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Sample records for attachment iv sample

  1. [Infants' attachment security in a vulnerable French sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereno, S; Guedeney, N; Dugravier, R; Greacen, T; Saïas, T; Tubach, F; Ulgen, S; Matos, I; Guédeney, A

    2017-04-01

    Attachment is a long lasting emotional link established between infants and their caregivers. The quality of early relationships allows infants to safely explore their environment and contribute to the establishment of a broad range of social skills. Several intervention programs targeting infant attachment have been implemented in different contexts, showing diverse degrees of efficacy. The present paper describes, for the first time, children's attachment quality distributions in a French multi-risk population, with a preventive intervention, usual or reinforced. In the CAPEDP study (Parenting and Attachment in Early Childhood: reducing mental health disorder risks and promoting resilience), a sub-sample of 117 women was recruited to assess the effects of this home-visiting program on children's attachment security. With that intent, the Strange Situation Paradigm was used when infants were between 12 and 16 months of age. In the intervention group, 63% (n=41) of the infants were coded as secure, while 15% (n=10) of them were coded as insecure-avoidant and 22% (n=14) as insecure-ambivalent/resistant. 56% (n=29) of control group infants (usual care) were coded as secure, while 27% (n=14) were coded as insecure-avoidant and 17% (n=9) as insecure-ambivalent/resistant. Even if the percentage of children with a secure attachment in the reinforced intervention group was higher than that of the control group, this difference did not reach the threshold of significance [Chi 2 (2)=2.40, P=0.30]. Intervention group distributions were closer to normative samples, and these distributions show the clinical impact of our program. In general, preventive interventions focused on attachment quality have moderate effects but, in our case, several factors might have contributed to lower the statistical impact of the program. Firstly, the control group cannot be considered has having received zero intervention for two reasons: (a) the French usual perinatal health system (Maternal

  2. The dynamics of attachment insecurity and paranoid thoughts: An experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitko, Katarzyna; Varese, Filippo; Sellwood, William; Hammond, Amy; Bentall, Richard

    2016-12-30

    It has been proposed that insecure attachment can have adverse effects on the course of psychosis once symptoms have emerged. There is longitudinal evidence that increased insecure attachment is associated with increased severity of psychotic symptoms. The present study examined whether in the flow of daily life attachment insecurity fluctuates, whether elevated stress precedes the occurrence of attachment insecurity, and whether elevated attachment insecurity precedes the occurrence of paranoia. Twenty clinical participants with a psychosis-spectrum diagnosis and twenty controls were studied over six consecutive days using the experience sampling method (ESM). The findings revealed that fluctuations in attachment insecurity were significantly higher in the clinical group, that elevated stress predicted a subsequent increase in attachment insecurity, and that elevated attachment insecurity predicted a subsequent increase in paranoia; this effect was not observed in auditory hallucinations once co-occurring symptoms were controlled for. Finally, although previous ESM studies have shown that low self-esteem precedes the occurrence of paranoia, attachment insecurity continued to predict paranoia even when self-esteem was controlled for. The findings suggest that attachment security may be associated with a lower risk of paranoia, and that psychological interventions should address attachment beliefs and work towards establishing a sense of attachment security. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Associations among Adult Attachment Presentations, Maternal Sensitivity, and Infant-Mother Attachment in a Sample of Adolescent Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Mary J.; Carlson, Elizabeth A.

    1995-01-01

    Associations among adolescent attachment organization, maternal sensitivity, and infant attachment organization were examined prospectively in 72 teenaged mother-infant dyads. Pregnant teenagers' attachment organizations predicted both sensitivity and infant-mother attachments. Associations between maternal sensitivity and infant attachment were…

  4. Attachments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this attachment to the Annual report 1999 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) the economic and personnel data of the UJD, used abbreviations, as well as the International nuclear event scales - INES are presented. Professional level of staff of the UJD is influenced by the education structure of its staff, when nearly 75% of the total number of staff has a university degree. A of 31.12.1999 there were 79 employees as average calculated number. Financing of the regulator in 1999 was mainly provided from the state budget, which represented 96% of all expenditures. The total volume of expenditures for UJD activity funded from the state budget achieved as of 31.12.1999 Slovak crowns (SK) 67 067 thousands. In the main category of expenditures an amount of SK 63 499 thous. was used for current activities, and the difference of SK 3 587 thous. was used for raising capital assets. Significant increase expenditures in the evaluated year compared to the 1998 was caused by a special purpose payment made by the Slovakia into the Fund for reconstruction of the Chernobyl cover (SK 19 996 thous.) funded through the budget chapter of the regulator. In the structure of current expenditures the highest share is taken by current transfers to abroad in total of SK 22 543 thous., i.e. contribution to reconstruction of Chernobyl cover made to the EBRD and contributions to the Fund of Technical Co-operation of the IAEA. For procurement of goods and services an amount of SK 19 814 thous. was spent, of which SK 7 054 thous. was used for funding science and technology tasks which were contracted out. The decision-making process in performing state supervision forced UJD to contact out various expert opinions and studies, for which UJD paid SK 2 058 thous. in total. Other expenditures in a volume of SK 10 702 thous. represent travel expenses, goods and services for UJD, rent for offices and other inevitable expenses. Salaries of staff represented SK 15 953

  5. Very extensive nonmaternal care predicts mother-infant attachment disorganization: Convergent evidence from two samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Nancy L; Allen, Sydnye D; Christopher, Caroline Heaton; Umemura, Tomotaka; Jacobvitz, Deborah B

    2015-08-01

    We examined whether a maximum threshold of time spent in nonmaternal care exists, beyond which infants have an increased risk of forming a disorganized infant-mother attachment. The hours per week infants spent in nonmaternal care at 7-8 months were examined as a continuous measure and as a dichotomous threshold (over 40, 50 and 60 hr/week) to predict infant disorganization at 12-15 months. Two different samples (Austin and NICHD) were used to replicate findings and control for critical covariates: mothers' unresolved status and frightening behavior (assessed in the Austin sample, N = 125), quality of nonmaternal caregiving (assessed in the NICHD sample, N = 1,135), and family income and infant temperament (assessed in both samples). Only very extensive hours of nonmaternal care (over 60 hr/week) and mothers' frightening behavior independently predicted attachment disorganization. A polynomial logistic regression performed on the larger NICHD sample indicated that the risk of disorganized attachment exponentially increased after exceeding 60 hr/week. In addition, very extensive hours of nonmaternal care only predicted attachment disorganization after age 6 months (not prior). Findings suggest that during a sensitive period of attachment formation, infants who spend more than 60 hr/week in nonmaternal care may be at an increased risk of forming a disorganized attachment.

  6. Attachment to God, Images of God, and Psychological Distress in a Nationwide Sample of Presbyterians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Matt; Ellison, Christopher G; Marcum, Jack P

    2010-01-01

    Drawing broadly on insights from attachment theory, the present study outlines a series of theoretical arguments linking styles of attachment to God, perceptions of the nature of God (i.e., God imagery), and stressful life events with psychological distress. Main effects and potential stress-moderator effects are then evaluated using data from a nationwide sample of elders and rank-and-file members of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). Key findings indicate that secure attachment to God is inversely associated with distress, whereas both anxious attachment to God and stressful life events are positively related to distress. Once variations in patterns of attachment to God are controlled, there are no net effects of God imagery on levels of distress. There is only modest support for the hypothesis that God images moderate the effects of stressful life events on psychological distress, but no stress-moderator effects were found for attachment to God. Study limitations are identified, and findings are discussed in terms of their implications for religion-health research, as well as recent extensions of attachment theory.

  7. Validity of the WISC-IV Spanish for a clinically referred sample of Hispanic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel Montes, Liza E; Allen, Daniel N; Puente, Antonio E; Neblina, Cris

    2010-06-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) is the most commonly used intelligence test for children. Five years ago, a Spanish version of the WISC-IV was published (WISC-IV Spanish; Wechsler, 2005), but a limited amount of published information is available regarding its utility when assessing clinical samples. The current study included 107 children who were Spanish speaking and of Puerto Rican descent that had been administered the WISC-IV Spanish. They were subdivided into a clinical sample of 35 children with diagnoses of various forms of brain dysfunction (primarily learning disability, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and epilepsy) and a comparison group made up of 72 normal children who were part of the WISC-IV Spanish version standardization sample. Comparisons between these groups and the standardization sample were performed for the WISC-IV Spanish index and subtest scores. Results indicated that the clinical sample performed worse than the comparison samples on the Working Memory and Processing Speed Indexes, although findings varied to some extent depending on whether the clinical group was compared with the normal comparison group or the standardization sample. These findings provide support for the criterion validity of the WISC-IV Spanish when it is used to assess a clinically referred sample with brain dysfunction.

  8. The contribution of social rank and attachment theory to depression in a non clinical sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puissant, Sylvia Pinna; Gauthier, Jean-Marie; Van Oirbeek, Robin

    2011-11-01

    This study explores the relative contribution of the overall quality of attachment to the mother, to the father and to peers (Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment scales), the style of attachment towards peers (Attachment Questionnaire for Children scale), the social rank variables (submissive behavior and social comparison), and sex and age variables in predicting the depression score (Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) on a non-psychiatric sample of 13-18 year old adolescents (n = 225). Results of our integrated model (adjusted R-Square of .50) show that attachment variables (overall quality of attachment to the father and to the mother), social rank variables (social comparison and submissive behavior), age and sex are important in predicting depressive symptoms during adolescence. Moreover, the attachment to peers variables (quality of attachment to peers, secure and ambivalent style of attachment) and sex are mediated by the social rank variables (social comparison and submissive behavior).

  9. Focusing on the adult attachment style in schizophrenia in community mental health centres: validation of the Psychosis Attachment Measure (PAM) in a German-speaking sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvrgic, Sara; Beck, Eva-Marina; Cavelti, Marialuisa; Kossowsky, Joe; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter; Vauth, Roland

    2012-07-01

    Assessing attachment style in people with schizophrenia may be important to identify a risk factor in building a strong therapeutic relationship and so indirectly to understand the development of mal-compliance as one of the major obstacles in the treatment of schizophrenia. The present study analysed the psychometric properties of the German version of the Psychosis Attachment Measure (PAM), which assesses avoidant and anxious attachment style. A sample of 127 patients suffering from chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder participated in this study. In testing discriminant validity, we assessed psychopathology, depression, therapeutic relationship and service engagement. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and factor structure were analysed. The German version of PAM exhibited acceptable to good internal and test-retest reliabilities and the two-factor structure of the English version could be replicated. Avoidant attachment style was related to higher levels of positive symptoms and to a poorer therapeutic relationship. In the context of external validation, a regression analysis revealed that a poor therapeutic relationship correlated with avoidant attachment style, independent of anxious attachment style and depressive symptoms. Anxious attachment was associated with higher treatment adherence. Both insecure attachment styles (avoidant and anxious) were found to be correlated with higher levels of depression, but only attachment anxiety had an independent predictive value for self-reported depression in regression analysis. The German version of PAM displayed satisfactory psychometric properties and seems to be a reliable measure for assessing attachment style in individuals with schizophrenia. Validation of PAM led to the finding that only the avoidant attachment style might be a risk factor when building a strong therapeutic relationship in schizophrenia. In future studies, other factors influencing therapeutic relationship should be

  10. The Role of Attachment Style in Facebook Use and Social Capital: Evidence from University Students and a National Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Social networking sites (SNSs) can be beneficial tools for users to gain social capital. Although social capital consists of emotional and informational resources accumulated through interactions with strong or weak social network ties, the existing literature largely ignores attachment style in this context. This study employed attachment theory to explore individuals' attachment orientations toward Facebook usage and toward online and offline social capital. A university student sample (study 1) and a representative national sample (study 2) showed consistent results. Secure attachment was positively associated with online bonding and bridging capital and offline bridging capital. Additionally, secure attachment had an indirect effect on all capital through Facebook time. Avoidant attachment was negatively associated with online bonding capital. Anxious–ambivalent attachment had a direct association with online bonding capital and an indirect effect on all capital through Facebook. Interaction frequency with good friends on Facebook positively predicted all online and offline capital, whereas interaction frequency with average friends on Facebook positively predicted online bridging capital. Interaction frequency with acquaintances on Facebook was negatively associated with offline bonding capital. The study concludes that attachment style is a significant factor in guiding social orientation toward Facebook connections with different ties and influences online social capital. The study extends attachment theory among university students to a national sample to provide more generalizable evidence for the current literature. Additionally, this study extends attachment theory to the SNS setting with a nuanced examination of types of Facebook friends after controlling extraversion. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:25751049

  11. The role of attachment style in Facebook use and social capital: evidence from university students and a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jih-Hsuan

    2015-03-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) can be beneficial tools for users to gain social capital. Although social capital consists of emotional and informational resources accumulated through interactions with strong or weak social network ties, the existing literature largely ignores attachment style in this context. This study employed attachment theory to explore individuals' attachment orientations toward Facebook usage and toward online and offline social capital. A university student sample (study 1) and a representative national sample (study 2) showed consistent results. Secure attachment was positively associated with online bonding and bridging capital and offline bridging capital. Additionally, secure attachment had an indirect effect on all capital through Facebook time. Avoidant attachment was negatively associated with online bonding capital. Anxious-ambivalent attachment had a direct association with online bonding capital and an indirect effect on all capital through Facebook. Interaction frequency with good friends on Facebook positively predicted all online and offline capital, whereas interaction frequency with average friends on Facebook positively predicted online bridging capital. Interaction frequency with acquaintances on Facebook was negatively associated with offline bonding capital. The study concludes that attachment style is a significant factor in guiding social orientation toward Facebook connections with different ties and influences online social capital. The study extends attachment theory among university students to a national sample to provide more generalizable evidence for the current literature. Additionally, this study extends attachment theory to the SNS setting with a nuanced examination of types of Facebook friends after controlling extraversion. Implications for future research are discussed.

  12. Attachment Patterns and Complex Trauma in a Sample of Adults Diagnosed with Gender Dysphoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Giovanardi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated attachment representations and complex trauma in a sample of gender dysphoric adults. Although it has been proven that the psychological wellbeing of gender diverse persons is largely mediated by family acceptance and support, research on their relationships with parental figures is scarce. A total of 95 adults took part in the study. The attachment distribution was as follows: 27% secure, 27% insecure and 46% disorganized. Regarding early traumas, 56% experienced four or more traumatic forms. Further, gender dysphoric adults showed significantly higher levels of attachment disorganization and polyvictimisation, relative to controls. Comparisons of subgroups, defined by natal gender, showed that trans women, compared to control males, had more involving and physically and psychologically abusive fathers, and were more often separated from their mothers; trans men, relative to female controls, had more involving mothers and were more frequently separated from and neglected by their fathers. The research has several implications for treatment, clinical health psychology, family support and education.

  13. Zirconium(IV) functionalized magnetic nanocomposites for extraction of organophosphorus pesticides from environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Huang, Tengjun; Feng, Shun; Wang, Jide

    2016-07-22

    The widespread use of organophosphate pesticides (OPPs) in agriculture leads to residue accumulation in the environment which is dangerous to human health and disrupts the ecological balance. In this work, one nanocomposite immobilized zirconium (Zr, IV) was prepared and used as the affinity probes to quickly and selectively extract organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) from water samples. The Fe3O4-ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)@Zr(IV) nanocomposites (NPs) were prepared by simply mixing Zr(IV) ions with Fe3O4-EDTA NPs synthesized by one-pot chemical co-precipitation method. The immobilized Zr(IV) ions were further utilized to capture OPPs based on their high affinity for the phosphate moiety in OPPs. Coupled with GC-MS, four OPPs were used as models to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection for target OPPs were in the range of 0.10-10.30ngmL(-1) with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.61-4.40% (n=3), respectively. The linear ranges were over three orders of magnitudes (correlation coefficients, R(2)>0.9995). The Fe3O4-EDTA@Zr(IV) NPs were successfully applied to extract OPPs samples with recoveries of 86.95-112.60% and RSDs of 1.20-10.42% (n=3) from two spiked real water. By the proposed method, the matrix interference could be effectively eliminated. We hope our finding can provide a promising alternative for the fast extraction of OPPs from complex real samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The dynamics of attachment insecurity and paranoid thoughts:An experience sampling study

    OpenAIRE

    Sitko, Katarzyna; Varese, Filippo; Sellwood, William; Hammond, Amy; Bentall, Richard

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that insecure attachment can have adverse effects on the course of psychosis once symptoms have emerged. There is longitudinal evidence that increased insecure attachment is associated with increased severity of psychotic symptoms. The present study examined whether in the flow of daily life attachment insecurity fluctuates, whether elevated stress precedes the occurrence of attachment insecurity, and whether elevated attachment insecurity precedes the occurrence of paran...

  15. Serum chromium levels sampled with steel needle versus plastic IV cannula. Does method matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Ø; Overgaard, Søren

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Modern metal-on-metal (MoM) joint articulations releases metal ions to the body. Research tries to establish how much this elevates metal ion levels and whether it causes adverse effects. The steel needle that samples the blood may introduce additional chromium to the sample thereby...... causing bias. This study aimed to test that theory. METHODS: We compared serum chromium values for two sampling methods, steel needle and IV plastic cannula, as well as sampling sequence in 16 healthy volunteers. RESULTS: We found statistically significant chromium contamination from the steel needle...... with mean differences between the two methods of 0.073 ng/mL, for the first sample, and 0.033 ng/mL for the second. No difference was found between the first and second plastic sample. The first steel needle sample contained an average of 0.047 ng/mL more than the second. This difference was only borderline...

  16. Serum Chrome levels sampled with steel needle vs. plastic IV cannula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Overgaard, Søren

    2010-01-01

    . This study aimed to test that theory. Method: We compared serum chromium values for two sampling methods, steel needle and IV plastic cannula, as well as sampling sequence in 16 healthy volunteers. Results: We found statistically significant chromium contamination from the steel needle with mean differences......  Modern Metal-on-metal (MoM) joint articulations releases metal ions to the body. Research tries to establish how much this elevates metal ion levels and whether it causes adverse effects. The steel needle that samples the blood may introduce additional chromium to the sample thereby causing bias...... between the two methods of 0.073 ng/mL, for the first sample, and 0.033 ng/mL for the second. No difference was found between the first and second plastic sample. The first steel needle sample contained an average of 0.047 ng/mL more than the second. This difference was only borderline significant...

  17. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of WAIS-IV in a Clinical Sample: Examining a Bi-Factor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Collinson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of studies that have examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IV (WAIS-IV using the standardization sample. In this study, we investigate its factor structure on a clinical neuropsychology sample of mixed aetiology. Correlated factor, higher-order and bi-factor models are all tested. Overall, the results suggest that the WAIS-IV will be suitable for use with this population.

  18. Maternal secure-base scripts and children's attachment security in an adopted sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veríssimo, Manuela; Salvaterra, Fernanda

    2006-09-01

    Studies of families with adopted children are of special interest to attachment theorists because they afford opportunities to probe assumptions of attachment theory with regard to the developmental timing of interactions necessary to form primary attachments and also with regard to effects of shared genes on child attachment quality. In Bowlby's model, attachment-relevant behaviors and interactions are observable from the moment of birth, but for adoptive families, these interactions cannot begin until the child enters the family, sometimes several months or even years post-partum. Furthermore, because adoptive parents and adopted children do not usually share genes by common descent, any correspondence between attachment representations of the parent and secure base behavior of the child must arise as a consequence of dyadic interaction histories. The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether the child's age at the time of adoption or at the time of attachment assessment predicted child attachment security in adoptive families and also whether the adoptive mother's internal attachment representation predicted the child's attachment security. The participants were 106 mother - child dyads selected from the 406 adoptions carried out through the Lisbon Department of Adoption Services over a period of 3 years. The Attachment Behavior Q-Set (AQS; Waters, 1995) was used to assess secure base behavior and an attachment script representation task was used to assess the maternal attachment representations. Neither child's age at the time of adoption, nor age of the child at assessment significantly predicted the AQS security score; however, scores reflecting the presence and quality of maternal secure base scripts did predict AQS security. These findings support the notion that the transmission of attachment security across generations involves mutual exchanges and learning by the child and that the exchanges leading to secure attachment need not begin at birth

  19. Parental bonds and body dissatisfaction in a clinical sample: The mediating roles of attachment anxiety and media internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, Renee; Tasca, Giorgio A; Maxwell, Hilary; Balfour, Louise; Proulx, Genevieve; Bissada, Hany

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated an attachment theory model in which mother and father care were hypothesized to be indirectly related to body dissatisfaction mediated by attachment anxiety and media internalization. Participants were 232 women diagnosed with an eating disorder who completed a retrospective measure of parental bonds, and measures of attachment anxiety, media internalization, and body image. Mother care was negatively associated with body dissatisfaction, suggesting that recollection of mothers as less caring was directly related to poorer body image. Lower father care, was indirectly associated with greater body dissatisfaction mediated by higher attachment anxiety and higher media internalization. That is, women with an eating disorder who recollected fathers as less caring had higher attachment anxiety, which was related to greater internalizing of media-related thin ideals, that in turn was associated with poorer body image. Mothers and fathers may impact body dissatisfaction by differing mechanisms in clinical samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dimensions of adult attachment are significantly associated with specific affective temperament constellations in a Hungarian university sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andras; Papp, Barbara; Gonda, Xenia; Dome, Peter; Rihmer, Zoltan

    2016-02-01

    Related to emotion regulation and mental health, adult attachment and affective temperaments are relevant research topics of contemporary psychiatry and clinical psychology. However, to date, only one study investigated the relationship between these two constructs. Thus, we aimed to further reveal adult attachment's association with affective temperaments. Affective temperament and adult attachment dimensions of 1469 Hungarian university students were assessed with self-report measures (Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa and San Diego autoquestionnaire and Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, respectively). Age and measured variables were compared between genders with ANOVAs. Associations between attachment dimensions and affective temperaments were examined with Pearson's correlations and partial correlations; the moderation effect of age and gender on these relationships was tested with PROCESS macro. Using Fisher r-to-z transformation, we also compared our results with the findings of the previous study. Cohen's ds were used to report effect size and Cronbach's alphas were computed as indices of internal reliability. Significant correlations were found between attachment dimensions and affective temperaments. Correlations were especially robust between attachment anxiety and depressive, cyclothymic and anxious temperaments. Contrasted with the results of the previous study, hyperthymic temperament was negatively related to attachment avoidance and anxious temperament was significantly more strongly correlated with attachment anxiety in our study. We used a previous version of the adult attachment measure. Our sample differed from the target sample in several ways. Participants were not screened for mental disorders. Findings highlight that adult attachment dimensions are significantly associated with affective temperaments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The SDSS-IV MaNGA Sample: Design, Optimization, and Usage Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, David A.; Bundy, Kevin; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Yan, Renbin; Blanton, Michael R.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Sánchez-Gallego, José R.; Drory, Niv; Jones, Amy; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Law, David R.; Li, Cheng; MacDonald, Nicholas; Masters, Karen; Thomas, Daniel; Tinker, Jeremy; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Brownstein, Joel R.

    2017-09-01

    We describe the sample design for the SDSS-IV MaNGA survey and present the final properties of the main samples along with important considerations for using these samples for science. Our target selection criteria were developed while simultaneously optimizing the size distribution of the MaNGA integral field units (IFUs), the IFU allocation strategy, and the target density to produce a survey defined in terms of maximizing signal-to-noise ratio, spatial resolution, and sample size. Our selection strategy makes use of redshift limits that only depend on I-band absolute magnitude (M I ), or, for a small subset of our sample, M I and color (NUV - I). Such a strategy ensures that all galaxies span the same range in angular size irrespective of luminosity and are therefore covered evenly by the adopted range of IFU sizes. We define three samples: the Primary and Secondary samples are selected to have a flat number density with respect to M I and are targeted to have spectroscopic coverage to 1.5 and 2.5 effective radii (R e ), respectively. The Color-Enhanced supplement increases the number of galaxies in the low-density regions of color-magnitude space by extending the redshift limits of the Primary sample in the appropriate color bins. The samples cover the stellar mass range 5× {10}8≤slant {M}* ≤slant 3× {10}11 {M}⊙ {h}-2 and are sampled at median physical resolutions of 1.37 and 2.5 kpc for the Primary and Secondary samples, respectively. We provide weights that will statistically correct for our luminosity and color-dependent selection function and IFU allocation strategy, thus correcting the observed sample to a volume-limited sample.

  2. Preparation of carbon paste electrodes including poly(styrene) attached glycine-Pt(IV) for amperometric detection of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönmez, Soner; Arslan, Fatma; Sarı, Nurşen; Kurnaz Yetim, Nurdan; Arslan, Halit

    2014-04-15

    In this study, a novel carbon paste electrode that is sensitive to glucose was prepared using the nanoparticles modified (4-Formyl-3-methoxyphenoxymethyl) with polystyren (FMPS) with L-Glycine-Pt(IV) complexes. Polymeric nanoparticles having Pt(IV) ion were prepared from (4-Formyl-3-methoxyphenoxymethyl) polystyren, glycine and PtCl4 by template method. Glucose oxidase enzyme was immobilized to a modified carbon paste electrode (MCPE) by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. Determination of glucose was carried out by oxidation of enzymatically produced H2O2 at 0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Effects of pH and temperature were investigated, and optimum parameters were found to be 8.0 and 55°C, respectively. Linear working range of the electrode was 5.0×10(-6)-1.0×10(-3) M, R(2)=0.997. Storage stability and operational stability of the enzyme electrode were also studied. Glucose biosensor gave perfect reproducible results after 10 measurements with 2.3% relative standard deviation. Also, it had good storage stability (gave 53.57% of the initial amperometric response at the end of 33th day). © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Security of attachment and quality of mother-toddler social interaction in a high-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltigan, John D; Lambert, Brittany L; Seifer, Ronald; Ekas, Naomi V; Bauer, Charles R; Messinger, Daniel S

    2012-02-01

    The quality of children's social interactions and their attachment security with a primary caregiver are two widely studied indices of socioemotional functioning in early childhood. Although both Bowlby and Ainsworth suggested that the parent-child interactions underlying the development of attachment security could be distinguished from other aspects of parent-child interaction (e.g., play), relatively little empirical research has examined this proposition. The aim of the current study was to explore this issue by examining concurrent relations between toddler's attachment security in the Strange Situation Procedure and quality of mother-child social interaction in a high-risk sample of toddlers characterized by prenatal cocaine exposure and low levels of maternal education. Analyses of variance suggested limited relations between attachment security and quality of social interaction. Further research examining the interrelations among various components of the parent-child relationship is needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship between Parental Attachment and Eating Disorders in an Inpatient and a College Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Maureen E.; Hart, Kathleen

    1992-01-01

    Examined relationship between parental attachment and eating disorder symptoms for 68 inpatient women with eating disorders and for 162 college women. College women described themselves as more securely attached to parents and reported lower levels of weight and dieting preoccupation, bulimic behavior, and feelings of ineffectiveness. (Author/NB)

  5. Attachment and thought problems in an adolescent inpatient sample: The mediational role of theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Jessica R; Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla

    2017-10-01

    Previous research has documented increased incidence of insecure attachment and theory of mind (ToM) deficits in individuals experiencing psychotic disorders. ToM has been theorized as a possible mediator of the relation between attachment and psychosis (Korver-Nieberg et al., 2014). The current study sought to extend this area of research to adolescents for the first time by examining adolescent-parent attachment and ToM in inpatient adolescents. Participants were 362 inpatient adolescents and their parents; participants completed the Child Attachment Interview, Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition, Youth Self Report, and Child Behavior Checklist. Bivariate correlations indicated that attachment coherence (a marker of security) was significantly and positively correlated with ToM abilities, and that low attachment coherence and poor ToM performance were each associated with increased youth- and parent-reported thought problems. Mediational models indicated that ToM mediated the relation between insecure attachment and thought problems according to both parent- and self-report. The results of the current study provide support for a model in which impairments in ToM contribute to the frequently documented association between insecure attachment and emerging psychotic symptoms. Theoretical and clinical implications of these results are discussed, including the potential support for ToM-based interventions for early psychotic symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Trait correlates of relational aggression in a nonclinical sample: DSM-IV personality disorders and psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeelk, Kelly M; Sylvers, Patrick; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2008-06-01

    The implications of adult relational aggression in adults for personality pathology are poorly understood. We investigated the association between relational aggression and features of DSM-IV personality disorders and psychopathy in a sample of undergraduates (N = 220). In contrast to the childhood literature, we found no significant difference in relational aggression between men and women. Unlike overt aggression, which correlated about equally highly with features of all three personality disorder clusters, relational aggression correlated significantly more highly with features of Cluster B than Clusters A or C. In addition, even after controlling for overt aggression, relational aggression correlated significantly with features of psychopathy, although only with Factor 2 traits. With the exception of sadistic personality disorder features, gender did not moderate the relationship between relational aggression and personality pathology. Further research on the psycho-pathological implications of relational aggression in more severely affected samples is warranted.

  7. Determinants of Child Attachment in the Years Postpartum in a High-Risk Sample of Immigrant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, Vanessa; Rousseau, Cécile

    2017-10-07

    Our goal was to examine maternal mental health and associated stresses in a sample of high-risk immigrant mothers, and its association with child insecure attachment in the years following childbirth. Mothers and their child (Mage = 37 months) were recruited through a Health and Social Service organization in the Parc-Extension neighborhood in Montreal, Quebec. Mothers completed the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (HSCL-25), the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MPSS) and a sociodemographic questionnaire that included questions on premature delivery and birth weight. Attachment behaviors were coded out of a videotaped free play sequence using the Preschool and Early School-Age Attachment Rating Scales (PARS). Analysis revealed high levels of clinical anxiety and depression, low social support and low attachment security. Significant mean differences and associations were found between anxiety, depression, social support, preterm delivery and child attachment. These results underscore the importance of screening for anxiety and depression early in the postnatal years, in order to prevent associated consequences such as child insecure attachment. Results also highlight the importance of building positive social networks, especially with immigrant populations.

  8. A Behavior-Genetic Study of Parenting Quality, Infant Attachment Security, and Their Covariation in a Nationally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris

    2008-01-01

    A number of relatively small-sample, genetically sensitive studies of infant attachment security have been published in the past several years that challenge the view that all psychological phenotypes are heritable and that environmental influences on child development--to the extent that they can be detected--serve to make siblings dissimilar.…

  9. Correlates of self-reported adult attachment styles in a Dutch sample of married men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlsma, C.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Mutsaers, W.C M

    The relationships between attachment style, recollections of the family of origin, working model of self and others and current relational satisfaction were examined in a Dutch sample of married subjects from the general community. Measures were adapted from those developed by Hazan & Shaver (1987).

  10. Another Look Inside the Gap: Ecological Contributions to the Transmission of Attachment in a Sample of Adolescent Mother-Infant Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabulsy, George M.; Bernier, Annie; Provost, Marc A.; Maranda, Johanne; Larose, Simon; Moss, Ellen; Larose, Marie; Tessier, Rejean

    2005-01-01

    Ecological contributions to attachment transmission were studied in a sample of 64 adolescent mother-infant dyads. Maternal sensitivity was assessed when infants were 6 and 10 months old, and infant security was assessed at 15 and 18 months. Maternal attachment state of mind was measured with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) after the 1st…

  11. ATTACHMENT AS A PREDICTOR OF RISK FOR EATING DISORDERS ON A REPRESENTATIVE HUNGARIAN ADULT SAMPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalai, Tamás Dömötör; Czeglédi, Edit

    2015-11-30

    Many studies confirm the relationship between attachment disturbances and (the severity of) eating disorders, however among them only one Hungarian study can be found. The exact predisposing traits of attachment and the strength of relationship is still uncleared. Our aim was to explore these aspects. Study was based on a cross-sectional nationally representative survey, called "Hungarostudy 2013" (N = 2000, 46.9% males, mean age 46.9 years, SD = 18.24 years). Measures: Sociodemographic and self-reported anthropometric data (weight and height), short Hungarian version of Relationship Scale Questionnaire, SCOFF questionnaire and short Hungarian version of Beck Depression Inventory. The frequency of risk for eating disorders (anorexia or bulimia nervosa) was 3.9% (N = 76) among the respondents (N = 1860). Attachment anxiety was significantly higher in the risk for eating disorders group (t (1888) = -3.939, p eating disorders after adjusting for the potential background variables (OR = 1.09, p = 0.040). Detachment was not a significant predictor of risk for eating disorders (OR = 0.98, p = 0.515). Younger age (OR = 0.97, p cross-sectional predictors of risk for eating disorders. The explained variance of the model was 10.7%. The study supported, that higher attachment anxiety is associated with the increased risk of eating disorders, with a possible therapeutic relevance. Assessment of attachment's further aspects and creating multivariable models are required for more thorough understanding and optimising of intervention points.

  12. Adolescent Internet Abuse: A Study on the Role of Attachment to Parents and Peers in a Large Community Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarotto, Giulia; Volpi, Barbara; Marzilli, Eleonora; Tambelli, Renata

    2018-01-01

    Adolescents are the main users of new technologies and their main purpose of use is social interaction. Although new technologies are useful to teenagers, in addressing their developmental tasks, recent studies have shown that they may be an obstacle in their growth. Research shows that teenagers with Internet addiction experience lower quality in their relationships with parents and more individual difficulties. However, limited research is available on the role played by adolescents' attachment to parents and peers, considering their psychological profiles. We evaluated in a large community sample of adolescents ( N = 1105) the Internet use/abuse, the adolescents' attachment to parents and peers, and their psychological profiles. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to verify the influence of parental and peer attachment on Internet use/abuse, considering the moderating effect of adolescents' psychopathological risk. Results showed that adolescents' attachment to parents had a significant effect on Internet use. Adolescents' psychopathological risk had a moderating effect on the relationship between attachment to mothers and Internet use. Our study shows that further research is needed, taking into account both individual and family variables.

  13. Adolescent Internet Abuse: A Study on the Role of Attachment to Parents and Peers in a Large Community Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Ballarotto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents are the main users of new technologies and their main purpose of use is social interaction. Although new technologies are useful to teenagers, in addressing their developmental tasks, recent studies have shown that they may be an obstacle in their growth. Research shows that teenagers with Internet addiction experience lower quality in their relationships with parents and more individual difficulties. However, limited research is available on the role played by adolescents’ attachment to parents and peers, considering their psychological profiles. We evaluated in a large community sample of adolescents (N=1105 the Internet use/abuse, the adolescents’ attachment to parents and peers, and their psychological profiles. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to verify the influence of parental and peer attachment on Internet use/abuse, considering the moderating effect of adolescents’ psychopathological risk. Results showed that adolescents’ attachment to parents had a significant effect on Internet use. Adolescents’ psychopathological risk had a moderating effect on the relationship between attachment to mothers and Internet use. Our study shows that further research is needed, taking into account both individual and family variables.

  14. Attachment Style and Obesity: Disordered Eating Behaviors as a Mediator in a Community Sample of Canadian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maras, Danijela; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine; Buchholz, Annick; Henderson, Katherine A; Gick, Mary; Goldfield, Gary S

    Obesity and overweight are associated with many negative health outcomes. Attachment style has been implicated in the development of obesity in youth. The present study examined if disordered eating behaviors mediate the relationship between attachment style and body mass index (BMI) in a large community sample of Canadian youth. A total of 3,043 participants (1,254 males and 1,789 females, Mage = 14.20 years) completed self-report questionnaires including the Relationship Questionnaire and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, and BMI was objectively measured. Disordered eating behaviors (restrained, emotional, and external) were examined as possible mediating mechanisms in the relationship between attachment style and BMI z-score, using a multiple mediation model using bootstrapping while controlling for socio-demographic covariates. Insecure attachment was significantly associated with higher BMI, and disordered eating mediated this relationship. Restrained eating was the strongest mediator of this pathway. Results suggest that it may be important to take attachment history and restrained eating into account when designing treatment and prevention strategies for obesity in youth.

  15. Attachment Representations in a Sample of Neglected Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venet, Michele; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Gosselin, Catherine; Capuano, France

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies (see Ethier, 1999) have shown that neglect has a deleterious impact on children's development. However, the effect of neglect on a child's internal representations of their family still needs to be investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the attachment patterns observed in a subsample of neglected children as…

  16. Adult attachment, intimacy and psychological distress in a clinical and community sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielage, SB; Luteijn, F; Arrindell, WA

    2005-01-01

    Attachment theory predicts that early experiences with caregivers affect the quality of individuals' later (romantic) relationships and, consequently, their mental health. The present study examined the role of intimacy in the current romantic relationship as a possible mediator of the relationship

  17. Attachment Representation and Sensitivity : The Moderating Role of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Refugee Sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ee, Elisa; Jongmans, Marian J; van der Aa, Niels; Kleber, Rolf J

    2016-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that adult attachment representations guide caregiving behavior and influence parental sensitivity, and thus affect the child's socio-emotional development. Several studies have shown a link between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and reduced parental sensitivity, so it

  18. Fears of happiness and compassion in relationship with depression, alexithymia, and attachment security in a depressed sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Catarino, Francisca; Baião, Rita; Palmeira, Lara

    2014-06-01

    In a non-clinical population, fears of compassion and fear of happiness have both been found to be highly correlated with alexithymia and depression. This study sought to explore these processes and their links with adult attachment and social safeness and pleasure in a depressed group. A total of 52 participants suffering from moderate to severe depression completed measures of fears of happiness, compassion from others and for self, in addition to measures of alexithymia, attachment, social safeness, and depression, anxiety, and stress. Fears of compassion and happiness were highly correlated with alexithymia, adult attachment, and depression, anxiety, and stress. Fear of happiness was found to be the best predictor of depression, anxiety, and stress, whereas fear of compassion from others was the best predictor of adult attachment. A path analysis showed that fears of positive emotion fully mediate the link between alexithymia and depression. This clinical sample had higher mean scores in fears of positive emotions, alexithymia, and depression, anxiety, and stress than a previously studied student sample. This study adds to the evidence that fears of positive emotions are important features of mental health difficulties. Unaddressed, these fears can block positive emotions and may lead to emotional avoidance of positive affect thus contributing as blocks to successful therapy. Therapies for depression may therefore profitably assess and desensitize the fear of positive emotions. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WISC-IV in a Hospital Referral Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devena, Sarah E.; Gay, Catherine E.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2013-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis was used to determine the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) scores of 297 children referred to a children's hospital in the Southwestern United States. Results support previous findings that indicate the WISC-IV is best represented by a direct hierarchical…

  20. Construct Validity of the WISC-IV with a Referred Sample: Direct versus Indirect Hierarchical Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivez, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) is one of the most frequently used intelligence tests in clinical assessments of children with learning difficulties. Construct validity studies of the WISC-IV have generally supported the higher order structure with four correlated first-order factors and one higher-order…

  1. Construct Validity of the WISC-IV[superscript UK] with a Large Referred Irish Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Marley W.; Canivez, Gary L.; James, Trevor; James, Kate; Good, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Irish educational psychologists frequently use the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth U.K. Edition (WISC-IV[superscript UK]) in clinical assessments of children with learning difficulties. Unfortunately, reliability and validity studies of the WISC-IV[superscript UK] have not yet been reported. This study examined the construct…

  2. Field Sampling Plan for the Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04 Remedial Action, Phase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wells

    2006-11-14

    This Field Sampling Plan outlines the collection and analysis of samples in support of Phase IV of the Waste Area Group 10, Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04 remedial action. Phase IV addresses the remedial actions to areas with the potential for unexploded ordnance at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. These areas include portions of the Naval Proving Ground, the Arco High-Altitude Bombing Range, and the Twin Buttes Bombing Range. The remedial action consists of removal and disposal of ordnance by high-order detonation, followed by sampling to determine the extent, if any, of soil that might have been contaminated by the detonation activities associated with the disposal of ordnance during the Phase IV activities and explosives during the Phase II activities.

  3. An interpersonal perspective on depression: the role of marital adjustment, conflict communication, attributions, and attachment within a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heene, Els; Buysse, Ann; Van Oost, Paulette

    2007-12-01

    Previous studies have focused on the difficulties in psychosocial functioning in depressed persons, underscoring the distress experienced by both spouses. We selected conflict communication, attribution, and attachment as important domains of depression in the context of marital adjustment, and we analyzed two hypotheses in one single study. First, we analyzed whether a clinical sample of couples with a depressed patient would differ significantly from a control group on these variables. Second, we explored to what degree these variables mediate/moderate the relationship between depressive symptoms and marital adjustment. The perspectives of both spouses were taken into account, as well as gender differences. In total, 69 clinical and 69 control couples were recruited, and a series of multivariate analyses of variance and regression analyses were conducted to test both hypotheses. Results indicated that both patients and their partners reported less marital adjustment associated with more negative perceptions on conflict communication, causal attributions, and insecure attachment. In addition, conflict communication and causal attributions were significant mediators of the association between depressive symptoms and marital adjustment for both depressed men and women, and causal attributions also moderated this link. Ambivalent attachment was a significant mediator only for the female identified patients. Several sex differences and clinical implications are discussed.

  4. Quality of the relationship between origin of childhood perception of attachment and outcome of attachment associated with diagnosis of PTSD in adult Finnish war children and Finnish combat veterans from World War II (1939-1945) - DSM-IV applications of the attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Pentti Kalevi

    2015-06-01

    Using diagnoses exclusively, comparable evaluations of the empirical evidence relevant to the content can be made. The term holocaust survivor syndrome according to the DSM-IV classification encompasses people with diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorders and psychopathological symptoms exposed to the Nazi genocide from 1933-1945 identified by Natan Kellermann, AMCHA, Israel (1999). The relationships between disorders of affectionate parenting and the development of dysfunctional models on one hand, and various psychopathological disorders on the other hand were investigated. Multi-axial assessment based on PTSD diagnosis (APA, 2000) with DSM-IV classification criteria of holocaust survivor syndrome and child survivor syndrome earlier found in holocaust survivors was used as criteria for comparison among Finnish sub-populations. Symptoms similar to those previously described in association with holocaust survivor syndrome and child survivor syndrome were found in the population of Finnish people who had been displaced as children between 1939-1945. Complex PTSD syndrome is found among survivors of prolonged or repeated trauma who have coping strategies intended to assist their mental survival. Surviving Finnish child evacuees had symptoms at similar level to those reported among holocaust survivors, though Finnish combat veterans exhibited good mental adjustment with secure attachment.

  5. DSM-IV and DSM-5 Prevalence of Social Anxiety Disorder in a Population Sample of Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Björn; Sigström, Robert; Östling, Svante; Waern, Margda; Börjesson-Hanson, Anne; Skoog, Ingmar

    2016-12-01

    To examine the prevalence of social anxiety disorders (SAD) with (DSM-IV) and without (DSM-5) the person's own assessment that the fear was unreasonable, in a population sample of older adults. Further, to determine whether clinical and sociodemographic correlates of SAD differ depending on the criteria applied. Cross-sectional. General population in Gothenburg, Sweden. A random population-based sample of 75- and 85-year olds (N = 1200) without dementia. Psychiatric research nurses carried out a semi-structured psychiatric examination including the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale. DSM-IV SAD was diagnosed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. SAD was diagnosed according to DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria. The 6-month duration criterion in DSM-5 was not applied because of lack of information. Other assessments included the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), the Brief Scale for Anxiety (BSA), and the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). The 1-month prevalence of SAD was 2.5% (N = 30) when the unreasonable fear criterion was defined in accordance with DSM-IV and 5.1% (N = 61) when the DSM-5 criterion was applied. Clinical correlates (GAF, MADRS, and BSA) were worse in SAD cases identified by either procedure compared with all others, and ratings for those reporting unreasonable fear suggested greater (albeit nonsignificant) overall psychopathology. Shifting the judgment of how reasonable the fear was, from the individual to the clinician, doubled the prevalence of SAD. This indicates that the DSM-5 version might increase prevalence rates of SAD in the general population. Further studies strictly applying all DSM-5 criteria are needed in order to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  7. PLANETARY CANDIDATES OBSERVED BY KEPLER IV: PLANET SAMPLE FROM Q1-Q8 (22 MONTHS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Christopher J.; Mullally, F.; Rowe, Jason F.; Thompson, Susan E.; Coughlin, Jeffrey L.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Haas, Michael R.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Borucki, William J.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Ciardi, David R.; Still, Martin; Barclay, Thomas; Chaplin, William J.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Cochran, William D.; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.

    2014-01-01

    We provide updates to the Kepler planet candidate sample based upon nearly two years of high-precision photometry (i.e., Q1-Q8). From an initial list of nearly 13,400 threshold crossing events, 480 new host stars are identified from their flux time series as consistent with hosting transiting planets. Potential transit signals are subjected to further analysis using the pixel-level data, which allows background eclipsing binaries to be identified through small image position shifts during transit. We also re-evaluate Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) 1-1609, which were identified early in the mission, using substantially more data to test for background false positives and to find additional multiple systems. Combining the new and previous KOI samples, we provide updated parameters for 2738 Kepler planet candidates distributed across 2017 host stars. From the combined Kepler planet candidates, 472 are new from the Q1-Q8 data examined in this study. The new Kepler planet candidates represent ∼40% of the sample with R P ∼ 1 R ⊕ and represent ∼40% of the low equilibrium temperature (T eq < 300 K) sample. We review the known biases in the current sample of Kepler planet candidates relevant to evaluating planet population statistics with the current Kepler planet candidate sample

  8. Planetary Candidates Observed by Kepler IV: Planet Sample from Q1-Q8 (22 Months)

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Christopher J.; Christensen, Jessie L.; Ciardi, David R.; Morton, Timothy D.; Shporer, Avi

    2014-01-01

    We provide updates to the Kepler planet candidate sample based upon nearly two years of high-precision photometry (i.e., Q1-Q8). From an initial list of nearly 13,400 threshold crossing events, 480 new host stars are identified from their flux time series as consistent with hosting transiting planets. Potential transit signals are subjected to further analysis using the pixel-level data, which allows background eclipsing binaries to be identified through small image position shifts during tra...

  9. Comparison of DSM-IV versus proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for eating disorders in a Japanese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Fukushima, Mitsuo; Taniguchi, Ataru; Nin, Kazuko; Teramukai, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) and the proposed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria in terms of the number of cases of eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) and to see which diagnostic system can effectively capture variance in psychiatric symptoms in a Japanese sample. One thousand and twenty-nine women with an eating disorder (ED) participated in this study. Assessment methods included structured clinical interviews and administration of the Eating Attitudes Test and the Eating Disorder Inventory. Relaxing the diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa and recognizing binge ED decreased the proportion of EDNOS (from 45.1% to 26.1%). The DSM-5 categorization of patients was better able to capture variance in psychopathology scales. The proposed revisions to EDs in the DSM-5 partially reduced reliance on EDNOS. The DSM-5 may differentiate ED groups more effectively than the DSM-IV. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  10. Pilot Testing of a Sampling Methodology for Assessing Seed Attachment Propensity and Transport Rate in a Soil Matrix Carried on Boot Soles and Bike Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Nigel; Dietz, Kristina Charlotte; Bride, Ian; Passfield, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Land managers of natural areas are under pressure to balance demands for increased recreation access with protection of the natural resource. Unintended dispersal of seeds by visitors to natural areas has high potential for weedy plant invasions, with initial seed attachment an important step in the dispersal process. Although walking and mountain biking are popular nature-based recreation activities, there are few studies quantifying propensity for seed attachment and transport rate on boot soles and none for bike tires. Attachment and transport rate can potentially be affected by a wide range of factors for which field testing can be time-consuming and expensive. We pilot tested a sampling methodology for measuring seed attachment and transport rate in a soil matrix carried on boot soles and bike tires traversing a known quantity and density of a seed analog (beads) over different distances and soil conditions. We found % attachment rate on boot soles was much lower overall than previously reported, but that boot soles had a higher propensity for seed attachment than bike tires in almost all conditions. We believe our methodology offers a cost-effective option for researchers seeking to manipulate and test effects of different influencing factors on these two dispersal vectors.

  11. Pilot Testing of a Sampling Methodology for Assessing Seed Attachment Propensity and Transport Rate in a Soil Matrix Carried on Boot Soles and Bike Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Nigel; Dietz, Kristina Charlotte; Bride, Ian; Passfield, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Land managers of natural areas are under pressure to balance demands for increased recreation access with protection of the natural resource. Unintended dispersal of seeds by visitors to natural areas has high potential for weedy plant invasions, with initial seed attachment an important step in the dispersal process. Although walking and mountain biking are popular nature-based recreation activities, there are few studies quantifying propensity for seed attachment and transport rate on boot soles and none for bike tires. Attachment and transport rate can potentially be affected by a wide range of factors for which field testing can be time-consuming and expensive. We pilot tested a sampling methodology for measuring seed attachment and transport rate in a soil matrix carried on boot soles and bike tires traversing a known quantity and density of a seed analog (beads) over different distances and soil conditions. We found % attachment rate on boot soles was much lower overall than previously reported, but that boot soles had a higher propensity for seed attachment than bike tires in almost all conditions. We believe our methodology offers a cost-effective option for researchers seeking to manipulate and test effects of different influencing factors on these two dispersal vectors.

  12. Illness severity and self-efficacy as course predictors of DSM-IV alcohol dependence in a multisite clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbucher, J; Sulesund, D; Chung, T; Morgenstern, J

    1996-01-01

    Illness severity and self-efficacy are two constructs of growing interest as predictors of clinical response in alcoholism. Using alternative measures of illness severity (DSM-IV symptom count, Alcohol Dependence Scale, and Addiction Severity Index) and self-efficacy (brief version of the Situational Confidence Questionnaire) rigorously controlled for theoretically important background variables, we studied their unique contribution to multiple indices of relapse, relapse latency, and use of alternative coping behaviors in a large, heterogeneous clinical sample. The Alcohol Dependence Scale contributed to the prediction of 4 of 5 relapse indicators. The SCQ failed to predict relapse behavior or its precursor, coping response. The findings emphasize the predictive validity of severity of dependence as a course specifier and underline the need for more sensitive and externally valid measures of cognitive processes such as self-efficacy for application in future studies of posttreatment behavior.

  13. Depression, patient characteristics, and attachment style: correlates and mediators of medication treatment adherence in a racially diverse primary care sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lisa M; Tomek, Sara; Roter, Debra; Carson, Kathryn A; Mugoya, George; Cooper, Lisa A

    2016-03-01

    The depth and breadth of problems related to depressive symptomatology and optimal treatment outcomes, including medication treatment adherence, have long been documented in the literature. Missing are clear explanations as to what factors and patient characteristics may account for lack of medication treatment adherence. The two objectives of the current study were to examine the predictive strength of depression, patient characteristics, and patient attachment style regarding medication treatment adherence and to consider the extent to which attachment styles mediate the relation between depression and medication treatment adherence. Participants in the present study were 237 racially diverse American primary care patients with a diagnosis of hypertension who were participants in a clinical trial. Depression, patient characteristics, attachment style, and medication treatment adherence were assessed. Partly consistent with our four hypotheses, the following results were found: (a) Black American, younger, never married, and poorer patients had lower medication treatment adherence (b) depression was significantly associated with lower self-reported medication adherence; (c) insecure-dismissing attachment style was related to lower medication adherence; and (d) insecure-dismissing attachment style mediates the relation between depression and medication treatment adherence by exacerbating the negative association. Physicians and other primary care providers should consider how depressive symptomatology, patient characteristics, and attachment style may inform the treatment plans they put forward and the extent to which patients may adhere to those treatment plans.

  14. Mind-Mindedness as a Multidimensional Construct: Appropriate and Nonattuned Mind-Related Comments Independently Predict Infant-Mother Attachment in a Socially Diverse Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles; de Rosnay, Marc; Arnott, Bronia; Leekam, Susan R.; Turner, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    In a socially diverse sample of 206 infant-mother pairs, we investigated predictors of infants' attachment security at 15 months, with a particular emphasis on mothers' tendency to comment appropriately or in a non-attuned manner on their 8-month-olds' internal states (so-called mind-mindedness). Multinomial logistic regression analyses showed…

  15. Preliminary findings on the association between attachment patterns and levels of growth hormone in a sample of children with non-organic failure to thrive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojanesi, Marta; Gallo, Mariana; Spaziani, Matteo; Russo, Federica; Valentini, Martina; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Biondi, Massimo; Radicioni, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Deficiency of growth hormone (GH) in absence of pituitary injuries is one of the causes of short stature and of the non organic failure to thrive (NOFTT) condition. Advances in developmental psychology have highlighted the role of emotions and caregiving behaviors in the organization of child’s personality and psychobiology, with the mother-son attachment bond being considered a fundamental developmental experience. The objective of the present preliminary study was to assess whether there are significant correlations between attachment patterns and GH levels in a sample of subjects with NOFTT. Overall, 27 children (mean age 9.49±2.63 years) with NOFTT were enrolled. Perceived attachment security was assessed through the Security Scale (SS) and its subscales focused on maternal and paternal security. Pearson partial correlation was used to test associations between GH levels and SS measures adjusting for confounding factors (i.e. age, gender and body mass index). Across all subjects, GH was significantly positively correlated with general security (r=0.425; p=0.038) and maternal security (r=0.451; p=0.027) and not significantly correlated with paternal security (r=0.237; p=0.264). These findings preliminarily suggest that the association between GH levels and perceived attachment security may play a role in the pathophysiology of NOFTT and add to the accumulating evidence that attachment patterns may be related with specific psychoendocrine underpinnings.

  16. Attachment between Infants and Mothers in China: Strange Situation Procedure Findings to Date and a New Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Marc; Steele, Miriam; Lan, Jijun; Jin, Xiaochun; Herreros, Francisca; Steele, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The first distribution of Chinese infant-mother (n = 61) attachment classifications categorised by trained and reliability-tested coders is reported with statistical comparisons to US norms and previous Chinese distributions. Three-way distribution was 15% insecure-avoidant, 62% secure, 13% insecure-resistant, and 4-way distribution was 13%…

  17. Effects of maternal absence due to employment on the quality of infant-mother attachment in a low-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barglow, P; Vaughn, B E; Molitor, N

    1987-08-01

    Recent reports have suggested that day-care experience initiated prior to 12 months of age is associated with increased proportions of infants whose attachment to mother is classified as "insecure-avoidant." However, reviewers have questioned the generality of these findings, noting that samples in which associations between early day-care experience and avoidant attachment patterns have been reported come from high-risk populations, and/or that the infants' day-care settings may not have been of high quality. In the present study, effects of maternal absences on infant-mother attachment quality were assessed in a low-risk, middle-class sample (N = 110). In all instances, substitute care had been initiated at least 4 months prior to the infant's first birthday and was provided in the infant's home by a person unrelated to the baby. Infants were assessed using the Ainsworth Strange Situation when they were 12-13 months of age. Analyses indicated that a significantly greater proportion of infants whose mothers worked outside the home (N = 54) were assigned to the category "insecure-avoidant" as compared to infants whose mothers remained in the home (N = 56) throughout the first year of life. Analyses of demographic and psychological data available for the sample indicated that this relation is dependent upon maternal parity (primi- vs. multiparous mother). The association between attachment quality and work status was significant only for firstborn children of full-time working mothers. The results are interpreted as evidence that the repeated daily separations experienced by infants whose mothers are working full-time constitute a "risk" factor for the development of "insecure-avoidant" infant-mother attachments.

  18. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Diagnoses (Kid-SCID): first psychometric evaluation in a Dutch sample of clinically referred youths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, J.; Muris, P.; Braet, C.; Arntz, A.; Beelen, I.

    2015-01-01

    The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Disorders (Kid-SCID) is a semi-structured interview for the classification of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. This study presents a first evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Kid-SCID in a Dutch sample of children

  19. Applicability of the ICD-11 proposal for PTSD: a comparison of prevalence and comorbidity rates with the DSM-IV PTSD classification in two post-conflict samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammel, Nadine; Abbing, Eva M; Heeke, Carina; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization recently proposed significant changes to the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria in the 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The present study investigated the impact of these changes in two different post-conflict samples. Prevalence and rates of concurrent depression and anxiety, socio-demographic characteristics, and indicators of clinical severity according to ICD-11 in 1,075 Cambodian and 453 Colombian civilians exposed to civil war and genocide were compared to those according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Results indicated significantly lower prevalence rates under the ICD-11 proposal (8.1% Cambodian sample and 44.4% Colombian sample) compared to the DSM-IV (11.2% Cambodian sample and 55.0% Colombian sample). Participants meeting a PTSD diagnosis only under the ICD-11 proposal had significantly lower rates of concurrent depression and a lower concurrent total score (depression and anxiety) compared to participants meeting only DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. There were no significant differences in socio-demographic characteristics and indicators of clinical severity between these two groups. The lower prevalence of PTSD according to the ICD-11 proposal in our samples of persons exposed to a high number of traumatic events may counter criticism of previous PTSD classifications to overuse the PTSD diagnosis in populations exposed to extreme stressors. Also another goal, to better distinguish PTSD from comorbid disorders could be supported with our data.

  20. The role of attachment in predicting CBT treatment outcome in children with anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walczak, Monika Anna; Normann, Nicoline; Tolstrup, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Child’s insecure attachment to parents and insecure parental attachment has been linked to childhood anxiety (Brumariu & Kerns, 2010; Manassis et al.,1994).Whether attachment patterns can predict treatment outcome, is yet to be investigated. We examined the role of children......’s attachment to parents, and parental attachment in predicting treatment outcome in anxious children receiving cognitive-behavioral treatment. Method: A total of 69 children aged 7-13 years were diagnosed at intake and post-treatment, using Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV (Silverman and Albano...... style in responders and non-responders in the present sample. We found a significant difference in maternal attachment anxiety scale (p=.011), with mothers of non-responders showing significantly higher attachment anxiety. Binominal logistic regression analysis was used to measure a predictive value...

  1. Perceived Residential Environment Quality Indicators and neighborhood attachment: A confirmation study on a Chinese sample in Chongqing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yanhui; Fornara, Ferdinando; Manca, Sara; Bonnes, Mirilia; Bonaiuto, Marino

    2015-09-01

    This paper concerns people's assessment of their neighborhood of residence in a Chinese urban context. The aim of the study was to verify the factorial structure and the reliability of two instruments originally developed and validated in Italy (the full versions of the Perceived Residential Environment Quality Indicators [PREQIs] and of the Neighborhood Attachment Scale [NAS]) in a different cultural and linguistic context. The instruments consist of 11 scales measuring the PREQIs and one scale measuring neighborhood attachment (NA). The PREQIs scales include items covering four macroevaluative domains of residential environment quality: architectural and urban planning aspects (three scales: Architectural and Town-planning Space, Organization of Accessibility and Roads, Green Areas), sociorelational aspects (one scale: People and Social Relations), functional aspects (four scales: Welfare Services, Recreational Services, Commercial Services, and Transport Services), and contextual aspects (three scales: Pace of Life, Environmental Health, Upkeep and Care). The PREQIs and NAS were included in a self-report questionnaire, which had been translated and back-translated from English to Chinese, and was then administered to 340 residents in six districts (differing along various features) of a highly urbanized context in China, the city of Chongqing. Results confirmed the factorial structure of the scales and demonstrated good internal consistency of the indicators, thus reaffirming the results of previous studies carried out in Western urban contexts. The indicators tapping the neighborhood's contextual aspects (i.e., pace of life, environmental health, and upkeep) emerged as most correlated to NA. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. A comparison of DSM-IV pervasive developmental disorder and DSM-5 autism spectrum disorder prevalence in an epidemiologic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Shin; Fombonne, Eric; Koh, Yun-Joo; Kim, Soo-Jeong; Cheon, Keun-Ah; Leventhal, Bennett L

    2014-05-01

    Changes in autism diagnostic criteria found in DSM-5 may affect autism spectrum disorder (ASD) prevalence, research findings, diagnostic processes, and eligibility for clinical and other services. Using our published, total-population Korean prevalence data, we compute DSM-5 ASD and social communication disorder (SCD) prevalence and compare them with DSM-IV pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) prevalence estimates. We also describe individuals previously diagnosed with DSM-IV PDD when diagnoses change with DSM-5 criteria. The target population was all children from 7 to 12 years of age in a South Korean community (N = 55,266), those in regular and special education schools, and a disability registry. We used the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire for systematic, multi-informant screening. Parents of screen-positive children were offered comprehensive assessments using standardized diagnostic procedures, including the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Best-estimate clinical diagnoses were made using DSM-IV PDD and DSM-5 ASD and SCD criteria. DSM-5 ASD estimated prevalence was 2.20% (95% confidence interval = 1.77-3.64). Combined DSM-5 ASD and SCD prevalence was virtually the same as DSM-IV PDD prevalence (2.64%). Most children with autistic disorder (99%), Asperger disorder (92%), and PDD-NOS (63%) met DSM-5 ASD criteria, whereas 1%, 8%, and 32%, respectively, met SCD criteria. All remaining children (2%) had other psychopathology, principally attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and anxiety disorder. Our findings suggest that most individuals with a prior DSM-IV PDD meet DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ASD and SCD. PDD, ASD or SCD; extant diagnostic criteria identify a large, clinically meaningful group of individuals and families who require evidence-based services. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mismatch of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms and DSM-IV Symptom Clusters in a Cancer Sample: Exploratory Factor Analysis of the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Rebecca A.; Golden-Kreutz, Deanna M.; Andersen, Barbara L.

    2007-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994a) conceptualization of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) includes three symptom clusters: reexperiencing, avoidance/numbing, and arousal. The PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) corresponds to the DSM-IV PTSD symptoms. In the current study, we conducted exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the PCL-C with two aims: (a) to examine whether the PCL-C evidenced the three-factor solution implied by the DSM-IV symptom clusters, and (b) to identify a factor solution for the PCL-C in a cancer sample. Women (N = 148) with Stage II or III breast cancer completed the PCL-C after completion of cancer treatment. We extracted two-, three-, four-, and five-factor solutions using EFA. Our data did not support the DSM-IV PTSD symptom clusters. Instead, EFA identified a four-factor solution including reexperiencing, avoidance, numbing, and arousal factors. Four symptom items, which may be confounded with illness and cancer treatment-related symptoms, exhibited poor factor loadings. Using these symptom items in cancer samples may lead to overdiagnosis of PTSD and inflated rates of PTSD symptoms. PMID:16281232

  4. The effects of parental sensitivity and involvement in caregiving on mother-infant and father-infant attachment in a Portuguese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Marina; Faria, Anabela; Beeghly, Marjorie; Lopes-dos-Santos, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    In the present longitudinal study, we investigated attachment quality in Portuguese mother-infant and in father-infant dyads, and evaluated whether attachment quality was related to parental sensitivity during parent-infant social interaction or to the amount of time each parent spent with the infant during play and in routine caregiving activities (e.g., feeding, bathing, play). The sample consisted of 82 healthy full-term infants (30 girls, 53 boys, 48 first born), and their mothers and fathers from mostly middle-class households. To assess parental sensitivity, mothers and fathers were independently observed during free play interactions with their infants when infants were 9 and 15 months old. The videotaped interactions were scored by masked coders using the Crittenden's CARE-Index. When infants were 12 and 18 months old, mother-infant and father-infant dyads were videotaped during an adaptation of Ainsworth's Strange Situation. Parents also described their level of involvement in infant caregiving activities using a Portuguese version of the McBride and Mills Parent Responsibility Scale. Mothers were rated as being more sensitive than fathers during parent-infant free play at both 9 and 15 months. There also was a higher prevalence of secure attachment in mother-infant versus father-infant dyads at both 12 and 18 months. Attachment security was predicted by the amount of time mothers and fathers were involved in caregiving and play with the infant, and with parents' behavior during parent-infant free play. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Applicability of the ICD-11 proposal for PTSD: a comparison of prevalence and comorbidity rates with the DSM-IV PTSD classification in two post-conflict samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Stammel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organization recently proposed significant changes to the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD diagnostic criteria in the 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11. Objective: The present study investigated the impact of these changes in two different post-conflict samples. Method: Prevalence and rates of concurrent depression and anxiety, socio-demographic characteristics, and indicators of clinical severity according to ICD-11 in 1,075 Cambodian and 453 Colombian civilians exposed to civil war and genocide were compared to those according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV. Results: Results indicated significantly lower prevalence rates under the ICD-11 proposal (8.1% Cambodian sample and 44.4% Colombian sample compared to the DSM-IV (11.2% Cambodian sample and 55.0% Colombian sample. Participants meeting a PTSD diagnosis only under the ICD-11 proposal had significantly lower rates of concurrent depression and a lower concurrent total score (depression and anxiety compared to participants meeting only DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. There were no significant differences in socio-demographic characteristics and indicators of clinical severity between these two groups. Conclusions: The lower prevalence of PTSD according to the ICD-11 proposal in our samples of persons exposed to a high number of traumatic events may counter criticism of previous PTSD classifications to overuse the PTSD diagnosis in populations exposed to extreme stressors. Also another goal, to better distinguish PTSD from comorbid disorders could be supported with our data.

  6. X-ray fluorescence in Member States: Austria and Sri Lanka. A new attachment module for secondary target excitation with sample changer and vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobrauschek, P.; Smolek, S.; Streli, C.; Waduge, V.A.; Seneviratne, S.

    2009-01-01

    A new secondary target attachment vacuum chamber was developed, designed and constructed at the Atomic Institute of Vienna Technical University X ray Laboratory and installed at the Atomic Energy Authorities, Colombo, Sri Lanka. The prerequisites were that the new system had to fit physically next to the Wobistrax TXRF spectrometer and to use the same existing X ray tube and an existing uplooking LN2 cooled Si(Li) detector. This new spectrometer replaces a simple secondary target system previously installed. The new system offers a 10 position sample changer integrated in a vacuum chamber. The secondary targets are exchangeable, and Mo, Zr, Ti, Al, KBr and Teflon as Barkla polarizer are available. The system is designed for the emission-transmission method for quantification but can also be used for air filter samples where the thin film model for the quantification is applicable

  7. Posttraumatic stress disorder according to DSM-5 and DSM-IV diagnostic criteria: a comparison in a sample of Congolese ex-combatants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Susanne; Koebach, Anke; Hinkel, Harald; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Compared to DSM-IV, the criteria for diagnosing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been modified in DSM-5. Objective The first aim of this study was to examine how these modifications impact rates of PTSD in a sample of Congolese ex-combatants. The second goal of this study was to investigate whether PTSD symptoms were associated with perpetrator-related acts or victim-related traumatic events. Method Ninety-five male ex-combatants in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo were interviewed. Both the DSM-IV and the DSM-5 PTSD symptom criteria were assessed. Results The DSM-5 symptom criteria yielded a PTSD rate of 50% (n=47), whereas the DSM-IV symptom criteria were met by 44% (n=42). If the DSM-5 would be set as the current “gold standard,” then DSM-IV would have produced more false negatives (8%) than false positives (3%). A minority of participants (19%, n=18) indicated an event during which they were involved as a perpetrator as their most stressful event. Results of a regression analysis (R 2=0.40) showed that, after accounting for the number of types of traumatic events, perpetrated violent acts were not associated with the symptom severity of PTSD. Conclusions The findings demonstrate that more diagnostic cases were produced with the DSM-5 diagnostic rules than were dropped resulting in an increase in PTSD rates compared to the DSM-IV system. The missing association between PTSD symptoms and perpetrated violent acts might be explained by a potential fascinating and excited perception of these acts. PMID:25720994

  8. Posttraumatic stress disorder according to DSM-5 and DSM-IV diagnostic criteria: a comparison in a sample of Congolese ex-combatants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Schaal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Compared to DSM-IV, the criteria for diagnosing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD have been modified in DSM-5. Objective: The first aim of this study was to examine how these modifications impact rates of PTSD in a sample of Congolese ex-combatants. The second goal of this study was to investigate whether PTSD symptoms were associated with perpetrator-related acts or victim-related traumatic events. Method: Ninety-five male ex-combatants in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo were interviewed. Both the DSM-IV and the DSM-5 PTSD symptom criteria were assessed. Results: The DSM-5 symptom criteria yielded a PTSD rate of 50% (n=47, whereas the DSM-IV symptom criteria were met by 44% (n=42. If the DSM-5 would be set as the current “gold standard,” then DSM-IV would have produced more false negatives (8% than false positives (3%. A minority of participants (19%, n=18 indicated an event during which they were involved as a perpetrator as their most stressful event. Results of a regression analysis (R 2=0.40 showed that, after accounting for the number of types of traumatic events, perpetrated violent acts were not associated with the symptom severity of PTSD. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate that more diagnostic cases were produced with the DSM-5 diagnostic rules than were dropped resulting in an increase in PTSD rates compared to the DSM-IV system. The missing association between PTSD symptoms and perpetrated violent acts might be explained by a potential fascinating and excited perception of these acts.

  9. Measurement non-invariance of DSM-IV narcissistic personality disorder criteria across age and sex in a population-based sample of Norwegian twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubarych, Thomas S; Aggen, Steven H; Kendler, Kenneth S; Torgersen, Sven; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Neale, Michael C

    2010-09-01

    We investigated measurement non-invariance of DSM-IV narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) criteria across age and sex in a population-based cohort sample of 2794 Norwegian twins. Age had a statistically significant effect on the factor mean for NPD. Sex had a statistically significant effect on the factor mean and variance. Controlling for these factor level effects, item-level analysis indicated that the criteria were functioning differently across age and sex. After correcting for measurement differences at the item level, the latent factor mean effect for age was no longer statistically significant. The mean difference for sex remained statistically significant after correcting for item threshold effects. The results indicate that DSM-IV NPD criteria perform differently in males and females and across age. Differences in diagnostic rates across groups may not be valid without correcting for measurement non-invariance.

  10. Extraction of U(VI), Th(IV), and La(III) from acidic streams and geological samples using AXAD-16-POPDE polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakaran, D.; Subramanian, M.S. [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Chennai 600 036 (India)

    2004-10-01

    A new chromatographic extraction method has been developed using Amberlite XAD-16 (AXAD-16) resin chemically modified with (3-hydroxyphosphinoyl-2-oxo-propyl)phosphonic acid dibenzyl ester (POPDE). The chemically modified polymer was characterized by {sup 13}C CPMAS and {sup 31}P solid-state NMR, Fourier Transform-NIR-FIR-Raman spectroscopy, CHNPS elemental analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. Extraction studies performed for U(VI), Th(IV), and La(III) showed good distribution ratio (D) values of approximately 10{sup 3}, even under high acidities (1-4 M). Various physiochemical parameters that influence the quantitative metal ion extraction were optimized by static and dynamic methods. Data obtained from kinetic studies revealed that a time duration of {<=}10 min was sufficient to achieve complete metal ion extraction. Maximum metal sorption capacity values under optimum pH conditions were found to be 1.38, 1.33, and 0.75 mmol g{sup -1} for U(VI), Th(IV), and La(III), respectively. Interference studies performed in the presence of concentrated diverse ions and electrolyte species showed quantitative analyte recovery with lower limits of analyte detection being 10 and 20 ng cm{sup -3} for U(VI) and both Th(IV) and La(III), respectively. Sample breakthrough studies performed on the extraction column showed an enrichment factor value of 330 for U(VI) and 270 for Th(IV) and La(III), respectively. Analyte desorption was effective using 15 cm{sup 3} of 1 M (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3} with >99.8% analyte recovery. The analytical applicability of the developed resin was tested with synthetic mixtures mimicking nuclear spent fuels, seawater compositions and real water and geological samples. The rsd values of the data obtained were within 5.2%, thereby reflecting the reliability of the developed method. (orig.)

  11. Prevalence of DSM-IV and DSM-5 Alcohol, Cocaine, Opioid, and Cannabis Use Disorders in a Largely Substance Dependent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Kyle; Rennert, Lior; Lynch, Kevin G.; Farrer, Lindsay; Gelernter, Joel; Kranzler, Henry R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) will soon replace the DSM-IV, which has existed for nearly two decades. The changes in diagnostic criteria have important implications for research and for the clinical care of individuals with Substance Use Disorders (SUDs). METHODS We used the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism to evaluate the lifetime presence of DSM-IV abuse and dependence diagnoses and DSM-5 mild, moderate, or severe SUDs for alcohol, cocaine, opioids, and cannabis in a sample of 7,543 individuals recruited to participate in genetic studies of substance dependence. RESULTS Switches between diagnostic systems consistently resulted in a modestly greater prevalence for DSM-5 SUDs, based largely on the assignment of DSM-5 diagnoses to DSM-IV “diagnostic ophans” (i.e., individuals meeting one or two criteria for dependence and none for abuse, and thus not receiving a DSM-IV SUD diagnosis). The vast majority of these diagnostic switches were attributable to the requirement that only two of 11 criteria be met for a DSM-5 SUD diagnosis. We found evidence to support the omission from DSM-5 of the legal criterion due to its limited diagnostic utility. The addition of craving as a criterion in DSM-5 did not substantially affect the likelihood of an SUD diagnosis. CONCLUSION The greatest advantage of DSM-5 appears to be its ability to capture diagnostic orphans. In this sample, changes reflected in DSM-5 had a minimal impact on the prevalence of SUD diagnoses. PMID:22884164

  12. Impact of Maternal Attachment Style on Mother to Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghaddam Hoseini V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.486.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.893.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.

  13. Clinical validation of three short forms of the Dutch Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV-NL) in a mixed clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, Zita; Hendriks, Marc P H; Van Der Veld, William M; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Kessels, Roy P C

    2016-06-01

    The reliability and validity of three short forms of the Dutch version of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV-NL) were evaluated in a mixed clinical sample of 235 patients. The short forms were based on the WMS-IV Flexible Approach, that is, a 3-subtest combination (Older Adult Battery for Adults) and two 2-subtest combinations (Logical Memory and Visual Reproduction and Logical Memory and Designs), which can be used to estimate the Immediate, Delayed, Auditory and Visual Memory Indices. All short forms showed good reliability coefficients. As expected, for adults (16-69 years old) the 3-subtest short form was consistently more accurate (predictive accuracy ranged from 73% to 100%) than both 2-subtest short forms (range = 61%-80%). Furthermore, for older adults (65-90 years old), the predictive accuracy of the 2-subtest short form ranged from 75% to 100%. These results suggest that caution is warranted when using the WMS-IV-NL Flexible Approach short forms to estimate all four indices. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. DAPPA grafted polymer: an efficient solid phase extractant for U(VI), Th(IV) and La(III) from acidic waste streams and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Ch Siva Kesava; Subramanian, M S

    2005-07-15

    A new class of polymeric resin has been synthesized by grafting Merrifield chloromethylated resin with (dimethyl amino-phosphono-methyl)-phosphonic acid (MCM-DAPPA), for the preconcentration of U(VI), Th(IV) and La(III) from both acidic wastes and environmental samples. The various chemical modification steps involved during grafting process are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, (31)P and (13)C-CPMAS (cross-polarized magic angle spin) NMR spectroscopy and CHNS/O elemental analysis. The water regain capacity data for the grafted polymer are obtained from thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis. The influence of various physico-chemical parameters during the quantitative extraction of metal ions by the resin phase are studied and optimized by both static and dynamic methods. The significant feature of this grafted polymer is its ability to extract both actinides and lanthanides from high-level acidities as well as from near neutral conditions. The resin shows very high sorption capacity values of 2.02, 0.89 and 0.54mmolg(-1) for U(VI), 1.98, 0.63 and 0.42mmolg(-1) for Th(IV) and 1.22, 0.39 and 0.39mmolg(-1) for La(III) under optimum pH, HNO(3) and HCl concentration, respectively. The grafted polymer shows faster phase exchange kinetics (99.5% recovery using 1M (NH(4))(2)CO(3), as eluent. The developed grafted resin has been successfully applied in extracting Th(IV) from high matrix monazite sand, U(VI) from sea water and also U(VI) and Th(IV) from simulated nuclear spent fuel mixtures. The analytical data obtained from triplicate measurements are within 3.9% R.S.D. reflecting the reproducibility and reliability of the developed method.

  15. Age at onset of DSM-IV pathological gambling in a non-treatment sample: Early- versus later-onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W; Shaw, Martha; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2015-07-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a prevalent and impairing public health problem. In this study we assessed age at onset in men and women with PG and compared the demographic and clinical picture of early- vs. later-onset individuals. We also compared age at onset in PG subjects and their first-degree relatives with PG. Subjects with DSM-IV PG were recruited during the conduct of two non-treatment clinical studies. Subjects were evaluated with structured interviews and validated questionnaires. Early-onset was defined as PG starting prior to age 33years. Age at onset of PG in the 255 subjects ranged from 8 to 80years with a mean (SD) of 34.0 (15.3) years. Men had an earlier onset than women. 84% of all subjects with PG had developed the disorder by age 50years. Early-onset subjects were more likely to be male, to prefer action games, and to have substance use disorders, antisocial personality disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, trait impulsiveness, and social anxiety disorder. Later-onset was more common in women and was associated with a preference for slots and a history of sexual abuse. Age at onset of PG is bimodal and differs for men and women. Early-onset PG and later-onset PG have important demographic and clinical differences. The implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Lens Search. IV. Statistical Lens Sample from the Fifth Data Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, Naohisa; /Wako, RIKEN /Tokyo U., ICEPP; Oguri, Masamune; /Natl. Astron. Observ. of Japan /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Shin, Min-Su; /Michigan U. /Princeton U. Observ.; Kayo, Issha; /Tokyo U., ICRR; Strauss, Michael A.; /Princeton U. Observ.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; /UC, Berkeley /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. Astron.; Morokuma, Tomoki; /Natl. Astron. Observ. of Japan; Becker, Robert H.; /LLNL, Livermore /UC, Davis; White, Richard L.; /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; /Ohio State U.; Gregg, Michael D.; /LLNL, Livermore /UC, Davis /Exeter U.

    2010-05-01

    We present the second report of our systematic search for strongly lensed quasars from the data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). From extensive follow-up observations of 136 candidate objects, we find 36 lenses in the full sample of 77,429 spectroscopically confirmed quasars in the SDSS Data Release 5. We then define a complete sample of 19 lenses, including 11 from our previous search in the SDSS Data Release 3, from the sample of 36,287 quasars with i < 19.1 in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 2.2, where we require the lenses to have image separations of 1 < {theta} < 20 and i-band magnitude differences between the two images smaller than 1.25 mag. Among the 19 lensed quasars, 3 have quadruple-image configurations, while the remaining 16 show double images. This lens sample constrains the cosmological constant to be {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.84{sub -0.08}{sup +0.06}(stat.){sub -0.07}{sup + 0.09}(syst.) assuming a flat universe, which is in good agreement with other cosmological observations. We also report the discoveries of 7 binary quasars with separations ranging from 1.1 to 16.6, which are identified in the course of our lens survey. This study concludes the construction of our statistical lens sample in the full SDSS-I data set.

  17. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY QUASAR LENS SEARCH. IV. STATISTICAL LENS SAMPLE FROM THE FIFTH DATA RELEASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Shin, Min-Su; Kayo, Issha; Fukugita, Masataka; Strauss, Michael A.; Gott, J. Richard; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Morokuma, Tomoki; Becker, Robert H.; Gregg, Michael D.; White, Richard L.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Chiu, Kuenley; Johnston, David E.; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Frieman, Joshua A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the second report of our systematic search for strongly lensed quasars from the data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). From extensive follow-up observations of 136 candidate objects, we find 36 lenses in the full sample of 77,429 spectroscopically confirmed quasars in the SDSS Data Release 5. We then define a complete sample of 19 lenses, including 11 from our previous search in the SDSS Data Release 3, from the sample of 36,287 quasars with i Λ = 0.84 +0.06 -0.08 (stat.) +0.09 -0.07 (syst.) assuming a flat universe, which is in good agreement with other cosmological observations. We also report the discoveries of seven binary quasars with separations ranging from 1.''1 to 16.''6, which are identified in the course of our lens survey. This study concludes the construction of our statistical lens sample in the full SDSS-I data set.

  18. Restless legs syndrome in a community sample of Korean adults: prevalence, impact on quality of life, and association with DSM-IV psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seong-Jin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Jeon, Hong Jin; Chang, Sung Man; Cho, Maeng Je; Lee, Hochang B

    2009-08-01

    Conflicting reports on prevalence of RLS exist in Asian countries due to differences in sampling strategies and assessment instruments. We assessed the prevalence, correlates, quality of life, and psychiatric comorbidity of RLS in South Korea. Cross-sectional nationwide survey. Nationally representative sample of 6,509 Korean adults aged 18-64. Face-to-face interviews based on the Korean translation of the four features of RLS defined by the International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG), the Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI), and EuroQol (EQ-5D) were conducted for all participants. The weighted prevalence of RLS in South Korea was 0.9% (men, 0.6%; women, 1.3%). Subjects with RLS had a lower quality of life according to EQ-5D than those without RLS. Adjusted odds ratio for lifetime diagnosis of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (2.57, 95% confidence interval [1.33, 4.96]), panic disorder (18.9 [4.72, 75.9]) and posttraumatic stress disorder (3.76 [1.32, 10.7]) suggest strong association between RLS and DSM-IV depression and anxiety disorders. Prevalence of RLS estimated based on the IRLSSG diagnostic criteria is substantially lower in South Korea than in Western countries. Differences in culture and risk factors that affect the expression of RLS may vary across the countries.

  19. Effect of prewarming EDTA blood samples to 37°C on platelet count measured by Sysmex XT-2000iV in dogs, cats, and horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tim L; Archer, Joy

    2016-09-01

    Pseudothrombocytopenia secondary to platelet clumping is a common cause of preanalytic error for platelet counts in dogs, cats, and horses. In human beings, it is suggested that prewarming blood samples to 37°C prior to hematology analysis will reduce platelet clumping. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of prewarming EDTA blood samples to 37°C on measured platelet counts and other hematologic variables. The EDTA blood samples from dogs, cats and horses submitted to the clinical pathology laboratory at the University of Cambridge were included. Complete blood cell counts performed using a Sysmex XT-2000iV hematology analyzer were done on samples at room temperature (approximately 22°C) and following warming of the samples to 37°C in a water bath. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare hematologic variables, including platelet count, before and after sample warming to 37°C. Data are presented as median (25(th) , 75(th) percentile) increase. Blood samples from 39 dogs, 19 cats, and 10 horses were included. Sample warming to 37°C resulted in a statistically significant increase in platelet counts in dogs (11 [-2, 30] ×10(9) /L), cats (36 [14, 84] ×10(9) /L), and horses (42 [31, 79] ×10(9) /L). Sample warming did not significantly affect other hematologic variables. Prewarming EDTA blood samples to 37°C prior to hematologic analysis increased platelet counts overall in canine, feline, and equine blood, but did not abrogate platelet clumping and pseudothrombocytopenia fully in some cases. Furthermore, true pseudothrombocytopenia was not confirmed in these animals. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  20. SDSS-IV MaNGA: faint quenched galaxies - I. Sample selection and evidence for environmental quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Samantha J.; Masters, Karen L.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Westfall, Kyle B.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Bundy, Kevin; Drory, Niv; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Law, David; Nichol, Robert C.; Thomas, Daniel; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brownstein, Joel R.; Freischlad, Gordon; Gaulme, Patrick; Grabowski, Katie; Kinemuchi, Karen; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Daniel; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey; Wake, David A.

    2016-11-01

    Using kinematic maps from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey, we reveal that the majority of low-mass quenched galaxies exhibit coherent rotation in their stellar kinematics. Our sample includes all 39 quenched low-mass galaxies observed in the first year of MaNGA. The galaxies are selected with Mr > -19.1, stellar masses 109 M⊙ 1.9. They lie on the size-magnitude and σ-luminosity relations for previously studied dwarf galaxies. Just six (15 ± 5.7 per cent) are found to have rotation speeds ve, rot 5 × 1010 M⊙), supporting the hypothesis that galaxy-galaxy or galaxy-group interactions quench star formation in low-mass galaxies. The local bright galaxy density for our sample is ρproj = 8.2 ± 2.0 Mpc-2, compared to ρproj = 2.1 ± 0.4 Mpc-2 for a star-forming comparison sample, confirming that the quenched low-mass galaxies are preferentially found in higher density environments.

  1. ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCE RATIOS IN STARS OF THE OUTER GALACTIC DISK. IV. A NEW SAMPLE OF OPEN CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, David; Carney, Bruce W.; Friel, Eileen D.

    2012-01-01

    We present radial velocities and chemical abundances for nine stars in the old, distant open clusters Be18, Be21, Be22, Be32, and PWM4. For Be18 and PWM4, these are the first chemical abundance measurements. Combining our data with literature results produces a compilation of some 68 chemical abundance measurements in 49 unique clusters. For this combined sample, we study the chemical abundances of open clusters as a function of distance, age, and metallicity. We confirm that the metallicity gradient in the outer disk is flatter than the gradient in the vicinity of the solar neighborhood. We also confirm that the open clusters in the outer disk are metal-poor with enhancements in the ratios [α/Fe] and perhaps [Eu/Fe]. All elements show negligible or small trends between [X/Fe] and distance ( –1 ), but for some elements, there is a hint that the local (R GC GC > 13 kpc) samples may have different trends with distance. There is no evidence for significant abundance trends versus age ( –1 ). We measure the linear relation between [X/Fe] and metallicity, [Fe/H], and find that the scatter about the mean trend is comparable to the measurement uncertainties. Comparison with solar neighborhood field giants shows that the open clusters share similar abundance ratios [X/Fe] at a given metallicity. While the flattening of the metallicity gradient and enhanced [α/Fe] ratios in the outer disk suggest a chemical enrichment history different from that of the solar neighborhood, we echo the sentiments expressed by Friel et al. that definitive conclusions await homogeneous analyses of larger samples of stars in larger numbers of clusters. Arguably, our understanding of the evolution of the outer disk from open clusters is currently limited by systematic abundance differences between various studies.

  2. Frequency of Aggressive Behaviors in a Nationally Representative Sample of Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadinejad, Morteza; Bahreynian, Maryam; Motlagh, Mohammad-Esmaeil; Qorbani, Mostafa; Movahhed, Mohsen; Ardalan, Gelayol; Heshmat, Ramin; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the frequency of aggressive behaviors among a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. This nationwide study was performed on a multi-stage sample of 6-18 years students, living in 30 provinces in Iran. Students were asked to confidentially report the frequency of aggressive behaviors including physical fighting, bullying and being bullied in the previous 12 months, using the questionnaire of the World Health Organization Global School Health Survey. In this cross-sectional study, 13,486 students completed the study (90.6% participation rate); they consisted of 49.2% girls and 75.6% urban residents. The mean age of participants was 12.47 years (95% confidence interval: 12.29, 12.65). In total, physical fight was more prevalent among boys than girls (48% vs. 31%, P bulling to other classmates had a higher frequency among boys compared to girls (29% vs. 25%, P bulling to others). Physical fighting was more prevalent among rural residents (40% vs. 39%, respectively, P = 0.61), while being bullied was more common among urban students (27% vs. 26%, respectively, P = 0.69). Although in this study the frequency of aggressive behaviors was lower than many other populations, still these findings emphasize on the importance of designing preventive interventions that target the students, especially in early adolescence, and to increase their awareness toward aggressive behaviors. Implications for future research and aggression prevention programming are recommended.

  3. Association of Dietary Behaviors with Physical Activity in a Nationally Representative Sample of Children and Adolescents: the CASPIAN- IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Safiri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional health and adequate physical activity (PA, especially in childhood and grow periods, have a substantial role in health. This study assessed the association of dietary behaviors (main courses and snacks intake with PA in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: Using multistage random cluster sampling method, a representative sample of 14,880 school students were selected from urban and rural areas of 30 provinces of Iran. Through a validated questionnaire, daily consumption of main course ( breakfast, lunch, and dinner as well as daily consumption of different snacks and health foods ( fast foods, milk, vegetables, dry fruits, fresh fruits, sweetened beverages, salty snacks and sweets were recorded for every participants. Information of past week weekly frequency of leisure time PA was collected. Results: Overall, 13,486 out of 14,880 students (response rate: 90.6% participated in this survey. Participants consisted of 6,640 (49.2% girls and 75.6% urban residents; their mean and standard deviation (SD age was 12.47 (3.36 years. Daily consumption of fresh fruits (odds ratio [OR]: 1.35, 95%confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-1.52, dried fruits (OR: 1.21; 95%CI: 1.06-1.40, vegetable (OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.24-1.56, and milk (OR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.21-1.52 increased the odds of high PA compare to low PA in adjusted model.  Skipping the breakfast, lunch and dinner decreased the odds of moderate and high PA compare to low PA (P

  4. Frequency of aggressive behaviors in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Sadinejad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to explore the frequency of aggressive behaviors among a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Methods: This nationwide study was performed on a multi-stage sample of 6-18 years students, living in 30 provinces in Iran. Students were asked to confidentially report the frequency of aggressive behaviors including physical fighting, bullying and being bullied in the previous 12 months, using the questionnaire of the World Health Organization Global School Health Survey. Results: In this cross-sectional study, 13,486 students completed the study (90.6% participation rate; they consisted of 49.2% girls and 75.6% urban residents. The mean age of participants was 12.47 years (95% confidence interval: 12.29, 12.65. In total, physical fight was more prevalent among boys than girls (48% vs. 31%, P < 0.001. Higher rates of involvement in two other behaviors namely being bullied and bulling to other classmates had a higher frequency among boys compared to girls (29% vs. 25%, P < 0.001 for being bullied and (20% vs. 14%, P < 0.001 for bulling to others. Physical fighting was more prevalent among rural residents (40% vs. 39%, respectively, P = 0.61, while being bullied was more common among urban students (27% vs. 26%, respectively, P = 0.69. Conclusions: Although in this study the frequency of aggressive behaviors was lower than many other populations, still these findings emphasize on the importance of designing preventive interventions that target the students, especially in early adolescence, and to increase their awareness toward aggressive behaviors. Implications for future research and aggression prevention programming are recommended.

  5. Prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in a nationally representative sample of iranian children and adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Fallah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The global health burden has faced toward non-communicable diseases (NCDs. It is suggested that adulthood blood pressure (BP is tracked from childhood. This study aims to evaluate the mean BP and the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in the Iranian pediatric population. Methods: In a national survey as the 4 th phase of Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non-communicable diseases study and through random multistage cluster sampling, a national sample of Iranian school students, aged 6-18 years, were recruited. Data gathered by means of modified World Health Organization Global school-based student health survey questionnaire, a weight disorders determinants questionnaire and anthropometric and BP measurements. Prehypertension (HTN was defined as BP equal or greater than 90 th age and sex specific percentile or ≥120/80 mmHg and HTN was defined as BP ≥95 th percentile. Results: A total of 13486 students entered the study (49.2% girls, 75.6% urban. Mean age of participants was 11.47 ΁ 3.36 years. A total rate of 4.17% (3.84-4.52 95% CI for high systolic BP (SBP, 4.33% (3.99-4.68 for high diastolic BP (DBP and 6.88% (6.45-7.32 for high SBP and/or DBP was depicted. Conclusions: The prevalence rate of high BP (pre-HTN together with HTN is substantially high in this population. It is needed to study the causative situations and implement relevant interventions.

  6. Impact of Maternal Attachment Style on Mother to Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Moghaddam Hoseini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.

     

    Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.

     

    Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.48±6.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.89±3.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.

     

    Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.

  7. Selective extraction of U(VI), Th(IV), and La(III) from acidic matrix solutions and environmental samples using chemically modified Amberlite XAD-16 resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakaran, D.; Subramanian, M.S. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, 600 036, Chennai (India)

    2004-06-01

    A new grafted polymer has been developed by the chemical modification of Amberlite XAD-16 (AXAD-16) polymeric matrix with [(2-dihydroxyarsinoylphenylamino)methyl]phosphonic acid (AXAD-16-AsP). The modified polymer was characterized by a combination of {sup 13}C CPMAS and {sup 31}P solid-state NMR, Fourier transform-NIR-FIR-Raman spectroscopy, CHNPS elemental analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The distribution studies for the extraction of U(VI), Th(IV), and La(III) from acidic solutions were performed using an AXAD-16-AsP-packed chromatographic column. The influences of various physiochemical parameters on analyte recovery were optimized by both static and dynamic methods. Accordingly, even under high acidities (>4 M), good distribution ratio (D) values (10{sup 2}-10{sup 4}) were achieved for all the analytes. Metal ion desorption was effective using 1 mol L{sup -1} (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3}. From kinetic studies, a time duration of <15 min was sufficient for complete metal ion saturation of the resin phase. The maximum metal sorption capacities were found to be 0.25, 0.13, and 1.49 mmol g{sup -1} for U(VI); 0.47, 0.39, and 1.40 mmol g{sup -1} for Th(IV); and 1.44, 1.48, and 1.12 mmol g{sup -1} for La(III), in the presence of 2 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3}, 2 mol L{sup -1} HCl, and under pH conditions, respectively. The analyte selectivity of the grafted polymer was tested in terms of interfering species tolerance studies. The system showed an enrichment factor of 365, 300, and 270 for U(VI), Th(IV), and La(III), and the limit of analyte detection was in the range of 18-23 ng mL{sup -1}. The practical applicability of the polymer was tested with synthetic nuclear spent fuel and seawater mixtures, natural water, and geological samples. The RSD of the total analytical procedure was within 4.9%, thus confirming the reliability of the developed method. (orig.)

  8. Machiavellianism and Parental Attachment in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Machiavellianism is a well-studied topic in several branches of psychology. Still, it has received little attention from a developmental perspective. Previous retrospective studies linked Machiavellianism to poor parental care, but actual reports of adolescents who live in their family of origin have been ignored so far. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between Machiavellianism and parental attachment in adolescence and possible sex differences based on life history theory. An adolescent sample (N = 376; 17.27 ± .77 years of age completed the Mach-IV and the maternal and paternal versions of revised Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA-R. According to our results, significant sex differences emerged in the relationship between Machiavellianism and attachment to parents. For girls, maternal alienation proved to be the only significant predictor of Machiavellianism, whereas for boys, low intensity and quality of verbal communication with father predicted higher levels of Machiavellianism. Results are discussed from an evolutionary perspective of socialization and from the perspective of emotion regulation.

  9. The Impact of Social Support and Attachment Style on Quality of Life and Readiness to Change in a Sample of Individuals Receiving Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaiola, Alan A; Fulmer, Barbara A; Stout, David

    2015-01-01

    A basic principle within the addictions treatment field is that social support is a vital ingredient in the recovery process. This study examines the nature of social support in a sample of opioid-dependent men and women who are currently being treated in a medication-assisted treatment program (methadone). This research examines the types of social support behaviors that the opioid-dependent individuals consider helpful and explores whether attachment style (i.e., secure, ambivalent, or anxious attachment) was a determining factor in whether social support was perceived as helpful. The dependent variables included readiness to change addictive behaviors and abstinence from other mood-altering drugs. Participants (N = 159) completed a demographic questionnaire, the Significant Others Scale, the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Assessment, the Readiness to Change Scale, and an Attachment Style Questionnaire. The demographic questionnaire included subjective ratings of self-improvement. Social support predicted perceived improvement in all of the areas examined (e.g., health, family/social relationships) and abstinence; however, attachment style did not predict improvement or with readiness to change. Social support is an important factor in one's recovery from substance use disorders. Yet attachment style (i.e., anxious, avoidant, or secure) did not predict abstinence or overall improvement in functioning.

  10. Asteroids IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.

    . Asteroids, like planets, are driven by a great variety of both dynamical and physical mechanisms. In fact, images sent back by space missions show a collection of small worlds whose characteristics seem designed to overthrow our preconceived notions. Given their wide range of sizes and surface compositions, it is clear that many formed in very different places and at different times within the solar nebula. These characteristics make them an exciting challenge for researchers who crave complex problems. The return of samples from these bodies may ultimately be needed to provide us with solutions. In the book Asteroids IV, the editors and authors have taken major strides in the long journey toward a much deeper understanding of our fascinating planetary ancestors. This book reviews major advances in 43 chapters that have been written and reviewed by a team of more than 200 international authorities in asteroids. It is aimed to be as comprehensive as possible while also remaining accessible to students and researchers who are interested in learning about these small but nonetheless important worlds. We hope this volume will serve as a leading reference on the topic of asteroids for the decade to come. We are deeply indebted to the many authors and referees for their tremendous efforts in helping us create Asteroids IV. We also thank the members of the Asteroids IV scientific organizing committee for helping us shape the structure and content of the book. The conference associated with the book, "Asteroids Comets Meteors 2014" held June 30-July 4, 2014, in Helsinki, Finland, did an outstanding job of demonstrating how much progress we have made in the field over the last decade. We are extremely grateful to our host Karri Muinonnen and his team. The editors are also grateful to the Asteroids IV production staff, namely Renée Dotson and her colleagues at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, for their efforts, their invaluable assistance, and their enthusiasm; they made life as

  11. The relationships between problematic internet use, alexithymia levels and attachment characteristics in a sample of adolescents in a high school, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolat, Nurullah; Yavuz, Mesut; Eliaçık, Kayı; Zorlu, Adil

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between attachment characteristics, alexithymia and problematic internet use (PIU) in adolescents. The study was performed on 444 high school students (66% female and 34% male). Internet Addiction Test (IAT), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Short Form of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (s-IPPA) scales were used. The adolescents who scored ≥50 on IAT were considered as the PIU group and <50 were considered as control group. There was a moderate positive relationship between TAS-20 and IAT scores (r = .441), and a moderate negative relationship between TAS-20 and s-IPPA scores (r = -.392), and a negative weak relationship between IAT and s-IPPA scores (r = -.208). S-IPPA scores were significantly lower in the PIU group compared to the controls (p < .001). TAS-20 scores of the PIU group were significantly higher compared to the controls (p < .05). Logistic regression analysis indicated that s-IPPA scores and TAS-20 significantly predict the PIU development (p < .05). The results indicate that alexithymia increases the risk of PIU and higher attachment quality is a protective factor for both alexithymia and PIU. These results suggest that it is important to focus on the insecure attachment patterns and alexithymic characteristics when studying adolescents with PIU.

  12. Association between junk food consumption and mental health in a national sample of Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Hoda; Kelishadi, Roya; Heshmat, Ramin; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ranjbar, Shirin Hasani; Ardalan, Gelayol; Payab, Moloud; Chinian, Mohammad; Asayesh, Hamid; Larijani, Bagher; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of high energy and low nutritional content foods, which are known as junk foods, has increased. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between junk food intake and mental health in a national sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Data were obtained from a surveillance system entitled CASPIAN-IV (Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non communicable Disease) study of school students, ages 6 to 18 y in Iran. The students and their parents completed two sets of reliable questionnaires obtained from Global School Health Survey translated to Persian. The student questionnaire comprised several questions such as psychiatric distress (worry, depression, confusion, insomnia, anxiety, aggression, and worthless) and violent behaviors (physical fighting, being a victim, and bullying). The junk foods consisted of sweets, sweetened beverages, fast foods, and salty snacks. In the sample of 13 486 children and adolescents, the frequency of junk food consumption was significantly associated with psychiatric distress (P junk foods (P 0.05). Additionally, the results of logistic regression showed that daily consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks significantly increased the odds of self-reported psychiatric distress. Also, daily consumption of salty snacks was significantly associated with violent behavior, including physical fighting (odds ratio [OR], 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-1.60), being a victim (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.04-1.37), and bullying (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.32-1.82). Junk food consumption may increase the risk for psychiatric distress and violent behaviors in children and adolescents. Improvement of eating habits toward healthier diets may be an effective approach for improving mental health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of DSM-5 criteria for autism spectrum disorder to three samples of children with DSM-IV diagnoses of pervasive developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Marisela; Bishop, Somer L; Duncan, Amie; Hus, Vanessa; Lord, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Substantial revisions to the DSM-IV criteria for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been proposed in efforts to increase diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. This study evaluated the proposed DSM-5 criteria for the single diagnostic category of autism spectrum disorder in children with DSM-IV diagnoses of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) and non-PDD diagnoses. Three data sets included 4,453 children with DSM-IV clinical PDD diagnoses and 690 with non-PDD diagnoses (e.g., language disorder). Items from a parent report measure of ASD symptoms (Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised) and clinical observation instrument (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) were matched to DSM-5 criteria and used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the proposed DSM-5 criteria and current DSM-IV criteria when compared with clinical diagnoses. Based on just parent data, the proposed DSM-5 criteria identified 91% of children with clinical DSM-IV PDD diagnoses. Sensitivity remained high in specific subgroups, including girls and children under 4. The specificity of DSM-5 ASD was 0.53 overall, while the specificity of DSM-IV ranged from 0.24, for clinically diagnosed PDD not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), to 0.53, for autistic disorder. When data were required from both parent and clinical observation, the specificity of the DSM-5 criteria increased to 0.63. These results suggest that most children with DSM-IV PDD diagnoses would remain eligible for an ASD diagnosis under the proposed DSM-5 criteria. Compared with the DSM-IV criteria for Asperger's disorder and PDD-NOS, the DSM-5 ASD criteria have greater specificity, particularly when abnormalities are evident from both parents and clinical observation.

  14. IVS Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    International VLBI Service (IVS) is an international collaboration of organizations which operate or support Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) components. The goals are: To provide a service to support geodetic, geophysical and astrometric research and operational activities. To promote research and development activities in all aspects of the geodetic and astrometric VLBI technique. To interact with the community of users of VLBI products and to integrate VLBI into a global Earth observing system.

  15. Correlates of appearance and weight satisfaction in a U.S. National Sample: Personality, attachment style, television viewing, self-esteem, and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Sandhu, Gaganjyot; Morse, Patrick J; Swami, Viren

    2016-06-01

    We examined the prevalence and correlates of satisfaction with appearance and weight. Participants (N=12,176) completed an online survey posted on the NBCNews.com and Today.com websites. Few men and women were very to extremely dissatisfied with their physical appearances (6%; 9%), but feeling very to extremely dissatisfied with weight was more common (15%; 20%). Only about one-fourth of men and women felt very to extremely satisfied with their appearances (28%; 26%) and weights (24%; 20%). Men and women with higher body masses reported higher appearance and weight dissatisfaction. Dissatisfied people had higher Neuroticism, more preoccupied and fearful attachment styles, and spent more hours watching television. In contrast, satisfied people had higher Openness, Conscientious, and Extraversion, were more secure in attachment style, and had higher self-esteem and life satisfaction. These findings highlight the high prevalence of body dissatisfaction and the factors linked to dissatisfaction among U.S. adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Qualitative Exploration of the Use of Attachment Theory in Adult Psychological Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Eilish; Danquah, Adam; Berry, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest into how attachment theory can inform psychotherapeutic practice with adults. This study aimed to explore how a group of therapists with an interest in attachment theory use it in their work with adult clients. A cross-sectional qualitative design was adopted. Sampling, data collection and analysis procedures were guided by grounded theory principles. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 12 therapists from a variety of training backgrounds. Data were coded and developed into thematic categories. Six primary themes were identified to describe how attachment theory influenced the clinical practice of the sample through the following: (i) complementing other therapeutic models; (ii) providing a framework to understand the development of clients' mental health problems; (iii) working with different attachment styles; (iv) thinking about the therapeutic relationship as an attachment relationship; (iv) influencing the different stages of the therapeutic process; and (vi) influencing clinical service design and delivery. It is concluded that attachment theory can play a significant role in influencing the practice of therapists and can be usefully adopted to complement therapeutic processes irrespective of the therapist's dominant clinical orientation. Further research is needed to explore the views of clinicians from different theoretical orientations and to investigate the security of the client-therapist attachment within the context of therapeutic change processes. Attachment theory may have implications for practice across a range of different types of therapy and may help therapists to bridge apparent differences between modality-specific formulation and techniques. Attachment theory can be used to understand the development of mental health problems. Therapists should assess and formulate clients' attachment styles, and these formulations should guide therapeutic approaches. Attachment theory provides a comprehensive

  17. Adult separation anxiety and unsettled infant behavior: Associations with adverse parenting during childhood and insecure adult attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhoff, Jane; Barnett, Bryanne; Eapen, Valsamma

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of Adult Separation Anxiety Disorder (ASAD) and Adult Separation Anxiety (ASA) symptoms in a sample of first-time mothers with an unsettled infant during the first postpartum year. Eighty-three primiparous women admitted to a residential parent-infant program participated in a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV diagnosis and questionnaires assessing ASA symptoms, adult attachment and childhood parenting experiences. Nurses recorded infant behavior using 24-hour charts. The prevalence of ASAD in this sample was 19.3% and women with ASAD were, on average, more likely to be diagnosed with depression and anxiety disorders, report aversive parenting experiences during childhood and show adult attachment style insecurity. Both ASAD and ASA symptoms were predicted by adult attachment anxiety, and ASAD was associated with unsettled infant behavior. Attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance mediated relations between parental over-control and ASAD diagnosis, and between parental abuse and ASAD diagnosis. Attachment anxiety mediated the relation between parental over-control and ASA symptoms, and attachment avoidance mediated the relations of parental over-control and parental abuse with ASA symptoms. This study highlights the prevalence of ASAD among first time mothers experiencing early parenting difficulties and the roles of childhood parenting experiences and adult attachment style in the development of the disorder. This points to the importance of introducing universal screening for ASAD in postnatal settings, and for the development of targeted interventions. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Incremental Validity of WISC-IV[superscript UK] Factor Index Scores with a Referred Irish Sample: Predicting Performance on the WIAT-II[superscript UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.; James, Trevor; Good, Rebecca; James, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Background: Subtest and factor scores have typically provided little incremental predictive validity beyond the omnibus IQ score. Aims: This study examined the incremental validity of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth UK Edition (WISC-IV[superscript UK]; Wechsler, 2004a, "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth UK…

  19. A Taxometric Investigation of "DSM-IV" Major Depression in a Large Outpatient Sample: Interpretable Structural Results Depend on the Mode of Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, John; Brown, Timothy A.; Ruscio, Ayelet Meron

    2009-01-01

    Most taxometric studies of depressive constructs have drawn indicators from self-report instruments that do not bear directly on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV)" diagnostic construct of major depressive disorder (MDD). The present study examined the latent structure of MDD using indicator sets…

  20. Prevalence of DSM-IV disorders in a population-based sample of 5- to 8-year-old children : the impact of impairment criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the impact of impairment criteria on the prevalence and patterns of comorbidity of child DSM-IV disorders. The validity of these impairment criteria was tested against different measures of mental health care referral and utilization. We interviewed parents of 1,154 children

  1. Prevalence of DSM-IV disorders in a population-based sample of 5- to 8-year-old children: the impact of impairment criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Rijlaarsdam (Jolien); G. Stevens (Gonneke); J. van der Ende (Jan); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis study determined the impact of impairment criteria on the prevalence and patterns of comorbidity of child DSM-IV disorders. The validity of these impairment criteria was tested against different measures of mental health care referral and utilization. We interviewed parents of 1,154

  2. Reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel, I-VIII, Part IV, Engineering drawings, C - Sampling equipment; Prerada isluzenog nuklearnog goriva, I-VIII, IV Deo, Konstruktivni crtezi, C - Uredjaj za uzimanje uzoraka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gal, I [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Laboratorija za hemiju visoke aktivnosti, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-02-15

    This volume includes the engineering drawings of the sampling equipment which is part of the pilot device for for extracting uranium, plutonium and fission products from the fuel irradiated in the reactor.

  3. Task 08/41, Low temperature loop at the RA reactor, Review IV - Maximum temperature values in the samples without forced cooling; Zadatak 08/41, Niskotemperaturna petlja u reaktoru 'RA', Pregled IV - Maksimalne temperature u uzorcima bez prinudnog hladjenja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaric, Z [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1961-12-15

    The quantity of heat generated in the sample was calculated in the Review III. In stationary regime the heat is transferred through the air layer between the sample and the wall of the channel to the heavy water of graphite. Certain value of maximum temperature t{sub 0} is achieved in the sample. The objective of this review is determination of this temperature. [Serbo-Croat] Kolicina toplote generisana u uzorku, izracunata u pregledu III, u ravnoteznom stanju odvodi se kroz vazdusni sloj izmedju uzorka i zida kanala na tesku vodu odnosno grafit, pri cemu se u uzorku dostize izvesna maksimalna temperatura t{sub 0}. Odredjivanje ove temperature je predmet ovog pregleda.

  4. A sputnik IV saga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Charles A.

    2009-12-01

    The Sputnik IV launch occurred on May 15, 1960. On May 19, an attempt to deorbit a 'space cabin' failed and the cabin went into a higher orbit. The orbit of the cabin was monitored and Moonwatch volunteer satellite tracking teams were alerted to watch for the vehicle demise. On September 5, 1962, several team members from Milwaukee, Wisconsin made observations starting at 4:49 a.m. of a fireball following the predicted orbit of Sputnik IV. Requests went out to report any objects found under the fireball path. An early morning police patrol in Manitowoc had noticed a metal object on a street and had moved it to the curb. Later the officers recovered the object and had it dropped off at the Milwaukee Journal. The Moonwarch team got the object and reported the situation to Moonwatch Headquarters at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. A team member flew to Cambridge with the object. It was a solid, 9.49 kg piece of steel with a slag-like layer attached to it. Subsequent analyses showed that it contained radioactive nuclei produced by cosmic ray exposure in space. The scientists at the Observatory quickly recognized that measurements of its induced radioactivity could serve as a calibration for similar measurements of recently fallen nickel-iron meteorites. Concurrently, the Observatory directorate informed government agencies that a fragment from Sputnik IV had been recovered. Coincidently, a debate in the UN Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space involved the issue of liability for damage caused by falling satellite fragments. On September 12, the Observatory delivered the bulk of the fragment to the US Delegation to the UN. Two days later, the fragment was used by US Ambassador Francis Plimpton as an exhibit that the time had come to agree on liability for damage from satellite debris. He offered the Sputnik IV fragment to USSR Ambassador P.D. Morozov, who refused the offer. On October 23, Drs. Alla Massevitch and E.K. Federov of the USSR visited the

  5. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  6. An evaluation of ICD-11 posttraumatic stress disorder criteria in two samples of adolescents and young adults exposed to mass shootings: factor analysis and comparisons to ICD-10 and DSM-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haravuori, Henna; Kiviruusu, Olli; Suomalainen, Laura; Marttunen, Mauri

    2016-05-12

    The proposed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria for the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 11th revision are simpler than the criteria in ICD-10, DSM-IV or DSM-5. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ICD-11 PTSD factor structure in samples of young people, and to compare PTSD prevalence rates and diagnostic agreement between the different diagnostic systems. Possible differences in clinical characteristics of the PTSD cases identified by ICD-11, ICD-10 and DSM-IV are explored. Two samples of adolescents and young adults were followed after exposure to similar mass shooting incidents in their schools. Semi-structured diagnostic interviews were performed to assess psychiatric diagnoses and PTSD symptom scores (N = 228, mean age 17.6 years). PTSD symptom item scores were used to compose diagnoses according to the different classification systems. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the proposed ICD-11 PTSD symptoms represented two rather than three factors; re-experiencing and avoidance symptoms comprised one factor and hyperarousal symptoms the other factor. In the studied samples, the three-factor ICD-11 criteria identified 51 (22.4%) PTSD cases, the two-factor ICD-11 identified 56 (24.6%) cases and the DSM-IV identified 43 (18.9%) cases, while the number of cases identified by ICD-10 was larger, being 85 (37.3%) cases. Diagnostic agreement of the ICD-11 PTSD criteria with ICD-10 and DSM-IV was moderate, yet the diagnostic agreement turned to be good when an impairment criterion was imposed on ICD-10. Compared to ICD-11, ICD-10 identified cases with less severe trauma exposure and posttraumatic symptoms and DSM-IV identified cases with less severe trauma exposure. The findings suggest that the two-factor model of ICD-11 PTSD is preferable to the three-factor model. The proposed ICD-11 criteria are more restrictive compared to the ICD-10 criteria. There were some differences in the clinical characteristics of the PTSD cases

  7. Attachment style and adjustment to divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yárnoz-Yaben, Sagrario

    2010-05-01

    Divorce is becoming increasingly widespread in Europe. In this study, I present an analysis of the role played by attachment style (secure, dismissing, preoccupied and fearful, plus the dimensions of anxiety and avoidance) in the adaptation to divorce. Participants comprised divorced parents (N = 40) from a medium-sized city in the Basque Country. The results reveal a lower proportion of people with secure attachment in the sample group of divorcees. Attachment style and dependence (emotional and instrumental) are closely related. I have also found associations between measures that showed a poor adjustment to divorce and the preoccupied and fearful attachment styles. Adjustment is related to a dismissing attachment style and to the avoidance dimension. Multiple regression analysis confirmed that secure attachment and the avoidance dimension predict adjustment to divorce and positive affectivity while preoccupied attachment and the anxiety dimension predicted negative affectivity. Implications for research and interventions with divorcees are discussed.

  8. An enhanced cerium(IV)-rhodamine 6G chemiluminescence system using guest-host interactions in a lab-on-a-chip platform for estimating the total phenolic content in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Haddabi, Buthaina; Al Lawati, Haider A J; Suliman, FakhrEldin O

    2016-04-01

    Two chemiluminescence-microfluidic (CL-MF) systems, e.g., Ce(IV)-rhodamine B (RB) and Ce(IV)-rhodamine 6G (R6G), for the determination of the total phenolic content in teas and some sweeteners were evaluated. The results indicated that the Ce(IV)-R6G system was more sensitive in comparison to the Ce(IV)-RB CL system. Therefore, a simple (CL-MF) method based on the CL of Ce(IV)-R6G was developed, and the sensitivity, selectivity and stability of this system were evaluated. Selected phenolic compounds (PCs), such as quercetin (QRC), catechin (CAT), rutin (RUT), gallic acid (GA), caffeic acid (CA) and syringic acid (SA), produced analytically useful chemiluminescence signals with low detection limits ranging from 0.35 nmol L(-1) for QRC to 11.31 nmol L(-1) for SA. The mixing sequence and the chip design were crucial, as the sensitivity and reproducibility could be substantially affected by these two factors. In addition, the anionic surfactant (i.e., sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) can significantly enhance the CL signal intensity by as much as 300% for the QRC solution. Spectroscopic studies indicated that the enhancement was due to a strong guest-host interaction between the cationic R6G molecules and the anionic amphiphilic environment. Other parameters that could affect the CL intensities of the PCs were carefully optimized. Finally, the method was successfully applied to tea and sweetener samples. Six different tea samples exhibited total phenolic/antioxidant levels from 7.32 to 13.5 g per 100g of sample with respect to GA. Four different sweetener samples were also analyzed and exhibited total phenolic/antioxidant levels from 500.9 to 3422.9 mg kg(-1) with respect to GA. The method was selective, rapid and sensitive when used to estimate the total phenolic/antioxidant level, and the results were in good agreement with those reported for honey and tea samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dimensional representations of DSM-IV cluster B personality disorders in a population-based sample of Norwegian twins: a multivariate study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, S; Czajkowski, N; Jacobson, K; Reichborn-Kjennerud, T; Røysamb, E; Neale, M C; Kendler, K S

    2008-11-01

    The personality disorders (PDs) in the 'dramatic' cluster B [antisocial (ASPD), histrionic (HPD), narcissistic (NPD) and borderline (BPD)] demonstrate co-morbidity. However, the degree to which genetic and/or environmental factors influence their co-occurrence is not known and, with the exception of ASPD, the relative impact of genetic and environmental risk factors on liability to the cluster B PDs has not been conclusively established. PD traits were assessed in 1386 Norwegian twin pairs between the age of 19 and 35 years using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SIDP-IV). Using the statistical package Mx, multivariate twin models were fitted to dimensional representations of the PDs. The best-fitting model, which did not include sex or shared family environment effects, included common genetic and environmental factors influencing all four dramatic PD traits, and factors influencing only ASPD and BPD. Heritability was estimated at 38% for ASPD traits, 31% for HPD traits, 24% for NPD traits and 35% for BPD traits. BPD traits had the lowest and ASPD traits the highest disorder-specific genetic variance. The frequently observed co-morbidity between cluster B PDs results from both common genetic and environmental influences. Etiologically, cluster B has a 'substructure' in which ASPD and BPD are more closely related to each other than to the other cluster B disorders.

  10. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-46, 119-F Stack Sampling French Drain. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-021

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The 100-F-46 french drain consisted of a 1.5 to 3 m long, vertically buried, gravel-filled pipe that was approximately 1 m in diameter. Also included in this waste site was a 5 cm cast-iron pipeline that drained condensate from the 119-F Stack Sampling Building into the 100-F-46 french drain. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  11. Severity of personality disorders and domains of general personality dysfunction related to attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengartner, Michael P; von Wyl, Agnes; Tanis, Thachell; Halmi, Winter; Galynker, Igor; Cohen, Lisa J

    2015-08-01

    This is the first study to link attachment to both severity of total DSM-IV personality disorder (PD) traits and domains of general personality dysfunction, using a sample of 72 inpatients from New York City. We assessed a measure of global PD severity and the core domains of personality functioning using the severity indices of personality problems (SIPP-118). Attachment was measured with the experience in close relationships-revised (ECR-R) and the relationship style questionnaire (RSQ). Global PD severity correlated most strongly with attachment anxiety (r = 0.65). Regression of the SIPP-118 domains on attachment produced models that accounted for a substantial proportion of variance in those scales (R(2) ranging from 28.2 to 54.2%). SIPP-118 relational capacities were the strongest predictor of ECR-R avoidance (β = -0.88) and anxiety (β = -0.58), as well as RSQ secure (β = 0.53) and fearful (β = -0.65). In conclusion, insecure attachment strongly related to the severity of global PD traits and specifically to relational capacities, which are a higher-order domain of general personality dysfunction. These findings provide further evidence that interpersonal problems are at the core of PDs and that attachment could constitute an important mediator of the social dysfunction in persons with personality pathology. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Synthesis of Cross-Linked Chitosan and Application to Adsorption and Speciation of Se (VI and Se (IV in Environmental Water Samples by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new type of cross-linked chitosan was synthesized with Diethylene Triamine (DCCTS. The adsorption of Se (VI on DCCTS was studied. The effect factors on adsorption and the adsorption mechanism were considered. The results indicated that the DCCTS could concentrate and separate Se (IV at pH = 3.6; the maximum adsorption efficiency was 94%, the adsorption equilibrium time was 30 min; the maximum adsorption capacity was 42.7 mg/g; the adsorption fitted Langmuir equation. A novel method for speciation of Se (VI and Se (IV in environmental water samples has been developed using DCCTS as adsorbent and ICP–OES as determination means. The detection limit of this method was 12 ng/L, the relatively standard deviation was 4.5% and the recovery was 99%~104%.

  13. Attachment and prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnelley, Katherine B; Boag, Elle M

    2018-04-16

    There is a paucity of research that examines prejudice from an attachment theory perspective. Herein we make theoretical links between attachment patterns and levels of prejudice. Perceptions of outgroup threat, which activate the attachment system, are thought to lead to fear and prejudice for those high in attachment anxiety, and to distancing and prejudice for those high in attachment avoidance. We review the literature that examines the associations between attachment patterns and prejudice; evidence from attachment priming studies suggests a causal role of attachment security in reducing prejudice. We identify several mediators of these links: empathy, negative emotions, trust, social dominance orientation, romanticism, and contact quality. Future research should manipulate potential mediators and use psychophysiological assessments of threat. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Attachment and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillath, Omri; C Karantzas, Gery; Lee, Juwon

    2018-02-21

    The current review covers two lines of research linking attachment and social networks. One focuses on attachment networks (the people who fulfill one's attachment needs), examining composition and age-related differences pertaining to these networks. The other line integrates attachment with social network analysis to investigate how individual differences in adult attachment are associated with the management and characteristics (e.g., density, multiplexity, and centrality) of people's social networks. We show that most people's attachment networks are small and hierarchical, with one figure being the primary attachment figure (often a mother or romantic partner, depending on age). Furthermore, attachment style predicts network characteristics and management, such that insecurity is associated with less closeness, multiplexity, centrality, and poorer management (less maintenance, more dissolution). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reassessment of patients with Eating Disorders after moving from DSM-IV towards DSM-5: a retrospective study in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualandi, Malvina; Simoni, Marzia; Manzato, Emilia; Scanelli, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    To compare the relative prevalence of eating disorders moving from DSM-IV to DSM-5, and to reassess the overall medical impairment in the revised diagnostic classes. We applied DSM-5 to 206 patients (age 15-56 years) previously studied and classified according to DSM-IV. Medical impairment was classified as low, medium, or high, based on a cumulative score of clinical severity (SCS), computed as the sum of specific weights assigned to different pathological conditions and their ascertained prognostic impact. Application of DSM-5 produced a decrease in Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) by 17 %, an increase in anorexia (AN) by 14 % and bulimia (BN) by 2.4 %; 44.6 % of EDNOS migrated to AN, 8 % to BN, and 30.8 % was reclassified as Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorders (OSFED). Mean SCS was higher in AN than in other diagnoses independent of classification. Differently from EDNOS, no high score was found in OSFED. BMI (OR 0.74, 95 % CI 0.56-0.98) and duration of amenorrhea >1 year (OR 6.63, 95 % CI 1.29-34.16) resulted significantly associated with the risk for medium-high SCS level in AN classified with DSM-5. The results confirmed that DSM-5 reduces the number of EDNOS. DSM-5 seems to better represent the clinical picture in OSFED than in EDNOS. The clinical relevance of BMI and duration of amenorrhea should be considered even more now that they are no longer used as diagnostic hallmarks of AN.

  16. Belt attachment and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2018-03-06

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  17. Electron-attachment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Christodoulides, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Topics covered include: (1) modes of production of negative ions, (2) techniques for the study of electron attachment processes, (3) dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules, (4) dissociative electron attachment to hot molecules (effects of temperature on dissociative electron attachment), (5) molecular parent negative ions, and (6) negative ions formed by ion-pair processes and by collisions of molecules with ground state and Rydberg atoms

  18. Attachment over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Feiring, Candice; Rosenthal, Saul

    2000-01-01

    Examined continuity in attachment classification from infancy through adolescence and related it to autobiographical memories of childhood, divorce, and maladjustment in white middle-class children. Found no continuity in attachment classification from 1 to 18 years and no relation between infant attachment status and adolescent adjustment.…

  19. Attachment and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih Ustundag

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The type of attachment defined in the early stages of life and thought to be continuous, is a phenomenon that shapes the pattern of how a person makes contact with others. The clinical appearance of every type of attachment is different and each one has prospective and retrospective phenomenological reflections. In all stages of life and in close relationships, it can be observed if a person gets in close contact with someone else and if this relation bears supportive and protective qualities. According to attachment theorists, once it is defined as safe or unsafe during nursing period, it shows little change. Starting from Bowlby’s work, unsafe attachment type is considered as the determining factor of psychopathology in the later periods of life, while safe attachment is considered as in relation with healthy processes. The nature’s original model is safe attachment. Anxious/indecisive attachment, an unsafe attachment type, is associated with anxiety disorders and depressive disorder, while avoidant attachment is associated with behavior disorder and other extroverted pathologies. Disorganized/disoriented attachment is considered to be together with dissociative disorder. The aim of this paper is to review attachment theory and the relation between attachment and psychopathology.

  20. Special Attachments. Module 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on special attachments, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers four topics: gauges; cording attachment; zipper foot; and hemming, shirring, and binding. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student…

  1. Attachment styles and contingencies of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E; Crocker, Jennifer; Mickelson, Kristin D

    2004-10-01

    Previous research on attachment theory has focused on mean differences in level of self-esteem among people with different attachment styles. The present study examines the associations between attachment styles and different bases of self-esteem, or contingencies of self-worth, among a sample of 795 college students. Results showed that attachment security was related to basing self-worth on family support. Both the preoccupied attachment style and fearful attachment style were related to basing self-worth on physical attractiveness. The dismissing attachment style was related to basing self-worth less on others' approval, family support, and God's love.

  2. Comparison of a parent-rated DSM-IV measure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and quantitative EEG parameters in an outpatient sample of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolidge, Frederick L; Starkey, Michael T; Cahill, Brian S

    2007-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was investigated using the parent-as-respondent, 200-item, Coolidge Personality and Neuropsychology Inventory (CPNI) and a quantitative electroencephalograph (QEEG). Parents of 183 children (mean age = 12.2 years) brought to an outpatient private clinic for behavioral and/or emotional problems completed the CPNI including the 18-item DSM-IV-based ADHD scale and their children were also evaluated by QEEG. The correlation between the CPNI ADHD scale T score and the categorical QEEG parameter (based on the beta-theta power ratio) for the identification of ADHD was r = -0.15. Using a dichotomous ADHD CPNI measure (positive/negative) and the QEEG beta-theta power ratio resulted in an r value of -0.09. The sensitivity of the QEEG ADHD parameter and the CPNI ADHD scale was 50% and the specificity was 36%. The results stand in contrast to those of who found 90% sensitivity and 94% specificity between behavioral measures of ADHD and the QEEG scanning procedure. The lack of correspondence between the two measures is discussed.

  3. Attachment theory: A review of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of attachment is numerous and versatile. They differ according to problems addressed, methodology applied (longitudinal studies, studies with horizontal designs, different instruments used, different methods of data analysis, and characteristics of samples involved (concerning age socio/economic status, family ecology. The research is commonly relied on the core assumptions of the theory itself, and the shared characteristic is orientation to explore complex phenomena of human experience and functioning. From the vast variety of research only those who most directly test the basic assumptions of the attachment theory are focused and addressed in the paper: representation of patterns of attachment in the childhood and adulthood, stability and change of attachment security from infancy to early adulthood, transgenerational transmission of attachment characteristics, the place and the role of attachment behavioral system in the personality development. The aim of the paper is to highlight the basic research and theory issues and directions, and illustrate them with concrete research date.

  4. Blade attachment assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell; Miller, Diane Patricia

    2016-05-03

    An assembly and method for affixing a turbomachine rotor blade to a rotor wheel are disclosed. In an embodiment, an adaptor member is provided disposed between the blade and the rotor wheel, the adaptor member including an adaptor attachment slot that is complementary to the blade attachment member, and an adaptor attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot. A coverplate is provided, having a coverplate attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot, and a hook for engaging the adaptor member. When assembled, the coverplate member matingly engages with the adaptor member, and retains the blade in the adaptor member, and the assembly in the rotor wheel.

  5. ATTACHMENT AND TRANSFER

    OpenAIRE

    Pasare, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Bowlby's concept of attachment and Freud's concept of transference are two of the most influential theories of how we construct mental representations of human relationships. The attachment’s theory offers one more strategy for the therapeutic approach. Factors that lead to a secure attachment between mother and child may also be applied to the relationship between patient and psychotherapist. Psychotherapy may help a patient create himself new attachment and relationship patterns. Creating a...

  6. Parenting self-efficacy: links with maternal depression, infant behaviour and adult attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhoff, Jane; Barnett, Bryanne

    2013-04-01

    This study examined predictors of parenting self-efficacy (PSE) in a sample of first-time mothers during the first year after childbirth and evaluated the effect of a brief, intensive, mother-infant residential intervention on PSE and infant behaviour. 83 primiparous women with infants aged 0-12 months admitted to a residential parent-infant program participated in a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV diagnosis of depressive and anxiety disorders and completed questionnaires assessing psychological distress, adult attachment and childhood parenting experiences. During their residential stay, nurses recorded infant behaviour using 24-hour charts. Results showed PSE to be inversely correlated with maternal depression, maternal anxiety and attachment insecurity. Low levels of parental abuse during childhood, avoidant attachment, male infant gender and depressive symptom severity were found to predict low PSE. Major depression mediated the relation between attachment insecurity and PSE, but there were no links between PSE and infant behaviour. After the intervention, there was a significant improvement in PSE, with abusive parenting during childhood and depressive symptom severity being predictive of change. This study highlights the links between maternal psychopathology and maternal background factors such as childhood parenting experiences and attachment style in the development of postnatal PSE. Directions for future research are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The first 62 AGNs observed with SDSS-IV MaNGA - I. Their characterization and definition of a control sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembold, Sandro B.; Shimoia, Jáderson S.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Riffel, Rogério; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Mallmann, Nícolas D.; do Nascimento, Janaína C.; Moreira, Thales N.; Ilha, Gabriele S.; Machado, Alice D.; Cirolini, Rafael; da Costa, Luiz N.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Santiago, Basílio X.; Schneider, Donald P.; Wylezalek, Dominika; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Pan, Kaike; Müller-Sánchez, Francisco

    2017-12-01

    We report the characterization of the first 62 Mapping Nearby Galaxies at the Apache Point Observatory active galactic nuclei (AGNs) hosts and the definition of a control sample of non-active galaxies. This control sample was selected in order to match the AGN hosts in terms of stellar mass, redshift, visual morphology and inclination. The stellar masses are in the range 9.4sample is mostly comprised low-luminosity AGN, with only 17 'strong AGN' with L([O III]λ 5007°_A ≥ 3.8× 10^{40} erg s^{-1}. The inner 1-3 kpc of the control sample galaxies are dominated by the oldest (≥ 4 Gyr) component, with a small contribution of intermediate age and young stars (<940 Myr). Examining the relationship between the stellar population properties and L([O III]}), we find that with increasing L([O III]), the AGN exhibit a decreasing contribution from the oldest stellar population relative to control galaxies and an increasing contribution from the younger components (∼40 Myr). We also find a correlation of the mean age differences (AGN-control) with L([O III]), in the sense that more luminous AGNs are younger than the control objects, while the low-luminosity AGNs are older. These results support a connection between the growth of the galaxy bulge via formation of new stars and the growth of the Supermassive Black Hole via accretion in the AGN phase.

  8. Personality and Attachment in Transsexual Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingiardi, Vittorio; Giovanardi, Guido; Fortunato, Alexandro; Nassisi, Valentina; Speranza, Anna Maria

    2017-07-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the associations between personality features and attachment patterns in transsexual adults. We explored mental representations of attachment, assessed personality traits, and possible personality disorders. Forty-four individuals diagnosed with gender identity disorder (now gender dysphoria), 28 male-to-female and 16 female-to-male, were evaluated using the Shedler-Westen assessment procedure-200 (SWAP-200) to assess personality traits and disorders; the adult attachment interview was used to evaluate their attachment state-of-mind. With respect to attachment, our sample differed both from normative samples because of the high percentage of disorganized states of mind (50% of the sample), and from clinical samples for the conspicuous percentage of secure states of mind (37%). Furthermore, we found that only 16% of our sample presented a personality disorder, while 50% showed a high level of functioning according to the SWAP-200 scales. In order to find latent subgroups that shared personality characteristics, we performed a Q-factor analysis. Three personality clusters then emerged: Healthy Functioning (54% of the sample); Depressive/Introverted (32%) and Histrionic/Extroverted (14%). These data indicate that in terms of personality and attachment, GD individuals are a heterogeneous sample and show articulate and diverse types with regard to these constructs.

  9. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from BARUNA JAYA IV in the Banda Sea, Ceram Sea or Seram Sea and others from 1998-02-19 to 1998-03-05 (NCEI Accession 0157460)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157460 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from BARUNA JAYA IV in the Banda Sea, Ceram Sea or Seram Sea, Flores...

  10. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from BARUNA JAYA IV in the Banda Sea, Ceram Sea or Seram Sea and others from 1996-11-21 to 1996-12-13 (NCEI Accession 0157473)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157473 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from BARUNA JAYA IV in the Banda Sea, Ceram Sea or Seram Sea, Flores...

  11. Attachment Theory and Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rose; Shapiro, Shauna; Treleaven, David

    2012-01-01

    We initiate a dialog between two central areas in the field of psychology today: attachment theory/research and mindfulness studies. The impact of the early mother-infant relationship on child development has been well established in the literature, with attachment theorists having focused on the correlation between a mother's capacity for…

  12. Attachment and psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, N.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis was to further our understanding of current psychosocial models by introducing attachment as a relevant developmental framework. Firstly, attachment theory provides a psychosocial model for a developmental pathway to psychosis. Secondly, after expression of psychotic

  13. Attachment Security and Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Lahav, Yael; Defrin, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The present study assesses for the first time, the possible disruption effect of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) with regard to the protective role of attachment on pain, among ex-POWs. While secure attachment seems to serve as a buffer, decreasing the perception of pain, this function may...

  14. The Attachment Imperative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navne, Laura Emdal; Svendsen, Mette Nordahl; Gammeltoft, Tine

    2017-01-01

    on social relations and point to the productive aspects of practices of distance and detachment. We show that while the NICU upholds an imperative of attachment independently of the infant's chances of survival, for parents, attachment is contingent on certain hesitations in relation to their infant. We...... argue that there are nuances in practices of relationmaking in need of more attention (i.e., the nexus of attachment and detachment). Refraining from touching, holding, and feeding their infants during critical periods, the parents enact detachment as integral to their practices of attachment....... Such “cuts” in parent–infant relations become steps on the way to securing the infant's survival and making kin(ship). We conclude that although infants may be articulated as “maybe‐lives” by staff, in the NICU as well as in Danish society, the ideal of attachment appears to leave little room for “maybe‐parents.”...

  15. Intergenerational Transmission of Internalizing Behavior: The Role of Maternal Psychopathology, Child Responsiveness and Maternal Attachment Style Insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, Corinna; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Zietlow, Anna-Lena

    Maternal depression and anxiety disorders are risk factors for the development of internalizing disorders in offspring. Maternal attachment has been discussed as one factor accounting for transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate child internalizing behavior at preschool age on a symptomatic and behavioral level and possible links to maternal mental health over time and maternal attachment style insecurity in a sample of postpartum depressed and anxious mothers. Child internalizing behavior at preschool age was rated by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), and during a mother-child free-play situation. We focused on child responsiveness as it has been linked to child internalizing behavior. Maternal attachment style insecurity was tested to mediate the link between maternal mental health (assessed postpartum and at preschool age with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders, SCID-I) and child internalizing behavior/child responsiveness. Of the overall sample (n = 58), 28 women were diagnosed with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV, and 30 were healthy controls. Data were collected 3-9 months after delivery and at preschool age (mean = 4.6 years). At preschool age, children of postpartum depressed and anxious mothers were rated significantly higher on child internalizing behavior by mothers, fathers, and additional caregivers compared to the control group. Child internalizing behavior rated by mothers was influenced by current psychiatric symptoms; maternal attachment style insecurity did not mediate this link. During interaction, children in the clinical group displayed significantly less child responsiveness compared to the control group. Maternal attachment style insecurity mediated the relationship between maternal mental health over time and child responsiveness. The results emphasize the need for interventions focusing on mother-child interaction and

  16. Precursors and sequelae of attachment in foster children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, M.; Schuengel, C.

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on attachment of foster children by examining factors associated with attachment relationships of children raised from birth by the same parents. The sample included 61 children between 26 to 88 months of age and their foster caregivers. Attachment security and caregiver

  17. Epistemological Development and Attachment in European College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Carla; Soares, Isabel; Silva, Carolina; Bastos, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Epistemological development and attachment theory have been independent frameworks for understanding psychological development. This study examined the association between epistemological development (using the Measure of Epistemological Reflection) and attachment (using the Adult Attachment Interview) in a sample of 60 pre- and postgraduated…

  18. Continuities and changes in infant attachment patterns across two generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, K Lee; Steele, Ryan D; Carlson, Elizabeth A; Sroufe, L Alan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational continuities and changes in infant attachment patterns within a higher-risk longitudinal sample of 55 female participants born into poverty. Infant attachment was assessed using the Strange Situation when participants were 12 and 18 months as well as several decades later with participants' children. Paralleling earlier findings from this sample on the stability of attachment patterns from infancy to young adulthood, results provided evidence for intergenerational continuities in attachment disorganization but not security. Children of adults with histories of infant attachment disorganization were at an increased risk of forming disorganized attachments. Although changes in infant attachment patterns across the two generations were not correlated with individuals' caregiving experiences or interpersonal stresses and supports during childhood and adolescence, higher quality social support during adulthood was associated with intergenerational changes from insecure to secure infant-caregiver attachment relationships.

  19. IV treatment at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other IV treatments you may receive after you leave the hospital include: Treatment for hormone deficiencies Medicines for severe nausea that cancer chemotherapy or pregnancy may cause Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for pain (this is IV ...

  20. Assessing Attachment in Psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talia, Alessandro; Miller-Bottome, Madeleine; Daniel, Sarah I.F.

    2017-01-01

    The authors present and validate the Patient Attachment Coding System (PACS), a transcript-based instrument that assesses clients' in-session attachment based on any session of psychotherapy, in multiple treatment modalities. One-hundred and sixty clients in different types of psychotherapy...... (cognitive–behavioural, cognitive–behavioural-enhanced, psychodynamic, relational, supportive) and from three different countries were administered the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) prior to treatment, and one session for each client was rated with the PACS by independent coders. Results indicate strong...... inter-rater reliability, and high convergent validity of the PACS scales and classifications with the AAI. These results present the PACS as a practical alternative to the AAI in psychotherapy research and suggest that clinicians using the PACS can assess clients' attachment status on an ongoing basis...

  1. Diaquatetrabromidotin(IV trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ye

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [SnBr4(H2O2]·3H2O, forms large colourless crystals in originally sealed samples of tin tetrabromide. It constitutes the first structurally characterized hydrate of SnBr4 and is isostructural with the corresponding hydrate of SnCl4. It is composed of SnIV atoms octahedrally coordinated by four Br atoms and two cis-related water molecules. The octahedra exhibit site symmetry 2. They are arranged into columns along [001] via medium–strong O—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the two lattice water molecules (one situated on a twofold rotation axis while the chains are interconnected via longer O—H...Br hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  2. Maternal Emotional Availability and Its Association with Maternal Psychopathology, Attachment Style Insecurity and Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Maria; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Träuble, Birgit; Sodian, Beate; Reck, Corinna

    High maternal emotional availability (EA) positively affects various domains of child development. However, the question of which factors promote or hinder maternal EA has not been investigated systematically. The present study investigated several maternal characteristics, namely maternal psychopathology, maternal attachment style insecurity, and theory of mind (ToM) as possible factors that influence maternal EA. The sample was comprised of 56 mothers and their preschool-aged children. Half of the mothers were diagnosed with postpartum depression and or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV, and the other half were healthy controls. The results showed that both low maternal attachment style insecurity and high ToM skills significantly predicted maternal EA sensitivity, independently from maternal postpartum and concurrent psychopathology and education. Moreover, maternal attachment style insecurity fully mediated the link between maternal postpartum psychopathology and sensitivity. The findings suggest that maternal attachment style security can buffer negative effects of maternal psychopathology on maternal sensitivity in the mother-child interaction. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Attachment security and obesity in US preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah E; Whitaker, Robert C

    2011-03-01

    To estimate the association between attachment security in children aged 24 months and their risk for obesity at 4½ years of age. Insecure attachment is associated with unhealthy physiologic and behavioral responses to stress, which could lead to development of obesity. Cohort study. National sample of US children born in 2001. Children and mothers participating in the 2003 and 2005-2006 waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics. Our analytic sample included 6650 children (76.0% of children assessed in both waves). Attachment security at 24 months was assessed by trained interviewers during observation in the child's home. Insecure attachment was defined as lowest quartile of attachment security, based on the security score from the Toddler Attachment Sort-45 Item. Obesity at 4½ years of age (sex-specific body mass index ≥95th percentile for age). The prevalence of obesity was 23.1% in children with insecure attachment and 16.6% in those with secure attachment. For children with insecure attachment, the odds of obesity were 1.30 (95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.62) times higher than for children with secure attachment after controlling for the quality of mother-child interaction during play, parenting practices related to obesity, maternal body mass index, and sociodemographic characteristics. Insecure attachment in early childhood may be a risk factor for obesity. Interventions to increase children's attachment security should examine the effects on children's weight.

  4. Superego: an attachment perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jeremy

    2011-10-01

    With the help of attachment theory and research, the paper attempts to broaden and build on classical and current views on the superego. Attachment theory's epigenetic approach and the concept of the subliminal superego are described. The superego, it is argued, is as much concerned with safety as sex. The superego is 'heir', not just to the Oedipus complex or Klein's pre-oedipal constellation, but also to the attachment relationship. Under favourable developmental conditions a 'mature superego' emerges, facilitating, in the presence of an internal secure base, maturational boundary crossings towards adult sexuality. In the light of the above, the paper reviews Lear's updating of Strachey's model of psychic change and explores the concept of transgression in relation to the 'professional superego', its development and maturation. Theoretical arguments are illustrated with clinical examples. Copyright © 2011 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  5. Fuel rod attachment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    A reusable system for removably attaching a nuclear reactor fuel rod to a support member. A locking cap is secured to the fuel rod and a locking strip is fastened to the support member or vice versa. The locking cap has two opposing fingers and shaped to form a socket having a body portion. The locking strip has an extension shaped to rigidly attach to the socket's body portion. The locking cap's fingers are resiliently deflectable. For attachment, the locking cap is longitudinally pushed onto the locking strip causing the extension to temporarily deflect open the fingers to engage the socket's body portion. For removal, the process is reversed. In an alternative embodiment, the cap is rigid and the strip is transversely resiliently compressible. (author)

  6. Love attitudes and attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Brenlla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Love styles described by Lee are Eros (passionate love, Ludus (game-pla- ying love, Storge (friendship love, Mania (possessive, dependent love, Pragma (logical, “shopping list” love and Agape (all-giving, selfless love. Based on those types, Hendrick and Hendrick developed a 42-ítem rating questionnaire with 7 items measuring each love style (Love Attitudes Scale. Beside, inform about frequency in love relationships and attachment style. The purpose of this study was analyze the reliability and factor structure of the Love Attitudes Scale and to investigate the association between love attitudes and the attachment style. The results (N=280 participants indicate adequate internal consistency (alfa = 0,73. The items were intercorrelated and factored. The best solution extracted six factors using varimax rotation and all six factors accounted 41% of the total variance. Secure attachment was related positively to eros. 

  7. Attachment security, personality, and adjustment of elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, Limor; Scharf, Miri

    2013-01-01

    Children's development is assumed to be closely related to their attachment security and their personality. The authors' aim was to examine the joint contribution of attachment security and personality traits to children's adjustment by examining diverse children's outcomes (emotional symptoms, social functioning, and behavioral problems) and using various perspectives (children, parents, and teachers). The sample comprised 247 8-12-year-old children from low socioeconomic status neighborhoods. Personality and attachment contribute to the different domains of adjustment. In cases of moderation, attachment security moderates the implications of personality traits on children's adjustment. The findings highlight the contribution of positive personality tendencies in playing down the difficulties of insecurely attached children.

  8. Attachment patterns and Reflective Functioning in Traumatized Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    , attachment systems, emotion-regulation, and personality. Attachment research on the consequences of organized violence and forced migration is sparse and research in PTSD-treatment for refugees is lacking behind. Cumulative pre-migration traumatic experiences and ongoing post-migration stressors might lead...... Psychiatry, Denmark. June 2011-March 2012 patients fulfilling inclusion criteria entered the trial. The present sample consisted of those of the 135 patients who were Arabic-speaking (N=67). Measures involved the Adult Attachment Interview, The Reflective Functioning Scale, Revised Adult Attachment Scale...... and reflective functioning will be described and implications for psychotherapy discussed. Keywords: Adult attachment, reflective functioning, refugee traumatisation....

  9. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Hayat, Matthew J; Gross, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated that an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95 % CI [.97, .98], p attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles, and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad.

  10. Father attachment, father emotion expression, and children's attachment to fathers: The role of marital conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Shuang; Haak, Eric A; Gilbert, Lauren R; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keller, Peggy S

    2018-06-01

    The current study examined relations between father attachment to spouses and child attachment to fathers in middle childhood, focusing on father emotion expressions in father-child interactions as mediators and marital conflict as a moderator of relations. Participants were 199 children between 6 and 12 years of age and their fathers. Fathers completed questionnaires about their attachment to their spouses, and both fathers and mothers reported on their marital conflict. Fathers also discussed a difficult topic with their children for 5 min, and fathers' positive and negative emotion expression during the discussions were coded. Children completed questionnaires through an interview about their attachment to their father. Father insecure attachment interacted with marital conflict in predicting more negative emotions and less positive emotions during father-child interactions. Specifically, in the context of higher marital conflict in this community sample, fathers who reported greater preoccupied attachment to their spouses exhibited more negative emotions and less positive emotions when interacting with their children. In turn, more father negative emotions and less positive emotions were associated with children's less secure attachment to fathers. In contrast, father fearful attachment interacted with marital conflict to predict less negative emotion and more positive emotion during interactions with children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. God attachment, mother attachment, and father attachment in early and middle adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Tick Ngee; Yow, Amanda Shixian

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined the interplay of attachment to God, attachment to mother, and attachment to father with respect to adjustment (hope, self-esteem, depression) for 130 early and 106 middle adolescents in Singapore. Results showed that the parental attachments were generally linked (in expected directions) to adjustment. God attachment, however, had unique results. At the bivariate level, God attachment was only linked to early adolescents' self-esteem. When considered together with parental attachments (including interactions), God attachment did not emerge as the key moderator in attachment interactions and yielded some unexpected results (e.g., being positively linked to depression). These results are discussed viz-a-viz the secure base and safe haven functions that God and parental attachments may play during adolescence.

  12. The clustering of the SDSS-IV extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey DR14 quasar sample: measurement of the growth rate of structure from the anisotropic correlation function between redshift 0.8 and 2.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, Pauline; Burtin, Etienne; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Ross, Ashley J.; Tojeiro, Rita; Pâris, Isabelle; Dawson, Kyle S.; Myers, Adam D.; Percival, Will J.; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Bautista, Julian; Comparat, Johan; González-Pérez, Violeta; Habib, Salman; Heitmann, Katrin; Hou, Jiamin; Laurent, Pierre; Le Goff, Jean-Marc; Prada, Francisco; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio A.; Rossi, Graziano; Ruggeri, Rossana; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Schneider, Donald P.; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Wang, Yuting; Yèche, Christophe; Baumgarten, Falk; Brownstein, Joel R.; de la Torre, Sylvain; du Mas des Bourboux, Hélion; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Mariappan, Vivek; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Peacock, John; Petitjean, Patrick; Seo, Hee-Jong; Zhao, Cheng

    2018-06-01

    We present the clustering measurements of quasars in configuration space based on the Data Release 14 (DR14) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS). This data set includes 148 659 quasars spread over the redshift range 0.8 ≤ z ≤ 2.2 and spanning 2112.9 deg2. We use the Convolution Lagrangian Perturbation Theory approach with a Gaussian Streaming model for the redshift space distortions of the correlation function and demonstrate its applicability for dark matter haloes hosting eBOSS quasar tracers. At the effective redshift zeff = 1.52, we measure the linear growth rate of structure fσ8(zeff) = 0.426 ± 0.077, the expansion rate H(z_eff)= 159^{+12}_{-13}(rs^fid/r_s) {{}km s}^{-1} Mpc^{-1}, and the angular diameter distance DA(z_eff)=1850^{+90}_{-115} (r_s/rs^fid) {}Mpc, where rs is the sound horizon at the end of the baryon drag epoch and rs^fid is its value in the fiducial cosmology. The quoted uncertainties include both systematic and statistical contributions. The results on the evolution of distances are consistent with the predictions of flat Λ-cold dark matter cosmology with Planck parameters, and the measurement of fσ8 extends the validity of General Relativity to higher redshifts (z > 1). This paper is released with companion papers using the same sample. The results on the cosmological parameters of the studies are found to be in very good agreement, providing clear evidence of the complementarity and of the robustness of the first full-shape clustering measurements with the eBOSS DR14 quasar sample.

  13. Generation IV national program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preville, M.; Sadhankar, R.; Brady, D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the Generation IV National Program. This program involves evolutionary and innovative design with significantly higher efficiencies (∼50% compared to present ∼30%) - sustainable, economical, safe, reliable and proliferation resistant - for future energy security. The Generation IV Forum (GIF) effectively leverages the resources of the participants to meet these goals. Ten countries signed the GIF Charter in 2001

  14. Attachment of Adolescents to Parents: Turkey Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkan Dogan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the attachment of adolescents to their parents according to geographical regions in Turkey and gender. The research group consisted of 6061 adolescents. With an age average of 15.53 years. The Inventory of Attachment to Parents and Friends- Brief Form (EABE was used as data acquisition tool. The results of the study indicated significant difference between the scores of students regarding the inventory of attachment to parents according to regions. Evaluating the findings regarding attachment to father and mother together, the findings were similar, and the attachment levels of adolescents in Middle Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia and Black Sea Region were found to be higher than the ones in other regions. This result may be related with socioeconomic, geographical and cultural structures of the regions. Examining the finding according to gender variable, the scores of male students are significantly lower than the scores of female students. As a result according to the data gained from a wide sample group; the main factors for the attachment of adolescents to their parents in Turkey are the geographical regions in Turkey and the gender. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 406-419

  15. Transient Analysis of Generation IV quick reactors; Analisis de Transitorios en Reactores Rapidos de Generacion IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, M.; Martin-Fuertes, F.

    2013-07-01

    As a complement to the attached code 3D neutron-CIEMAT thermohydraulic added a module to simulate transient. Temporary kinetics is resolved by factoring flow in a spatial part and another storm. MCNP provides the reactivity and updated spatial function and COBRA-IV calculates the temperature distribution. Temporary dependence of amplitude is calculated using time delayed neutron Kinetic equations. As an example of application, examines a transient loss of flow in MYRRHA, a lead-cooled experimental reactor.

  16. Influencias del apego a la madre en el vínculo con los pares en la adolescencia: Diferencias entre una muestra femenina clínica y no clínica Influences of mother attachment into peer relationship during adolescence: Difference between a clinical and non-clinical female sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica C. Vega

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone indagar tipos de apego a madre y pares en 83 mujeres de 12 a 18 años (Media: 14,63 años, DS 1,20 con Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria (n=30 y sin ellos (n=53 y analizar si el tipo de apego a madre se repite en pares. Se utilizó durante la fase clínica de un estudio bietápico (UBACyT 2008-2010, el Inventario de Apego a Padres y Pares (IPPA, Armsden & Greenberg 1987. Resultados: Los grupos clínico y control se diferencian significativamente en el apego a la madre (p The present study examines attachment types to mother and peer in eighty-three women of 12 -18 years old (Media:14,63 years, SD 1,20 with Eating Disorders (n=30 and without them (n=53. In order to research repeated tendencies in types of attachment to mother and peer, in 2009, the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA, Armsden & Greenberg 1987 was self-reported during the clinical phase of a two phases study (UBACyT 2008-2010. Results: Clinical and control groups present significantly differences in mother scale (p < .001, but marginal ones in peer scale. At the same time, inluences of mother attachment into peers´ were found. Conclusions: Results conirm the ethio-pathogenic relationship between mother-daughter in eating disorders but even there are tendencies repeated in both attachment mother-daughter, statistical indings are not enough to assure that insecure attachment with mother replicates with peer. Same study in a bigger sample should be done to conirm so.

  17. Child-Parent Attachment Styles and Borderline Personality Disorder Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senija Tahirovic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on the attachment styles and their impact on human functioning and relationships (Bretherton, 1992. Some attachment styles have been associated with pathological way of human overall functioning, and it has already been observed that insecure attachment style in childhood may be associated with personality dysfunction (Brennan & Shaver, 1998. The purpose of this study is to investigate how people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD describe their attachment style to the primary caregivers from their memories from childhood. This study was conducted in Germany in an inpatient psychiatric clinic. Fifteen participants represented a convenience sample, of patients already diagnosed with BPD. For this study Adult Attachment Interview (AAI was used. The AAI is a semi-structured interview focusing on the early attachment experiences and their effects based on Attachment Theory.The results indicated that people diagnosed with BPD showed both preoccupied and dismissing child-parent attachment style,however it was the dismissing attachment style that dominated in our sample. The findings supported the hypothesis that participants who showed dismissing attachment style also used positive adjectives to describe the relationship  with their primary caregiver, and those with the preoccupied attachment style used negative adjectives to describe the relationship  with their primary caregiver. Even though, study was conducted with small number of participants, the study did provide evidence that there is a relationship between BPD and attachment styles in childhood. Threfore, the study offered contribution to the already existing knowledge and research findings regarding the influence of attachment style on BPD development. Keywords: Attachment, Personality disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, child, childhood

  18. Workspace appropriation and attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PAVALACHE-ILIE

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This literature synthesis presents a short history of the evolution of the concepts of space appropriation and place attachment, highlighting the difficulty of their operationalisation from a cultural point of view. The next subject brought into discussion is the relation between the affective dimension of the connection between a person and the work place and the behaviours which are prone to insure the proper functioning of organizations, such as the organizational civism and the organizational commitment.

  19. Electron attachment analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, P.; Grosse, H.J.; Leonhardt, J.; Mothes, S.; Oppermann, G.

    1984-01-01

    The invention concerns an electron attachment analyzer for detecting traces of electroaffine substances in electronegative gases, especially in air. The analyzer can be used for monitoring working places, e. g., in operating theatres. The analyzer consists of two electrodes inserted in a base frame of insulating material (quartz or ceramics) and a high-temperature resistant radiation source ( 85 Kr, 3 H, or 63 Ni)

  20. Love attitudes and attachment

    OpenAIRE

    María Elena Brenlla; Analía Brizzio; Alejandra Carreras

    2016-01-01

    Love styles described by Lee are Eros (passionate love), Ludus (game-pla- ying love), Storge (friendship love), Mania (possessive, dependent love), Pragma (logical, “shopping list” love) and Agape (all-giving, selfless love). Based on those types, Hendrick and Hendrick developed a 42-ítem rating questionnaire with 7 items measuring each love style (Love Attitudes Scale). Beside, inform about frequency in love relationships and attachment style. The purpose of this study was analyze the relia...

  1. The clustering of the SDSS-IV extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey DR14 quasar sample: structure growth rate measurement from the anisotropic quasar power spectrum in the redshift range 0.8 < z < 2.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Marín, Héctor; Guy, Julien; Zarrouk, Pauline; Burtin, Etienne; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Percival, Will J.; Ross, Ashley J.; Ruggeri, Rossana; Tojerio, Rita; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Wang, Yuting; Bautista, Julian; Hou, Jiamin; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Pâris, Isabelle; Baumgarten, Falk; Brownstein, Joel R.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; González-Pérez, Violeta; Habib, Salman; Heitmann, Katrin; Myers, Adam D.; Rossi, Graziano; Schneider, Donald P.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Zhao, Cheng

    2018-06-01

    We analyse the clustering of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Data Release 14 quasar sample (DR14Q). We measure the redshift space distortions using the power-spectrum monopole, quadrupole, and hexadecapole inferred from 148 659 quasars between redshifts 0.8 and 2.2, covering a total sky footprint of 2112.9 deg2. We constrain the logarithmic growth of structure times the amplitude of dark matter density fluctuations, fσ8, and the Alcock-Paczynski dilation scales that allow constraints to be placed on the angular diameter distance DA(z) and the Hubble H(z) parameter. At the effective redshift of zeff = 1.52, fσ8(zeff) = 0.420 ± 0.076, H(z_eff)=[162± 12] (r_s^fid/r_s) {km s}^{-1} Mpc^{-1}, and D_A(z_eff)=[1.85± 0.11]× 10^3 (r_s/r_s^fid) Mpc, where rs is the comoving sound horizon at the baryon drag epoch and the superscript `fid' stands for its fiducial value. The errors take into account the full error budget, including systematics and statistical contributions. These results are in full agreement with the current Λ-Cold Dark Matter cosmological model inferred from Planck measurements. Finally, we compare our measurements with other eBOSS companion papers and find excellent agreement, demonstrating the consistency and complementarity of the different methods used for analysing the data.

  2. Neptunium (IV) oxalate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luerkens, D.W.

    1983-07-01

    The equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate in nitric/oxalic acid solutions was determined at 22 0 C, 45 0 C, and 60 0 C. The concentrations of nitric/oxalic acid solutions represented a wide range of free oxalate ion concentration. A mathematical solubility model was developed which is based on the formation of the known complexes of neptunium (IV) oxalate. the solubility model uses a simplified concentration parameter which is proportional to the free oxalate ion concentration. The solubility model can be used to estimate the equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate over a wide range of oxalic and nitric acid concentrations at each temperature

  3. Attachment at School Age and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Ellen; St-Laurent, Diane

    2001-01-01

    Examined longitudinally the association between attachment at age 6 and school-related cognitive functioning 2 years later in a French Canadian sample. Found that secure children had higher scores than insecure peers on communication, cognitive engagement, and mastery motivation. Controlling children were at greatest risk for school…

  4. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, Joan; Chicot, Rebecca; Shouldice, Anne; Hinde, Camilla A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety

  5. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, J.; Chicot, R.; Schouldice, A.; Hinde, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels

  6. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2016.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  7. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2014.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  8. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2015.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  9. SAGE IV Pathfinder

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Utilizing a unique, new occultation technique involving imaging, the SAGE IV concept will meet or exceed the quality of previous SAGE measurements at a small...

  10. Next Steps in Attachment Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David C

    2012-12-01

    Thanks to the phenomenal success of attachment theory, great progress has been made in understanding child and adult relationships. The success of attachment theory opens the way to new research directions that can extend its successes even further. In particular, more work on the fundamental nature of attachment that respects recent biological research is important, as is concentrated effort on the related caregiving system.

  11. Next Steps in Attachment Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Thanks to the phenomenal success of attachment theory, great progress has been made in understanding child and adult relationships. The success of attachment theory opens the way to new research directions that can extend its successes even further. In particular, more work on the fundamental nature of attachment that respects recent biological research is important, as is concentrated effort on the related caregiving system.

  12. Introduction: attachment theory and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Kenneth N

    2013-11-01

    In this introduction to the JCLP: In Session 69(11) issue on attachment theory and psychotherapy, the key points of attachment theory (Bowlby, , , 1981) and its relevance to psychotherapy are briefly described. The aim of this issue is to provide case illustrations of how an attachment theory perspective and principles can expand our understanding of psychotherapy practice. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Sexuality examined through the lens of attachment theory: attachment, caregiving, and sexual satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péloquin, Katherine; Brassard, Audrey; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Shaver, Phillip R

    2014-01-01

    Attachment researchers have proposed that the attachment, caregiving, and sexual behavioral systems are interrelated in adult love relationships (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007 ). This study examined whether aspects of partners' caregiving (proximity, sensitivity, control, compulsive caregiving) mediated the association between their attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) and each other's sexual satisfaction in two samples of committed couples (Study 1: 126 cohabiting or married couples from the general community; Study 2: 55 clinically distressed couples). Partners completed the Experiences in Close Relationships measure (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 ), the Caregiving Questionnaire (Kunce & Shaver, 1994 ), and the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction (Lawrance & Byers, 1998 ). Path analyses based on the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) revealed that caregiving proximity mediated the association between low attachment avoidance and partners' sexual satisfaction in distressed and nondistressed couples. Sensitivity mediated this association in nondistressed couples only. Control mediated the association between men's insecurities (attachment-related avoidance and anxiety) and their partners' low sexual satisfaction in nondistressed couples. Attachment anxiety predicted compulsive caregiving, but this caregiving dimension was not a significant mediator. These results are discussed in light of attachment theory and their implications for treating distressed couples.

  14. Effect of Attachment-Based Therapy on Behavioral Disorders in Girls with Attachment Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Jahanbakhsh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidimensional and complex nature of children`s behavioral disorders requires assessment and usage of modern treatments. The present study investigated the effects of attachment-based therapy on behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant in girl students of primary school who had attachment problems. Materials and Methods: This study is an empirical plan with pretest-posttest and control group. The target samples were 34 individuals of 388 second and fourth grade students of primary school that had highest scores on attachment problems and behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Evaluation implemented using Randolph attachment disorder questionnaire (RADQ and Ontario mental health test. Mothers were presented in 10 group sessions of attachment-based intervention and its effects investigated in their girl`s behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Results: Reduction rate of behavioral disorders general scores (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant of experimental group compared with control group showed significant decreases in posttest and three months follow up. Conclusion: The attachment based therapy offered for mothers of the girls with attachment problems was effective to reduction of behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant symptoms in their children and the mother`s continues attention to interventional methods showed more improvement in follow up evaluation.

  15. Determination of uranium (IV) by flow voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Anqing

    1987-01-01

    According to the quantitative reaction of U(IV) and Fe(III) in H 2 SO 4 as well as the relation between current and concentration of substance detected, U(IV) has been determined indirectly by measurement of the electrolysis current of residual Fe(III). The columniform electrode used is made of glass carbon particles. At the range of U(IV) from a few micrograms to 40 μg, the linear relation is excellent. The relative standard deviation is within ±4%. The interference of Fe(II), Ti(IV) and U(VI) is negligible but of Ti(III) is serious. This method has been successfully applied in the determination of actual samples (both out line and on line). Main advantages of this procedure are rapid, simple, small amount of sample (only at microgram level) and easy to realize automation, able to use for on line or process analysis

  16. Adult attachment styles and the psychological response to infant bereavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Shevlin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on Bowlby's attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity. Objective: The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew's attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the relationship between the resultant attachment typology with a range of psychological trauma variables. Method: The current study was based on a sample of 445 bereaved parents who had experienced either peri- or post-natal death of an infant. Adult attachment was assessed using the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS while reaction to trauma was assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC. A latent profile analysis was conducted on scores from the RAAS closeness/dependency and anxiety subscales to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes. Emergent classes were used to determine if these were significantly different in terms of mean scores on TSC scales. Results: A four-class solution was considered the optimal based on fit statistics and interpretability of the results. Classes were labelled “Fearful,” “Preoccupied,” “Dismissing,” and “Secure.” Females were almost eight times more likely than males to be members of the fearful attachment class. This class evidenced the highest scores across all TSC scales while the secure class showed the lowest scores. Conclusions: The results are consistent with Bartholomew's four-category attachment styles with classes representing secure, fearful, preoccupied, and dismissing types. While the loss of an infant is a devastating experience for any parent, securely attached individuals showed the lowest levels of psychopathology compared to fearful, preoccupied, or dismissing

  17. Topological characterisation and identification of critical domains within glucosyltransferase IV (GtrIV of Shigella flexneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Anesh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The three bacteriophage genes gtrA, gtrB and gtr(type are responsible for O-antigen glucosylation in Shigella flexneri. Both gtrA and gtrB have been demonstrated to be highly conserved and interchangeable among serotypes while gtr(type was found to be specific to each serotype, leading to the hypothesis that the Gtr(type proteins are responsible for attaching glucosyl groups to the O-antigen in a site- and serotype- specific manner. Based on the confirmed topologies of GtrI, GtrII and GtrV, such interaction and attachment of the glucosyl groups to the O-antigen has been postulated to occur in the periplasm. Results In this study, the topology of GtrIV was experimentally determined by creating different fusions between GtrIV and a dual-reporter protein, PhoA/LacZ. This study shows that GtrIV consists of 8 transmembrane helices, 2 large periplasmic loops, 2 small cytoplasmic N- and C- terminal ends and a re-entrant loop that occurs between transmembrane helices III and IV. Though this topology differs from that of GtrI, GtrII, GtrV and GtrX, it is very similar to that of GtrIc. Furthermore, both the N-terminal periplasmic and the C-terminal periplasmic loops are important for GtrIV function as shown via a series of loop deletion experiments and the creation of chimeric proteins between GtrIV and its closest structural homologue, GtrIc. Conclusion The current study provides the basis for elucidating the structure and mechanism of action of this important O-antigen modifying glucosyltransferase.

  18. Electron attachment to indole and related molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modelli, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.modelli@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Chimica “G. Ciamician”, Universitá di Bologna, via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca in Scienze Ambientali (CIRSA), Universitá di Bologna, via S. Alberto 163, 48123 Ravenna (Italy); Jones, Derek, E-mail: d.jones@isof.cnr.it [ISOF, Istituto per la Sintesi Organica e la Fotoreattività, C.N.R., via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Pshenichnyuk, Stanislav A., E-mail: sapsh@anrb.ru [Institute of Molecule and Crystal Physics, Ufa Research Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospekt Oktyabrya 151, 450075 Ufa (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-14

    Gas-phase formation of temporary negative ion states via resonance attachment of low-energy (0–6 eV) electrons into vacant molecular orbitals of indoline (I), indene (II), indole (III), 2-methylen-1,3,3-trimethylindoline (IV), and 2,3,3-trimethyl-indolenine (V) was investigated for the first time by electron transmission spectroscopy (ETS). The description of their empty-level structures was supported by density functional theory and Hartree-Fock calculations, using empirically calibrated linear equations to scale the calculated virtual orbital energies. Dissociative electron attachment spectroscopy (DEAS) was used to measure the fragment anion yields generated through dissociative decay channels of the parent molecular anions of compounds I-V, detected with a mass filter as a function of the incident electron energy in the 0–14 eV energy range. The vertical and adiabatic electron affinities were evaluated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level as the anion/neutral total energy difference. The same theoretical method is also used for evaluation of the thermodynamic energy thresholds for production of the negative fragments observed in the DEA spectra. The loss of a hydrogen atom from the parent molecular anion ([M-H]{sup −}) provides the most intense signal in compounds I-IV. The gas-phase DEAS data can provide support for biochemical reaction mechanisms in vivo involving initial hydrogen abstraction from the nitrogen atom of the indole moiety, present in a variety of biologically important molecules.

  19. To attach or not to attach? The effect of carrier surface morphology and topography on attachment of phoretic deutonymphs of Uropoda orbicularis (Acari)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajerlein, Daria; Adamski, Zbigniew; Kacalak, Wojciech; Tandecka, Katarzyna; Wiesner, Maciej; Jurga, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies on preferences of phoretic deutonymphs of Uropodina for attachment sites have shown that they frequently select smooth and hydrophobic surfaces. The aim of our study was to provide the detailed morphological and topographical characteristics of beetle body surfaces to which deutonymphs frequently attach and to verify how the presence of setae and surface sculpture affects deutonymph attachment. The study was conducted on Uropoda orbicularis (Müller, 1776) and its common beetle carriers: Aphodius prodromus (Brahm, 1790), Aphodius fimetarius (Linnaeus, 1758), Onthophagus nuchicornis (Linnaeus, 1758) and Margarinotus carbonarius (Hoffmann, 1803). Morphology and topography of elytra, femora, propygidia and pygidia of beetles were analysed mainly using SEM methods supported with CLSM and AFM techniques. The hypothesis that deutonymphs may attach to surfaces covered with setae, if seta density is low enough not to disturb mite movement, was tested. The study revealed that deutonymphs attach to surfaces of various types as follows: (i) smooth, (ii) hairy, i.e., covered with setae, (iii) flat and (iv) sculptured. Smooth body parts and body parts covered with setae of low density were most frequently and intensively occupied with deutonymphs. Surfaces of high seta density were avoided by mites. Within elytra of Aphodius beetles, deutonymphs definitely preferred flat surfaces of elytral intervals. On the contrary, densely punctuated propygidium and pygidium in M. carbonarius were heavily infested with deutonymphs. We conclude that carrier surface morphology and topography are important for Uropodina deutonymph attachment, but these two factors cannot fully explain the observed relation.

  20. Dsm-iv hypochondriasis in primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar, JI; Gara, M; Waitzkin, H; Silver, RC; Holman, A; Compton, W

    1998-01-01

    The object of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of the DSM-IV diagnosis of hypochondriasis in a primary care setting. A large sample (N = 1456) of primary care users was given a structured interview to make diagnoses of mood, anxiety, and somatoform disorders and estimate levels of disability. The prevalence of hypochondriasis (DSM-IV) was about 3%. Patients with this disorder had higher levels of medically unexplained symptoms (abridged somatization) and were more impair...

  1. Attachment is a dynamic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the study of recent scientific literature about the development of attachment, the author answers the following questions: which are the postulates the theory of attachment has about the stability of the patterns of attachment, which level of stability in the patterns of attachment from infancy to adulthood these studies illuminate and which factors significantly influence the (instability of the patterns of attachment in time. The theory of attachment assumes that normal circumstances elicit stability. Changes, however, can be the result of important events influencing the sensitivity of the object of attachment. Agreement has not yet been reached regarding the percentage of stability in the patterns of attachment. There is more agreement regarding attachment in adulthood than that in childhood. The results depend on the size and characteristics of the subjects of the research, the measuring instruments, type of data analysis etc. The author concludes that attachment is a dynamic system influenced by significant changes in life (the cognitive development of the child, external care, parents' divorce, different stressful situations. As the influence of stressful events on the individual person' s quality of attachment is examined, it is necessary to consider also his/her temperamental characteristics, role of other people in their lives, etc.

  2. Gonococcal attachment to eukaryotic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, J.F.; Lammel, C.J.; Draper, D.L.; Brown, D.A.; Sweet, R.L.; Brooks, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    The attachment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to eukaryotic cells grown in tissue culture was analyzed by use of light and electron microscopy and by labeling of the bacteria with [ 3 H]- and [ 14 C]adenine. Isogenic piliated and nonpiliated N. gonorrhoeae from opaque and transparent colonies were studied. The results of light microscopy studies showed that the gonococci attached to cells of human origin, including Flow 2000, HeLa 229, and HEp 2. Studies using radiolabeled gonococci gave comparable results. Piliated N. gonorrhoeae usually attached in larger numbers than nonpiliated organisms, and those from opaque colonies attached more often than isogenic variants from transparent colonies. Day-to-day variation in rate of attachment was observed. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed the gonococcal attachment to be specific for microvilli of the host cells. It is concluded that more N. gonorrhoeae from opaque colonies, as compared with isogenic variants from transparent colonies, attach to eukaryotic cells grown in tissue culture

  3. Attachment Theory in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Korstanje

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The following work is intended to a revision on attachment theory. The postulates of the theory of the sure base point that the system of exploration meets in narrow relation the system of conducts of attachment and the figure of the keepers. The conducts that characterize and symbolize the relation of the adult with the environment are carried back to the early age, in the moment in which the child develops the affective capacity. What difference does exist between someone who decides to journey to England and that one that one decides to travel to Mar del Plata? How it is possible to study this topic of on a manner trustworthy? These three questions were key to begin the investigation. Nevertheless, the matter began to find certain limitations linked to the methodology that had to be in use. It is possible to use careless they on the leisure scope, a theory which still demonstrates certain inconsistencies in its own clinical application?

  4. Ceramic blade attachment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, G.A.; Jimenez, O.D.

    1996-12-03

    A turbine blade having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is attached to a turbine flange having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine blade. The turbine flange includes a first upstanding flange and a second upstanding flange having a groove formed between them. The turbine flange further includes a recess. Each of the first and second upstanding flanges have a plurality of bores therein. A turbine blade has a first member and a second member positioned in one of the groove and the recess. Each of the first member and the second member have a plurality of bores therein. A pin is positioned in respective ones of the plurality of bores in the first and second upstanding members and the first and second members and attach the blade to the turbine flange. The pin has a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being substantially equal to the rate of thermal expansion of the blade. 4 figs.

  5. Relationships between attachment and marital satisfaction in married couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Gallerová

    2016-01-01

    four selfrepot questionnaires. The childhood attachment was measured by Attachment History Paragraphs (Granqvist & Kirkpatrick, 2004, adult attachment was measured by The Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 and satisfaction in marriage was measuredby two measures: Quality Marriage Index (Norton, 1983 and Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale (Schumm, Bollman, & Jurich, 1997.The research sample consisted of 78 heterosexual married couple, together 156 people. The average length of marriages is 20.76 years. Participants were instructed to complete the questionnaires independently. The relations between variables were examined by correlation analysis and cluster analysis. People with a secure attachment style and their partners were most satisfied with their marriages. Our study showed relation between dismissive attachment style and low level of marital satisfaction for the individual, and for the partner of the examined one. The results of our study did not suggest any relationship between childhood attachment and marital satisfaction. The results indicate that secure attachment style is related to higher level of relationship satisfaction, in spite of stressful situation or demanding changes which are occurring in marriage. People with insecure attachment style devote a lot of effort to reinforce marital and couple relationship stability during difficult situations in relationship. Connection between marital satisfaction and childhood attachment has not been proven. The reason may be that childhood attachment is not always totally stable and it can be changed by life experience or personal characteristics of the individual. Our research confirmed that attachment is related to satisfaction in marriage. Research of relationship between attachment and factors affecting marriage is very beneficial, because new finding in this topic can help in clinical practice.

  6. Attachment, Acculturation, and Psychosomatic Complaints among Hispanic American University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chiachih D. C.; Scalise, Dominick A.; Barajas-Munoz, I. Alejandro; Julio, Kathy; Gomez, Ayleen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated adult attachment and acculturation frameworks of reported psychosomatic complaints related to perceived discrimination among a sample of Latino/Hispanic university students (N = 160). The model supported by the data suggests that attachment anxiety, acculturation toward the dominant cultural norms, and adherence to…

  7. Parental Behaviors and Beliefs, Child Temperament, and Attachment Disorganization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feihong; Cox, Martha J.; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Snyder, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This research examined alternative mechanisms in the etiology of attachment disorganization. The authors hypothesized that negative intrusive parenting would significantly predict children's attachment disorganization at age 12 months within a diverse community sample. Of more substantial interest, the authors tested moderational mechanisms in the…

  8. Childhood sexual abuse and attachment: An intergenerational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwako, Laura E; Noll, Jennie G; Putnam, Frank W; Trickett, Penelope K

    2010-07-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a recognized risk factor for various negative outcomes in adult survivors and their offspring. We used the Dynamic-Maturational Model of attachment theory as a framework for exploring the impact of maternal CSA on children's attachment relationships in the context of a longitudinal sample of adult survivors of CSA and non-abused comparison mothers and their children. Results indicated that children of CSA survivors were more likely to have extreme strategies of attachment than the children of non-abused mothers. However, because both groups were at socioeconomic risk, both were typified by anxious attachment. Explanations for findings and implications for children's development are explored.

  9. Parental divorce and adult children's attachment representations and marital status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Judith A; Treboux, Dominique; Brockmeyer, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore adult attachment as a means of understanding the intergenerational transmission of divorce, that is, the propensity for the children of divorce to end their own marriages. Participants included 157 couples assessed 3 months prior to their weddings and 6 years later. Participants completed the Adult Attachment Interview and questionnaires about their relationships, and were videotaped with their partners in a couple interaction task. Results indicated that, in this sample, adult children of divorce were not more likely to divorce within the first 6 years of marriage. However, parental divorce increased the likelihood of having an insecure adult attachment status. For women, age at the time of their parents' divorce was related to adult attachment status, and the influence on attachment representations may be more enduring. Among adult children of divorce, those who were classified as secure in their attachment representations were less likely to divorce in the early years of marriage than insecure participants.

  10. Electron attachment cross sections obtained from electron attachment spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, P.; Baumbach, J.I.; Leonhardt, J.W.; Mothes, S.

    1988-01-01

    Electron capture detectors have a high sensitivity for substances with high thermal electron attachment cross sections. The electron attachment spectroscopy makes it possible to change the mean electron energy in such a way that the maximum for dissociative electron attachment is reached. Thus, best operation modes of the detection system as well as significant dependencies of electron attachment coefficients are available. Cross sections for electron attachment as a function of the electron energy are obtained with the knowledge of electron energy distribution functions from Boltzmann equation analysis by a special computer code. A disadvantage of this electron attachment spectroscopy is the superposition of space charge effects due to the decrease of the electron drift velocity with increasing mean electron energy. These influences are discussed. (author)

  11. Adolescents' multiple versus single primary attachment figures, reorganization of attachment hierarchy, and adjustments: the important people interview approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Tomotaka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kraus, Jakub; Horská, Eliška; Pivodová, Lenka

    2018-04-20

    Using 212 adolescents from a central-European country (mean age = 14.02, SD = 2.05, ranged from 11 to 18 years; females = 54%) and a multi-informant method to measure adolescents' behavioral and emotional adjustments, the present study explored three aspects regarding the attachment hierarchy. (1) The three types of behavioral systems of Rosenthal and Kobak's important people interview (IPI) were initially validated using an exploratory factor analysis with a US sample. Using a confirmatory factor analysis with a Czech sample, we replicated these three behavioral systems: attachment bond, support seeking, and affiliation. (2) We found that adolescents who developed attachment bond to multiple primary attachment figures were likely to score lower on both teacher-rated and parent-rated internalizing problems compared to those who had a single primary attachment figure. These multiple primary attachment figures tended to be family members (not peers). (3) Early adolescents who placed parents low in their attachment hierarchy scored higher on self-reported negative affect and lower on self-reported positive affect compared to early adolescents who placed parents high. The present study highlights multiple (vs. single) primary attachment figures as a protective factor and the premature reorganization of attachment hierarchy as a risk factor for adolescents' emotional and affective adjustments.

  12. IV access in dental practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, J J

    2009-04-01

    Intravenous (IV) access is a valuable skill for dental practitioners in emergency situations and in IV sedation. However, many people feel some apprehension about performing this procedure. This article explains the basic principles behind IV access, and the relevant anatomy and physiology, as well as giving a step-by-step guide to placing an IV cannula.

  13. Sentence-Level Attachment Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albakour, M.-Dyaa; Kruschwitz, Udo; Lucas, Simon

    Attachment prediction is the task of automatically identifying email messages that should contain an attachment. This can be useful to tackle the problem of sending out emails but forgetting to include the relevant attachment (something that happens all too often). A common Information Retrieval (IR) approach in analyzing documents such as emails is to treat the entire document as a bag of words. Here we propose a finer-grained analysis to address the problem. We aim at identifying individual sentences within an email that refer to an attachment. If we detect any such sentence, we predict that the email should have an attachment. Using part of the Enron corpus for evaluation we find that our finer-grained approach outperforms previously reported document-level attachment prediction in similar evaluation settings.

  14. Determinação seletiva de tributilestanho na presença de Sn(IV em amostras ambientais usando HG-ICP OES e Saccharomyces cerevisiae como material sorvente Selective determination of tributyltin in the presence of Sn(IV in environmental samples using HG-ICP OES and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as sorbing material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monizze Vannuci e Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for selective determination of tributyltin in the presence of Sn(IV by combining hydride generation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (HG-ICP OES and solid phase extraction (SPE using baker's yeast is proposed. The procedure is based on selective retention of TBT by the yeast at pH = 6. Detection limit of 1.9 µg L-1 and quantification limit of 6.3 µg L-1 were obtained. TBT and San(IV were determined in the range of 0-25 µg L-1 and the proposed approach was applied to analyze river water, sea water and biological extracts, with recoveries of 114, 101 and 86%, respectively.

  15. Interferences in place attachment: implications for wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin K. Sharpe; Alan W. Ewert

    2000-01-01

    Previous research on place attachment has tended to focus on attachment formation, with relatively little attention given to factors that disrupt or interfere with formed place attachments. Interferences to attachments are a worthy research area for two reasons: 1) The factors of place attachment are often more salient when being disrupted, and 2) place attachment...

  16. Internet Economics IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    edts.): Internet Economics IV Technical Report No. 2004-04, August 2004 Information Systems Laboratory IIS, Departement of Computer Science University of...level agreements (SLA), Information technology (IT), Internet address, Internet service provider 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18... technology and its economic impacts in the Internet world today. The second talk addresses the area of AAA protocol, summarizing authentication

  17. Uranium (IV) carboxylates - I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satpathy, K C; Patnaik, A K [Sambalpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1975-11-01

    A few uranium(IV) carboxylates with monochloro and trichloro acetic acid, glycine, malic, citric, adipic, o-toluic, anthranilic and salicylic acids have been prepared by photolytic methods. The I.R. spectra of these compounds are recorded and basing on the spectral data, structure of the compounds have been suggested.

  18. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  19. Using attachment theory in mentoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Kerri

    Attachment theory is a useful way to understand the bond between children and the people with whom they have emotional ties--usually caregivers. The theory can also help us to understand any adult relationship that provides closeness and a sense of attachment, especially in times of stress or need. Understanding the nature, cause and effect of the role and function of attachment from a training and development perspective, and different styles of attachment, may improve the quality of the mentoring experience for both mentors and mentees.

  20. Systemic therapy and attachment narratives: Attachment Narrative Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallos, Rudi; Vetere, Arlene

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines an integration of attachment theory with narrative theory and systemic theory and practice: Attachment Narrative Therapy (ANT). This integration offers a more powerful explanatory formulation of the development and maintenance of human distress in relationships, families and communities, and gives direction to psychotherapeutic intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. From security to attachment : Mary Ainsworth's contribution to attachment theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosmalen, Lenette (Lenny) van

    2015-01-01

    Even though John Bowlby (1907-1990) is generally regarded as the founder of attachment theory, Mary Ainsworth’s (1913-1999) contribution is considerable and goes beyond the design of the Strange Situation Procedure and the introduction of maternal sensitivity as decisive for a secure attachment

  2. Adult attachment security and college student substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassel, Jon D; Wardle, Margaret; Roberts, John E

    2007-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated strong links between quality of adult attachment styles and various forms of psychological distress. A burgeoning literature further points to a relationship between insecure attachment and drug use, particularly alcohol consumption. In the present study, we expanded upon the existing literature by examining the relationship between adult attachment style and use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana in a sample of 212 college students. Moreover, based on our previous work [Hankin, B.L., Kassel, J.D., and Abela, J.R.Z. (2005). Adult attachment dimensions and specificity of emotional distress symptoms: prospective investigations of cognitive risk and interpersonal stress generation as mediating mechanisms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 136-151.], we proposed a conceptual model positing that adult attachment style influences both frequency of drug use and stress-motivated drug use through its impact on dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. Initial correlational analyses indicated significant (positive) associations between anxious attachment (tapping neediness and fear of abandonment) and both drug use frequency and stress-motivated drug use. Simultaneous regression analyses revealed that, for drug use frequency, the influence of anxious attachment operated primarily through its effect on dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. Regarding drug use attributable to negative affect reduction, anxious attachment demonstrated direct, independent effects on both cigarette smoking and alcohol use. These findings highlight the potential importance of adult attachment styles as a risk factor for drug use among college students.

  3. Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, N.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report evaluates Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) IV as part of the second phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) effort. The EDA IV concept was compared to the VA reference design using criteria from the Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations (CRWMS M and O 1999b) and (CRWMS M and O 1999f). Briefly, the EDA IV concept arranges the waste packages close together in an emplacement configuration known as line load. Continuous pre-closure ventilation keeps the waste packages from exceeding their 350 C cladding and 200 C (4.3.6) drift wall temperature limits. This EDA concept keeps relatively high, uniform emplacement drift temperatures (post-closure) to drive water away from the repository and thus dry out the pillars between emplacement drifts. The waste package is shielded to permit human access to emplacement drifts and includes an integral filler inside the package to reduce the amount of water that can contact the waste form. Closure of the repository is desired 50 years after first waste is emplaced. Both backfill and drip shields will be emplaced at closure to improve post-closure performance. The EDA IV concept includes more defense-in-depth layers than the VA reference design because of its backfill, drip shield, waste package shielding, and integral filler features. These features contribute to the low dose-rate to the public achieved during the first 10,000 years of repository life as shown in Figure 3. Investigation of the EDA IV concept has led to the following general conclusions: (1) The total life cycle cost for EDA IV is about $21.7 billion which equates to a $11.3 billion net present value (both figures rounded up). (2) The incidence of design basis events for EDA IV is similar to the VA reference design. (3) The emplacement of the waste packages in drifts will be similar to the VA reference design. However, heavier equipment may be required because the shielded waste package will be heavier. (4) The heavier

  4. Anorexia and Attachment: Dysregulated Defense and Pathological Mourning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    elisa edelvecchio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of Defensive exclusion (Deactivation and Segregated Systems in the development of early relationships and related to subsequent manifestations of symptoms of eating disorders was assessed using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP. Fifty-one DSM-IV diagnosed women with anorexia participated in the study. Anorexic patients were primarily classified as dismissing or unresolved. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of defensive exclusion were carried out. Results showed potential benefits of using the AAP defense exclusion coding system, in addition to the main attachment classifications, in order to better understand the developmental issues involved in anorexia. Discussion concerned the processes, such as pathological mourning, that may underlie the associations between dismissing and unresolved attachment and anorexia. Implications for developmental research and clinical nosology are discussed.

  5. Protein Attachment on Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Lun; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Su, Meng-Chih

    2015-07-16

    A recent advance in nanotechnology is the scale-up production of small and nonaggregated diamond nanoparticles suitable for biological applications. Using detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) with an average diameter of ∼4 nm as the adsorbents, we have studied the static attachment of three proteins (myoglobin, bovine serum albumin, and insulin) onto the nanoparticles by optical spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and dynamic light scattering, and electrophoretic zeta potential measurements. Results show that the protein surface coverage is predominantly determined by the competition between protein-protein and protein-ND interactions, giving each protein a unique and characteristic structural configuration in its own complex. Specifically, both myoglobin and bovine serum albumin show a Langmuir-type adsorption behavior, forming 1:1 complexes at saturation, whereas insulin folds into a tightly bound multimer before adsorption. The markedly different adsorption patterns appear to be independent of the protein concentration and are closely related to the affinity of the individual proteins for the NDs. The present study provides a fundamental understanding for the use of NDs as a platform for nanomedical drug delivery.

  6. [Attachment Representation and Emotion Regulation in Patients with Burnout Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söllner, Wolfgang; Behringer, Johanna; Böhme, Stephanie; Stein, Barbara; Reiner, Iris; Spangler, Gottfried

    2016-06-01

    Burnout describes a syndrome of exhaustion resulting from insufficient coping with work-related distress. We investigated if patients that are being clinically treated for burnout show insecure and unresolved attachment representation more often compared with healthy controls. 50 out of 60 consecutive burnout patients participated in the study. Mental representation of attachment was measured by using the Adult Attachment Interview. Additionally, we administered the Self Report Questionnaire to Assess Emotional Experience and Emotion Regulation and several burnout specific questionnaires. A population sample was used as control group. Burnout patients were classified as insecurely attached significantly more often than controls. Unresolved attachment status concerning loss or trauma was found significantly more often within the burnout sample. Patients with insecure attachment representation reported a lower subjective significance of work. Patients with avoidant insecure attachment showed more depersonalisation. Patients with unresolved loss/trauma reported less social support. They showed more passive-negative emotion experience and emotion regulation characterized by externalization. The results of the study suggest that an insecure or unresolved attachment representation might constitute an intrapersonal risk factor for the development of burnout syndrome. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Depressed parents' attachment: effects on offspring suicidal behavior in a longitudinal family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Erica K; Grunebaum, Michael F; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Melhem, Nadine; Burke, Ainsley K; Brent, David A; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, J John

    2014-08-01

    To investigate relationships of depressed parents' attachment style to offspring suicidal behavior. 244 parents diagnosed with a DSM-IV depressive episode completed the Adult Attachment Questionnaire at study entry. Baseline and yearly follow-up interviews of their 488 offspring tracked suicidal behavior and psychopathology. Survival analysis and marginal regression models with correlated errors for siblings investigated the relationship between parent insecure attachment traits and offspring characteristics. Data analyzed were collected 1992-2008 during a longitudinal family study completed January 31, 2014. Parental avoidant attachment predicted offspring suicide attempts at a trend level (P = .083). Parental anxious attachment did not predict offspring attempts (P = .961). In secondary analyses, anxious attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (P = .034) and, in offspring suicide attempters, was associated with greater intent (P = .045) and lethality of attempts (P = .003). Avoidant attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (P = .025) and major depressive disorder (P = .012). Parental avoidant attachment predicted a greater number of suicide attempts (P = .048) and greater intent in offspring attempters (P = .003). Results were comparable after adjusting for parent diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. Insecure avoidant, but not anxious, attachment in depressed parents may predict offspring suicide attempt. Insecure parental attachment traits were associated with impulsivity and major depressive disorder in all offspring and with more severe suicidal behavior in offspring attempters. Insecure parental attachment merits further study as a potential target to reduce risk of offspring psychopathology and more severe suicidal behavior. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  8. Attachment, caring and prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erez, Ayelet

    2007-01-01

    The thesis focuses on 5 studies examining the role of adult attachment in volunteering by defining volunteerism as a form of caregiving. By that we suggest an effect of one behavioral system, attachment, on another, caring or prosocial behaviors in individual or group settings. Studies 1 and 2

  9. Attachment and Dyadic Regulation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Nickola C; Simpson, Jeffry A

    2015-02-01

    Insecurely attached people have relatively unhappy and unstable romantic relationships, but the quality of their relationships depends on how their partners regulate them. Some partners find ways to regulate the emotional and behavioral reactions of insecurely attached individuals, which promotes greater relationship satisfaction and security. We discuss attachment theory and interdependence dilemmas, and then explain how and why certain responses by partners assuage the cardinal concerns of insecure individuals in key interdependent situations. We then review recent studies illustrating how partners can successfully regulate the reactions of anxiously and avoidantly attached individuals, yielding more constructive interactions. We finish by considering how these regulation processes can create a more secure dyadic environment, which helps to improve relationships and attachment security across time.

  10. Adult Attachment Style and Suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniati, Mario; Callari, Antonio; Pini, Stefano

    2017-09-01

    There is evidence in the literature that adverse early attachment experiences and subsequent attachment insecurities during adulthood would lead to pessimism, low self-esteem, hopelessness and, ultimately, to suicide risk. This paper aims to review finding on the link between attachment style and suicidality. We searched the literature using the database of the U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)-MedLine/Pubmed system from January 1992 until December 2016. We started with 1992 because, as far as we know, there are no published studies exploring the relationship between suicide and insecure attachment before that year. We considered reports published on the relationship between attachment style and suicidality. We applied several combinations of the following search terms: attachment, adult attachment style and suicidality, suicide, suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior or suicidal thoughts, and suicide attempts. We selected only English language studies. Research suggests that insecure attachment style, mostly anxious, and unresolved traumas are associated with an increased suicide risk. Few studies prospectively examined clinical course, comorbid psychiatric disorders, familial suicidality or other psychosocial factors. Further research is needed to highlight the nature of the link between attachment and suicidality. The presence of suicidal ideation and attempts might be a consequence of an underlying interaction between the emergence of psychiatrics symptoms, and the long-lasting presence of inadequate patterns of attachment. Within this context, Separation Anxiety Disorder, categorized in the DSM-5 as a condition not confined to childhood but as an anxiety disorder that may occur through the entire lifespan, might be the a key for the comprehension of this link. From a neurobiological point of view, the role of oxytocin remains unclear.

  11. Radiological Control Technician: Phase 4, Facility practical training attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    At DOE sites with more than one facility, and where RCT tasks at each facility may differ, site and facility tasks should be separated. The tasks that are common to all the facilities on the site should be included in Phase II training with the core tasks. Tasks unique to a facility should be added to the training program qualification standard, as an attachment, as Phase IV training. Not all the DOE sites will include Phase IV training in their programs. Phase IV training allows each site to qualify technicians to a select facility. Since the core training for the technicians is standardized, the transfer of technicians between facilities requires that only facility tasks be taught, provided the core qualification is current

  12. A review of attachment theory in the context of adolescent parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Serena Cherry; Sadler, Lois S

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review attachment theory and relate the attachment perspective to adolescent mothers and their children. Attachment theory explains positive maternal-infant attachment as a dyadic relationship between the infant and mother that provides the infant with a secure base from which to explore the world. With respect to cognitive, social, and behavioral domains, securely attached infants tend to have more favorable long-term outcomes, while insecurely attached infants are more likely to have adverse outcomes. Adolescent parenthood can disrupt normal adolescent development, and this disruption influences development of the emotional and cognitive capacities necessary for maternal behaviors that foster secure attachment. However, it appears that if specialized supports are in place to facilitate the process of developing attachment, infants of adolescent mothers can obtain higher rates of secure attachment than normative samples in this population. Copyright © 2011 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Attachment predicts cortisol response and closeness in dyadic social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketay, Sarah; Beck, Lindsey A

    2017-06-01

    The present study examined how the interplay of partners' attachment styles influences cortisol response, actual closeness, and desired closeness during friendship initiation. Participants provided salivary cortisol samples at four timepoints throughout either a high or low closeness task that facilitated high or low levels of self-disclosure with a potential friend (i.e., another same-sex participant). Levels of actual closeness and desired closeness following the task were measured via inclusion of other in the self. Results from multi-level modeling indicated that the interaction of both participants' attachment avoidance predicted cortisol response patterns, with participants showing the highest cortisol response when there was a mismatch between their own and their partners' attachment avoidance. Further, the interaction between both participants' attachment anxiety predicted actual closeness and desired closeness, with participants both feeling and wanting the most closeness with partners when both they and their partners were low in attachment anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Perinatal Depression and Patterns of Attachment: A Critical Risk Factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Meuti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aims to verify if the presence and severity of perinatal depression are related to any particular pattern of attachment. Methods. The study started with a screening of a sample of 453 women in their third trimester of pregnancy, who were administered a survey data form, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and the Experience in Close Relationship (ECR. A clinical group of subjects with perinatal depression (PND, 89 subjects was selected and compared with a control group (C, regarding psychopathological variables and attachment patterns. Results. The ECR showed a prevalence of “Fearful-Avoidant” attachment style in PND group (29.2% versus 1.1%, p<0.001; additionally, the EPDS average score increases with the increasing of ECR dimensions (Avoidance and Anxiety. Conclusion. The severity of depression increases proportionally to attachment disorganization; therefore, we consider attachment as both an important risk factor as well as a focus for early psychotherapeutic intervention.

  15. Attachment change processes in the early years of marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, J; Karney, B R; Bradbury, T N

    1999-05-01

    The authors examined 4 models of attachment change: a contextual model, a social-cognitive model, an individual-difference model, and a diathesis-stress model. Models were examined in a sample of newlyweds over the first 2 years of marriage, using growth curve analyses. Reciprocal processes, whereby attachment representations and interpersonal life circumstances affect one another over time, also were studied. On average, newlyweds became more secure over time. However, there was significant within-subject variability on attachment change that was predicted by intra- and interpersonal factors. Attachment representations changed in response to contextual, social-cognitive, and individual-difference factors. Reciprocal processes between attachment representations and marital variables emerged, suggesting that these factors influence one another in an ongoing way.

  16. Role Balance and Depression among College Students: The Moderating Influence of Adult Attachment Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Fons-Scheyd, Alia

    2008-01-01

    This study examined interrelationships among role balance perceptions, adult attachment orientations, and depression within an ethnically diverse, mixed-gender sample of college students. Adult attachment orientations--and particularly attachment avoidance--significantly interacted with students' role balance levels to predict their depression…

  17. The predictive value of different infant attachment measures for socioemotional development at age 5 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekens, S.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Bakel, H.J.A. van

    2009-01-01

    The predictive value of different infant attachment measures was examined in a community-based sample of 111 healthy children (59 boys, 52 girls). Two procedures to assess infant attachment, the Attachment Q-Set (applied on a relatively short observation period) and a shortened version of the

  18. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System: integrating attachment into clinical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Carol; West, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the development and validation of the Adult Attachment Projective System (AAP), a measure we developed from the Bowlby-Ainsworth developmental tradition to assess adult attachment status. The AAP has demonstrated excellent concurrent validity with the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1984/1985/1996; Main & Goldwyn, 1985-1994; Main, Goldwyn, & Hesse, 2003), interjudge reliability, and test-retest reliability, with no effects of verbal intelligence or social desirability. The AAP coding and classification system and application in clinical and community samples are summarized. Finally, we introduce the 3 other articles that are part of this Special Section and discuss the use of the AAP in therapeutic assessment and treatment.

  19. Attachment representation in institutionalized children: a preliminary study using the child attachment interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccagnino, Maria; Cussino, Martina; Preziosa, Alessandra; Veglia, Fabio; Carassa, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    The experience of being removed from one's home and the transition to a residential care system pose enormous challenges for a child. Substantial evidence has been found regarding severe developmental effects due to early exposition to extreme psychosocial and affective deprivation. The research on Bowlby's theoretical proposals has highlighted the link between insecure, disorganized and atypical attachment patterns and children both living in foster care facilities and adopted out of those institutions. The goal of this pilot study is to investigate the attachment representation in an Italian sample of children in middle childhood (9-13 years old) who have been removed from their homes. Two compared groups of children participated in this study. The first group was composed of 24 Italian children who had been removed from their homes. The second group, considered as the control group, was composed of 35 Italian children who had never been in foster care placement. The quality of children's attachment to their primary caregivers was assessed by the Child Attachment Interview, an innovative semi-structured interview that seeks to bridge the measurement gap identified in middle childhood The children in foster care placement show a higher percentage of insecure and disorganized attachment representations and lower scores on the Child Reflective Functioning Scale. The clinical implications and enhancements to effective intervention for foster children's caretaking are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Universal precision sine bar attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to an attachment for a sine bar which can be used to perform measurements during lathe operations or other types of machining operations. The attachment can be used for setting precision angles on vises, dividing heads, rotary tables and angle plates. It can also be used in the inspection of machined parts, when close tolerances are required, and in the layout of precision hardware. The novelty of the invention is believed to reside in a specific versatile sine bar attachment for measuring a variety of angles on a number of different types of equipment.

  1. Everything You Want To Know about Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    This paper discusses infant attachment, which it defines as a long-lasting emotional bond revealed when a child under stress seeks out and tries to stay close to a specific figure. The paper addresses: (1) What is attachment? Who are the pioneers in attachment theory?; (2) How do we notice attachment in action?; (3) Is attachment the only…

  2. Japanese children's family drawings and their link to attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Kazuko Y; Kaplan, Nancy

    2011-09-01

    This study explored the applicability of family drawings as a tool to estimate attachment security in a sample of Japanese six-year-olds (N = 47), applying Kaplan and Main's ( 1986 ) Family Drawing system. Maternal secure/insecure attachment status judged by the Adult Attachment Interview predicted family drawings' secure/insecure distinction produced by Japanese six-year-olds. However, insecure Japanese drawings took forms not seen in the original Berkeley drawings, such as a lineup of faces alone. Further examination of the Japanese children's drawings using global rating scales (Fury, Carlson, & Sroufe, 1997 ) yielded significant gender differences, rarely reported in the attachment literature, with girls scoring higher in scales that predict attachment security and boys scoring higher in scales that predict attachment insecurity. However, attachment security, as captured in the drawings, was not related to attachment security, observed behaviorally using Main and Cassidy's ( 1988 ) sixth-year reunion system. Implications of the findings are discussed in light of measurements, gender, and culture.

  3. Adult attachment style and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Lønfeldt, Nicole Nadine; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have rar...... knowledge to examine the mediating role of emotion regulation between attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) and anxiety symptoms.......Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have...... rarely been examined together. Examining emotion dysregulation within the context of anxiety disorders through an attachment theory framework will lead to a better understanding of the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. In the present study we combined theoretically and empirically derived...

  4. WEAVING THE FABRIC OF ATTACHMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay Stewart

    2011-01-01

    This article is the Keynote Address given at the 5th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference in Vichy, France, April 21, 2011. In the article author describes development of secure attachment with the help of the case study.

  5. Attachment Narratives in Refugee Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Haene, L.; Dalgård, Nina Thorup; Montgomery, E.

    2013-01-01

    J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study.......J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study....

  6. Childhood sexual abuse and attachment: An intergenerational perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kwako, Laura E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2010-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a recognized risk factor for various negative outcomes in adult survivors and their offspring. We used the Dynamic-Maturational Model of attachment theory as a framework for exploring the impact of maternal CSA on children’s attachment relationships in the context of a longitudinal sample of adult survivors of CSA and non-abused comparison mothers and their children. Results indicated that children of CSA survivors were more likely to have extreme strategies of...

  7. The relationship between attachment, mentalization, and intellectual abilities in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banjac Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored the relationship between attachment, mentalization, and intelligence as it occurs in adolescence. Study participants were 345 students (123 males in their third year of high school. Participants were administered three standard tests of intelligence, the SM-ECR-R, and the recently developed Mentalization Questionnaire (MQ. The study also utilized earlier collected data from a sample of 284 employed adults. In line with our research hypothesis, attachment security and mentalization were positively related, with correlations ranging from small to moderate depending on the dimension inspected. Attachment anxiety was found to be higher in the adolescent than in the adult sample, and contrary to expectations was not significantly related to intelligence in the former group. Attachment avoidance did not correlate with intelligence in the total student sample, but did show a small negative association with analogical reasoning and the g-factor when the intellectually gifted were excluded from analyses. This latter group, as well as males from the student sample scored significantly higher on attachment avoidance than their respective comparison groups - intellectually average and female adolescents. Finally, mentalization was found to be positively related to intellectual ability and higher in a gifted than average-ability girls, b girls than boys, and c adults than adolescents. The results are discussed as shedding light on the peculiarities of the attachment system in adolescence, revealing specific associations between attachment avoidance, mentalization, and intellectual ability, highlighting gender differences in both attachment and mentalization, and adding to our understanding of the socioemotional characteristics of intellectually gifted students.

  8. Maternal Antenatal Depression and Infant Disorganized Attachment at 12 months

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Lisa J.; Goodman, Sherryl H.; Carlson, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Although high rates of attachment disorganization have been observed in infants of depressed mothers, little is known about the role of antenatal depression as a precursor to infant attachment disorganization. The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between maternal antenatal depression and infant disorganization at 12 months in a sample of women (N = 79) at risk for perinatal depression. A secondary aim was to test the roles of maternal postpartum depression and maternal pa...

  9. Phenotypes of non-attached Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates resemble surface attached biofilm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Alhede

    Full Text Available For a chronic infection to be established, bacteria must be able to cope with hostile conditions such as low iron levels, oxidative stress, and clearance by the host defense, as well as antibiotic treatment. It is generally accepted that biofilm formation facilitates tolerance to these adverse conditions. However, microscopic investigations of samples isolated from sites of chronic infections seem to suggest that some bacteria do not need to be attached to surfaces in order to establish chronic infections. In this study we employed scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, RT-PCR as well as traditional culturing techniques to study the properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates. We found that non-attached aggregates from stationary-phase cultures have comparable growth rates to surface attached biofilms. The growth rate estimations indicated that, independently of age, both aggregates and flow-cell biofilm had the same slow growth rate as a stationary phase shaking cultures. Internal structures of the aggregates matrix components and their capacity to survive otherwise lethal treatments with antibiotics (referred to as tolerance and resistance to phagocytes were also found to be strikingly similar to flow-cell biofilms. Our data indicate that the tolerance of both biofilms and non-attached aggregates towards antibiotics is reversible by physical disruption. We provide evidence that the antibiotic tolerance is likely to be dependent on both the physiological states of the aggregates and particular matrix components. Bacterial surface-attachment and subsequent biofilm formation are considered hallmarks of the capacity of microbes to cause persistent infections. We have observed non-attached aggregates in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients; otitis media; soft tissue fillers and non-healing wounds, and we propose that aggregated cells exhibit enhanced survival in the hostile host environment, compared with non

  10. Attachment figures when death is approaching: a study applying attachment theory to adult patients' and family members' experiences during palliative home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milberg, Anna; Friedrichsen, Maria

    2017-07-01

    Attachment theory is currently receiving much attention in relation to how adults cope with severe illness. The study aims were using the experiences of patients and family members to explore attachment figures (a central concept within the theory) during palliative home care. Twelve patients and 14 family members were interviewed during ongoing palliative home care. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Four types of attachment figures were identified: (i) family and friends, (ii) health care practitioners, (iii) pets and (iv) God. Both non-physical and physical contact with the attachment figures facilitated a sense of security. In addition, the patient/family members and their attachment figures were described by some as a "we", and when one part of the "we" felt insecure, this made the other also feel insecure. The patients' unstable and progressing illnesses constituted a threat to the patients' and family members' sense of security. The availability of the attachment figures made them feel secure, and they could then divert their attention from the patients' illnesses to other things in everyday life, e.g. socialising with family and friends. Some family members also had to cope with the loss of their own attachment figure, when the patient, who had previously been a source of security for them, was no longer able to offer protection and comfort due to the progression of the illness. Important aspects of attachment figures in the end-of-life context were identified, and their clinical implications will be discussed.

  11. Hepatic imaging in stage IV-S neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franken, E.A. Jr.; Smith, W.L.; Iowa Univ., Iowa City; Cohen, M.D.; Kisker, C.T.; Platz, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    Stage IV-S neuroblastoma describes a group of infants with tumor spread limited to liver, skin, or bone marrow. Such patients, who constitute about 25% of affected infants with neuroblastoma, may expect spontaneous tumor remission. We report 18 infants with Stage IV-S neuroblastoma, 83% of whom had liver involvement. Imaging investigations included Technetium 99m sulfur colloid scan, ultrasound, and CT. Two patterns of liver metastasis were noted: ill-defined nodules or diffuse tumor throughout the liver. Distinction of normal and abnormal liver with diffuse type metastasis could be quite difficult, particularly with liver scans. We conclude that patients with Stage IV-S neuroblastoma have ultrasound or CT examination as an initial workup, with nuclear medicine scans reserved for followup studies. (orig.)

  12. Cyclopentadienyluranium(IV) acetylacetonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnall, K.W.; Edwards, J.; Rickard, C.E.F.; Tempest, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    Cyclopentadienyluranium(IV) acetylacetonate complexes, (eta 5 C 5 H 5 )UClsub(3-x)(acac)sub(x), where x = 1 or 2, and the corresponding bis triphenylphosphine oxide (tppo) complexes have been prepared. The bis cyclopentadienyl complexes, (eta 5 C 5 H 5 ) 2 U(acac) 2 and (eta 5 C 5 H 5 ) 2 UCl(acac)(tppo) 2 have also been prepared and are stable with respect to disproportionation, whereas (eta 5 C 5 H 5 ) 2 UCl(acac) is not. The IR and UV/visible spectra of the complexes are reported, together with some additional information on the UCl 2 (acac) 2 thf and -tppo systems. (author)

  13. The Role of Attachment in Body Weight and Weight Loss in Bariatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, Abigail; Hollywood, Amelia; Ogden, Jane; Hashemi, Majid

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the role of attachment styles in obesity. The present study explored differences in insecure attachment styles between an obese sample waiting for bariatric surgery (n = 195) and an age, sex and height matched normal weight control group (n = 195). It then explored the role of attachment styles in predicting change in BMI 1 year post bariatric surgery (n = 143). The bariatric group reported significantly higher levels of anxious attachment and lower levels of avoidant attachment than the control non-obese group. Baseline attachment styles did not, however, predict change in BMI post surgery. Attachment style is different in those that are already obese from those who are not. Attachment was not related to weight loss post surgery.

  14. Activating Attachments Reduces Memories of Traumatic Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Bryant

    Full Text Available Emotional memories, and especially intrusive memories, are a common feature of many psychological disorders, and are overconsolidated by stress. Attachment theory posits that activation of mental representations of attachment figures can reduce stress and boost coping. This study tested the proposition that attachment activation would reduce consolidation of emotional and intrusive memories. Sixty-seven undergraduate students viewed subliminal presentations of traumatic and neutral images, which were preceded by subliminal presentations of either attachment-related images or non-attachment-related images; free recall and intrusive memories were assessed two days later. Participants with low avoidant attachment tendencies who received the attachment primes recalled fewer memories and reported fewer intrusions than those who received the non-attachment primes. Unexpectedly, those with high anxious attachment tendencies reported fewer memories. These findings generally accord with attachment theory, and suggest that consolidation of emotional memories can be moderated by activation of attachment representations.

  15. Possession attachment predicts cell phone use while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Joshua A; Shackleford, Crystal; Dieckmann, Nathan; Slovic, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Distracted driving has become an important public health concern. However, little is known about the predictors of this health-risking behavior. One overlooked risk factor for distracted driving is the perceived attachment that one feels toward his or her phone. Prior research has suggested that individuals develop bonds toward objects, and qualitative research suggests that the bond between young drivers and their phones can be strong. It follows that individuals who perceive a strong attachment to their phone would be more likely to use it, even when driving. In a nationally representative sample of young drivers (17-28 years), participants (n = 1,006) completed a survey about driving behaviors and phone use. Risk perception surrounding cell phone use while driving and perceived attachment to one's phone were assessed by administering factor-analytically derived scales that were created as part of a larger project. Attachment toward one's phone predicted the proportion of trips in which a participant reported using their cell phone while driving, beyond that accounted for by risk perception and overall phone use. Further, attachment predicted self-reported distracted driving behaviors, such as the use of social media while driving. Attachment to one's phone may be an important but overlooked risk factor for the engagement of potentially health-risking driving behaviors. Understanding that phone attachment may adversely affect driving behaviors has the potential to inform prevention and intervention efforts designed to reduce distracted driving behaviors, especially in young drivers. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  16. Infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooya, Haatembo; Sichimba, Francis; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian

    2016-12-01

    This study, the first in Zambia using the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to observe attachment relationships and the "very first" observational study of infant-sibling attachment, examined patterns of infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment, and tested their association. We included siblings who were substantially involved in caregiving activities with their younger siblings. We hypothesized that infants would develop attachment relationships to both mothers and siblings; the majority of infants would be classified as securely attached to both caregivers, and infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment would be unrelated. The sample included 88 low-income families in Lusaka, Zambia (average of 3.5 children; SD = 1.5). The SSP distributions (infant-mother) were 59% secure, 24% avoidant and 17% resistant, and 46% secure, 20% avoidant, 5% resistant and 29% disorganized for three- and four-way classifications, respectively. The infant-sibling classifications were 42% secure, 23% avoidant and 35% resistant, and 35% secure, 23% avoidant, 9% resistant and 33% disorganized for three- and four-way classifications, respectively. Infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment relationships were not associated.

  17. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PLACE ATTACHMENT AND EVENT SATISFACTION: A STUDY ON UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    ARGAN, Metin; KAYA, Sabri; TOKAY ARGAN, Mehpare; AKYILDIZ, Müge; KORKMAZ, Tanju

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to reveal the dimensions of place attachment and to analyze the relationship between event satisfaction and place attachment dimensions. The study involved a quantitative research methodology employing a questionnaire and convenience sampling with a total sample of 300 Anadolu University’s students within Eskişehir of the middle region in Turkey. The first part of the questionnaire contained 16 statements related to place attachment. Second part was related to the scal...

  18. Attachment for mass exchange apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimenko, M.Z.; Maksimenko, M.M.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    An attachment is proposed which contains a cylindrical housing in which the windows are profiled with inward bent windows. In order to improve the effectiveness of the attachment by increasing its surface, and mobility, the ends of the housing are equipped with inner annular partitions with radial cross sections. The sections of the partitions between them are bent inwards towards the forming housing in series, from the side of each section. The inward-bent sections of the partitions and the edges are directed to one side or to different sides.

  19. Congenital bilateral neuroblastoma (stage IV-S): case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Hee; Lee, Hee Jung; Woo, Seong Ku; Lee, Sang Rak; Kim, Heung Sik

    2002-01-01

    Congenital neonatal neuroblastoma is not uncommon but bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma is rare, accounting for about ten percent of neuroblastomas in children. We report the US the MR findings of a stage IV-S congenital bilateral neuroblastoma occurring in a one-day-old neonate

  20. Personal style of the therapist, attachment style and personality trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Genise

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between the personal style of the therapist, attachment style and personality trait. It was used the personal style of the therapist questionnaire (PST – Q, the Argentinean attachment inventory and the big five inventory. The study sample consisted of 120 psychotherapists average age of 36.28 years (SD = 9.65, and the average years of experience was 7.90 years (SD = 8.04. The analysis of the results showed that there is a positive, significant and low intensity between the personality factor of openness to experience and personal style of involvement, a negative correlation, significant and of medium intensity between low extraversion factor correlation and mode not anxious romantic attachment and a significant positive relationship between the low–intensity factor neuroticism personality and how anxious romantic attachment

  1. Research on Quality of Attachment in Women with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zornitza Ganeva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of quality of attachment of women with breast cancer within 1 year after initial diagnosing and subsequent treatment was performedin the article by means of the Measure of Attachment Qualities (MAQ scale (Carver, 1997. 41 women of Bulgarian origin at an average ageof 35.25 years (at least 18 and 69 at the most in stage I, II and III of the disease progress were studied. For the specific sample, the reliability of 4 scales (secure, avoidant, ambivalent-worried and ambivalent-merging attachment was presented. The quality of attachment was analysed by: 1 medical characteristics (partial or total surgery, surgical removal of lymph nodes, presence or absence of metastases in them, 2 classical therapies (chemotherapy, radiation therapy and hormonal therapy administered or not and 3 application or not of alternative therapies herbal medicine, physical load, administration of massage, lymph drainage, use of nutritional supplements, observance of diet.

  2. The clustering of the SDSS-IV extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey DR14 quasar sample: anisotropic Baryon Acoustic Oscillations measurements in Fourier-space with optimal redshift weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dandan; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Wang, Yuting; Percival, Will J.; Ruggeri, Rossana; Zhu, Fangzhou; Tojeiro, Rita; Myers, Adam D.; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Baumgarten, Falk; Zhao, Cheng; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Ross, Ashley J.; Burtin, Etienne; Zarrouk, Pauline; Bautista, Julian; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Dawson, Kyle; Brownstein, Joel R.; de la Macorra, Axel; Schneider, Donald P.; Shafieloo, Arman

    2018-06-01

    We present a measurement of the anisotropic and isotropic Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) from the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Data Release 14 quasar sample with optimal redshift weights. Applying the redshift weights improves the constraint on the BAO dilation parameter α(zeff) by 17 per cent. We reconstruct the evolution history of the BAO distance indicators in the redshift range of 0.8 < z < 2.2. This paper is part of a set that analyses the eBOSS DR14 quasar sample.

  3. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Birman, Victor; Genin, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Attachment of dissimilar materials in engineering and surgical practice is a perennial challenge. Bimaterial attachment sites are common locations for injury, repeated injury, and mechanical failure. Nature presents several highly effective solutions to the challenge of bimaterial attachment that differ from those found in engineering practice. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology describes the attachment of dissimilar materials from multiple perspectives. The text will simultaneously elucidate natural bimaterial attachments and outline engineering principles underlying successful attachments to the communities of tissue engineers and surgeons. Included an in-depth analysis of the biology of attachments in the body and mechanisms by which robust attachments are formed, a review of current concepts of attaching dissimilar materials in surgical practice and a discussion of bioengineering approaches that are currently being developed. This book also: Provides the first comprehensive treatment of phys...

  4. Attachment, affective temperament, and personality disorders: a study of their relationships in psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Kai; Berlow, Rustin; Thomas, Michael L

    2013-12-01

    As the result of extensive translational and cross-disciplinary research, attachment theory is now a construct with significant neuropsychiatric traction. The correlation of attachment with other influential conceptual models (i.e. temperament and personality) is therefore of interest. Consequently, we explored how two attachment dimensions (attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance) correlated with measures of temperament and personality in 357 psychiatric outpatients. We performed a retrospective review of four questionnaires (the Experiences in Close Relationship scale (ECR-R), Temperament and Character inventory (TCI), Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego questionnaire (TEMPS-A), and Personality Self-Portrait Questionnaire (PSQ)). Frequency measures and correlations were examined, as was the predictive value of attachment security for a personality disorder (PD). Significant, robust correlations were found between attachment anxiety and (1) several negative affective temperaments (dysthymic and cyclothymic); (2) several indices of personality pathology (low self-directedness (TCI), DSM-IV paranoid, borderline, histrionic, avoidant and dependent personality traits). Attachment avoidance had fewer large correlations. In an exploratory model, the negative predictive value of attachment security for a PD was 86%. Subjects were a relatively homogeneous subset of ambulatory psychiatric outpatients. PD diagnoses were via self-report. Clinically, these findings highlight the significant overlap between attachment, affective temperament, and personality and support the value of attachment as a screen for PDs. More broadly, given our growing understanding of the neurobiology of attachment (i.e. links with the oxytocin system), these results raise interesting questions about underlying biological systems and psychiatric treatment. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel examination of atypical major depressive disorder based on attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Robert D; Atkinson, Leslie; Pedersen, Rebecca; Buis, Tom; Kennedy, Sidney H; Chopra, Kevin; Leung, Eman M; Segal, Zindel V

    2009-06-01

    While a large body of descriptive work has thoroughly investigated the clinical correlates of atypical depression, little is known about its fundamental origins. This study examined atypical depression from an attachment theory framework. Our hypothesis was that, compared to adults with melancholic depression, those with atypical depression would report more anxious-ambivalent attachment and less secure attachment. As gender has been an important consideration in prior work on atypical depression, this same hypothesis was further tested in female subjects only. One hundred ninety-nine consecutive adults presenting to a tertiary mood disorders clinic with major depressive disorder with either atypical or melancholic features according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders were administered a self-report adult attachment questionnaire to assess the core dimensions of secure, anxious-ambivalent, and avoidant attachment. Attachment scores were compared across the 2 depressed groups defined by atypical and melancholic features using multivariate analysis of variance. The study was conducted between 1999 and 2004. When men and women were considered together, the multivariate test comparing attachment scores by depressive group was statistically significant at p depression was associated with significantly lower secure attachment scores, with a trend toward higher anxious-ambivalent attachment scores, than was melancholia. When women were analyzed separately, the multivariate test was statistically significant at p depressive groups. These preliminary findings suggest that attachment theory, and insecure and anxious-ambivalent attachment in particular, may be a useful framework from which to study the origins, clinical correlates, and treatment of atypical depression. Gender may be an important consideration when considering atypical depression from an attachment perspective. Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  6. Attachment Theory: Progress and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Fearon, R. M. P.; Roisman, G. I.

    2017-01-01

    Attachment is a key subfield in the area of parenting and parent-child relationships research. In this brief overview, we summarise what we consider to be the state-of-the-art of attachment research, focusing primarily on the nature and significance of attachment in infancy and early childhood. We review 4 major topics that are central issues in the scientific literature on attachment: (1) the role of the environment in the development of attachment, (2) the intergenerational transmission of ...

  7. Variability of femoral muscle attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, G N; Brand, D; Freitag, S; Lierse, W; Schneider, E

    1996-09-01

    Analytical and experimental models of the musculoskeletal system often assume single values rather than ranges for anatomical input parameters. The hypothesis of the present study was that anatomical variability significantly influences the results of biomechanical analyses, specifically regarding the moment arms of the various thigh muscles. Insertions and origins of muscles crossing or attaching to the femur were digitized in six specimens. Muscle volumes were measured; muscle attachment area and centroid location were computed. To demonstrate the influence of inter-individual anatomic variability on a mechanical modeling parameter, the corresponding range of muscle moment arms were calculated. Standard deviations, as a percentage of the mean, were about 70% for attachment area and 80% for muscle volume and attachment centroid location. The resulting moment arms of the m. gluteus maximus and m. rectus femoris were especially sensitive to anatomical variations (SD 65%). The results indicate that sensitivity to anatomical variations should be analyzed in any investigation simulating musculoskeletal interactions. To avoid misinterpretations, investigators should consider using several anatomical configurations rather than relying on a mean data set.

  8. WEAVING THE FABRIC OF ATTACHMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Stewart

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is the Keynote Address given at the 5th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference in Vichy, France, April 21, 2011. In the article author describes development of secure attachment with the help of the case study.

  9. Mapping and measuring place attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Greg; Raymond, Christopher Mark; Corcoran, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The concept of place attachment has been studied extensively across multiple disciplines but only recently with empirical measurement using public participation GIS (PPGIS) and related crowd-sourcing mapping methods. This research trialed a spatially explicit method for identifying place attachme...

  10. Attachment and self-evaluation in Chinese adolescents: age and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hairong; Thompson, Ross A; Ferrer, Emilio

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated age and gender differences in the quality of attachment to mothers, fathers, and peers, and the association of attachment with measures of self-evaluation in 584 Chinese adolescents in junior high, high school, and university. Their responses to the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment indexed attachment quality, and self-evaluation was measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Self-Liking and Self-Competence Scale. Consistent with findings with Western samples, our analyses revealed (a) lower parent-child relationship quality in middle (compared to early) adolescence, (b) a significant association of parental and peer attachment with self-evaluation, and (c) gender differences in attachment to peers, with females reporting stronger attachment than males. Chinese females reported stronger maternal attachment than did males, and for females the quality of maternal attachment was more strongly related to self-evaluation than any other attachment relationship. During high school, peer attachment quality - rather than parental - was preeminently associated with self-evaluation. The findings of this study indicate that in a context of considerable consistency of findings with Western studies, parent-child attachment in Chinese adolescents is also influenced by culture-specific practices that influence parent-youth relationships and their meaning to the child.

  11. Effect of bovine manure on fecal coliform attachment to soil and soil particles of different sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guber, Andrey K; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Shelton, Daniel R; Yu, Olivia

    2007-05-01

    Manure-borne bacteria can be transported in runoff as free cells, cells attached to soil particles, and cells attached to manure particles. The objectives of this work were to compare the attachment of fecal coliforms (FC) to different soils and soil fractions and to assess the effect of bovine manure on FC attachment to soil and soil fractions. Three sand fractions of different sizes, the silt fraction, and the clay fraction of loam and sandy clay loam soils were separated and used along with soil samples in batch attachment experiments with water-FC suspensions and water-manure-FC suspensions. In the absence of manure colloids, bacterial attachment to soil, silt, and clay particles was much higher than the attachment to sand particles having no organic coating. The attachment to the coated sand particles was similar to the attachment to silt and clay. Manure colloids in suspensions decreased bacterial attachment to soils, clay and silt fractions, and coated sand fractions, but did not decrease the attachment to sand fractions without the coating. The low attachment of bacteria to silt and clay particles in the presence of manure colloids may cause predominantly free-cell transport of manure-borne FC in runoff.

  12. Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendroth-Asmussen, Lisa; Aksglaede, Lise; Gernow, Anne B

    2016-01-01

    molecular genetic analyses confirmed glycogen storage disease Type IV with the finding of compound heterozygosity for 2 mutations (c.691+2T>C and c.1570C>T, p.R524X) in the GBE1 gene. We conclude that glycogen storage disease Type IV can cause early miscarriage and that diagnosis can initially be made...

  13. Personality traits are related to intimate partner violence among securely attached individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buck, N.M.L.; Leenaars, P.E.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; van Marle, H.J.C.

    2014-01-01

    The general assumption has been that male batterers from clinical samples were mostly insecurely attached as compared to non-batterers. Recently, a large group was found (39.4 % of batterers in a clinical sample) whose main attachment style was secure. No previous studies have examined specifically

  14. Photoactivation of Diiodido-Pt(IV) Complexes Coupled to Upconverting Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfahl, Stefanie; Natile, Marta M; Mohamad, Heba S; Helm, Christiane A; Schulzke, Carola; Natile, Giovanni; Bednarski, Patrick J

    2016-07-05

    The preparation, characterization, and surface modification of upconverting lanthanide-doped hexagonal NaGdF4 nanocrystals attached to light sensitive diiodido-Pt(IV) complexes is presented. The evaluation for photoactivation and cytotoxicity of the novel carboxylated diiodido-Pt(IV) cytotoxic prodrugs by near-infrared (NIR) light (λ = 980 nm) is also reported. We attempted two different strategies for attachment of light-sensitive diiodido-Pt(IV) complexes to Yb,Er- and Yb,Tm-doped β-NaGdF4 upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) in order to provide nanohybrids, which offer unique opportunities for selective drug activation within the tumor cells and subsequent spatiotemporal controlled drug release by NIR-to-visible light-upconversion: (A) covalent attachment of the Pt(IV) complex via amide bond formation and (B) carboxylate exchange of oleate on the surface of the UCNPs with diiodido-Pt(IV) carboxylato complexes. Initial feasibility studies showed that NIR applied by a 980 nm laser had only a slight effect on the stability of the various diiodido-Pt(IV) complexes, but when UCNPs were present more rapid loss of the ligand-metal-charge transfer (LMCT) bands of the diiodido-Pt(IV) complexes was observed. Furthermore, Pt released from the Pt(IV) complexes platinated calf-thymus DNA (ct-DNA) more rapidly when NIR was applied compared to dark controls. Of the two attachment strategies, method A with the covalently attached diiodido-Pt(IV) carboxylates via amide bond formation proved to be the most effective method for generating UCNPs that release Pt when irradiated with NIR; the released Pt was also able to bind irreversibly to calf thymus DNA. Nonetheless, only ca. 20% of the Pt on the surface of the UCNPs was in the Pt(IV) oxidation state, the rest was Pt(II), indicating chemical reduction of the diiodido-Pt(IV) prodrug by the UCNPs. Cytotoxicity studies with the various UCNP-Pt conjugates and constructs, tested on human leukemia HL60 cells in culture, indicated a

  15. About the structure and stability of complex carbonates of thorium (IV), cerium (IV), zirconium (IV), hafnium (IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervin, Jacqueline

    1972-01-01

    This research thesis addressed the study of complex carbonates of cations of metals belonging to the IV A column, i.e. thorium (IV), zirconium (IV), hafnium (IV), and also cerium (IV) and uranium (VI), and more particularly focused on ionic compounds formed in solution, and also on the influence of concentration and nature of cations on stability and nature of the formed solid. The author first presents methods used in this study, discusses their precision and scope of validity. She reports the study of the formation of different complex ions which have been highlighted in solution, and the determination of their formation constants. She reports the preparation and study of the stability domain of solid complexes. The next part reports the use of thermogravimetric analysis, IR spectrometry, and crystallography for the structural study of these compounds

  16. Studies of binary cerium(IV)-praseodymium(IV) and cerium(IV)-terbium(IV) oxides as pigments for ceramic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtado, L.M.L.

    1991-01-01

    It was investigated a series of pigments of general composition Ce 1-x Pr x O 2 , and Ce x Tb y O 2 , exhibiting radish and brown colors, respectively, and high temperature stability. The pigments were obtained by dissolving appropriate amounts of the pure lanthanide oxides in acids and precipitating the rare earths as mixed oxalates, which were isolated and calcined under air, at 1000 0 C. X-Ray powder diffractograms were consistent with a cubic structure for the pigments. Magnetic susceptibility measurements, using Gouy method, indicated the presence of Pr(IV) ions in the Ce 1-x Pr x O 2 pigments and of Terbium predominantly as Tb(III) ions in the Ce-tb mixed oxides. A new method, based on suspension of solid samples in PVA-STB gels (STB = sodium tetradecaborate), was employed for the measurements of the electronic spectra of the pigments. The thermal behaviour the pigments was investigated by the calcination of the oxalates in the temperature range of 500 to 1200 O C, from 10 to 60 minutes. (author)

  17. Attachment representation as predictor of internalizing problems in middle childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Halamová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The current study examines the relationship between the representation of attachment relationship with mother and internalizing problems in the developmental period of middle childhood. The purpose of the study was to analyze whether the quality of attachment predicts the intensity and seriousness of internalizing problems in middle childhood; and to examine whether the models are gender-specific. Methods: Participants in this study were 151 children aged 9-12 (M = 11.21, 77 boys and 74 girls, recruited from elementary schools in Nitra region. Children completed measures assessing the quality of attachment representation of the relationship with mother (selfreport questionnaire Security Scale, the tendency to react anxiously (self-report questionnaire Childen´s Manifest Anxiety Scale – CMAS, social anxiety (self-report questionnaire Scale of Classical Social Situational Anxiety – KSAT and depression (self-report questionnaire Children´s Depression Inventory – CDI. Results: Regression analysis indicated that secure attachment representation is a significant negative predictor of children's internalizing problems – manifest anxiety (ß = -.324, p 0.05 and ß = -.194, p > 0.05, respectively, but in the sample of girls, secure attachment representation was a significant negative predictor of both depressive symptoms (ß = -.296, p < .05 for Negative Mood; and ß = -.285, p < .05 for Anhedony. Other models, except for social anxiety, were statistically significant for both samples. In the sample of girls, the predictor accounted for 26.3% of variance in Negative Self Esteem (ß = -.512; p < .001, 18.9% of variance of the total of depression symptoms (ß = -.435; p < .001, 10.9% of variance in Ineffectiveness (ß = -.331; p < .05 and 10.5% of variance in manifest anxiety (ß = -.324; p < .05. The results were similar for the sample of boys. Attachment security accounted for 17.4% of variance in Negative Self Esteem (ß = -.435; p

  18. The role of sex, attachment and autonomy-connectedness in personality functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, Nathan; Croon, Marcel A; Bekker, Marrie H J

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have found significant relationships among sex, attachment and autonomy-connectedness and DSM-IV personality characteristics. In the present study, we aimed to add to the current knowledge about attachment-related aspects of personality pathology, by examining the relationships of these same variables with dimensions of pathological personality structure as conceptualized by Kernberg. The study was performed among 106 ambulatory patients from a Dutch mental healthcare institute. A path model based upon neo-analytical object relation theory and attachment theory was tested. We expected significant associations among sex, attachment, autonomy and aspects of personality functioning. Both insecure attachment styles as well as the autonomy-connectedness components of sensitivity to others (SO) and capacity of managing new situations predicted general personality dysfunctioning significantly. More specifically, reality testing was negatively predicted by the autonomy component of capacity of managing new situations, and aggression was significantly predicted by sex as well as both insecure attachment styles. We advise scientists as well as clinicians to be alert on sex differences in autonomy-connectedness and aspects of personality dysfunctioning. Taking sex-specific variations in attachment and autonomy into account next to a more explicit focus on insecure attachment styles and autonomy problems may enhance, the current relatively low, treatment effectiveness for personality pathology. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Tasks related to increase of RA reactor exploitation and experimental potential, Independent CO2 loop for cooling the samples irradiated in RA reactor vertical experimental channels, (I-IV), part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavicevic, M.

    1963-07-01

    This volume contains the description of the design project of the head of the low-temperature coolant loops needed for cooling the samples to be irradiated in the RA vertical experimental channels. The thermal and mechanical calculations are included as well as calculation of antireactivity and activation of the construction materials. Cost estimation data are included as well. The drawings included are: head of the coolant loop; diagram of CO 2 coolant temperature dependence; diagrams of weight of the loop tubes in the channels; axial distribution of the thermal neutron flux. Engineering drawings of two design solutions of the low-temperature loops with details are part of this volume

  20. The influence of leadership style on subordinates' attachment to the leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molero, Fernando; Moriano, Juan A; Shaver, Phillip R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the extent to which employees establish attachment bonds with their leaders and the effects these bonds have on organizational outcomes. A sample of 225 participants reported on their supervisor's leadership style (transformational, transactional, or passive-avoidant), their attachment bonds to this supervisor (anxious or avoidant), and four organizational variables (subordinate's satisfaction, identification with the organization, extra effort, and perceived leadership effectiveness). Results, analyzed using a Partial Least Squares (PLS) approach, indicated that (a) transformational leadership was negatively associated with employees' insecure (anxious or avoidant) attachment to their leader; (b) passive/avoidant leadership was positively associated with subordinates' insecure attachment to their leader; (c) transactional leadership was positively associated with employee's anxious attachment but not with their avoidant attachment; (d) avoidant, but not anxious, attachment to the leader was negatively associated with employee satisfaction, perceived leader effectiveness, employee's extra effort, and organizational identification.

  1. Change in attachment predicts change in emotion regulation particularly among 5-HTTLPR short-allele homozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viddal, Kristine Rensvik; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne; Belsky, Jay; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2017-07-01

    In view of the theory that the attachment relationship provides a foundation for the development of emotion regulation, here, we evaluated (a) whether change in attachment security from 4 to 6 years predicts change in emotion regulation from 6 to 8 years and (b) whether 5-HTTLPR moderates this relation in a Norwegian community sample (n = 678, 99.7% Caucasian). Attachment was measured with the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task, and teachers completed the Emotion Regulation Checklist. Attachment security was modestly stable, with children becoming more secure over time. Regression analyses revealed that increased attachment security from 4 to 6 forecasted increases in emotion regulation from 6 to 8 and decreased attachment security forecasted decreases in emotion regulation. This effect was strongest among the 5-HTTLPR short-allele homozygotes and, according to competitive model fitting, in a differential-susceptibility manner. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Examining attachment to God and health risk-taking behaviors in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Karissa D; Ellison, Christopher G; Loukas, Alexandra; Downey, Darcy L; Barrett, Jennifer B

    2012-06-01

    Drawing on insights from attachment theory, this study examined whether three types of attachment to God--secure, avoidant, and anxious--were associated with health-risk behaviors, over and above the effects of religious attendance, peer support, and demographic covariates, in a sample of 328 undergraduate college students. Contrary to prior theory, secure attachment to God is not inversely associated with recent alcohol or marijuana use, or substance use prior to last sexual intercourse. Instead, avoidant and anxious attachment to God are associated with higher levels of drinking; anxious attachment to God is associated with marijuana use; and avoidant attachment to God is associated with substance use prior to last sexual intercourse. These patterns are gender-specific; problematic attachment to God is linked with negative outcomes solely among men.

  3. A review of the evidence regarding associations between attachment theory and experimentally induced pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Pamela Joy

    2013-04-01

    Theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that adult attachment and pain-related variables are predictably and consistently linked, and that understanding these links may guide pain intervention and prevention efforts. In general, insecure attachment has been portrayed as a risk factor, and secure attachment as a protective factor, for people with chronic pain conditions. In an effort to better understand the relationships among attachment and pain variables, these links have been investigated in pain-free samples using induced-pain techniques. The present paper reviews the available research linking adult attachment and laboratory-induced pain. While the diverse nature of the studies precludes definitive conclusions, together these papers offer support for associations between insecure attachment and a more negative pain experience. The evidence presented in this review highlights areas for further empirical attention, as well as providing some guidance for clinicians who may wish to employ preventive approaches and other interventions informed by attachment theory.

  4. Does reflective functioning mediate the relationship between attachment and personality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzaro, Maria Paola; Boldrini, Tommaso; Tanzilli, Annalisa; Muzi, Laura; Giovanardi, Guido; Lingiardi, Vittorio

    2017-10-01

    Mentalization, operationalized as reflective functioning (RF), can play a crucial role in the psychological mechanisms underlying personality functioning. This study aimed to: (a) study the association between RF, personality disorders (cluster level) and functioning; (b) investigate whether RF and personality functioning are influenced by (secure vs. insecure) attachment; and (c) explore the potential mediating effect of RF on the relationship between attachment and personality functioning. The Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP-200) was used to assess personality disorders and levels of psychological functioning in a clinical sample (N = 88). Attachment and RF were evaluated with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Reflective Functioning Scale (RFS). Findings showed that RF had significant negative associations with cluster A and B personality disorders, and a significant positive association with psychological functioning. Moreover, levels of RF and personality functioning were influenced by attachment patterns. Finally, RF completely mediated the relationship between (secure/insecure) attachment and adaptive psychological features, and thus accounted for differences in overall personality functioning. Lack of mentalization seemed strongly associated with vulnerabilities in personality functioning, especially in patients with cluster A and B personality disorders. These findings provide support for the development of therapeutic interventions to improve patients' RF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Attachment Styles of Dermatological Patients in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabó, Csanád; Altmayer, Anita; Lien, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Attachment styles of dermatological outpatients and satisfaction with their dermatologists were investigated within the framework of a multicentre study conducted in 13 European countries, organized by the European Society for Dermatology and Psychiatry. Attachment style was assessed with the Adult......, and experienced similar rates of anxiety in relationships as did the controls. Participants who had secure attachment styles reported stressful life events during the last 6 months significantly less often than those who had insecure attachment styles. Patients with secure attachment styles tended to be more...... satisfied with their dermatologist than did insecure patients. These results suggest that secure attachment of dermatological outpatients may be a protective factor in the management of stress....

  6. 32 CFR Attachment 5 to Part 855 - Sample Temporary Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... over civil aircraft operations. Should a conflict arise between air carrier and Air Force operational... all charges which will be billed to BIA not later than(date)by the Accounting and Finance Office. IN...

  7. Prediction of Addiction Potential in Youth According to Attachment Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Adroom

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aim is to predict the psychological inclination to drug use in youths by studying their attachment styles. Materials and Methods: The research sample includes male and female students of Zahedan Medical Science University with the average age of 19-24. The proportional cluster random sampling was used for selection of participant. The hypotheses were analyzed, using Pearson correlation method, regression analysis, one way variance analysis and t-test for two independent groups4T. Results: The results indicated positive relationships among addiction aptitude and insecure-avoidant attachment style and negative relationship between addiction aptitude and secure attachment style4T. Conclusion: It is necessary to focus training intervention and prevention on all students4T.

  8. Depressed parents' attachment: effects on offspring suicidal behavior in a longitudinal, family study

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Erica K.; Grunebaum, Michael F.; Galfalvy, Hanga C.; Melhem, Nadine; Burke, Ainsley K.; Brent, David A.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Mann, J. John

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate relationships of depressed parents' attachment style to offspring suicidal behavior. Method 244 parents diagnosed with a DSM-IV depressive episode completed the Adult Attachment Questionnaire at study entry. Baseline and yearly follow-up interviews of their 488 offspring tracked suicidal behavior and psychopathology. Survival analysis and marginal regression models with correlated errors for siblings investigated the relationship between parent insecure attachment traits and offspring characteristics. Data analyzed were collected 1992–2008 during a longitudinal family study completed January 31, 2014. Results Parent avoidant attachment predicted offspring suicide attempts at a trend level (p=0.083). Parent anxious attachment did not predict offspring attempts (p=0.961). In secondary analyses, anxious attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (p=0.034), and in offspring suicide attempters, was associated with greater intent (p=0.045) and lethality of attempts (p=0.003). Avoidant attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (p=0.025) and major depressive disorder (p=0.012). Parent avoidant attachment predicted a greater number of suicide attempts (p=0.048) and greater intent in offspring attempters (p=0.003). Results were comparable after adjusting for parent diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. Conclusion Insecure avoidant, but not anxious, attachment in depressed parents may predict offspring suicide attempt. Insecure parent attachment traits were associated with impulsivity and major depressive disorder in all offspring, and with more severe suicidal behavior in offspring attempters. Insecure parental attachment merits further study as a potential target to reduce risk of offspring psychopathology and more severe suicidal behavior. PMID:25098943

  9. Orthogonal Higher Order Structure of the WISC-IV Spanish Using Hierarchical Exploratory Factor Analytic Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Ryan J.; Canivez, Gary L.

    2016-01-01

    As recommended by Carroll, the present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Spanish (WISC-IV Spanish) normative sample using higher order exploratory factor analytic techniques not included in the WISC-IV Spanish Technical Manual. Results indicated that the WISC-IV Spanish subtests were…

  10. DSM-IV hypochondriasis in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, J I; Gara, M; Waitzkin, H; Silver, R C; Holman, A; Compton, W

    1998-05-01

    The object of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of the DSM-IV diagnosis of hypochondriasis in a primary care setting. A large sample (N = 1456) of primary care users was given a structured interview to make diagnoses of mood, anxiety, and somatoform disorders and estimate levels of disability. The prevalence of hypochondriasis (DSM-IV) was about 3%. Patients with this disorder had higher levels of medically unexplained symptoms (abridged somatization) and were more impaired in their physical functioning than patients without the disorder. Of the various psychopathologies examined, major depressive syndromes were the most frequent among patients with hypochondriasis. Interestingly, unlike somatization disorder, hypochondriasis was not related to any demographic factor. Hypochondriasis is a relatively rare condition in primary care that is largely separable from somatization disorder but seems closely intertwined with the more severe depressive syndromes.

  11. Beyond the usual suspects: a multidimensional genetic exploration of infant attachment disorganization and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Irene; Szekely, Eszter; Mileva-Seitz, Viara R; Luijk, Maartje P C M; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Tiemeier, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Although the environmental influences on infant attachment disorganization and security are well-studied, little is known about their heritability. Candidate gene studies have shown small, often non-replicable effects. In this study, we gathered the largest sample (N = 657) of ethnically homogenous, 14-month-old children with both observed attachment and genome-wide data. First, we used a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) approach to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with attachment disorganization and security. Second, we annotated them into genes (Versatile Gene-based Association Study) and functional pathways. Our analyses provide evidence of novel genes (HDAC1, ZNF675, BSCD1) and pathways (synaptic transmission, cation transport) associated with attachment disorganization. Similar analyses identified a novel gene (BECN1) but no distinct pathways associated with attachment security. The results of this first extensive, exploratory study on the molecular-genetic basis of infant attachment await replication in large, independent samples.

  12. Emotion regulation as a mediator in the relationship between attachment and depressive symptomatology: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sonia; Wells, Adrian; Wittkowski, Anja

    2015-02-01

    Attachment theory has been conceptualised as an emotion regulation theory. Research attributes the occurrence of depressive symptoms to a dysfunction of emotion regulation. Anxious attachment and avoidant attachment, which are two dimensions of insecure attachment, are hypothesised to lead to the development of hyperactivating and deactivating emotion regulation strategies. This systematic review examines the literature on the role of emotion regulation and its relationship with attachment and depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, we examined evidence for hyperactivating and deactivating strategies. Nineteen papers were identified. Adolescent studies demonstrated associations of varying strength and found unreliable and contradictory results for emotion regulation as a mediator. Conversely, adult studies provided strong evidence for emotion regulation as a mediator. The hypothesis that hyperactivating strategies mediate anxious attachment and depressive symptoms was consistently supported. Mixed evidence was provided for deactivating strategies as mediators to avoidant attachment and depressive symptomatology. Limitations of methodology and quality of studies are identified with particular attention drawn to problems with conceptual singularity and multicollinearity. Despite mixed variable findings, this review indicates that emotion regulation is a mediator between attachment and depression. Hyperactivating strategies, in particular, have been consistently noted as mediators for anxious attachment and depressive symptomatology, whereas evidence for deactivating strategies as mediators between avoidant attachment and depressive symptoms has been mixed. Future research should test the mediators of attachment and symptoms and examine theoretically grounded models of psychopathology, such as metacognitive and cognitive models using clinical samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Eating disorders in adolescence: attachment issues from a developmental perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela eGander

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we review findings from an emerging body of research on attachment issues in adolescents with eating disorders from a developmental perspective. First, we will outline the crucial developmental changes in the attachment system and discuss how they might be related to the early onset of the disease. Then we will report on the major results from attachment studies using self-report and narrative instruments in that age group. Studies with a developmental approach on attachment will be analyzed in more detail. The high incidence of the unresolved attachment pattern in eating disorder samples is striking, especially for patients with anorexia nervosa. Interestingly, this predominance of the unresolved category was also found in their mothers. To date, these transgenerational aspects are still poorly understood and therefore represent an exciting research frontier. Future studies that include larger adolescent samples and provide a more detailed description including symptom severity and comorbidity would contribute to a better understanding of this complex and painful condition.

  14. Sorption studies of radionuclides on a modified mesoporous cerium(IV) silicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepehrian, H.; Tarbiat Moallem University, Tehran; Ghannadi-Maragheh, M.; Yavari, R.; Khanchi, A.R.; Waqif-Husain, S.

    2008-01-01

    Five different samples of a new sorbent, modified mesoporous cerium(IV) silicate have been prepared with various mole ratios of Si/Ce and Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMABr) as template. XRD, nitrogen sorption, SEM, IR, thermogravimetry and sorption of radionuclides have been studied. Separation of Hg(II)-Th(IV), Hg(II)-Zr(IV) and Rb(I)-Zr(IV) have been developed on columns of this novel sorbent. (author)

  15. Sorption of radionuclides on mesoporous Sn(IV) silicate: a new sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehrian, H. [Jaber Ibn Hayan Research Labs., Nuclear Science and Technology Research Inst., AEOI, Tehran (Iran); Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Univ. of Tarbiat Moallem, Tehran (Iran); Yavari, R.; Ghannadi Maragheh, M. [Jaber Ibn Hayan Research Labs., Nuclear Science and Technology Research Inst., AEOI, Tehran (Iran); Husain, S.W. [Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Univ. of Tarbiat Moallem, Tehran (Iran)

    2008-07-01

    Four different samples of mesoporous Sn(IV) silicate with varying mole ratio of Si/Sn have been used to study the sorption behavior of 18 radionuclides on these materials. Ion-exchange capacity, SEM, distribution coefficient and chemical stability have been studied and discussed. Separation of Tl(I) from Th(IV), Cs(I) from Th(IV) and Cs(I) from Zr(IV) have been developed on columns of this sorbent. (orig.)

  16. Sorption of radionuclides on mesoporous Sn(IV) silicate: a new sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepehrian, H.; Yavari, R.; Ghannadi Maragheh, M.; Husain, S.W.

    2008-01-01

    Four different samples of mesoporous Sn(IV) silicate with varying mole ratio of Si/Sn have been used to study the sorption behavior of 18 radionuclides on these materials. Ion-exchange capacity, SEM, distribution coefficient and chemical stability have been studied and discussed. Separation of Tl(I) from Th(IV), Cs(I) from Th(IV) and Cs(I) from Zr(IV) have been developed on columns of this sorbent. (orig.)

  17. Activation of the attachment system and mentalization in depressive and healthy individuals: An experimental control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fizke Ella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From a developmental and clinical point of view attachment theory and mentalization are closely connected and have become increasingly important to understand the origins of psychopathological development. However, very little is known about how exactly different inner working models of attachment are related to diverse mentalizing abilities and this is particularly true for adult populations - healthy as well as clinical populations. In the present study we investigated this relation with a sample of inpatients diagnosed with depression and a sample of healthy individuals. In an experimental setting the attachment system was activated using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP. Mentalization was assessed during activation and in comparison to a control condition using a modified version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET. We expected that an activation of the attachment system i diminishes the capacity to take another’s perspective in individuals with unresolved state of mind, ii has no impact in individuals with secure attachment representation and iii is dependent of clinical status in individuals with insecure (but organized working models of attachment. Overall, these hypotheses were confirmed. However, the impact of clinical status on mentalization in insecure attachment has to be further explored. We summarize that attachment state of mind has a mediating influence on mentalization basically in such situations where the attachment system is activated.

  18. Childhood maltreatment, adult attachment and psychotic symptomatology: a study in patients, siblings and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, D S; Korver-Nieberg, N; Velthorst, E; Meijer, C J; de Haan, L

    2014-11-01

    The association between childhood maltreatment (ChM) and psychotic disorders is well established. However, there is an ongoing debate about which factors account for this relationship. One explanation is that the relationship between ChM and psychosis is mediated by adult attachment style. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate whether adult attachment style mediates the relationship between ChM and positive and negative symptomatology. We investigated the relation between ChM and psychotic symptoms, taking into account levels of (insecure) attachment, in 131 patients with psychotic illness, 123 siblings and 72 controls. ChM was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Attachment dimensions of anxiety and avoidance were measured using the Psychosis Attachment Measure (PAM). In both patients and siblings, ChM predicted positive symptoms and this relationship was partly mediated by attachment style. This relationship was found to be stronger for siblings than for patients. ChM predicted negative symptoms in patients and siblings. In the patient sample, attachment style did not mediate the relationship between ChM and negative symptoms, whereas attachment style was found to be a mediator in the sibling sample. ChM was associated with positive and negative symptomatology in both patients and siblings. Particularly in siblings, the relationship between ChM and psychosis seems to be mediated by adult attachment style. Perhaps attachment style may play a more prominent role on a subclinical level.

  19. Attachment theory: progress and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, R M Pasco; Roisman, Glenn I

    2017-06-01

    Attachment is a key subfield in the area of parenting and parent-child relationships research. In this brief overview, we summarise what we consider to be the state-of-the-art of attachment research, focusing primarily on the nature and significance of attachment in infancy and early childhood. We review 4 major topics that are central issues in the scientific literature on attachment: (1) the role of the environment in the development of attachment, (2) the intergenerational transmission of patterns of attachment, (3) the stability of attachment patterns through early adulthood, and (4) the role of attachment in adjustment and maladjustment. We conclude by highlighting several critical unresolved issues and priorities for future research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Direct Bandgap Group IV Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-21

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0049 Direct Bandgap group IV Materials Hung Hsiang Cheng NATIONAL TAIWAN UNIVERSITY Final Report 01/21/2016 DISTRIBUTION A...NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) NATIONAL TAIWAN UNIVERSITY 1 ROOSEVELT RD. SEC. 4 TAIPEI CITY, 10617 TW 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING...14. ABSTRACT Direct bandgap group IV materials have been long sought for in both academia and industry for the implementation of photonic devices

  1. THE SL2S GALAXY-SCALE LENS SAMPLE. IV. THE DEPENDENCE OF THE TOTAL MASS DENSITY PROFILE OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES ON REDSHIFT, STELLAR MASS, AND SIZE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Treu, Tommaso; Suyu, Sherry H.; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Marshall, Philip J.; Auger, Matthew W.; Nipoti, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    We present optical and near-infrared spectroscopy obtained at Keck, Very Large Telescope, and Gemini for a sample of 36 secure strong gravitational lens systems and 17 candidates identified as part of the Strong Lensing Legacy Survey. The deflectors are massive early-type galaxies in the redshift range z d = 0.2-0.8, while the lensed sources are at z s = 1-3.5. We combine these data with photometric and lensing measurements presented in the companion paper III and with lenses from the Sloan Lens Advanced Camera for Surveys and Lènses Structure and Dynamics surveys to investigate the cosmic evolution of the internal structure of massive early-type galaxies over half the age of the universe. We study the dependence of the slope of the total mass density profile, γ' (ρ(r)∝r -γ ' ), on stellar mass, size, and redshift. We find that two parameters are sufficient to determine γ' with less than 6% residual scatter. At fixed redshift, γ' depends solely on the surface stellar mass density ∂γ'/∂Σ * = 0.38 ± 0.07, i.e., galaxies with denser stars also have steeper slopes. At fixed M * and R eff , γ' depends on redshift, in the sense that galaxies at a lower redshift have steeper slopes (∂γ'/∂z = –0.31 ± 0.10). However, the mean redshift evolution of γ' for an individual galaxy is consistent with zero dγ'/dz = –0.10 ± 0.12. This result is obtained by combining our measured dependencies of γ' on z, M * ,R eff with the evolution of the R eff -M * taken from the literature, and is broadly consistent with current models of the formation and evolution of massive early-type galaxies. Detailed quantitative comparisons of our results with theory will provide qualitatively new information on the detailed physical processes at work

  2. PCR-DGGE Analysis of Bacterial Population Attached to the Bovine Rumen Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Lukáš, F. (Filip); Šimůnek, J. (Jiří); Mrázek, J. (Jakub); Kopečný, J. (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    We isolated and amplified by PCR 16S rDNA from bacteria attached to the bovine rumen wall and analyzed it by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) with subsequent sequence analysis. The attached bacterial community differed from the bacteria of rumen content; however, no differences were observed among the five epithelial sampling sites taken from each animal. The DGGE profile of the bacterial population attached to the rumen wall represented a high inter-animal variation.

  3. Adult Romantic Attachment and Couple Conflict Behaviors: Intimacy as a Multi-Dimensional Mediator

    OpenAIRE

    Tina D. Du Rocher Schudlich; Nicole M. Stettler; Kristen A. Stouder; Chelsea Harrington

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated associations between adult romantic attachment and couples’ conflict behaviors and the potential mediating role of intimacy. A community sample of 74 couples reported on their attachment security style on the Attachment Style Measure (ASM) (Simpson, 1990) and on multiple dimensions of intimacy on the Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships (PAIR) (Schaefer & Olson, 1981). Couples’ conflict behaviors were assessed via behavioral observations and coded for posit...

  4. The Role of Attachment in Body Weight and Weight Loss in Bariatric Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Nancarrow, Abigail; Hollywood, Amelia; Ogden, Jane; Hashemi, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to explore the role of attachment styles in obesity. Material and Methods The present study explored differences in insecure attachment styles between an obese sample waiting for bariatric surgery (n = 195) and an age, sex and height matched normal weight control group (n = 195). It then explored the role of attachment styles in predicting change in BMI 1 year post bariatric surgery (n = 143). Results The bariatric group reported significant...

  5. Attachment Theory, Foster Parents and Diversity Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Michael; Fleming, Ted

    2009-01-01

    relevance to attachment within the biological and foster family. Yet every foster parent has a childhood attachment history that influences their interpersonal relationships in adulthood. The primary concern of the foster parent and their supports is with the foster child. But as a result the foster parent may distract or block reflection on their own attachment history. This presentation will focus on attachment theory and the adult, with particular reference to the foster parent. The pre...

  6. Maternal Attachment Strategies and Emotion Regulation with Adolescent Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobak, Roger; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined the relationship between mothers' attachment strategies and emotion regulation in a sample of 42 families with 2 high school-aged siblings. Found that mothers with preoccupied strategies had difficulty regulating emotion during conversations with their older teenagers about them leaving home. Mothers with secure strategies perceived their…

  7. Infant Negative Emotionality and Attachment: Implications for Preschool Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrass, Jan; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.

    2004-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the extent to which dimensions of infant negative temperament in the first year predicted IQ at age 3, and whether these associations depended on the quality of the infant-mother attachment relationship. In a sample of 63 infant-mother dyads, mothers completed Rothbart's (1981) IBQ when infants were 4 and 12…

  8. The influence of home and community attachment on firewise behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard T. Kyle; Gene L. Theodori; James D. Absher; Jinhee. Jun

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of residents’ attachment to their homes and community on their willingness to adopt Firewise recommendations. Our sample was drawn from a population residing in the wildland–urban interface where the threat of wildfire is acute. The Firewise recommendations concerned 13 activities affecting home design,...

  9. IUE observations of interstellar Si IV and C IV lines observed in the spectra of Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.J.; Willis, A.J.; Wilson, R.

    1980-01-01

    Recent IUE observations of Wolf-Rayet stars show narrow absorption lines in the highly ionized species of Si IV and C IV. The strengths of these 'interstellar' Si IV and C IV lines observed in the spectra of 10 WR stars and two other early-type stars are compared. Of the WR sample, six stars exhibit very strong Si IV and C IV lines (Wsub(lambda) approximately 0.3 to 0.5 A) whilst the other four stars show much weaker lines (Wsub(lambda) approximately 0.1 A). There is no correlation between the strengths of these lines with either stellar distance or colour excess. The weaker absorptions may arise in the individual stellar H II regions, the observed strengths being consistent with those expected for stars with Tsub(eff) = 30 000 K. Five of the other stars which exhibit very strong absorptions lie in the line of sight to active interstellar regions (Cygnus and Carina nebulae) and it is considered probable that, in addition to their H II region components, the bulk of the strong Si IV and C IV absorptions originate in hot gas associated with these active regions. In the case of the WN5 star HD 50896 violet-displaced components are observed in the interstellar lines of low ionization species. These are thought to be produced in the ring nebula S308 surrounding HD 50896. (author)

  10. THE SL2S GALAXY-SCALE LENS SAMPLE. IV. THE DEPENDENCE OF THE TOTAL MASS DENSITY PROFILE OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES ON REDSHIFT, STELLAR MASS, AND SIZE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Treu, Tommaso; Suyu, Sherry H. [Physics Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Gavazzi, Raphaël [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS-Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98bis bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Marshall, Philip J. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Auger, Matthew W. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Nipoti, Carlo, E-mail: sonnen@physics.ucsb.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-11-10

    We present optical and near-infrared spectroscopy obtained at Keck, Very Large Telescope, and Gemini for a sample of 36 secure strong gravitational lens systems and 17 candidates identified as part of the Strong Lensing Legacy Survey. The deflectors are massive early-type galaxies in the redshift range z{sub d} = 0.2-0.8, while the lensed sources are at z{sub s} = 1-3.5. We combine these data with photometric and lensing measurements presented in the companion paper III and with lenses from the Sloan Lens Advanced Camera for Surveys and Lènses Structure and Dynamics surveys to investigate the cosmic evolution of the internal structure of massive early-type galaxies over half the age of the universe. We study the dependence of the slope of the total mass density profile, γ' (ρ(r)∝r{sup -γ{sup '}}), on stellar mass, size, and redshift. We find that two parameters are sufficient to determine γ' with less than 6% residual scatter. At fixed redshift, γ' depends solely on the surface stellar mass density ∂γ'/∂Σ{sub *} = 0.38 ± 0.07, i.e., galaxies with denser stars also have steeper slopes. At fixed M{sub *} and R{sub eff}, γ' depends on redshift, in the sense that galaxies at a lower redshift have steeper slopes (∂γ'/∂z = –0.31 ± 0.10). However, the mean redshift evolution of γ' for an individual galaxy is consistent with zero dγ'/dz = –0.10 ± 0.12. This result is obtained by combining our measured dependencies of γ' on z, M{sub *},R{sub eff} with the evolution of the R{sub eff}-M{sub *} taken from the literature, and is broadly consistent with current models of the formation and evolution of massive early-type galaxies. Detailed quantitative comparisons of our results with theory will provide qualitatively new information on the detailed physical processes at work.

  11. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment, and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Radi, Giulia; Raspa, Veronica; Buratta, Livia

    2015-01-01

    The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers' postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers' attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th months of gestation) and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress 3 months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety) was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress 3 months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers.

  12. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eMazzeschi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers’ postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with the subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers’ attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th month of gestation and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress three months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress three months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers

  13. Attachment in Middle Childhood: Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Guy; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the substantial amount of research on infant, preschool, adolescent, and adult attachment, middle childhood has long been neglected by the international attachment research community. In the past two decades, however, there has been a steep increase in research focusing on middle childhood attachment. This article provides an overview…

  14. CORRECTING LABIAL THICK AND HIGH ATTACHED FRENUM (CLINICAL OBSERVATION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Krusteva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Labial thick and high attached maxillary frenum is commonly regarded as contributing etiology for maintaining midline diastema and upper jaw delayed development. The surgical modalities used to solve this problem are known to be quite stressful for children. Dental lasers have recently been increasingly used to treat wide variety of problems in medicine. AIM: Using a high energy diode laser to remove a short, high attached frenum of the upper lip and present the results of the procedure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed frenectomy in 10 randomly selected patients of both sexes aged 7-9 years with short, thick frena of the upper lip. A Picasso soft tissue diode laser, class IV, power output 7 W, λ-810 nm was used for the procedure. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The healing process was uneventful, painless and without edemas developing in the soft tissues. No inflammation was found in the treated tissues. The children undergoing the procedure showed no fear. This was the reason why we preferred to use lasers as a modern therapeutic modality for soft tissue correction in the mouth.CONCLUSION: Using lasers to remove short, high attached maxillary labial frenum has the benefit of inducing less stress in children than that they experience if anaesthesia and surgery are administered. Anaesthesia with topical anaesthetics is used in the procedure. The postoperative period is free of pain and far from severe. This makes this technique particularly useful for children.

  15. Attachment Style Predicts Affect, Cognitive Appraisals, and Social Functioning in Daily Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara eSheinbaum

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The way in which attachment styles are expressed in the moment as individuals navigate their real-life settings has remained an area largely untapped by attachment research. The present study examined how adult attachment styles are expressed in daily life using Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM in a sample of 206 Spanish young adults. Participants were administered the Attachment Style Interview and received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times per day for one week to complete questionnaires about their current experiences and social context. As hypothesized, participants’ momentary affective states, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning varied in meaningful ways as a function of their attachment style. Individuals with an anxious attachment, as compared with securely attached individuals, endorsed experiences that were congruent with hyperactivating tendencies, such as higher negative affect, stress, and perceived social rejection. By contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment, relative to individuals with a secure attachment, endorsed experiences that were consistent with deactivating tendencies, such as decreased positive states and a decreased desire to be with others when alone. Furthermore, the expression of attachment styles in social contexts was shown to be dependent upon the subjective appraisal of the closeness of social contacts, and not merely upon the presence of social interactions. The findings support the ecological validity of the Attachment Style Interview and the person-by-situation character of attachment theory. Moreover, they highlight the utility of ESM for investigating how the predictions derived from attachment theory play out in the natural flow of real life.

  16. Temperament, disordered attachment and parental sensitivity in foster care: Differential findings on attachment security for shy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Schipper, J.C.; Oosterman, M.; Schuengel, C.

    2012-01-01

    In a foster care sample, the moderating effect of temperamental shyness on the association between parental sensitivity and attachment quality was tested. The foster parents of 59 foster children (age M=57 months, SD=16.4) filled out the Child Behavior Questionnaire. To control for confounds,

  17. The relation of attachment security status to effortful self-regulation: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallini, Susanna; Chirumbolo, Antonio; Morelli, Mara; Baiocco, Roberto; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Eisenberg, Nancy

    2018-05-01

    Secure attachment relationships have been described as having a regulatory function in regard to children's emotions, social cognition, and behavior. Although some theorists and researchers have argued that attachment affects children's self-regulation, most attachment theorists have not strongly emphasized this association. The goal of the current meta-analysis was to determine the magnitude of the relation between attachment security status and effortful control (EC)/top-down self-regulation in children up to 18 years of age. One hundred six papers met the inclusion criteria and 101 independent samples were used in analyses. When secure attachment status was compared with insecure attachment status, a significant relation (effect size [ES]) with EC favoring children with a secure attachment was found (100 studies; 20,350 participants; r = .20). A stronger relation was found when the same coder evaluated attachment than when the coder was different and when the measure of attachment was continuous; other moderators were not significant. Securely attached children were higher in EC than their avoidant (r = .10) or resistant (r = .17) counterparts. Children with organized attachments were higher in EC than those with disorganized attachments (r = .17), although this finding could be due to publication bias. For some comparisons of subgroups (B vs. A, B vs. C, and/or D vs. all others), moderation was found by source of information (higher ES for same reporter), age at assessment of EC and/or attachment (higher ES at older ages), method of attachment (lower ES for observational measures), time difference between assessments or research design (higher ESs for smaller time differences and concurrent findings), and published versus unpublished studies (higher ES for unpublished studies for A vs. B). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Transitions in Friendship Attachment During Adolescence are Associated With Developmental Trajectories of Depression Through Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephanie H; Heinze, Justin E; Miller, Alison L; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2016-03-01

    Forming secure friendship attachments during adolescence are important for mental health; few, however, have specifically examined the ways in which the transitions in attachment during adolescence may influence future mental health outcomes among African Americans. The present study examines how transitions in attachment in adolescence predicted changes in depression symptoms from late adolescents through adulthood in an African-American sample. We used growth curve modeling to examine the association between transitions in friendship attachment and changes in depression symptoms in adulthood. At age 16 years, 346 (64.0%) adolescents reported secure attachment with 195 (36.0%) reporting either avoidant or resistant attachment. At age 17 years, 340 (62.9%) reported secure attachment and 201 (37.2%) reported avoidant or resistant attachment. The largest percentage of participants (46.2%) reported stable-secure attachment across the two time points. Results of the growth model indicated that adolescents who reported a stable-secure attachment style had lower levels of depression symptoms during adulthood than those individuals who transitioned from secure-to-insecure, from insecure-to-secure, or were in the stable-insecure group. Interestingly enough, individuals in both the attachment transition groups had a faster declining rate of depression symptoms over time compared to the two stability groups. Data support existing research showing an association between transitions in attachment during adolescence and depression through adulthood. Furthermore, these study findings suggest there may be protective features associated with transitioning between attachment styles during adolescence on later depression, compared to African Americans who remain stable in their attachment style. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Split ring containment attachment device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammel, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    A containment attachment device is described for operatively connecting a glovebag to plastic sheeting covering hazardous material. The device includes an inner split ring member connected on one end to a middle ring member wherein the free end of the split ring member is inserted through a slit in the plastic sheeting to captively engage a generally circular portion of the plastic sheeting. A collar potion having an outer ring portion is provided with fastening means for securing the device together wherein the glovebag is operatively connected to the collar portion. 5 figs

  20. Resource conservation and recovery act draft hazardous waste facility permit: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Attachments: Volume 4 of 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Volume IV contains the following attachments for Module IV: VOC monitoring plan for bin-room tests (Appendix D12); bin emission control and VOC monitoring system drawings; bin scale test room ventilation drawings; WIPP supplementary roof support system, underground storage area, room 1, panel 1, DOE/WIPP 91-057; and WIPP supplementary roof support system, room 1, panel 1, geotechnical field data analysis bi-annual report, DOE/WIPP 92-024.

  1. Do brain lesions in stroke affect basic emotions and attachment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinelli, Marina; Panksepp, Jaak; Gestieri, Laura; Maffei, Monica; Agati, Raffaele; Cevolani, Daniela; Pedone, Vincenzo; Northoff, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate basic emotions and attachment in a sample of 86 stroke patients. We included a control group of 115 orthopedic patients (matched for age and cognitive status) without brain lesions to control for unspecific general illness effects of a traumatic recent event on basic emotions and attachment. In order to measure basic emotions and attachment style we applied the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scale (ANPS) and the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ). The stroke patients showed significantly different scores in the SEEKING, SADNESS, and ANGER subscales of the ANPS as well as in the Relationship as Secondary Attachment dimension of the ASQ when compared to the control group. These differences show a pattern influenced by lesion location mainly as concerns basic emotions. Anterior, medial, left, and subcortical patients provide scores significantly lower in ANPS-SEEKING than the control group; ANPS-SADNESS scores in anterior, right, medial, and subcortical patients were significantly higher than those of the control group. ANPS-ANGER scores in posterior, right, and lateral patients were significantly higher than those in the control group; finally, the ANPS-FEAR showed slightly lower scores in posterior patients than in the control group. Minor effects on brain lesions were also individuated in the attachment style. Anterior lesion patients showed a significantly higher average score in the ASQ-Need for Approval subscale than the control group. ASQ-Confidence subscale scores differed significantly in stroke patients with lesions in medial brain regions when compared to control subjects. Scores at ANPS and ASQ subscales appear significantly more correlated in stroke patients than in the control group. Such finding of abnormalities, especially concerning basic emotions in stroke brain-lesioned patients, indicates that the effect of brain lesions may enhance the interrelation between basic emotions and attachment with

  2. Quality of life and adolescents' communication with their significant others (mother, father, and best friend): the mediating effect of attachment to pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsa-Sambola, Ferran; Williams, Joanne; Muldoon, Janine; Lawrence, Alistair; Connor, Melanie; Currie, Candace

    2017-06-01

    The relationship between adolescents' communication with their significant others (mother, father, and best friend) and quality of life (KIDSCREEN) was investigated in 2262 Scottish adolescent pet owners. The variable attachment to pets was also tested and assessed as a mediator of this relationship. A positive relationship between adolescents' communication with their significant other (mother, father, and best friend) and quality of life decreased when controlling for attachment to dogs. In cat owners, a positive relationship between communication with a best friend and quality of life decreased when controlling for attachment to cats. In cat and dog owners, attachment to these pets predicted higher levels of quality of life. Higher attachment to dogs and cats was explained by good best friend (IV) and attachment to pets (DV) and best friends. Mediation effects of attachment to dogs and cats might be explained in terms of the caring activities associated with these types of pets.

  3. Attachment of Escherichia coli and enterococci to particles in runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soupir, Michelle L; Mostaghimi, Saied; Dillaha, Theo

    2010-01-01

    Association of Escherichia coli and enterococci with particulates present in runoff from erodible soils has important implications for modeling the fate and transport of bacteria from agricultural sources and in the selection of management practices to reduce bacterial movement to surface waters. Three soils with different textures were collected from the Ap horizon (silty loam, silty clay loam, and loamy fine sand), placed in portable box plots, treated with standard cowpats, and placed under a rainfall simulator. Rainfall was applied to the plots until saturation-excess flow occurred for 30 min, and samples were collected 10, 20, and 30 min after initiation of the runoff event. The attachment of E. coli and enterococci to particles present in runoff was determined by a screen filtration and centrifugation procedure. Percentage of E. coli and enterococci attached to particulates in runoff ranged from 28 to 49%, with few statistically significant differences in attachment among the three soils. Similar partitioning release patterns were observed between E. coli and enterococci from the silty loam (r = 0.57) and silty clay loam soils (r = 0.60). At least 60% of all attached E. coli and enterococci were associated particles within an 8- to 62-microm particle size category. The results indicate that the majority of fecal bacteria attach to and are transported with manure colloids in sediment-laden flow regardless of the soil texture.

  4. Maternal antenatal depression and infant disorganized attachment at 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Lisa J; Goodman, Sherryl H; Carlson, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Although high rates of attachment disorganization have been observed in infants of depressed mothers, little is known about the role of antenatal depression as a precursor to infant attachment disorganization. The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between maternal antenatal depression and infant disorganization at 12 months in a sample of women (N = 79) at risk for perinatal depression. A secondary aim was to test the roles of maternal postpartum depression and maternal parenting quality as potential moderators of this predicted association. Among women with histories of major depressive episodes, maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at multiple times during pregnancy and the first year postpartum, maternal parenting quality was measured at three months postpartum, and attachment disorganization was assessed at 12 months postpartum. Results revealed that infants classified as disorganized had mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms during pregnancy compared to infants classified as organized. Maternal parenting quality moderated this association, as exposure to higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy was only associated with higher rates of infant disorganized attachment when maternal parenting at three months was less optimal. These findings suggest that enhancing maternal parenting behaviors during this early period in development has the potential to alter pathways to disorganized attachment among infants exposed to antenatal maternal depressive symptoms, which could have enduring consequences for child wellbeing.

  5. Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism as Mediators of Adult Attachment Styles and Depression, Hopelessness, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnilka, Philip B.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Noble, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, anxious and avoidant adult attachment styles, depression, hopelessness, and life satisfaction among a sample of 180 undergraduate students. Maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationship between both forms of adult attachment and depression, hopelessness,…

  6. Examining the Link between Infant Attachment and Child Conduct Problems in Grade 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vando, Jessica; Rhule-Louie, Dana M.; McMahon, Robert J.; Spieker, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the extent to which infant attachment status is directly related to child conduct problems 6 years later, and assessed the potential mediating roles of hostile parenting and maternal depression. The sample included 84 adolescent mothers and their children (45 girls, 39 boys). Infant attachment status was assessed using the Strange…

  7. Electron attachment mass spectrometry as a diagnostics for electronegative gases and plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffels - Adamowicz, E.; Stoffels, W.W.; Tachibana, K.

    1998-01-01

    Electron attachment mass spectrometry (EAMS) has been developed to study mixtures of electronegative gases and plasmas. A quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) has been used to detect negative ions, formed from sampled species by attachment of low energy electrons. Varying the electron energy allows to

  8. Changes in attachment security and mindfulness as predictors of changes in depression and general anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, David; Gillath, Omri; Deboeck, Pascal; Lang, K.M.; Kerr, Barb

    2017-01-01

    Two studies examined the role short-term changes in adult attachment and mindfulness play in depression and general anxiety. Study 1, using a sample of college students (n = 121) who were not engaged in any clinical intervention, showed that changes in attachment anxiety and security, but not in

  9. Attachment, Well-Being, and College Senior Concerns about the Transition out of College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among attachment, psychological well-being (PWB), life satisfaction, and concerns about the transition out of college among a sample of college seniors. A path analysis was conducted predicting that PWB and life satisfaction would mediate the relationships between attachment and 3 types of graduation…

  10. Parental Attachment, Psychological Separation and Eating Disorder Symptoms among College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Maureen E.

    In this study the relationship of parental attachment and psychological separation to levels of eating disorder symptoms was examined for a sample of college women (N=162) from English classes at a private, urban, coeducational Jesuit university in the northeast. Participants resonded to the Parental Attachment Questionnaire, the Parental…

  11. Infant Attachment Disorganization and Moderation Pathways to Level and Change in Externalizing Behavior during Preschool Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feihong; Willoughby, Michael; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Cox, Martha J.

    2016-01-01

    This research examined the child, parent, and family conditions under which attachment disorganization was related to both level and change in externalizing behavior during preschool among a community sample. Using the ordinary least squares regression, we found that attachment disorganization at 12 months significantly predicted children's…

  12. Parental Representations and Attachment Security in Young Israeli Mothers' Bird's Nest Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, Limor; Golan, Yifat

    2016-01-01

    The Bird's Nest Drawing (BND; Kaiser, 1996) is an art-based technique developed to assess attachment security. In an attempt to expand the BND's validity, the authors explored the possible associations between parental representations and the BND's dimensions and attachment classifications in a sample of 80 young Israeli mothers. Positive…

  13. Attachment Theory and Theory of Planned Behavior: An Integrative Model Predicting Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lac, Andrew; Crano, William D.; Berger, Dale E.; Alvaro, Eusebio M.

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that peer and maternal bonds play important but sometimes contrasting roles in the outcomes of children. Less is known about attachment bonds to these 2 reference groups in young adults. Using a sample of 351 participants (18 to 20 years of age), the research integrated two theoretical traditions: attachment theory and theory of…

  14. College Student Binge Eating: Attachment, Psychological Needs Satisfaction, and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Suejung; Lee, Soonhee

    2017-01-01

    In this study we examine the mediating roles of psychological needs satisfaction (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness) and emotion regulation difficulties in the relationship between attachment insecurity (i.e., attachment anxiety and avoidance) and binge eating behavior in college students. A total sample of 820 college students…

  15. Attachment in context: The role of demographic factors among Indonesians from three ethnic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewi, Z.L.; Halim, M.S.; Derksen, J.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined attachment in Indonesia, one of the fourth most populous countries in the world. We applied the Indonesian version of the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ) on 1313 Indonesians from three ethnically diverse samples (404 Bataks, 430 Minangkabau, and 479 Javanese). We assessed

  16. Peer Attachment, Coping, and Self-Esteem in Institutionalized Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Catarina Pinheiro; Matos, Paula Mena

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the contribution of peer attachment in predicting active coping and self-esteem in a sample of 109 institutionalized adolescents. It also explores the mediating role of social skills in the association between peer attachment, coping, and self-esteem. Structural equation modeling identified a model able to predict a positive…

  17. Attachment, Coping, Acculturative Stress, and Quality of Life among Haitian Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belizaire, Lonette S.; Fuertes, Jairo N.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between attachment, coping, acculturative stress, and quality of life (QOL) in a sample of Haitian immigrants in the United States. Results indicated that an increase in years living in the United States and greater anxiety attachment were negatively associated with QOL and that higher levels of adaptive…

  18. Examining Attachment to God and Health Risk-Taking Behaviors in College Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrett, J.; Horton, K.D.; Ellison, Ch.G.; Loukas, A.; Downey, D.L.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on insights from attachment theory, this study examined whether three types of attachment to God—secure, avoidant, and anxious—were associated with health-risk behaviors, over and above the effects of religious attendance, peer support, and demographic covariates, in a sample of 328

  19. Mother-Child Attachment Representation and Relationships over Time in Mexican-Heritage Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Carollee; Vu, Jennifer A.; Hamilton, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Continuity and intergenerational transmission of representations of attachment were examined in a longitudinal sample of 88 Mexican immigrant mothers and their children who participated in the local intervention group of the Early Head Start Evaluation Study. The authors interviewed mothers with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Parent…

  20. A Gaussian IV estimator of cointegrating relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bårdsen, Gunnar; Haldrup, Niels

    2006-01-01

    In static single equation cointegration regression modelsthe OLS estimator will have a non-standard distribution unless regressors arestrictly exogenous. In the literature a number of estimators have been suggestedto deal with this problem, especially by the use of semi-nonparametricestimators. T......In static single equation cointegration regression modelsthe OLS estimator will have a non-standard distribution unless regressors arestrictly exogenous. In the literature a number of estimators have been suggestedto deal with this problem, especially by the use of semi...... in cointegrating regressions. These instruments are almost idealand simulations show that the IV estimator using such instruments alleviatethe endogeneity problem extremely well in both finite and large samples....

  1. Difference in place attachment between students in Helsinki and in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radusinović Dubravka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Place attachment refers to the process of human-place bonding; the bonding process includes both physical and social ties formed within an environment. In the last two decades, place attachment has been the subject of many studies, but there have not been many cross-cultural studies. The aim of this study was to determine differences in global attachment to house, neighbourhood and city among young people in Belgrade and Helsinki, with consideration of social and physical dimensions of place attachment. Additionally, the effects of gender on all types of place attachments were tested. Data were collected using the Place Attachment Scale (Hidalgo & Hernandez, 2001 and the Questionnaire on residential and socio-demographic characteristics of the sample. The instrument was translated into Serbian and Finnish, respecting the translation procedure for cross-cultural studies (Brislin, 1986 and administered to subjects in their native language. The study was conducted on the sample of two hundred students of psychology, comprising: 100 inhabitants of Belgrade, and 100 of Helsinki, balanced by gender (60% female, 40% male and age (average 24.4 years. The following results can be pointed out: 1 young people living in Belgrade show greater degree of global attachment to their city than young people living in Helsinki to their city, 2 young people from Belgrade also show greater social ties within their city and house, in relation to peers from Helsinki, 3 physical attachment to house and city is also significantly higher in young inhabitants of Belgrade. An interesting finding is 4 the existence of significant differences between men and women in the degree of global, social and physical attachment to house and physical attachment to city in the Serbian sample, and non-existence of differences in place attachment between men and women in the Finnish sample. The findings are interpreted within the Hofstede's five Cultural Dimensions.

  2. Structural relationships among attachment insecurity, alexithymia, and body esteem in women with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Leah; Tasca, Giorgio A; Hill, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Patients with eating disorders tend to experience low levels of body esteem. To assess the psychosocial processes that may predict low body esteem in these individuals, we assessed the structural interrelations among attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, alexithymia, and body esteem in a cross-sectional sample of patients with eating disorders. We tested a model in which alexithymia mediates the relationship between attachment insecurity and body esteem. Participants were 300 women with anorexia nervosa (n = 109), bulimia nervosa (n = 130), and eating disorders not otherwise specified (n = 61) who completed pretreatment self-report questionnaires at intake for a day hospital treatment program. We found a direct and negative relationship between attachment anxiety and body esteem. Additionally, attachment avoidance had an indirect negative relationship to body esteem through alexithymia. These results indicate that therapists may attend to attachment insecurity and affective regulation strategies when addressing body image issues in patients with eating disorders. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The relationships between adult attachment, theoretical orientation, and therapist-reported alliance quality among licensed psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Sari; Shorey, Hal S

    2016-01-01

    Attachment anxiety has been depicted as an undesirable therapist characteristic based on findings that preoccupied therapists, relative to those with other attachment styles, report more ruptures in the therapeutic alliance. What has not been considered, however, is the extent to which attachment dynamics are related to theoretical orientations and how attachment styles and theoretical orientations combine to predict therapists' perceptions of the quality of their alliances. The present surveyed 290 licensed psychologists nationally. Results revealed that even within a sample of primarily secure psychologists, higher 15 levels of attachment anxiety correlated positively with the endorsement of psychodynamic orientations, and negatively with the endorsement of cognitive-behavioral orientations and self-reported alliance quality. Endorsement of cognitive-behavioral orientations, in turn, correlated positively with therapist-reported alliance quality. The results are discussed in terms of the extent to which attachment dimensions should be considered in therapists' understandings of their therapeutic alliances.

  4. Comparison of Attachment to Parents, Peers and Siblings in the Involved and Noninvolved Adolescents in Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    حلیمه بیابانی علی آباد

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare attachment to parents, peers and siblings among involved (bulling, victim, and bulling-victim and noninvolved in bullying in Yazd city. All of male and female students in the academic year 2013-2014 in Yazd included research population. A sample of 384 students were selected randomly through cluster sampling. Participants answered a sociometric questionnaire and also completed the Peer Relationship Questionnaire, the Inventory of Parents and Peer Attachment, and the Inventory of Siblings Attachment. Multivariate analysis (MANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in attachment to parents, peers and siblings between involved adolescents in bulling and noninvolved ones (p>0/0001. Regarding the attachment to parents, peers and siblings, noninvolved group scored higher than the involved groups. Also, among involved groups, the bully and the victim- bully groups received higher scores in attachment to mother prior to the peer attachment. Finally, the attachment to siblings in both groups was the lowest scores of attachment.

  5. Free-format RPG IV

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This how-to guide offers a concise and thorough introduction to the increased productivity, better readability, and easier program maintenance that comes with the free-format style of programming in RPG IV. Although free-format information is available in IBM manuals, it is not separated from everything else, thereby requiring hours of tedious research to track down the information needed. This book provides everything one needs to know to write RPG IV in the free-format style, and author Jim Martin not only teaches rules and syntax but also explains how this new style of coding has the pot

  6. An Adapted Measure of Sibling Attachment: Factor Structure and Internal Consistency of the Sibling Attachment Inventory in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Valerie A; Francis, Sarah E; Tilley, Micah A

    2018-04-01

    Parent-youth and peer relationship inventories based on attachment theory measure communication, trust, and alienation, yet sibling relationships have been overlooked. We developed the Sibling Attachment Inventory and evaluated its psychometric properties in a sample of 172 youth ages 10-14 years. We adapted the 25-item Sibling Attachment Inventory from the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment-Revised peer measure. Items loaded onto three factors, identified as communication, trust, and alienation, α = 0.93, 0.90, and 0.76, respectively. Sibling trust and alienation correlated with depression (r s  = -0.33, r s  = 0.48) and self-worth (r s  = 0.23; r s  = -0.32); sibling trust and alienation correlated with depression after controlling for parent trust and parent alienation (r s  = -0.23, r s  = 0.22). Preliminary analyses showed good internal consistency, construct validity, and incremental predictive validity. Following replication of these properties, this measure can facilitate large cohort assessments of sibling attachment.

  7. Stochasticity of bacterial attachment and its predictability by the extended derjaguin-landau-verwey-overbeek theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Teck Wah R; Nguyen, Vu Tuan; McMeekin, Thomas; Fegan, Narelle; Dykes, Gary A

    2011-06-01

    Bacterial attachment onto materials has been suggested to be stochastic by some authors but nonstochastic and based on surface properties by others. We investigated this by attaching pairwise combinations of two Salmonella enterica serovar Sofia (S. Sofia) strains (with different physicochemical and attachment properties) with one strain each of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, S. enterica serovar Infantis, or S. enterica serovar Virchow (all with similar physicochemical and attachment abilities) in ratios of 0.428, 1, and 2.333 onto glass, stainless steel, Teflon, and polysulfone. Attached bacterial cells were recovered and counted. If the ratio of attached cells of each Salmonella serovar pair recovered was the same as the initial inoculum ratio, the attachment process was deemed stochastic. Experimental outcomes from the study were compared to those predicted by the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) theory. Significant differences (P attached ratios for serovar pairs containing S. Sofia S1296a for all different ratios were apparent for all materials. For S. Sofia S1635-containing pairs, 7 out of 12 combinations of serovar pairs and materials had attachment ratios not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the initial ratio of 0.428. Five out of 12 and 10 out of 12 samples had attachment ratios not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the initial ratios of 1 and 2.333, respectively. These results demonstrate that bacterial attachment to different materials is likely to be nonstochastic only when the key physicochemical properties of the bacteria were significantly different (P theory could successfully predict the attachment of some individual isolates to particular materials but could not be used to predict the likelihood of stochasticity in pairwise attachment experiments.

  8. Determination of U(IV) and hydrazine nitrate by volumetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xi; Wang Nanjie; Zhang Tao; Wang Lin; Guo Yuhua

    2006-01-01

    To be determined U(IV) and hydrazine nitrate in exist together, chromium (VI) and 1,10-phenanthroline is used individually as oxidation titrator and indicator for U(IV), and N-bromineimino and methyl red is used individually as oxidation titrator and indicator for hydrazine nitrate, U(IV) and hydrazine nitrate in the same sample is determined sequentially in the nitric acid by adjusting concentration of nitric acid. Results show that the precision is better than 2.0% when the mass concentration of U(IV) is ranged over 5.5-205 mg/mL; and the precision is better than 2.0% when the concentration of hydrazine nitrate is ranged over 0.05-1.0 mol/L. (authors)

  9. Networked Attached Devices at SNS

    CERN Document Server

    Blokland, W

    2003-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) diagnostic instruments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are based on the Network Attached Device (NAD) concept. Each pickup or sensor has its own resources such as timing, data acquisition and processing. NADs are individually connected to the network, thus reducing the brittleness inherent in tightly coupled systems. This architecture allows an individual device to fail or to be serviced or removed without disrupting other devices. This paper describes our implementation of the nearly 400 NADs to be deployed. The hardware consists of rack-mounted PCs with standard motherboards and PCI data-acquisition boards. The software environment is based on LabVIEW and EPICS. LabVIEW supports the agile development demanded by modern diagnostic systems. EPICS is the control system standard for the entire SNS facility. To achieve high performance, LabVIEW and EPICS communicate through shared memory. SNS diagnostics are developed by a multi-laboratory partnership including ORNL, BNL, LAN...

  10. Multipurpose hooks for elastic attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Shashidhar Revankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As certain bracket systems do not include hooks on premolar brackets for elastic attachment, Kobayashi or custom made ligature hooks have proven as an alternative. However, these hooks tend to bend labially when used with heavy elastics and these elastics can even pop loose from the hooks on mouth opening. The following article describes an innovative multipurpose hook which is simple, stiff and inexpensive and can be used for engagement of class II elastics on premolars in case of missing molars as well as engagement of intermaxillary elastics for settling of occlusion in finishing stages. As the hooks can be prefabricated, this saves a lot of chair side time and is more practical for use in day-to-day orthodontic practice.

  11. 11. IV avati Draakoni galeriis...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Tanel Saare (sünd. 1979) näitus "Gott und huhn episode IV: seed shower". Eksponeeritakse väljavõtteid aktsioonidest aastatel 2000-2004 Turus, Nürnbergis, Berliinis, Lohusalus ja Soulis. Osa aktsioone toimus koos rühmitusega Non Grata

  12. [Maternal attachment patterns and personality in post partum depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceti, Franca; Baglioni, Valentina; Ciolli, Paola; De Bei, Francesco; Di Lorenzo, Flavia; Ferracuti, Stefano; Giacchetti, Nicoletta; Marini, Isabella; Meuti, Valentina; Motta, Paola; Roma, Paolo; Zaccagni, Michela; Williams, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of post partum depression (PPD) in a sample of Roman women, and the role of socio-demographic variables, personality structure and maternal attachment patterns, in order to identify primary and secondary prevention strategies. Data were collected in two phases. During the third trimester of pregnancy, a sample of 453 women completed a socio-demographic data sheet and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Among the patients scoring 12 or more at EPDS, 15 entered the second phase of the study and completed SCID-II and Adult Attachment Interview. PPD diagnosis was confirmed by the SCID-I. The study group was compared with a control group. Among the 453 women who were evaluated, 92 (20.3%) scored ≥12 at EPDS, 39 has been enrolled and 15 entered the study. Presence of depressive symptoms was associated with: complications in pregnancy, previous psychiatric disorders, family and marital conflicts. 66.6% of depressed mothers showed more than one diagnosis on Axis II (particularly avoidant/dependent + borderline or histrionic + dependent). The AAI showed a prevalence of insecure (33.3%) and unresolved/disorganized (46.6%) attachment pattern in the clinical group. Our results suggest that psychological factors such as personality structure and attachment patterns are not only involved in post natal affective disorders, but have a key role in the onset and development of PPD.

  13. Association Between Insecure Attachment and ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Rasmussen, Pernille Darling; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Psychological theories have postulated an association between insecure attachment and ADHD. The objective of this study is to investigate possible association between insecure attachment and ADHD in children and adults. METHOD: Review of literature was performed using the Psyc......INFO, Medline, and EMBASE databases. RESULTS: Twenty-nine studies were included in the review. Overall, the studies showed that parental attachment problems and environmental mediating factors were significantly associated with childhood ADHD. Adults with ADHD had a much higher incidence of insecure attachment...... styles than reported in the general population. CONCLUSION: There seems to be a clear association between ADHD and insecure attachment. It is likely that early intervention in the form of parent training and pharmacological treatment may prevent development of attachment problems. But such studies have...

  14. Place attachment and disasters: Knowns and unknowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Mehdi; Nejat, Ali

    When considering the factors important for disaster recovery, one must consider the attachment individuals have toward their living area. This article reviews and synthesizes the current literature on the determinants of place attachment in the context of postdisaster recovery. Although the majority of the reviewed articles focused on disaster recovery, there were some which had a broader scope and were included due to their importance. This research categorizes the determinants of place attachment into four categories: demographic, socioeconomic, spatial, and psychosocial. Age, ethnicity, and religion were grouped under the category of demographics. Job status, education, and property ownership were categorized under the socioeconomic category. Attachment to home, neighborhood, and city, together with attachment to rural and urban areas, were grouped under the spatial category. Finally, mental health status and community attachment were classified under the psychosocial heading. Based on the outcome of the aforementioned synthesis, this article develops a conceptual framework to guide future research.

  15. Place attachment and natural environmental risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonaiuto, Marino; Alves, Susana; De Dominicis, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about place attachment affecting natural environmental risk perception and coping. A systematic search of social science databases revealed 31 works (1996–2016) directly addressing place attachment in relation to different types of natural hazard risks (e.g., seismic, volcanic, etc.......). Across different contexts, the research shows: (a) positive and/or negative relationships between place attachment and natural environmental risk perception; (b) positive and/or negative relationships between place attachment and risk coping; and (c) mediating and moderating relationships. In particular......, results show that: (a) highly attached individuals perceive natural environmental risks but underestimate their potential effects; (b) highly attached individuals are unwilling to relocate when facing natural environmental risks and more likely to return to risky areas after a natural environmental...

  16. Two type IV pili of Vibrio parahaemolyticus play different roles in biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shime-Hattori, Akiko; Iida, Tetsuya; Arita, Michiko; Park, Kwon-Sam; Kodama, Toshio; Honda, Takeshi

    2006-11-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633 has two sets of type IV-A pilus genes. One set is similar to that found in other Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae (chitin-regulated pilus; ChiRP), and Vibrio vulnificus. The other is homologous to the genes for the mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) pilus. In this study, we analyzed the effects of the deletions in the pilin genes for each type IV pilus (the ChiRP and the MSHA pilus) on biofilm formation. Although the MSHA pilin mutant formed aggregates, the number of bacteria that attached directly to the coverslip was reduced, suggesting that this pilus contributes to the bacterial attachment to the surface of the coverslip. In contrast, the ChiRP mutant attached to the surface of the coverslip, but did not form aggregates, suggesting that ChiRP plays a role in bacterial agglutination during biofilm formation. These results suggest that the two type IV pili of V. parahaemolyticus contribute to biofilm formation in different ways. Both mutants showed a lower fitness for adsorption onto chitin particles than that of the wild type. Collectively, these data suggest that the use of two type IV pili is a refined strategy of V. parahaemolyticus for survival in natural environments.

  17. The effects of attachment components on formal-operational thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukčević Branimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work our aim is to examine how the components of attachment influence the thinking development of adolescents in familial context. We investigated the components of attachment: unresolved family traumatisation, the use of external security base, fear of loss of external security base, negative self concept, negative other concept, capacity for mentalisation, low control of anger. We used a revised Questionnaire for Assessment of Adult and Adolescent Attachment (in original: UPIPAV-R. Formal operations were tested by Bond's Logical Operations Test. We examined the cultural-pedagogical status of the family, the parental mediation characteristic for the development of formal operations, and family property as the aspects of familial context. The sample consisted of 200 pupils aged 14 to 19. According to the attachment theory, secure attachment provides the feel of security in environment exploration, which is the ground of personality development. We assumed that components of attachment contribute formal-operational thinking development and change the influence of familial cultural-supportive tools. The findings show us that the culturalpedagogical status of the family improves formal operations development and unresolved family traumatisation has negative influence. Capacity for mentalisation has a positive indirect effect on thinking development through the influence of the cultural-pedagogical status of the family. The low control of anger has a negative indirect effect on thinking development; it increases the influence of unresolved family traumatisation. Negative self concept has indirect effects on thinking development through increasing this negative influence of unresolved family traumatisation and decreasing the role of familial cultural-supportive tools.

  18. Attachment style and interpersonal trauma in refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Naser; Schnyder, Ulrich; Schick, Matthis; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A

    2016-12-01

    Refugees can suffer many experiences that threaten their trust in others. Although models of refugee mental health have postulated that attachment securities may be damaged by refugee experiences, this has yet to be empirically tested. This study aimed to understand the relationship between the nature of traumatic experiences sustained by refugees and attachment styles. In a cross-sectional study, treatment-seeking refugees (N = 134) were assessed for traumatic exposure using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Attachment style was assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale. Whereas gender and severity of interpersonal traumatic events predicted avoidant attachment style (accounting for 11% of the variance), neither these factors nor non-interpersonal trauma predicted anxious attachment. Exposure to interpersonal traumatic events, including torture, is associated with enduring avoidant attachment tendencies in refugees. This finding accords with attachment theories that prior adverse interpersonal experiences can undermine secure attachment systems, and may promote avoidance of attachment seeking. This finding may point to an important process maintaining poor psychological health in refugees affected by interpersonal trauma. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  19. Temperament and attachment: one construct or two?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangelsdorf, S C; Frosch, C A

    1999-01-01

    In this chapter we described the constructs of temperament and attachment and have discussed similarities and differences between the two. We addressed the issue of whether temperament contributes to overall attachment security or to the specific type of attachment that children display. We conclude that although temperament may influence the type of secure and insecure attachment relationship children form with their parent, temperament alone will not determine if a child is classified as securely or insecurely attached. We presented evidence suggesting that certain dimensions of temperament, specifically negative emotionality, may be associated with infants' behavior during the Strange Situation, such as proneness-to-distress during separations. However, we noted that these temperament dimensions do not predict overall security of attachment. It is likely that although no single temperament characteristic, such as proneness-to-distress, in and of itself determines overall attachment security, it is possible that a constellation of temperament characteristics may be more strongly related to attachment security. The examination of constellations of temperament characteristics may be particularly useful for furthering our understanding of individual differences within attachment classifications. Such an approach may elucidate the reasons why infants are classified into one subgroup of secure, insecure-avoidant, or insecure-resistant attachment versus another subgroup. Furthermore, we suggest that the collection of findings regarding temperament and attachment not only underscores the importance of a transactional approach to early social-emotional development, but emphasizes that temperament and attachment can make unique and interactive contributions to children's social-emotional functioning. That is, the goodness-of-fit between infant and parent characteristics may best predict security of attachment. Although child characteristics clearly contribute to the

  20. Security for Network Attached Storage Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gobioff, Howard

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a novel cryptographic capability system addressing the security and performance needs of network attached storage systems in which file management functions occur at a different...

  1. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  2. Overdenture locator attachments for atrophic mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Mahajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Implant-supported overdentures provide a good opportunity for dentists to improve oral health and quality-of-life of patients. Atrophic mandible poses a significant challenge to successful oral rehabilitation with dental implants. In this article, the fabrication of lower overdenture by two narrow platform implants is described with dual retentive, resilient, self-locating locator attachment system. The locator attachment system has the lowest profile in comparison with the ball and bar attachments and is versatile up to 40΀ of divergence between two implants. By using locators as attachments, we can meet functional, economic and social expectation of patients with ease and satisfaction.

  3. The mediating role of mentalizing capacity between parents and peer attachment and adolescent borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Emma; Sharp, Carla; Poulsen, Stig; Bo, Sune; Pedersen, Jesper; Simonsen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Insecure attachment is a precursor and correlate of borderline personality disorder. According to the mentalization-based theory of borderline personality disorder, the presence of insecure attachment derails the development of the capacity to mentalize, potentially resulting in borderline pathology. While one prior study found support for this notion in adolescents, it neglected a focus on peer attachment. Separation from primary caregivers and formation of stronger bonds to peers are key developmental achievements during adolescence and peer attachment warrants attention as a separate concept. In a cross-sectional study, female outpatients (M age 15.78=, SD = 1.04) who fulfilled DSM-5 criteria for BPD ( N  = 106) or met at least 4 BPD criteria ( N  = 4) completed self-reports on attachment to parents and peers, mentalizing capacity (reflective function) and borderline personality features. Our findings suggest that in a simple mediational model, mentalizing capacity mediated the relation between attachment to peers and borderline features. In the case of attachment to parents, the mediational model was not significant. The current study is the first to evaluate this mediational model with parent and peer attachment as separate concepts and the first to do so in a sample of adolescents who meet full or sub-threshold criteria for borderline personality disorder. Findings incrementally support that mentalizing capacity and attachment insecurity, also in relation to peers, are important concepts in theoretical approaches to the development of borderline personality disorder in adolescence. Clinical implications are discussed.

  4. Gender moderates the associations between attachment and discrete emotions in late middle age and later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consedine, Nathan S; Fiori, Katherine L

    2009-11-01

    Although patterns of attachment have been linked to patterns of emotional experience, studies in developmentally diverse samples are few and have not yet examined possible gender differences in attachment or their implications for emotional wellbeing. This article describes patterns of attachment in a diverse sample of 616 men and women from middle age and later life, examines the relations between attachment and nine discrete emotions, and tests the thesis that gender moderates these associations. Convenience sampling was used to derive a sample of 616 ethnically diverse men and women from seven ethnic groups. Multiple regressions controlling for demographics found no gender differences in attachment categorizations although men reported greater dimensional fearful avoidance. Security predicted greater joy and interest whereas dismissingness was associated with lower shame and fear and with greater interest. Both preoccupation and fearful avoidance predicted most negative emotions but were not associated with positive emotions. Finally, gender moderated these associations such that (a) attachment security was more closely related to interest and, marginally, joy, among men; (b) fearful avoidance was more closely related to fear and contempt among men; and (c) preoccupation was associated with greater interest among men, whereas fear and contempt were associated with preoccupation among women only. Interpreted in the context of theories of emotions, the social origins of emotional experience, and the different roles that social relationships have for aging men and women, our data imply that attachment styles may differentially predict male emotions because of their less diverse networks.

  5. Genetic Contributions to Continuity and Change in Attachment Security: A Prospective, Longitudinal Investigation from Infancy to Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, K. Lee; Cicchetti, Dante; Carlson, Elizabeth A.; Egeland, Byron; Collins, W. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background Longitudinal research has demonstrated that individual differences in attachment security show only modest continuity from infancy to adulthood. Recent findings based on retrospective reports suggest that individuals’ genetic variation may moderate the developmental associations between early attachment-relevant relationship experiences and adult attachment security. The purpose of this study was to use a prospective, longitudinal design to investigate genetic contributions to continuity and changes in attachment security from infancy to young adulthood in a higher risk sample. Methods Infant attachment security was assessed using the Strange Situation Procedure at 12 and 18 months. Adults’ general attachment representations were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview at age 19 and age 26. Romantic attachment representations were assessed with the Current Relationship Interview at ages 20–21 and ages 26–28. Individuals were genotyped for variants within the oxytocin receptor (OXTR), dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4), and serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). Results The continuity of attachment security from infancy into young adulthood was consistently moderated by OXTR genetic variation. Infant attachment security predicted the security of adults’ general and romantic attachment representations only for individuals with the OXTR G/G genotype. This interaction was significant when predicting adult attachment security as measured by the Adult Attachment Interview at age 19 and 26 and the Current Relationship Interview at ages 26–28. DRD4 and 5-HTTLPR genetic variation did not consistently moderate the longitudinal associations between attachment security during infancy and adulthood. Conclusions This study provides initial longitudinal evidence for genetic contributions to continuity and change in attachment security from infancy to young adulthood. Genetic variation related to the oxytocin system may moderate the

  6. The Role of Depression and Attachment Styles in Predicting Students? Addiction to Cell Phones

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasempour, Abdollah; Mahmoodi-Aghdam, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study aimed at investigating the role of depression and attachment styles in predicting cell phone addiction. Methods In this descriptive correlational study, a sample including 100 students of Payame Noor University (PNU), Reyneh Center, Iran, in the academic year of 2013-2014 was selected using volunteer sampling. Participants were asked to complete the adult attachment inventory (AAI), Beck depression inventory-13 (BDI-13) and the cell phone overuse scale (COS). Find...

  7. The Relationship between Parenting Styles and Adult Attachment Styles from Jordan University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad M. Mahasneh; Zohair H. Al-Zoubi; Omar T. Batayenh; Mohammad S. Jawarneh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parenting styles and adult attachment styles. A random sample of (564) male and female students at the faculty of educational sciences was chosen selected. Two questionnaires on attachment styles and parenting styles were administered to the selected sample population during the academic year of 2012-2013. Results indicated significant positive correlations between the authoritative, negligent and authoritarian parenting styles...

  8. Measuring Patients’ Attachment Avoidance in Psychotherapy: Development of the Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale (AATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new scale measuring patient-therapist attachment avoidance was developed. Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale is a new measure based on the Bartholomew model of adult attachment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991 and the Experience in Close Relationships Scale (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 to measure patients’ attachment avoidance towards therapists. With 112 patient-therapist dyads participating in the study, validation of a preliminary scale – measuring both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance in therapy – took place using therapists’ evaluations of patients’ relational behavior and patients’ self-reports about their attitude toward psychotherapy. Analysis of the data revealed six underlying scales. Results showed all six scales to be reliable. Validation of scales measuring attachment anxiety failed. The importance of Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale and its subscales is discussed.

  9. Psychological variables and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Carlton S; Gutierrez, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The MMPI-2 and WAIS-IV are commonly used together in neuropsychological evaluations yet little is known about their interrelationships. This study explored the potential influence of psychological factors on WAIS-IV performance in a sample of 180 predominantly male veteran referrals that underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination in a VA Medical Center. Exclusionary criteria included failed performance validity testing and self-report distortion on the MMPI-2. A Principal Components Analysis was performed on the 15 MMPI-2 content scales, yielding three broader higher-order psychological dimensions: Internalized Emotional Dysfunction (IED), Externalized Emotional Dysfunction (EED), and Fear. Level of IED was not related to performance on the WAIS-IV Full Scale IQ or its four indexes: (Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed). EED was not related to WAIS-IV performance. Level of Fear, which encompasses health preoccupations (HEA) and distorted perceptions (BIZ), was significantly related to WAIS-IV Full Scale IQ and Verbal Comprehension. These results challenge the common use of high scores on the MMPI-2 IED measures (chiefly depression and anxiety) to explain deficient WAIS-IV performance. In addition, they provide impetus for further investigation of the relation between verbal intelligence and Fear.

  10. Hamiltonian dynamics of preferential attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuev, Konstantin; Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2016-01-01

    Prediction and control of network dynamics are grand-challenge problems in network science. The lack of understanding of fundamental laws driving the dynamics of networks is among the reasons why many practical problems of great significance remain unsolved for decades. Here we study the dynamics of networks evolving according to preferential attachment (PA), known to approximate well the large-scale growth dynamics of a variety of real networks. We show that this dynamics is Hamiltonian, thus casting the study of complex networks dynamics to the powerful canonical formalism, in which the time evolution of a dynamical system is described by Hamilton’s equations. We derive the explicit form of the Hamiltonian that governs network growth in PA. This Hamiltonian turns out to be nearly identical to graph energy in the configuration model, which shows that the ensemble of random graphs generated by PA is nearly identical to the ensemble of random graphs with scale-free degree distributions. In other words, PA generates nothing but random graphs with power-law degree distribution. The extension of the developed canonical formalism for network analysis to richer geometric network models with non-degenerate groups of symmetries may eventually lead to a system of equations describing network dynamics at small scales. (paper)

  11. Smartphone attachment for stethoscope recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    With the ubiquity of smartphones and the rising technology of 3D printing, novel devices can be developed that leverage the "computer in your pocket" and rapid prototyping technologies toward scientific, medical, engineering, and creative purposes. This paper describes such a device: a simple 3D-printed extension for Apple's iPhone that allows the sound from an off-the-shelf acoustic stethoscope to be recorded using the phone's built-in microphone. The attachment's digital 3D files can be easily shared, modified for similar phones and devices capable of recording audio, and in combination with 3D printing technology allow for fabrication of a durable device without need for an entire factory of expensive and specialized machining tools. It is hoped that by releasing this device as an open source set of printable files that can be downloaded and reproduced cheaply, others can make use of these developments where access to cost-prohibitive, specialized medical instruments are not available. Coupled with specialized smartphone software ("apps"), more sophisticated and automated diagnostics may also be possible on-site.

  12. Hormonal treatment reduces psychobiological distress in gender identity disorder, independently of the attachment style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizzi, Marco; Costa, Rosalia; Pace, Valeria; Todarello, Orlando

    2013-12-01

    Gender identity disorder may be a stressful situation. Hormonal treatment seemed to improve the general health as it reduces psychological and social distress. The attachment style seemed to regulate distress in insecure individuals as they are more exposed to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system dysregulation and subjective stress. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the presence of psychobiological distress and insecure attachment in transsexuals and to study their stress levels with reference to the hormonal treatment and the attachment pattern. We investigated 70 transsexual patients. We measured the cortisol levels and the perceived stress before starting the hormonal therapy and after about 12 months. We studied the representation of attachment in transsexuals by a backward investigation in the relations between them and their caregivers. We used blood samples for assessing cortisol awakening response (CAR); we used the Perceived Stress Scale for evaluating self-reported perceived stress and the Adult Attachment Interview to determine attachment styles. At enrollment, transsexuals reported elevated CAR; their values were out of normal. They expressed higher perceived stress and more attachment insecurity, with respect to normative sample data. When treated with hormone therapy, transsexuals reported significantly lower CAR (P treatment seemed to have a positive effect in reducing stress levels, whatever the attachment style may be. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  13. Thermal-driven attachment of gold nanoparticles prepared with ascorbic acid onto indium tin oxide surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Md. Abdul; Oyama, Munetaka, E-mail: oyama.munetaka.4m@kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kyoto University, Department of Material Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan)

    2013-05-15

    Thermal-driven attachment of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), of which size was less than 50 nm, onto the surfaces of indium tin oxide (ITO) is reported as a new phenomenon. This was permitted by preparing AuNPs via the reduction of hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl{sub 4}) with ascorbic acid (AA). While the AuNPs prepared via the AA reduction sparsely attached on the surface of ITO even at room temperature, a heat-up treatment at ca. 75 Degree-Sign C caused denser attachment of AuNPs on ITO surfaces. The attached density and the homogeneity after the thermal treatment were better than those of AuNP/ITO prepared using 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane linker molecules. The denser attachment was observed similarly both by the immersion of ITO samples after the preparations of AuNPs by AA and by the in situ preparation of AuNPs with AA together with ITO samples. Thus, it is considered that the thermal-driven attachment of AuNPs would occur after the formation of AuNPs in the aqueous solutions, not via the growth of AuNPs on ITO surfaces. The preparation of AuNPs with AA would be a key for the thermal-driven attachment because the same attachments were not observed for AuNPs prepared with citrate ions or commercially available tannic acid-capped AuNPs.

  14. The study of Relation between Cultural Components and National Attachment among Citizens of Yazd city.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farahmand

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available National attachment sense as one of the components of social Property is a key word in national culture. Any definition of society is Occurred by accepting attachment and commitment sense and the society is existed to some extent because people have positive sense about that. National attachment sense is considered as one the important affairs of any society and its proper recognition and full knowledge of authorities and affair operators about the effective social factors on that can be an effective step in recognizing the existent problems in society. The present research reviewed the relation between cultural components and national attachment among the Yazd citizens. The research statistical society was all of the Yazd’s 15 to 65 years old citizens that 384 people were selected as sample by Cochran formula. The tool of data gathering was researcher-made questionnaire that had appropriate validity and reliability. Sampling method has been multi-stage clustered. Results showed that there was a meaningful relationship between secularization, consumerism and virtual social networks with national attachment has been reverse and meaningful, but the relationship between age and values preferences with national attachment has been direct and meaningful. Independent variables in regression equation managed to explain 39 percent of national attachment variable changes. The greatest impact on dependent variable (national attachment has belonged to the variables of secularization, age, values preferences and consumerism.

  15. Dibutylammonium bis(hydrogen methylphosphonato-κOtriphenylstannate(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tidiane Diop

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title organotin salt, (C8H20N[Sn(C6H53(CH4O3P2], contains two dibutylammonium cations and two stannate(IV anions consisting each of two monodentately bonding methyl hydrogenphosphate groups attached to an Sn(C6H5 unit. The overall coordination environment of the two SnIV atoms is trigonal–bipyramidal defined by three phenyl C atoms in equatorial positions and two methyl hydrogenphosphate O atoms at the apical sites. In the crystal, the stannate(IV anions are linked to each other via pairs of short O—H...O hydrogen bonds, leading to an infinite chain extending parallel to the b-axis direction. Neighbouring chains are linked by N—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the butylammonium cations, giving a two-dimensional structure parallel to the ab plane. The crystal under investigation was found to be twinned by reticular merohedry with twin fractions of 0.5342 (7:0.4658 (7.

  16. Uruguay; 2011 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    This 2011 Article IV Consultation highlights that the growth momentum in Uruguay has continued into 2011 but a slowdown is under way, led by weaker exports and slower public investment. Uruguay’s economic and financial vulnerabilities are modest, and the government has reduced debt vulnerabilities significantly and built important financial buffers. Executive Directors have commended authorities’ skillful macroeconomic management that has underpinned Uruguay’s excellent economic performance, ...

  17. Austria; 2013 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents details of Austria’s 2013 Article IV Consultation. Austria has been growing economically but is facing challenges in the financial sector. Full implementation of medium-term fiscal adjustment plans require specifying several measures and plans that need gradual strengthening to take expected further bank restructuring cost into account. It suggests that strong early bank intervention and resolution tools, a better designed deposit insurance system, and a bank-financed reso...

  18. Attachment styles and psychopathology among adolescent children of parents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Mustafa; Gencoglan, Salih; Akguc, Leyla; Ozatalay, Esin; Fettahoglu, Emine Cigil

    2015-04-16

    The aim of this study was to compare attachment styles and psychopathology in adolescent children of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) with a healthy control group. We studied 25 adolescents who had at least 1 parent with BD (BD group) and 28 adolescents who had no parents with BD (control group). The adolescent participants were between the ages of 12 and 17 years. We used the Adolescent Relationship Scales Questionnaire (A-RSQ) for the adolescents in the BD vs. control groups, and we used the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age Children - present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). We used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), Clinician Version for each parent of adolescents in the BD and control groups to rule out psychopathologies. Attachment styles of participants were assessed according to A-RSQ, dismissing attachment style scores of adolescents in BD group were found significantly higher compared to the healthy control group (padolescents (48%) out of 25 in the BD group and 5 adolescents (18%) out of 28 in the control group were given DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis, which is a statistically significant result (padolescent children of parents with BD have increased risk of developing mental illnesses, and that these adolescents adopt dismissing attachment styles.

  19. Attachment and Socioemotional Problems in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Ellen; Lecompte, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we will evaluate the evidence concerning links between attachment and behavior problems in the middle childhood period. We will first provide a general introduction to the question of attachment and maladaptation in the middle childhood period, and then examine the recent empirical evidence with respect to both externalizing and…

  20. Parent-Child Attachment and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumariu, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Given the centrality of both parent-child attachment and emotion regulation in children's development and adjustment, it is important to evaluate the relations between these constructs. This article discusses conceptual and empirical links between attachment and emotion regulation in middle childhood, highlights progress and challenges in the…

  1. Study on thermocouple attachment in reflood experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Jun

    1977-03-01

    The method of thermocouple attachment to a heater rods has been studied for surface temperature measurement in reflood experiments. The method used as far in JAERI's reflood experiments had some possibilities of not estimating exactly the quench times. Various attachment method have been tested and some proved to be effective in the respect. (auth.)

  2. The role of time in place attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Smaldone

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative studies have found that the length of association is an important variable affecting place attachment (Kaltenborn 1998, Moore & Graefe 1994, Patterson & Williams 1991, Vorkinn & Riese 2001). These studies, however, have provided less insight into how and why time is involved in the process of forming place attachment, as well as the meanings...

  3. Internal Representational Models of Attachment Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Patricia M.

    This paper outlines several properties of internal representational models (IRMs) and offers terminology that may help to differentiate the models. Properties of IRMs include focus, memory systems, content, cognitive function, "metastructure," quality of attachment, behavioral strategies, and attitude toward attachment. An IRM focuses on…

  4. Attachment of Salmonella spp. to pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine; Riber, Leise; Löfström, Charlotta

    2011-01-01

    Five strains of Salmonella, one wildtype and four knock-out mutants (the prg, flhDC, yhjH and fliC genes) were investigated based on their probability to attach and subsequently detach from a surface of pork fillet. The attachment followed by detachment was measured and modelled for two different...

  5. Attachment Theory and Neuroscience for Care Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Thomas J; Dziadosz, Gregory M

    2016-09-01

    This article describes a model for care managers that is based on attachment theory supplemented by knowledge from neuroscience. Together, attachment theory and basic knowledge from neuroscience provide for both an organizing conceptual framework and a scientific, measureable approach to assessment and planning interventions in a care plan.

  6. Attachment in young children with incarcerated fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann-Tynan, Julie; Burnson, Cynthia; Runion, Hilary; Weymouth, Lindsay A

    2017-05-01

    The present study examined young children's attachment behaviors during paternal incarceration and reported on initial validity of a new measure used to rate children's attachment-related behaviors and emotions during visits in a corrections setting. Seventy-seven children, age 2 to 6 years, and their jailed fathers and current caregivers participated in the home visit portion of the study, whereas 28 of these children participated in the jail visit. The results indicated that 27% of children witnessed the father's crime and 22% of children witnessed the father's arrest, with most children who witnessed these events exhibiting extreme distress; children who witnessed these events were more likely to have insecure attachments to their caregivers. Consistent with attachment theory and research, caregivers who exhibited more sensitivity and responsivity during interactions with children and those who provided more stimulating, responsive, learning-oriented home environments had children who were more likely to have secure attachments (measured with the Attachment Q-Sort). We also found preliminary evidence for the validity of our new measure, the Jail Prison Observation Checklist, in that children's attachment-related behaviors and emotions during the jail visit correlated with their attachment security observed in the home. Our observations indicate that, in certain contexts, noncontact visits with incarcerated parents can be stressful for children and that children's caregivers may play a significant role during these visits.

  7. Insecure attachment and anxiety in student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D H; Kim, S M; Zaichkowsky, L

    2013-06-01

    The main purpose of our research was to examine attachment type and competition anxiety in high school student athletes and general high school students. We recruited 465 student athletes and 543 general students to participate in our study. The Revised Korean version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (K-ECRS) and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) were given to all students. In χ2 tests, athletes showed attachment types in the following order of prevalence: fearful, dismissive, and preoccupied, compared to the fearful, preoccupied, and dismissive order observed in general students. In parametric, independent t-tests, athletes reported significantly higher cognitive anxiety scores, relative to general students. Further, athletes with insecure attachment compared to those with secure attachment reported higher cognitive anxiety scores and self-confidence scores. In both the athletes with insecure attachment and general students with insecure attachment groups, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was significantly correlated with CSAI-2 total score. In post hoc analysis in the athletes with insecure attachment group, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was also significantly correlated with the CSAI-2 cognitive anxiety subscale. These results suggest that anxious athletes with an insecure attachment style tend to exaggerate threats from both external and internal sources, which negatively affect their performances.

  8. Attachment Representations and Time Perspective in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; D'Alessio, Maria; Pallini, Susanna; Baiocco, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between attachment to parents and peers, time perspective and psychological adjustment in adolescence. 2,665 adolescents (M age = 17.03 years, SD = 1.48) completed self-report measures about parent and peer attachment, time perspective, sympathy and self-determination. Subjects were divided into four groups…

  9. performance characteristics of a cam turning attachment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    ABSTRACT. A modification of a cylindrical turning unit has been done to give a non- cylindrical turning attachment for production of irregular shapes, like cams on the lathe machine. To assess the performance of the attachment, cutting forces have been measured using a 'Sigma' Cutting Tool. Dynamometer. Furthermore ...

  10. Adolescent Self-Esteem, Attachment and Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhal, Anubha; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sharma, Vidhi; Gupta, Priyanka

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To assess self-esteem, loneliness and attachment styles among adolescents and examine their association with each other and with age and gender. Method: Adolescents (55 males and 55 females) from a public school in Delhi, aged 10-13 years were administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (School Form), Attachment Scale and UCLA…

  11. Attachment Patterns in the Psychotherapy Relationship: Development of the Client Attachment to Therapist Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinckrodt, Brent; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes development of an instrument, the Client Attachment to Therapist Scale (CATS). CATS factors correlated in expected directions with survey measures of object relations, client-rated working alliance, social self-efficacy, and adult attachment. Cluster analysis revealed four types of client attachment. Discusses implications of attachment…

  12. Attachment and children's biased attentional processing: evidence for the exclusion of attachment-related information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vandevivere

    Full Text Available Research in both infants and adults demonstrated that attachment expectations are associated with the attentional processing of attachment-related information. However, this research suffered from methodological issues and has not been validated across ages. Employing a more ecologically valid paradigm to measure attentional processes by virtue of eye tracking, the current study tested the defensive exclusion hypothesis in late childhood. According to this hypothesis, insecurely attached children are assumed to defensively exclude attachment-related information. We hypothesized that securely attached children process attachment- related neutral and emotional information in a more open manner compared to insecurely attached children. Sixty-two children (59.7% girls, 8-12 years completed two different tasks, while eye movements were recorded: task one presented an array of neutral faces including mother and unfamiliar women and task two presented the same with happy and angry faces. Results indicated that more securely attached children looked longer at mother's face regardless of the emotional expression. Also, they tend to have more maintained attention to mother's neutral face. Furthermore, more attachment avoidance was related to a reduced total viewing time of mother's neutral, happy, and angry face. Attachment anxiety was not consistently related to the processing of mother's face. Findings support the theoretical assumption that securely attached children have an open manner of processing all attachment-related information.

  13. Attachment and emotion regulation in substance addictions and behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Ana; Jáuregui, Paula; Sánchez-Marcos, Inmaculada; López-González, Hibai; Griffiths, Mark D

    2017-12-01

    Background Risky behaviors have been related to emotional regulation and attachment, which may constitute risk factors for developing an addictive behavior. However, there may also be differences between substance and non-substance-related addictions. Aims This study aimed to examine the relationship of emotional regulation and attachment, with substance (alcohol and drug abuse), and non-substance-related addictions (gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use) in adolescents and emerging adults. The study also aimed to examine gender differences for such predictors. Methods The sample comprised 472 students aged 13-21 years recruited from high schools and vocational education centers. Results Findings demonstrated that emotion regulation was predictive of all addictive behaviors assessed in this study (alcohol and drug abuse, gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use), whereas attachment predicted non-substance-related addictions (gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use). In addition, gender differences were found, with females scoring significantly higher in maternal and peer attachment, whereas males scored significantly higher in gambling disorder and video game addiction. Conclusion The findings may be useful for preventive and clinical interventions conducted with youth regarding addictive behaviors.

  14. The Effect of Parenting Styles on Children Attachment Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    علي زينالي

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of parenting style on prediction of children's attachment style. To achieve this aim, the study investigates whether different parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful Leads to shaping various attachment styles (secure, fearful, preoccupied and dismissing in children? 508 high school adolescent boys and girls with the age range of 14-19 participated in this study and were selected through Stratified Random Sampling method. Data were gathered through Parenting Style Questionnaire (PSQ and Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ. In order to analyze the data, the researcher used Multiple Regression statistics. The results showed, Authoritative, authoritarian, neglectful and permissive parenting styles have positive and significant relationships with secure, preoccupied, fearful and dismissing attachment in children respectively and are considered as direct and significant predictor of them in children. The present study, with emphasize on fundamental role of parenting styles, recommend learning of authoritative parenting style and correction of authoritarian, neglectful and permissive parenting styles to parents in family setting.

  15. Adult Attachment Interview Discourse Patterns Predict Metabolic Syndrome in Midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Cynthia R.; Usher, Nicole; Dearing, Eric; Barkai, Ayelet R.; Crowell-Doom, Cindy; Mantzoros, Christos S.; Crowell, Judith A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Adult attachment discourse patterns and current family relationship quality were examined as predictors of health behaviors and number of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) criteria met. Methods A sample of 215 White/European American and Black/African American adults, aged 35 to 55, were examined cross-sectionally. Discourse was assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), specifically: 1) coherence, a marker of attachment security, 2) unresolved trauma/loss, a marker of disorganized and distorted cognition related to trauma, and 3) idealization, the tendency to minimize the impact of stressful experiences. Health behaviors of diet, exercise, smoking and alcohol use were also assessed, as were adverse childhood experiences, current depressive symptoms and relationship functioning. MetS includes hypertension, hyperglycemia, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, and obesity. Results Using path analysis and accounting for childhood adversity and depressive symptoms, AAI coherence and unresolved trauma or loss were directly linked to number of MetS criteria met (β = −.22 and .21 respectively). Idealization was indirectly linked to MetS through poor diet (β = −.26 and −.36 respectively), predicting 21% of the variance in number of MetS criteria met. Conclusions Attachment representations related to stress appraisal and care-seeking behaviors appear to serve as cognitive mechanisms increasing risk of MetS. PMID:25264975

  16. Attachment and eating disorders: a research update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A

    2018-03-16

    Prominent models of eating disorders tend to focus on cognitive and behavioral features, but tend not to consider important developmental issues related to affect regulation, interpersonal style, self concept, and mentalization-all of which are well conceptualized within attachment theory. Higher levels of attachment insecurity across diagnoses are related to greater eating disorder symptoms. Low parental care and early trauma may lead to attachment insecurity that then might lead to greater eating disorder symptoms. The association between insecure attachment and eating disorder severity is likely mediated by affect dysregulation and perfectionism. Recent research using the Adult Attachment Interview highlights the importance of reflective functioning in predicting treatment response and therapeutic processes, and on the utility of therapies that increase mentalization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The process of developing and changing of infant-teacher attachment : A study on an infant whose attachment to the first attachment figure is insecure

    OpenAIRE

    上田, 七生

    2003-01-01

    Toward infants whose attachment to their first attachment figures (mainly their mothers) is insecure, how can we intervene in them? To reveal it, an observation was carried out regularly once a week, over a period of 9 months. The subjects were an infant who has insecure attachment and comparative one who has secure attachment. And the attachment behaviors they exhibited toward nursery school teachers, strangers, and an observer were counted. The amount of the attachment behaviors of the infa...

  18. Breastfeeding, Parenting, and Infant Attachment Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Benjamin G; Forste, Renata; Lybbert, Emily

    2018-04-01

    Objectives Infants and toddlers need secure attachments in order to develop the social competence required to successfully navigate later peer and adult relationships. Breastfeeding is a parenting factor that has been associated with child emotional development-specifically the attachment between children and their mothers. Yet, this link may simply be the result of other parenting behaviors that are associated with breastfeeding. Thus, our objective is to examine whether the link between infant attachment behaviors and breastfeeding endures when accounting for a broad array of in-depth measures of parenting. Methods We use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of children from 9 months to 2 years of age collected by the National Center for Education Statistics. Using Ordinary Least Squares regression, data analyses examine the association between the Toddler Attachment Sort-45 (TAS-45) measures of toddler-parent attachment (infant attachment security and temperamental dependency) and breastfeeding practices. We also examine individual items of the TAS-45 to isolate specific attachment behaviors that have the strongest associations with breastfeeding. Results We find an enduring link between children who are predominantly breastfed for six or more months and infant attachment security. However, we find no evidence that breastfeeding is linked to a child's temperamental dependency. Of the nine items used to examine infant attachment behaviors, we find that breastfed children are rated as having slightly higher scores on two measures ("warm and cuddly," "cooperative") and lower scores on one measure ("demanding/angry"). Conclusions for Practice Breastfeeding has an important link to the child's use of their caregiver as a secure base for exploration and a place of comfort when distressed (infant attachment security). Yet, breastfeeding does not appear to reduce a child's temperamental dependency or level of clinginess as measured by how demanding, fussy or

  19. Sensitive method for the determination of different S(IV) species in cloud and fog water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, G

    1996-08-01

    Suppressed ion chromatography has been applied to the determination of S(IV) species in cloud and fog water in the range 0.012-2.4 mg S(IV)-S/L. The samples have been preserved prior to storage and S(IV) species have been determined as hydroxy methanesulfonate (HMS) together with the low molecular weight carboxylic acid anions, formate and acetate. Samples have been divided and treated differently such that total S(IV) as well as the non-oxidizable fraction of S(IV) (as given by the reactivity with H(2)O(2), added in surplus) could be determined. The difference between the two corresponds to the S(IV) fraction subjected to oxididation, which is of paramount interest in cloud and fogwater chemistry.

  20. The relation of infant attachment to attachment and cognitive and behavioural outcomes in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan-hua; Xu, Xiu; Wang, Zheng-yan; Li, Hui-rong; Wang, Wei-ping

    2014-09-01

    In China, research on the relation of mother-infant attachment to children's development is scarce. This study sought to investigate the relation of mother-infant attachment to attachment, cognitive and behavioural development in young children. This study used a longitudinal study design. The subjects included healthy infants (n=160) aged 12 to 18 months. Ainsworth's "Strange Situation Procedure" was used to evaluate mother-infant attachment types. The attachment Q-set (AQS) was used to evaluate the attachment between young children and their mothers. The Bayley scale of infant development-second edition (BSID-II) was used to evaluate cognitive developmental level in early childhood. Achenbach's child behaviour checklist (CBCL) for 2- to 3-year-olds was used to investigate behavioural problems. In total, 118 young children (73.8%) completed the follow-up; 89.7% of infants with secure attachment and 85.0% of infants with insecure attachment still demonstrated this type of attachment in early childhood (κ=0.738, pInfants with insecure attachment collectively exhibited a significantly lower mental development index (MDI) in early childhood than did infants with secure attachment, especially the resistant type. In addition, resistant infants were reported to have greater social withdrawal, sleep problems and aggressive behaviour in early childhood. There is a high consistency in attachment development from infancy to early childhood. Secure mother-infant attachment predicts a better cognitive and behavioural outcome; whereas insecure attachment, especially the resistant attachment, may lead to a lower cognitive level and greater behavioural problems in early childhood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Insightfulness and later infant attachment in clinically depressed and nonclinical mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsauer, Brigitte; Lotzin, Annett; Quitmann, Julia H; Becker-Stoll, Fabienne; Tharner, Anne; Romer, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between maternal insightfulness and sensitivity and subsequent infant attachment security and disorganization in clinically depressed and nonclinical mother-infant groups. Nineteen depressed mothers with infants ages 3 to 11 months participated in this study. Twenty nonclinical mother-infant dyads were matched to the clinical sample according to infant sex and age. Maternal depression was assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (American Psychiatric Association, 1994), insightfulness using the Insightfulness Assessment (IA), and sensitivity using the Maternal Sensitivity Scales (M.D.S. Ainsworth, 1969). IA classifications and subscales were considered separately. Later infant attachment was assessed by the Strange Situation Procedure (M.D.S. Ainsworth, M.C. Blehar, E. Waters, & S. Wall, 1978). Depressed mothers tended to have less securely attached children than did nonclinical mothers. Within the clinical sample, the insightfulness categories correlated slightly moderately with attachment security, but were not related to attachment disorganization. Within the nonclinical sample, the IA categories were slightly moderately associated with attachment security and with disorganization. On IA subscales, relationship patterns differed in clinically depressed and nonclinical mother-infant dyads. These findings provide the first evidence of the predictive power of the IA categorization and subscales on subsequent infant attachment. They also may allow the development of different foci of intervention for enhancing insightful caregiving. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  2. The relationship between attachment styles and internalizing or externalizing symptoms in clinical and nonclinical adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lacasa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies regarding the relationship between attachment and psychopathology during adolescence have been performed separately for clinical and nonclinical adolescents and have used different assessment measures, which together might produce a methodological bias that increases the association between attachment and psychopathology. With the aim of avoiding this bias, the present study used identical measures to explore the relationship between attachment styles and internalizing or externalizing symptoms in clinical and nonclinical samples of adolescents. The sample consisted of 258 adolescents, 129 clinical and 129 nonclinical, aged between 14 and 18 years. The adolescents in each sample were matched for age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Attachment was assessed using the CaMir Q-sort, and psychopathological symptoms were assessed by means of the Youth Self Report (YSR. The relationships between attachment and psychopathology were similar for clinical and nonclinical adolescents. A preoccupied attachment style predicted internalizing and externalizing symptoms, somatic complaints, anxious-fearful behavior, verbal aggression, attention-seeking behavior, and thinking problems. Compared to previous studies, this research has made it possible to identify broader, stronger, and more specific associations between preoccupied attachment style and psychopathological symptoms in adolescents.

  3. Effects of attachment and rearing behavior on anxiety in normal developing youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholst, Sonja; Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    A few studies have examined the relative contribution of insecure attachment and negative parental rearing behaviors on childhood anxiety, but none have examined if insecure attachment mediates the association between negative parental rearing behavior and anxiety. The present study investigated...... the direct, as well as the indirect, relation between attachment to parents, parental rearing behaviors and anxiety symptoms in a sample of 1134 normal developing children and adolescent. Attachment relation was measured by the Security Scale (SEC), negative parental rearing behavior was measured...... by the Rearing Behavior Questionnaire (RBQ), and anxiety was assessed using the Screen for Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised (SCARED-R). We found, in accordance with previous research, that insecure attachment, maternal rejection and overprotection, each accounted for a significant proportion...

  4. Attachment and parental divorce: a test of the diffusion and sensitive period hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, R Chris; Heffernan, Marie E

    2013-09-01

    One of the assumptions of attachment theory is that disruptions in parental relationships are prospectively related to insecure attachment patterns in adulthood. The majority of research that has evaluated this hypothesis, however, has been based on retrospective reports of the quality of relationships with parents-research that is subject to retrospective biases. In the present research, the authors examined the impact of parental divorce-an event that can be assessed relatively objectively-on attachment patterns in adulthood across two samples. The data indicate that parental divorce has selective rather than diffuse implications for insecure attachment. Namely, parental divorce was more strongly related to insecure relationships with parents in adulthood than insecure relationships with romantic partners or friends. In addition, parental insecurity was most pronounced when parental divorce took place in early childhood. This finding is consistent with hypotheses about sensitive periods in attachment development.

  5. The attachment system in fledgling relationships: an activating role for attachment anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J

    2008-09-01

    Is it sensible to study attachment dynamics between potential romantic partners before they share a full-fledged attachment bond? The present data indicate that such an approach may reveal novel insights about initial attraction processes. Four studies suggest that the state-like experience of attachment anxiety has functional implications within fledgling (i.e., desired or undeveloped) romantic relationships, well before the formation of an attachment bond. Studies 1 and 3 reveal that attachment anxiety directed toward a particular romantic interest is elevated before (in comparison with after) participants report being in an established relationship. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that such partner-specific attachment anxiety predicts attachment-relevant outcomes in fledgling relationships, including proximity seeking, safe haven, secure base, passionate love, and other approach behaviors. These associations were reliable above and beyond (and were typically as strong as or stronger than) the effect of sexual desire. Finally, Study 4 presents evidence that partner-specific attachment anxiety may cause several of these attachment-relevant outcomes. Attachment anxiety seems to be a normative experience and may signal the activation of the attachment system during the earliest stages of romantic relationships.

  6. Attachment typologies and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety: a latent profile analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask; Shevlin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Bartholomew (1990) proposed a four category adult attachment model based on Bowlby's (1973) proposal that attachment is underpinned by an individual's view of the self and others. Previous cluster analytic techniques have identified four and two attachment styles based on the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS). In addition, attachment styles have been proposed to meditate the association between stressful life events and subsequent psychiatric status. The current study aimed to empirically test the attachment typology proposed by Collins and Read (1990). Specifically, LPA was used to determine if the proposed four styles can be derived from scores on the dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, we aimed to test if the resultant attachment styles predicted the severity of psychopathology in response to a whiplash trauma. A large sample of Danish trauma victims (N=1577) participated. A Latent Profile Analysis was conducted, using Mplus 5.1, on scores from the RAAS scale to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes/subgroups. Class membership was used in a series of one-way ANOVA tests to determine if classes were significantly different in terms of mean scores on measures of psychopathology. The three class solution was considered optimal. Class one was termed Fearful (18.6%), Class two Preoccupied (34.5%), and Class three Secure (46.9%). The secure class evidenced significantly lower mean scores on PTSD, depression, and anxiety measures compared to other classes, whereas the fearful class evidenced significantly higher mean scores compared to other classes. The results demonstrated evidence of three discrete classes of attachment styles, which were labelled secure, preoccupied, and fearful. This is in contrast to previous cluster analytic techniques which have identified four and two attachment styles based on the RAAS.In addition, Securely attached individuals display lower levels of psychopathology post whiplash

  7. Attachment insecurity and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder among inpatients with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltgen, Anika; Adler, Herman; Smith, Ryan; Rufino, Katrina; Frazier, Christopher; Shepard, Christopher; Booker, Kirk; Simmons, Diedra; Richardson, Leah; Allen, Jon G; Fowler, J Christopher

    2015-03-15

    Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is characterized by traits such as extreme rigidity, perfectionism, and controlling behavior, all of which have a negative impact on interpersonal functioning. Attachment theory provides a useful framework to elucidate the interpersonal dysfunction characteristic of OCPD; yet, there is a dearth of attachment research on OCPD in the context of severe mental illness. Attachment security and personality disorders were assessed in adult inpatients with severe mental illness. Propensity Score Matching (PSM) was used to match OCPD and control subjects on age, gender, number of psychiatric disorders, and number of criteria endorsed for borderline personality disorder. Consistent with hypotheses, the OCPD group (n=61) showed greater attachment avoidance than controls (n=61), and the avoidance was manifested in a predominance of the most insecure attachment style, fearful attachment. Correlations between attachment anxiety/avoidance with specific OCPD diagnostic criteria revealed that attachment avoidance was correlated with four of eight OCPD criteria across the full sample. Within the subset of OCPD patients, attachment avoidance was significantly correlated with OCPD criterion 3 (is excessively devoted to work and productivity to the exclusion of leisure activities and friendships). The use of self-report measure of attachment and the high burden of illness in the SMI population may not generalize to interview based assessment or outpatients, respectively. Findings attest to the severity of impairment in interpersonal functioning and attachment avoidance, in particular, is characteristic of OCPD patients. These results suggest that viable treatment targets include interpersonal functioning along with more classical features of OCPD such as perfectionism and obsessiveness in task performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Attachment typologies and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety: a latent profile analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask; Shevlin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background Bartholomew (1990) proposed a four category adult attachment model based on Bowlby's (1973) proposal that attachment is underpinned by an individual's view of the self and others. Previous cluster analytic techniques have identified four and two attachment styles based on the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS). In addition, attachment styles have been proposed to meditate the association between stressful life events and subsequent psychiatric status. Objective The current study aimed to empirically test the attachment typology proposed by Collins and Read (1990). Specifically, LPA was used to determine if the proposed four styles can be derived from scores on the dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, we aimed to test if the resultant attachment styles predicted the severity of psychopathology in response to a whiplash trauma. Method A large sample of Danish trauma victims (N=1577) participated. A Latent Profile Analysis was conducted, using Mplus 5.1, on scores from the RAAS scale to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes/subgroups. Class membership was used in a series of one-way ANOVA tests to determine if classes were significantly different in terms of mean scores on measures of psychopathology. Results The three class solution was considered optimal. Class one was termed Fearful (18.6%), Class two Preoccupied (34.5%), and Class three Secure (46.9%). The secure class evidenced significantly lower mean scores on PTSD, depression, and anxiety measures compared to other classes, whereas the fearful class evidenced significantly higher mean scores compared to other classes. Conclusions The results demonstrated evidence of three discrete classes of attachment styles, which were labelled secure, preoccupied, and fearful. This is in contrast to previous cluster analytic techniques which have identified four and two attachment styles based on the RAAS.In addition, Securely attached individuals display

  9. Attachment typologies and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression and anxiety: a latent profile analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherie Armour

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bartholomew (1990 proposed a four category adult attachment model based on Bowlby's (1973 proposal that attachment is underpinned by an individual's view of the self and others. Previous cluster analytic techniques have identified four and two attachment styles based on the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS. In addition, attachment styles have been proposed to meditate the association between stressful life events and subsequent psychiatric status. The current study aimed to empirically test the attachment typology proposed by Collins and Read (1990. Specifically, LPA was used to determine if the proposed four styles can be derived from scores on the dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, we aimed to test if the resultant attachment styles predicted the severity of psychopathology in response to a whiplash trauma. A large sample of Danish trauma victims (N=1577 participated. A Latent Profile Analysis was conducted, using Mplus 5.1, on scores from the RAAS scale to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes/subgroups. Class membership was used in a series of one-way ANOVA tests to determine if classes were significantly different in terms of mean scores on measures of psychopathology. The three class solution was considered optimal. Class one was termed Fearful (18.6%, Class two Preoccupied (34.5%, and Class three Secure (46.9%. The secure class evidenced significantly lower mean scores on PTSD, depression, and anxiety measures compared to other classes, whereas the fearful class evidenced significantly higher mean scores compared to other classes. The results demonstrated evidence of three discrete classes of attachment styles, which were labelled secure, preoccupied, and fearful. This is in contrast to previous cluster analytic techniques which have identified four and two attachment styles based on the RAAS.In addition, Securely attached individuals display lower levels of psychopathology post

  10. Crystalline cerium(IV) phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, R.G.; Clearfield, A.

    1976-01-01

    The ion exchange behaviour of seven crystalline cerium(IV) phosphates towards some of the alkali metal cations is described. Only two of the compounds (A and C) possess ion exchange properties in acidic solutions. Four others show some ion exchange characteristics in basic media with some of the alkali cations. Compound G does not behave as an ion exchanger in solutions of pH + , but show very little Na + uptake. Compound E undergoes ion exchange with Na + and Cs + , but not with Li+. Both Li + and Na + are sorbed by compounds A and C. The results are indicative of structures which show steric exclusion phenomena. (author)

  11. PREPARATION OF OXOPORPHINATOMANGANESE (IV) COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willner, I.; Otvos, J.; Calvin, M.

    1980-07-01

    Oxo-manganese-tetraphenylporphyrin (O=Mn{sup IV}-TPP) has been prepared by an oxygen-transfer reaction from iodosylbenzene to MnIITPP and characterized by its i.r. and field desorption mass spectra, which are identical to those of the product obtained by direct oxidation of Mn{sup III}(TPP) in an aqueous medium; it transfers oxygen to triphenylphosphine to produce triphenylphosphine oxide, and it is suggested that similar intermediates are important in oxygen activation by cytochrome P-450 as well as in the photosynthetic evolution of oxygen.

  12. Impaired bacterial attachment to light activated Ni-Ti alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Valappil, Sabeel P.; Dunnill, Charles W.; Abou Neel, Ensanya A.; Lee, Kevin; Parkin, Ivan P.; Wilson, Michael; Armitage, David A.; Knowles, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    Ni-Ti alloy due to its unique mechanical properties, is used for many types of implants. Failure of these implants can be attributed to many different factors; however infections are a common problem. In this paper, the attachment of the bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, to the Ni-Ti surface modified by a range of processes with and without of light activation (used to elicit antimicrobial properties of materials) was assessed and related to different surface characteristics. Before the light activation the number of bacterial colony forming units was the greatest for the samples thermally oxidised at 600 deg. C. This sample and the spark oxidised samples showed the highest photocatalytic activity but only the thermally oxidised samples at 600 deg. C showed a significant drop of S. aureus attachment. The findings in this study indicate that light activation and treating samples at 600 deg. C is a promising method for Ni-Ti implant applications with inherent antimicrobial properties. Light activation was shown to be an effective way to trigger photocatalytic reactions on samples covered with relatively thick titanium dioxide via accumulation of photons in the surface and a possible increase in defects which may result in free oxygen. Moreover, light activation caused an increase in the total surface energy.

  13. Slides with no attached paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warin, Dominique; Wallenius, Janne; Ouzounian, Gerald; Wikberg, Peter; Todd, Terry A.; Kormilitsyn, Mikhael V.; Osipenko, Alexander G.; Mayorshin, A.A.; McLachlan, Fiona; Nash, Ken L.; Nilsson, M.; Grimes, T.; Braley, J.C.; TAKESHITA, Kenji; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Spendlikova, I.; Distler, P.; John, J.; Sebesta, F.; VU, Trong-Hung; SIMONIN, Jean-Pierre; PAULENOVA, Alena; PRECEK, Martin; HARTIG, Kyle; KNAPP, Nathan; Vidick, Geoffrey; Bouslimani, Nouri; Desreux, Jean F.; Lewis, F.W.; Hudson, M.J.; Harwood, L.M.; Nunez, Ana; Nagarajan, K.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Raj, Baldev; Ignatiev, Victor; Surenkov, Alexander; Pouchon, Manuel A.; Skarnemark, Gunnar; Allard, Stefan; Ekberg, Christian; Retegan, Teodora; Nordlund, Anders; John, Jan; Maershin, Alexander; Zakirov, R.; Panov, A.; Toropov, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    This document brings together the different presentations (slides) given at the workshop but with no attached paper. These slides refer to the following presentations: - Presentation of ITN (Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear); - Minor Actinide Partitioning (Dominique Warin); - Transmutation (Janne Wallenius); - Radioactive Waste Management, IGD-TP (Gerald Ouzounian); - Present status of the Swedish nuclear waste management programme (Peter Wikberg); - The U.S. Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program - Separations Research and Development (Terry Todd); - Strategies and national programs of closed fuel cycles - Russian Expert Vision (Mikhael Kormilitsyn) - Extraction Studies Of Potential Solvent Formulations For The GANEX Process (Fiona MacLachlan); - Investigations of The Fundamental Chemistry of the TALSPEAK Process (Ken Nash); - Extraction Separation of Trivalent Minor Actinides and Lanthanides by Hexa-dentate Nitrogen-donor Extractant, TPEN, and its Analogs (Kenji Takeshita); - Fluorinated Diluents for HLW Processing - technological point of view (Vasiliy Babain); - Extraction properties of some new pyridine molecules and search for better diluents (Irena Spendlikova); - Kinetics of extraction of Eu 3+ ion by TODGA and CyMe 4 -BTBP studied using the RMC technique (Trong Hung Vu); - Redox Chemistry of Neptunium in Solutions of Nitric Acid (Alena Paulenova); - NMR applied to actinide ions and their complexes. In search of covalency effects (Geoffrey Vidick); - Towards 'Stability Rules' for Radiolysis of bis-DGA compounds (Ana Nunez); - Pyroprocess Research Activities at IGCAR, Kalpakkam, India (K. Nagarajan); - Critical issues of nuclear energy systems employing molten salt fluorides: from ISTC No. 1606 to No. 3749 (1. year of project activity) and MARS/EVOL cooperation (Victor Ignatiev); - Conversion processes: Internal Gelation and the Sphere-pac concept (Manuel Pouchon); - A Combined Nuclear Technology and Nuclear Chemistry Master. A Unique

  14. Determination of free acid in plutonium (IV) solutions - thermometrically, potentiometrically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.L.; Tucker, G.M.; Huff, G.A.; Jordan, L.G.

    1981-09-01

    The thermometric titration technique was found to offer certain advantages over potentiometry in the determination of free acid in Pu(IV) solutions. The thermometric technique was applied to the determination of free acid in plutonium nitrate solutions using potassium fluoride to suppress the hydrolytic interference of plutonium(IV). The results indicate that 0.2 to 2.0 milliequivalents of free acid can be determined with acceptable bias and precision in solutions containing up to 30 milligrams of plutonium. In contrast, neither the thermometric nor the potentiometric technique was suitable for samples containing more than eight milligrams of plutonium complexed with potassium oxalate

  15. Sequence Domain Harmonic Modeling of Type-IV Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guest, Emerson; Jensen, Kim Høj; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2017-01-01

    -sampled pulsewidth modulation and an analysis of converter generated voltage harmonics due to compensated dead-time. The decoupling capabilities of the proposed the SD harmonic model are verified through a power quality (PQ) assessment of a 3MW Type-IV wind turbine. The assessment shows that the magnitude and phase...... of low-order odd converter generated voltage harmonics are dependent on the converter operating point and the phase of the fundamental component of converter current respectively. The SD harmonic model can be used to make PQ assessments of Type-IV wind turbines or incorporated into harmonic load flows...... for computation of PQ in wind power plants....

  16. The fourth pattern of attachment: Disorganized / disoriented

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the study of recent scientific literature about the development of attachment behavior, the author answers the following questions about: the behavior children categorized as Disorganized/disorientated or Controlling in the procedure of the Strange situation; the life circumstances, in which these children live; the reasons for lack of balanced strategies of attachment and characteristics of their general manner of adaptation. The author finds the characteristics of the mothers' (insensitivity to be significantly influential for the emergence of the fourth pattern of attachment. These children are heterogeneous regarding adaptation in general. Professional help preceding negative consequences for their socioemotional development is neccesary.

  17. Nuclear reactor fuel rod attachment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    The invention involves a technique to quickly, inexpensively and rigidly attach a nuclear reactor fuel rod to a support member. The invention also allows for the repeated non-destructive removal and replacement of the fuel rod. The proposed fuel rod and support member attachment and removal system consists of a locking cap fastened to the fuel rod and a locking strip fastened to the support member or vice versa. The locking cap has two or more opposing fingers shaped to form a socket. The fingers spring back when moved apart and released. The locking strip has an extension shaped to rigidly attach to the socket's body portion

  18. Attachment style impacts behavior and early oculomotor response to positive, but not negative, pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Catarina; Chaminade, Thierry; David, Da Fonseca; Santos, Andreia; Esteves, Francisco; Soares, Isabel; Deruelle, Christine

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated whether oculomotor behavior is influenced by attachment styles. The Relationship Scales Questionnaire was used to assess attachment styles of forty-eight voluntary university students and to classify them into attachment groups (secure, preoccupied, fearful, and dismissing). Eye-tracking was recorded while participants engaged in a 3-seconds free visual exploration of stimuli presenting either a positive or a negative picture together with a neutral picture, all depicting social interactions. The task consisted in identifying whether the two pictures depicted the same emotion. Results showed that the processing of negative pictures was impermeable to attachment style, while the processing of positive pictures was significantly influenced by individual differences in insecure attachment. The groups highly avoidant regarding to attachment (dismissing and fearful) showed reduced accuracy, suggesting a higher threshold for recognizing positive emotions compared to the secure group. The groups with higher attachment anxiety (preoccupied and fearful) showed differences in automatic capture of attention, in particular an increased delay preceding the first fixation to a picture of positive emotional valence. Despite lenient statistical thresholds induced by the limited sample size of some groups (p < 0.05 uncorrected for multiple comparisons), the current findings suggest that the processing of positive emotions is affected by attachment styles. These results are discussed within a broader evolutionary framework. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Caregiver Soothing Behaviors After Immunization and Infant Attachment: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillgrove-Stuart, Jessica; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Flora, David B; Greenberg, Saul; Garfield, Hartley

    2015-01-01

    There were 2 primary objectives to the current study: (1) to relate caregiver behavior trajectories across immunization appointments over the first year of life to subsequent infant attachment and (2) to relate caregiver behavior trajectories within each immunization appointment over the first year of life to subsequent infant attachment. A subsample of 130 caregivers and their infants were recruited from a sample of 760 caregivers who were part of an ongoing longitudinal cohort that videotaped infants' 2-, 4-, 6-, and 12-month immunization appointments. This subsample of caregivers and their infants (n = 130) were invited to participate in an assessment of attachment when infants were between 12 and 18 months of age at the local children's hospital. Caregiver proximal soothing behaviors were the only caregiver behaviors postimmunization that were related to subsequent infant attachment. Higher frequencies of caregiver proximal soothing at 12 months were related to infants' organized attachment, whereas steeper decreases in proximal soothing across the first year were associated with disorganized infant attachment. In addition, when caregivers engaged in proximal soothing for longer after their 12 month olds' immunizations, these infants were more likely to be secure or organized in their attachment. These results provide empirical support for the ecological validity of studying infant attachment in a pediatric pain context. The pediatric "well-baby" visit may provide a potential opportunity to feasibly integrate brief infant mental health screening and intervention.

  20. Insatiable insecurity: maternal obesity as a risk factor for mother-child attachment and child weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel-Korndörfer, Anja; Sierau, Susan; Klein, Annette M; Bergmann, Sarah; Grube, Matthias; von Klitzing, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a rising health problem, and because parental obesity is a basic risk factor for childhood obesity, biological factors have been especially considered in the complex etiology. Aspects of the family interaction, e.g., mother-child attachment, have not been the main focus. Our study tried to fill this gap by investigating whether there is a difference between children of obese and normal weight mothers in terms of mother-child attachment, and whether mother-child attachment predicts child's weight, in a sample of 31 obese and 31 normal weight mothers with children aged 19 to 58 months. Mother-child attachment was measured with the Attachment Q-Set. We found that (1) children of obese mothers showed a lower quality of mother-child attachment than children of normal weight mothers, which indicates that they are less likely to use their mothers as a secure base; (2) the attachment quality predicted child`s BMI percentile; and (3) the mother-child attachment adds incremental validity to the prediction of child's BMI beyond biological parameters (child's BMI birth percentile, BMI of the parents) and mother's relationship status. Implications of our findings are discussed.

  1. Adult attachment, emotion dysregulation, and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marganska, Anna; Gallagher, Michelle; Miranda, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Differences in attachment style have been linked to both emotion regulation and psychological functioning, but the emotion regulatory mechanism through which attachment style might impact symptoms of depression and anxiety is unclear. The present study examined the explanatory role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between adult attachment style and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a sample of 284 adults. Secure attachment was associated with lower depression and GAD symptoms and lower emotion dysregulation, whereas insecure attachment styles were generally associated with higher depression and GAD scores and higher emotion dysregulation. Perceived inability to generate effective emotion regulation strategies mediated the relation between insecure attachment and both depression and GAD symptoms. Nonacceptance of negative emotions and inability to control impulsive behaviors emerged as additional mediators of the relation between insecure attachment styles and GAD symptoms. The differential contribution of attachment style and emotion regulation to the prediction of depression and GAD symptoms may reflect differences in vulnerability to depression and GAD. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  2. Attachment orientation and sexual risk behaviour among young Black gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephanie H; Watkins, Daphne C; Calebs, Benjamin; Wilson, Patrick A

    This mixed methods study used an explanatory sequential design to examine the relationship between attachment and sexual behavior among young Black gay and bisexual men (YBGBM). Cross sectional online surveys and sex diaries were completed by a sample of YBGBM in New York City ( n = 153) to assess the association between adult attachment insecurity and sexual risk behavior. The Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Revised (ECR-R) was used to assess three types of adult attachment (i.e., secure, anxious, and avoidant). Participants reported condomless sex encounters, as well as serodiscordant condomless anal sex encounters, as measures of sexual risk. Quantitative findings suggested that there were few associations between attachment type and sexual risk behavior; only men with attachment avoidance were likely to engage in condomless sex. However, qualitative findings illuminated some of the social complexities of the association between attachment in childhood, attachment in young adulthood and intimate partnerships, which could be linked to young adult sexual risk behavior. The study findings highlight the need for researchers to further examine the process by which individual differences in attachment orientation are related to YBGBM's sexual behavior.

  3. Attachment as a partial mediator of the relationship between emotional abuse and schizotypy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Karen; Rush, Robert; Grünwald, Lisa; Darling, Stephen; Tiliopoulos, Niko

    2015-12-15

    Developmental theories highlight the salience of attachment theory in explaining vulnerability towards psychosis. At the same time there is increasing recognition that psychosis is associated with childhood trauma variables. This study explored the interaction between attachment and several trauma variables in relation to schizotypy levels in a non-clinical sample. 283 non-clinical participants completed online measures of schizotypy, attachment, childhood abuse and neglect. When five types of abuse/neglect were entered into a linear regression analysis emotional abuse was the sole independent predictor of schizotypy. Age, attachment anxiety and avoidance were independent predictors after the effects of emotional abuse were controlled for. The overall model was significant, explaining 34% of the variation in schizotypy. Moderation analysis indicated that the effect of emotional abuse was not conditional upon attachment. Parallel mediation analysis indicated small but significant indirect effects of emotional abuse on schizotypy through attachment avoidance (13%) and attachment anxiety (8%). We conclude that emotional abuse contributes to vulnerability towards psychosis both directly and indirectly through attachment insecurity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The mediating role of mentalizing capacity between parents and peer attachment and adolescent borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Emma; Sharp, Carla; Poulsen, Stig

    2017-01-01

    Background: Insecure attachment is a precursor and correlate of borderline personality disorder. According to the mentalization-based theory of borderline personality disorder, the presence of insecure attachment derails the development of the capacity to mentalize, potentially resulting in borde......Background: Insecure attachment is a precursor and correlate of borderline personality disorder. According to the mentalization-based theory of borderline personality disorder, the presence of insecure attachment derails the development of the capacity to mentalize, potentially resulting...... personality features. Our findings suggest that in a simple mediational model, mentalizing capacity mediated the relation between attachment to peers and borderline features. In the case of attachment to parents, the mediational model was not significant. Conclusions: The current study is the first...... to evaluate this mediational model with parent and peer attachment as separate concepts and the first to do so in a sample of adolescents who meet full or sub-threshold criteria for borderline personality disorder. Findings incrementally support that mentalizing capacity and attachment insecurity, also...

  5. Serotonin Transporter Genotype (5HTTLPR) Moderates the Longitudinal Impact of Atypical Attachment on Externalizing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Zeanah, Charles H; Nelson, Charles A; Fox, Nathan A; Drury, Stacy S

    2015-01-01

    To test whether genotype of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) and atypical attachment interact to predict externalizing psychopathology prospectively in a sample of children with a history of early institutional care. Caregiver report of externalizing behavior at 54 months was examined in 105 children initially reared in institutional care and enrolled in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled trial of high quality foster care. 5HTTLPR genotype, attachment status at 42 months of age (typical [secure, avoidant, or ambivalent] or atypical [disorganized-controlling, insecure-other]), and their interaction were examined as predictors of externalizing behavior at age 54 months. 5HTTLPR genotype and atypical attachment at age 42 months interacted to predict externalizing behavior at age 54 months. Specifically, children with the s/s genotype with an atypical attachment had the highest externalizing scores. However, s/s children with a typical attachment demonstrated the lowest externalizing scores, even after controlling for intervention group status. There was no association between attachment status and externalizing behavior among children carrying at least 1 copy of the l allele. These findings indicate that genetic variation in the serotonergic system moderates the association between atypical attachment status and externalizing in young children. Our findings suggest that children, as a result of genetic variability in the serotonergic system, demonstrate differential sensitivity to the attachment relationship.

  6. Serotonin Transporter Genotype (5HTTLPR) Moderates the Longitudinal Impact of Atypical Attachment on Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Drury, Stacy S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test whether genotype of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) and atypical attachment interact to predict externalizing psychopathology prospectively in a sample of children with a history of early institutional care. Methods Caregiver report of externalizing behavior at 54 months was examined in 105 children initially reared in institutional care and enrolled in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled trial of high quality foster care. 5HTTLPR genotype, attachment status at 42 months of age (typical [secure, avoidant, or ambivalent] or atypical [disorganized-controlling, insecure-other]), as well as their interaction, were examined as predictors of externalizing behavior at age 54 months. Results 5HTTLPR genotype and atypical attachment at age 42 months interacted to predict externalizing behavior at age 54 months. Specifically, children with the s/s genotype with an atypical attachment had the highest externalizing scores. However, s/s children with a typical attachment demonstrated the lowest externalizing scores, even after controlling for intervention group status. There was no association between attachment status and externalizing behavior among children carrying at least one copy of the l allele. Discussion These findings indicate that genetic variation in the serotonergic system moderates the association between atypical attachment status and externalizing in young children. Our findings suggest that children, as a result of genetic variability in the serotonergic system, demonstrate differential sensitivity to the attachment relationship. PMID:25933228

  7. Childhood maltreatment and problematic social media use: The role of attachment and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Joanne D; McIntyre, Jason C; Bentall, Richard P; Corcoran, Rhiannon

    2018-05-25

    Childhood maltreatment is associated with many maladaptive outcomes. This study sought to examine the association between childhood maltreatment and problematic social media use using a cross-sectional sample of young adults aged 17-25 years (n = 1029). Specifically, we studied whether the relationship is mediated through (i) attachment anxiety, (ii) attachment avoidance, or (iii) both attachment dimensions operating in series with depressive symptoms. Results revealed that a history of childhood maltreatment was significantly associated with more problematic social media use. Both anxious and avoidant attachment dimensions independently mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and problematic use of social media, but in opposing directions. Avoidant attachment was associated with less problematic social media use, whilst anxious attachment was associated with more problematic social media use. Avoidant attachment and depressive symptoms in series accounted for part of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and problematic social media use. Anxious attachment and depressive symptoms in series fully mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and problematic social media use. The results suggest that childhood maltreatment may influence social media use directly, but also indirectly. People experiencing depressive symptoms may overuse social media in an attempt to alleviate their distress. However, causality cannot be established with the current design. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Insecure Attachment, Dysfunctional Attitudes, and Low Self-Esteem Predicting Prospective Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety During Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Adabel; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2009-01-01

    This study extends the existing adult literature on insecure attachment as a predictor of depression and anxiety by examining these pathways in a sample of adolescents. In addition, dysfunctional attitudes and low self-esteem were tested as mediators of the association between insecure attachment and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Youth (N =350; 6th–10th graders) completed self-report measures of attachment, dysfunctional attitudes, self-esteem, and symptoms of depression and anxiety in ...

  9. Similarities and differences regarding changes in attachment preferences and attachment styles in relation to romantic relationship length: longitudinal and concurrent analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Tomotaka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kotrčová, Kristína; Fraley, R Chris

    2018-04-01

    This study examines whether attachment preferences and attachment styles with different figures (mother, father, romantic partner, and friends) change over the course of a romantic relationship. Study 1 employed a three-wave longitudinal sample of Czech young adults who were currently in a romantic relationship (N = 870; mean age = 21.57; SD = 1.51; 81% females). Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that, as romantic relationships progressed, attachment preferences for romantic partners increased and preferences for friends decreased. However, preferences for the mother or for the father did not change over time. The parallel pattern was found for attachment avoidance; as romantic relationships progressed, attachment avoidance with romantic partners decreased and avoidance with the best friend increased. Avoidance with mother or with father, however, did not change over time. Study 2 employed a cross-sectional international sample (n = 2,593; mean age = 31.99; SD = 12.13; 79% females). Multiple regression analyses replicated the findings of attachment avoidance in the longitudinal data.

  10. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a…

  11. [The interpretation of attachment in the Szondi test and in the questionnaire processes of attachment theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török I, András; Vincze, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    [corrected] The Szondi-test is widely applied in clinical diagnostics in Hungary too, and the evidence resulting from the theory is that we can get information about attachment during its interpreting. Its validity is proven by empirical research and clinical experiences. By analyzing the modern attachment theory more thoroughly, it becomes clear in what ways the Szondi-test constellations regarding attachment are different from the classificationbased on questionnaires, allowing the discrete measurement of the attachment style. With the Szondi-test the classification to attachment style is more insecure, but if it is completed with exploration, it is more informative in vector C (vector of relation, attachment information), while short questionnaires make the classification to attachment style possible. In our empirical analysis we represent the integration of the above mentioned clinical and theoretical experiences. In the present analysis we compare the vector C and S constellation of the two-profile Szondi-test of 80 persons with the dimensions of ECR-R questionnaire and with Collins and Read's questionnaire classification regarding attachment style. The statistical results refer to the fact that there is a legitimacy to compare questionnaire processes allowing the discrete classification of attachment and the Szondi-test's information content regarding attachment. With applying the methods together, we get a unique, complementary section of the information relating to attachment. Comparing the two methods (projective and questionnaire) establishes the need of theoretical integration as well. We also make an attempt to explain Fraley's evolutionary non-adaptivity of avoidant attachment, in the case of whose presence adaptivity of early attachment, counterbalancing the exploration and security need, and providing closeness--farness loses its balance.

  12. Negative childhood experiences and adult love relationships: the role of internal working models of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Gerard; Maughan, Barbara

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated links between internal working models of attachment and the quality of adult love relationships in a high risk sample of women (n = 34), all of whom reported negative parenting in childhood. Half of the sample was identified as having a history of satisfying adult love relationships, while the remainder had experienced ongoing adult relationship problems. Measures of internal working models of attachment were made using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). A strong association was found between attachment classifications and the quality of adult love relationships. In addition, women with satisfying love relationships demonstrated significantly higher coherence of mind ratings than those with poor relationship histories. Insecure working models of attachment were associated with problems in adult love relationships. Although secure/autonomous attachment status was linked to optimal adult relationship outcomes, some women with a history of satisfying love relationships had insecure working models of attachment. These results suggest that the ways that adults process early experiences may influence later psychosocial functioning.

  13. Relations among perceived parental rearing behaviors, attachment style, and worry in anxious children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy M; Whiteside, Stephen P

    2008-01-01

    The present study extended the findings of Muris et al. [Muris, P., Meesters, C., Merckelbach, H., & Hulsenbeck, P. (2000). Worry in children is related to perceived parental rearing and attachment. Behavior Research and Therapy, 38, 487-497] regarding the relations between perceived parental rearing behaviors, self-reported attachment style, and worry in a community sample to a clinical sample of anxious children. Sixty-four children and adolescents, aged 7-18 years, with a primary anxiety disorder completed (a) the EMBU-C, a questionnaire measuring perceptions of parental rearing behaviors, (b) a single-item measure of attachment style, and (c) an index of worry severity. Findings revealed that child rated parental rearing behaviors, particularly parental rejection, were positively related to child worry. Self-reported attachment style was also related to worry, such that children who classified themselves as ambivalently attached reported higher levels of worry than did children who classified themselves as securely attached. Parenting style and attachment were found to make independent contributions to worry. The results are compared to those from Muris et al.'s community study, and implications for future research are discussed.

  14. Magnetically Attached Multifunction Maintenance Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Joffe, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    A versatile mobile telerobot, denoted the magnetically attached multifunction maintenance rover (MAGMER), has been proposed for use in the inspection and maintenance of the surfaces of ships, tanks containing petrochemicals, and other large ferromagnetic structures. As its name suggests, this robot would utilize magnetic attraction to adhere to a structure. As it moved along the surface of the structure, the MAGMER would perform tasks that could include close-up visual inspection by use of video cameras, various sensors, and/or removal of paint by water-jet blasting, laser heating, or induction heating. The water-jet nozzles would be mounted coaxially within compressed-air-powered venturi nozzles that would collect the paint debris dislodged by the jets. The MAGMER would be deployed, powered, and controlled from a truck, to which it would be connected by hoses for water, compressed air, and collection of debris and by cables for electric power and communication (see Figure 1). The operation of the MAGMER on a typical large structure would necessitate the use of long cables and hoses, which can be heavy. To reduce the load of the hoses and cables on the MAGMER and thereby ensure its ability to adhere to vertical and overhanging surfaces, the hoses and cables would be paid out through telescopic booms that would be parts of a MAGMER support system. The MAGMER would move by use of four motorized, steerable wheels, each of which would be mounted in an assembly that would include permanent magnets and four pole pieces (see Figure 2). The wheels would protrude from between the pole pieces by only about 3 mm, so that the gap between the pole pieces and the ferromagnetic surface would be just large enough to permit motion along the surface but not so large as to reduce the magnetic attraction excessively. In addition to the wheel assemblies, the MAGMER would include magnetic adherence enhancement fixtures, which would comprise arrays of permanent magnets and pole pieces

  15. Mycoplasma genitalium attaches to human spermatozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Helle Friis; Fedder, Jens; Abraham-Peskir, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma genitalium causes urogenital diseases in men and women and is presumed to be sexually transmitted. We wanted to investigate whether spermatozoa could serve as vectors for M.genitalium in order to cause upper genital diseases in women. METHODS: By use of Nomarski light...... microscopy and transmission X-ray microscopy, the attachment of M.genitalium to spermatozoa was studied. Semen was incubated in vitro with M.genitalium. Purified, motile spermatozoa were examined for attachment of M.genitalium by immunofluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: Mycoplasma genitalium was shown...... to adhere to the head, midpiece and tail of the spermatozoa. The spermatozoa became immotile when many M.genitalium were attached. However, the motile spermatozoa were demonstrated to carry M.genitalium and in this case the mycoplasmas were seen to attach mostly to the midpiece or neck region. Occasionally...

  16. Preferential attachment in evolutionary earthquake networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Soghra; Moghaddasi, Hanieh; Darooneh, Amir Hossein

    2018-04-01

    Earthquakes as spatio-temporal complex systems have been recently studied using complex network theory. Seismic networks are dynamical networks due to addition of new seismic events over time leading to establishing new nodes and links to the network. Here we have constructed Iran and Italy seismic networks based on Hybrid Model and testified the preferential attachment hypothesis for the connection of new nodes which states that it is more probable for newly added nodes to join the highly connected nodes comparing to the less connected ones. We showed that the preferential attachment is present in the case of earthquakes network and the attachment rate has a linear relationship with node degree. We have also found the seismic passive points, the most probable points to be influenced by other seismic places, using their preferential attachment values.

  17. Cesarean Births and Attachment Behaviors of Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    knowledge about breastfeeding and maternal breastfeeding and attachment behaviors of a group of primiparous mothers on the first post - partum day...individuality of their infants and the attachment process can be promoted. Brazelton believes the opposite occurs with a depressed -q* infant. Commenting in...Maternal-Infant Bondin by Klaus and Kennell, Brazelton says, Certainly a depressed infant is less likely to be responsive either on initial contact or

  18. Elemental concentrations of aquatic insect larvae and attached algae on tone surfaces in an uncontaminated stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, N.; Sugihara, S.; Hibino, K.; Nakamura, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Elemental concentrations of aquatic insect larvae and attached algae in an uncontaminated river were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) via the k 0 -standardization method. The aquatic insect larvae found were all intolerant species. No significant difference was observed int he elemental concentrations of aquatic insect larvae and attached algae long the river. Similar elemental concentrations were observed in the aquatic insect larvae collected at a fixed sampling point for two years. An analysis by the ratio-matching technique indicated a higher generic relationship between aquatic insect larvae and attached algae than river water. (author)

  19. Monitoring of living cell attachment and spreading using reverse symmetry waveguide sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, R.; Pedersen, H.C.; Skivesen, N.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the attachment and spreading of living cells on the modes of a grating coupled reverse symmetry waveguide sensor is investigated in real time. The reverse symmetry design has an increased probing depth into the sample making it well suited for the monitoring of cell morphology....... As a result, significant changes in the incoupling peak height and peak shape were observed during cell attachment and spreading. It is suggested that the area under the incoupling peaks reflects the initial cell attachment process, while the mean peak position is mostly governed by the spreading of the cells...

  20. New York City social workers after 9/11: their attachment, resiliency, and compassion fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosone, Carol; Bettmann, Joanna E; Minami, Takuya; Jasperson, Rachael A

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between attachment classification, resiliency, and compassion fatigue in New York social workers following 9/11. We used single occasion, quasi-random sampling, surveying 481 social workers living in Manhattan. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that secure attachment is predictive of the ability to cope with secondary traumatic stress as well as capacity for resilience, explaining approximately 7% of the variance in both compassion fatigue and resiliency. These findings suggest that secure attachment may serve as a source of resilience for social workers, immunizing them from significant compassion fatigue. Such findings have significant implications for clinicians working with traumatized populations.

  1. Influence of employees' attachment styles on their life satisfaction as mediated by job satisfaction and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reizer, Abira

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain better insight into the associations between attachment styles and employees' life satisfaction. This was achieved by examining the mediating roles of burnout and job satisfaction. Three hundred and thirty-nine employees, from a convenience community sample, participated in the current study. Results of the mediation model indicated that the associations between avoidance and life satisfaction were mediated by burnout and job satisfaction. However, the associations between attachment anxiety and life satisfaction were mediated by burnout but not by job satisfaction. Theoretical and practical implications for organizations and for attachment theory at work are discussed.

  2. Interrelationships of adult attachment orientations, health status and worrying among fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Paula; Costa, Maria Emilía

    2009-11-01

    This study examined associations between adult attachment dimensions, perceived health status and worrying (coping strategy with chronic pain), and explored whether worrying mediated observed relationships between attachment dimensions and health outcomes within a sample of 128 Portuguese female fibromyalgia patients. Physical health status was inversely correlated with dependence and worrying; mental health status was positively correlated with trust, and inversely related to attachment-related ambivalence, dependence and worrying. Finally, worrying mediated relationships between dependence and both physical and mental health status; moreover, worrying partially mediated the relationship between ambivalence and mental health status. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  3. The Role of Depression and Attachment Styles in Predicting Students' Addiction to Cell Phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Abdollah; Mahmoodi-Aghdam, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the role of depression and attachment styles in predicting cell phone addiction. In this descriptive correlational study, a sample including 100 students of Payame Noor University (PNU), Reyneh Center, Iran, in the academic year of 2013-2014 was selected using volunteer sampling. Participants were asked to complete the adult attachment inventory (AAI), Beck depression inventory-13 (BDI-13) and the cell phone overuse scale (COS). Results of the stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that depression and avoidant attachment style were the best predictors of students' cell phone addiction (R(2) = 0.23). The results of this study highlighted the predictive value of depression and avoidant attachment style concerning students' cell phone addiction.

  4. Attachment of gaseous fission products to aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skyrme, G.

    1985-01-01

    Accidents may occur in which the integrity of fuel cladding is breached and volatile fission products are released to the containment atmosphere. In order to assess the magnitude of the subsequent radiological hazard it is necessary to know the transport behaviour of such fission products. It is frequently assumed that the fission products remain in the gaseous phase. There is a possibility, however, that they may attach themselves to particles and hence substantially modify their transport properties. This paper provides a theoretical assessment of the conditions under which gaseous fission products may be attached to aerosol particles. Specific topics discussed are: the mass transfer of a gaseous fission product to an isolated aerosol particle in an infinite medium; the rate at which the concentration of fission products in the gas phase diminishes within a container as a result of deposition on a population of particles; and the distribution of deposited fission product between different particle sizes in a log-normal distribution. It is shown that, for a given mass, small particles are more efficient for fission product attachment, and that only small concentrations of such particles may be necessary to achieve rapid attachment. Conditions under which gaseous fission products are not attached to particles are also considered, viz, the competing processes of deposition onto the containment walls and onto aerosol particles, and the possibility of the removal of aerosols from the containment by various deposition processes, or agglomeration, before attachment takes place. (author)

  5. The relationship between attachment and cognitive development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional and cognitive development of personality have mostly been explored independently in the history of psychology. However, in the last decades, there have been more and more frequent arguments in favour of the idea that the emotional relationship between the mother and the child in early childhood, through forming a secure or insecure attachment style, is to a certain extent linked to the cognitive development. For example, securely attached children, compared to the insecurely attached, have more frequent and longer episodes of symbolic play and are more advanced in the domain of language in early childhood. Securely attached children are also more efficient and persistent in solving problems. Before starting school, securely attached children understand better the feelings and beliefs of others, as well as the fact that these determine people’s behaviour, thus having an opportunity to understand and predict this behaviour better. In this paper, we will attempt to point out some of the mechanisms that are assumed to be mediators between the emotional and cognitive development. Namely, since it enables a more independent exploration of the surroundings, more quality social relations among children, higher self-esteem, better focus and more developed communicative skills, secure attachment might potentially be linked to the cognitive development. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179002

  6. Wait Up!: Attachment and Sovereign Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duschinsky, Robbie; Greco, Monica; Solomon, Judith

    2015-09-01

    Sociologists and feminist scholars have, over many decades, characterised attachment as a social construction that functions to support political and gender conservatism. We accept that attachment theory has seen use to these ends and consider recent deployments of attachment theory as justification for a minimal State within conservative political discourse in the UK since 2009. However, we contest that attachment is reducible to its discursive construction. We consider Judith Butler's depiction of the infant attached to an abusive caregiver as a foundation and parallel to the position of the adult citizen subjected to punitive cultural norms and political institutions. We develop and qualify Butler's account, drawing on the insights offered by the work of Lauren Berlant. We also return to Foucault's Psychiatric Power lectures, in which familial relations are situated as an island of sovereign power within the sea of modern disciplinary institutions. These reflections help advance analysis of three important issues: the social and political implications of attachment research; the relationship between disciplinary and sovereign power in the affective dynamic of subjection; and the political and ethical status of professional activity within the psy disciplines.

  7. Role of type IV pili in predation by Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M Chanyi

    Full Text Available Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, as an obligate predator of Gram-negative bacteria, requires contact with the surface of a prey cell in order to initiate the life cycle. After attachment, the predator penetrates the prey cell outer membrane and enters the periplasmic space. Attack phase cells of B. bacteriovorus have polar Type IV pili that are required for predation. In other bacteria, these pili have the ability to extend and retract via the PilT protein. B. bacteriovorus has two pilT genes, pilT1 and pilT2, that have been implicated in the invasion process. Markerless in-frame deletion mutants were constructed in a prey-independent mutant to assess the role of PilT1 and PilT2 in the life cycle. When predation was assessed using liquid cocultures, all mutants produced bdelloplasts of Escherichia coli. These results demonstrated that PilT1 and PilT2 are not required for invasion of prey cells. Predation of the mutants on biofilms of E. coli was also assessed. Wild type B. bacteriovorus 109JA and the pilT1 mutant decreased the mass of the biofilm to 35.4% and 27.9% respectively. The pilT1pilT2 mutant was able to prey on the biofilm, albeit less efficiently with 50.2% of the biofilm remaining. The pilT2 mutant was unable to disrupt the biofilm, leaving 92.5% of the original biofilm after predation. The lack of PilT2 function may impede the ability of B. bacteriovorus to move in the extracellular polymeric matrix and find a prey cell. The role of Type IV pili in the life cycle of B. bacteriovorus is thus for initial recognition of and attachment to a prey cell in liquid cocultures, and possibly for movement within the matrix of a biofilm.

  8. PREVENTION OF SPINAL DISORDERS IN CHILDRENI- IV GRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejаn Gojković

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Problem physical activities children younger school-age children, with the basic tasks research is construction kinesitherapy adequate prevention and avoid postural disorders spinal column, optimal ontogenetic level morphological( anthropological development.The main objective research is contents teaching physical education as well as and content that can be put in regular program teaching physical education with the basic task prevention potential and eliminate disorders spinal column, with auxiliary a harmonious biological development. The entities from which he was carried out sample size for this research is defined as population students male primary schools I- IV grade.The first and basic condition was that they are included in teaching physical education in the course of this research sample is taked 400 respondents.-according to the manner elections respondents sample was targeted selected.were taken I- IV grade elementary schools in Bijeljina, Teslic, Foca and Pale.

  9. Attachment to the Romantic Partner and Sibling: Attachment Hierarchies of Twins and Non-Twin Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Schwarz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that romantic partners and siblings are important attachment figures. This study compares the attachment to the romantic partner with the attachment to the sibling as a function of the participant’s sibling type among monozygotic (MZ twins, dizygotic (DZ twins, and non-twin (NT siblings. The results show that MZ twins prefer their sibling to their romantic partner whereas DZ twins are equally attached to their sibling and romantic partner. In contrast, NT siblings are more attached to their romantic partner compared to their sibling. These results indicate that genetic relatedness has profound impact on a person’s attachment hierarchy and the relative rank of the romantic partner and the sibling.

  10. Electron attachment rate constant measurement by photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Desheng; Niu, Wenqi; Liu, Sheng; Shen, Chengyin; Huang, Chaoqun; Wang, Hongmei; Jiang, Haihe; Chu, Yannan

    2012-01-01

    Photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS), with a source of photoelectrons induced by vacuum ultraviolet radiation on a metal surface, has been developed to study electron attachment reaction at atmospheric pressure using nitrogen as the buffer gas. Based on the negative ion mobility spectra, the rate constants for electron attachment to tetrachloromethane and chloroform were measured at ambient temperature as a function of the average electron energy in the range from 0.29 to 0.96 eV. The experimental results are in good agreement with the data reported in the literature. - Highlights: ► Photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS) was developed to study electron attachment reaction. ► The rate constants of electron attachment to CCl 4 and CHCl 3 were determined. ► The present experimental results are in good agreement with the previously reported data.

  11. Different assembly of type IV collagen on hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrata alters endothelial cells interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NM Coelho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the structural role of type IV collagen (Col IV in the assembly of the basement membrane (BM and the perspective of mimicking its organization for vascular tissue engineering purposes, we studied the adsorption pattern of this protein on model hydrophilic (clean glass and hydrophobic trichloro(octadecylsilane (ODS surfaces known to strongly affect the behavior of other matrix proteins. The amount of fluorescently labeled Col IV was quantified showing saturation of the surface for concentration of the adsorbing solution of about 50μg/ml, but with approximately twice more adsorbed protein on ODS. AFM studies revealed a fine – nearly single molecular size – network arrangement of Col IV on hydrophilic glass, which turns into a prominent and growing polygonal network consisting of molecular aggregates on hydrophobic ODS. The protein layer forms within minutes in a concentration-dependent manner. We further found that human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC attach less efficiently to the aggregated Col IV (on ODS, as judged by the significantly altered cell spreading, focal adhesions formation and the development of actin cytoskeleton. Conversely, the immunofluorescence studies for integrins revealed that the fine Col IV network formed on hydrophilic substrata is better recognized by the cells via both α1 and α2 heterodimers which support cellular interaction, apart from these on hydrophobic ODS where almost no clustering of integrins was observed.

  12. Some oxozirconium(IV) compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, R C; Gupta, S K; Parmar, S S; Vasisht, S K [Punjab Univ., Chandigarh (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1976-01-01

    Some new oxozirconium(IV) complexes, ZrO(An)/sub 2/, ZrO(Gly)/sub 2/, ZrO(HSal)/sub 2/, ZrO(HPth)/sub 2/, ZrO(Pic)/sub 2/(HPic)/sub 2/, and ZrO(Quin)/sub 2/(HQuin)/sub 2/ have been isolated from the reactions of ZrO(CH/sub 3/COO)/sub 2/CH/sub 3/COOH with anthranilic acid (HAn), glycine (HGly), salicylic acid (H/sub 2/Sal), phthalic acid (H/sub 2/Pth), picolinic acid (HPic), and 8-quinolinol (HQuin) respectively. Their important infrared bands and wherever possible molar conductance and molecular weight have been reported.

  13. An experimental evaluation of the State Adult Attachment Measure: The Influence of Attachment Primes on the Content of State Attachment Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Bosmans, Guy; Bowles, David, P.; Dewitte, Marieke; De Winter, Simon; Braet, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory predicts cross-contextual stability of attachment representations, but research findings are rather mixed. Recently, it has been suggested that these mixed findings reflect the existence of both state and trait attachment components. The development of the State Adult Attachment Measure (SAAM) has enabled an investigation of this hypothesis. The current study aimed to evaluate the extent to which the SAAM is a useful instrument for studying such state attachment hypotheses. ...

  14. Light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2). Detailed structure and user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Motoe; Saitou, Hiroaki.

    1997-11-01

    A light water reactor fuel behavior analysis code FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2) was developed as an improved version of FEMAXI-IV. Development of FEMAXI-IV has been already finished in 1992, though a detailed structure and input manual of the code have not been open to users yet. Here, the basic theories and structure, the models and numerical solutions applied to FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2), and the material properties adopted in the code are described in detail. In FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2), programming bugs in previous FEMAXI-IV were eliminated, renewal of the pellet thermal conductivity was performed, and a model of thermal-stress restraint on FP gas release was incorporated. For facilitation of effective and wide-ranging application of the code, methods of input/output of the code are also described in detail, and sample output is included. (author)

  15. The effect of corporate brand reputation on brand attachment and brand loyalty: automobile sector

    OpenAIRE

    Loureiro, S. M. C.; Sarmento, E. M.; Le Bellego, G.

    2017-01-01

    The current study aims to analyze the effect of corporate brand reputation on brand attachment and brand loyalty considering the automotive sector and the brands Tesla, Toyota, and Volvo. A sample of 327 participants, members of car brand communities, collaborate in a survey. Overall findings reveal that the perception of corporate brand reputation is more effective on enhancing brand loyalty than brand attachment. However, the effect could depend on the car brand strategy. We may also claim ...

  16. BEYOND THE DYAD: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRESCHOOLERS' ATTACHMENT REPRESENTATIONS AND FAMILY TRIADIC INTERACTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C, Francisca Pérez; Moessner, Markus; A, María Pía Santelices

    2017-03-01

    This study examines the relationship between triadic family interactions and preschoolers' attachment representations, or internal working models (IWMs), from a qualitative and dimensional perspective. Individual, relational, and sociocultural variables were evaluated using two different samples. The results showed that triadic family interactions were linked to preschoolers' attachment security levels in both groups, indicating the reliability of the proposed model. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  17. ENHANCING BRAND EXPERIENCE ALONG WITH EMOTIONAL ATTACHMENT TOWARDS TRUST AND BRAND LOYALTY

    OpenAIRE

    Elia Ardyan; Heny Kurnianingsih; Ginanjar Rahmawan; Utomo Wibisono; Winata Winata

    2016-01-01

    Research on Samsung’s smartphone consumers in Surakarta, have aimed to (1) Test the influence of brand experience on brand trust; (2) Test brand beliefs on brand loyalty; (3) Test on emotional attachment brand experience; (4) Test emotional attachment on brand trust; (5) Test brand experience on brand loyalty. The sample of this research was obtained from 100 respondents who have purchased a Samsung smartphone with the number of the purchase more than once. Methods of analysis used in this s...

  18. Attachment Style and Resiliency in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zakiei, Ali; Alikhani, Mostafa; Farnia, Vahid; Khkian, Zinab; Shakeri, Jalal; Golshani, Sanobar

    2017-01-01

    Background The goal of the present study was to determine the relationships between attachment styles and resiliency in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Methods A random sample of 260 subjects was obtained from the population of undergraduate students of the Nour Branch of Islamic Azad University, which is located in Mazandaran, and these subjects were enrolled in this descriptive and correlational study. The collected data included the subjects' responses to an adult attachment sty...

  19. Chemical nature of implant-derived titanium(IV) ions in synovial fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silwood, Christopher J.L.; Grootveld, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Previous investigations have indicated a deleterious leakage of Ti(III) and/or Ti(IV) species from Ti-Al-V alloy joint prostheses into adjacent tissue, synovium or synovial fluid (SF) in vivo. In view of the importance of the particular chemical nature of such complexes in determining their biological activity, we have employed high field proton ( 1 H) NMR spectroscopy to 'speciate' Ti(IV) in inflammatory SF. Treatment of osteoarthritic SF samples with increasing concentrations of Ti(IV) (0.10-1.03 mM [TiO(C 2 O 4 ) 2 ] 2- ) gave rise to a specific broadening of the citrate proton resonances, indicating that this bioavailable oxygen-donor ligand plays an important role in complexing implant-derived Ti(IV). 1 H NMR analysis of Ti(IV)-loaded SF samples subsequently treated with a large excess of ascorbate (0.05 M) showed that this added Ti(IV) chelator was only poorly effective in removing this metal ion from Ti(IV)-citrate/Ti(IV)-oxycitrate complexes. The results obtained here provide evidence for complexation of the low-molecular-mass (non-protein-bound) fraction of implant-derived Ti(IV) by citrate in vivo

  20. Attachment as an organizer of behavior: implications for substance abuse problems and willingness to seek treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troutman Beth

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attachment theory allows specific predictions about the role of attachment representations in organizing behavior. Insecure attachment is hypothesized to predict maladaptive emotional regulation whereas secure attachment is hypothesized to predict adaptive emotional regulation. In this paper, we test specific hypotheses about the role of attachment representations in substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Based on theory, we expect divergence between levels of maladaptive functioning and adaptive methods of regulating negative emotions. Methods Participants for this study consist of a sample of adoptees participating in an ongoing longitudinal adoption study (n = 208. The Semi-Structured Assessment of the Genetics of Alcohol-II 41 was used to determine lifetime substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Attachment representations were derived by the Adult Attachment Interview [AAI; 16]. We constructed a prior contrasts reflecting theoretical predictions for the association between attachment representations, substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Results Logistic regression was used to test our hypotheses. As predicted, individuals classified as dismissing, preoccupied or earned-secure reported the highest rates of substance abuse/dependence. Individuals classified as dismissing reported significantly lower rates of treatment participation despite their high rates of substance abuse/dependence. As expected, the continuous-secure group reported lowest rates of both substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Conclusion The findings from this study identify attachment representations as an influential factor in understanding the divergence between problematic substance use and treatment utilization. The findings further imply that treatment may need to take attachment representations into account to promote successful recovery.

  1. 'Adoption and attachment theory' the attachment models of adoptive mothers and the revision of attachment patterns of their late-adopted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, C S; Zavattini, G C

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the attachment patterns of late-adopted children (aged 4-7) and their adoptive mothers during the first 7- to 8-month period after adoption and aimed to evaluate the effect of adoptive mothers' attachment security on the revision of the attachment patterns of their late-adopted children. We assessed attachment patterns in 20 adoptive dyads and 12 genetically related dyads at two different times: T1 (time 1) within 2 months of adoption and T2 (time 2) 6 months after T1. The children's behavioural attachment patterns were assessed using the Separation-Reunion Procedure and the children's representational (verbal) attachment patterns using the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task. The attachment models of the adoptive mothers were classified using the Adult Attachment Interview. We found that there was a significant enhancement of the late-adopted children's attachment security across the time period considered (P= 0.008). Moreover, all the late-adopted children who showed a change from insecurity to security had adoptive mothers with secure attachment models (P= 0.044). However, the matching between maternal attachment models and late-adopted children's attachment patterns (behaviours and representations) was not significant. Our data suggest that revision of the attachment patterns in the late-adopted children is possible but gradual, and that the adoptive mothers' attachment security makes it more likely to occur. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Concordance of attachment representations in preschool siblings assessed by the attachment story completion task

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Helene; Zahn, Salome; Titze, Karl; Walitza, Susanne; Zulauf Logoz, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated only a modest concordance of attachment security in siblings in infancy. Until now, very little was known about the concordance of siblings’ attachment security beyond infancy, as assessed by the attachment story completion task. This cross-sectional study aims to examine the concordance of attachment representations of 38 first-born (4–7 years) and 38 second-born (3–5 years) siblings living in middle-class two-parent families. Personality factors and the level ...

  3. Childhood Attachment to Pets: Associations between Pet Attachment, Attitudes to Animals, Compassion, and Humane Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne D. Hawkins

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Attachment to pets has an important role in children’s social, emotional, and cognitive development, mental health, well-being, and quality of life. This study examined associations between childhood attachment to pets and caring and friendship behaviour, compassion, and attitudes towards animals. This study also examined socio-demographic differences, particularly pet ownership and pet type. A self-report survey of over one thousand 7 to 12 year-olds in Scotland, UK, revealed that the majority of children are strongly attached to their pets, but attachment scores differ depending on pet type and child gender. Analysis revealed that attachment to pets is facilitated by compassion and caring and pet-directed friendship behaviours and that attachment to pets significantly predicts positive attitudes towards animals. The findings have implications for the promotion of prosocial and humane behaviour. Encouraging children to participate in pet care behaviour may promote attachment between children and their pet, which in turn may have a range of positive outcomes for both children (such as reduced aggression, better well-being, and quality of life and pets (such as humane treatment. This study enhances our understanding of childhood pet attachment and has implications for humane education and promoting secure emotional attachments in childhood.

  4. Very preterm/very low birthweight infants' attachment: infant and maternal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Eryigit-Madzwamuse, Suna; Gutbrod, Tina

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether there are differences in attachment security and disorganisation between very preterm or very low birthweight (VP/VLBW) (infants (37-42 weeks gestation) and whether the pathways to disorganised attachment differ between VP/VLBW and full-term infants. The sample with complete longitudinal data consisted of 71 VP/VLBW and 105 full-term children and their mothers matched for twin status, maternal age, income and maternal education. Infant attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation Assessment at 18 months of age. Maternal sensitivity in the VP/VLBW and full-term samples was rated by neonatal nurses and community midwives in the neonatal period, respectively, and mother-infant interaction was observed at 3 months. Infant difficultness was assessed by maternal report at 3 months and infant's developmental status was assessed with the Bayley Scales (BSID-II). Most VP/VLBW (61%) and full-term (72%) children were found to be securely attached. However, more VP/VLBW (32%) than full-term children (17%) had disorganised attachment. Longitudinal path analysis found that maternal sensitivity was predictive of attachment disorganisation in full-term children. In contrast, infant's distressing cry and infant's developmental delay, but not maternal sensitivity, were predictive of disorganised attachment in VP/VLBW children. A third of VP/VLBW children showed disorganised attachment. Underlying neurodevelopmental problems associated with VP/VLBW birth appear to be a common pathway to a range of social relationship problems in this group. Clinicians should be aware that disorganised attachment and relationship problems in VP/VLBW infants are frequent despite sensitive parenting.

  5. Insecure Attachment, Dysfunctional Attitudes, and Low Self-Esteem Predicting Prospective Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Adabel; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2009-01-01

    This study extends the existing adult literature on insecure attachment as a predictor of depression and anxiety by examining these pathways in a sample of adolescents. In addition, dysfunctional attitudes and low self-esteem were tested as mediators of the association between insecure attachment and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Youth (N =…

  6. The importance of shared environment in mother-infant attachment security: A behavioral genetic study [IF: 3.272

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, C.L.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; Fearon, R.M.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Fonagy, P.; Schuengel, C.

    2003-01-01

    In a sample of 157 monozygotic and dizygotic twins, genetic and environmental influences on infant attachment and temperament were quantified. Only unique environmental or error components could explain the variance in disorganized versus organized attachment as assessed in the Ainsworth Strange

  7. Observed and Reported Supportive Coparenting as Predictors of Infant-Mother and Infant-Father Attachment Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geoffrey L.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Neff, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between supportive coparenting and infant-mother and infant-father attachment security. Observed and parent-reported coparenting, and observed maternal and paternal sensitivity were assessed in a sample of 68 families with 3.5-month-old infants. Infant-mother and infant-father attachment security were assessed in…

  8. On the Relation between Maternal State of Mind and Sensitivity in the Prediction of Infant Attachment Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Leslie; Goldberg, Susan; Raval, Vaishali; Pederson, David; Benoit, Diane; Moran, Greg; Poulton, Lori; Myhal, Natalie; Zwiers, Michael; Leung, Eman

    2005-01-01

    Attachment theorists assume that maternal mental representations influence responsivity, which influences infant attachment security. However, primary studies do not support this mediation model. The authors tested mediation using 2 mother-infant samples and found no evidence of mediation. Therefore, the authors explored sensitivity as a…

  9. The Moderating Role of Father's Care on the Onset of Binge Eating Symptoms among Female Late Adolescents with Insecure Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Ugo; Cacioppo, Marco; Schimmenti, Adriano

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the association between quality of attachment, perception of the father's bond, and binge eating symptoms in a sample of female late adolescents. In total, 233 female students aged between 18 and 20 years completed measures on binge eating, quality of attachment and parent-child relationship. Data showed that respondents…

  10. The dimensions of affective attachment as predictors of the level of emotional intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Tamara S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The core issue of this investigation was to examine whether the dimensions of familial affective attachment (anxious and avoidant can serve as predictors of the level of emotional intelligence in university students. In addition, explored was the connection between the above constructs, as well as whether they differ in prominence by sex, academic success, birth order and parent's education. The prominence of the dimensions of familial affective attachment on the sample used was also investigated. Used questionnaires were: Questionnaire for assessment of family attachment PAVb (Kamenov and Jelić, 2003 questionnaire for assessing emotional competence (UEK-45; (Takšić, 2002 and a questionnaire created for research purposes. The sample consists of students from the second and third year students 'Vocational high school for teachers' in Krusevac and 'Faculty of Pedagogical Sciences' in Jagodina, a total of 200. The findings show that emotional intelligence in general, as well as its Ability to Name and Express Emotion can be predicted on the basis of dimensions of Anxiety and Avoidance. The prominence of dimensions of familial attachment is low in the sample, and the Secure pattern of attachment predominates. Differences in the prominence of constructs under observation were not found by sex, year of study, birth order and parent's education, while connection between academic success and emotional intelligence is positive. The findings concerning connection between dimensions of familial affective attachment and capability of emotional intelligence show that the dimension Avoidance is negatively correlated with the Ability to Name and Express Emotion.

  11. Relation between Attachment Styles and Marital Conflicts through the Mediation of Demographic Variables in Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaleh Refahi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explain the test of the mediating role of demographic features in relation with marital conflicts and attachment styles. The studied samples were 150 couples visiting the consulting centers of the city Shiraz who were selected by the purposeful sampling method among 800 couples. They filed out adult attachment styles and marital conflicts and also emographic questionnaire. The findings showed that secure attachment style has a direct and negative effect on marital conflicts. Besides, avoidant and ambivalent attachment style has a direct and positive effect on it. Moreover, age has a direct and positive effect but education has a direct and negative effect on marital conflicts. Results showed that the conflicts in samples with secure attachment style will be increased by increasing age and they will be reduced by increasing the level of education. Because in people with secure attachment style, increase of age and academic level leads to their intellectual growth and therefore, they adapt more active and flexible approaches to the resolve their problems and conflicts flexibility in solving problems and conflicts. Besides, they use a variety of intellectual methods and pay more attention to their spouses, they use a wide spectrum of solutions so that the level of their conflicts would be reduced.

  12. Attachment Dimensions and Post-traumatic Symptoms Following Interpersonal Traumas versus Impersonal Traumas in Young Adults in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Lien; Chen, Sue-Huei; Su, Yi-Jen; Kung, Yi-Wen

    2017-08-01

    Greater risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is seen in individuals exposed to interpersonal traumatic events. Based on an attachment perspective, interpersonal trauma exposure may activate one's attachment insecurity system and disrupt affect, behaviour and interpersonal function, which may in turn create more difficulties to cope with interpersonal traumas and exacerbate PTSD symptomatology. The present study examined whether attachment anxiety relative to attachment avoidance would be a stronger predictor of greater PTSD symptoms following interpersonal traumas versus impersonal traumas in a Taiwanese sample. One hundred and sixty-two trauma-exposed Taiwanese young adults completed the measures of symptoms of depression, anxiety and PTSD, and attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. In this Taiwanese study, higher attachment anxiety was observed in individuals who were exposed to interpersonal traumas. The interpersonal trauma group reported greater PTSD symptoms than did the impersonal trauma group. Specifically, after controlling for age, occurrence of trauma and distress of trauma, attachment anxiety, but not attachment avoidance, predicted more PTSD total severity and avoidance symptoms in the interpersonal trauma group. The findings may be pertinent to attachment anxiety-related hyperactivating strategies, as well as specific cultural values and a forbearance strategy applied to regulate traumatic distress in a collectivist society. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The Relationship between Styles of Attachment to God and Forgiveness and Empathy among Female Students in the City of Qom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Rashidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Forgiveness and empathy are factors which are influential in improving the relationships between people, themselves can be affected by various factors in turn. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between the styles of attachment to God and forgiveness and empathy among female students in the city of Qom. 250 students were selected from the city of Qom by cluster sampling. Three questionnaires were used: styles of attachment to God by Kirkpatrick and Rowatt, emotional empathy by Mehrabian and Epstein and forgiveness inventory by Enzeit. Pearson correlation and Regression analysis were used for data analysis. The style of secure attachment to God had a significantly positive relationship with forgiveness and empathy. Furthermore, the style of avoidant attachment to God and the style of bilateral attachment to God had a significantly negative relationship with forgiveness. In addition, the standard coefficients of all three predictive variables (Secure attachment, bilateral and avoidant to God were all significant at p=0.05. Assessment and recognition of the style of attachment to God, the students and its relation with forgiveness and empathy can have valuable implications in providing the mental health of the students. Conclusion: The findings of this research show a connection between the style of attachment to God and forgiveness and empathy, indicate the clarification of attachment to God in students' forgiveness and empathy. Based on the findings, it can be suggested that the theory of attachment to God can be used in psychotherapy.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: glycogen storage disease type IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Glycogen storage disease type IV Glycogen storage disease type IV Printable PDF Open All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD IV) is an ...

  15. Multi-method assessment of mother-child attachment: links to parenting and child depressive symptoms in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Kathryn A; Brumariu, Laura E; Seibert, Ashley

    2011-07-01

    This study included two different methods to assess mother-child attachment, questionnaires, and a doll play story stem interview, so their overlap could be evaluated. In addition, we investigated how attachment is related to parenting and child depression. The sample was comprised of 10- to 12-year-olds (N = 87) and their mothers. Children completed questionnaires (assessing security, avoidance, and ambivalence), and were administered a doll play interview to assess attachment patterns (security, avoidance, ambivalence, and disorganization). Two aspects of parenting (warmth/ engagement and psychological control) were assessed with child reports and observer ratings of maternal behavior. We also obtained child reports of depressive symptoms. Questionnaire and interview measures of attachment security were related to one another, and each showed predictable associations with parenting and child depression. By contrast, results were less consistent for the ambivalent and avoidant insecure attachment patterns, although disorganized attachment showed some associations with parenting and child adjustment.

  16. A cerium(IV)-carbon multiple bond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregson, Matthew; Lu, Erli; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J.; Liddle, Stephen T. [Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Chemistry

    2013-12-02

    Straightforward access to a cerium(IV)-carbene complex was provided by one-electron oxidation of an anionic ''ate'' cerium(III)-carbene precursor, thereby avoiding decomposition reactions that plague oxidations of neutral cerium(III) compounds. The cerium(IV)-carbene complex is the first lanthanide(IV)-element multiple bond and involves a twofold bonding interaction of two electron pairs between cerium and carbon. [German] Auf direktem Wege zu einem Cer(IV)-Carbenkomplex gelangt man durch die Einelektronenoxidation einer anionischen Carben-Cerat(III)-Vorstufe. So werden Zersetzungsprozesse vermieden, die die Oxidation neutraler Cer(III)-Verbindungen erschweren. Der Cer(IV)-Carbenkomplex enthaelt die erste Lanthanoid(IV)-Element-Mehrfachbindung; dabei binden Cer und Kohlenstoff ueber zwei Elektronenpaare.

  17. iväkoti Riemula

    OpenAIRE

    Alanko, Reetta; Ihanamäki, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä kuvataan yleisesti päivähoidon kehitystä Suomessa sekä päivähoitoa yrittäjän näkökulmasta, tuoden esille sen tämän päivän haasteet ja mahdollisuudet. Työssä on pohdittu yhteistyön merkitystä kunnan kanssa ja sitä, miten kunta voi osaltaan joko rajoittaa tai edesauttaa yksityisen päivähoitoyrityksen toimintaa. Opinnäytetyössä kerrotaan teoriassa Päiväkoti Riemula nimisen, erityispäivähoitopalveluita tarjoavan yrityksen perustamiseen liittyvistä suunnitelmista. Suunnitelluss...

  18. Perceived parental child rearing and attachment as predictors of anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms in children: The mediational role of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorot, Paloma; Valiente, Rosa M; Magaz, Ana M; Santed, Miguel A; Sandin, Bonifacio

    2017-07-01

    The present study aimed to examine (a) the relative contribution of perceived parental child-rearing behaviors and attachment on anxiety and depressive symptoms, and (b) the role of attachment as a possible mediator of the association between parental rearing and anxiety and depression. A sample of 1002 children (aged 9-12 years) completed a booklet of self-report questionnaires measuring parental rearing behaviors, attachment towards peers, and DSM anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms. We found that parental aversiveness, parental neglect, and fearful/preoccupied attachment, each accounted for a significant amount of the variance in both anxiety and depressive symptoms. In addition, parental overcontrol was found to account for unique variance in anxiety whereas communication/warmth accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in depression. A relevant finding was that fearful/preoccupied attachment was found to mediate the association between parental rearing behaviors and both anxiety and depression. Parental rearing behaviors and attachment to peers may act as risk factors to the development and/or maintenance of anxiety and depressive symptomatology in children. Findings may contribute to outline preventive and/or treatment programs to prevent or reduce both clinical anxiety and depression during childhood. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Attachment, Sexual Assertiveness, and Sexual Outcomes in Women with Provoked Vestibulodynia and Their Partners: A Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Bianca; Bergeron, Sophie; Brassard, Audrey; Bélanger, Claude; Steben, Marc; Lambert, Bernard

    2015-08-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a prevalent women's sexual pain disorder, which is associated with sexual function difficulties. Attachment theory has been used to understand adult sexual outcomes, providing a useful framework for examining sexual adaptation in couples confronted with PVD. Research to date indicates that anxious and avoidant attachment dimensions correlate with worse sexual outcomes in community and clinical samples. The present study examined the association between attachment, pain, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction in a sample of 101 couples in which the women presented with PVD. The actor-partner interdependence model was used in order to investigate both actor and partner effects. This study also examined the role of sexual assertiveness as a mediator of these associations via structural equation modeling. Women completed measures of pain intensity and both members of the couple completed measures of romantic attachment, sexual assertiveness, sexual function, and satisfaction. Results indicated that attachment dimensions did not predict pain intensity. Both anxious and avoidant attachment were associated with lower sexual satisfaction. Only attachment avoidance predicted lower sexual function in women. Partner effects indicated that higher sexual assertiveness in women predicted higher sexual satisfaction in men. Finally, women's sexual assertiveness was found to be a significant mediator of the relationship between their attachment dimensions, sexual function, and satisfaction. Findings highlight the importance of examining how anxious and avoidant attachment may lead to difficulties in sexual assertiveness and to less satisfying sexual interactions in couples where women suffer from PVD.

  20. Emotional regulation, attachment to possessions and hoarding symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Philip J; Moulding, Richard; Taylor, Jasmine K; Nedeljkovic, Maja

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to test which particular facets of emotion regulation (ER) are most linked to symptoms of hoarding disorder, and whether beliefs about emotional attachment to possessions (EA) mediate this relationship. A non-clinical sample of 150 participants (108 females) completed questionnaires of emotional tolerance (distress tolerance, anxiety sensitivity, negative urgency - impulsivity when experiencing negative emotions), depressed mood, hoarding, and beliefs about emotional attachment to possessions. While all emotional tolerance measures related to hoarding, when considered together and controlling for depression and age, anxiety sensitivity and urgency were the significant predictors. Anxiety sensitivity was fully mediated, and urgency partially mediated, via beliefs regarding emotional attachment to possessions. These findings provide further support for (1) the importance of anxiety sensitivity and negative urgency for hoarding symptoms, and (2) the view that individuals with HD symptoms may rely on items for emotion regulation, leading to stronger beliefs that items are integral to emotional wellbeing. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Iodine susceptibility of pseudomonads grown attached to stainless steel surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, B. H.; McFeters, G. A.

    1990-01-01

    Pseudomonads were adapted to grow in phosphate-buffered water and on stainless steel surfaces to study the iodine sensitivity of attached and planktonic cells. Cultures adapted to low nutrient growth were incubated at room temperature in a circulating reactor system with stainless steel coupons to allow biofilm formation on the metal surfaces. In some experiments, the reactor was partially emptied and refilled with buffer at each sampling time to simulate a "fill-and-draw" water system. Biofilms of attached bacteria, resuspended biofilm bacteria, and reactor suspension, were exposed to 1 mg l-1 iodine for 2 min. Attached bacterial populations which established on coupons within 3 to 5 days displayed a significant increase in resistance to iodine. Increased resistance was also observed for resuspended cells from the biofilm and planktonic bacteria in the system suspension. Generally, intact biofilms and resuspended biofilm cells were most resistant, followed by planktonic bacteria and phosphate buffer cultures. Thus, biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces within water systems can result in significantly increased disinfection resistance of commonly-occurring water-borne bacteria that may enhance their ability to colonise water treatment and distribution systems.

  2. Growing networks with mixed attachment mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Zhigang; Zou Xianwu; Tan Zhijie; Jin Zhunzhi

    2006-01-01

    Networks grow and evolve when new nodes and links are added in. There are two methods to add the links: uniform attachment and preferential attachment. We take account of the addition of links with mixed attachment between uniform attachment and preferential attachment in proportion. By using numerical simulations and analysis based on a continuum theory, we obtain that the degree distribution P(k) has an extended power-law form P(k) ∼ (k + k 0 ) -γ . When the number of edges k of a node is much larger than a certain value k 0 , the degree distribution reduces to the power-law form P(k) ∼ k -γ ; and when k is much smaller than k 0 , the degree distribution degenerates into the exponential form P(k)∼exp(-yk/k 0 ). It has been found that degree distribution possesses this extended power-law form for many real networks, such as the movie actor network, the citation network of scientific papers and diverse protein interaction networks

  3. Laser enhanced attachment in diffuse discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesselmann, M.; Pashaie, B.; Kristiansen, M.; Schaefer, G.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the effect of laser enhanced attachment on externally sustained diffuse discharges are reported. Optical control of diffuse discharges is a promising way of upgrading the performance of e-beam controlled opening switches for repetitive operation. Ideal gases should exhibit a negligible attachment cross section for low E/N values (switch closed) in the ground state and strong attaching properties upon optical excitation in an E/N range between the conducting state and self breakdown of the switch. The ratio of resistivity change in these experiments is much higher than in previous investigations. In this investigation the attachment rate of an electronegative gas component, representing approximately 1% of the gas in the discharge volume, was increased by means of vibrational excitation with a pulsed IR-laser beam. Molecules exhibiting a strongly increased attachment rate upon IR-excitation are vinyl-chloride, vinyl flouride and trifluoroethylene, which has been verified in preliminary experiments. All experiments reported were performed with vinyl chloride and trifluoroethylene

  4. The dependence of C IV broad absorption line properties on accompanying Si IV and Al III absorption: relating quasar-wind ionization levels, kinematics, and column densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P.; Trump, J. R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hall, P. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada); Anderson, S. F. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Hamann, F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Pâris, I. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Petitjean, P. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, Universite Paris 6, F-75014 Paris (France); Ross, Nicholas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Shen, Yue [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); York, Don, E-mail: nfilizak@astro.psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2014-08-20

    We consider how the profile and multi-year variability properties of a large sample of C IV Broad Absorption Line (BAL) troughs change when BALs from Si IV and/or Al III are present at corresponding velocities, indicating that the line of sight intercepts at least some lower ionization gas. We derive a number of observational results for C IV BALs separated according to the presence or absence of accompanying lower ionization transitions, including measurements of composite profile shapes, equivalent width (EW), characteristic velocities, composite variation profiles, and EW variability. We also measure the correlations between EW and fractional-EW variability for C IV, Si IV, and Al III. Our measurements reveal the basic correlated changes between ionization level, kinematics, and column density expected in accretion-disk wind models; e.g., lines of sight including lower ionization material generally show deeper and broader C IV troughs that have smaller minimum velocities and that are less variable. Many C IV BALs with no accompanying Si IV or Al III BALs may have only mild or no saturation.

  5. Attachment anxiety and avoidance as mediators of the association between childhood maltreatment and adult personality dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa J; Ardalan, Firouz; Tanis, Thachell; Halmi, Winter; Galynker, Igor; Von Wyl, Agnes; Hengartner, Michael P

    2017-02-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that the association between childhood maltreatment and adult personality dysfunction is at least partially attributable to insecure attachment, that is that attachment style mediates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adult personality dysfunction. Associations between childhood trauma, as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), anxious and avoidant attachment in romantic relationships, as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R), and five personality domains, as measured by the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118), were examined in a sample of 72 psychiatric inpatients. The SIPP-118 domains included relational capacities, identity integration, self-control, responsibility, and social concordance. The direct effect of childhood trauma on all SIPP-118 domains was not significant after controlling for the indirect effect of attachment. In regression modeling, a significant indirect effect of childhood trauma via adult attachment style was found for SIPP-118 relational capacities, identity integration, self-control, and social concordance. Specifically, anxious attachment was a significant mediator of the effect of childhood trauma on self-control, identity integration, and relational domains. These results suggest that childhood trauma impacts a broad range of personality domains and does so in large part through the pathway of anxious romantic attachment style.

  6. Adult Romantic Attachment and Couple Conflict Behaviors: Intimacy as a Multi-Dimensional Mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina D. Du Rocher Schudlich

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated associations between adult romantic attachment and couples’ conflict behaviors and the potential mediating role of intimacy. A community sample of 74 couples reported on their attachment security style on the Attachment Style Measure (ASM (Simpson, 1990 and on multiple dimensions of intimacy on the Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships (PAIR (Schaefer & Olson, 1981. Couples’ conflict behaviors were assessed via behavioral observations and coded for positive and negative dimensions of conflict. Path analyses indicated numerous actor and partner effects in the links between attachment, intimacy, and conflict. For men, both avoidant and anxious attachment styles were predictive of their own and their partner’s intimacy. For women though, both secure and avoidant attachment styles were predictive of their own and their partner’s intimacy. For men, all domains of intimacy were predictive of their own or their partner’s conflict behaviors. For women, only emotional intimacy was predictive of conflict behaviors. All domains of men’s intimacy emerged as significant mediators of associations between attachment and couples’ conflict behaviors. For women, only emotional intimacy mediated these associations. Implications for the treatment of relationally-discordant couples are discussed.

  7. Adult attachment and long-term effects in survivors of incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P C; Anderson, C L; Brand, B; Schaeffer, C M; Grelling, B Z; Kretz, L

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that adult attachment is related to distress and personality disorders in incest survivors. Adult female incest survivors recruited from the community participated in a structured interview (Family Attachment Interview; Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991) and completed measures of current functioning (Impact of Event Scale, SCL-10, Beck Depression Inventory) and personality (MCMI-II). Complete data from 92 cases out of the total sample of 112 were analyzed. Analyses of variance suggested that attachment (as represented by a category) was significantly related to personality structure, with fearful individuals showing more avoidant, self-defeating, and borderline tendencies and preoccupied individuals showing more dependent, self-defeating, and borderline tendencies than secure or dismissing individuals. Results of hierarchical regression analyses suggested that attachment (as represented by four dimensions) was significantly associated with personality structure, depression and distress, and abuse severity with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (intrusive thoughts and avoidance of memories) and depression. The findings demonstrated the propensity for insecure attachment among incest survivors. Sexual abuse severity and attachment have significant but distinct effects on longterm outcome; abuse characteristics predict classic PTSD symptoms and attachment insecurity predicts distress, depression, and personality disorders above and beyond any effects of abuse severity.

  8. Impact of Depressive Symptoms on Mother Infant Attachment among Mothers of Preterm Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu Margaret

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the level of depressive symptoms and mother-infant-attachment among mothers of preterms admitted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU and find the relationship between of depressive symptoms and mother-infant-attachment. Materials and methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted among 100 mothers whose preterm babies were admitted in NICU of Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, Karnataka using purposive sampling. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Mother Infant Attachment Scale were used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The mother’s age ranged from 20 to 40 years. The mild depressive symptoms were experienced by 28 (28% mothers, moderate 25(25% and 17 (17% had severe level of depressive symptoms. Majority mothers 77(77% of preterms had good-attachment and 18% had moderate attachment. Mean depressive symptom score and mother-infant-attachment score was 14.36±7.47 and 58.00 ±12.95 respectively. Depressive symptoms and mother-infant-attachment showed moderate negative correlation, (ρ=--0.506, (p=0.001. Conclusion: Increased levels of depressive symptoms among the mothers of preterm neonates affects the mother–infant-interactions. Interventions to decrease the level of depressive symptoms need to be planned for promoting good mother infant interaction.

  9. Identity Exploration in the Dating Domain: The Role of Attachment Dimensions and Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Joe F.; Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Soto, Janet B.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined relations among perceived parenting practices (support and psychological control), attachment dimensions for romantic relationships (anxiety and avoidance) and exploration of the dating identity among actively dating adolescents in two high school aged samples. In the all female sample of Study 1 (n = 653) and the gender balanced…

  10. Extended analysis of Cu IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinders, E.; Uijlings, P.

    1980-01-01

    Wavelength data and classifications of 974 Cu IV lines in the region 750-1275 Angstroem are presented. Most of the lines have been classified as transitions from the previously unknown high even configurations 3d 7 5s and 3d 7 4d to 3d 7 4p. The configuration 3d 7 4d is seriously perturbed by 3d 6 4s 2 . The analysis resulted in the identification of 27 levels of 3d 7 5s and 113 levels of (3d 7 4d + 3d 6 4s 2 ) which are reported. The earlier published levels of 3d 7 4s and 3d 7 4p have to be shifted downward as a consequence of improved wavelength data. Radial paramter values, resulting from least-squares fits, are compared to Hartree-Fock values. The eigenvectors obtained in the parametric fitting are used to calculate transition probabilities in intermediate coupling. The relation between the observed intensities of the transitions 3d 7 4d-3d 7 4p and 3d 7 Ss-3d 7 4p is compared to the relation between theoretical values of the transition integrals obtained from Hartree-Fock calculations. A spectroscopic value for the ionization potentials is calculated from the 3d 7 ns configurations. (orig.)

  11. Maternal-foetal attachment independently predicts the quality of maternal-infant bonding and post-partum psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Eleonora; Palagini, Laura; Bacci, Olivia; Borri, Chiara; Teristi, Valentina; Corezzi, Camilla; Faraoni, Sara; Antonelli, Paolo; Cargioli, Claudio; Banti, Susanna; Perugi, Giulio; Mauri, Mauro

    2017-08-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of maternal antenatal attachment and post-partum psychopathology, maternal-infant bonding, while checking for antenatal psychopathology, for lifetime psychiatric diagnosis and for the known risk factors for peripartum depression. One hundred and six women recruited at the first month of pregnancy (T0) were evaluated with the structured interview for DSM-IV TR (SCID-I) to assess the presence of lifetime psychiatric diagnosis and with the Perinatal Depression Predictor Inventory-Revised (PDPI-R), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). At the sixth month of pregnancy (T1) and at the first month post-partum (T2), all patients were evaluated with the PDPI-R, the EPDS, the STAI, at T1, with the Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale (MAAS), and at T2 with the Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale (MPAS). Multivariate regression analyses showed that maternal-foetal attachment was the variable most significantly associated with postnatal symptoms of depression and anxiety and with quality of maternal-infant attachment. The logistic regression analyses showed that antenatal attachment may predict postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms (respectively, OR: 0.83 - IC [0.74 - 0.95], p = .005, OR: 0.88 - IC [0.79 - 0.98], p = .02), and the quality of maternal postnatal attachment (OR: 1.17 - IC [1.08 - 1.27], p depression, the sociodemographic variables and lifetime psychiatric diagnosis. The quality of maternal-foetal bonding may independently predict the quality of maternal-infant attachment and post-partum depressive and anxiety symptoms. A comprehensive assessment of maternal risk factors for perinatal psychopathology during pregnancy should include the evaluation of antenatal attachment that could be modifiable by specific interventions promoting the quality of maternal bonding.

  12. Interview Investigation of Insecure Attachment Styles as Mediators between Poor Childhood Care and Schizophrenia-Spectrum Phenomenology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Sheinbaum

    Full Text Available Insecure attachment styles have received theoretical attention and some initial empirical support as mediators between childhood adverse experiences and psychotic phenomena; however, further specificity needs investigating. The present interview study aimed to examine (i whether two forms of poor childhood care, namely parental antipathy and role reversal, were associated with subclinical positive and negative symptoms and schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorder (PD traits, and (ii whether such associations were mediated by specific insecure attachment styles.A total of 214 nonclinical young adults were interviewed for subclinical symptoms (Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States, schizophrenia-spectrum PDs (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders, poor childhood care (Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Interview, and attachment style (Attachment Style Interview. Participants also completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II and all the analyses were conducted partialling out the effects of depressive symptoms.Both parental antipathy and role reversal were associated with subclinical positive symptoms and with paranoid and schizotypal PD traits. Role reversal was also associated with subclinical negative symptoms. Angry-dismissive attachment mediated associations between antipathy and subclinical positive symptoms and both angry-dismissive and enmeshed attachment mediated associations of antipathy with paranoid and schizotypal PD traits. Enmeshed attachment mediated associations of role reversal with paranoid and schizotypal PD traits.Attachment theory can inform lifespan models of how adverse developmental environments may increase the risk for psychosis. Insecure attachment provides a promising mechanism for understanding the development of schizophrenia-spectrum phenomenology and may offer a useful target for prophylactic intervention.

  13. ATTACHMENT, RELATIONAL-NEEDS, AND PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC PRESENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Erskine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Humans require the contactful presence of another person who is attuned and responsive to relational-needs. Insecure attachment patterns are the result of repeated disruptions in significant relationships. This article describes eight relational-needs that, when repeatedly unsatisfied, lead to insecure attachment patterns based on the fears of loss of relationship, vulnerability, violation, and invasion.The healing of insecure attachment patterns occurs through a contactful psychotherapeutic presence that occurs when the attitude, behavior and communication of the psychotherapist consistently respects and enhances the client's integrity while responding to relational-needs. The article is the Keynote Address given at the 5th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference in Vichy, France, April 21, 2011.

  14. Attachment at (not to) work: applying attachment theory to explain individual behavior in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, David A; Schat, Aaron C H

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we report the results of 2 studies that were conducted to investigate whether adult attachment theory explains employee behavior at work. In the first study, we examined the structure of a measure of adult attachment and its relations with measures of trait affectivity and the Big Five. In the second study, we examined the relations between dimensions of attachment and emotion regulation behaviors, turnover intentions, and supervisory reports of counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior. Results showed that anxiety and avoidance represent 2 higher order dimensions of attachment that predicted these criteria (except for counterproductive work behavior) after controlling for individual difference variables and organizational commitment. The implications of these results for the study of attachment at work are discussed.

  15. Synthetic Strategies for the Synthesis of Ternary Uranium(IV) and Thorium(IV) Fluorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepov, Vladislav V; Felder, Justin B; Zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2018-04-10

    A series of new U(IV) and Th(IV) fluorides, Na 7 U 6 F 31 (1), NaUF 5 (2), NaU 2 F 9 (3), KTh 2 F 9 (4), NaTh 2 F 9 (5), (H 3 O)Th 3 F 13 (6), and (H 3 O)U 3 F 13 (7), was obtained using hydrothermal and low-temperature flux methods. Mild hydrothermal reactions with uranyl acetate as a precursor yielded 1, 7, and the monoclinic polymorph of NaU 2 F 9 , whereas direct reactions between UF 4 and NaF led to the formation of 2 and orthorhombic NaU 2 F 9 (3). This highlights an unexpected difference in reaction products when different starting uranium sources are used. All seven compounds were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and their structures are compared on the basis of cation topology, revealing a close topological resemblance between fluorides on the basis of the layers observed in NaUF 5 (H 2 O). Phase-pure samples of 1, 2, and both polymorphs of NaU 2 F 9 were obtained, and their spectroscopic and magnetic properties were measured. The UV-vis data are dominated by the presence of U 4+ cations and agree well with the electronic transitions. Effective magnetic moments of the studied compounds were found to range from 3.08 to 3.59 μ B .

  16. Attachment relationships shape pain-signaling behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, Kasia

    2009-10-01

    Attachment relationships shape the manner in which children signal pain to others. Open communication of pain affect, inhibition of pain affect, and exaggeration of pain affect, reflect adaptations to different relationship contexts. The open and direct signaling of pain is adaptive in sensitive relationship contexts where caregivers respond to the distressed child with behaviors that facilitate protection, recovery, and healing. Inhibition of pain signals has survival advantages in situations where the open expressions of pain elicit negative parental responses (absence of caregiving, withdrawal from the child, or frank displeasure or anger). Exaggerated pain signaling functions as a means to elicit a caregiving response from preoccupied, inattentive, or neglectful attachment figures. This paper considers how a child's developmental experiences-specifically, the repeating person-specific experiences which make up attachment relationships-produce individual differences in the manner in which pain is experienced and signaled. This article reviews recent advances in our understanding of child development as articulated by contemporary attachment theory-in particular, the dynamic-maturational model (DMM)-and discusses their implications for interpreting human pain, pain-signaling behavior, and medically unexplained pain. The development of the experience of pain, along with ways of signaling pain, is tied to familial relationships generally and, in particular, to the manner in which attachment relationships shape the infant's behavior and physiology, thereby regulating the experience of pain. In explaining how the child's early attachment relationships produce individual differences in the way that she learns to experience and signal pain, the article provides an innovative perspective that is helpful in understanding the wide variations in patients' experience and presentation of pain, in elaborating formulations of medically unexplained pain, and in planning

  17. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishola Rawatlal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescence represents a challenging transitional period where changes in biological, emotional, cognitive and social domains can increase the risk of developing internalised problems including subthreshold depression. Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family functioning may increase risk for depressive symptoms or may reduce such risk. Adolescent-parent attachment, adolescent-perceived support from parents and family functioning were examined as correlates of depressive symptom presentation within this age group. Methods. Participants included a maternal parent and an adolescent (65.5% female from each family. Adolescents were in Grade 7 (n=175 or Grade 10 (n=31. Data were collected through home interviews. The Self-Report of Family Inventory (SFI, Experiences of Close Relationships Scale (ECR, Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI, Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were used to assess depression, parental support and attachment.  Results. Two models were examined: one with adolescent report of depressive symptoms as the outcome and a second with parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms as the outcome. The model predicting adolescent-reported depressive symptoms was significant with older age, higher levels of avoidant attachment, and higher levels of youth-reported dysfunctional family interaction associated with more depressive symptomatology. In the model predicting parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms only higher levels of dysfunctional family interaction, as reported by the parent, were associated with higher levels of internalising symptoms. Conclusion. Positive family communication, cohesion and support predictive of a secure parent-adolescent attachment relationship reduced the risk of a depressive symptom outcome. Secure adolescents were able to regulate their emotions, knowing that they could seek out secure base attachment relations

  18. 14 CFR 33.23 - Engine mounting attachments and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine mounting attachments and structure... mounting attachments and structure. (a) The maximum allowable limit and ultimate loads for engine mounting attachments and related engine structure must be specified. (b) The engine mounting attachments and related...

  19. Effects of Emotion Regulation Training on Attachment Style of Primiparous Pregnant Women with Insecure Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Reyhani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnant women with insecure attachment style are at high risk of psychiatric disorders. Since emotions are the first coordinators of attachment behavior, emotion regulation training can alter maternal attachment style. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of emotion regulation training on the attachment styles of primiparous pregnant women with insecure attachment style. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of training programs on the headache of patients after spinal anesthesia. Method: This randomized, clinical trial on 40 primiparous pregnant women with age range of 30-34 years, who were referred to healthcare centers of Mashhad, Iran, during 2014. The data collection instrument was Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS. The participants were assigned to intervention and control groups. A training program was implemented on emotion regulation based on dialectical behavior therapy (DBT for the intervention group. After delivery, RAAS was completed by the mothers again. The control group only received the routine care. To analyze the data, Chi-square and independent t-test were run using SPSS, version 15. Results: Mean ages of the mothers in the intervention and control groups were 26.9±4.04 and 27.5±3.5 years, respectively. According to the results of independent t-test, the difference between the groups was non-significant (P=0.77. The groups were analogous in terms of attachment style pre-intervention. After the intervention, independent t-test did not reflect any significant differences between the groups regarding avoidant (P=0.37 and anxious (P=0.11 attachment styles. However, mean score for secure attachment style was significantly enhanced (P=0.01. Implications for Practice: Our findings revealed that implementation of emotion regulation training increased secure attachment scores. Thus, implementing emotion regulation training program is recommended as part of a program for pre-natal care in healthcare

  20. Clinical decision - making review on magnetic attachments versus mechanical attachments in dental prosthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Fabiano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Conventional dentures in edentulous patients show some limitations due to the lack of retention, support and stability thus resulting in difficulty to chew. The modern implantology allows to use different implant overdentures and different attachment systems. The selection of the attachment by practitioners is mainly influenced by the clinical experience or technical preferences. Aims The aim of the present review is to provide an adequate background to the clinicians, in order to select the prosthetic attachments according to the current literature. The mechanical attachments have been compared to the magnetic devices, with the aim to guide the decision of the practitioners. Methods Articles topics selection was based on the use of magnetic attachments in dentistry and the comparison between them and mechanical connectors. The databases used were PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar and ISI Web of Science. A critical evaluation of the selected paper has been made to choose the ones that matched the inclusion criteria. Results Nowadays, few studies have compared different attachments in a manner useful for clinical decision-making. The main problem limiting long-term durability of magnetic attachments in the oral fluid is the poor corrosion resistance of permanent magnets and the consequent leaching of cytotoxic ions. Conclusion Magnetic attachments in comparison with other attaching systems can be useful in patients with special needs, in patients with limited interocclusal space, or in patients with neuromuscular limitations, thanks to the automatic reseating properties. However, it’s important to highlight that the mechanical attachments still represent the best choice in common conditions requiring dental prostheses.

  1. Understanding Members’ Attachment to Social Networking Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Eric T. K.; Cyr, Dianne; Tan, Chee-Wee

    2014-01-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are pervasive phenomena in today’s society. With greater connectivity and interactivity enabled through emerging technologies, SNSs provide communication platforms for individuals to bridge spatial and temporal differences when making friends, sharing experiences......, socializing with others and much more. This study therefore endeavors to shed light on this growing trend by decomposing members’ motives for participating within SNSs into identity-based, bondbased and comparison-based attachments. Each of these forms of attachment in turn affects members’ cooperative...

  2. Attachment patterns and Mentalization in Traumatized Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    Poster Titel: Proces-præsentation: Tilknytningsmønstre og Refleksiv Funktion hos Traumatiserede Flygtninge. Introduktion. Gennem de senere år har empirisk forskning dokumenteret tilknytningsmønstre som en central variabel, der påvirker proces og effekt i psykologisk behandling på vigtige måder...... nærværende projekt bestod af de patienter i moderforsøget, som var arabisktalende (N=68). Måleredskaber består i The Adult Attachment Interview, The Reflective Functioning Scale, Revised Adult Attachment Scale, Working Alliance Inventory og Feeling Word Checklist-58. PTSD, depressions- og angstsymptomer...

  3. Pilot cryo tunnel: Attachments, seals, and insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. F.; Ware, G. D.; Ramsey, J. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Several different tests are described which simulated the actual configuration of a cryogenic wind tunnel operating at pressures up to 5 atmospheres (507 kPa) and temperatures from -320 F (78K) to 120 F (322K) in order to determine compatible bolting, adequate sealing, and effective insulating materials. The evaluation of flange attachments (continuous threaded studs) considered bolting based on compatible flanges, attachment materials, and prescribed bolt elongations. Various types of seals and seal configurations were studied to determine suitability and reusability under the imposed pressure and temperature loadings. The temperature profile was established for several materials used for structural supports.

  4. Lightning attachment process to common buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, M. M. F.; Paiva, A. R.; Schumann, C.; Ferro, M. A. S.; Naccarato, K. P.; Silva, J. C. O.; Siqueira, F. V. C.; Custódio, D. M.

    2017-05-01

    The physical mechanism of lightning attachment to grounded structures is one of the most important issues in lightning physics research, and it is the basis for the design of the lightning protection systems. Most of what is known about the attachment process comes from leader propagation models that are mostly based on laboratory observations of long electrical discharges or from observations of lightning attachment to tall structures. In this paper we use high-speed videos to analyze the attachment process of downward lightning flashes to an ordinary residential building. For the first time, we present characteristics of the attachment process to common structures that are present in almost every city (in this case, two buildings under 60 m in São Paulo City, Brazil). Parameters like striking distance and connecting leaders speed, largely used in lightning attachment models and in lightning protection standards, are revealed in this work.Plain Language SummarySince the time of Benjamin Franklin, no one has ever recorded high-speed video images of a lightning connection to a common building. It is very difficult to do it. Cameras need to be very close to the structure chosen to be observed, and long observation time is required to register one lightning strike to that particular structure. Models and theories used to determine the zone of protection of a lightning rod have been developed, but they all suffer from the lack of field data. The submitted manuscript provides results from high-speed video observations of lightning attachment to low buildings that are commonly found in almost every populated area around the world. The proximity of the camera and the high frame rate allowed us to see interesting details that will improve the understanding of the attachment process and, consequently, the models and theories used by lightning protection standards. This paper also presents spectacular images and videos of lightning flashes connecting lightning rods that

  5. Development and initial validation of a measure of attachment security in late adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Frederick G; Ramos, Katherine; Kim, Mijin

    2018-05-10

    Attachment theory-guided studies of older adults have generally relied on self-report measures that were validated on young adult samples and that focus on fears of rejection by romantic partners and on experiences of chronic discomfort with romantic intimacy as the key indicators of adult attachment security. These assessment characteristics raise important questions as to whether these measures are appropriate for use with older adults. Unlike their younger adult counterparts, older adults may face distinctive life stage-related threats to their attachment security such as declining health and autonomy, spousal loss, and increased dependence on younger family members for instrumental and emotional support. In response to these concerns, we conducted two independent studies aimed at developing and validating a novel measure of attachment security in older adults-the Late Adulthood Attachment Scale (LAAS). In study one (N = 287), exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) methods were used to identify and support a 2-factor structure (Fearful Avoidance, Secure Engagement) underlying LAAS scores. In study two (N = 417), ESEM and regression analyses confirmed the 2-factor structure and demonstrated the ability of LAAS scores to predict participants' well-being over a 3-month interval (n = 93). Findings from both studies support the psychometric adequacy of the LAAS as an alternative measure of attachment security for use with older adult samples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Investigation of associations between attachment, parenting and schizotypy during the postnatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugill, Melanie; Fletcher, Ian; Berry, Katherine

    2017-10-01

    Parenting can be a stressful experience particularly for people with mental health problems or people who experienced abuse or attachment difficulties in their own childhoods. This study examined the relationships between earlier trauma, attachment, parenting and schizotypy in a non-clinical sample, with the specific hypothesis that parenting stress and competence would mediate any association between trauma, attachment and schizotypy. One hundred and thirty-four first time parents with a child under 12 months old completed the following questionnaires online: the Experiences of Close Relationships Scale - Short Form (ECR-S), the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire - Brief, Revised (SPQ-BR) the Parenting Stress Scale, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (PSOC) and the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Questionnaire. Parenting stress mediated the association between attachment and schizotypy, though parenting competence did not have a significant effect as a mediator in a parallel model. Childhood trauma was associated with attachment and schizotypy but did not correlate with the parenting variables. The study utilised a cross-sectional design and self-report measures which limits the ability to make causal inferences from the results. However, findings warrant replication in clinical samples with psychosis. The study adds to the understanding of what may exacerbate schizotypal symptoms in the first 12 months postpartum as parental attachment insecurity and parental stress together predicted elevated self-reported experiences of schizotypal symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pet ownership and older women: the relationships among loneliness, pet attachment support, human social support, and depressed mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Parello, Cheryl A

    2012-01-01

    Pets can play a positive role in the both the physical and psychological health of older adults. This cross sectional study investigated the relationships among loneliness, pet attachment support, human social support, and depressed mood in a convenience sample of 159 pet-owning older women residing in the community. Participants completed loneliness, pet attachment support, human social support, and depressed mood scales. The results supported significant relationships between loneliness, pet attachment support, human social support, and depressed mood. No relationship was found between human social support and depressed mood. Pet attachment support, but not human social support, influenced the relationship between loneliness and depressed mood indicating the importance of pet attachment as a greater form of support in this sample. Clinical and social implications for nurses working with the geriatric population were identified and discussed. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Temperament, insecure attachment, impulsivity, and sexuality in women in jail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliceto, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio; Candilera, Gabriella; Rosafio, Iole; Erbuto, Denise; Battuello, Michele; Lester, David; Girardi, Paolo

    2012-03-01

    Women constitute only a small proportion of inmates, but several studies have shown that they have higher rates of psychiatric disturbance than incarcerated men and community samples. Mental health treatment is necessary to prevent severe illness and suicide in these women. The convenience sample consisted of 40 female detainees and 40 controls who were administered self-report questionnaires to assess temperament (TEMPS-A), insecure attachment (ECR), impulsivity (BIS-11), and sexual behavior (SESAMO). The incarcerated women had higher levels of affective temperament (except for hyperthymia), avoidance, anxiety, impulsivity, and psychosexual issues than the female community sample. Many interrelated emotional and affective disturbances affect the physical and psychological well-being of women in jail, and it is possible that these problems may lead to suicide. Health professionals need to develop gender-specific therapeutic interventions for women in jail. © 2012 International Association of Forensic Nurses.

  9. ENHANCING BRAND EXPERIENCE ALONG WITH EMOTIONAL ATTACHMENT TOWARDS TRUST AND BRAND LOYALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Ardyan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on Samsung’s smartphone consumers in Surakarta, have aimed to (1 Test the influence of brand experience on brand trust; (2 Test brand beliefs on brand loyalty; (3 Test on emotional attachment brand experience; (4 Test emotional attachment on brand trust; (5 Test brand experience on brand loyalty. The sample of this research was obtained from 100 respondents who have purchased a Samsung smartphone with the number of the purchase more than once. Methods of analysis used in this study are Structural Equation Modelling. The results of this research indicate that: (1 Brand experience influenced brand trust positively and significantly; (2 The trust against a brand loyalty affect brand positively and significantly; (3 Brand experience have positive and significant effect on emotional attachment; (4 Emotional attachment affects brand trust positively and significantly; (5 Brand trust have the influence of brand loyalty positively but not significant.

  10. Self-worth as a mediator between attachment and posttraumatic stress in interpersonal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ban Hong Phylice; Adams, Lauren A; Lilly, Michelle M

    2012-07-01

    It is well documented that most trauma survivors recover from adversity and only a number of them go on to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In addition, survivors of interpersonal trauma (IPT) appear to be at heightened risk for developing PTSD in comparison to survivors of noninterpersonal trauma (NIPT). Despite a robust association between IPT exposure and attachment disruptions, there is a dearth of research examining the role of attachment-related processes implicated in predicting PTSD. Using a sample of college undergraduates exposed to IPT and NIPT, this study explores the mediating effect of self-worth in the relationship between attachment and PTSD. It is hypothesized that insecure attachment will be related to posttraumatic symptomatology via a reduced sense of self-worth in IPT survivors but not in NIPT survivors. Mediation analyses provide support for this hypothesis, suggesting the importance of considering negative cognitions about the self in therapeutic interventions, particularly those offered to IPT survivors.

  11. Italian translation and cross-cultural comparison with the Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonelli, A; Sacchi, C; Cantoni, L; Brown, M; Frewen, P

    2017-01-01

    Background : The Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS) is a computer-administered survey designed to assess retrospectively the socio-ecological context in which instances of child abuse may have occurred. To date, studies supporting the validity of the CARTS have only been undertaken in English-speaking North American populations. Validation projects in other countries and cross-cultural comparisons are therefore warranted. Objective : Develop and preliminarily evaluate the psychometric properties of an Italian version of the CARTS on college students and compare such observations to data acquired from Canadian students. Method : Seventy-nine undergraduate students from the University of Padua (Italy) completed an Italian translation of the CARTS as well as measures of childhood experiences, mental health and attachment, responses to which were compared to those obtained in 288 Canadian students who completed the CARTS in English. Results : Internal consistency and convergent validity with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Parental Bonding Instrument were found to be acceptable for the Italian translation. Within the Italian sample, correlation analyses suggested that CARTS Mother ratings referring to attachment and abuse were associated with romantic attachment, whereas CARTS Father ratings were significantly correlated to PTSD symptoms and other symptoms of psychopathology-distress. Significant differences between Italian and Canadian students across the relationship types for the CARTS abuse and attachment scales were found, indicating that Italian students rated their mothers and fathers as simultaneously less abusive, but also less as a source of secure attachment. Conclusions : The results of this preliminary study seem to suggest convergent validity of the Italian CARTS and the association between childhood attachment-related experiences and romantic attachment. Cultural variations were identified between Canadian and Italian

  12. Links Among High EPDS Scores, State of Mind Regarding Attachment, and Symptoms of Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Steele, Howard; Mehlhase, Heike; Cordes, Katharina; Steele, Miriam; Harder, Susanne; Væver, Mette Skovgaard

    2015-12-01

    Underlying persistent psychological difficulties have been found to moderate potential adverse effects of maternal postpartum depression (PPD) on parenting and infant development. The authors examined whether mothers presenting postpartum depressive symptoms showed higher levels of personality pathology and more insecure state of mind regarding attachment compared to nondepressed mothers. Participants (N = 85) were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Present State Examination, the Adult Attachment Interview, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II. Mothers with high EPDS scores were more likely to have a preoccupied insecure state of mind and to have personality disorder compared with mothers scoring below clinical cutoff. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis showed that personality disorder and AAI classification were independently related to EPDS score, and that these two factors together accounted for 48% of the variance in EPDS score. Findings are discussed in terms of heterogeneity in PPD populations and underline the importance of examining potential coexisting psychological difficulties when studying PPD.

  13. In search of shared and non-shared influences on infant attachment: A behavior-genetic study of the association between sensitivity and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fearon, R.M.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Fonagy, P.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; Schuengel, C.; Bokhorst, C.L.

    2006-01-01

    The current article presents results from a twin study of genetic and environmental components of maternal sensitivity and infant attachment and their association. The sample consisted of 136 twin pairs from 2 sites: Leiden, the Netherlands, and London, UK. Maternal sensitivity was assessed in the

  14. Zirconium (IV) complexes with some polymethylenediimines | Na ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The syntheses of zirconium (IV) complexes have been carried out by the reaction of oxozirconium (IV) chloride with the appropriate diimines (Schiff bases). The complexes were isolated as yellow solids which are stable to heat. The complexes were found to be insoluble in most solvents. The infrared spectra, elemental ...

  15. Astragaloside IV liposomes ameliorates adriamycin-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The rats were given a single tail intravenous injection of adriamycin (6 mg/kg) within 1 week, and then divided into four groups including normal, model, benazepril and astragaloside IV liposomes group. They were all orally administered dosage of benazepril and astragaloside IV liposomes once daily for 8 weeks.

  16. Dioxobridged complexes of molybdenum (IV) and tungsten (IV) with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Acknowledgement. We thank Rhone Poulenc, Paris, France for supplying MPM and M/s Bayer A G,. Leverkusen, Germany for providing PCPD and TFPH as gift samples. References. 1. Hewitt E J 1959 Biol. Rev. 34 333. 2. Kay A and Mitchell P C H 1970 J. Chem. Soc. A 2421. 3. Russell Melby L 1969 Inorg. Chem. 8 1539.

  17. Generation IV reactors: international projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F.; Fiorini, G.L.; Kupitz, J.; Depisch, F.; Hittner, D.

    2003-01-01

    Generation IV international forum (GIF) was initiated in 2000 by DOE (American department of energy) in order to promote nuclear energy in a long term view (2030). GIF has selected 6 concepts of reactors: 1) VHTR (very high temperature reactor system, 2) GHR (gas-cooled fast reactor system), 3) SFR (sodium-cooled fast reactor system, 4) SCWR (super-critical water-cooled reactor system), 5) LFR (lead-cooled fast reactor system), and 6) MFR (molten-salt reactor system). All these 6 reactor systems have been selected on criteria based on: - a better contribution to sustainable development (through their aptitude to produce hydrogen or other clean fuels, or to have a high energy conversion ratio...) - economic profitability, - safety and reliability, and - proliferation resistance. The 6 concepts of reactors are examined in the first article, the second article presents an overview of the results of the international project on innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles (INPRO) within IAEA. The project finished its first phase, called phase-IA. It has produced an outlook into the future role of nuclear energy and defined the need for innovation. The third article is dedicated to 2 international cooperations: MICANET and HTR-TN. The purpose of MICANET is to propose to the European Commission a research and development strategy in order to develop the assets of nuclear energy for the future. Future reactors are expected to be more multiple-purposes, more adaptable, safer than today, all these developments require funded and coordinated research programs. The aim of HTR-TN cooperation is to promote high temperature reactor systems, to develop them in a long term perspective and to define their limits in terms of burn-up and operating temperature. (A.C.)

  18. Design and evaluation of a thorium (IV) selective optode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safavi, Afsaneh; Sadeghi, Marzieh

    2006-01-01

    A novel optical sensor has been proposed for sensitive determination of thorium (IV) ion in aqueous solutions. The thorium sensing membrane was prepared by incorporating 4-(p-nitrophenyl azo)-pyrocatechol (NAP) as ionophore in the plasticized PVC membrane containing tributyl phosphate (TBP) as plasticizer. The membrane responds to thorium ion by changing color reversibly from yellow to red-brown in glycine buffer solution at pH 3.5. The proposed sensor displays a linear range of 8.66 x 10 -6 -2.00 x 10 -4 M with a limit of detection of 6 x 10 -6 M. The response time of the optode was about 8.8-12.5 min, depending on the concentration of Th (IV) ions. The selectivity of optode to Th (IV) ions in glycine buffer is good. The sensor can readily be regenerated by exposure to a solution mixture of sodium fluoride and 5-sulfosalicylic acid (dihydrate) (0.01 M each). The optode is fully reversible. The proposed optode was applied to the determination of thorium (IV) in environmental water samples

  19. Attachment Styles in Sufferers of Gender Identity Disorder in Fars Province in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Gender identity disorder (GID is considered as a very complicated clinical case and there are usually various variables in the inside-family-communication atmosphere. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine attachment styles in people with GID and compare them with normal people in Fars province, Iran. Materials and Methods This case-control study with accessible sampling was conducted in Fars province, Iran, in 2014 using 60 visitors to the Fars province forensics head office who had been diagnosed as having GID by the commission of psychology (the case group and 204 individuals in dispose, whom psychologists diagnosed as having no psychological disorder and in synchronization with the sample group (controls. The demographic questionnaire and Collins and Read attachment style questionnaires were used in both groups. Data were collected and then analyzed using the SPSS software version 18, Kormogrov Smirnov’s normality test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. A significance level of P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Findings showed that the highest frequency (71% in terms of secure attachment and the lowest frequency (0% in terms of avoidant attachment were observed in patients with GID who had been operated and the highest frequency of avoidant attachment (62.1% and the lowest frequency of secure attachment (0% were observed in patients with GID who had not been operated. Conclusions According to the findings of this study, GID patients who have been operated are more secure in attachment styles than those who have not been operated, and there is a significant correlation between age, education and gender with attachment style among these individuals.

  20. Enhancing maternal sensitivity and infant attachment security with video feedback: an exploratory study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassibba, Rosalinda; Castoro, Germana; Costantino, Elisabetta; Sette, Giovanna; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore whether a short-term and attachment-based video-feedback intervention, the Video-Feedback Intervention to Promote Positive Parenting With Discussions on the Representational Level (VIPP-R; F. Juffer, M.J. Bakermans-Kranenburg, & M.H. van IJzendoorn, 2008), might be effective in enhancing maternal sensitivity and in promoting infants' attachment security in an Italian sample of dyads with primiparous mothers. Moreover, we explore whether the effectiveness of VIPP-R might be different for parents with insecure attachment representations who might be most in need of preventive intervention, as compared to parents who already have a more balanced and secure state of mind. Thirty-two infants (40% female) and their mothers participated in the study. The sample was divided into an intervention group (n = 16) and a comparison group (n = 16). At 6 and 13 months of age, the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; M. Main, N. Kaplan, & J. Cassidy, 1985) was administered. Moreover, a 30-min mother-infant play situation was videotaped and coded for maternal sensitivity with the Emotional Availability Scales (Z. Biringen, J. Robinson, & R.N. Emde, 2000). At 13 months of age, the Strange Situation Procedure (M.D.S. Ainsworth, M.D. Blehar, E. Waters, & S. Wall, 1978) was used to assess the security of mother-infant attachment. Results revealed a significant interaction effect between intervention and AAI security for infant attachment security; moreover, main effects of AAI security and intervention for maternal sensitivity were found. The VIPP-R appears effective in enhancing maternal sensitivity and infant attachment security, although only mothers with an insecure attachment representation may benefit from the intervention. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.