachment anxiety - more than attachment avoidance - as a possible vulnerability factor for the development and maintenance of embitterment. This

  9. Attachment-based intervention for maltreating families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabulsy, George M; Pascuzzo, Katherine; Moss, Ellen; St-Laurent, Diane; Bernier, Annie; Cyr, Chantal; Dubois-Comtois, Karine

    2008-07-01

    This article presents attachment theory-based intervention strategies as a means of addressing the core parent-child interaction deficits that characterize homes in which children are exposed to maltreatment. The article outlines the socioemotional and cognitive outcomes of maltreatment and proposes that although many prevention programs target different parental and family characteristics, few address the core relationship issues that are at stake. Recent research on attachment-based intervention strategies, aimed at improving the sensitivity and responsiveness of the parenting behaviors that children are exposed to, are presented as providing a means of addressing this domain. Attachment theory and research are briefly summarized, and the relational and interactional patterns observed in maltreating families, and their link to infant and child developmental outcome, are described. Research on attachment-based intervention is addressed, with a focus on studies conducted in the context of maltreating or high-risk families. This work is synthesized to present the basic components viewed as critical to effective attachment intervention with maltreating families. Finally, the authors end with recommendations aimed at the effective implementation of attachment-based intervention. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Attachment and hikikomori: a psychosocial developmental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Alexander; Dickie, Jane R

    2013-02-01

    Hikikomori (acute social withdrawal) is a social issue in Japan that affects both the society and the lives of the individual sufferers. This study aims to connect attachment theory and hikikomori by using a culturally sensitive psychosocial developmental model that outlines the various stages of attachment throughout the developmental years. Twenty-four hikikomori sufferers and 60 comparison group participants were given questionnaires assessing parent and peer relationships, temperament and school experiences. We found the hikikomori participants had a higher incidence of ambivalent attachment, reported more parental and peer rejection and bullying, and expressed greater temperamental shyness. Path analysis supported our developmental model. We found that shy temperament and parental rejection predicted ambivalent attachment, which when coupled with peer rejection predicted hikikomori. Our model implies that treatment and prevention may require attention to attachment insecurities in early childhood, peer rejection in middle childhood and/or early adolescence. We believe it is helpful in understanding hikikomori to first understand how the attachment system balances security with exploration and the anxiety associated with novelty and challenge. Finally, we examine implications of the model for intervention, treatment and future research.

  11. Attachment styles and violence within couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Sharon B; Bond, Michael

    2004-12-01

    This study examined whether an individual's attachment style and/or a couple's combination of attachment styles predicted violence within the marriage and explored whether other variables moderated the risk of violence. Measures of attachment style were administered to 41 discordant couples who presented to four different clinics. The couples' presenting complaints were not violence, and those who did report violence on questioning did not manifest severe violence, i.e., requiring shelters or legal intervention. Self-report measures of violence and marital satisfaction, including problem-solving communication, were also given. Using analysis of covariance and logistic regression, the relative contributions to strength of predicting being a victim of conjugal violence were calculated. An anxious attachment style was a significant predictor of females being victims of violence and of men not being victims. A dismissive style in men was predictive of men being victims when entered into the model with problem solving communication. The combination of anxiously attached females and dismissive males was a potent predictor of violence, and longer duration of marriage and poor problem-solving communication added power to the prediction. Marital interaction, which is influenced by couples' attachment styles and problem-solving communication, is a significant factor in marital partners experiencing physical violence. For couples with milder levels of violence, a more nuanced approach (compared with the legally based approach used for severe violence) seems indicated.

  12. Attachment stimulates exopolysaccharide synthesis by a bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevivere, P; Kirchman, D L

    1993-10-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that solid surfaces may stimulate attached bacteria to produce exopolymers. Addition of sand to shake-flask cultures seemed to induce exopolymer synthesis by a number of subsurface isolates, as revealed by optical microscopy. Several additional lines of evidence indicated that exopolymer production by attached cells (in continuous-flow sand-packed columns) was greater than by their free-living counterparts. Total carbohydrates and extracellular polysaccharides, both normalized to cell protein, were greater (2.5- and 5-fold, respectively) for attached cells than for free-living cells. Also, adsorption of a polyanion-binding dye to the exopolymer fraction was sixfold greater for attached cells than for unattached cells. When surface-grown cells were resuspended in fresh medium, exopolymer production decreased to the level characteristic of unattached cells, which ruled out the possibility that attached cells comprised a subpopulation of sticky mucoid variants. The mechanism by which attachment stimulated exopolymer synthesis did not involve changes of the specific growth rate, growth stage, or limiting nutrient.

  13. Extraforaminal ligament attachments of human lumbar nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, G A; Delwel, E J; Hoogland, P V J M; van der Veen, M R; Wuisman, P I J M; Stoeckart, R; Kleinrensink, G J; Snijders, C J

    2005-03-15

    An anatomic study of the extraforaminal attachments of the lumbar spinal nerves was performed using human lumbar spinal columns. To identify and describe the existence of ligamentous structures at each lumbar level that attach lumbar spinal nerves to structures at the level of the extraforaminal region. During the last 120 years, several mechanisms to protect the spinal nerve against traction have been described. All these structures involved are located in the spinal canal, proximal to the intervertebral foramen. Five embalmed human lumbar spines (T12-S1) were used. Bilaterally, the extraforaminal region was dissected to describe and measure anatomic structures and their relationships. Histology was performed with staining on the sites of attachment and along the ligament. The levels T12-L2 show bilaterally 2 ligaments, a superior extraforaminal ligament and an inferior extraforaminal ligament. The superior extraforaminal ligament emerges from the joint capsule of the facet joints and inserts in both, the intervertebral disc and the ventral crista of the intervertebral foramen, passing the spinal nerve laterally. In one specimen on level L2-L3, the superior extraforaminal ligament is not attached to the spinal nerve. The inferior extraforaminal ligament emerges from the intervertebral disc, passing the nerve medially and attaching the spinal nerve. At the levels L2-L5, the inferior extraforaminal ligaments are only attached to the intervertebral disc, not to the joint capsule. Histologically, the ligaments consisted of mainly collagenous structures. Ligamentous connections exist between lumbar extraforaminal spinal nerves and nearby structures.

  14. Wait Up!: Attachment and Sovereign Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duschinsky, Robbie; Greco, Monica; Solomon, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Sociologists and feminist scholars have, over many decades, characterised attachment as a social construction that functions to support political and gender conservatism. We accept that attachment theory has seen use to these ends and consider recent deployments of attachment theory as justification for a minimal State within conservative political discourse in the UK since 2009. However, we contest that attachment is reducible to its discursive construction. We consider Judith Butler’s depiction of the infant attached to an abusive caregiver as a foundation and parallel to the position of the adult citizen subjected to punitive cultural norms and political institutions. We develop and qualify Butler’s account, drawing on the insights offered by the work of Lauren Berlant. We also return to Foucault’s Psychiatric Power lectures, in which familial relations are situated as an island of sovereign power within the sea of modern disciplinary institutions. These reflections help advance analysis of three important issues: the social and political implications of attachment research; the relationship between disciplinary and sovereign power in the affective dynamic of subjection; and the political and ethical status of professional activity within the psy disciplines. PMID:28904425

  15. The relationship between attachment and cognitive development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional and cognitive development of personality have mostly been explored independently in the history of psychology. However, in the last decades, there have been more and more frequent arguments in favour of the idea that the emotional relationship between the mother and the child in early childhood, through forming a secure or insecure attachment style, is to a certain extent linked to the cognitive development. For example, securely attached children, compared to the insecurely attached, have more frequent and longer episodes of symbolic play and are more advanced in the domain of language in early childhood. Securely attached children are also more efficient and persistent in solving problems. Before starting school, securely attached children understand better the feelings and beliefs of others, as well as the fact that these determine people’s behaviour, thus having an opportunity to understand and predict this behaviour better. In this paper, we will attempt to point out some of the mechanisms that are assumed to be mediators between the emotional and cognitive development. Namely, since it enables a more independent exploration of the surroundings, more quality social relations among children, higher self-esteem, better focus and more developed communicative skills, secure attachment might potentially be linked to the cognitive development. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179002

  16. ENHANCING BRAND EXPERIENCE ALONG WITH EMOTIONAL ATTACHMENT TOWARDS TRUST AND BRAND LOYALTY

    OpenAIRE

    Elia Ardyan; Heny Kurnianingsih; Ginanjar Rahmawan; Utomo Wibisono; Winata Winata

    2016-01-01

    Research on Samsung’s smartphone consumers in Surakarta, have aimed to (1) Test the influence of brand experience on brand trust; (2) Test brand beliefs on brand loyalty; (3) Test on emotional attachment brand experience; (4) Test emotional attachment on brand trust; (5) Test brand experience on brand loyalty. The sample of this research was obtained from 100 respondents who have purchased a Samsung smartphone with the number of the purchase more than once. Methods of analysis used in this s...

  17. Examining psychopathy from an attachment perspective: the role of fear of rejection and abandonment

    OpenAIRE

    Conradi, HJ; Boertien, SD; Cavus, H; Verschuere, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    A key feature of psychopathy, a self-centered orientation towards others and a failure to truly connect, is poorly understood. The attachment framework can be used to examine underlying interpersonal mechanisms. Because of the overall failure to connect, we anticipated, and found, in a large undergraduate sample (n=1074) that both affective-interpersonal traits and impulsive-irresponsible psychopathy facets were positively related to attachment avoidance. Different dynamics may underlie this ...

  18. Male partners' attachment styles as predictors of women's coerced first sexual intercourse in Chinese college students' dating relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shanshan; Tsang, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory has great potential to help our understanding of the apparent contradiction between violence and intimacy. Yet very few studies applied this theory to explain or predict sexual coercion in the context of intimate relationships. This study examined the relation between male partners' attachment styles and women's coerced first sexual intercourse in dating relationships. There were 927 valid questionnaires collected by purposive snowball sampling in five main cities in China to college students who were currently in a romantic relationship. Results showed that in both male and female samples, male partners' anxious attachment style were significantly and positively predicted emotional manipulation coercive tactics. In the female sample, male partners' two attachment styles (anxious and avoidant) positively predicted violence threat tactics, and male partners' avoidant attachment style positively predicted defection threat tactics. The research hypothesis of this study has been successfully supported, and implications and limitations were discussed.

  19. Does Attachment Get Under the Skin? Adult Romantic Attachment and Cortisol Responses to Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietromonaco, Paula R; DeBuse, Casey J; Powers, Sally I

    2013-02-01

    Although many studies indicate that people in low quality relationships are less healthy, precisely how relationships influence health remains unclear. We focus on one physiological pathway that may provide clues to understanding the link between relationships and health: the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Evidence indicates that attachment processes in adult romantic relationships are associated with HPA responses to stress (assessed via cortisol levels). Specifically, attachment insecurity predicts different cortisol patterns than does attachment security, especially when the stressor potentially threatens the relationship. Thus, attachment may get under the skin through biological responses to attachment-relevant stressors, but further work is needed to pinpoint the complete physiological and behavioral pathways through which attachment may influence health and disease outcomes.

  20. God as the ultimate attachment figure for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicirelli, Victor G

    2004-12-01

    Attachment to God among older adults is an area of research that has been neglected thus far. The existence of such an attachment was explored in a study of 109 elders aged 70-97. A modest proportion of elders displayed a strong attachment to God, assessed by coding interview data for indicators of attachment. Strength of attachment to God was related (p God than those with other affiliations. Findings are interpreted in relation to existing literature on attachment to God.